Sample records for kafirin microparticle encapsulation

  1. Preparation and In Vitro Release of Drug-Loaded Microparticles for Oral Delivery Using Wholegrain Sorghum Kafirin Protein

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    Esther T. L. Lau


    Full Text Available Kafirin microparticles have been proposed as an oral nutraceutical and drug delivery system. This study investigates microparticles formed with kafirin extracted from white and raw versus cooked red sorghum grains as an oral delivery system. Targeted delivery to the colon would be beneficial for medication such as prednisolone, which is used in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, prednisolone was loaded into microparticles of kafirin from the different sources using phase separation. Differences were observed in the protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, and protein electrophoretic profile of the various sources of sorghum grains, kafirin extracts, and kafirin microparticles. For all of the formulations, the majority of the loaded prednisolone was not released in in vitro conditions simulating the upper gastrointestinal tract, indicating that most of the encapsulated drug could reach the target area of the lower gastrointestinal tract. This suggests that these kafirin microparticles may have potential as a colon-targeted nutraceutical and drug delivery system.

  2. Encapsulation of sorbitan ester-based organogels in alginate microparticles. (United States)

    Sagiri, Sai S; Pal, Kunal; Basak, Piyali; Rana, Usman Ali; Shakir, Imran; Anis, Arfat


    Leaching of the internal apolar phase from the biopolymeric microparticles during storage is a great concern as it undoes the beneficial effects of encapsulation. In this paper, a novel formulation was prepared by encapsulating the sunflower oil-based organogels in alginate microparticles. Salicylic acid and metronidazole were used as the model drugs. The microparticles were prepared by double emulsion methodology. Physico-chemical characterization of the microparticles was done by microscopy, FTIR, XRD, and DSC studies. Oil leaching studies, biocompatibility, mucoadhesivity, in vitro drug release, and the antimicrobial efficiency of the microparticles were also performed. The microparticles were found to be spherical in shape. Gelation of the sunflower oil prevented leaching of the internal phase from the microparticles. Release of drugs from the microparticles followed Fickian kinetics and non-Fickian kinetics in gastric and intestinal environments, respectively. Microparticles showed good antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The results suggested that the developed formulations hold promise to carry oils without leakage of the internal phase. Encapsulation of organogels within the microparticles has improved the drug entrapment efficiency and improved characteristics for controlled delivery applications.

  3. Encapsulation of Hydrocortisone and Mesalazine in Zein Microparticles

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    Peter J. Halley


    Full Text Available Zein was investigated for use as an oral-drug delivery system by loading prednisolone into zein microparticles using coacervation. To investigate the adaptability of this method to other drugs, zein microparticles were loaded with hydrocortisone, which is structurally related to prednisolone; or mesalazine, which is structurally different having a smaller LogP and ionizable functional groups. Investigations into the in vitro digestibility, and the electrophoretic profile of zein, and zein microparticles were conducted to shed further insight on using this protein as a drug delivery system. Hydrocortisone loading into zein microparticles was comparable with that reported for prednisolone, but mesalazine loading was highly variable. Depending on the starting quantities of hydrocortisone and zein, the average amount of microparticles equivalent to 4 mg hydrocortisone, (a clinically used dose, ranged from 60–115 mg, which is realistic and practical for oral dosing. Comparatively, an average of 2.5 g of microparticles was required to deliver 250 mg of mesalazine (a clinically used dose, so alternate encapsulation methods that can produce higher and more precise mesalazine loading are required. In vitro protein digestibility revealed that zein microparticles were more resistant to digestion compared to the zein raw material, and that individual zein peptides are not preferentially coacervated into the microparticles. In combination, these results suggest that there is potential to formulate a delivery system based on zein microparticles made using specific subunits of zein that is more resistant to digestion as starting material, to deliver drugs to the lower gastrointestinal tract.

  4. Principles of encapsulating hydrophobic drugs in PLA/PLGA microparticles. (United States)

    Wischke, Christian; Schwendeman, Steven P


    Injectable biodegradable and biocompatible copolymers of lactic and glycolic acid (PLGA) are an important advanced delivery system for week-to-month controlled release of hydrophobic drugs (e.g., from biopharmaceutical classification system class IV), which often display poor oral bioavailability. The basic principles and considerations to develop such microparticle formulations is reviewed here based on a comprehensive study of papers and patents from the beginnings of hydrophobic drug encapsulation in polylactic acid and PLGA up through the very recent literature. Challenges with the diversity of drug properties, microencapsulation methods, and organic solvents are evaluated in light of the precedence of commercialized formulations and with a focus on decreasing the time to lab-scale encapsulation of water-insoluble drug candidates in the early stage of drug development. The influence of key formulation variables on final microparticle characteristics, and how best to avoid undesired microparticle properties, is analyzed mechanistically. Finally, concepts are developed to manage the common issues of maintaining sink conditions for in vitro drug release assays of hydrophobic compounds. Overall, against the backdrop of an increasing number of new, poorly orally available drug entities entering development, microparticle delivery systems may be a viable strategy to rescue an otherwise undeliverable substance.

  5. Polymer encapsulation of amoxicillin microparticles by SAS process. (United States)

    Montes, A; Baldauf, E; Gordillo, M D; Pereyra, C M; Martínez de la Ossa, E J


    Encapsulation of amoxicillin (AMC) with ethyl cellulose (EC) by a supercritical antisolvent process (SAS) was investigated. AMC microparticles obtained previously by an SAS process were used as host particles and EC, a biodegradable polymer used for the controlled release of drugs, was chosen as the coating material. In this work, a suspension of AMC microparticles in a solution of ethyl cellulose in dichloromethane (DCM) was sprayed through a nozzle into supercritical CO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and HPLC analyses were carried out. The effects of AMC:EC ratio, the initial polymer concentration of the solution, temperature and pressure on the encapsulation process were investigated. Although all the experiments led to powder precipitation, the AMC encapsulation was achieved in only half of the cases, particularly when the lower drug:polymer ratios were assayed. In general, it was observed that the percentages of AMC present in the precipitates were higher on increasing the AMC:EC ratio. In these cases composites rather than encapsulates were obtained. The in vitro release profiles of the resulting materials were evaluated in order to ascertain whether composites can be used as encapsulated systems for drug delivery systems.

  6. Cytotoxic and Immunochemical Properties of Viscumin Encapsulated 
in Polylactide Microparticles. (United States)

    Kolotova, E S; Egorova, S G; Ramonova, A A; Bogorodski, S E; Popov, V K; Agapov, I I; Kirpichnikov, M P


    Biodegradable polylactide microparticles with encapsulated cytotoxic protein viscumin were obtained via the ultrasound-assisted supercritical fluid technique. The size of the microparticles was 10-50 µM, as shown by electron microscopy. The time course of viscumin release from microparticles was studied using an immunoenzyme test system with anti-viscumin monoclonal antibodies. It was found that 99.91% of the cytotoxic protein was incorporated into polymer microparticles. Only 0.08% of the initially encapsulated viscumin was released from the microparticles following incubation for 120 h in a phosphate-buffered saline at neutral pH. Importantly, the method of ultrasonic dry supercritical fluid encapsulation failed to alter both the cytotoxic potency and the immunochemical properties of the encapsulated viscumin. Thus, this procedure can be used to generate biodegradable polylactide microparticles with encapsulated bioactive substances.

  7. High encapsulation efficiency of sodium alendronate in eudragit S100/HPMC blend microparticles

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    Letícia Cruz


    Full Text Available The hydrophilic drug sodium alendronate was encapsulated in blended microparticles of Eudragit® S100 and Methocel® F4M or Methocel® K100LV. Both formulations prepared by spray-drying showed spherical collapsed shape and smooth surface, encapsulation efficiencies of 85 and 82% and mean diameters of 11.7 and 8.4 µm, respectively. At pH 1.2, in vitro dissolution studies showed good gastro-resistance for both formulations. At pH 6.8, the sodium alendronate release from the microparticles was delayed and was controlled by Fickian diffusion. In conclusion, the prepared microparticles showed high encapsulation efficiency of sodium alendronate presenting gastro-resistance and sustained release suitable for its oral administration.

  8. Microparticles prepared from biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates as matrix for encapsulation of cytostatic drug. (United States)

    Murueva, A V; Shishatskaya, E I; Kuzmina, A M; Volova, T G; Sinskey, A J


    Microparticles made from degradable polyhydroxyalkanoates of different chemical compositions a homopolymer of 3-hydroxybutyric acid, copolymers of 3-hydroxybutyric and 4-hydroxybutyric acids (P3HB/4HB), 3-hydroxybutyric and 3-hydroxyvaleric acids (P3HB/3HV), 3-hydroxybutyric and 3-hydroxyhexanoic acids (P3HB/3HHx) were prepared using the solvent evaporation technique, from double emulsions. The study addresses the influence of the chemical compositions on the size and ξ-potential of microparticles. P3HB microparticles loaded with doxorubicin have been prepared and investigated. Their average diameter and ξ-potential have been found to be dependent upon the level of loading (1, 5, and 10 % of the polymer mass). Investigation of the in vitro drug release behavior showed that the total drug released from the microparticle into the medium increased with mass concentration of the drug. In this study mouse fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells were cultivated on PHA microparticles, and results of using fluorescent DAPI DNA stain, and MTT assay showed that microparticles prepared from PHAs of different chemical compositions did not exhibit cytotoxicity to cells cultured on them and proved to be highly biocompatible. Cell attachment and proliferation on PHA microparticles were similar to those on polystyrene. The cytostatic drug encapsulated in P3HB/3HV microparticles has been proven to be effective against HeLa tumor cells.

  9. Evaluation of different buffers on plasmid DNA encapsulation into PLGA microparticles. (United States)

    Tse, Man Tsuey; Blatchford, Chris; Oya Alpar, H


    Double emulsion solvent evaporation is a widely used method to prepare poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles encapsulating plasmid DNA. There are inherent problems associated with preparing plasmid DNA in this form, in particular the DNA is liable to degrade during manufacture and the resulting powder has low encapsulation efficiencies. This study compares the use of two buffers, 0.1M NaHCO(3) and 0.07M Na(2)HPO(4) and the effect these have on the encapsulation efficiency and other critical parameters associated with these encapsulated DNA materials. Both buffers preserved the conformation of the original plasmid DNA during the homogenization process, but those made with 0.07M Na(2)HPO(4) had higher encapsulation efficiencies, as well as smaller diameters, compared with those made with 0.1M NaHCO(3) (encapsulation efficiencies of 40.72-45.65%, and mean volume diameters of 2.96-4.45microm). Buffers with a range of pH from 5 to 12 were investigated, and it was demonstrated that pH 9 was the point at which the highest amount of supercoiled DNA was balanced with the highest encapsulation efficiency. To simulate in vitro release, it was shown that microparticles made with 0.07M Na(2)HPO(4) had lower DNA release rates than those made with 0.1M NaHCO(3). These results demonstrate that the use of different buffers can aid in retaining the conformation of plasmid DNA, and can also modulate the amount of DNA encapsulated and the release profiles of microparticles.

  10. Starch, inulin and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents affect the quality and stability of jussara pulp microparticles. (United States)

    Lacerda, Ellen Cristina Quirino; Calado, Verônica Maria de Araújo; Monteiro, Mariana; Finotelli, Priscilla Vanessa; Torres, Alexandre Guedes; Perrone, Daniel


    The influence of encapsulating carbohydrates (EC) with varying properties on the technological and functional properties of jussara pulp microparticles produced by spray drying were evaluated using experimental design. Microparticles produced with sodium octenyl succinate (OSA) starch at 0.5 core to EC ratio and with mixtures of inulin and maltodextrin at 1.0 and 2.0 core to EC ratio showed darker color, and higher anthocyanins contents and antioxidant activity. Seven microparticles showing high water solubility and desirable surface morphology. Hygroscopicity (10.7% and 11.5%) and wettability (41s and 43s) were improved when OSA starch and mixtures of inulin and maltodextrin were used. The anthocyanins contents and color of the microparticles did not change when exposed to light at 50°C for 38days. Finally, microparticles produced at 1.0 core to EC ratio with 2/3 OSA starch, 1/6 inulin and 1/6 maltodextrin were selected. These microparticles may be applied as colorant in numerous foods, whilst adding prebiotic fiber and anthocyanins.

  11. Effect of Experimental Parameters on Alginate/Chitosan Microparticles for BCG Encapsulation (United States)

    Caetano, Liliana A.; Almeida, António J.; Gonçalves, Lídia M.D.


    The aim of the present study was to develop novel Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-loaded polymeric microparticles with optimized particle surface characteristics and biocompatibility, so that whole live attenuated bacteria could be further used for pre-exposure vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the intranasal route. BCG was encapsulated in chitosan and alginate microparticles through three different polyionic complexation methods by high speed stirring. For comparison purposes, similar formulations were prepared with high shear homogenization and sonication. Additional optimization studies were conducted with polymers of different quality specifications in a wide range of pH values, and with three different cryoprotectors. Particle morphology, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, surface charge, physicochemical properties and biocompatibility were assessed. Particles exhibited a micrometer size and a spherical morphology. Chitosan addition to BCG shifted the bacilli surface charge from negative zeta potential values to strongly positive ones. Chitosan of low molecular weight produced particle suspensions of lower size distribution and higher stability, allowing efficient BCG encapsulation and biocompatibility. Particle formulation consistency was improved when the availability of functional groups from alginate and chitosan was close to stoichiometric proportion. Thus, the herein described microparticulate system constitutes a promising strategy to deliver BCG vaccine by the intranasal route. PMID:27187418

  12. Structure, Morphology, and Assembly Behavior of Kafirin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jie; Li, Yunqi; Li, Ji; Gonzalez, Alejandro Perez; Xia, Qiuyang; Huang, Qingrong (Rutgers); (CIAC)


    Prolamins from grains have attracted intensive attention in recent years due to their potential in satisfying the demand for environmentally friendly (biodegradable), abundantly available (sustainable), and cost-effective biomaterials. However, for kafirin, the prolamin from sorghum, its composition, structure, morphology, and self-assembly behaviors have not been fully characterized. In this paper, kafirin was extracted from the whole sorghum grain and found to contain 68, 14, 6, and 12% of α-, β-, and γ-fractions and cross-linked kafirin, respectively. Freeze-dried kafirin contained ~49% α-helix in the solid state. When dissolved in 65% (v/v) isopropanol, 60% (v/v) tert-butanol, and 85% (v/v) ethanol aqueous solvents, the relative α-helix content in kafirin increased with the decrease of solvent polarity. Structural analysis using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) indicated that kafirin (2 mg/mL) took stretched and extended conformations with dimensions of 118 × 15 × 15 and 100 × 11 × 11 Å in 60% tert-butanol and 65% isopropanol, respectively. More elongated conformation of individual kafirin with high-order assembly was observed in 85% ethanol. Protein aggregation occurred as protein concentration increased in its good solvent. The morphology of kafirin assemblies captured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that kafirin protein took uniform particle morphology at low concentration, and disk-like or rod-like structures resulting from solvent evaporation induced particle interactions emerged at high concentrations. These results suggest that both protein concentration and solvent polarity can effectively regulate kafirin assemblies from thick rod-like to slim rod-like structures, a convenient way to tune the fibrillation of prolamin-based biomaterials.

  13. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors Containing Microparticles for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings (United States)

    Pearman, Benjamin Pieter; Calle, Luz M.


    This poster presents the results obtained from experiments designed to evaluate the release properties, as well as the corrosion inhibition effectiveness, of several encapsulated corrosion inhibitors. Microencapsulation has been used in the development of environmentally friendly multifunctional smart coatings. This technique enables the incorporation of autonomous corrosion detection, inhibition and self-healing functionalities into many commercially available coating systems. Select environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic and inorganic pH-sensitive microparticles and their release in basic solutions was studied. The release rate results showed that the encapsulation can be tailored from fast, for immediate corrosion protection, to slow, which will provide continued long-term corrosion protection. The incorporation of several corrosion inhibitor release profiles into a coating provides effective corrosion protection properties. To investigate the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the encapsulated inhibitors, electrochemical techniques were used to obtain corrosion potential, polarization curve and polarization resistance data. These measurements were performed using the free as well as the encapsulated inhibitors singly or in combinations. Results from these electrochemical tests will be compared to those obtained from weight loss and other accelerated corrosion experiments.

  14. Encapsulation of α-lipoic acid intochitosan and alginate/gelatin hydrogel microparticles and its in vitro antioxidant activity

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    Vidović Bojana B.


    Full Text Available Alpha-lipoic acidis an organosulphur compound well-known for its therapeutic potential and antioxidant properties. However, the effective use of α-lipoic acid depends on biological plasma half-life and its preserving stability, which could be improved by encapsulation. In this study, α-lipoic acid was incorporated into chitosan microparticles obtained by reverse emulsion crosslinking technique, as well as into microparticles of alginate/gelatin crosslinked with zinc ions. Encapsulation of α-lipoic acid in both cases was carried out by swelling of synthesized dried microparticles by their dipping in a solution of the active substance under strictly controlled conditions. Encapsulation efficiency of α-lipoic acid obtained in this study was up to 53.9 %. The structural interaction of α-lipoic acid with the carriers was revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro released studies showed that controlled release of α-lipoic acid was achieved through its encapsulation into chitosan microparticles. The results of in vitro antioxidative activity assays of released α-lipoic acid indicated that antioxidant activity was preserved at a satisfactory level. These obtained results suggested that chitosan microparticles could be suitable for modeling the controlled release of α-lipoic acid. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 i br. III46001

  15. Enhanced encapsulation and bioavailability of breviscapine in PLGA microparticles by nanocrystal and water-soluble polymer template techniques. (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhang, Guangxing; Ma, Xueqin; Liu, Yanhua; Feng, Jun; Park, Kinam; Wang, Wenping


    Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles are widely used for controlled drug delivery. Emulsion methods have been commonly used for preparation of PLGA microparticles, but they usually result in low loading capacity, especially for drugs with poor solubility in organic solvents. In the present study, the nanocrystal technology and a water-soluble polymer template method were used to fabricate nanocrystal-loaded microparticles with improved drug loading and encapsulation efficiency for prolonged delivery of breviscapine. Breviscapine nanocrystals were prepared using a precipitation-ultrasonication method and further loaded into PLGA microparticles by casting in a mold from a water-soluble polymer. The obtained disc-like particles were then characterized and compared with the spherical particles prepared by an emulsion-solvent evaporation method. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis confirmed a highly-dispersed state of breviscapine inside the microparticles. The drug form, loading percentage and fabrication techniques significantly affected the loading capacity and efficiency of breviscapine in PLGA microparticles, and their release performance as well. Drug loading was increased from 2.4 % up to 15.3 % when both nanocrystal and template methods were applied, and encapsulation efficiency increased from 48.5 % to 91.9 %. But loading efficiency was reduced as the drug loading was increased. All microparticles showed an initial burst release, and then a slow release period of 28 days followed by an erosion-accelerated release phase, which provides a sustained delivery of breviscapine over a month. A relatively stable serum drug level for more than 30 days was observed after intramuscular injection of microparticles in rats. Therefore, PLGA microparticles loaded with nanocrystals of poorly soluble drugs provided a promising approach for long-term therapeutic products characterized with preferable in vitro and in

  16. Effect of heating cast kafirin films on their functional properties

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Byaruhanga, YB


    Full Text Available Edible films can be produced from kafirin but the diverse food product requirements necessitate modification of the films. To modify their functional properties, kafirin films were cast, with and without plasticizer, from glacial acetic acid (GAA...

  17. Improvement of an encapsulation process for the preparation of pro- and prebiotics-loaded bioadhesive microparticles by using experimental design. (United States)

    Pliszczak, D; Bourgeois, S; Bordes, C; Valour, J P; Mazoyer, M A; Orecchioni, A M; Nakache, E; Lantéri, P


    The purpose of this study was to design a new vaginal bioadhesive delivery system based on pectinate-hyaluronic acid microparticles for probiotics and prebiotics encapsulation. Probiotic strains and prebiotic were selected for their abilities to restore vaginal ecosystem. Microparticles were produced by emulsification/gelation method using calcium as cross-linking agent. In the first step, preliminary experiments were conducted to study the influence of the main formulation and process parameters on the size distribution of unloaded microparticles. Rheological measurements were also performed to investigate the bioadhesive properties of the gels used to obtain the final microparticles. Afterwards an experimental design was performed to determine the operating conditions suitable to obtain bioadhesive microparticles containing probiotics and prebiotics. Experimental design allowed us to define two important parameters during the microencapsulation process: the stirring rate during the emulsification step and the pectin concentration. The final microparticles had a mean diameter of 137μm and allowed a complete release of probiotic strains after 16h in a simulated vaginal fluid at +37°C. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Marbofloxacin-encapsulated microparticles provide sustained drug release for treatment of veterinary diseases. (United States)

    Lee, Joohyeon; Kwon, Ho Jin; Ji, Hyunggun; Cho, Sun Hang; Cho, Eun-Haeng; Han, Hee Dong; Shin, Byung Cheol


    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics with concentration-dependent killing effects and a well-established broad spectrum of activity are used commonly to treat infectious diseases caused by bacteria. However, frequent and excessive administration of these antibiotics is a serious problem, and leads to increased number of drug-resistant bacteria. Thus, there is an urgent need for novel fluoroquinolone antibiotic formulations that minimize the risk of resistance while maximizing their efficacy. In this study, we developed intramuscularly injectable polymeric microparticles (MPs) that encapsulated with marbofloxacin (MAR) and were composed of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poloxamer (POL). MAR-encapsulated MP (MAR-MP) had a spherical shape with particle size ranging from 80 μm to 120 μm. Drug loading efficiency varied from 55 to 85% (w/w) at increasing amount of hydrophilic agent, POL. Drug release from MAR-MP demonstrated a significant and sustained increase at increased ratios of POL to PLGA. These results indicate that MAR-MP is an improved drug delivery carrier for fluoroquinolone antibiotics, which can reduce the number of doses needed and sustain a high release rate of MAR for 2-3 days. As a novel and highly effective drug delivery platform, MAR-MP has great potential for use in a broad range of applications for the treatment of various veterinary diseases.

  19. Use of human amelogenin in molecular encapsulation for the design of pH responsive microparticles

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    Bonde Johan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins can be used in drug delivery systems to improve pharmacological properties of an active substance. Differences in pH between tissues can be utilized in order to achieve a targeted drug release at a specific location or tissue, such as a tumor. The enamel matrix protein amelogenin has a pH dependent solubility profile and self-assemble to form aggregates at neutral pH. This could make amelogenin useful in the design of pH responsive drug delivery systems. Results In this study amelogenin was evaluated as a pH responsive component in drug delivery applications. This was achieved by testing the ability of amelogenin to entrap/release other proteins upon changes in pH, and by testing if amelogenin could confer pH responsiveness to an existing and versatile drug delivery system, such as gelatin microparticles. Amelogenin was able to encapsulate bovine serum albumin and insulin, whichwere used as model target proteins. The composite aggregates of amelogenin and target protein were formed at neutral pH and could be reversibly solubilized at weakly acidic pH. Gelatin microparticles prepared in the presence of amelogenin, showed a modulated structure in response to pH change, when studied by scanning electron microscopy, compared to particles without amelogenin. At neutral pH amelogenin induced formation of pores in the particle surface, which were not present at acidic pH, or in particles lacking amelogenin. Conclusions The results from this study demonstrate that amelogenin can be a useful component in drug delivery systems in order to achieve a pH dependent response.

  20. Encapsulation of antigen-loaded silica nanoparticles into microparticles for intradermal powder injection. (United States)

    Deng, Yibin; Mathaes, Roman; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia


    Epidermal powder immunisation (EPI) is being investigated as a promising needle-free delivery methods for vaccination. The objective of this work was to prepare a nanoparticles-in-microparticles (nano-in-micro) system, integrating the advantages of nanoparticles and microparticles into one vaccine delivery system for epidermal powder immunisation. Cationic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP-NH2) were prepared and loaded with ovalbumin as a model antigen. Loading was driven by electrostatic interactions. Ovalbumin-loaded silica nanoparticles were subsequently formulated into sugar-based microparticles by spray-freeze-drying. The obtained microparticles meet the size requirement for EPI. Confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate that the nanoparticles are homogeneously distributed in the microparticles. Furthermore, the silica nanoparticles in the dry microparticles can be re-dispersed in aqueous solution showing no aggregation. The recovered ovalbumin shows integrity compared to native ovalbumin. The present nano-in-micro system allows (1) nanoparticles to be immobilized and finely distributed in microparticles, (2) microparticle formation and (3) re-dispersion of nanoparticles without subsequent aggregation. The nanoparticles inside microparticles can (1) adsorb proteins to cationic shell/surface voids in spray-dried products without detriment to ovalbumin stability, (2) deliver antigens in nano-sized modes to allow recognition by the immune system.

  1. Preparation, Biodegradation of Coconut Oil Driven Chemically Modified Bovine Serum Albumin Microparticles of Encapsulated Cicer arietinum Amylase and Study of Their Application in Washing Detergents

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    Kirti Rani


    Full Text Available In present work, Cicer arietinum amylase was encapsulated by emulsification through covalent coupling by glutaraldehyde into chemically modified bovine serum albumin. Biodegradation of coconut oil driven emulsified bovine serum albumin encapsulated Cicer arietinum amylase was carried out by the alkaline protease for its controlled and sustained release of encapsulated enzyme from prepared microparticles of encapsulated Cicer arietinum amylase and its stability increased up to 6 months as compared to free enzyme. Its biodegradation was carried out by the using different concentration of alkaline protease (5U, 10U, 15U, 20U, 25U, 30U, 35U, 40U. Further, this coconut oil driven chemically modified bovine serum albumin microparticles of encapsulated Cicer arietinum amylase with alkaline protease were used with detergents for washing of stained cloths which have rust, gel pen ink, grease and chocolate strains. These chosen strains are very commonly present on uniforms of school going children which are very tough upon drying, hence, not to be easily vanish with well known brand detergents upon in one wash. But, the mixture solution of coconut oil driven chemically modified bovine serum albumin microparticles of encapsulated Cicer arietinum amylase along with alkaline protease were used with detergents powder for washing of these dry tough strains (rust, gel pen ink, grease and chocolate strains leads to vanishing these strains very fast with absolute clear results were found as compared to results of washing of stained cloths with detergents only.

  2. Enzyme encapsulation in magnetic chitosan-Fe3O4 microparticles. (United States)

    Costa-Silva, Tales Alexandre; Marques, Polyana Samorano; Souza, Cláudia Regina Fernandes; Said, Suraia; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira


    Two simple procedures for the preparation of magnetic chitosan enzyme microparticles have been investigated and used for the immobilisation of endophytic fungus Cercospora kikuchii lipase as model enzyme. In the first case, lipase was entrapped in Fe3O4-chitosan microparticles by cross-linking method, while in the second case magnetic immobilised derivatives were produced using spray drying. Immobilised enzymes showed high enzyme activity retention and stability during storage without significant loss of activity. Glutaraldehyde Fe3O4-chitosan powders presented a higher lipase activity retention and storage stability than the others preparations. However, the immobilised derivatives produced by cross-linking showed higher enzyme activity after reuse cycles. The results proved that the magnetic Fe3O4-chitosan microparticles are an effective support for the enzyme immobilisation since the immobilised lipase showed best properties than the free form.

  3. Co-suppression of synthesis of major x-kafirin sub-class together with y-kafirin-1 and y-kafirin-2 required for substantially improved protein digestibility in transgenic sorghum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grootboom, AW


    Full Text Available Cell Reports Vol. 33/ PP 521-537 Co-suppression of synthesis of major a-kafirin sub-class together with c-kafirin-1 and c-kafirin-2 required for substantially improved protein digestibility in transgenic sorghum Andile W. Grootboom... kafirin in vitro digestibility. Co-suppression of a third gene, a-kafirin A1 (25 kDa), in addition to the two genes increases the digestibility further. The high-digestibility trait has previously only been obtained either through the co...

  4. Characterization and evaluation of sensory acceptability of ice creams incorporated with beta-carotene encapsulated in solid lipid microparticles

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    Juliana Gobbi de LIMA

    Full Text Available Abstract The feasibility of incorporating beta-carotene-loaded solid lipid microparticles (BCSLM into vanilla ice creams was investigated, through the physico-chemical characterization and evaluation of sensory acceptability of the products products. The BCSLM were produced with palm stearin as the lipid phase, hydrolyzed soy protein isolate as the surfactant, and xanthan gum as the thickener. The results showed similar values of proximate composition, total soluble solids, pH, and overrun for all formulations. On the other hand, colorimetric evaluations showed that the ice cream produced with partial substitution of artificial additives by BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol presented a more intense color, while in the product with non-encapsulated beta-carotene, a fast degradation of carotenoid was confirmed, highlighting the importance of the encapsulation techniques. The results of the sensorial analysis of the products were highly satisfactory and showed that the panelists preferred the ice creams produced with BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol and with partial substitution of artificial additives by BCSLM containing alpha-tocopherol, confirming the feasibility of incorporating BCSLM into ice creams to reduce the application of artificial dyes to the product.

  5. Improving the encapsulation efficiency and sustained release behaviour of chitosan/β-lactoglobulin double-coated microparticles by palmitic acid grafting. (United States)

    Yang, Han-Joo; Lee, Pei Sia; Choe, Jaehyeog; Suh, Seokjin; Ko, Sanghoon


    Chitosan (CS) was grafted with 0.1 and 0.5% (w/v) palmitic acid (PA) to improve its encapsulation efficiency (EE) and sustained release characteristics when forming CS microparticles. Thereafter, PA-grafted CS (PA-CS) microparticles were coated with denatured β-lactoglobulin (βlg), which forms an outer protective layer. The possibility of hydrophobic interaction with the hydrophobic substances in the CS microparticles increased as the proportion of the grafted PA increased. EE was measured as 64.79, 83.72, and 85.00% for the non-grafted, 0.1, and 0.5% PA-CS microparticles, respectively. In simulated small intestinal conditions, 4.66 and 17.55% of the core material release in the PA-CS microparticles were sustained after 180min by 0.1, and 0.5% PA grafting, respectively. PA grafting enables the sustained release in simulated gastrointestinal fluids by enhancing the hydrophobic interaction between CS and the hydrophobic core material.

  6. Annatto Polymeric Microparticles: Natural Product Encapsulation by the Emulsion-Solvent Evaporation Method (United States)

    Teixeira, Zaine; Duran, Nelson; Guterres, Silvia S.


    In this experiment, the extract from annatto seeds was encapsulated in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) particles by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The particles were washed and centrifuged to remove excess stabilizer and then freeze-dried. The main compound of annatto seeds, bixin, has antioxidant properties as well…

  7. Annatto Polymeric Microparticles: Natural Product Encapsulation by the Emulsion-Solvent Evaporation Method (United States)

    Teixeira, Zaine; Duran, Nelson; Guterres, Silvia S.


    In this experiment, the extract from annatto seeds was encapsulated in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) particles by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The particles were washed and centrifuged to remove excess stabilizer and then freeze-dried. The main compound of annatto seeds, bixin, has antioxidant properties as well…

  8. In-situ formation of growth-factor-loaded coacervate microparticle-embedded hydrogels for directing encapsulated stem cell fate. (United States)

    Jeon, Oju; Wolfson, David W; Alsberg, Eben


    The spontaneous formation of coacervate microdroplet-laden photo-crosslinked hydrogels derived from the simple mixing of oxidized, methacrylated alginate (OMA) and methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) enables simultaneous creation of drug-laden microdroplets and encapsulation of stem cells in photopolymerized coacervate hydrogels under physiological conditions. This can be utilized as a novel platform for in situ formation of localized, sustained bioactive molecule delivery to encapsulate stem cells for therapeutic applications.

  9. Kafirin adsorption on ion-exchange resins: isotherm and kinetic studies. (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Lau, Pei Wen; Kale, Sandeep; Johnson, Stuart; Pareek, Vishnu; Utikar, Ranjeet; Lali, Arvind


    Kafirin is a natural, hydrophobic and celiac safe prolamin protein obtained from sorghum seeds. Today kafirin is found to be useful in designing delayed delivery systems and coatings of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals where its purity is important and this can be obtained by adsorptive chromatography. This study is the first scientific insight into the isotherm and kinetic studies of kafirin adsorption on anion- and cation-exchange resins for practical applications in preparative scale chromatography. Adsorption isotherms of kafirin were determined for five anion- and two cation-exchange resins in batch systems. Isotherm parameters such as maximum binding capacity and dissociation constant were determined from Langmuir isotherm, and adsorptive capacity and affinity constant from Freundlich isotherm. Langmuir isotherm was found to fit the adsorption equilibrium data well. Batch uptake kinetics for kafirin adsorption on these resins was also carried out and critical parameters including the diffusion coefficient, film mass transfer coefficient, and Biot number for film-pore diffusion model were calculated. Both the isotherm and the kinetic parameters were considered for selection of appropriate resin for kafirin purification. UNOsphere Q (78.26 mg/ml) and Toyopearl SP-650M (57.4 mg/ml) were found to offer better kafirin binding capacities and interaction strength with excellent uptake kinetics under moderate operating conditions. With these adsorbents, film diffusion resistance was found to be major governing factor for adsorption (Bi<10 and δ<1). Based on designer objective function, UNOsphere Q was found be best adsorbent for binding of kafirin. The data presented is valuable for designing large scale preparative adsorptive chromatographic kafirin purification systems.

  10. Influence of lipid microparticle encapsulation on in vitro efficacy, photostability and water resistance of the sunscreen agents, octyl methoxycinnamate and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane. (United States)

    Trotta, Valentina; Goios, Filipa; Monteiro, Helena; Almeida, Isabel F; Scalia, Santo


    Essential requirements for the efficacy of sunscreen agents are optimal UV absorption, high photostability and resistance against water removal. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of encapsulation in lipid microparticles (LMs) on the overall performance of the two most commonly used sunscreen agents, octyl methoxycinnamate (OMC) and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM). LMs loaded with OMC and BMDBM were prepared by melt emulsification and characterized by optical microscopy, UV filter content and release studies. The LMs incorporating OMC and BMDBM or the nonencapsulated sunscreen agents were introduced into a model cream (oil-in-water emulsion). No significant differences were observed between the sun protection factor (SPF) of the formulations containing the free (SPF, 9.4 ± 1.9) or microencapsulated (SPF, 9.6 ± 1.3) UV filters. Irradiation of the creams with a solar simulator demonstrated that the photodecomposition of OMC and BMDBM was significantly decreased by encapsulation in LMs from 55.7 ± 5.3% to 46.1 ± 5.1% and 36.3 ± 3.9% to 20.1 ± 4.7%, respectively. However, in vitro water-resistance studies showed that entrapment in the LMs significantly enhanced the sunscreen agent removal caused by watering (the losses for OMC and BMDBM were 45.1 ± 6.3% and 49.2 ± 8.4%, respectively), as compared to the formulation with the nonencapsulated sunscreen agents (the losses for OMC and BMDBM were 26.7 ± 6.1% and 28.0 ± 6.7%, respectively). Incorporation in LMs can have controversial effects on UV filter efficacy. In particular, the water-resistance properties of sun-care formulations containing sunscreens loaded in LMs should be verified to assure that the photoprotective activity is maintained during usage.

  11. Influence of Sorghum Kafirin on Serum Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats (In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A. Ortíz Cruz


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the antioxidant potential of sorghum kafirin and sorghum flour and their influence on lipids and antioxidant capacity in rats. The antioxidant activity in sorghum kafirin extract measured by the DPPH and TEAC methods was increased 30 and 65 times, respectively, compared to that of its counterpart, sorghum flour. According to electrophoresis assay, the kafirins tert-butanol extract showed a high proportion of α-kafirin monomers, and its amino acid composition revealed higher hydrophobic amino acid content such as alanine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine than sorghum flour extract. Diets supplemented with sorghum kafirin extract have improved lipid metabolism and increased the serum antioxidant potential (67% especially in rats fed with added cholesterol. The bioactive peptides generated from kafirin in vivo hydrolysis appear to be associated with the positive effect on serum lipids and antioxidant activity. According to these results, sorghum kafirin extract at the levels used in this study apparently could be used for prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic diseases.

  12. Kafirin Nanoparticle-Stabilized Pickering Emulsions as Oral Delivery Vehicles: Physicochemical Stability and in Vitro Digestion Profile. (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Li, Chao; Huang, Qingrong


    Kafirin nanoparticle-stabilized Pickering emulsions (KPEs) were used to encapsulate curcumin. The stability of KPEs under processing conditions and their protective effects against photo-oxidation of curcumin and lipid oxidation of oil in emulsions, as well as the digestion profiles in gastrointestinal tract, were investigated. KPEs were found to be more stable under acidic than basic environment, and elevated temperature induced their structural instability. The protective effect of KPEs on the chemical stability of curcumin was manifested when subjected to UV radiation as compared to other comparable formulations, such as bulk oil or Tween 80 stabilized emulsions (TEs). Meanwhile, the lipid oxidation rate was retarded in KPEs as compared to those of TEs. Due to hydrolysis of pepsin, KPEs could not survive through the gastric digestion process. After the intestinal digestion process, the extent of lipolysis of KPEs and the curcumin bioaccessibility fell between those of TEs and bulk oil. These results will fill the gap between the physicochemical properties of protein particle-based Pickering emulsions and their realistic applications in the oral delivery of functional food ingredients.

  13. A Stability-Indicating HPLC-DAD Method for Determination of Ferulic Acid into Microparticles: Development, Validation, Forced Degradation, and Encapsulation Efficiency. (United States)

    Nadal, Jessica Mendes; Toledo, Maria da Graça; Pupo, Yasmine Mendes; Padilha de Paula, Josiane; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby


    A simple stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method was validated for the determination of ferulic acid (FA) in polymeric microparticles. Chromatographic conditions consisted of a RP C18 column (250 mm × 4.60 mm, 5 μm, 110 Å) using a mixture of methanol and water pH 3.0 (48 : 52 v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 320 nm. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, accuracy, precision, and robustness provided suitable results regarding all parameters investigated. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 10.0-70.0 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient >0.999. Precision (intraday and interday) was demonstrated by a relative standard deviation lower than 2.0%. Accuracy was assessed by the recovery test of FA from polymeric microparticles (99.02% to 100.73%). Specificity showed no interference from the components of polymeric microparticles or from the degradation products derived from acidic, basic, and photolytic conditions. In conclusion, the method is suitable to be applied to assay FA as bulk drug and into polymeric microparticles and can be used for studying its stability and degradation kinetics.

  14. A Stability-Indicating HPLC-DAD Method for Determination of Ferulic Acid into Microparticles: Development, Validation, Forced Degradation, and Encapsulation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mendes Nadal


    Full Text Available A simple stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method was validated for the determination of ferulic acid (FA in polymeric microparticles. Chromatographic conditions consisted of a RP C18 column (250 mm × 4.60 mm, 5 μm, 110 Å using a mixture of methanol and water pH 3.0 (48 : 52 v/v as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 320 nm. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, accuracy, precision, and robustness provided suitable results regarding all parameters investigated. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 10.0–70.0 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient >0.999. Precision (intraday and interday was demonstrated by a relative standard deviation lower than 2.0%. Accuracy was assessed by the recovery test of FA from polymeric microparticles (99.02% to 100.73%. Specificity showed no interference from the components of polymeric microparticles or from the degradation products derived from acidic, basic, and photolytic conditions. In conclusion, the method is suitable to be applied to assay FA as bulk drug and into polymeric microparticles and can be used for studying its stability and degradation kinetics.

  15. A Stability-Indicating HPLC-DAD Method for Determination of Ferulic Acid into Microparticles: Development, Validation, Forced Degradation, and Encapsulation Efficiency


    Jessica Mendes Nadal; Maria da Graça Toledo; Yasmine Mendes Pupo; Josiane Padilha de Paula; Paulo Vitor Farago; Sandra Maria Warumby Zanin


    A simple stability-indicating HPLC-DAD method was validated for the determination of ferulic acid (FA) in polymeric microparticles. Chromatographic conditions consisted of a RP C18 column (250 mm × 4.60 mm, 5 μm, 110 Å) using a mixture of methanol and water pH 3.0 (48 : 52 v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 320 nm. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, limit of detection, ac...

  16. IGF-1 release kinetics from chitosan microparticles fabricated using environmentally benign conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantripragada, Venkata P. [Biomedical Engineering Program, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614-5807 (United States); Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C., E-mail: [Biomedical Engineering Program, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614-5807 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614-5807 (United States)


    The main objective of this study is to maximize growth factor encapsulation efficiency into microparticles. The novelty of this study is to maximize the encapsulated growth factors into microparticles by minimizing the use of organic solvents and using relatively low temperatures. The microparticles were fabricated using chitosan biopolymer as a base polymer and cross-linked with tripolyphosphate (TPP). Insulin like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was encapsulated into microparticles to study release kinetics and bioactivity. In order to authenticate the harms of using organic solvents like hexane and acetone during microparticle preparation, IGF-1 encapsulated microparticles prepared by the emulsification and coacervation methods were compared. The microparticles fabricated by emulsification method have shown a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in IGF-1 encapsulation efficiency, and cumulative release during the two-week period. The biocompatibility of chitosan microparticles and the bioactivity of the released IGF-1 were determined in vitro by live/dead viability assay. The mineralization data observed with von Kossa assay, was supported by mRNA expression levels of osterix and runx2, which are transcription factors necessary for osteoblasts differentiation. Real time RT-PCR data showed an increased expression of runx2 and a decreased expression of osterix over time, indicating differentiating osteoblasts. Chitosan microparticles prepared in optimum environmental conditions are a promising controlled delivery system for cells to attach, proliferate, differentiate and mineralize, thereby acting as a suitable bone repairing material. - Highlights: • Coacervation chitosan microparticles were biocompatible and biodegradable. • IGF-1 encapsulation efficiency increased with coacervation chitosan microparticles. • Coacervation chitosan microparticles support osteoblast attachment and differentiation. • Coacervation chitosan microparticles support osteoblast mineralization.

  17. Nitric oxide scavenging by red cell microparticles. (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Zhao, Weixin; Christ, George J; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B


    Red cell microparticles form during the storage of red blood cells and in diseases associated with red cell breakdown and asplenia, including hemolytic anemias such as sickle cell disease. These small phospholipid vesicles that are derived from red blood cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of transfusion of aged stored blood and hemolytic diseases, via activation of the hemostatic system and effects on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Red cell microparticles react with the important signaling molecule NO almost as fast as cell-free hemoglobin, about 1000 times faster than red-cell-encapsulated hemoglobin. The degree to which this fast reaction with NO by red cell microparticles influences NO bioavailability depends on several factors that are explored here. In the context of stored blood preserved in ADSOL, we find that both cell-free hemoglobin and red cell microparticles increase as a function of duration of storage, and the proportion of extra erythrocytic hemoglobin in the red cell microparticle fraction is about 20% throughout storage. Normalized by hemoglobin concentration, the NO-scavenging ability of cell-free hemoglobin is slightly higher than that of red cell microparticles as determined by a chemiluminescence NO-scavenging assay. Computational simulations show that the degree to which red cell microparticles scavenge NO will depend substantially on whether they enter the cell-free zone next to the endothelial cells. Single-microvessel myography experiments performed under laminar flow conditions demonstrate that microparticles significantly enter the cell-free zone and inhibit acetylcholine, endothelial-dependent, and NO-dependent vasodilation. Taken together, these data suggest that as little as 5 μM hemoglobin in red cell microparticles, an amount formed after the infusion of one unit of aged stored packed red blood cells, has the potential to reduce NO bioavailability and impair endothelial-dependent vasodilation.

  18. Polymer/bacteria composite nanofiber non-wovens by electrospinning of living bacteria protected by hydrogel microparticles. (United States)

    Gensheimer, Marco; Brandis-Heep, Astrid; Agarwal, Seema; Thauer, Rudolf K; Greiner, Andreas


    Physically crosslinked PVA-hydrogel microparticles are utilized for encapsulation of E. coli and M. luteus. The bacteria survive dry storage or treatment with bacteria-hostile organic solvents significantly better than unprotected bacteria as proven by culture-test experiments. The bacteria-protecting PVA microparticles are available for standard polymer-solution-processing techniques, as exemplarily shown by co-electrospinning of living bacteria encapsulated in dry PVA-hydrogel microparticles together with PVB-, PLLA-, and PCL-form organic solvents.

  19. Expression pattern of the alpha-kafirin promoter coupled with a signal peptide from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. (United States)

    Ahmad, Norazlina; Sant, Rajnesh; Bokan, Milovan; Steadman, Kathryn J; Godwin, Ian D


    Regulatory sequences with endosperm specificity are essential for foreign gene expression in the desired tissue for both grain quality improvement and molecular pharming. In this study, promoters of seed storage α-kafirin genes coupled with signal sequence (ss) were isolated from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench genomic DNA by PCR. The α-kafirin promoter (α-kaf) contains endosperm specificity-determining motifs, prolamin-box, the O2-box 1, CATC, and TATA boxes required for α-kafirin gene expression in sorghum seeds. The constructs pMB-Ubi-gfp and pMB-kaf-gfp were microprojectile bombarded into various sorghum and sweet corn explants. GFP expression was detected on all explants using the Ubi promoter but only in seeds for the α-kaf promoter. This shows that the α-kaf promoter isolated was functional and demonstrated seed-specific GFP expression. The constructs pMB-Ubi-ss-gfp and pMB-kaf-ss-gfp were also bombarded into the same explants. Detection of GFP expression showed that the signal peptide (SP)::GFP fusion can assemble and fold properly, preserving the fluorescent properties of GFP.

  20. Expression Pattern of the Alpha-Kafirin Promoter Coupled with a Signal Peptide from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazlina Ahmad


    Full Text Available Regulatory sequences with endosperm specificity are essential for foreign gene expression in the desired tissue for both grain quality improvement and molecular pharming. In this study, promoters of seed storage α-kafirin genes coupled with signal sequence (ss were isolated from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench genomic DNA by PCR. The α-kafirin promoter (α-kaf contains endosperm specificity-determining motifs, prolamin-box, the O2-box 1, CATC, and TATA boxes required for α-kafirin gene expression in sorghum seeds. The constructs pMB-Ubi-gfp and pMB-kaf-gfp were microprojectile bombarded into various sorghum and sweet corn explants. GFP expression was detected on all explants using the Ubi promoter but only in seeds for the α-kaf promoter. This shows that the α-kaf promoter isolated was functional and demonstrated seed-specific GFP expression. The constructs pMB-Ubi-ss-gfp and pMB-kaf-ss-gfp were also bombarded into the same explants. Detection of GFP expression showed that the signal peptide (SP::GFP fusion can assemble and fold properly, preserving the fluorescent properties of GFP.

  1. Reduction in microparticle adsorption using a lateral interconnection method in a PDMS-based microfluidic device. (United States)

    Lee, Do-Hyun; Park, Je-Kyun


    Microparticle adsorption on microchannel walls occurs frequently due to nonspecific interactions, decreasing operational performance in pressure-driven microfluidic systems. However, it is essential for delicate manipulation of microparticles or cells to maintain smooth fluid traffic. Here, we report a novel microparticle injection technique, which prevents particle loss, assisted by sample injection along the direction of fluid flow. Sample fluids, including microparticles, mammalian (U937), and green algae (Chlorella vulgaris) cells, were injected directly via a through hole drilled in the lateral direction, resulting in a significant reduction in microparticle attachment. For digital microfluidic application, the proposed regime achieved a twofold enhancement of single-cell encapsulation compared to the conventional encapsulation rate, based on a Poisson distribution, by reducing the number of empty droplets. This novel interconnection method can be straightforwardly integrated as a microparticle or cell injection component in integrated microfluidic systems.

  2. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of amoxicillin encapsulated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    encapsulated in alginate-coated chitosan microparticles. Ebele Onuigbo* ... antibacterial property against Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. Keywords: Amoxicillin .... detached was blotted dry with a filter paper and weighed.

  3. Chitosan microparticles for sustaining the topical delivery of minoxidil sulphate. (United States)

    Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Taís; Simão, Patrícia Sper; de Freitas, Luís Alexandre Pedro; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna


    Given the hypothesis that microparticles can penetrate the skin barrier along the transfollicular route, this work aimed to obtain and characterise chitosan microparticles loaded with minoxidil sulphate (MXS) and to study their ability to sustain the release of the drug, attempting a further application utilising them in a targeted delivery system for the topical treatment of alopecia. Chitosan microparticles, containing different proportions of MXS/polymer, were prepared by spray drying and were characterised by yield, encapsulation efficiency, size and morphology. Microparticles selected for further studies showed high encapsulation efficiency (∼82%), a mean diameter of 3.0 µm and a spherical morphology without porosities. When suspended in an ethanol/water solution, chitosan microparticles underwent instantaneous swelling, increasing their mean diameter by 90%. Release studies revealed that the chitosan microparticles were able to sustain about three times the release rate of MXS. This feature, combined with suitable size, confers to these microparticles the potential to target and improve topical therapy of alopecia with minoxidil.

  4. Nanostructured Silica–Lipid Hybrid Microparticles: A Supersaturating Carrier for Water- and Lipid-resistant Compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Angel; Prestidge, Clive


    Nanostructured silica–lipid hybrid (SLH) microparticles, which are fabricated based on Pickering emulsion templates, are reported to enhance the encapsulation efficiency of a weak base anthelmintic, albendazole (ABZ...

  5. pH-Sensitive Microparticles with Matrix-Dispersed Active Agent (United States)

    Li, Wenyan (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Calle, Luz M. (Inventor)


    Methods to produce pH-sensitive microparticles that have an active agent dispersed in a polymer matrix have certain advantages over microcapsules with an active agent encapsulated in an interior compartment/core inside of a polymer wall. The current invention relates to pH-sensitive microparticles that have a corrosion-detecting or corrosion-inhibiting active agent or active agents dispersed within a polymer matrix of the microparticles. The pH-sensitive microparticles can be used in various coating compositions on metal objects for corrosion detecting and/or inhibiting.

  6. Multitarget sensing of glucose and cholesterol based on Janus hydrogel microparticles. (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Dong-Hua; Yue, Shuai; Yang, Chun-Guang; Xu, Zhang-Run


    A visualized sensing method for glucose and cholesterol was developed based on the hemispheres of the same Janus hydrogel microparticles. Single-phase and Janus hydrogel microparticles were both generated using a centrifugal microfluidic chip. For glucose sensing, concanavalin A and fluorescein labeled dextran used for competitive binding assay were encapsulated in alginate microparticles, and the fluorescence of the microparticles was positively correlated with glucose concentration. For cholesterol sensing, the microparticles embedded with γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were used as catalyst for the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine by H2O2, an enzymatic hydrolysis product of cholesterol. And the color transition was more sensitive in the microparticles than in solutions, indicating the microparticles are more applicable for visualized determination. Furthermore, Janus microparticles were employed for multitarget sensing in the two hemespheres, and glucose and cholesterol were detected within the same microparticles without obvious interference. Besides, the particles could be manipulated by an external magnetic field. The glucose and cholesterol levels were measured in human serum utilizing the microparticles, which confirmed the potential application of the microparticles in real sample detection.

  7. Trojan Microparticles for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry F. Vandamme


    Full Text Available During the last decade, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA have regulated a wide range of products, (foods, cosmetics, drugs, devices, veterinary, and tobacco which may utilize micro and nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials. Nanotechnology allows scientists to create, explore, and manipulate materials in nano-regime. Such materials have chemical, physical, and biological properties that are quite different from their bulk counterparts. For pharmaceutical applications and in order to improve their administration (oral, pulmonary and dermal, the nanocarriers can be spread into microparticles. These supramolecular associations can also modulate the kinetic releases of drugs entrapped in the nanoparticles. Different strategies to produce these hybrid particles and to optimize the release kinetics of encapsulated drugs are discussed in this review.

  8. Physics of microparticle acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune


    of microparticle acoustophoresis and to develop methods for future advancement of its use. Throughout the work on this thesis the author and co-workers1 have studied the physics of microparticle acoustophoresis by comparing quantitative measurements to a theoretical framework consisting of existing hydrodynamic...

  9. Microfluidics assisted generation of innovative polysaccharide hydrogel microparticles. (United States)

    Marquis, M; Davy, J; Cathala, B; Fang, A; Renard, D


    Capillary flow-based approach such as microfluidic devices offer a number of advantages over conventional flow control technology because they ensure highly versatile geometry and can be used to produce monodisperse spherical and non-spherical polymeric microparticles. Based on the principle of a flow-focusing device to emulsify the coflow of aqueous solutions in an organic phase, we were able to produce the following innovative polysaccharide hydrogel microparticles: - Janus hydrogel microparticles made of pectin–pectin (homo Janus) and pectin–alginate (hetero Janus) were produced. The efficiency of separation of the two hemispheres was investigated by confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) of previously labelled biopolymers. The Janus structure was confirmed by subjecting each microparticle hemisphere to specific enzymatic degradation. As a proof of concept, free BSA or BSA grafted with dextran, were encapsulated in each hemisphere of the hetero Janus hydrogel microparticles. While BSA, free or grafted with dextran, was always confined in the alginate hemisphere, a fraction of BSA diffused from the pectin to the alginate hemisphere. Methoxy groups along the pectin chain will be responsible of the decrease of the number of attractive electrostatic interactions occurring between amino groups of BSA and carboxylic groups of pectin. - Pectin hydrogel microparticles of complex shapes were successfully produced by combining on-chip the phenomenon of gelation and water diffusion induced self-assembly, using dimethyl carbonate as continuous phase, or by deformation of the pre-gelled droplets off-chip at a fluid–fluid interface. Sphere, oblate ellipsoid, torus or mushroom-type morphologies were thus obtained. Moreover, it was established that after crossing the interface during their collect, mushroom-type microparticles did not migrate in the calcium or DMC phase but stayed at the liquid–liquid interface. These new and original hydrogel microparticles will

  10. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency. (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y


    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  11. Impact of ultrasonication on the physicochemical properties of sorghum kafirin and in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestibility of sorghum gluten-like flour. (United States)

    Sullivan, Andrew C; Pangloli, Philipus; Dia, Vermont P


    Sorghum is a nutritionally dense grain but its nutritional quality is limited by its poor digestibility. The objective was to determine the effects of ultrasonication on the physicochemical properties of kafirin, major protein in sorghum, and its stability against pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis (PPH). Ultrasonication for 10min at 40% amplitude increased the solubility of purified kafirin from 6.5μg/mL to 173.3μg/mL. Ultrasonication altered the secondary structure of kafirin as evaluated by circular dichroism and Fourier-transform infrared red spectroscopy. In pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysates, 14.7% increase in molecules with molecular weight between 0.075 and 0.5kDa was detected in size-exclusion chromatogram after ultrasonication at 40% amplitude, 10min. The degree of hydrolysis was also increased after ultrasonication by 17.7%, 127.6%, 346.6% as measured by o-phthaldialdehyde derivatization, trichloroacetic acid precipitation and hydrochloric acid hydrolysis, respectively with improved antioxidant property. Our results showed the potential of ultrasonication to improve digestibility and biological properties of sorghum flour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physics of microparticle acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune


    This thesis presents studies of microparticle acoustophoresis, a technique for manipulation of particles in microsystems by means of acoustic radiation and streaming forces induced by ultrasound standing waves. The motivation for the studies is to increase the theoretical understanding of micropa......This thesis presents studies of microparticle acoustophoresis, a technique for manipulation of particles in microsystems by means of acoustic radiation and streaming forces induced by ultrasound standing waves. The motivation for the studies is to increase the theoretical understanding...... of microparticle acoustophoresis and to develop methods for future advancement of its use. Throughout the work on this thesis the author and co-workers1 have studied the physics of microparticle acoustophoresis by comparing quantitative measurements to a theoretical framework consisting of existing hydrodynamic...... and acoustic predictions. The theoretical framework is used to develop methods for in situ determination of acoustic energy density and acoustic properties of microparticles as well as to design a microchip for high-throughput microparticle acoustophoresis. An experimental model system is presented...

  13. DNA tagged microparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N; Wheeler, Elizabeth


    A simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the simulant.

  14. DNA tagged microparticles (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N; Wheeler, Elizabeth


    A simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the simulant.

  15. The influence of feedstock and process variables on the encapsulation of drug suspensions by spray-drying in fast drying regime: the case of novel antitubercular drug–palladium complex containing polymeric microparticles. (United States)

    Giovagnoli, Stefano; Palazzo, Francesco; Di Michele, Alessandro; Schoubben, Aurelie; Blasi, Paolo; Ricci, Maurizio


    The purpose of this study was to address the effect of feedstock properties and process variables on the characteristics of antitubercular drug–palladium (Pd) containing poly(lactic) acid (PLA) microparticles (MP) obtained by spray-drying of noncolloidal particle dispersions in fast drying regime. Two different systems were compared: capreomycin–Pd (C–Pd) and ofloxacin–Pd (Ofx–Pd) dispersions in acetonitrile PLA solution. Particle size, dynamic light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry, SEM–energy dispersive X-ray, and spectrophotometric methods were used for MP characterization. C–Pd-loaded MP were optimized preliminarily by experimental design and compared with Ofx–Pd-loaded MP investigated in our previous work. Morphology of feedstock particles had a dominant role in determining MP morphology. The Charlesworth and Marshall theory was used to explain such behavior. The smaller and homogeneous C–Pd microparticulates favored MP inflation and buckling by forming a thick and nonporous shell. A percolation effect was proposed for the larger and irregular Ofx–Pd particles that produced smaller MP with a more porous shell. Increasing feedstock concentration led to higher particle loss. A tentative descriptive scheme of MP formation according to feedstock particle arrangement was proposed. This work suggested that spray-drying of drug dispersions should carefully consider the morphology of feedstock particles as a major parameter influencing final MP properties.

  16. Electrosprayed inulin microparticles for microbiota triggered targeting of colon. (United States)

    Jain, Arvind K; Sood, Vishesh; Bora, Meghali; Vasita, Rajesh; Katti, Dhirendra S


    Inulin, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, was acetylated to make it processable by electrospraying, a facile and single step method for microparticle fabrication. Electrospraying process parameters were optimized for fabrication of spherical and monodisperse indomethacin (IDM) loaded inulin acetate (INA) microparticles. The apparent entrapment efficiency of IDM was determined to be 100%, whereas working encapsulation efficiency was estimated to be 35.39 ± 1.63%. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed molecular dispersion of IDM in an amorphous state within the INA matrix. Finally, the results from in vitro release study performed in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids demonstrated that IDM was released only in simulated colonic fluid that contained inulinase. Therefore, this study demonstrates that acetylation of inulin does not alter its susceptibility to inulinase and that microparticles fabricated from INA can be developed as a colon targeting drug delivery system.

  17. Coated whey protein/alginate microparticles as oral controlled delivery systems for probiotic yeast. (United States)

    Hébrard, Géraldine; Hoffart, Valérie; Beyssac, Eric; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Alric, Monique; Subirade, Muriel


    Viable Saccharomyces boulardii, used as a biotherapeutic agent, was encapsulated in food-grade whey protein isolate (WP) and alginate (ALG) microparticles, in order to protect and vehicle them in gastrointestinal environment. Yeast-loaded microparticles with a WP/ALG ratio of 62/38 were produced with high encapsulation efficiency (95%) using an extrusion/cold gelation method and coated with ALG or WP by a simple immersion method. Swelling, yeast survival, WP loss and yeast release in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF, pH 1.2 and 7.5) with and without their respective digestive enzymes (pepsin and pancreatin) were investigated. In SGF, ALG network shrinkage limited enzyme diffusion into the WP/ALG matrix. Coated and uncoated WP/ALG microparticles were resistant in SGF even with pepsin. Survival of yeast cells in microparticles was 40% compared to 10% for free yeast cells and was improved to 60% by coating. In SIF, yeast cell release followed coated microparticle swelling with a desirable delay. Coated WP/ALG microparticles appear to have potential as oral delivery systems for Saccharomyces boulardii or as encapsulation means for probiotic cells in pharmaceutical or food processing applications.

  18. Gastroresistant microparticles containing sodium alendronate prevent the bone loss in ovariectomized rats. (United States)

    Cruz, Letícia; Assumpção, Evelise; Andrade, Sérgio F; Conrado, Daniela J; Kulkamp, Irene C; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R


    Sodium alendronate, an antiresorptive drug, primarily used in the treatment of osteoporosis was encapsulated in blended microparticles composed of Eudragit S100 and Methocel K15M. The micropowder obtained by spray-drying technique was characterized in terms of its morphology, particle size, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. In vivo studies were carried out in order to evaluate the pharmacodynamic effect and the ulcerogenic activity of sodium alendronate-loaded microparticles after oral administration in rats. Drug encapsulation efficiency was close to 80% and particle mean diameter of 13.8 microm. SEM analysis showed spherical collapsed shape particles with smooth surface. At pH 1.2, in vitro experiments showed that <10% of the drug was released from the microparticles. At pH 6.8, the microparticles were able to prolong the sodium alendronate release for 12h. In vivo experiments carried out in ovariectomized rats showed bone mineral density significantly higher for the sodium alendronate-loaded microparticles than for the negative control groups. Furthermore, the microencapsulation of the drug showed a significant reduction in the ulcerative lesion index. In conclusion, the blended microparticles are excellent oral carriers for sodium alendronate since they were able to maintain the drug antiresorptive effect and to reduce the gastrointestinal drug toxicity.

  19. Multimodal delivery of irinotecan from microparticles with two distinct compartments. (United States)

    Rahmani, Sahar; Park, Tae-Hong; Dishman, Acacia Frances; Lahann, Joerg


    In the last several decades, research in the field of drug delivery has been challenged with the fabrication of carrier systems engineered to deliver therapeutics to the target site with sustained and controlled release kinetics. Herein, we report the fabrication of microparticles composed of two distinct compartments: i) one compartment containing a pH responsive polymer, acetal-modified dextran, and PLGA (polylactide-co-glycolide), and ii) one compartment composed entirely of PLGA. We demonstrate the complete release of dextran from the microparticles during a 10-hour period in an acidic pH environment and the complete degradation of one compartment in less than 24h. This is in congruence with the stability of the same microparticles in neutral pH over the 24-hour period. Such microparticles can be used as pH responsive carrier systems for drug delivery applications where their cargo will only be released when the optimum pH window is reached. The feasibility of the microparticle system for such an application was confirmed by encapsulating a cancer therapeutic, irinotecan, in the compartment containing the acetal-modified dextran polymer and the pH dependent release over a 5-day period was studied. It was found that upon pH change to an acidic environment, over 50% of the drug was first released at a rapid rate for 10h, similar to that observed for the dextran release, before continuing at a more controlled rate for 4 days. As such, these microparticles can play an important role in the fabrication of novel drug delivery systems due to the selective, controlled, and pH responsive release of their encapsulated therapeutics.

  20. Development and characterization of lipid microparticles as a drug carrier for somatostatin. (United States)

    Reithmeier, H; Herrmann, J; Göpferich, A


    Somatostatin, a therapeutic peptide with a high therapeutical potential but a very short biological half-live was encapsulated within microparticles by a modified solvent evaporation method and a melt dispersion method without the use of organic solvent. As the use of synthetic polymer matrix materials often goes along with detrimental effects on incorporated peptides, we investigated the potential of physiological lipids such as glyceryl tripalmitate (Dynasan 116) as an alternative matrix material. The two preparation methods were evaluated with respect to surface topography, particle size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, in-vitro release behavior and modification of the resulting microparticles. Microparticles with a suitable particle size distribution for i.m. or s.c. injection could be prepared with both methods. The encapsulation efficiency of the peptide into glyceryl tripalmitate microparticles was substantially influenced by the preparation method and the physical state of the peptide to be incorporated. The melt dispersion technique and the incorporation of the drug as an aqueous solution gave the best results with actual drug loadings up to 9% and an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 90%. Microparticles prepared by the melt dispersion technique crystallized in the unstable alpha-modification. The peptide was released almost continuously over 10 days with no burst effect, 20-30% of the incorporated somatostatin was not released in the monitored time period.

  1. Acceleration of microparticle

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, H


    A microparticle (dust) ion source has been installed at the high voltage terminal of the 3.75 MV single ended Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator and a beam line for microparticle experiments has been build at High Fluence Irradiation Facility (HIT) of Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, the University of Tokyo. Microparticle acceleration has been successful in obtaining expected velocities of 1-20 km/s or more for micron or submicron sized particles. Development of in situ dust detectors and analyzers on board satellites and spacecraft in the expected mass and velocity range of micrometeoroids and investigation of hypervelocity impact phenomena by using time of flight mass spectrometry, impact flash or luminescence measurement and scanning electron or laser microscope observation for metals, ceramics, polymers and semiconductors bombarded by micron-sized particles were started three years ago. (author)

  2. Development and characterization of gelatin and ethylcellulose microparticles designed as platforms to delivery fluoride. (United States)

    de Francisco, Lizziane M B; Cerquetani, Juliana A; Bruschi, Marcos L


    To develop and characterize microparticles containing fluoride sources (FS) from sodium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) or aminofluoride and evaluate their characteristics as fluoride delivery systems. Ethylcellulose microparticles containing fluoride (EM) were prepared by emulsification of ethyl acetate dispersion containing polymer and FS (ethylcellulose:FS ratio of 1:0.25 wt/wt) with aqueous external phase containing polysorbate 80 (0.8% vol/vol) using the volume ratio (organic:aqueous) of 1:5. The organic solvent was evaporated; microparticles were collected by centrifuging, washed with deionized water and freeze-dried. Gelatin microparticles containing FS (GM) was obtained by dispersion of the natural polymer in water, adding FS (6:1 wt/wt) and 20% (wt/wt) of mannitol. The final dispersions were spray-dried. Particle morphology and size were investigated using optical microscopy. The content of fluoride ions in the microparticles was quantified using a potentiometric method. The encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release profile of fluoride was also determined. Microparticles exhibited polydispersity and mean diameters fluoride ions from microparticles was shown to be modified, fitted first order and guided by Fickian diffusion. Microparticles prepared with ethylcellulose or gelatin can be used as platform for oral delivery of fluoride, providing a means to increase the local supply of this ion in a controlled manner, providing an increased protection against caries. Moreover, further investigations are needed to demonstrate this property in vivo.

  3. Chitosan microparticles: influence of the gelation process on the release profile and oral bioavailability of albendazole, a class II compound. (United States)

    Piccirilli, Gisela N; García, Agustina; Leonardi, Darío; Mamprin, María E; Bolmaro, Raúl E; Salomón, Claudio J; Lamas, María C


    Encapsulation of albendazole, a class II compound, into polymeric microparticles based on chitosan-sodium lauryl sulfate was investigated as a strategy to improve drug dissolution and oral bioavailability. The microparticles were prepared by spray drying technique and further characterized by means of X-ray powder diffractometry, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The formation of a novel polymeric structure between chitosan and sodium lauryl sulfate, after the internal or external gelation process, was observed by infrared spectroscopy. The efficiency of encapsulation was found to be between 60 and 85% depending on the internal or external gelation process. Almost spherically spray dried microparticles were observed using scanning electron microscopy. In vitro dissolution results indicated that the microparticles prepared by internal gelation released 8% of the drug within 30 min, while the microparticles prepared by external gelation released 67% within 30 min. It was observed that the AUC and Cmax values of ABZ from microparticles were greatly improved, in comparison with the non-encapsulated drug. In conclusion, the release properties and oral bioavailability of albendazole were greatly improved by using spraydried chitosan-sodium lauryl sulphate microparticles.

  4. Chitosan-DNA microparticles as mucosal delivery system:synthesis, characterization and release in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-hong; FAN Min-wen; BIAN Zhuan; CHEN Zhi; ZHANG Qi; YANG Hai-rui


    Background Mucosal immunity is important to defense against dental caries. To enhance mucosal immunity, a DNA vaccine mucosal delivery system was prepared by encapsulating anticaries DNA vaccine (plasmid pGJA-P/VAX) in chitosan under optimal conditions and the characteristics of the microparticles was investigated. Furthermore, the release properties and protective action of microparticles for plasmid were studied in vitro.Methods Plasmid loaded chitosan microparticles were prepared by complex coacervation. Three factors, concentration of DNA, sodium sulfate, and the chitosan/DNA ratios in complexes [better expressed as N/P ratio: the number of poly nitrogen (N) per DNA phosphate (P)] influencing preparation were optimized by orthogonal test. The characteristics of microparticles were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). DNA release rate of microparticles in similar gastro fluid (SGF) or similar intestinal fluid (SIF) at 37℃ was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry.Results High encapsulation efficiency (96.8%) was obtained with chitosan microparticles made under optimal conditions of 50 mmol/L Na2SO4, 200 μg/ml DNA and N/P ratio of 4. The size of particles was about 4 to 6 μm. The encapsulation process did not destroy the integrity of DNA. When incubated with SIL, after a release of about 10% in the first 60 minutes, no further DNA was released during the following 180 minutes. When incubated with SGL, the microparticles released a small burst (about 11%) in the first 60 minutes, and then slowly released at a constant, but different rate.Conclusions These chitosan microparticles showed suitable characteristics in vitro for mucosal vaccination and are therefore a promising carrier system for DNA vaccine mucosal delivery.

  5. Nanosized blood microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuana, Yuana


    Microparticles (MPs) have important physiological and pathological roles in blood coagulation, inflammation and tumor progression. In recent years MPs also have been recognized to participate in important biological processes, such as in signaling and in the horizontal transfer of their specific pro

  6. Nanosized blood microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuana, Yuana


    Microparticles (MPs) have important physiological and pathological roles in blood coagulation, inflammation and tumor progression. In recent years MPs also have been recognized to participate in important biological processes, such as in signaling and in the horizontal transfer of their specific

  7. Fabrication of hydrophilic paclitaxel-loaded PLA-PEG-PLA microparticles via SEDS process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping OUYANG; Yun-qing KANG; Guang-fu YIN; Zhong-bing HUANG; Ya-dong YAO; Xiao-ming LIAO


    In this work, chemically bonded poly(D, L-lactide)-polyethylene glycol-poly(D, L-lactide) (PLA-PEG-PLA) triblock copolymers with various PEG contents and PLA homopolymer were synthesized via melt polymerization, and were confirmed by FTIR and 1 H-NMR results. The molecular weight and polydispersity of the synthesized PLA and PLA-PEG-PLA copolymers were investigated by gel permeation chromatography. Hydro-philicity of the copolymers was identified by contact angle measurement. PLA-PEG-PLA and PLA microparticles loaded with and without PTX were then produced via solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2 (SEDS) process. The effect of the PEG content on the particle size distribution, morphology, drug load, and encapsulation efficiency of the fabricated microparticles was also studied. Results indicate that PLA and PLA-PEG-PLA micropar-ticles all exhibit sphere-like shape with smooth surface, when PEG content is relatively low. The produced microparticles have narrow particle size distributions and small particle sizes. The drug load and encapsulation efficiency of the produced microparticles decreases with higher PEG content in the copolymer matrix. Moreover, high hydrophilicity is found when PEG is chemically attached to originally hydrophobic PLA, providing the produced drug-loaded microparticles with high hydrophi-licity, biocompatibility, and prolonged circulation time, which are considered of vital importance for vessel-circulating drug delivery system.

  8. Biodegradable microparticles and fiber fabrics for sustained delivery of cisplatin to treat C6 glioma in vitro. (United States)

    Xie, Jingwei; Tan, Ruo Shan; Wang, Chi-Hwa


    The duration of cisplatin release from most of the drug delivery devices seemed to be shorter than 14 days except large microparticles. The objective of this study was to fabricate and characterize cisplatin-loaded PLA microparticles, PLA/PLGA (30/70) composite microparticles, and fibers as formulations for long-term sustained delivery of cisplatin to treat C6 glioma in vitro by electrospray and electrospinning techniques. Cisplatin-loaded biodegradable microparticles with particle size of around 5 microm and fiber fabrics with diameter of 0.5-1.7 microm were obtained using electrospray and electrospinning techniques. Encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release of formulations were measured by ICP-OES. The encapsulation efficiency for different samples of microparticles was approximately from 33% to 72% and the fiber fabrics had encapsulation efficiency greater than 90%. Cisplatin-loaded microparticles showed typical characteristics of cisplatin release profile: a large initial burst followed by a sustained slow release of 35 days. The composite PLA/PLGA (30/70) microparticles could reduce the initial burst release of cisplatin because of their core-shell structures. In contrast, more than 75 days sustained release could be achieved by fiber fabric formulations without large initial burst. MTT assay was used to quantify the cytotoxicity of different formulations against C6 glioma cells. Microparticle formulations had slightly higher cytotoxicity than free drug. In contrast, the cytotoxicity of fiber fabrics formulation was around 4 times higher than of the free drug based on the actual amount of drug released. The microparticle and fiber fabric formulations presented may be promising for the sustained delivery of cisplatin to eliminate the undesired side effects caused by direct injection of cisplatin solution in systemic administration.

  9. Production and characterization of engineered alginate-based microparticles containing ECM powder for cell/tissue engineering applications. (United States)

    Mazzitelli, Stefania; Luca, Giovanni; Mancuso, Francesca; Calvitti, Mario; Calafiore, Riccardo; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Johnson, Scott; Badylak, Stephen F


    A method for the production of engineered alginate-based microparticles, containing extracellular matrix and neonatal porcine Sertoli cells (SCs), is described. As a source for extracellular matrix, a powder form of isolated and purified urinary bladder matrix (UBM) was employed. We demonstrated that the incorporation of UBM does not significantly alter the morphological and dimensional characteristics of the microparticles. The alginate microparticles were used for SC encapsulation as an immunoprotective barrier for transplant purposes, while the co-entrapped UBM promoted retention of cell viability and function. These engineered microparticles could represent a novel approach to enhancing immunological acceptance and increasing the functional life-span of the entrapped cells for cell/tissue engineering applications. In this respect, it is noteworthy that isolated neonatal porcine SCs, administered alone in highly biocompatible microparticles, led to diabetes prevention and reversion in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice.

  10. Incorporation of essential oil in alginate microparticles by multiple emulsion/ionic gelation process. (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh; Hosseini, Hedayat; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoosh; Shojaee-Aliabadi, Saeedeh; Dehghan, Solmaz; Khaksar, Ramin


    In this study, an o/w/o multiple emulsion/ionic gelation method was developed for production of alginate microparticles loaded with Satureja hortensis essential oil (SEO). It was found that the essential oil concentration has significant influence on encapsulation efficiency (EE), loading capacity (LC) and size of microparticles. The values of EE, LC and particle mean diameter were about 52-66%, 20-26%, and 47-117 μm, respectively, when the initial SEO content was 1-3% (v/v) .The essential oil-loaded microparticles were porous, as displayed by scanning electron micrograph. The presence of SEO in alginate microparticles was confirmed by Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses. SEO-loaded microparticles showed good antioxidant (with DPPH radical scavenging activity of 40.7-73.5%) and antibacterial properties; this effect was greatly improved when the concentration of SEO was 3% (v/v). S. aureus was found to be the most sensitive bacterium to SEO and showed a highest inhibition zone of 304.37 mm(2) in the microparticles incorporated with 3% (v/v) SEO. In vitro release studies showed an initial burst release and followed by a slow release. In addition, the release of SEO from the microparticles followed Fickian diffusion with acceptable release.

  11. From Single Microparticles to Microfluidic Emulsification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinoshita, K.; Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Hussein, Abdirazak


    level, the micropipette technique was used to form and characterize the encapsulation of Ibuprofen (Ibp) into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres from dichloromethane (DCM) solutions, measuring the loading capacity and solubility limits of Ibp in typical PLGA microspheres. Formed...... time of pure Ibp microspheres in the buffer or in detergent micelle solutions, as a function of the microsphere size and compare that to calculated dissolution times using the Epstein-Plesset (EP) model. Single, pure Ibp microparticles precipitated as liquid phase microdroplets that then gradually......) micelles was directly visualized microscopically for the first time by the micropipette technique, showing that such micellization could increase the solubility of Ibp from 4 to 80 mM at 100 mM SDS. We also introduce a particular microfluidic device that has recently been used to make PLGA microspheres...

  12. Floating microparticles based on low density foam powder. (United States)

    Streubel, A; Siepmann, J; Bodmeier, R


    The aim of this study was to develop a novel multiparticulate gastroretentive drug delivery system and to demonstrate its performance in vitro. Floating microparticles consisting of (i) polypropylene foam powder; (ii) verapamil HCl as model drug; and (iii) Eudragit RS, ethylcellulose (EC) or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as polymers were prepared with an O/W solvent evaporation method. The effect of various formulation and processing parameters on the internal and external particle morphology, drug loading, in vitro floating behavior, in vitro drug release kinetics, particle size distribution and physical state of the incorporated drug was studied. The microparticles were irregular in shape and highly porous. The drug encapsulation efficiency was high and almost independent of the theoretical loading. Encapsulation efficiencies close to 100% could be achieved by varying either the ratio 'amount of ingredients: volume of the organic phase' or the relative amount of polymer. In all cases, good in vitro floating behavior was observed. The release rate increased with increasing drug loading and with decreasing polymer amounts. The type of polymer significantly affected the drug release rate, which increased in the following rank order: PMMAmicroparticles was almost independent of the drug loading, but strongly depended on the amount of polymer. The drug was partly dissolved and partly in the amorphous form distributed throughout the system.

  13. Production and characterization of lipid microparticles produced by spray cooling encapsulating a low molar mass hydrophilic compound Produção e caracterização de micropartículas lipídicas produzidas por spray cooling encapsulando um composto hidrofílico de baixa massa molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Jusceline Leonel


    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to produce and characterize lipid particles (MpLs that may be used as carriers of high amounts of hydrophilic core and evaluate the influence of the core amount on the performance of lipid microparticles. The MpLs were produced by spray cooling from solid and liquid lipid mixtures (stearic and oleic fatty acids and partly hydrogenated vegetable fat containing glucose solution as core and soy lecithin as surfactant. The performance of MpLs was evaluated by means of the effective amount of encapsulated core, the core amount present on the surface of MpLs (superficial glucose and the core release profile in aqueous solution. Morphological observations showed that MpLs presented spherical shape and a rugged and continuous surface, and an average diameter between 25 and 32 µm. The effective amount of encapsulated core was greater than 78% for all formulations evaluated. Larger amounts of superficial glucose were found in formulations in which more concentrated glucose solutions were used, regardless of the glucose lipid-solution ratio. The release results showed that core retention was significantly influenced by the glucose solution concentration, whereas release modulation was influenced by the glucose lipid-solution ratio.O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir e caracterizar partículas lipídicas (MpLs que possam ser utilizadas como carreadores de altas quantidades de um recheio hidrofílico e avaliar a influência da quantidade de recheio sobre a performance das micropartículas. As MpLs foram produzidas por spray cooling a partir de misturas de ácidos graxos líquidos e sólidos (ácido esteárico e oléico e gordura vegetal hidrogenada, contendo solução de glucose como recheio e lecitina de soja como surfactante. A performance das MpLs foi avaliada por meio da quantificação do recheio efetivamente encapsulado, da quantidade presente na superfície das MpLs e do perfil de liberação do recheio em meio

  14. Polyamide Microparticles Containing Vitamin C by Interfacial Polymerization: An Approach by Design of Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Ripoll


    Full Text Available Vitamin C is widely use in cosmetics and pharmaceutics products for its active properties. However ascorbic acid shows unfavourable chemical instability such as oxidation leading to formulation problems. Therefore, carriers, such as micro- and nanoparticles, have been widely investigated as delivery systems for vitamin C to improve its beneficial effects in skin treatment. However, none of the previous studies have been able to produce microparticles with a high encapsulation entrapment of vitamin C. The aim of the present study is to use an experimental design to optimize the synthesis of polyamide microparticles for the delivery of ascorbic acid. The effect of four formulation parameters on microparticles properties (size and morphology, encapsulation efficiency and yield, release kinetics were investigated using a surface response design. Finally, we were able to obtain stable microparticles containing more than 65% of vitamin C. This result confirms the effectiveness of using design of experiments for the optimisation of microparticle formulation and supports the proposal of using them as candidate for the delivery of vitamin C in skin treatment.

  15. Kafirinas, proteínas clave para conferir digestibilidad y calidad proteica al grano de sorgo Kafirins, key proteins to improve digestibility and proteic quality of sorghum grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Chiquito-Almanza


    Full Text Available El sorgo es un alimento básico en varios países de África y Asia. Sin embargo, su grano es deficiente en lisina y su calidad proteica disminuye cuando se cocina. Los intentos para conferir calidad proteica al grano de sorgo, no han satisfecho los requerimientos nutricionales, y las alternativas biotecnológicas se han enfocado a la expresión heteróloga de proteínas, sin prestar atención a incrementar la digestibilidad proteica. El incremento del contenido de lisina en maíz QPM y el silenciamiento génico de las α-zeínas en maíz, sugieren que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas, una familia de prolaminas del sorgo homólogas a las zeínas de maíz, permite incrementar el contenido de lisina y la digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. En esta revisión se discuten aspectos básicos de la clasificación de las kafirinas, su homología con las zeínas de maíz, y su contribución en la calidad y digestibilidad proteica del grano de sorgo. El objetivo es sustentar la hipótesis de que la modificación de la expresión de las kafirinas mediante silenciamiento génico es una estrategia clave para mejorar el valor nutritivo del grano del sorgo, el estudio se llevó a cabo durante 2009 y 2010.Sorghum is a basic food in several countries of Africa and Asia. However, its grain is deficient in lysine and its proteic quality diminishes when is cooked. Attempts to confer proteic quality to sorghum grain have not satisfed the nutritional requirements, and biotechnical alternatives have been focused to proteins' heterologous expression, without taking into account to increase proteic digestibility. Increment of lysine content in QPM corn and gene silencing of α-zeins in corn, suggest that modification of expression of kafirins, a prolamin family of sorghum homologous to corn zeins, allows to increase lysin content and the proteic digestibility of sorghum grain. In this revision basic issues of kafirins classification are

  16. Preparation and In Vitro Evaluation of Ethylcellulose and Polymethacrylate Resins Loaded Microparticles Containing Hydrophilic Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Pandav


    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of the recent study was to prepare and estimate sustained release of Ethylcellulose (300 cps and Eudragit (RS 100 and RL 100 microparticles containing Propranolol hydrochloride used as a treatment of cardiovascular system, especially hypertension. Method. Propranolol hydrochloride was microencapsulated with different polymers (Ethylcellulose, Eudragit RS, and Eudragit RL using modified hydrophobic (O/O solvent evaporation method using 1 : 1 combination of acetone and isopropanol as the internal phase. Obtained microparticles were showing higher batch yield with higher encapsulation efficiency. Microparticles were prepared with different ratios of 1 : 1, 1 : 3, 1 : 5, and 1 : 7 (%, wt/wt using span 80 (%, v/v as a surfactant. Results. The influence of formulation factors like drug: polymer ratio, internal phase, and type of polymers on obtained microparticles was characterized with respect to particle size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, percentage yield, FTIR, and FE-SEM. Higher encapsulation efficiencies were obtained with various polymers like Ethylcellulose (96.63 ± 0.5 compared to Eudragit RS 100 (83.70 ± 0.6 and RL 100 (89.62 ± 0.6. The in vitro release study was characterized by initial burst. Conclusion. The result of study displays that Ethylcellulose and Eudragit loaded microparticles of Propranolol hydrochloride can be effectively prepared using modified hydrophobic emulsification solvent evaporation technique. Therefore, the modified hydrophobic emulsion technique can also be applied to the preparation of microparticles for low molecular weight and highly water soluble drugs.

  17. Evaluation of cross-linked chitosan microparticles containing acyclovir obtained by spray-drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stulzer, Hellen Karine [Laboratorio Quitech, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratorio de Controle de Qualidade, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laboratorio de Controle de Qualidade, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (Brazil)], E-mail:; Tagliari, Monika Piazzon [Laboratorio de Controle de Qualidade, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Parize, Alexandre Luis [Laboratorio Quitech, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Silva, Marcos Antonio Segatto [Laboratorio de Controle de Qualidade, Departamento de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil); Laranjeira, Mauro Cesar Marghetti [Laboratorio Quitech, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Brazil)


    The aim of this study was to obtain microparticles containing acyclovir (ACV) and chitosan cross-linked with tripolyphosphate using the spray-drying technique. The resultant system was evaluated through loading efficiency, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in vitro release and stability studies. The results obtained indicated that the polymer/ACV ratio influenced the final properties of the microparticles, with higher ratios giving the best encapsulation efficiency, dissolution profiles and stability. The DSC and XRPD analyses indicated that the ACV was transformed into amorphous form during the spray-drying process.

  18. Nanoparticle-coated organic-inorganic microparticles: experimental design and gastrointestinal tolerance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Carlos R. Beck


    Full Text Available The influences of the spray-drying parameters and the type of nanoparticles (nanocapsules or nanospheres on the characteristics of nanoparticle-coated diclofenac-loaded microparticles were investigated by using a factorial design 3². Gastrointestinal tolerance following oral administration in rats was evaluated. Formulations were selected considering the best yields, the best encapsulation efficiencies and the lowest water contents, presenting surfaces completely coated by nanostructures and a decrease in the surface areas in relation to the uncoated core. In vitro drug release demonstrated the influence of the nanoparticle-coating on the dissolution profiles of diclofenac. Nanocapsule-coated microparticles presented a protective effect on the gastrointestinal mucosa.

  19. Nanoparticle-coated organic-inorganic microparticles: experimental design and gastrointestinal tolerance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Ruy Carlos R.


    Full Text Available The influences of the spray-drying parameters and the type of nanoparticles (nanocapsules or nanospheres on the characteristics of nanoparticle-coated diclofenac-loaded microparticles were investigated by using a factorial design 3². Gastrointestinal tolerance following oral administration in rats was evaluated. Formulations were selected considering the best yields, the best encapsulation efficiencies and the lowest water contents, presenting surfaces completely coated by nanostructures and a decrease in the surface areas in relation to the uncoated core. In vitro drug release demonstrated the influence of the nanoparticle-coating on the dissolution profiles of diclofenac. Nanocapsule-coated microparticles presented a protective effect on the gastrointestinal mucosa.

  20. Development of biodegradable methylprednisolone microparticles for treatment of articular pathology using a spray-drying technique. (United States)

    Tobar-Grande, Blanca; Godoy, Ricardo; Bustos, Paulina; von Plessing, Carlos; Fattal, Elias; Tsapis, Nicolas; Olave, Claudia; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina


    In this work, microparticles were prepared by spray-drying using albumin, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid as excipients to create a controlled-release methylprednisolone system for use in inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that these microparticles were almost spherical, with development of surface wrinkling as the methylprednisolone load in the formulation was increased. The methylprednisolone load also had a direct influence on the mean diameter and zeta potential of the microparticles. Interactions between formulation excipients and the active drug were evaluated by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis, showing limited amounts of methylprednisolone in a crystalline state in the loaded microparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of methylprednisolone was approximately 89% in all formulations. The rate of methylprednisolone release from the microparticles depended on the initial drug load in the formulation. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation using THP-1 cells showed that none of the formulations prepared triggered an inflammatory response on release of interleukin-1β, nor did they affect cellular viability, except for the 9.1% methylprednisolone formulation, which was the maximum test concentration used. The microparticles developed in this study have characteristics amenable to a therapeutic role in inflammatory pathology, such as arthritis.

  1. Development of HPMC and Eudragit S100 blended microparticles containing sodium pantoprazole. (United States)

    Raffin, R P; Colomé, L M; Haas, S E; Jornada, D S; Pohlmann, A R; Guterres, S S


    Pantoprazole is used in the treatment of acid related disorders and Helicobacter pylori infections. It is activated inside gastric parietal cells binding irreversibly to the H+/K(+)-ATPase. In this way, pantoprazole must be absorbed intact in gastro-intestinal tract, indicating that enteric delivery systems are required. The purpose of this study was to prepare pantoprazole-loaded microparticles by spray-drying using a blend of Eudragit S100 and HPMC, which can provide gastro-resistance and controlled release. Microparticles presented acceptable drug loading (120.4 mgg(-1)), encapsulation efficiency (92.3%), surface area (49.0 m2g(-1)), and particle size (11.3 microm). DSC analyses showed that the drug is molecularly dispersed in the microparticles, and in vivo anti-ulcer evaluation demonstrated that microparticles were effective in protecting stomach against ulceration. Microparticles were successfully tabletted using magnesium stearate. In vitro gastro-resistance study showed that microparticles stabilized pantoprazole in 62.0% and tablets in 97.5% and provided a controlled release of the drug.

  2. Issues in long-term protein delivery using biodegradable microparticles. (United States)

    Ye, Mingli; Kim, Sungwon; Park, Kinam


    Recently, a variety of bioactive protein drugs have been available in large quantities as a result of advances in biotechnology. Such availability has prompted development of long-term protein delivery systems. Biodegradable microparticulate systems have been used widely for controlled release of protein drugs for days and months. The most widely used biodegradable polymer has been poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Protein-containing microparticles are usually prepared by the water/oil/water (W/O/W) double emulsion method, and variations of this method, such as solid/oil/water (S/O/W) and water/oil/oil (W/O/O), have also been used. Other methods of preparation include spray drying, ultrasonic atomization, and electrospray methods. The important factors in developing biodegradable microparticles for protein drug delivery are protein release profile (including burst release, duration of release, and extent of release), microparticle size, protein loading, encapsulation efficiency, and bioactivity of the released protein. Many studies used albumin as a model protein, and thus, the bioactivity of the release protein has not been examined. Other studies which utilized enzymes, insulin, erythropoietin, and growth factors have suggested that the right formulation to preserve bioactivity of the loaded protein drug during the processing and storage steps is important. The protein release profiles from various microparticle formulations can be classified into four distinct categories (Types A, B, C, and D). The categories are based on the magnitude of burst release, the extent of protein release, and the protein release kinetics followed by the burst release. The protein loading (i.e., the total amount of protein loaded divided by the total weight of microparticles) in various microparticles is 6.7+/-4.6%, and it ranges from 0.5% to 20.0%. Development of clinically successful long-term protein delivery systems based on biodegradable microparticles requires

  3. Cetirizine dihydrochloride loaded microparticles design using ionotropic cross-linked chitosan nanoparticles by spray-drying method. (United States)

    Li, Feng-Qian; Ji, Rui-Rui; Chen, Xu; You, Ben-Ming; Pan, Yong-Hua; Su, Jia-Can


    To control the release rate and mask the bitter taste, cetirizine dihydrochloride (CedH) was entrapped within chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) using an ionotropic gelation process, followed by microencapsulation to produce CS matrix microparticles using a spray-drying method. The aqueous colloidal CS-NPs dispersions with a drug encapsulation efficiency (EE) of 70%. The resultant spherical CS microparticles had a smooth surface, were free of organic solvent residue and showed a diameter range of 0.5~5 μm. The in vitro drug release properties of CedH encapsulated microparticles showed an initial burst effect during the first 2 h. Drug release from the matrix CS microparticles could be retarded by the crosslinking agent pentasodium tripolyphosphate or the wall material. The technique of 'ionotropic gelation' combined with 'spray-drying' could be applicable for preparation of CS nanoparticlesin-microparticles drug delivery systems. CS-NPs based microparticles might provide a potential micro-carrier for oral administration of the freely water-soluble drug--CedH.

  4. Activity of Spray-dried Microparticles Containing Pomegranate Peel Extract against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Prado Dias Filho


    Full Text Available Pomegranate has attracted interest from researchers because of its chemical composition and biological properties. It possesses strong antioxidant activity, with potential health benefits, and also antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to produce microparticles containing pomegranate extract by the spray-drying technique, utilizing alginate or chitosan as encapsulating agents. Characterization and antifungal assays were carried out. Production yields were about 40% for alginate microparticles and 41% for chitosan. Mean diameters were 2.45 µm and 2.80 µm, and encapsulation efficiencies were 81.9% and 74.7% for alginate and chitosan microparticles, respectively. The spray-drying process preserved the antifungal activity against Candida albicans. These results could be useful for developing dosage forms for treating candidiasis, and should be further investigated in in vivo models.

  5. PHBV/PCL Microparticles for Controlled Release of Resveratrol: Physicochemical Characterization, Antioxidant Potential, and Effect on Hemolysis of Human Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Bitencourt Emilio Mendes


    Full Text Available Microparticles of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL containing resveratrol were successfully prepared by simple emulsion/solvent evaporation. All formulations showed suitable encapsulation efficiency values higher than 80%. PHBV microparticles revealed spherical shape with rough surface and presence of pores. PCL microparticles were spherically shaped with smooth surface. Fourier-transformed infrared spectra demonstrated no chemical bond between resveratrol and polymers. X-ray powder diffraction patterns and differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicated that microencapsulation led to drug amorphization. These PHBV/PCL microparticles delayed the dissolution profile of resveratrol. Release profiles were better fitted to biexponential equation. The hypochlorous-acid-scavenging activity and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical cation discoloration assay confirmed that the antioxidant activity of PHBV/PCL microparticles was kept, but was dependent on the microparticle morphology and dissolution profile. Resveratrol-loaded PHBV/PCL microparticles showed no cytotoxic effect on red blood cells.

  6. Biodegradable microparticles with surface dimples as a bi-modal imaging contrast agent. (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ri; Lim, Yong Taik; Cho, Kuk Young


    Fabrication of physically engineered colloids and their application to the biological fields is emerging importance because of their potential to provide an enhanced performance without altering the chemical properties of biomaterials used. A facile approach is reported to fabricate sub-10-μm-sized PLGA microparticle with small dimples covering the surface by droplet imprinting. Optical and magnetic resonance bioimaging agents are easily co-encapsulated inside the microparticles to obtain a bi-modal imaging agent. Cell internalization efficacy of dimpled particles in DC 2.4 cell is enhanced compared with conventional smooth round-shaped colloids. Our result indicates that morphology-controlled microparticles show promise as a cell labeling with improved cell interaction.

  7. Dynamic transformation of self-assembled structures using anisotropic magnetized hydrogel microparticles (United States)

    Yoshida, Satoru; Takinoue, Masahiro; Iwase, Eiji; Onoe, Hiroaki


    This paper describes a system through which the self-assembly of anisotropic hydrogel microparticles is achieved, which also enables dynamic transformation of the assembled structures. Using a centrifuge-based microfluidic device, anisotropic hydrogel microparticles encapsulating superparamagnetic materials on one side are fabricated, which respond to a magnetic field. We successfully achieve dynamic assembly using these hydrogel microparticles and realize three different self-assembled structures (single and double pearl chain structures, and close-packed structures), which can be transformed to other structures dynamically via tuning of the precessional magnetic field. We believe that the developed system has potential application as an effective platform for a dynamic cell manipulation and cultivation system, in biomimetic autonomous microrobot organization, and that it can facilitate further understanding of the self-organization and complex systems observed in nature.

  8. Improvement of the antibacterial activity of daptomycin-loaded polymeric microparticles by Eudragit RL 100: an assessment by isothermal microcalorimetry. (United States)

    Ferreira, Inês Santos; Bettencourt, Ana; Bétrisey, Bertrand; Gonçalves, Lídia M D; Trampuz, Andrej; Almeida, António J


    The aim of the present study was to develop novel daptomycin-loaded acrylic microparticles with improved release profiles and antibacterial activity against two clinically relevant methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MSSA and MRSA, respectively). Daptomycin was encapsulated into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and PMMA-Eudragit RL 100 (EUD) microparticles by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. For comparison purposes similar formulations were prepared with vancomycin. Particle morphology, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, surface charge, physicochemical properties, in vitro release and biocompatibility were assessed. Particles exhibited a micrometer size and a spherical morphology. The addition of EUD to the formulation caused a shift in the surface charge of the particles from negative zeta potential values (100% PMMA formulations) to strongly positive. It also improved daptomycin encapsulation efficiency and release, whereas vancomycin encapsulation and release were strongly hindered. Plain and antibiotic-loaded particles presented comparable biocompatibility profiles. The antibacterial activity of the particles was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry against both MSSA and MRSA. Daptomycin-loaded PMMA-EUD particles presented the highest antibacterial activity against both strains. The addition of 30% EUD to the daptomycin-loaded PMMA particles caused a 40- and 20-fold decrease in the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal concentration (MBC) values, respectively, when compared to the 100% PMMA formulations. On the other hand, vancomycin-loaded microparticles presented the highest antibacterial activity in PMMA particles. Unlike conventional methods, isothermal microcalorimetry proved to be a real-time, sensitive and accurate method for assessment of antibacterial activity of antibiotic-loaded polymeric microparticles. Finally, the addition of EUD to formulations proved to be a powerful

  9. Release Kinetic in Yogurt from Gallic Acid Microparticles with Chemically Modified Inulin. (United States)

    García, Paula; Vergara, Cristina; Robert, Paz


    Gallic acid (GA) was encapsulated with native (NIn), cross-linked (CIn) and acetylated (AIn) inulin by spray-drying. Inulin microparticles were characterized by encapsulation efficiency (EE) and their release profile in yogurt. The EE was significantly higher for GA-CIn (98%) compared with GA-NIn (81%) and GA-AIn (77%) microparticles, showing the effect of the modification of inulin on interaction of GA-polymer. GA release profile data in yogurt for GA-CIn, GA-NIn and GA-AIn were fitted to Peppas and Higuchi models in order to obtain the GA release rate constant. Although the GA release rate constants were significantly different among systems, these differences were slight and the GA release was fast (80% inulin-systems did not control GA release in yogurt. The mechanism of GA release followed a Fickian diffusion and relaxation of chains for all microparticles. According to the release profile, these microparticles would be best suited for use in instant foods.

  10. Chelators influenced synthesis of chitosan-carboxymethyl cellulose microparticles for controlled drug delivery (United States)

    Samrot, Antony V.; Akanksha; Jahnavi, Tatipamula; Padmanaban, S.; Philip, Sheryl-Ann; Burman, Ujjala; Rabel, Arul Maximus


    In this study, polyphenolic curcumin is entrapped within microcomposites made of biopolymers chitosan (CS) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) formulated by ionic gelation method. Here, different concentrations of two chelating agents, barium chloride and sodium tripolyphosphate, are used to make microcomposites. Thus, the synthesized microparticles were characterized by FTIR, and their surface morphology was studied by SEM. Drug encapsulation efficiency and the drug release kinetics of CS-CMC composites are also studied. The produced microcomposites were used to study antibacterial activity in vitro.

  11. Chelators influenced synthesis of chitosan-carboxymethyl cellulose microparticles for controlled drug delivery (United States)

    Samrot, Antony V.; Akanksha; Jahnavi, Tatipamula; Padmanaban, S.; Philip, Sheryl-Ann; Burman, Ujjala; Rabel, Arul Maximus


    In this study, polyphenolic curcumin is entrapped within microcomposites made of biopolymers chitosan (CS) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) formulated by ionic gelation method. Here, different concentrations of two chelating agents, barium chloride and sodium tripolyphosphate, are used to make microcomposites. Thus, the synthesized microparticles were characterized by FTIR, and their surface morphology was studied by SEM. Drug encapsulation efficiency and the drug release kinetics of CS-CMC composites are also studied. The produced microcomposites were used to study antibacterial activity in vitro.

  12. Controlled release of verapamil hydrochloride from waxy microparticles prepared by spray congealing. (United States)

    Passerini, Nadia; Perissutti, Beatrice; Albertini, Beatrice; Voinovich, Dario; Moneghini, Mariarosa; Rodriguez, Lorenzo


    In this work, the potential of waxes for preparing with the ultrasonic spray congealing technique microparticles for controlling the in vitro release of verapamil HCl was investigated. The first part of the study encompassed the optimisation of the formulation to achieve an efficient drug incorporation together with a satisfactory in vitro drug release rate. In particular, microcrystalline wax, stearyl alcohol and mixtures of the two were used. Also a surfactant (soya lecithin) was added to the formulations. After the particle size analysis, the characterisation of the microparticles involved the study of the solid state of drug and carriers in the systems (DSC, HSM and XRD) and the morphological and chemical analyses of the microparticle surface (SEM and XPS). Finally, the drug release mechanism from these devices was evaluated using the statistical moment analysis. The results of this study show that by selecting the type and the amount of the carriers, microparticles with a spherical shape and a good encapsulation efficiency were observed. These particles showed a zero-order release for 8 h, without modifying the solid state properties of the drug. Therefore, waxy microparticles prepared by the ultrasonic spray congealing technique are promising solvent-free devices for controlling the release of verapamil HCl.

  13. Chitosan Microparticles Intended for Anti-caries DNA Vaccine Mucosal Delivery: Synthesis, Characterization and Transfection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuhong; FAN Mingwen; BIAN Zhuan; CHEN Zhi; Zhang Qi


    In order to enhance the mucosal immunity of anti-caries DNA vaccine, chitosan-DNA microparticles for musocal vaccination were prepared by a coacervation method. The physicochemical structure of microparticles was investigated by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a cofocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). For in-vitro studies, Hela cell was transfected by chitosan-DNA microparticles.The expression of proteins was measured by the immunohistochemical methods, and the cytotocity of chitosan in Hela cell line was determined by the MTT assay. The experimental results show that the microparticles are about 2-6 μm in size and spherical in shape. The encapsulation efficiency is 99%, and the DNA is almost captured in the micropraticles. Plasmid loaded into chitosan microparticles is distributed throughout these particles. The number of positive staining cells of chitosan-pGJA-P transfected cell is more than that of naked plasmid transfect cells, but less than that of Lipofect-DNA complex group. Chitosan was found to be less cytotoxic compared with lipofectin (p<0.01).

  14. Evaluation of ultrasonic atomization as a new approach to prepare ionically cross-linked chitosan microparticles. (United States)

    Albertini, Beatrice; Passerini, Nadia; Rodriguez, Lorenzo


    Ultrasonic atomization was evaluated as a new approach for the preparation of ionically cross-linked controlled-release chitosan microparticles loaded with theophylline as the model drug, using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as counter-ion. It was possible to nebulize both 2% and 3% (w/v) chitosan solutions as a function of their viscosity, usually not processed by employing the conventional nebulizer. The results of the chitosan molecular characterization using the SEC-MALS analysis revealed that ultrasonic atomization caused a certain depolymerization, probably due to the main chain scission of the 1,4-glycosidic bond; however, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy revealed the absence of other chemical modifications. The ultrasonic atomization allowed preparation of TPP cross-linked chitosan microparticles mostly ranging between 50 and 200 mum. As regards manufacturing parameters, the linking time and washing medium were found to affect the properties of the microparticles, while the stirring rate of the TPP solution did not show any influence. The evaluation of the formulation variables revealed that chitosan concentration strongly affected both the feasibility of the ultrasonic atomization and the drug release. All the microparticles showed an encapsulation efficiency of > 50 % and, after an initial burst effect, a controlled release of drug for 48 h. In conclusion, the ultrasonic atomization could be proposed as a robust and innovative single-step procedure with scale-up potential to successfully prepare ionically cross-linked chitosan microparticles.

  15. Multiple unit gastroretentive drug delivery systems: a new preparation method for low density microparticles. (United States)

    Streubel, A; Siepmann, J; Bodmeier, R


    The aim of this study was to develop a new preparation method for low density foam-based, floating microparticles and to demonstrate the systems' performance in vitro. Major advantages of the novel preparation technique include: (i) short processing times, (ii) no exposure of the ingredients to high temperatures, (iii) the possibility to avoid toxic organic solvents, and (iv) high encapsulation efficiencies close to 100%. Floating microparticles consisting of polypropylene foam powder, model drug [chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM), diltiazem HCl, theophylline or verapamil HCl] and polymer [Eudragit RS or polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)] were prepared by soaking the microporous foam carrier with an organic solution of drug and polymer and subsequent drying. The effects of various formulation and processing parameters on the resulting in vitro floating behaviour, internal and external particle morphology, drug loading, in vitro drug release and physical state of the incorporated drug were studied. Good in vitro floating behaviour was observed in most cases and a broad variety of drug release patterns could be achieved by varying the drug loading and type of polymer. Interestingly, PMMA-based microparticles showed incomplete drug release with verapamil HCl. This restriction could be overcome by forming the free base of the drug prior to microparticle preparation. In contrast to the salt, the free base acted as a plasticizer for PMMA, resulting in sufficiently high diffusion coefficients and, consequently, complete drug release. The low density microparticles were compressed into rapidly disintegrating tablets in order to provide an administrable oral dosage form.

  16. Development of thiolated poly(acrylic acid) microparticles for the nasal administration of exenatide. (United States)

    Millotti, Gioconda; Vetter, Anja; Leithner, Katharina; Sarti, Federica; Shahnaz Bano, Gul; Augustijns, Patrick; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas


    The purpose of this study was to develop a microparticulate formulation for nasal delivery of exenatide utilizing a thiolated polymer. Poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-cys) and unmodified PAA microparticles loaded with exenatide were prepared via coprecipitation of the drug and the polymer followed by micronization. Particle size, drug load and release of incorporated exenatide were evaluated. Permeation enhancing properties of the formulations were investigated on excised porcine respiratory mucosa. The viability of the mucosa was investigated by histological studies. Furthermore, ciliary beat frequency (CBF) studies were performed. Microparticles displayed a mean size of 70-80 µm. Drug encapsulation was ∼80% for both thiolated and non-thiolated microparticles. Exenatide was released from both thiolated and non-thiolated particles in comparison to exenatide in buffer only within 40 min. As compared to exenatide dissolved in buffer only, non-thiolated and thiolated microparticles resulted in a 2.6- and 4.7-fold uptake, respectively. Histological studies performed before and after permeation studies showed that the mucosa is not damaged during permeation studies. CBF studies showed that the formulations were cilio-friendly. Based on these results, poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine-based microparticles seem to be a promising approach starting point for the nasal delivery of exenatide.

  17. Design and characterization of core-shell mPEG-PLGA composite microparticles for development of cell-scaffold constructs. (United States)

    Wen, Yanhong; Gallego, Monica Ramos; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov; Jorgensen, Lene; Møller, Eva Horn; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck


    Appropriate scaffolds capable of providing suitable biological and structural guidance are of great importance to generate cell-scaffold constructs for cell-based tissue engineering. The aim of the present study was to develop composite microparticles with a structure to provide functionality as a combined drug delivery/scaffold system. Composite microparticles were produced by incorporating either alginate/dermatan sulfate (Alg/DS) or alginate/chitosan/dermatan sulfate (Alg/CS/DS) particles in mPEG-PLGA microparticles using coaxial ultrasonic atomization. The encapsulation and distribution of Alg/DS or Alg/CS/DS particles in the mPEG-PLGA microparticles were significantly dependent on the operating conditions, including the flow rate ratio (Qout/Qin) and the viscosity of the polymer solutions (Vout, Vin) between the outer and the inner feeding channels. The core-shell composite microparticles containing the Alg/DS particles or the Alg/CS/DS particles displayed 40% and 65% DS release in 10 days, respectively, as compared to the DS directly loaded microparticles showing 90% DS release during the same time interval. The release profiles of DS correlate with the cell proliferation of fibroblasts, i.e. more sustainable cell growth was induced by the DS released from the core-shell composite microparticles comprising Alg/CS/DS particles. After seeding fibroblasts onto the composite microparticles, excellent cell adhesion was observed, and a successful assembly of the cell-scaffold constructs was induced within 7 days. Therefore, the present study demonstrates a novel strategy for fabrication of core-shell composite microparticles comprising additional particulate drug carriers in the core, which provides controlled delivery of DS and favorable cell biocompatibility; an approach to potentially achieve cell-based tissue regeneration.

  18. Emulsification/internal gelation as a method for preparation of diclofenac sodium-sodium alginate microparticles. (United States)

    Ahmed, Mahmoud M; El-Rasoul, Saleh Abd; Auda, Sayed H; Ibrahim, Mohamed A


    Emulsification/internal gelation has been suggested as an alternative to extrusion/external gelation in the encapsulation of several compounds including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac sodium. The objective of the present study was a trial to formulate diclofenac sodium as controlled release microparticles that might be administered once or twice daily. This could be achieved via emulsification/internal gelation technique applying Box-Behnken design to choose these formulae. Box-Behnken design determined fifteen formulae containing specified amounts of the independent variables, which included stirring speed in rpm (X1), drug:polymer ratio (X2) and the surfactant span 80% (X3). The dependent variables studied were cumulative percent release after two hours (Y1), four hours (Y2) and eight hours (Y3). The prepared microparticles were characterized for their production yield, sizes, shapes and morphology, entrapment efficiency and Diclofenac sodium in vitro release as well. The results showed that the production yield of the prepared diclofenac sodium microparticles was found to be between 79.55% and 97.41%. The formulated microparticles exhibited acceptable drug content values that lie in the range 66.20-96.36%. Also, the data obtained revealed that increasing the mixing speed (X1) generally resulted in decreased microparticle size. In addition, scanning electron microscope images of the microparticles illustrated that the formula contains lower span concentration (1%) in combination with lower stirring speed (200 rpm) which showed wrinkled, but smooth surfaces. However, by increasing surfactant concentration, microspheres' surfaces become smoother and slightly porous. Kinetic treatment of the in vitro release from drug-loaded microparticles indicated that the zero order is the drug release mechanism for the most formulae.

  19. The Encapsulation of Anthocyanins from Berry-Type Fruits. Trends in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Robert


    Full Text Available During the last decade, many berry-type fruits have been recognised as good sources of anthocyanins. Nevertheless, the use of anthocyanins in the development of food colourants and healthy and/or functional ingredients has been limited because of their low stability under given environmental conditions and interaction with other compounds in the food matrix. This review compiles information about the encapsulation of anthocyanins from twelve different berry-type fruit species as a technology for improving the stability and/or bioavailability of anthocyanins. Encapsulation by spray drying has been the primary method used to encapsulate anthocyanins, and some studies attempt to keep anthocyanin microparticles stable during storage. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to determine the stability of anthocyanin microparticles in food matrices over the product shelf life in the development of food colourants. Studies about encapsulated anthocyanins in simulated gastrointestinal models have primarily been conducted on the release of anthocyanins from microparticles to evaluate their bioavailability. However, adding anthocyanin microparticles to a food vehicle must guarantee the health properties attributed to the specific anthocyanins present in berry-type fruits.

  20. Spray-dried Eudragit® L100 microparticles containing ferulic acid: Formulation, in vitro cytoprotection and in vivo anti-platelet effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, Jessica Mendes; Gomes, Mona Lisa Simionatto [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil); Borsato, Débora Maria [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Almeida, Martinha Antunes [Postgraduate Program in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil); Barboza, Fernanda Malaquias [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Zawadzki, Sônia Faria [Postgraduate Program in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil); Kanunfre, Carla Cristine [Postgraduate Program in Biomedical Science, Department of General Biology, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Farago, Paulo Vitor, E-mail: [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of Ponta Grossa (Brazil); Zanin, Sandra Maria Warumby [Postgraduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Paraná (Brazil)


    This paper aimed to obtain new spray-dried microparticles containing ferulic acid (FA) prepared by using a methacrylic polymer (Eudragit® L100). Microparticles were intended for oral use in order to provide a controlled release, and improved in vitro and in vivo biological effects. FA-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles were obtained by spray-drying. Physicochemical properties, in vitro cell-based effects, and in vivo platelet aggregation were investigated. FA-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles were successfully prepared by spray-drying. Formulations showed suitable encapsulation efficiency, i.e. close to 100%. Microparticles were of spherical and almost-spherical shape with a smooth surface and a mean diameter between 2 and 3 μm. Fourier-transformed infrared spectra demonstrated no chemical bond between FA and polymer. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicated that microencapsulation led to drug amorphization. FA-loaded microparticles showed a slower dissolution rate than pure drug. The chosen formulation demonstrated higher in vitro cytoprotection, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potential and also improved in vivo anti-platelet effect. These results support an experimental basis for the use of FA spray-dried microparticles as a feasible oral drug delivery carrier for the controlled release of FA and improved cytoprotective and anti-platelet effects. - Highlights: • Ferulic acid-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles with high drug-loading were obtained. • Spray-dried Eudragit® L100 microparticles containing ferulic acid showed improved in vitro cytoprotective effect. • Ferulic acid spray-dried microparticles had potential as in vitro anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory. • In vivo studies demonstrated an enhanced antiplatelet effect for ferulic acid-loaded Eudragit® L100 microparticles.

  1. Microparticles containing guaraná extract obtained by spray-drying technique: development and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traudi Klein


    Full Text Available AbstractGuaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae is well known for its dietary and pharmaceutical potential, and the semipurified extract of guaraná shows antidepressant and panicolytic effects. However, the low solubility, bioavailability and stability of the semipurified extract limit its use as a component of pharmaceutical agents. Delivery of the semipurified extract in a microparticle form could help to optimize its stability. In this study, microparticles containing semipurified extract of guaraná were obtained by the spray-drying technique, using a combination of maltodextrin and gum arabic. The raw materials and microparticles produced were characterized by particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The drug content and antioxidant capacity were also evaluated. In vitrodissolution tests using flow cell dissolution apparatus, were carried out to investigate the influence of formulation parameters on the release of semipurified extract of guaraná from the microparticles. The spray-drying technique and the processing conditions selected gave satisfactory encapsulation efficiency (80–110% and product yield (55–60%. The mean diameter of microparticles was around 4.5 µm. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity demonstrated that microparticles can protect the semipurified extract of guaraná from the effect of high temperatures during the process maintained the antioxidant capacity. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated an interaction between semipurified extract of guaraná and gum arabic: maltodextrin in the microparticles, and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that the profile curves of the microparticles are similar to the adjuvants used in drying, probably due to the higher proportion of adjuvants compared to semipurified extract of guaraná. In vitro dissolution tests demonstrate that all formulations complete dissolution within 60 min

  2. Influence of oligofructose-enriched inulin on survival of microencapsulated Lactobacillus casei 01 and adhesive properties of synbiotic microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Petreska Ivanovska


    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei 01 was co-encapsulated with the prebiotic oligofructose-enriched inulin at different concentrations to investigate the efficiency of the prebiotic for improving the probiotic viability. Prebiotic effect on the probiotic survival under microencapsulation conditions by spray- and freeze-drying and storage stability of encapsulated living cells at 4 °C during period of 8 weeks was evaluated. Adhesiveness of L. casei 01 loaded microparticles to pig mucin was investigated in vitro to estimate the role of microencapsulation for improving the cell adhesion ability. The microparticles produced with 3% w/w oligofructose-enriched inulin showed higher initial count, while oligofructose-enriched inulin applied at 1.5% w/w resulted in better protection of L. casei 01 under storage conditions. Further, it has been observed significantly increased pig mucin binding to microparticles compared to free probiotic cells in buffer solutions simulating GI conditions, during 24 h incubation. Hence, cell microencapsulation beside enhanced viability may allow prolonged residence time of the probiotic cells in the lower intestine through excellent muco-adhesive properties of the encapsulating materials. The results suggest synbiotic chitosan-Ca-alginate microparticles as convenient delivery system capable to ensure effective cell concentration in the lower intestine where probiotic colonization is dominant.

  3. Effect of alginate composition on profile release and characteristics of chitosan-alginate microparticles loaded with mangosteen extract (United States)

    Mulia, Kamarza; Halimah, Nur; Krisanti, Elsa


    Preparation of mangostin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles, chemical and physical characterization of the particles, and mangostin release profiles, are described herein. Mangostin rich fraction was obtained from Garcinia mangostana L. pericarp by extraction followed by fractionation. Mangostin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method using tripolyphosphate as the linking agent and various concentration of alginate. Mangostin was effectively loaded in all microparticle formulations, resulting in ˜97% encapsulation efficiencies. The loading of mangostin and the in-vitro release profiles in simulated gastrointestinal fluids were affected by the chitosan to alginate ratios used in the preparation of the microparticles. Increased alginate concentration resulted in lowered release of mangostin from microparticles immersed in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) up to two hours. Low release of mangostin in acidic fluid but high release in simulated colon fluid, indicated that the chitosan-alginate microparticles are prospective carrier for extended release of active compound in gastrointestinal system.

  4. Bio-threat microparticle simulants (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N


    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  5. Bio-threat microparticle simulants (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald


    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  6. Microparticles as Potential Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Carolina Nunes, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Santo Amaro - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Amaral, Jônatas Bussador do; Tegani, Daniela Melo; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil)


    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a choice of great relevance because of its impact on health. Some biomarkers, such as microparticles derived from different cell populations, have been considered useful in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. Microparticles are released by the membrane structures of different cell types upon activation or apoptosis, and are present in the plasma of healthy individuals (in levels considered physiological) and in patients with different pathologies. Many studies have suggested an association between microparticles and different pathological conditions, mainly the relationship with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the effects of different lipid-lowering therapies have been described in regard to measurement of microparticles. The studies are still controversial regarding the levels of microparticles that can be considered pathological. In addition, the methodologies used still vary, suggesting the need for standardization of the different protocols applied, aiming at using microparticles as biomarkers in clinical practice.

  7. Microparticles as Potential Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Nunes França


    Full Text Available Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a choice of great relevance because of its impact on health. Some biomarkers, such as microparticles derived from different cell populations, have been considered useful in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. Microparticles are released by the membrane structures of different cell types upon activation or apoptosis, and are present in the plasma of healthy individuals (in levels considered physiological and in patients with different pathologies. Many studies have suggested an association between microparticles and different pathological conditions, mainly the relationship with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the effects of different lipid-lowering therapies have been described in regard to measurement of microparticles. The studies are still controversial regarding the levels of microparticles that can be considered pathological. In addition, the methodologies used still vary, suggesting the need for standardization of the different protocols applied, aiming at using microparticles as biomarkers in clinical practice.

  8. Evaluation of biodegradable polyester-co-lactone microparticles for protein delivery. (United States)

    Tawfeek, Hesham M; Khidr, Sayed H; Samy, Eman M; Ahmed, Sayed M; Gaskell, Elsie E; Hutcheon, Gillian A


    Abstract Poly(glycerol adipate-co-ω-pentadecalactone) (PGA-co-PDL) was previously evaluated for the colloidal delivery of α-chymotrypsin. In this article, the effect of varying polymer molecular weight (MW) and chemistry on particle size and morphology; encapsulation efficiency; in vitro release; and the biological activity of α-chymotrypsin (α-CH) and lysozyme (LS) were investigated. Microparticles were prepared using emulsion solvent evaporation and evaluated by various methods. Altering the MW or monomer ratio of PGA-co-PDL did not significantly affect the encapsulation efficiency and overall poly(1,3-propanediol adipate-co-ω-pentadecalactone) (PPA-co-PDL) demonstrated the highest encapsulation efficiency. In vitro release varied between polymers, and the burst release for α-CH-loaded microparticles was lower when a higher MW PGA-co-PDL or more hydrophobic PPA-co-PDL was used. The results suggest that, although these co-polyesters could be useful for protein delivery, little difference was observed between the different PGA-co-PDL polymers and PPA-co-PDL generally provided a higher encapsulation and slower release of enzyme than the other polymers tested.

  9. Resveratrol-loaded poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) microparticles: preparation and characterization; Microparticulas de poli({epsilon}-caprolactona) contendo resveratrol: preparacao e caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Resveratrol-loaded poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) microparticles were obtained by simple emulsion/solvent evaporation method. Three drug-loaded formulations were prepared with the aim of investigating the influence of composition on the encapsulation efficiency. Morphological and spectroscopic methods were performed for these materials. The microparticles revealed residual moisture close to 1.5% and encapsulation efficiency above 80%. Spherical shape and smooth surface were observed by SEM. No pores were either verified. Resveratrol-loaded microparticles showed an average particle size of around 50 {mu}m. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the microencapsulation reduced the drug crystallinity. The FTIR results suggest that no chemical bond was formed between polymer and drug. (author)

  10. Encapsulation of Menthol in Beeswax by a Supercritical Fluid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjing Zhu


    Full Text Available Encapsulation of menthol in beeswax was prepared by a modified particles from gas-saturated solutions (PGSS process with controlling the gas-saturated solution flow rate. Menthol/beeswax particles with size in the range of 2–50 μm were produced. The effects of the process conditions, namely, the pre-expansion pressure, pre-expansion temperature, gas-saturated solution flow rate, and menthol composition, on the particle size, particle size distribution, and menthol encapsulation rate were investigated. Results indicated that in the range of studied conditions, increase of the pressure, decrease of the gas-saturated solution flow rate, and decrease of the menthol mass fraction can decrease the particle size and narrow particle size distribution of the produced menthol/beeswax microparticles. An N2-blowing method was proposed to measure the menthol release from the menthol/beeswax microparticles. Results showed that the microparticles have obvious protection of menthol from its volatilization loss.

  11. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings (United States)

    Pearman, B. P.; Calle, L. M.; Zhang, X.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Johnsey, M. N.; Montgomery, E. L.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Surma, J. M.


    The NASA Kennedy Space Center's Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion indicators, inhibitors and self-healing agents. This allows the incorporation of autonomous corrosion control functionalities, such as corrosion detection and inhibition as well as the self-healing of mechanical damage, into coatings. This paper presents technical details on the characterization of inhibitor-containing particles and their corrosion inhibitive effects using electrochemical and mass loss methods. Three organic environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic microparticles that are compatible with desired coatings. The release of the inhibitors from the microparticles in basic solution was studied. Fast release, for immediate corrosion protection, as well as long-term release for continued protection, was observed. The inhibition efficacy of the inhibitors, incorporated directly and in microparticles, on carbon steel was evaluated. Polarization curves and mass loss measurements showed that, in the case of 2MBT, its corrosion inhibition effectiveness was greater when it was delivered from microparticles.

  12. Pharmaceutical microparticle engineering with electrospraying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Wan, Feng; Kristensen, Jakob


    , acetone, and an anti-solvent, methanol, for PLGA were studied in different ratios. Properties of the spraying solutions were examined and the resulting microparticles were characterized with regard to size, morphology, porosity, solid state form, surface chemistry and drug release. Particle formation...... demonstrated by the increasingly higher drug release rates. The results demonstrate the importance of solvent composition in particle preparation and indicate potential for exploiting this dependence to improve pharmaceutical particle design and performance....

  13. Duality of β-glucan microparticles: antigen carrier and immunostimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baert K


    Full Text Available Kim Baert,1 Bruno G De Geest,2 Henri De Greve,3,4 Eric Cox,1,* Bert Devriendt1,* 1Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Ghent, Belgium; 3Structural Biology Research Centre, VIB, Brussels, Belgium; 4Structural Biology Brussels, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Designing efficient recombinant mucosal vaccines against enteric diseases is still a major challenge. Mucosal delivery of recombinant vaccines requires encapsulation in potent immunostimulatory particles to induce an efficient immune response. This paper evaluates the capacity of β-glucan microparticles (GPs as antigen vehicles and characterizes their immune-stimulatory effects. The relevant infectious antigen FedF was chosen to be loaded inside the microparticles. The incorporation of FedF inside the particles was highly efficient (roughly 85% and occurred without antigen degradation. In addition, these GPs have immunostimulatory effects as well, demonstrated by the strong reactive oxygen species (ROS production by porcine neutrophils upon their recognition. Although antigen-loaded GPs still induce ROS production, antigen loading decreases this production by neutrophils for reasons yet unknown. However, these antigen-loaded GPs are still able to bind their specific β-glucan receptor, demonstrated by blocking complement receptor 3, which is the major β-glucan receptor on porcine neutrophils. The dual character of these particles is confirmed by a T-cell proliferation assay. FedF-loaded particles induce a significantly higher FedF-specific T-cell proliferation than soluble FedF. Taken together, these results show that GPs are efficient antigen carriers with immune-stimulatory properties. Keywords: β-glucan microparticles, FedF, antigen delivery vehicle, immunostimulants

  14. Coaxial electrospray of microparticles and nanoparticles for biomedical applications. (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei; Huang, Jiwei; Si, Ting; Xu, Ronald X


    Coaxial electrospray is an electrohydrodynamic process that produces multilayer microparticles and nanoparticles by introducing coaxial electrified jets. In comparison with other microencapsulation/nanoencapsulation processes, coaxial electrospray has several potential advantages such as high encapsulation efficiency, effective protection of bioactivity and uniform size distribution. However, process control in coaxial electrospray is challenged by the multiphysical nature of the process and the complex interplay of multiple design, process and material parameters. This paper reviews the previous works and the recent advances in design, modeling and control of a coaxial electrospray process. The review intends to provide general guidance for coaxial electrospray and stimulate further research and development interests in this promising microencapsulation/nanoencapsulation process.

  15. Production and characterization of alginate-starch-chitosan microparticles containing stigmasterol through the external ionic gelation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene Mari Fujiwara


    Full Text Available Stigmasterol - a plant sterol with several pharmacological activities - is susceptible to oxidation when exposed to air, a process enhanced by heat and humidity. In this context, microencapsulation is a way of preventing oxidation, allowing stigmasterol to be incorporated into various pharmaceutical forms while increasing its absorption. Microparticles were obtained using a blend of polymers of sodium alginate, starch and chitosan as the coating material through a one-stage process using the external gelation technique. Resultant microparticles were spherical, averaging 1.4 mm in size. Encapsulation efficiency was 90.42% and method yield 94.87%. The amount of stigmasterol in the oil recovered from microparticles was 9.97 mg/g. This technique proved feasible for the microencapsulation of stigmasterol.

  16. Matrix structure selection in the microparticles of essential oil oregano produced by spray dryer. (United States)

    da Costa, Joyce Maria Gomes; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Hijo, Ariel Antonio Campos Toledo; Silva, Eric Keven; Marques, Gerson Reginaldo; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; de Azevedo, Viviane Machado


    The goal of this work was to select the best combination of encapsulants for the microencapsulation of oregano essential oil by spray dryer with the addition of Arabic gum (AG), modified starch (MS) and maltodextrin (MA). The simplex-centroid method was used to obtain an optimal objective function with three variables. Analytical methods for carvacrol quantification, water activity, moisture content, wettability, solubility, encapsulation efficiency (ME) and oil retention (RT) were used to evaluate the best combination of encapsulants. The use of AG as a single wall material increased ME up to 93%. Carvacrol is the major phenolic compound existent in the oregano essential oil. Carvacrol exhibits a maximum concentration of 57.8% in the microparticle with the use of 62.5% AG and 37.5% MA. A greater RT (77.39%) was obtained when 74.5% AG; MS 12.7% and 12.7% MA were applied, and ME (93%) was improved with 100% of gum.

  17. Activity of daptomycin- and vancomycin-loaded poly-epsilon-caprolactone microparticles against mature staphylococcal biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ferreira I


    Full Text Available Inês Santos Ferreira,1 Ana F Bettencourt,1 Lídia MD Gonçalves,1 Stefanie Kasper,2 Bertrand Bétrisey,3 Judith Kikhney,2 Annette Moter,2 Andrej Trampuz,4 António J Almeida1 1Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal; 2Biofilmcenter, German Heart Institute Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland; 4Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: The aim of the present study was to develop novel daptomycin-loaded poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL microparticles with enhanced antibiofilm activity against mature biofilms of clinically relevant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Daptomycin was encapsulated into PCL microparticles by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. For comparison purposes, formulations containing vancomycin were also prepared. Particle morphology, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, surface charge, thermal behavior, and in vitro release were assessed. All formulations exhibited a spherical morphology, micro­meter size, and negative surface charge. From a very early time stage, the released concentrations of daptomycin and vancomycin were higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration and continued so up to 72 hours. Daptomycin presented a sustained release profile with increasing concentrations of the drug being released up to 72 hours, whereas the release of vancomycin stabilized at 24 hours. The antibacterial activity of the microparticles was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry against planktonic and sessile MRSA and S. epidermidis. Regarding planktonic bacteria, daptomycin-loaded PCL microparticles presented the highest antibacterial activity against both strains. Isothermal

  18. Viability of the microencapsulation of a casein hydrolysate in lipid microparticles of cupuacu butter and stearic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cristina Pinho


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Solid lipid microparticles produced with a mixture of cupuacu butter and stearic acid were used to microencapsulate a commercial casein hydrolysate (Hyprol 8052. The composition of the lipid matrix used for the production of the lipid microparticles was chosen according to data on the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC of bulk lipid mixtures, which indicated that the presence of 10 % cupuacu butter was sufficient to significantly change the crystalline arrangement of pure stearic acid. Preliminary tests indicated that a minimum proportion of 4 % of surfactant (polysorbate 80 was necessary to produce empty spherical lipid particles with average diameters below 10 mm. The lipid microparticles were produced using 20 % cupuacu butter and 80 % stearic acid and then stabilized with 4 % of polysorbate 80, exhibiting an encapsulation efficiency of approximately 74 % of the casein hydrolysate. The melting temperature of the casein hydrolysate-loaded lipid microparticles was detected at 65.2 °C, demonstrating that the particles were solid at room temperature as expected and indicating that the incorporation of peptides had not affected their thermal behavior. After 25 days of storage, however, there was a release of approximately 30 % of the initial amount of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. This release was not thought to have been caused by the liberation of encapsulated casein hydrolysate. Instead, it was attributed to the possible desorption of the adsorbed peptides present on the surface of the lipid microparticles.

  19. Functionalized poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate microgels by microfluidics: In situ peptide encapsulation for in serum selective protein detection. (United States)

    Celetti, Giorgia; Natale, Concetta Di; Causa, Filippo; Battista, Edmondo; Netti, Paolo A


    Polymeric microparticles represent a robustly platform for the detection of clinically relevant analytes in biological samples; they can be functionalized encapsulating a multiple types of biologics entities, enhancing their applications as a new class of colloid materials. Microfluidic offers a versatile platform for the synthesis of monodisperse and engineered microparticles. In this work, we report microfluidic synthesis of novel polymeric microparticles endowed with specific peptide due to its superior specificity for target binding in complex media. A peptide sequence was efficiently encapsulated into the polymeric network and protein binding occurred with high affinity (KD 0.1-0.4μM). Fluidic dynamics simulation was performed to optimize the production conditions for monodisperse and stable functionalized microgels. The results demonstrate the easy and fast realization, in a single step, of functionalized monodisperse microgels using droplet-microfluidic technique, and how the inclusion of the peptide within polymeric network improve both the affinity and the specificity of protein capture.

  20. Cell-derived microparticles and the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Nieri


    Full Text Available Cell-derived microparticles are small (0.1–1 μm vesicles shed by most eukaryotic cells upon activation or during apoptosis. Microparticles carry on their surface, and enclose within their cytoplasm, molecules derived from the parental cell, including proteins, DNA, RNA, microRNA and phospholipids. Microparticles are now considered functional units that represent a disseminated storage pool of bioactive effectors and participate both in the maintenance of homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of diseases. The mechanisms involved in microparticle generation include intracellular calcium mobilisation, cytoskeleton rearrangement, kinase phosphorylation and activation of the nuclear factor-κB. The role of microparticles in blood coagulation and inflammation, including airway inflammation, is well established in in vitro and animal models. The role of microparticles in human pulmonary diseases, both as pathogenic determinants and biomarkers, is being actively investigated. Microparticles of endothelial origin, suggestive of apoptosis, have been demonstrated in the peripheral blood of patients with emphysema, lending support to the hypothesis that endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease and represent a link with cardiovascular comorbidities. Microparticles also have potential roles in patients with asthma, diffuse parenchymal lung disease, thromboembolism, lung cancer and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  1. Interaction Force Estimation During Manipulation of Microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Metz, R.M.P.; Abelmann, L.; Misra, S.


    This work investigates the utilization of microparticles for the wireless sensing of interaction forces in magneticbased manipulation systems. The proposed force estimation approach allows for using microparticles in sensing the interaction forces at hard-to-reach regions to avoid the mechanical and

  2. Interaction Force Estimation During Manipulation of Microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Metz, R.M.P.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak


    This work investigates the utilization of microparticles for the wireless sensing of interaction forces in magneticbased manipulation systems. The proposed force estimation approach allows for using microparticles in sensing the interaction forces at hard-to-reach regions to avoid the mechanical and

  3. Lyophilised Vegetal BM 297 ATO-Inulin lipid-based synbiotic microparticles containing Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197: design and characterisation. (United States)

    Amakiri, A C; Kalombo, L; Thantsha, M S


    This study aimed at the manufacturing and characterisation of Vegetal BM 297 ATO-inulin-Bifidobacterium longum LMG 13197 microparticles prepared by freeze drying. Emulsions containing 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 3.5% or 5% w/v inulin were prepared, with or without centrifugation before freeze drying. Morphological properties, particle size distribution, encapsulation efficiency of the microparticles and their ability to preserve viability of the enclosed B. longum LMG 13197 cells were evaluated. The microparticles produced from both formulations without a centrifugation step were irregular, porous with concavities and contained high number of bacterial cells. Formulations with or without inulin had average particle sizes of 33.4-81.0 μm with encapsulation efficiencies of 82% and 88%, respectively. Vegetal-inulin microparticles have the morphology and size that will enable their even distribution in final food products, and hence, they have the potential for use as a functional food additive because they are likely to deliver sufficient numbers of viable bacteria.

  4. Soybean protein-based microparticles for oral delivery of probiotics with improved stability during storage and gut resistance. (United States)

    González-Ferrero, C; Irache, J M; González-Navarro, C J


    The present work describes the encapsulation of probiotics using a by-product as wall material and a process feasible to be scaled-up: coacervation of soybean protein concentrate (SPC) by using calcium salts and spray-drying. SPC was extracted from soybean flour, produced during the processing of soybean milk, by alkaline extraction following isoelectric precipitation. Two probiotic strains were selected for encapsulation (Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 220 and Lactobacillus casei CECT 475) in order to evaluate the ability of SPC to encapsulate and protect bacteria from stress conditions. The viability of these encapsulated strains under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions and shelf-life during storage were compared with the most common forms commercialized nowadays. Results show that SPC is a feasible material for the development of probiotic microparticles with adequate physicochemical properties and enhanced significantly both probiotic viability and tolerance against simulated gastrointestinal fluids when compared to current available commercial forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Laser irradiated fluorescent perfluorocarbon microparticles in 2-D and 3-D breast cancer cell models (United States)

    Niu, Chengcheng; Wang, Long; Wang, Zhigang; Xu, Yan; Hu, Yihe; Peng, Qinghai


    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets were studied as new generation ultrasound contrast agents via acoustic or optical droplet vaporization (ADV or ODV). Little is known about the ODV irradiated vaporization mechanisms of PFC-microparticle complexs and the stability of the new bubbles produced. In this study, fluorescent perfluorohexane (PFH) poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles were used as a model to study the process of particle vaporization and bubble stability following excitation in two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) cell models. We observed localization of the fluorescent agent on the microparticle coating material initially and after vaporization under fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, the stability and growth dynamics of the newly created bubbles were observed for 11 min following vaporization. The particles were co-cultured with 2-D cells to form 3-D spheroids and could be vaporized even when encapsulated within the spheroids via laser irradiation, which provides an effective basis for further work.

  6. Poly(N-vinylcaprolactam-co-methacrylic acid) hydrogel microparticles for oral insulin delivery. (United States)

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C; Rangaswamy, Vidhya; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M


    pH-sensitive copolymeric hydrogels prepared from N-vinylcaprolactam and methacrylic acid monomers by free radical polymerization offered 52% encapsulation efficiency and evaluated for oral delivery of human insulin. The in vitro experiments performed on insulin-loaded microparticles in pH 1.2 media (stomach condition) demonstrated no release of insulin in the first 2 h, but almost 100% insulin was released in pH 7.4 media (intestinal condition) in 6 h. The carrier was characterized by Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to confirm the formation of copolymer, while scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the morphology of hydrogel microparticles. The in vivo experiments on alloxan-induced diabetic rats showed the biological inhibition up to 50% and glucose tolerance tests exhibited 44% inhibition. The formulations of this study are the promising carriers for oral delivery of insulin.

  7. Iontophoresis of minoxidil sulphate loaded microparticles, a strategy for follicular drug targeting? (United States)

    Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Barros, M Angélica de Oliveira; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H; Lopez, Renata F V


    The feasibility of targeting drugs to hair follicles by a combination of microencapsulation and iontophoresis has been evaluated. Minoxidil sulphate (MXS), which is used in the treatment of alopecia, was selected as a relevant drug with respect to follicular penetration. The skin permeation and disposition of MXS encapsulated in chitosan microparticles (MXS-MP) was evaluated in vitro after passive and iontophoretic delivery. Uptake of MXS was quantified at different exposure times in the stratum corneum (SC) and hair follicles. Microencapsulation resulted in increased (6-fold) drug accumulation in the hair follicles relative to delivery from a simple MXS solution. Application of iontophoresis enhanced follicular delivery for both the solution and the microparticle formulations. It appears, therefore, that microencapsulation and iontophoresis can act synergistically to enhance topical drug targeting to hair follicles.

  8. Influence of the degree of inulin polymerization on the ultrasound-assisted encapsulation of annatto seed oil. (United States)

    Silva, Eric Keven; Meireles, M Angela A


    The effect of the degree of polymerization (DP) of inulin was evaluated on its encapsulant characteristics. We assessed the influence of the average inulin DP (DP ≥10 and DP ≥23) in the ultrasound-assisted encapsulation of annatto seed oil using the freeze-drying technique for particle formation. The intensification of the homogenization process with ultrasound did not improve the characteristics of the emulsions due to the physicochemical limitations of the inulin molecular chain (molecules do not exhibit surface activity). The particle morphology, oil entrapment efficiency, encapsulation efficiency, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and Rancimat analyses proved the effectiveness of inulin as a wall material. The properties influenced by the DP were the surface oil, encapsulation efficiency, water activity, particle size and oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil because the highest DP promoted the formation of microparticles with lower surface oil content, greater encapsulation efficiency, low water activity, larger size and greater protection against oil oxidation.

  9. Orodispersible films and tablets with prednisolone microparticles. (United States)

    Brniak, Witold; Maślak, Ewelina; Jachowicz, Renata


    Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) and orodispersible films (ODFs) are solid oral dosage forms disintegrating or dissolving rapidly when placed in the mouth. One of the main issues related to their preparation is an efficient taste masking of a bitter drug substance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate the microparticles intended to mask a bitter taste of the prednisolone and use them in further preparation of two orodispersible dosage forms. Microparticles based on the Eudragit E PO or E 100 as a taste-masking agent were prepared with spray-drying technique. Tablets containing microparticles, co-processed ODT excipient Pharmaburst, and lubricant were directly compressed with single-punch tablet press. Orodispersible films were prepared by casting polymeric solutions of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose containing uniformly dispersed microparticles. Physicochemical properties of microparticles were evaluated, as well as mechanical properties analysis, disintegration time measurements and dissolution tests were performed for prepared dosage forms. Both formulations showed good mechanical resistance while maintaining excellent disintegration properties. The dissolution studies showed good masking properties of microparticles with Eudragit E 100. The amount of prednisolone released during the first minute in phosphate buffer 6.8 was around 0.1%. After incorporation into the orodispersible forms, the amount of released prednisolone increased significantly. It was probably the effect of faster microparticles wetting in orodispersible forms and their partial destruction by compression force during tableting process.

  10. Pleurocidin Peptide Enhances Grouper Anti-Vibrio harveyi Immunity Elicited by Poly(lactide-co-glycolide-Encapsulated Recombinant Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chun Chuang


    Full Text Available Outer membrane proteins, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, are considered immunodominant antigens for eliciting protective immunity against Vibrio harveyi, the main etiological agent of vibriosis in fish. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, such as pleurocidin (PLE, play important roles in activating and recruiting immune cells, thereby contributing to subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. In the present study, we aimed to use PLE peptide as a potent adjuvant to improve the immunogenicity of V. harveyi recombinant GAPDH (rGAPDH. In order to prepare a controlled-release vaccine, PLE peptide and rGAPDH protein were simultaneously encapsulated into polymeric microparticles made from the biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLG polymer. The resulting PLG-encapsulated PLE plus rGAPDH (PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles, 3.21–6.27 μm in diameter, showed 72%–83% entrapment efficiency and durably released both PLE and rGAPDH for a long 30-day period. Following peritoneal immunization in grouper (Epinephelus coioides, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.05, nested design long-lasting GAPDH-specific immunity (serum titers and lymphocyte proliferation than PLG-encapsulated rGAPDH (PLG-rGAPDH microparticles. After an experimental challenge of V. harveyi, PLG-PLE/rGAPDH microparticles conferred a high survival rate (85%, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05, chi-square test than that induced by PLG-rGAPDH microparticles (67%. In conclusion, PLE peptide exhibits an efficacious adjuvant effect to elicit not only improved immunity, but also enhanced protection against V. harveyi in grouper induced by rGAPDH protein encapsulated in PLG microparticles.

  11. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders


    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  12. Characterization Methods of Encapsulates (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibing; Law, Daniel; Lian, Guoping

    Food active ingredients can be encapsulated by different processes, including spray drying, spray cooling, spray chilling, spinning disc and centrifugal co-extrusion, extrusion, fluidized bed coating and coacervation (see Chap. 2 of this book). The purpose of encapsulation is often to stabilize an active ingredient, control its release rate and/or convert a liquid formulation into a solid which is easier to handle. A range of edible materials can be used as shell materials of encapsulates, including polysaccharides, fats, waxes and proteins (see Chap. 3 of this book). Encapsulates for typical industrial applications can vary from several microns to several millimetres in diameter although there is an increasing interest in preparing nano-encapsulates. Encapsulates are basically particles with a core-shell structure, but some of them can have a more complex structure, e.g. in a form of multiple cores embedded in a matrix. Particles have physical, mechanical and structural properties, including particle size, size distribution, morphology, surface charge, wall thickness, mechanical strength, glass transition temperature, degree of crystallinity, flowability and permeability. Information about the properties of encapsulates is very important to understanding their behaviours in different environments, including their manufacturing processes and end-user applications. E.g. encapsulates for most industrial applications should have desirable mechanical strength, which should be strong enough to withstand various mechanical forces generated in manufacturing processes, such as mixing, pumping, extrusion, etc., and may be required to be weak enough in order to release the encapsulated active ingredients by mechanical forces at their end-user applications, such as release rate of flavour by chewing. The mechanical strength of encapsulates and release rate of their food actives are related to their size, morphology, wall thickness, chemical composition, structure etc. Hence

  13. Microparticle-mediated gene delivery for the enhanced expression of a 19-kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 of Plasmodium falciparum. (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Danquah, Michael K; Forde, Gareth M; Ma, Charles; Wang, Lina; Coppel, Ross


    The 19 kDa carboxyl-terminal fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1(19)) is a major component of the invasion-inhibitory response in individual immunity to malaria. A novel ultrasonic atomization approach for the formulation of biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles of malaria DNA vaccines encoding MSP1(19) is presented here. After condensing the plasmid DNA (pDNA) molecules with a cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI), a 40 kHz ultrasonic atomization frequency was used to formulate PLGA microparticles at a flow rate of 18 mL h(-1). High levels of gene expression and moderate cytotoxicity in COS-7 cells were achieved with the condensed pDNA at a nitrogen to phosphate (N/P) ratio of 20, thus demonstrating enhanced cellular uptake and expression of the transgene. The ability of the microparticles to convey pDNA was examined by characterizing the formulated microparticles. The microparticles displayed Z-average hydrodynamic diameters of 1.50-2.10 microm and zeta potentials of 17.8-23.2 mV. The encapsulation efficiencies were between 78 and 83%, and 76 and 85% of the embedded malaria pDNA molecules were released under physiological conditions in vitro. These results indicate that PLGA-mediated microparticles can be employed as potential gene delivery systems to antigen-presenting cells in the prevention of malaria.

  14. Chelators influenced synthesis of chitosan–carboxymethyl cellulose microparticles for controlled drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony V. Samrot


    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, polyphenolic curcumin is entrapped within microcomposites made of biopolymers chitosan (CS and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC formulated by ionic gelation method. Here, different concentrations of two chelating agents, barium chloride and sodium tripolyphosphate, are used to make microcomposites. Thus, the synthesized microparticles were characterized by FTIR, and their surface morphology was studied by SEM. Drug encapsulation efficiency and the drug release kinetics of CS–CMC composites are also studied. The produced microcomposites were used to study antibacterial activity in vitro.

  15. A low-cost ultrasonic spray dryer to produce spherical microparticles from polymeric matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Paiva Luz


    Full Text Available The spray-drying technique has been widely used for drying heat-sensitive foods, pharmaceuticals, and other substances, because it leads to rapid solvent evaporation from droplets. This method involves the transformation of a feed from a fluid state into a dried particulate, by spraying the feed into a hot medium. Despite being most often considered a dehydration process, spray drying can also be used as an encapsulation method. Therefore, this work proposes the use of a simple and low-cost ultrasonic spray dryer system to produce spherical microparticles. This equipment was successfully applied to the preparation of dextrin microspheres on a laboratory scale and for academic purposes.

  16. Development of biodegradable methylprednisolone microparticles for treatment of articular pathology using a spray-drying technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobar-Grande B


    Full Text Available Blanca Tobar-Grande,1 Ricardo Godoy,1 Paulina Bustos,2 Carlos von Plessing,1 Elias Fattal,3,4 Nicolas Tsapis,3,4 Claudia Olave,1 Carolina Gómez-Gaete11Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; 2Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; 3Univ Paris-Sud, Institut Galien Paris-Sud, Faculté de Pharmacie, Châtenay-Malabry, France; 4CNRS, UMR 8612, Faculté de Pharmacie, Châtenay-Malabry, FranceAbstract: In this work, microparticles were prepared by spray-drying using albumin, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid as excipients to create a controlled-release methylprednisolone system for use in inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that these microparticles were almost spherical, with development of surface wrinkling as the methylprednisolone load in the formulation was increased. The methylprednisolone load also had a direct influence on the mean diameter and zeta potential of the microparticles. Interactions between formulation excipients and the active drug were evaluated by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis, showing limited amounts of methylprednisolone in a crystalline state in the loaded microparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of methylprednisolone was approximately 89% in all formulations. The rate of methylprednisolone release from the microparticles depended on the initial drug load in the formulation. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation using THP-1 cells showed that none of the formulations prepared triggered an inflammatory response on release of interleukin-1ß, nor did they affect cellular viability, except for the 9.1% methylprednisolone formulation, which was the maximum test concentration used. The microparticles developed in this study have characteristics amenable to a therapeutic role in

  17. Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings (United States)

    Pearman, Benjamin Pieter; Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Zhang, Xuejun; Surma, Jan; Fitzpatrick, Lilly; Montgomery, Eliza; Calle, Luz Marina


    Research efforts are under way to replace current corrosion inhibitors with more environmentally friendly alternatives. However, problems with corrosion inhibition efficiency, coating compatibility and solubility have hindered the use of many of these materials as simple pigment additives.This paper will present technical details on how the Corrosion Technology Lab at NASAs Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has addressed these issues by encapsulating environmentally friendly inhibitors into organic and inorganic microparticles and microcapsules. The synthetic process for polymer particles was characterized and post-synthesis analysis was performed to determine the interactions between the inhibitors and the encapsulation material. The pH-controlled release of inhibitors from various particle formulations in aqueous base was monitored and compared to both electrochemical and salt immersion accelerated corrosion experiment. Furthermore, synergistic corrosion inhibition effects observed during the corrosion testing of several inhibitor combinations will be presented.

  18. Nitric Oxide Scavenging by Red Cell Microparticles


    Liu, Chen; Zhao, Weixin; George J Christ; Gladwin, Mark T.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.


    Red cell microparticles form during the storage of red blood cells and in diseases associated with red cell breakdown and asplenia, including hemolytic anemias such as sickle cell disease. These small phospholipid vesicles that are derived from red blood cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of transfusion of aged stored blood and hemolytic diseases, via activation of the hemostatic system and effects on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Red cell microparticles react with the import...

  19. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus


    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens...... for encapsulating isoeugenol in polycaprolactone (1100 ± 406) compared with a formulation in acetone:olive oil (4491 ± 819) and in liposomes (3668 ± 950). Further, the size of DNCB-loaded liposomes did not affect the sensitizing properties. These results suggest that modern dermal drug-delivery systems may in some...

  20. Microparticles and type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Leroyer, A S; Tedgui, A; Boulanger, C M


    Cell activation or apoptosis leads to plasma membrane blebbing and microparticles (MPs) release in the extracellular space. MPs are submicron membrane vesicles, which harbour a panel of oxidized phospholipids and proteins specific to the cells they derived from. MPs are found in the circulating blood of healthy volunteers. MPs levels are increased in many diseases, including cardiovascular diseases with high thrombotic risk. Exposure of negatively charged phospholipids and tissue factor confers a procoagulant potential to MPs. Elevation of plasma MPs levels, particularly those of endothelial origin, reflects cellular injury and appears now as a surrogate marker of vascular dysfunction. Recent studies demonstrate an elevation of circulating levels of MPs in diabetes. MPs could also be involved in the development of vascular complications in diabetes for they stimulate pro-inflammatory responses in target cells and promote thrombosis, endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis. Thus, these studies provide new insight in the pathogenesis and treatment of vascular complications of diabetes.

  1. Dry powder inhalation of macromolecules using novel PEG-co-polyester microparticle carriers. (United States)

    Tawfeek, Hesham M; Evans, Andrew R; Iftikhar, Abid; Mohammed, Afzal R; Shabir, Anjum; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Hutcheon, Gillian A; Saleem, Imran Y


    This study investigated optimizing the formulation parameters for encapsulation of a model mucinolytic enzyme, α-chymotrypsin (α-CH), within a novel polymer; poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(glycerol adipate-co-ω-pentadecalactone), PEG-co-(PGA-co-PDL) which were then applied to the formulation of DNase I. α-CH or DNase I loaded microparticles were prepared via spray drying from double emulsion (w(1)/o/w(2)) utilizing chloroform (CHF) as the organic solvent, L-leucine as a dispersibility enhancer and an internal aqueous phase (w(1)) containing PEG4500 or Pluronic(®) F-68 (PLF68). α-CH released from microparticles was investigated for bioactivity using the azocasein assay and the mucinolytic activity was assessed utilizing the degradation of mucin suspension assay. The chemical structure of PEG-co-(PGA-co-PDL) was characterized by (1)H NMR and FT-IR with both analyses confirming PEG incorporated into the polymer backbone, and any unreacted units removed. Optimum formulation α-CH-CHF/PLF68, 1% produced the highest bioactivity, enzyme encapsulation (20.08±3.91%), loading (22.31±4.34 μg/mg), FPF (fine particle fraction) (37.63±0.97%); FPD (fine particle dose) (179.88±9.43 μg), MMAD (mass median aerodynamic diameter) (2.95±1.61 μm), and the mucinolytic activity was equal to the native non-encapsulated enzyme up to 5h. DNase I-CHF/PLF68, 1% resulted in enzyme encapsulation (17.44±3.11%), loading (19.31±3.27 μg/mg) and activity (81.9±2.7%). The results indicate PEG-co-(PGA-co-PDL) can be considered as a potential biodegradable polymer carrier for dry powder inhalation of macromolecules for treatment of local pulmonary diseases.

  2. Formulation optimization and characterization of spray dried microparticles for inhalation delivery of doxycycline hyclate. (United States)

    Mishra, Madhusmita; Mishra, Brahmeshwar


    The local delivery of antibiotics in the treatment of infectious respiratory diseases is an attractive alternative to deliver high concentration of antimicrobials directly to the lungs and minimize systemic side effects. In this study, inhalable microparticles containing doxycycline hyclate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, leucine and lactose were prepared by spray drying of aqueous ethanol formulations. Box-Behnken design was used to study the influence of various independent variables such as polymer concentration, leucine concentration, ethanol concentration and inlet temperature of the spray dryer on microparticle characteristics. The microparticles were characterized in terms of particle morphology, drug excipient interaction, yield, entrapment efficiency, Carr's index, moisture content, thermal properties, X-ray powder diffraction, aerosolization performance and in vitro drug release. The effect of independent variables on spray dryer outlet temperature was also studied. The overall shape of the particles was found to be spherical like doughnuts in the size range of 1.16-5.2 µm. The optimized formulation (sodium carboxymethylcellulose concentration 14% w/v, leucine concentration 33% w/v, ethanol concentration 36% v/v, inlet temperature of 140°C) exhibited the following properties: yield 56.69%, moisture content 3.86%, encapsulation efficiency 61.74%, theoretical aerodynamic diameter 3.11 µm and Carr's index 23.5% at an outlet temperature 77°C. The powders generated were of a suitable mass median aerodynamic diameter (4.89 µm) with 49.3% fine particle fraction and exhibited a sustained drug release profile in vitro.

  3. Encapsulation with structured triglycerides (United States)

    Lipids provide excellent materials to encapsulate bioactive compounds for food and pharmaceutical applications. Lipids are renewable, biodegradable, and easily modified to provide additional chemical functionality. The use of structured lipids that have been modified with photoactive properties are ...

  4. Cellular origin of platelet-derived microparticles in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Rank; R. Nieuwland; R. Delker; A. Köhler; B. Toth; V. Pihusch; R. Wilkowski; R. Pihusch


    Introduction: Microparticles (MP), presumably of platelet origin, are the most abundant microparticles in blood. To which extent such MP may also directly originate from megakaryocytes, however, is unknown. During hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, patients undergo total body irradiation which

  5. Colonic delivery of indometacin loaded PGA-co-PDL microparticles coated with Eudragit L100-55 from fast disintegrating tablets. (United States)

    Tawfeek, Hesham M; Abdellatif, Ahmed A H; Dennison, Thomas J; Mohammed, Afzal R; Sadiq, Younis; Saleem, Imran Y


    The aim of this work was to investigate the efficient targeting and delivery of indometacin (IND), as a model anti-inflammatory drug to the colon for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. We prepared fast disintegrating tablets (FDT) containing IND encapsulated within poly(glycerol-adipate-co-ɷ-pentadecalactone), PGA-co-PDL, microparticles and coated with Eudragit L100-55 at different ratios (1:1.5, 1:1, 1:0.5). Microparticles encapsulated with IND were prepared using an o/w single emulsion solvent evaporation technique and coated with Eudragit L-100-55 via spray drying. The produced coated microparticles (PGA-co-PDL-IND/Eudragit) were formulated into optimised FTD using a single station press. The loading, in vitro release, permeability and transport of IND from PGA-co-PDL-IND/Eudragit microparticles was studied in Caco-2 cell lines. IND was efficiently encapsulated (570.15±4.2μg/mg) within the PGA-co-PDL microparticles. In vitro release of PGA-co-PDL-IND/Eudragit microparticles (1:1.5) showed significantly (p<0.05, ANOVA/Tukey) lower release of IND 13.70±1.6 and 56.46±3.8% compared with 1:1 (89.61±2.5, 80.13±2.6%) and 1:0.5 (39.46±0.9 & 43.38±3.12) after 3 and 43h at pH 5.5 and 6.8, respectively. The permeability and transport studies indicated IND released from PGA-co-PDL-IND/Eudragit microparticles had a lower permeability coefficient of 13.95±0.68×10(-6)cm/s compared to free IND 23.06±3.56×10(-6)cm/s. These results indicate the possibility of targeting anti-inflammatory drugs to the colon using FDTs containing microparticles coated with Eudragit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. From optimization of synbiotic microparticles prepared by spray-drying to development of new functional carrot juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petreska-Ivanovska Tanja


    Full Text Available Lactobacillus casei loaded chitosan-Ca-alginate microparticles enriched with the prebiotic fructooligosaccharide were prepared using spray-drying method associated with the polymers complexation and cross-linking with calcium. The concentrations of the formulation factors of alginate, chitosan and CaCl2 were optimized using 23 full factorial design. Experiments showed that microparticles with favorable physicochemical properties and high probiotic viability during preparation and storage could be obtained when 40 mg/g sodium alginate, 5 mg/g chitosan and 50 mg/g CaCl2 is used. Stability of L. casei during microencapsulation was identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The viability of the probiotic in the optimal formulation of synbiotic microparticles remained above the therapeutic minimum during incubation of 24 hours in simulated gastrointestinal conditions (7.67±0.4 log cfu/g as well as after 3 months of cold storage (8.1±0.6 log cfu/g. High viability of L. casei was maintained during 6 weeks of cold storage when carrot juice was enriched with encapsulated cells. The effective preservation of L. casei into synbiotic microparticles provided production of new non-dairy functional food as an alternative of the population who is at risk of lactose intolerance.

  7. Magnetic self-assembly of microparticle clusters in an aqueous two-phase microfluidic cross-flow (United States)

    Abbasi, Niki; Jones, Steven G.; Moon, Byeong-Ui; Tsai, Scott S. H.


    We present a technique that self-assembles paramagnetic microparticles on the interface of aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) fluids in a microfluidic cross-flow. A co-flow of the ATPS is formed in the microfluidic cross channel as the flows of a dilute dextran (DEX) phase, along with a flow-focused particle suspension, converges with a dilute polyethylene glycol (PEG) phase. The microparticles arrive at the liquid-liquid interface and self-assemble into particle clusters due to forces on the particles from an applied external magnetic field gradient, and the interfacial tension of the ATPS. The microparticles form clusters at the interface, and once the cluster size grows to a critical value, the cluster passes through the interface. We control the size of the self-assembled clusters, as they pass through the interface, by varying the strength of the applied magnetic field gradient and the ATPS interfacial tension. We observe rich assembly dynamics, from the formation of Pickering emulsions to clusters that are completely encapsulated inside DEX phase droplets. We anticipate that this microparticle self-assembly method may have important biotechnological applications that require the controlled assembly of cells into clusters.

  8. TGF-beta1 release from biodegradable polymer microparticles: its effects on marrow stromal osteoblast function (United States)

    Lu, L.; Yaszemski, M. J.; Mikos, A. G.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)


    BACKGROUND: Controlled release of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) to a bone defect may be beneficial for the induction of a bone regeneration cascade. The objectives of this work were to assess the feasibility of using biodegradable polymer microparticles as carriers for controlled TGF-beta1 delivery and the effects of released TGF-beta1 on the proliferation and differentiation of marrow stromal cells in vitro. METHODS: Recombinant human TGF-beta1 was incorporated into microparticles of blends of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Fluorescein isothiocynate-labeled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) was co-encapsulated as a porogen. The effects of PEG content (0, 1, or 5% by weight [wt%]) and buffer pH (3, 5, or 7.4) on the protein release kinetics and the degradation of PLGA were determined in vitro for as long as 28 days. Rat marrow stromal cells were seeded on a biodegradable poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) substrate. The dose response and biological activity of released TGF-beta1 was determined after 3 days in culture. The effects of TGF-beta1 released from PLGA/PEG microparticles on marrow stromal cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation were assessed during a 21-day period. RESULTS: TGF-beta1 was encapsulated along with FITC-BSA into PLGA/PEG blend microparticles and released in a multiphasic fashion including an initial burst for as long as 28 days in vitro. Increasing the initial PEG content resulted in a decreased cumulative mass of released proteins. Aggregation of FITC-BSA occurred at lower buffer pH, which led to decreased release rates of both proteins. The degradation of PLGA was increased at higher PEG content and significantly accelerated at acidic pH conditions. Rat marrow stromal cells cultured on PPF substrates showed a dose response to TGF-beta1 released from the microparticles similar to that of added TGF-beta1, indicating that the activity of TGF-beta1 was retained during microparticle

  9. Nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs using a novel spray-drying process. (United States)

    Schafroth, Nina; Arpagaus, Cordin; Jadhav, Umesh Y; Makne, Sushil; Douroumis, Dennis


    In the current study nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs was conducted using a novel piezoelectric spray-drying approach. Cyclosporin A (CyA) and dexamethasone (DEX) were encapsulated in biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) grades of different molecular weights. Spray-drying studies carried out with the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 employed with piezoelectric driven actuator. The processing parameters including inlet temperature, spray mesh diameter, sample flow rate, spray rate, applied pressure and sample concentration were examined in order to optimize the particle size and the obtained yield. The process parameters and the solute concentration showed a profound effect on the particle engineering and the obtained product yield. The produced powder presented consistent and reproducible spherical particles with narrow particle size distribution. Cyclosporin was found to be molecularly dispersed while dexamethasone was in crystalline state within the PLGA nanoparticles. Further evaluation revealed excellent drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and production yield. In vitro studies demonstrated sustained release patterns for the active substances. This novel spray-drying process proved to be efficient for nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble active substances.

  10. Preclinical Development and In Vivo Efficacy of Ceftiofur-PLGA Microparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Vilos

    Full Text Available Drug delivery systems based on polymeric microparticles represent an interesting field of development for the treatment of several infectious diseases for humans and animals. In this work, we developed PLGA microparticles loaded with ceftiofur (PLGA-cef, a third- generation cephalosporin that is used exclusively used in animals. PLGA-cef was prepared by the double emulsion w/o/w method, and exhibited a diameter in the range of 1.5-2.2 μm, and a negative ζ potential in the range of -35 to -55 mV. The loading yield of PLGA-cef was ~7% and encapsulation efficiency was approximately 40%. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated a sustained release profile of ceftiofur for 20 days. PLGA-cef administrated in a single dose was more effective than ceftiofur non-encapsulated in rats challenged with S. Typhimurium. The in vivo toxicological evaluation showed that PLGA-cef did not affect the blood biochemical, hematological and hemostasis parameters. Overall, the PLGA-cef showed slow in vivo release profile, high antibacterial efficacy, and low toxicity. The results obtained supports the safe application of PLGA-cef as sustained release platform in the veterinary industry.

  11. Influence of microparticle size on cavitation noise during ultrasonic vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ge


    Full Text Available The cavitation noise in the ultrasonic vibration system was found to be influenced by the size of microparticles added in water. The SiO2 microparticles with the diameter smaller than 100 μm reduced the cavitation noise, and the reason was attributed to the constrained oscillation of the cavitation bubbles, which were stabilized by the microparticles.

  12. Microparticle Assembly Pathways on Lipid Membranes (United States)

    van der Wel, Casper; Heinrich, Doris; Kraft, Daniela J.


    Understanding interactions between microparticles and lipid membranes is of increasing importance, especially for unraveling the influence of microplastics on our health and environment. Here, we study how a short-ranged adhesive force between microparticles and model lipid membranes causes membrane-mediated particle assembly. Using confocal microscopy, we observe the initial particle attachment to the membrane, then particle wrapping, and in rare cases spontaneous membrane tubulation. In the attached state, we measure that the particle mobility decreases by 26%. If multiple particles adhere to the same vesicle, their initial single-particle state determines their interactions and subsequent assembly pathways: 1) attached particles only aggregate when small adhesive vesicles are present in solution, 2) wrapped particles reversibly attract one another by membrane deformation, and 3) a combination of wrapped and attached particles form membrane-mediated dimers, which further assemble into a variety of complex structures. The experimental observation of distinct assembly pathways induced only by a short ranged membrane-particle adhesion, shows that a cellular cytoskeleton or other active components are not required for microparticle aggregation. We suggest that this membrane-mediated microparticle aggregation is a reason behind reported long retention times of polymer microparticles in organisms.

  13. Inhalable DNase I microparticles engineered with biologically active excipients. (United States)

    Osman, Rihab; Al Jamal, Khuloud T; Kan, Pei-Lee; Awad, Gehanne; Mortada, Nahed; El-Shamy, Abd-Elhameed; Alpar, Oya


    Highly viscous mucus poses a big challenge for the delivery of particulates carrying therapeutics to patients with cystic fibrosis. In this study, surface modifying DNase I loaded particles using different excipients to achieve better lung deposition, higher enzyme stability or better biological activity had been exploited. For the purpose, controlled release microparticles (MP) were prepared by co-spray drying DNase I with the polymer poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and the biocompatible lipid surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-Sn-phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) using various hydrophilic excipients. The effect of the included modifiers on the particle morphology, size, zeta potential as well as enzyme encapsulation efficiency, biological activity and release had been evaluated. Powder aerosolisation performance and particle phagocytosis by murine macrophages were also investigated. The results showed that more than 80% of enzyme activity was recovered after MP preparation and that selected surface modifiers greatly increased the enzyme encapsulation efficiency. The particle morphology was greatly modified altering in turn the powders inhalation indices where dextran, ovalbumin and chitosan hydrochloride increased considerably the respirable fraction compared to the normal hydrophilic carriers lactose and PVP. Despite of the improved aerosolisation caused by chitosan hydrochloride, yet retardation of chitosan coated particles in artificial mucus samples discouraged its application. On the other hand, dextran and polyanions enhanced DNase I effect in reducing cystic fibrosis mucus viscosity. DPPC proved good ability to reduce particles phagocytic uptake even in the presence of the selected adjuvants. The prepared MP systems were biocompatible with lung epithelial cells. To conclude, controlled release DNase I loaded PLGA-MP with high inhalation indices and enhanced mucolytic activity on CF sputum could be obtained by surface modifying the particles with PGA or dextran.

  14. Agglomeration of microparticles in complex plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Cheng-Ran; Ivlev, Alexei; Konopka, Uwe; Morfill, Gregor


    Agglomeration of highly charged microparticles was observed and studied in complex plasma experiments carried out in a capacitively coupled rf discharge. The agglomeration was caused by strong dust density waves triggered in a particle cloud by decreasing neutral gas pressure. Using a high-speed camera during this unstable regime, it was possible to resolve the motion of individual microparticles and to show that the relative velocities of some particles were sufficiently high to overcome the mutual Coulomb repulsion and hence to result in agglomeration. After stabilising the cloud again through the increase of the pressure, we were able to observe the aggregates directly with a long-distance microscope. We show that the agglomeration rate deduced from our experiments is in good agreement with theoretical estimates. In addition, we briefly discuss the mechanisms that can provide binding of highly charged microparticles in a plasma.

  15. Process and formulation variables in the preparation of wax microparticles by a melt dispersion technique. I. Oil-in-water technique for water-insoluble drugs. (United States)

    Bodmeier, R; Wang, J; Bhagwatwar, H


    Ibuprofen-wax (carnauba, paraffin, beeswax, and the semisynthetic glyceryl esters--Gelucire 64/02 and Precirol ATO5) microparticles were prepared without organic solvents as an alternative to polymeric microparticles. In the melt dispersion technique, the drug-wax melt was emulsified into a heated aqueous phase followed by cooling to form the microparticles. The microparticles were characterized with respect to their drug loading, and morphological and release properties. They were spherical and non-agglomerated and drug loading close to 60 per cent were achieved. The more hydrophilic waxes (Gelucire 64/02 or Precirol ATO5) could be prepared without the use of surfactants. With the other waxes, increasing amounts of sodium lauryl sulphate in the external aqueous phase decreased the drug loading because of drug solubilization when compared to the polymeric stabilizer, poly(vinyl alcohol). The type of wax, the rate of cooling, and the temperature of the aqueous phase had no significant effect on the drug loading because of the low solubility of the drug in the external aqueous phase. The drug release was controlled by the hydrophobicity of the wax. Besides ibuprofen, other water-soluble drugs (ketoprofen, indomethacin, hydrocortisone) were also encapsulated by this method. The wax microparticles could be formulated into an aqueous sustained-release oral suspension dosage form.

  16. Silica Micro Encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, P.; Whitbread-Jordan, M. [KEECO (United Kingdom)


    The article explains how Silica Micro Encapsulation (SME) water treatment technology may be transferred from metal mining to coal mining operations. KEECO has been developing a unique solution for treating acid rock drainage in the metal sulphide mining sector and following trials in metal mining operations (described in the article), is preparing to transfer the technology to the coal industry. SME technology comprises metal precipitation and encapsulation accomplished with proprietary chemical, KB-1, and a group of patented chemical dosing systems, the K-series, to dose KB-1 into contaminated liquid wastes as a dry powder. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Ordering of solid microparticles at liquid crystal-water interfaces. (United States)

    Lin, I-Hsin; Koenig, Gary M; de Pablo, Juan J; Abbott, Nicholas L


    We report a study of the organization of solid microparticles at oil-water interfaces, where the oil is a thermotropic liquid crystal (LC). The study was motivated by the proposition that microparticle organization and LC ordering would be coupled at these interfaces. Surfactant-functionalized polystyrene microparticles were spread at air-water interfaces at prescribed densities and then raised into contact with supported films of nematic 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). Whereas this method of sample preparation led to quantitative transfer of microparticles from the air-water interface to an isotropic oil-water interface, forces mediated by the nematic order of 5CB were observed to rapidly displace microparticles laterally across the interface of the water upon contact with nematic 5CB, thus leading to a 65% decrease in the density of microparticles at the LC-water interface. These lateral forces were determined to be caused by microparticle-induced deformation of the LC, the energy of which was estimated to be approximately 10(4) kT. We also observed microparticles transferred to the LC-water interface to assemble into chainlike structures that were not seen when using isotropic oils, indicating the presence of LC-mediated interparticle interactions at this interface. Optical textures of the LC in the vicinity of the microparticles were consistent with formation of topological defects with dipolar symmetry capable of promoting the chaining of the microparticles. The presence of microparticles at the interface also impacted the ordering of the LCs, including a transition from parallel to perpendicular ordering of the LC with increasing microparticle density. These observations, when combined, demonstrate that LC-mediated interactions can direct the assembly of solid microparticles at LC-water interfaces and that the ordering of the LC is also strongly coupled to the presence of microparticles.

  18. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 by spray-drying using sweet whey and skim milk as encapsulating materials. (United States)

    Maciel, G M; Chaves, K S; Grosso, C R F; Gigante, M L


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulating material on encapsulation yield, resistance to passage through simulated gastrointestinal conditions, and viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 during storage. Microparticles were produced from reconstituted sweet whey or skim milk (30% total solids) inoculated with a suspension of L. acidophilus La-5 (1% vol/vol) and subjected to spray-drying at inlet and outlet temperatures of 180°C and 85 to 95°C, respectively. The samples were packed, vacuum-sealed, and stored at 4°C and 25°C. Encapsulation yield, moisture content, and resistance of microencapsulated L. acidophilus La-5 compared with free cells (control) during exposure to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions (pH 2.0 and 7.0) were evaluated. Viability was assessed after 0, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 90d of storage. The experiments were repeated 3 times and data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test for the comparison between means. The encapsulating material did not significantly affect encapsulation yield, average diameter, or moisture of the particles, which averaged 76.58±4.72%, 12.94±0.78μm, and 4.53±0.32%, respectively. Both microparticle types were effective in protecting the probiotic during gastrointestinal simulation, and the skim milk microparticles favored an increase in viability of L. acidophilus La-5. Regardless of the encapsulating material and temperature of storage, viability of the microencapsulated L. acidophilus La-5 decreased on average 0.43 log cfu/g at the end of 90d of storage, remaining higher than 10(6)cfu/g. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Encapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil used as a natural preservative in bakery product. (United States)

    Gonçalves, Nathalia Dias; Pena, Fabíola de Lima; Sartoratto, Adilson; Derlamelina, Camila; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Antunes, Adriane Elisabete Costa; Prata, Ana Silvia


    The objective of this work was to design a particle using thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil through complex coacervation. In vitro activity against bacteria and molds of free oil as well as the encapsulated oil was verified and then in situ assay was done. The free thyme oil presented high in vitro activity, with values below 0.50mg/mL for almost all the microorganisms tested. Also, MIC values for the encapsulated oil was lower than for the free oil, probably due to the protective micro-environment promoted by the particle wall. The microparticles applied to cakes samples conferred protection against the volatilization of the encapsulated oil and promoted a minimum shelf life of 30days without the use of synthetic preservatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrophobicity of silver surfaces with microparticle geometry (United States)

    Macko, Ján; Oriňaková, Renáta; Oriňak, Andrej; Kovaľ, Karol; Kupková, Miriam; Erdélyi, Branislav; Kostecká, Zuzana; Smith, Roger M.


    The effect of the duration of the current deposition cycle and the number of current pulses on the geometry of silver microstructured surfaces and on the free surface energy, polarizability, hydrophobicity and thus adhesion force of the silver surfaces has been investigated. The changes in surface hydrophobicity were entirely dependent on the size and density of the microparticles on the surface. The results showed that formation of the silver microparticles was related to number of current pulses, while the duration of one current pulse played only a minor effect on the final surface microparticle geometry and thus on the surface tension and hydrophobicity. The conventional geometry of the silver particles has been transformed to the fractal dimension D. The surface hydrophobicity depended predominantly on the length of the dendrites not on their width. The highest silver surface hydrophobicity was observed on a surface prepared by 30 current pulses with a pulse duration of 1 s, the lowest one when deposition was performed by 10 current pulses with a duration of 0.1 s. The partial surface tension coefficients γDS and polarizability kS of the silver surfaces were calculated. Both parameters can be applied in future applications in living cells adhesion prediction and spectral method selection. Silver films with microparticle geometry showed a lower variability in final surface hydrophobicity when compared to nanostructured surfaces. The comparisons could be used to modify surfaces and to modulate human cells and bacterial adhesion on body implants, surgery instruments and clean surfaces.

  1. Release Properties and Electrochemical Characterization of Encapsulated Corrosion Inhibitors for Environmentally Friendly Smart Coatings (United States)

    Pearman, B. P.; Calle, L. M.; Zhang, X.; Li, W.; Buhrow, J. W.; Johnsey, M. N.; Montgomery, E. L.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Surma, J. M.


    The NASA Kennedy Space Center's Corrosion Technology Lab at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, U.S.A. has been developing multifunctional smart coatings based on the microencapsulation of environmentally friendly corrosion indicators, inhibitors and self-healing agents. This allows for the incorporation of autonomous corrosion control functionalities, such as corrosion detection and inhibition as well as the self-healing of mechanical damage, into coatings. This paper presents technical details on the characterization of inhibitor-containing particles and their corrosion inhibitive effects using electrochemical and mass loss methods. Three organic environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated in organic microparticles that are compatible with desired coatings. The total inhibitor content and the release of one of the inhibitors from the microparticles in basic solution was measured. Particles with inhibitor contents of up 60 wt% were synthesized. Fast release, for immediate corrosion protection, as well as long-term release for continued protection, was observed. The inhibition efficacy of the inhibitors, both as the pure materials and in microparticles, on carbon steel was evaluated. Polarization curves and mass loss measurements showed that, in the case of 2MBT, its corrosion inhibition effectiveness was greater when it was delivered from microparticles.

  2. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O


    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help f...... future surgeons to establish the diagnosis peroperatively....

  3. Supercritical CO2 interpolymer complex encapsulation improves heat stability of probiotic bifidobacteria. (United States)

    Thantsha, M S; Labuschagne, P W; Mamvura, C I


    The probiotic industry faces the challenge of retention of probiotic culture viability as numbers of these cells within their products inevitably decrease over time. In order to retain probiotic viability levels above the therapeutic minimum over the duration of the product's shelf life, various methods have been employed, among which encapsulation has received much interest. In line with exploitation of encapsulation for protection of probiotics against adverse conditions, we have previously encapsulated bifidobacteria in poly-(vinylpyrrolidone)-poly-(vinylacetate-co-crotonic acid) (PVP:PVAc-CA) interpolymer complex microparticles under supercritical conditions. The microparticles produced had suitable characteristics for food applications and also protected the bacteria in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The current study reports on accelerated shelf life studies of PVP:PVAc-CA encapsulated Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Bifidobacterium longum Bb46. Samples were stored as free powders in glass vials at 30 °C for 12 weeks and then analysed for viable counts and water activity levels weekly or fortnightly. Water activities of the samples were within the range of 0.25-0.43, with an average a(w) = 0.34, throughout the storage period. PVP:PVAc-CA interpolymer complex encapsulation retained viable levels above the recommended minimum for 10 and 12 weeks, for B. longum Bb46 and B. lactis Bb12, respectively, thereby extending their shelf lives under high storage temperature by between 4 and 7 weeks. These results reveal the possibility for manufacture of encapsulated probiotic powders with increased stability at ambient temperatures. This would potentially allow the supply of a stable probiotic formulation to impoverished communities without proper storage facilities recommended for most of the currently available commercial probiotic products.

  4. Preparation of hydrogel hollow particles for cell encapsulation by a method of polyester core degradation. (United States)

    Rabanel, J-M; Hildgen, P


    Implantation of encapsulated cells in particles of less than 1 mm (micro-encapsulation) has been proposed as a cell synthesized bio-molecule delivery system. Encapsulation provides immuno-isolation, protecting foreign cells from host immune system while nutrients, oxygen and therapeutic products can diffuse freely across capsule walls. A new method is described for the synthesis of a new family of hollow microparticles for cell encapsulation. Unlike other micro-encapsulation methods, encapsulation in those devices will take place after capsule synthesis, by micro-injection. The microcapsules were prepared by a three-steps original procedure: first, synthesis of a core particle, followed by coating with a layer of epichlorohydrin cross-linked amylo-pectin gel and, finally, selective degradation of the core particle to create the cavity. Initial experiments make use of amylo-pectin cross-linked with trimetaphosphate as core particle material. However, selective degradation was difficult to achieve. In further essays, polyesters were used successfully for the preparation of core particles. Optimizations were carried out and the permeability and morphology of the hollow particles were investigated. The preliminary results show that the new method has the potential to become a standard procedure to obtain hydrogel hollow particles. Moreover, the permeability study seems to be in accordance with specifications for immuno-isolation.

  5. Encapsulating contact allergens in liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone may affect their sensitizing properties. (United States)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner


    Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process and the development of micro- and nanovesicular systems as well as polymeric microparticles has led to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using these technologies. Encapsulation of some well-known contact allergens in ethanolic liposomes have been reported to enhance allergenicity compared with the allergens in similar vehicles without liposomes. The present report includes data on more sensitization studies using the mouse local lymph node assay with three contact allergens encapsulated in different dermal drug-delivery systems: liposomes, ethosomes, and polycaprolactone particles. The results show that the drug-delivery systems are not sensitizers in themselves. Encapsulating the hydrophilic contact allergen potassium dichromate in all three drug-delivery systems did not affect the sensitizing capacity of potassium dichromate compared with control solutions. However, encapsulating the lipophilic contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in polycaprolactone reduced the sensitizing capacity to 1211 ± 449 compared with liposomes (7602 ± 2658) and in acetone:olive oil (4:1) (5633 ± 666). The same trend was observed for encapsulating isoeugenol in polycaprolactone (1100 ± 406) compared with a formulation in acetone:olive oil (4491 ± 819) and in liposomes (3668 ± 950). Further, the size of DNCB-loaded liposomes did not affect the sensitizing properties. These results suggest that modern dermal drug-delivery systems may in some cases magnify or decrease the sensitizing capacity of the encapsulated contact allergen.

  6. Influences of process parameters on preparation of microparticle used as a carrier system for omega - 3 unsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters used in supplementary nutrition. (United States)

    Lamprecht, A; Schäfer, U; Lehr, C M


    Microparticles were prepared by complex coacervation to encapsulate eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (EPA-EE) for incorporation into foods as a nutrition supplement. Gelatin and acacia were used in the coacervation process. With an increasing oil/polymer ratio, both yield and encapsulation rate decreased; with an increasing homogenization time, the yield remained constant while the encapsulation rate slightly increased. Several particle hardening techniques were examined and their influence on particle structure, yield and encapsulation rate were examined. Ethanol hardening was compared to cross-linking with dehydroascrobic acid with respect to both yield and encapsulation rate. The particle diameters for both formulations were similar (ethanol: 38.4 +/- 4.1 microm; cross-linking: 41.8 +/- 3.0 microm). Spray-drying of the coacervates led to the smallest particles (5.2 +/- 1.1 microm), lowest yield and encapsulation rate. All microencapsulation products were assayed for their storage stability over 4 weeks with respect to the oxidation of the encapsulated omega - 3 unsaturated fatty acid ester inside the particles. Hardening with ethanol showed the lowest amount of peroxides: particle wall cross-linking by dehydroascorbic acid and spray-drying were observed to be less protective. All microparticles were characterized for their internal structure with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) after fluorescence labelling of the polymers, in order to localize the oil phase and visualize the distribution of the polymers in the coacervates. With increasing homogenization time, the internal structure changed stepwise from a capsule structure (core/wall) towards a matrix structure. For all experiments, a homogeneous distribution for both polymers, gelatin and acacia was observed inside the particle wall. No influence of the different particle hardening procedures on the polymer distribution was found.

  7. Coaxial Electrospray of Curcumin-Loaded Microparticles for Sustained Drug Release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yuan

    Full Text Available Curcumin exhibits superior anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and analgesic activities without significant side effects. However, clinical dissemination of this natural medicine is limited by its low solubility and poor bio-availability. To overcome this limitation, we propose to encapsulate curcumin in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA microparticles (MPs by an improved coaxial electrospray (CES process. This process is able to generate a stable cone-jet mode in a wide range of operation parameters in order to produce curcumin-loaded PLGA MPs with a clear core-shell structure and a designated size of several micrometers. In order to optimize the process outcome, the effects of primary operation parameters such as the applied electric voltages and the liquid flow rates are studied systemically. In vitro drug release experiments are also carried out for the CES-produced MPs in comparison with those by a single axial electrospray process. Our experimental results show that the CES process can be effectively controlled to encapsulate drugs of low aqueous solubility for high encapsulation efficiency and optimal drug release profiles.

  8. Polymeric nanoparticles and microparticles for the delivery of peptides, biologics, and soluble therapeutics. (United States)

    Pagels, Robert F; Prud'homme, Robert K


    Biologically derived therapeutics, or biologics, are the most rapidly growing segment of the pharmaceutical marketplace. However, there are still unmet needs in improving the delivery of biologics. Injectable polymeric nanoparticles and microparticles capable of releasing proteins and peptides over time periods as long as weeks or months have been a major focus in the effort to decrease the frequency of administration. These particle systems fit broadly into two categories: those composed of hydrophilic and those composed of hydrophobic polymeric scaffolds. Here we review the factors that contribute to the slow and controlled release from each class of particle, as well as the effects of synthesis parameters and product design on the loading, encapsulation efficiency, biologic integrity, and release profile. Generally, hydrophilic scaffolds are ideal for large proteins while hydrophobic scaffolds are more appropriate for smaller biologics without secondary structure. Here we also introduce a Flash NanoPrecipitation method that has been adopted for encapsulating biologics in nanoparticles (40-200nm) at high loadings (50-75wt.%) and high encapsulation efficiencies. The hydrophilic gel interior and hydrophobic shell provide an opportunity to combine the best of both classes of injectable polymeric depots.

  9. Aerogel Microparticles from Oil-in-Oil Emulsion Systems. (United States)

    Gu, Senlong; Zhai, Chunhao; Jana, Sadhan C


    This paper reports preparation of polymer aerogel microparticles via sol-gel reactions inside micrometer size droplets created in an oil-in-oil emulsion system. The oil-in-oil emulsion system is obtained by dispersing in cyclohexane the droplets of the sols of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) or polyimide (PI) prepared in dimethylformamide. The sol droplets transform into harder gel microparticles due to sol-gel reactions. Finally, the aerogel microparticles are recovered using supercritical drying of the gel microparticles. The PBZ and PI aerogel microparticles prepared in this manner show mean diameter 32.7 and 40.0 μm, respectively, mesoporous internal structures, and surface area 55.4 and 512.0 m(2)/g, respectively. Carbonization of PBZ aerogel microparticles maintains the mesoporous internal structures but yields narrower pore size distribution.

  10. Controlling chitosan-based encapsulation for protein and vaccine delivery (United States)

    Koppolu, Bhanu prasanth; Smith, Sean G.; Ravindranathan, Sruthi; Jayanthi, Srinivas; Kumar, Thallapuranam K.S.; Zaharoff, David A.


    Chitosan-based nano/microencapsulation is under increasing investigation for the delivery of drugs, biologics and vaccines. Despite widespread interest, the literature lacks a defined methodology to control chitosan particle size and drug/protein release kinetics. In this study, the effects of precipitation-coacervation formulation parameters on chitosan particle size, protein encapsulation efficiency and protein release were investigated. Chitosan particle sizes, which ranged from 300 nm to 3 μm, were influenced by chitosan concentration, chitosan molecular weight and addition rate of precipitant salt. The composition of precipitant salt played a significant role in particle formation with upper Hofmeister series salts containing strongly hydrated anions yielding particles with a low polydispersity index (PDI) while weaker anions resulted in aggregated particles with high PDIs. Sonication power had minimal effect on mean particle size, however, it significantly reduced polydispersity. Protein loading efficiencies in chitosan nano/microparticles, which ranged from 14.3% to 99.2%, was inversely related to the hydration strength of precipitant salts, protein molecular weight and directly related to the concentration and molecular weight of chitosan. Protein release rates increased with particle size and were generally inversely related to protein molecular weight. This study demonstrates that chitosan nano/microparticles with high protein loading efficiencies can be engineered with well-defined sizes and controllable release kinetics through manipulation of specific formulation parameters. PMID:24560459

  11. Herbal carrier-based floating microparticles of diltiazem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various physicochemical properties of the floating microspheres were characterized, including ... Keywords: Diltiazem, Cardiac disease, Psyllium husk, Sodium alginate, Microsphere, Microparticle,. Controlled ..... solvent removal methods.

  12. Therapeutic Strategies Based on Polymeric Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vilos


    Full Text Available The development of the field of materials science, the ability to perform multidisciplinary scientific work, and the need for novel administration technologies that maximize therapeutic effects and minimize adverse reactions to readily available drugs have led to the development of delivery systems based on microencapsulation, which has taken one step closer to the target of personalized medicine. Drug delivery systems based on polymeric microparticles are generating a strong impact on preclinical and clinical drug development and have reached a broad development in different fields supporting a critical role in the near future of medical practice. This paper presents the foundations of polymeric microparticles based on their formulation, mechanisms of drug release and some of their innovative therapeutic strategies to board multiple diseases.

  13. Adsorption of monoclonal antibodies to glass microparticles. (United States)

    Hoehne, Matthew; Samuel, Fauna; Dong, Aichun; Wurth, Christine; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Carpenter, John F; Randolph, Theodore W


    Microparticulate glass represents a potential contamination to protein formulations that may occur as a result of processing conditions or glass types. The effect of added microparticulate glass to formulations of three humanized antibodies was tested. Under the three formulation conditions tested, all three antibodies adsorbed irreversibly at near monolayer surface coverages to the glass microparticles. Analysis of the secondary structure of the adsorbed antibodies by infrared spectroscopy reveal only minor perturbations as a result of adsorption. Likewise, front-face fluorescence quenching measurements reflected minimal tertiary structural changes upon adsorption. In contrast to the minimal effects on protein structure, adsorption of protein to suspensions of glass microparticles induced significant colloidal destabilization and flocculation of the suspension.

  14. Health-promoting bioactivities of betalains from red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton and Rose) peels as affected by carbohydrate encapsulation. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Evelyn B; Vidallon, Mark Louis P; Mendoza, David Joram R; Reyes, Charisse T


    Betalains, which are red-purple and yellow pigments, are ideal alternatives to synthetic colorants as they possess strong coloring potential and excellent health-contributing properties. However, the instability of betalains toward normal storage and biological conditions, in addition to the limited number of betalain sources, impedes their food application and diminishes their bioactivities. This study aimed to evaluate the health-promoting bioactivities of betalains from red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus (Weber) Britton and Rose) peels as affected by encapsulation in maltodextrin-gum Arabic and maltodextrin-pectin matrices. Encapsulation in maltodextrin-gum Arabic and maltodextrin-pectin matrices afforded dry betalain powders after lyophilization. Optical microscopy imaging showed that the betalain powders consisted of matrix-type and shard-like microparticles. ABTS antioxidant assay revealed that maltodextrin-gum Arabic-betalain (MGB) and maltodextrin-pectin-betalain (MPB) microparticles possessed higher antioxidant capacities (195.39 ± 8.63 and 201.76 ± 4.06 µmol Trolox g(-1) microparticles respectively) than the non-encapsulated betalain extract (151.07 ± 2.57 µmol Trolox g(-1) extract). Duck embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) vascular irritation assay showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of encapsulated betalains was five- to six-fold higher than that of non-encapsulated betalains (P ≤ 0.05). Antiangiogenic activity, as evaluated by duck embryo CAM assay, was enhanced two- to four-fold by carbohydrate encapsulation. Glutathione S-transferase (GST)-inducing activity of betalains was likewise improved four- to five-fold. The study showed that the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic and GST-inducing activities of betalains from red dragon fruit peels were enhanced through carbohydrate encapsulation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Porphyrin Microparticles for Biological and Biomedical Applications (United States)

    Huynh, Elizabeth

    Lipids are one of the critical building blocks of life, forming the plasma membrane of cells. In addition, porphyrins also play an equally important role in life, for example, through carrying oxygen in blood. The importance of both these components is evident through the biological and biomedical applications of supramolecular structures generated from lipids and porphyrins. This thesis investigates new porphyrin microparticles based on porphyrin-lipid architecture and their potential applications in biology and medicine. In Chapter 1, a background on lipid and porphyrin-based supramolecular structures is presented and design considerations for generating multifunctional agents. Chapter 2 describes the generation of a monolayer porphyrin microparticle as a dual-modal ultrasound and photoacoustic contrast agent and subsequently, a trimodal ultrasound, photoacoustic and fluorescence contrast agent. Chapter 3 examines the optical and morphological response of these multimodality ultrasound-based contrast agents to low frequency, high duty cycle ultrasound that causes the porphyrin microparticles to convertinto nanoparticles. Chapter 4 examines the generation of bilayer micrometer-sized porphyrin vesicles and their properties. Chapter 5 presents a brief summary and potential future directions. Although these microscale structures are similar in structure, the applications of these structures greatly differ with potential applications in biology and also imaging and therapy of disease. This thesis aims to explore and demonstrate the potential of new simplified, supramolecular structures based on one main building block, porphyrin-lipid.

  16. Inertial Focusing of Microparticles in Curvilinear Microchannels (United States)

    Özbey, Arzu; Karimzadehkhouei, Mehrdad; Akgönül, Sarp; Gozuacik, Devrim; Koşar, Ali


    A passive, continuous and size-dependent focusing technique enabled by “inertial microfluidics”, which takes advantage of hydrodynamic forces, is implemented in this study to focus microparticles. The objective is to analyse the decoupling effects of inertial forces and Dean drag forces on microparticles of different sizes in curvilinear microchannels with inner radius of 800 μm and curvature angle of 280°, which have not been considered in the literature related to inertial microfluidics. This fundamental approach gives insight into the underlying physics of particle dynamics and offers continuous, high-throughput, label-free and parallelizable size-based particle separation. Our design allows the same footprint to be occupied as straight channels, which makes parallelization possible with optical detection integration. This feature is also useful for ultrahigh-throughput applications such as flow cytometers with the advantages of reduced cost and size. The focusing behaviour of 20, 15 and 10 μm fluorescent polystyrene microparticles was examined for different channel Reynolds numbers. Lateral and vertical particle migrations and the equilibrium positions of these particles were investigated in detail, which may lead to the design of novel microfluidic devices with high efficiency and high throughput for particle separation, rapid detection and diagnosis of circulating tumour cells with reduced cost.

  17. Preparation and in vivo toxicity study of solid lipid microparticles as carrier for pulmonary administration. (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Gustin, Pascal; Gavini, Elisabetta; Roland, Isabelle; Delattre, Luc; Evrard, Brigitte


    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of processing conditions on the characteristics of solid lipid microparticles (SLM) with a potential application as carriers for pulmonary administration. Compritol (5.0% wt/wt) SLM dispersions were prepared by rotor-stator homogenization, at different surfactant concentrations and emulsification times. The SLM were characterized, in terms of morphology and size, after lyophilization and sterilization by autoclaving process. In vivo assessment was carried out in rats by intratracheal instillation of either placebo or SLM dispersion, and by bronchoalveolar lavage for cytological analysis. Mean particle size of 4 to 5 microm was achieved using 0.3% and 0.4% (wt/wt) of emulsifier (Poloxamer 188) and emulsification times of 2 and 5 minutes. The particles showed spherical shape and smooth surface. The morphology of microparticles, the size, and the size distribution were not substantially modified after lyophilization and sterilization. Total cell counts showed no significant differences between placebo and SLM 0.5% or 2.5% groups. Regarding cytology, percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages did not significantly differ between groups. These results suggest that a single intratracheal administration of the SLMs does not induce a significant inflammatory airway response in rats and that the SLMs might be a potential carrier for encapsulated drug via the pulmonary route.

  18. Laser irradiated fluorescent perfluorocarbon microparticles in 2-D and 3-D breast cancer cell models (United States)

    Niu, Chengcheng; Wang, Long; Wang, Zhigang; Xu, Yan; Hu, Yihe; Peng, Qinghai


    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets were studied as new generation ultrasound contrast agents via acoustic or optical droplet vaporization (ADV or ODV). Little is known about the ODV irradiated vaporization mechanisms of PFC-microparticle complexs and the stability of the new bubbles produced. In this study, fluorescent perfluorohexane (PFH) poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles were used as a model to study the process of particle vaporization and bubble stability following excitation in two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) cell models. We observed localization of the fluorescent agent on the microparticle coating material initially and after vaporization under fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, the stability and growth dynamics of the newly created bubbles were observed for 11 min following vaporization. The particles were co-cultured with 2-D cells to form 3-D spheroids and could be vaporized even when encapsulated within the spheroids via laser irradiation, which provides an effective basis for further work. PMID:28262671

  19. Precision charging of microparticles in plasma via the Rayleigh instability for evaporating charged liquid droplets (United States)

    Bennet, Euan; Mahony, Charles M. O.; Potts, Hugh E.; Everest, Paul; Rutherford, David; Askari, Sadegh; Kelsey, Colin; Perez-Martin, Fatima; Hamilton, Neil; McDowell, David A.; Mariotti, Davide; Maguire, Paul; Diver, Declan A.


    In this paper we describe a novel method for delivering a precise, known amount of electric charge to a micron-sized solid target. Aerosolised microparticles passed through a plasma discharge will acquire significant electric charge. The fluid stability under evaporative stress is a key aspect that is core to the research. Initially stable charged aerosols subject to evaporation (i.e. a continually changing radius) may encounter the Rayleigh stability limit. This limit arises from the electrostatic and surface tension forces and determines the maximum charge a stable droplet can retain, as a function of radius. We demonstrate that even if the droplet charge is initially much less than the Rayleigh limit, the stability limit will be encountered as the droplet evaporates. The instability emission mechanism is strongly linked to the final charge deposited on the target, providing a mechanism that can be used to ensure a predictable charge deposit on a known encapsulated microparticle. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from EPSRC via Grant Numbers EP/K006142/1 and EP/K006088/1.

  20. PLA nano- and microparticles for drug delivery: an overview of the methods of preparation. (United States)

    Lassalle, Verónica; Ferreira, María Luján


    The controlled release of medicaments remains the most convenient way of drug delivery. Therefore, a wide variety of reports can be found in the open literature dealing with drug delivery systems. In particular, the use of nano- and microparticles devices has received special attention during the past two decades. PLA and its copolymers with GA and/or PEG appear as the preferred substrates to fabricate these devices. The methods of fabrication of these particles will be reviewed in this article, describing in detail the experimental variables associated with each one with regard to the influence of them on the performance of the particles as drug carriers. An analysis of the relationship between the method of preparation and the kind of drug to encapsulate is also included. Furthermore, certain issues involved in the addition of other monomeric substrates than lactic acid to the particles formulation as well as novel devices, other than nano- and microparticles, will be discussed in the present work considering the published literature available.

  1. Encapsulation of graphene in Parylene (United States)

    Skoblin, Grigory; Sun, Jie; Yurgens, August


    Graphene encapsulated between flakes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) demonstrates the highest known mobility of charge carriers. However, the technology is not scalable to allow for arrays of devices. We are testing a potentially scalable technology for encapsulating graphene where we replace hBN with Parylene while still being able to make low-ohmic edge contacts. The resulting encapsulated devices show low parasitic doping and a robust Quantum Hall effect in relatively low magnetic fields <5 T.

  2. TNF-α Blocker Effect of Naringenin-Loaded Sericin Microparticles that Are Potentially Useful in the Treatment of Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Chlapanidas


    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the effect of combined use of the racemic flavanone Naringenin (NRG and the protein sericin as TNF-α blockers. Sericin (SMs and (R/S NRG-loaded Sericin (SNRGMs microparticles were prepared by spray-drying, characterized in terms of morphology and particle size distribution, and encapsulation efficiency was determined. Concerning morphology and particle size distribution of microparticles, results indicated that they were not affected by the presence of NRG. The encapsulation efficiency was almost quantitative (93%, thus proving that sericin can be advantageously loaded with (R/S NRG. Biological evaluation of (R/S NRG, SMs and SNRGMs was then performed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC. SNRGMs resulted cytotoxic at the higher dose used (200 μg/mL and the effect was greater than (R/S NRG alone. Moreover, even if sericin alone was not effective in suppressing LPS-induced serum TNF-α levels, SNRGMs loaded with 9.3% of (R/S NRG were significantly more potent than (R/S NRG alone. In summary, this study provides the proof of concept that sericin-based microspheres loaded with TNF-α-blockers could contribute to the down regulation of the cytokine and represents the starting point for the development of new topical formulations for the treatment of middle-stage psoriasis.

  3. Role of microparticles in endothelial dysfunction and arterial hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas; Helbing; Christoph; Olivier; Christoph; Bode; Martin; Moser; Philipp; Diehl


    Microparticles are small cell vesicles that can be released by almost all eukaryotic cells during cellular stress and cell activation. Within the last 1-2 decades it has been shown that microparticles are useful blood surrogate markers for different pathological conditions, such as vascular inflammation, coagulation and tumour diseases. Several studies have investigated the abundance of microparticles of different cellular origins in multiple cardiovascular diseases. It thereby has been shown that microparticles released by platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells can be found in conditions of endothelial dysfunction, acute and chronic vascular inflammation and hypercoagulation. In addition to their function as surrogate markers, several studies indicate that circulating microparticles can fuse with distinct target cells, such as endothelial cells or leukocyte, and thereby deliver cellular components of their parental cells to the target cells. Hence, microparticles are a novel entity of circulating, paracrine, biological vectors which can influence the phenotype, the function and presumably even the transcriptome of their target cells.This review article aims to give a brief overview about the microparticle biology with a focus on endothelial activation and arterial hypertension. More detailed information about the role of microparticles in pathophysiology and disease can be found in already published work.

  4. Congenital peritoneal encapsulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diana; Teixeira; Vítor; Costa; Paula; Costa; Carlos; Alpoim; Pinto; Correia


    Peritoneal encapsulation(PE) is a rare congenital malformation, characterized by a thin accessory peritoneal membrane which covers all or part of the small bowel, forming an accessory peritoneal sac. Most cases areasymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during surgery and/or autopsy. Clinical presentation with intestinal obstruction is extremely rare and we report a case. A 25-year-old male, referred to emergency department with diffuse abdominal pain, crampy, with 8 h evolution, associated with nausea, vomiting and constipation in the last 48 h. The abdominal examination revealed an asymmetric and fixed distension, with hard consistency on palpation of lower abdominal quadrants. The abdominal radiography reveals a small bowel distension and fluid levels. Submitted to laparoscopic surgery that recourse to conversion because there is a total peritoneal encapsulation of the small bowel. After opening the peritoneal sac, we find a rotation of mesentery, at its root, conditioning twisting of small bowel and consequently occlusion. Uneventful postoperative with discharged at the 6th day. The PE is a very rare congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal bowel back into the abdominal cavity in the early stages of development. Your knowledge becomes important because, although rare, it might be diagnosis in patients with intestinal obstruction, in the absence of other etiologic factors.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianqiao Liu; Huizhou Liu; Jianmin Xing; Yueping Guan; Zhiya Ma; Guobin Shan; Chengli Yang


    Superparamagnetic poly(styrene-divinylbenzene-glycidyl methacrylate) (Pst-DVB-GMA) microparticles were prepared via a modified suspension polymerization process. A magnetic fluid was first prepared by a chemical co-precipitation method. Then magnetic microparticles were produced by mixing the monomers and the magnetic fluid with water in the presence of a stabilizer poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) to form a suspension, and finally benzoyl peroxide was added to initiate the co-polymerization. The morphology and magnetic properties of the microparticles were examined by TEM and VSM. The spherically shaped microparticles, with a size range of 4 to 7 μm, showed distinct superparamagnetic characteristics. XRD was used to investigate the structure of the magnetite particles dispersed in the polymer matrix. The microparticles with epoxy groups on their surface can be applied directly to the separation of biomolecules.

  6. Evaluating conditions for the formation of chitosan/gelatin microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C. Silva


    Full Text Available Chitosan/gelatin microparticles were prepared by complex coacervation. Three chitosan (CH samples, with different acetylation degrees and intrinsic viscosities, were used together with commercial gelatin (G samples. Microparticles formation was investigated at various CH/G ratios, within the pH range of 3.5 to 6.0. Reactions were carried out at 40 and 60 ºC, for 2, 4, and 6 hours. Turbidity measurements performed at 633 nm were used to monitor the process. The resulting curves revealed maximum values, which were correlated to the glucosamine content of CH samples. After isolation, yields were determined, and the microparticles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetry (TGA. Both techniques evidenced the formation of coacervate microparticles. The highest yields in microparticles were determined for the system comprising the CH sample with the lowest degree of acetylation and intrinsic viscosity, and the gelatin sample with the lowest bloom strength.

  7. Acoustic radiation- and streaming-induced microparticle velocities determined by microparticle image velocimetry in an ultrasound symmetry plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Laurell, Thomas


    We present microparticle image velocimetry measurements of suspended microparticles of diameters from 0.6 to 10μm undergoing acoustophoresis in an ultrasound symmetry plane in a microchannel. The motion of the smallest particles is dominated by the Stokes drag from the induced acoustic streaming...

  8. Hydrophobic encapsulation of hydrocarbon gases. (United States)

    Leontiev, Alexander V; Saleh, Anas W; Rudkevich, Dmitry M


    [reaction: see text] Encapsulation data for hydrophobic hydrocarbon gases within a water-soluble hemicarcerand in aqueous solution are reported. It is concluded that hydrophobic interactions serve as the primary driving force for the encapsulation, which can be used for the design of gas-separating polymers with intrinsic inner cavities.

  9. Micro-Encapsulation of Probiotics (United States)

    Meiners, Jean-Antoine

    Micro-encapsulation is defined as the technology for packaging with the help of protective membranes particles of finely ground solids, droplets of liquids or gaseous materials in small capsules that release their contents at controlled rates over prolonged periods of time under the influences of specific conditions (Boh, 2007). The material encapsulating the core is referred to as coating or shell.

  10. High-performance encapsulation in Casanova 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbadi, Mohamed; Di Giacomo, Francesco; Cortesi, Agostino; Spronck, Pieter; Constantini, Giulia; Maggiore, G.


    Encapsulation is a programming technique that helps developers keeping code readable and maintainable. However, encapsulation in modern object oriented languages often causes significant runtime overhead. Developers must choose between clean encapsulated code or fast code. In the application domain

  11. Detection of microparticles in dynamic processes (United States)

    Ten, K. A.; Pruuel, E. R.; Kashkarov, A. O.; Rubtsov, I. A.; Shechtman, L. I.; Zhulanov, V. V.; Tolochko, B. P.; Rykovanov, G. N.; Muzyrya, A. K.; Smirnov, E. B.; Stolbikov, M. Yu; Prosvirnin, K. M.


    When a metal plate is subjected to a strong shock impact, its free surface emits a flow of particles of different sizes (shock-wave “dusting”). Traditionally, the process of dusting is investigated by the methods of pulsed x-ray or piezoelectric sensor or via an optical technique. The particle size ranges from a few microns to hundreds of microns. The flow is assumed to include also finer particles, which cannot be detected with the existing methods yet. On the accelerator complex VEPP-3-VEPP-4 at the BINP there are two experiment stations for research on fast processes, including explosion ones. The stations enable measurement of both passed radiation (absorption) and small-angle x-ray scattering on synchrotron radiation (SR). Radiation is detected with a precision high-speed detector DIMEX. The detector has an internal memory of 32 frames, which enables recording of the dynamics of the process (shooting of movies) with intervals of 250 ns to 2 μs. Flows of nano- and microparticles from free surfaces of various materials (copper and tin) have been examined. Microparticle flows were emitted from grooves of 50-200 μs in size and joints (gaps) between metal parts. With the soft x-ray spectrum of SR one can explore the dynamics of a single microjet of micron size. The dynamics of density distribution along micro jets were determined. Under a shock wave (∼ 60 GPa) acting on tin disks, flows of microparticles from a smooth surface were recorded.

  12. [Endothelial microparticles (EMP) in physiology and pathology]. (United States)

    Sierko, Ewa; Sokół, Monika; Wojtukiewicz, Marek Z


    Endothelial microparticles (EMP) are released from endothelial cells (ECs) in the process of activation and/or apoptosis. They harbor adhesive molecules, enzymes, receptors and cytoplasmic structures and express a wide range of various constitutive antigens, typical for ECs, at their surface. Under physiological conditions the concentration of EMP in the blood is clinically insignificant. However, it was reported that under pathological conditions EMP concentration in the blood might slightly increase and contribute to blood coagulation, angiogenesis and inflammation. It has been shown that EMP directly and indirectly contribute to the activation of blood coagulation. Endothelial microparticles directly participate in blood coagulation through their surface tissue factor (TF) - a major initiator of blood coagulation. Furthermore, EMP exhibit procoagulant potential via expression of negatively charged phospholipids at their surface, which may promote assembly of coagulation enzymes (TF/VII, tenases and prothrombinase complexes), leading to thrombus formation. In addition, they provide a binding surface for coagulation factors: IXa, VIII, Va and IIa. Moreover, it is possible that EMP transfer TF from TF-bearing EMP to activated platelets and monocytes by binding them through adhesion molecules. Also, EMP express von Willebrand factor, which may facilitate platelet aggregation. Apart from their procoagulant properties, it was demonstrated that EMP may express adhesive molecules and metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) at their surface and release growth factors, which may contribute to angiogenesis. Additionally, surface presence of C3 and C4 - components of the classical pathway - suggests pro-inflammatory properties of these structures. This article contains a summary of available data on the biology and pathophysiology of endothelial microparticles and their potential role in blood coagulation, angiogenesis and inflammation.

  13. Measurement of refractive index of single microparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Knoener, G; Nieminen, T A; Heckenberg, N R; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H; Knoener, Gregor; Parkin, Simon; Nieminen, Timo A.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina


    The refractive index of single microparticles is derived from precise measurement and rigorous modeling of the stiffness of a laser trap. We demonstrate the method for particles of four different materials with diameters from 1.6 to 5.2 microns and achieve an accuracy of better than 1%. The method greatly contributes as a new characterization technique because it works best under conditions (small particle size, polydispersion) where other methods, such as absorption spectroscopy, start to fail. Particles need not be transferred to a particular fluid, which prevents particle degradation or alteration common in index matching techniques. Our results also show that advanced modeling of laser traps accurately reproduces experimental reality.

  14. Dexamethasone-loaded poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) microparticles for controlled release;Microparticulas de poli(3-hidroxibutirato-co-3-hidroxivalerato) para a liberacao modificada da dexametasona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riekes, Manoela Klueppel; Paula, Josiane Padilha de; Farago, Paulo Vitor, E-mail: pvfarago@uepg.b [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil); Zawadzki, Sonia Faria [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    Dexamethasone (DEX) has been widely used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of the present study was to obtain DEX-loaded poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) microparticles prepared by simple emulsion/solvent evaporation method. The drug loading and the encapsulation efficiency were determined by a previously validated UV method at 233 nm. Morphological, spectroscopical and dissolution analyses were also performed. The microparticles (formulation F no. 0, F no. 1 and F no. 2) were successfully obtained as off-white powders. A drug loading of 92.27 mg.g {sup -1} and 218.54 mg.g{sup -1} and an encapsulation efficiency of 93.96 % and 87.43 % were respectively observed for F no. 1 and F no. 2. Particles showed spherical and rough aspect by SEM. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the encapsulation reduced the drug crystallinity. FTIR spectra showed that no chemical bonding occurred between PHBV and DEX. Drug-loaded microparticles revealed controlled release profiles compared to pure DEX. (author)

  15. Palisaded encapsulated neuroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesh S Manchanda


    Full Text Available Palisaded encapsulated neuroma (PEN is a benign cutaneous or mucosal neural tumor which, usually, presents as a solitary, firm, asymptomatic, papule or nodule showing striking predilection for the face. It occurs commonly in middle age, and there is no sex predilection. Oral PEN are not common, and these lesions must be distinguished from other peripheral nerve sheath tumors such as the neurofibroma, neurilemma (schwannoma, and traumatic neuroma. The major challenge in dealing with lesions of PEN is to avoid the misdiagnosis of neural tumors that may be associated with systemic syndromes such as neurofibromatosis and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 2B. Here, we present a case of benign PEN of the gingiva in the left anterior mandibular region, laying importance on immunohistochemical staining in diagnosing such lesions.

  16. Encapsulation of Aroma (United States)

    Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan; Heinrich, Emmanuel

    Flavor is one of the most important characteristics of a food product, since people prefer to eat only food products with an attractive flavor (Voilley and Etiévant 2006). Flavor can be defined as a combination of taste, smell and/or trigeminal stimuli. Taste is divided into five basic ones, i.e. sour, salty, sweet, bitter and umami. Components that trigger the so-called gustatory receptors for these tastes are in general not volatile, in contrast to aroma. Aroma molecules are those that interact with the olfactory receptors in the nose cavity (Firestein 2001). Confusingly, aroma is often referred to as flavor. Trigeminal stimuli cause sensations like cold, touch, and prickling. The current chapter only focuses on the encapsulation of the aroma molecules.

  17. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Jung Pan


    Full Text Available Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. This entity has been reported as either primary idiopathic or secondary to other diseases. We report SEP in 2 cirrhotic patients and review the literature. Both patients had decompensated cirrhosis and episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. One patient underwent a Denver shunt placement before developing SEP. This patient remains alive and is managed conservatively. The other patient deceased from multi-organ failure after the resection of gangrened small bowel. The manifestations of SEP are often nonspecific that leads to misdiagnosis and/or delayed diagnosis. Early diagnosis of SEP is difficult but not impossible. Surgical treatment is often required when intestinal obstruction is present. Nevertheless, patients with this problem can be treated conservatively with immunosuppressive therapy with or without total parenteral nutrition (TPN before going for surgery.

  18. Mechanically invisible encapsulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw

    the commercialisation of such devices. Therefore, this project was dedicated to exploring the possibility of using polar liquids as high dielectric constant fillers for dielectric PDMS-based elastomers. Incorporating polar liquids in the form of discrete droplets into nonpolar membrane swas expected to produce a two......-fold improvement with respect to a reference material. Firstly, dielectric constant enhancement and, secondly, a Young’s modulus decrease were anticipated. In the first approach a flow-focusing microfluidic technique was employed, in order to encapsulate polar liquids within a soft elastomeric shell. The produced...... core-shell microspheres served as a carrier for liquids, enabling the uniform dispersion of the filler droplets within PDMS prepolymer. The dielectric constant of the prepared water-PDMS composite was proven to be enhanced by 30% following the incorporation of 4.5 wt.% of water. Due to the favourable...

  19. Preparation of hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic acid) hybrid microparticles for local drug delivery (United States)

    Loca, D.; Locs, J.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.


    Calcium phosphate (CaP) bioceramic is well known as bioactive and biocompatible material in bone tissue regeneration applications. Apatitic CaP, especially nano sized hydroxyapatite (NHAp), is more similar to the natural apatite presented in the bone tissue than CaP bioceramics. In the current research NHAp was modified using biodegradable polymer - poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to develop composites providing bone regeneration and local drug delivery. NHAp/PLA microcapsules were prepared using solid-in-water-in-oil-in-water (s/w1/o/w2) encapsulation technology. The impact of primary and secondary emulsion stability on the emulsion droplet and microparticle properties was evaluated. The stability of final emulsion can be increased by varying the process parameters. Stable s/w1/o/w2 emulsion using 3ml of NHAp suspension, not less than 100ml of 4% PVA water solution and 10ml of 10% PLA solution in dichloromethane can be obtained. S/w1/o/w2 microencapuslation method can be effectively used for the preparation of multi-domain microcapsules achieving high NHAp encapsulation efficacy (93%).

  20. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies stimulate release of neutrophil microparticles.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hong, Ying


    The mechanisms by which anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis are not well understood. In this study, both polyclonal ANCAs isolated from patients and chimeric proteinase 3-ANCA induced the release of neutrophil microparticles from primed neutrophils. These microparticles expressed a variety of markers, including the ANCA autoantigens proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. They bound endothelial cells via a CD18-mediated mechanism and induced an increase in endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, production of endothelial reactive oxygen species, and release of endothelial IL-6 and IL-8. Removal of the neutrophil microparticles by filtration or inhibition of reactive oxygen species production with antioxidants abolished microparticle-mediated endothelial activation. In addition, these microparticles promoted the generation of thrombin. In vivo, we detected more neutrophil microparticles in the plasma of children with ANCA-associated vasculitis compared with that in healthy controls or those with inactive vasculitis. Taken together, these results support a role for neutrophil microparticles in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis, potentially providing a target for future therapeutics.

  1. Optofluidic encapsulation of crystalline colloidal arrays into spherical membrane. (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Hyun; Jeon, Seog-Jin; Yang, Seung-Man


    Double emulsion droplets encapsulating crystalline colloidal arrays (CCAs) with a narrow size distribution were produced using an optofluidic device. The shell phase of the double emulsion was a photocurable resin that was photopolymerized downstream of the fluidic channel within 1 s after drop generation. The present optofluidic synthesis scheme was very effective for fabricating highly monodisperse spherical CCAs that were made structurally stable by in situ photopolymerization of the encapsulating shells. The shell thickness and the number of core emulsion drops could be controlled by varying the flow rates of the three coflowing streams in the dripping regime. The spherical CCAs confined in the shell exhibited distinct diffraction patterns in the visible range, in contrast to conventional film-type CCAs. As a result of their structure, the spherical CCAs exhibited photonic band gaps for normal incident light independent of the position on the spherical surface. This property was induced by heterogeneous nucleation at the smooth wall of the spherical emulsion drop during crystallization into a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. On the other hand, the solidified shells did not permit the penetration of ionic species, enabling the CCAs to maintain their structure in a continuous aqueous phase of high ionic strength for at least 1 month. In addition, the evaporation of water molecules inside the shell was slowed considerably when the core-shell microparticles were exposed to air: It took approximately 6 h for a suspension encapsulated in a thick shell to evaporate completely, which is approximately 1000 times longer than the evaporation time for water droplets with the same volume. Finally, the spherical CCAs additionally exhibited enhanced stability against external electric fields. The spherical geometry and high dielectric constant of the suspension contributed to reducing the electric field inside the shell, thereby inhibiting the electrophoretic movement of

  2. Shock wave driven microparticles for pharmaceutical applications (United States)

    Menezes, V.; Takayama, K.; Gojani, A.; Hosseini, S. H. R.


    Ablation created by a Q-switched Nd:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser beam focusing on a thin aluminum foil surface spontaneously generates a shock wave that propagates through the foil and deforms it at a high speed. This high-speed foil deformation can project dry micro- particles deposited on the anterior surface of the foil at high speeds such that the particles have sufficient momentum to penetrate soft targets. We used this method of particle acceleration to develop a drug delivery device to deliver DNA/drug coated microparticles into soft human-body targets for pharmaceutical applications. The device physics has been studied by observing the process of particle acceleration using a high-speed video camera in a shadowgraph system. Though the initial rate of foil deformation is over 5 km/s, the observed particle velocities are in the range of 900-400 m/s over a distance of 1.5-10 mm from the launch pad. The device has been tested by delivering microparticles into liver tissues of experimental rats and artificial soft human-body targets, modeled using gelatin. The penetration depths observed in the experimental targets are quite encouraging to develop a future clinical therapeutic device for treatments such as gene therapy, treatment of cancer and tumor cells, epidermal and mucosal immunizations etc.

  3. Solid microparticles based on chitosan or methyl-β-cyclodextrin: a first formulative approach to increase the nose-to-brain transport of deferoxamine mesylate. (United States)

    Rassu, Giovanna; Soddu, Elena; Cossu, Massimo; Brundu, Antonio; Cerri, Guido; Marchetti, Nicola; Ferraro, Luca; Regan, Raymond F; Giunchedi, Paolo; Gavini, Elisabetta; Dalpiaz, Alessandro


    We propose the formulation and characterization of solid microparticles as nasal drug delivery systems able to increase the nose-to-brain transport of deferoxamine mesylate (DFO), a neuroprotector unable to cross the blood brain barrier and inducing negative peripheral impacts. Spherical chitosan chloride and methyl-β-cyclodextrin microparticles loaded with DFO (DCH and MCD, respectively) were obtained by spray drying. Their volume-surface diameters ranged from 1.77 ± 0.06 μm (DCH) to 3.47 ± 0.05 μm (MCD); the aerodynamic diameters were about 1.1 μm and their drug content was about 30%. In comparison with DCH, MCD enhanced the in vitro DFO permeation across lipophilic membranes, similarly as shown by ex vivo permeation studies across porcine nasal mucosa. Moreover, MCD were able to promote the DFO permeation across monolayers of PC 12 cells (neuron-like), but like DCH, it did not modify the DFO permeation pattern across Caco-2 monolayers (epithelial-like). Nasal administration to rats of 200 μg DFO encapsulated in the microparticles resulted in its uptake into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with peak values ranging from 3.83 ± 0.68 μg/mL (DCH) to 14.37 ± 1.69 μg/mL (MCD) 30 min after insufflation of microparticles. No drug CSF uptake was detected after nasal administration of a DFO water solution. The DFO systemic absolute bioavailabilities obtained by DCH and MCD nasal administration were 6% and 15%, respectively. Chitosan chloride and methyl-β-cyclodextrins appear therefore suitable to formulate solid microparticles able to promote the nose to brain uptake of DFO and to limit its systemic exposure.

  4. Deformable microparticles with multiple functions for drug delivery and device testing (United States)

    Thula, Taili T.

    Since the HIV epidemic of the 1990s, researchers have attempted to develop a red blood cell analog. Even though some of these substitutes are now in Phase III of clinical trials, their use is limited by side effects and short half-life in the human body. As a result, there is still a need for an effective erythrocyte analog with minimum immunogenic and side effects, so that it can be used for multiple applications. Finding new approaches to develop more efficient blood substitutes will not only bring valuable advances in the clinical approach, but also in the area of in vitro testing of medical devices. We examined the feasibility of creating a deformable multi-functional, biodegradable, biocompatible particle for applications in drug delivery and device testing. As a preliminary evaluation, we synthesized different types of microcapsules using natural and synthetic polymers, various cross-linking agents, and diverse manufacturing techniques. After fully characterizing of each system, we determined the most promising red blood cell analog in terms of deformability, stability and toxicity. We also examined the encapsulation and release of bovine serum albumin (BSA) within these deformable particles. After removal of cross-linkers, zinc- and copper-alginate microparticles surrounded by multiple polyelectrolyte layers of chitosan oligosaccharide and alginate were deformable and remained stable under physiological pressures applied by the micropipette technique. In addition, multiple coatings decreased toxicity of heavy-metal crosslinked particles. BSA encapsulation and release from chitosan-alginate microspheres were contingent on the crosslinker and number of polyelectrolyte coatings, respectively. Further rheological studies are needed to determine how closely these particles simulate the behavior of erythrocytes. Also, studies on the encapsulation and release of different proteins, including hemoglobin, are needed to establish the desired controlled release of

  5. Sclerosing Encapsulating Peritonitis; Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman O. Machado


    Full Text Available Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of the peritoneum with an unknown aetiology. Also known as abdominal cocoon, the condition occurs when loops of the bowel are encased within the peritoneal cavity by a membrane, leading to intestinal obstruction. Due to its rarity and nonspecific clinical features, it is often misdiagnosed. The condition presents with recurrent episodes of small bowel obstruction and can be idiopathic or secondary; the latter is associated with predisposing factors such as peritoneal dialysis or abdominal tuberculosis. In the early stages, patients can be managed conservatively; however, surgical intervention is necessary for those with advanced stage intestinal obstruction. A literature review revealed 118 cases of SEP; the mean age of these patients was 39 years and 68.0% were male. The predominant presentation was abdominal pain (72.0%, distension (44.9% or a mass (30.5%. Almost all of the patients underwent surgical excision (99.2% without postoperative complications (88.1%.

  6. [Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis]. (United States)

    Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Béchade, Clémence; Bouvier, Nicolas; Ficheux, Maxence; Ligny, Bruno Hurault de; Lobbedez, Thierry


    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis is a rare but devastating complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis with a high mortality rate. The incidence is between 0.5 and 2.5%, decreasing with time. PSE is defined as a clinical syndrome with signs of gastrointestinal obstruction, inflammation parameters, radiological and macroscopic changes. The duration of treatment and the cessation of peritoneal dialysis are the main risks. About 75% occured in patients on hemodialysis or after kidney transplantation. Morphological alterations are disappearance of mesothelial layer, submesothelial fibrosis, interstitial sclerosis and vasculopathy. Ultrafiltration failure, fast transport status of the peritoneal membrane and loss of sodium sieving, the most powerful predictor, are the functional abnormalities. Biomarkers in peritoneal effluent include cancer antigen 125, interleukin-6. The pathophysiology is probably a consequence of a multiple-hit process in which expression of growth factors and cytokines play a central role. Medical strategies (corticosteroids, tamoxifen) in association with parenteral nutrition and/or surgery (enterolysis) are discussed. Prevention is the use of physiological peritoneal dialysis solutions, icodextrine instead of high glucose concentration solutions and peritoneal lavage after peritoneal dialysis stopping. Copyright © 2017 Société francophone de néphrologie, dialyse et transplantation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection and quantification of microparticles from different cellular lineages using flow cytometry. Evaluation of the impact of secreted phospholipase A2 on microparticle assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Rousseau

    Full Text Available Microparticles, also called microvesicles, are submicron extracellular vesicles produced by plasma membrane budding and shedding recognized as key actors in numerous physio(pathological processes. Since they can be released by virtually any cell lineages and are retrieved in biological fluids, microparticles appear as potent biomarkers. However, the small dimensions of microparticles and soluble factors present in body fluids can considerably impede their quantification. Here, flow cytometry with improved methodology for microparticle resolution was used to detect microparticles of human and mouse species generated from platelets, red blood cells, endothelial cells, apoptotic thymocytes and cells from the male reproductive tract. A family of soluble proteins, the secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2, comprises enzymes concomitantly expressed with microparticles in biological fluids and that catalyze the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. As sPLA2 can hydrolyze phosphatidylserine, a phospholipid frequently used to assess microparticles, and might even clear microparticles, we further considered the impact of relevant sPLA2 enzymes, sPLA2 group IIA, V and X, on microparticle quantification. We observed that if enriched in fluids, certain sPLA2 enzymes impair the quantification of microparticles depending on the species studied, the source of microparticles and the means of detection employed (surface phosphatidylserine or protein antigen detection. This study provides analytical considerations for appropriate interpretation of microparticle cytofluorometric measurements in biological samples containing sPLA2 enzymes.

  8. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.


    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  9. Encapsulated microsensors for reservoir interrogation (United States)

    Scott, Eddie Elmer; Aines, Roger D.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.


    In one general embodiment, a system includes at least one microsensor configured to detect one or more conditions of a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and a receptacle, wherein the receptacle encapsulates the at least one microsensor. In another general embodiment, a method include injecting the encapsulated at least one microsensor as recited above into a fluidic medium of a reservoir; and detecting one or more conditions of the fluidic medium of the reservoir.

  10. Enhancement of laminar convective heat transfer using microparticle suspensions (United States)

    Zhu, Jiu Yang; Tang, Shiyang; Yi, Pyshar; Baum, Thomas; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Ghorbani, Kamran


    This paper investigates the enhancement of convective heat transfer within a sub-millimetre diameter copper tube using Al2O3, Co3O4 and CuO microparticle suspensions. Experiments are conducted at different particle concentrations of 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 wt% and at various flow rates ranging from 250 to 1000 µl/min. Both experimental measurements and numerical analyses are employed to obtain the convective heat transfer coefficient. The results indicate a significant enhancement in convective heat transfer coefficient due to the implementation of microparticle suspensions. For the case of Al2O3 microparticle suspension with 5.0 wt% concentration, a 20.3 % enhancement in convective heat transfer coefficient is obtained over deionised water. This is comparable to the case of Al2O3 nanofluid at the same concentration. Hence, there is a potential for the microparticle suspensions to be used for cooling of compact integrated systems.

  11. Enhancement of laminar convective heat transfer using microparticle suspensions (United States)

    Zhu, Jiu Yang; Tang, Shiyang; Yi, Pyshar; Baum, Thomas; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Ghorbani, Kamran


    This paper investigates the enhancement of convective heat transfer within a sub-millimetre diameter copper tube using Al2O3, Co3O4 and CuO microparticle suspensions. Experiments are conducted at different particle concentrations of 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 wt% and at various flow rates ranging from 250 to 1000 µl/min. Both experimental measurements and numerical analyses are employed to obtain the convective heat transfer coefficient. The results indicate a significant enhancement in convective heat transfer coefficient due to the implementation of microparticle suspensions. For the case of Al2O3 microparticle suspension with 5.0 wt% concentration, a 20.3 % enhancement in convective heat transfer coefficient is obtained over deionised water. This is comparable to the case of Al2O3 nanofluid at the same concentration. Hence, there is a potential for the microparticle suspensions to be used for cooling of compact integrated systems.

  12. Droplet-based microfluidic method for synthesis of microparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbanjwa, MB


    Full Text Available Droplet-based microfluidics has, in recent years, received increased attention as an important tool for performing numerous methods in modern day chemistry and biology such as the synthesis of hydrogel microparticles. Hydrogels have been used in many..., in recent years, received increased attention as an important tool for performing numerous methods in modern day chemistry and biology, such as synthesis of hydrogel microparticles. CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK The droplet-based microfluidic method offers...

  13. Method for producing nano-embedded microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    (EN)The present invention relates to a rapid, high-throughput and continuous method for producing nano-embedded microparticles in powder form, thereby providing a cost- effective process which can be performed aseptically. The invention further relates to an apparatus for performing the method...... of the invention. (FR)La présente invention concerne un procédé rapide, à haut rendement et continu de production de nano-microparticules intégrées sous forme de poudre, ce qui permet d'obtenir un procédé économique qui peut être mis en oeuvre de manière aseptique. L'invention concerne, en outre, un appareil pour...

  14. Circulating Endothelial Microparticles in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Tramontano


    Full Text Available Background. Endothelial Microparticles (EMPs are small vesicles shed from activated or apoptotic endothelial cells and involved in cellular cross-talk. Whether EMP immunophenotypes vary according to stimulus in Diabetes Mellitus (DM is not known. We studied the cellular adhesion molecule (CAM profile of circulating EMPs in patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus type 2, who were undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. Methods and Results. EMPs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The absolute median number of EMPs (EMPs/L specific for CD31, CD105, and CD106 was significantly increased in the DM population. The ratio of CD62E/CD31 EMP populations reflected an apoptotic process. Conclusion. Circulating CD31+, CD105+, and CD106+ EMPs were significantly elevated in patients with DM. EMPs were the only independent predictors of DM in our study cohort. In addition, the EMP immunophenotype reflected an apoptotic process. Circulating EMPs may provide new options for risk assessment.

  15. Supercritical Antisolvent Precipitation of Microparticles of Quercetin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学武; 李志义; 韩冰; 苑塔亮


    Supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process is a recently developed technology to produce micro- and nanoparticles. This paper presents a continuous apparatus to conduct experiment of SAS process. With the apparatus,the effects of pressure, temperature and flow ratio of CO2 to the solution on the shape and size of particles are studied for the quercetin-ethanol-CO2 system. Spherical quercetin microparticles with diameters ranging form i μm to 6μm can be obtained while ethanol is used as organic solvent. The most effective fact on the shape and size of particles is pressure, the next is temperature and the last is the flow ratio of CO2 to solution.

  16. Diving with microparticles in acoustic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Sound can move particles. A good example of this phenomenon is the Chladni plate, in which an acoustic wave is induced in a metallic plate and particles migrate to the nodes of the acoustic wave. For several years, acoustophoresis has been used to manipulate microparticles in microscopic scales....... In this fluid dynamics video, submitted to the 30th Annual Gallery of Fluid Motion, we show the basic mechanism of the technique and a simple way of visualize it. Since acoustophoretic phenomena is essentially a three-dimensional effect, we employ a simple technique to visualize the particles in 3D...... particle motion that would otherwise be missed. The technique not only permits visualization but also precise quantitative measurements that can be compared with theory and simulations....

  17. The picobalance for single microparticle measurements (United States)

    Davis, E. James

    The picobalance or quadrupole levitator is an outgrowth of the classical Millikan oil drop experiment and has been used for a wide variety of studies of micron and submicron size particles and droplets. A new version of the picobalance, which uses automatic feedback control for particle suspension and a linear photodiode array for light-scattering measurements, is described. The instrument has been used to measure the aerodynamic drag on microparticles suspended in a flow field and to measure evaporation rates and optical properties of liquid droplets. The instrument can also be used to examine spectroscopically the optical and chemical properties of atmospheric and interplanetary particles and any number of phoretic forces on such particles.

  18. Circulating microparticles and endogenous estrogen in newly menopausal women. (United States)

    Jayachandran, M; Litwiller, R D; Owen, W G; Miller, V M


    Estrogen modulates antithrombotic characteristics of the vascular endothelium and the interaction of blood elements with the vascular surface. A marker of these modulatory activities is formation of cell-specific microparticles. This study examined the relationship between blood-borne microparticles and endogenous estrogen at menopause. Platelet activation and plasma microparticles were characterized from women being screened (n = 146) for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Women were grouped according to serum estrogen ( 40 pg/ml; high estrogen, n = 11). Age, body mass index, blood pressure and blood chemistries were the same in both groups. No woman was hypertensive, diabetic or a current smoker. Platelet counts, basal and activated expression of P-selectin on platelet membranes were the same, but activated expression of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa was greater in the high-estrogen group. Numbers of endothelium-, platelet-, monocyte- and granulocyte-derived microparticles were greater in the low-estrogen group. Of the total numbers of microparticles, those positive for phosphatidylserine and tissue factor were also greater in the low-estrogen group. These results suggest that, with declines in endogenous estrogen at menopause, numbers of procoagulant microparticles increase and thus may provide a means to explore mechanisms for cardiovascular risk development in newly menopausal women.

  19. Acid sphingomyelinase activity triggers microparticle release from glial cells. (United States)

    Bianco, Fabio; Perrotta, Cristiana; Novellino, Luisa; Francolini, Maura; Riganti, Loredana; Menna, Elisabetta; Saglietti, Laura; Schuchman, Edward H; Furlan, Roberto; Clementi, Emilio; Matteoli, Michela; Verderio, Claudia


    We have earlier shown that microglia, the immune cells of the CNS, release microparticles from cell plasma membrane after ATP stimulation. These vesicles contain and release IL-1beta, a crucial cytokine in CNS inflammatory events. In this study, we show that microparticles are also released by astrocytes and we get insights into the mechanism of their shedding. We show that, on activation of the ATP receptor P2X7, microparticle shedding is associated with rapid activation of acid sphingomyelinase, which moves to plasma membrane outer leaflet. ATP-induced shedding and IL-1beta release are markedly reduced by the inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase, and completely blocked in glial cultures from acid sphingomyelinase knockout mice. We also show that p38 MAPK cascade is relevant for the whole process, as specific kinase inhibitors strongly reduce acid sphingomyelinase activation, microparticle shedding and IL-1beta release. Our results represent the first demonstration that activation of acid sphingomyelinase is necessary and sufficient for microparticle release from glial cells and define key molecular effectors of microparticle formation and IL-1beta release, thus, opening new strategies for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases.

  20. Aspects of Microparticle Utilization for Potentiation of Novel Vaccines: Promises and Risks (United States)

    Ilyinskii, P.

    Many recombinant vaccines against novel (HIV, HCV) or ever-changing (influenza) infectious agents require the presence of adjuvants/delivery vehicles to induce strong immune responses. The necessity of their improvement led to the major effort towards development of vaccine delivery systems that are generally particulate (e.g., nano- and microparticles) and have comparable dimensions to the pathogens (viruses or bacteria). The mode of action of these adjuvants is not fully understood but implies the stimulation of the innate or antigen-specific immune responses, and/or the increase of antigen uptake or processing by antigen-presenting cells (APC). Moreover, enhancement of adjuvant activity through the use of micro- and nanoparticulate delivery systems often resulted from the synergistic effects producing immune responses stronger than those elicited by the adjuvant or delivery system alone. Among particulate adjuvants, biodegradable micro- and nanoparticles of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycoside) (PLGA) or poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA) have been reported to enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses against an encapsulated protein antigen. Cationic and anionic polylactide co-glycolide (PLG) microparticles have been successfully used to adsorb a variety of agents, which include plasmid DNA, recombinant proteins and adjuvant active oligonucleotides and are also currently tested in several vaccine applications. Another approach envisions specific targeting of APC, especially peripheral DC and exploitation of particulate systems that are small enough for lymphatic uptake (polystyrene nanobeads). Micro- and nanoparticles offer the possibility of enhancement of their uptake by appropriate cells through manipulation of their surface properties. Still, questions regarding toxicity and molecular interaction between micro- and nano-particles and immune cells, tissues and whole organisms remain to be addressed. These risks and other possible side effects should be assessed in

  1. Microparticles: Facile and High-Throughput Synthesis of Functional Microparticles with Quick Response Codes (Small 24/2016). (United States)

    Ramirez, Lisa Marie S; He, Muhan; Mailloux, Shay; George, Justin; Wang, Jun


    Microparticles carrying quick response (QR) barcodes are fabricated by J. Wang and co-workers on page 3259, using a massive coding of dissociated elements (MiCODE) technology. Each microparticle can bear a special custom-designed QR code that enables encryption or tagging with unlimited multiplexity, and the QR code can be easily read by cellphone applications. The utility of MiCODE particles in multiplexed DNA detection and microtagging for anti-counterfeiting is explored.

  2. Thermogelling Bioadhesive Scaffolds for Intervertebral Disc Tissue Engineering: Preliminary In Vitro Comparison of Aldehyde-Based Versus Alginate Microparticle-Mediated Adhesion (United States)

    Wiltsey, C.; Christiani, T.; Williams, J.; Scaramazza, J.; Van Sciver, C.; Toomer, K.; Sheehan, J.; Branda, A.; Nitzl, A.; England, E.; Kadlowec, J.; Iftode, C.; Vernengo, J.


    Tissue engineering of certain load-bearing parts of the body can be dependent on scaffold adhesion or integration with the surrounding tissue to prevent dislocation. One such area is the regeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). In this work, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was grafted with chondroitin sulfate (CS) (PNIPAAm-g-CS) and blended with aldehyde-modified CS to generate an injectable polymer that can form covalent bonds with tissue upon contact. However, the presence of the reactive aldehyde groups can compromise the viability of encapsulated cells. Thus, liposomes were encapsulated in the blend, designed to deliver the ECM derivative, gelatin, after the polymer has adhered to tissue and reached physiological temperature. This work is based on the hypothesis that the discharge of gelatin will enhance the biocompatibility of the material by covalently reacting with, or “end-capping”, the aldehyde functionalities within the gel that did not participate in bonding with tissue upon contact. As a comparison, formulations were also created without CS aldehyde and with an alternative adhesion mediator, mucoadhesive calcium alginate particles. Gels formed from blends of PNIPAAm-g-CS and CS aldehyde exhibited increased adhesive strength compared to PNIPAAm-g-CS alone (p<0.05). However, the addition of gelatin-loaded liposomes to the blend significantly decreased the adhesive strength (p<0.05). The encapsulation of alginate microparticles within PNIPAAm-g-CS gels caused the tensile strength to increase two-fold over that of PNIPAAm-g-CS blends with CS aldehyde (p<0.05). Cytocompatibility studies indicate that formulations containing alginate particles exhibit reduced cytotoxicity over those containing CS aldehyde. Overall, the results indicated that the adhesives composed of alginate microparticles encapsulated in PNIPAAm-g-CS have the potential to serve as a scaffold for IVD regeneration. PMID:25641647

  3. Thermogelling bioadhesive scaffolds for intervertebral disk tissue engineering: preliminary in vitro comparison of aldehyde-based versus alginate microparticle-mediated adhesion. (United States)

    Wiltsey, C; Christiani, T; Williams, J; Scaramazza, J; Van Sciver, C; Toomer, K; Sheehan, J; Branda, A; Nitzl, A; England, E; Kadlowec, J; Iftode, C; Vernengo, J


    Tissue engineering of certain load-bearing parts of the body can be dependent on scaffold adhesion or integration with the surrounding tissue to prevent dislocation. One such area is the regeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). In this work, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was grafted with chondroitin sulfate (CS) (PNIPAAm-g-CS) and blended with aldehyde-modified CS to generate an injectable polymer that can form covalent bonds with tissue upon contact. However, the presence of the reactive aldehyde groups can compromise the viability of encapsulated cells. Thus, liposomes were encapsulated in the blend, designed to deliver the ECM derivative, gelatin, after the polymer has adhered to tissue and reached physiological temperature. This work is based on the hypothesis that the discharge of gelatin will enhance the biocompatibility of the material by covalently reacting with, or "end-capping", the aldehyde functionalities within the gel that did not participate in bonding with tissue upon contact. As a comparison, formulations were also created without CS aldehyde and with an alternative adhesion mediator, mucoadhesive calcium alginate particles. Gels formed from blends of PNIPAAm-g-CS and CS aldehyde exhibited increased adhesive strength compared to PNIPAAm-g-CS alone (p<0.05). However, the addition of gelatin-loaded liposomes to the blend significantly decreased the adhesive strength (p<0.05). The encapsulation of alginate microparticles within PNIPAAm-g-CS gels caused the tensile strength to increase twofold over that of PNIPAAm-g-CS blends with CS aldehyde (p<0.05). Cytocompatibility studies indicate that formulations containing alginate particles exhibit reduced cytotoxicity over those containing CS aldehyde. Overall, the results indicated that the adhesives composed of alginate microparticles encapsulated in PNIPAAm-g-CS have the potential to serve as a scaffold for IVD regeneration.

  4. Microparticles obtained by complex coacervation: influence of the type of reticulation and the drying process on the release of the core material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Dutra Alvim


    Full Text Available Microparticles obtained by complex coacervation were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde or with transglutaminase and dried using freeze drying or spray drying. Moist samples presented Encapsulation Efficiency (%EE higher than 96%. The mean diameters ranged from 43.7 ± 3.4 to 96.4 ± 10.3 µm for moist samples, from 38.1 ± 5.36 to 65.2 ± 16.1 µm for dried samples, and from 62.5 ± 7.5 to 106.9 ± 26.1 µm for rehydrated microparticles. The integrity of the particles without crosslinking was maintained when freeze drying was used. After spray drying, only crosslinked samples were able to maintain the wall integrity. Microparticles had a round shape and in the case of dried samples rugged walls apparently without cracks were observed. Core distribution inside the particles was multinuclear and homogeneous and core release was evaluated using anhydrous ethanol. Moist particles crosslinked with glutaraldehyde at the concentration of 1.0 mM.g-1 protein (ptn, were more efficient with respect to the core retention compared to 0.1 mM.g-1 ptn or those crosslinked with transglutaminase (10 U.g-1 ptn. The drying processes had a strong influence on the core release profile reducing the amount released to all dry samples

  5. Formulation and process considerations for the design of sildenafil-loaded polymeric microparticles by vibrational spray-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Bohr, Adam; Aragão-Santiago, Leticia


    ), respectively. Furthermore, interactions between sildenafil and the PLGA matrix were observed for the spray-dried MPs. Optimization of spray-drying conditions allowed for a fabrication of defined MPs (size range of ∼4-8 μm) displaying a high sildenafil encapsulation efficiency (>90%) and sustained sildenafil......CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The current study reports the preparation and characterization of sildenafil-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based microparticles (MPs) by means of vibrational spray-drying. Emphasis was placed on relevant formulation and process parameters with influence...... properties of the prepared powders. CONCLUSION: Identification of relevant formulation and spray-drying parameters enabled the fabrication of tailored sildenafil-loaded PLGA-based MPs, which meet the needs of the individual application (e.g. controlled drug delivery to the lungs)....

  6. An Aluminum Microfluidic Chip Fabrication Using a Convenient Micromilling Process for Fluorescent Poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide Microparticle Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chen Hsieh


    Full Text Available This study presents the development of a robust aluminum-based microfluidic chip fabricated by conventional mechanical micromachining (computer numerical control-based micro-milling process. It applied the aluminum-based microfluidic chip to form poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA microparticles encapsulating CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs. A cross-flow design and flow-focusing system were employed to control the oil-in-water (o/w emulsification to ensure the generation of uniformly-sized droplets. The size of the droplets could be tuned by adjusting the flow rates of the water and oil phases. The proposed microfluidic platform is easy to fabricate, set up, organize as well as program, and is valuable for further applications under harsh reaction conditions (high temperature and/or strong organic solvent systems. The proposed method has the advantages of actively controlling the droplet diameter, with a narrow size distribution, good sphericity, as well as being a simple process with a high throughput. In addition to the fluorescent PLGA microparticles in this study, this approach can also be applied to many applications in the pharmaceutical and biomedical area.

  7. Agglomerates containing pantoprazole microparticles: modulating the drug release. (United States)

    Raffin, Renata P; Colombo, Paolo; Sonvico, Fabio; Rossi, Alessandra; Jornada, Denise S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S


    Pantoprazole-loaded microparticles were prepared using a blend of Eudragit S100 and Methocel F4M. The accelerated stability was carried out during 6 months at 40 degrees C and 75% relative humidity. In order to improve technological characteristics of the pantoprazole-loaded microparticles, soft agglomerates were prepared viewing an oral delayed release and gastro-resistant solid dosage form. The agglomeration was performed by mixing the pantoprazole microparticles with spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders. The effects of factors such as the amount of lecithin in the spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders and the ratio between pantoprazole microparticles and spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders were evaluated. The pantoprazole-loaded microparticles present no significant degradation in 6 months. The agglomerates presented spherical shape, with smooth surface and very small quantity of non-agglomerated particles. The agglomerates presented different yields (35.5-79.0%), drug loading (58-101%), and mechanical properties (tensile strength varied from 44 to 69 mN mm(-2)), when the spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders with different lecithin amounts were used. The biopharmaceutical characteristics of pantoprazole microparticles, i.e., their delayed-release properties, were not affected by the agglomeration process. The gastro-resistance of the agglomerates was affected by the amount of spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders. The ratio of lecithin in the spray-dried mannitol/lecithin powders was the key factor in the agglomerate formation and in the drug release profiles. The agglomerates presenting better mechanical and biopharmaceutical characteristics were prepared with 1:2 (w/w) ratio of pantoprazole-loaded microparticles and mannitol/lecithin (80:20) powder.

  8. Matrix-assisted colloidosome reverse-phase layer-by-layer encapsulating biomolecules in hydrogel microcapsules with extremely high efficiency and retention stability. (United States)

    Mak, Wing Cheung; Bai, Jianhao; Chang, Xiang Yun; Trau, Dieter


    The layer-by-layer (LbL) polyelectrolyte self-assembly encapsulation method has attracted much interest because of its versatility to use various polymers for capsule formation, ability to encapsulate different templates, and capability to control capsule permeability. Traditionally, the LbL method was performed in water as solvent and limited to poorly or non-water-soluble templates. Using the matrix-assisted LbL method, complex mixtures of water-soluble proteins or DNA could be encapsulated within agarose microbeads templates but leakage of biomolecules into the water phase during the LbL process results in low encapsulation efficiency. Recently, the reverse-phase LbL (RP-LbL) method was introduced to perform LbL and encapsulation of water-soluble templates in organic solvents, thus preventing the templates from dissolving and allowing high encapsulation efficiency. However, encapsulation of complex mixtures of biomolecules or other substances with quantitative encapsulation efficiency remained impossible. Here we present a new approach for encapsulation of biomolecules or complex mixtures thereof with almost 100% encapsulation efficiency. The ability of our method to achieve high encapsulation efficiency arises from the combination of two strategies. (1) Using microparticles as surface stabilizer to create stable biomolecule-loaded hydrogel microbeads, termed matrix-assisted colloidosome (MAC), that are able to disperse in oil and organic solvents. (2) Using the RP-LbL method to fabricate polymeric capsule "membranes", thereby preventing diffusion of the highly water-soluble biomolecules. Using an oil phase during emulsification and an organic solvent phase during encapsulation could completely prevent leakage of water-soluble biomolecules and almost 100% encapsulation efficiency is achieved. Microcapsules fabricated with our method retained nearly 100% of encapsulated proteins during a 7 day incubation period in water. The method was demonstrated on model

  9. Increased Vitreous Shedding of Microparticles in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Stimulates Endothelial Proliferation


    Chahed, Sadri; Leroyer, Aurélie S.; Benzerroug, Mounir; Gaucher, David; Georgescu, Adriana; Picaud, Serge; Silvestre, Jean-Sébastien; Gaudric, Alain; Tedgui, Alain; Massin, Pascale; Boulanger, Chantal M.


    OBJECTIVE Diabetic retinopathy is associated with progressive retinal capillary activation and proliferation, leading to vision impairment and blindness. Microparticles are submicron membrane vesicles with biological activities, released following cell activation or apoptosis. We tested the hypothesis that proangiogenic microparticles accumulate in vitreous fluid in diabetic retinopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Levels and cellular origin of vitreous and plasma microparticles from control ...

  10. Microparticles as biomarkers of osteonecrosis of the hip in sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, Anne; Schiffelers, Raymond; Kuypers, Frans; Larkin, Sandra; Gildengorin, Ginny; van Solinge, Wouter; Hoppe, Carolyn


    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a common complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). To examine the association between microparticles and ONFH in SCD, we compared plasma microparticle levels in 20 patients with and without ONFH. Microparticles were quantified using nanoparticle tracking

  11. Reducing the stiffness of concentrated whey protein isolate (WPI) gels by using WPI microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purwanti, N.; Moerkens, A.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.


    Concentrated protein gels were prepared using native whey protein isolate (WPI) and WPI based microparticles. WPI microparticles were produced by making gel pieces from a concentrated WPI suspension (40% w/w), which were dried and milled. The protein within the microparticles was denatured and the

  12. Circulating CD62E+ microparticles and cardiovascular outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Tae Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activated endothelial cells release plasma membrane submicron vesicles expressing CD62E (E-selectin into blood, known as endothelial microparticles (EMPs. We studied whether the levels of endothelial microparticles expressing CD62E(+, CD31(+/Annexin-V(+, or CD31(+/CD42(- predict cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stroke history. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients with stroke history at least 3 months prior to enrolment were recruited. Peripheral blood EMP levels were measured by flow cytometry. Major cardiovascular events and death were monitored for 36 months. Three hundred patients were enrolled, of which 298 completed the study according to protocol. Major cardiovascular events occurred in 29 patients (9.7%. Nine patients died, five from cardiovascular causes. Cumulative event-free survival rates were lower in patients with high levels of CD62E(+ microparticles. Multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors, medications and stroke etiologic groups showed an association between a high CD62E(+ microparticle level and a risk of major cardiovascular events and hospitalization. Levels of other kinds of EMPs expressing CD31(+/Annexin-V(+ or CD31(+/CD42(- markers were not predictive of cardiovascular outcomes. CONCLUSION: A high level of CD62E(+ microparticles is associated with cardiovascular events in patients with stroke history, suggesting that the systemic endothelial activation increases the risk for cardiovascular morbidities.

  13. Formation of monodisperse mesoporous silica microparticles via spray-drying. (United States)

    Waldron, Kathryn; Wu, Winston Duo; Wu, Zhangxiong; Liu, Wenjie; Selomulya, Cordelia; Zhao, Dongyuan; Chen, Xiao Dong


    In this work, a protocol to synthesize monodisperse mesoporous silica microparticles via a unique microfluidic jet spray-drying route is reported for the first time. The microparticles demonstrated highly ordered hexagonal mesostructures with surface areas ranging from ~900 up to 1500 m(2)/g and pore volumes from ~0.6 to 0.8 cm(3)/g. The particle size could be easily controlled from ~50 to 100 μm from the same diameter nozzle via changing the initial solute content, or changing the drying temperature. The ratio of the surfactant (CTAB) and silica (TEOS), and the amount of water in the precursor were found to affect the degree of ordering of mesopores by promoting either the self-assembly of the surfactant-silica micelles or the condensation of the silica as two competing processes in evaporation induced self-assembly. The drying rate and the curvature of particles also affected the self-assembly of the mesostructure. The particle mesostructure is not influenced by the inlet drying temperature in the range of 92-160 °C, with even a relatively low temperature of 92 °C producing highly ordered mesoporous microparticles. The spray-drying derived mesoporous silica microparticles, while of larger sizes and more rapidly synthesized, showed a comparable performance with the conventional mesoporous silica MCM-41 in controlled release of a dye, Rhodamine B, indicating that these spray dried microparticles could be used for the immobilisation and controlled release of small molecules.

  14. Hydrophilic drug encapsulation in shell-core microcarriers by two stage polyelectrolyte complexation method. (United States)

    Dalmoro, Annalisa; Sitenkov, Alexander Y; Cascone, Sara; Lamberti, Gaetano; Barba, Anna Angela; Moustafine, Rouslan I


    In this study a protocol exploiting the combination of the ultrasonic atomization and the complexation between polyelectrolytes was developed to efficiently encapsulate a hydrophilic chemotherapeutic agent essentially used in the treatment of colon cancer, 5-fluorouracil, in enteric shell-core alginate-based microcarriers. The atomization assisted by ultrasound allowed to obtain small droplets by supplying low energy and avoiding drug degradation. In particular microcarriers were produced in a home-made apparatus where both the core (composed of alginate, drug, and Pluronic F127) and shell (composed of only alginate) feed were separately sent to the coaxial ultrasonic atomizer where they were nebulized and placed in contact with the complexation bulk. With the aim to obtain microstructured particles of alginate encapsulating 5-fluorouracil, different formulations of the first complexation bulk were tested; at last an emulsion made of a calcium chloride aqueous solution and dichloromethane allowed to reach an encapsulation efficiency of about 50%. This result can be considered very interesting considering that in literature similar techniques gave 5-fluorouracil encapsulation efficiencies of about 10%. Since a single complexation stage was not able to assure microcarriers gastroresistance, the formulation of a second complexation bulk was evaluated. The solution of cationic and pH-insoluble Eudragit® RS 100 in dichloromethane was chosen as bulk of second-stage complexation obtaining good enteric properties of shell-core microcarriers, i.e. a 5-FU cumulative release at pH 1 (simulating gastric pH) lower than 35%. The formation of interpolyelectrolyte complex (IPEC) between countercharged polymers and the chemical stability of 5-FU in microcarriers were confirmed by FTIR analysis, the presence of an amorphous dispersion of 5-FU in prepared microparticles was also confirmed by DSC. Finally, shell-core enteric coated microcarriers encapsulating 5-fluorouracil were used

  15. Biopolymer matrix for nano-encapsulation of urease - A model protein and its application in urea detection. (United States)

    Saxena, Abhishek; Bhattacharya, Arpita; Kumar, Satish; Epstein, Irving R; Sahney, Rachana


    Alginate microparticles and nanoparticles crosslinked with Ca(+2) ions are frequently employed in biomedical applications. Here we use microemulsion polymerization to prepare alginate nanoparticles (nanogels) using different crosslinking ions (Ca(+2), Sr(+2), Ba(+2)) to encapsulate a model protein, urease enzyme (jackbeans). With alginate concentrations of 0.2wt% in the aqueous phase, emulsion droplets showed good stability and narrow, monomodal distributions with radii ∼65±10nm. The size of the nanogel varies with the crosslinking cation and its affinity for the mannuronate and guluronate units in the linear alginate chain. The nanogels were further characterized using dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and zeta potential. This work demonstrates the potential application of Ba-alginate as an alternative matrix for nano-encapsulation of proteins and its use for biomedical applications.

  16. Sardine oil loaded vanillic acid grafted chitosan microparticles, a new functional food ingredient: attenuates myocardial oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyoblast cell lines (H9c2). (United States)

    Vishnu, K V; Ajeesh Kumar, K K; Chatterjee, Niladri S; Lekshmi, R G K; Sreerekha, P R; Mathew, Suseela; Ravishankar, C N


    Fish oil has been widely recognized as an excellent dietary source of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids such as EPA and DHA. However, it can undergo oxidation easily resulting in the formation of toxic off flavor compounds such as hydroperoxides. These compounds adversely affect the nutritional quality and may induce several stress reactions in body. To solve this problem, a new antioxidant bio-material, vanillic acid-grafted chitosan (Va-g-Ch), was synthesized and used as a wall material for microencapsulation of fish oil. The sardine oil loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles could be a potential functional food ingredient considering the numerous health benefits of fish oil, chitosan, and vanillic acid. The current study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of sardine oil-loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation was conducted using H9c2 cardiomyocytes. MTT assay revealed that effective cytoprotective effect was induced by a sample concentration of 12.5 μg/mL. Results of apoptosis by double fluorescent staining with acridine orange/ethidium bromide and caspase-3 evaluation by ELISA substantiated the above findings. Further, flow cytometric determination of membrane potential, relative expression of NF-κB by PCR, and ROS determination using DCFH-DA also confirmed the protective effect of encapsulated sardine oil against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. NF-κB expression was down-regulated nearly by 50% on cells treated with encapsulated sardine oil. Altogether, the results revealed that sardine oil-loaded Va-g-Ch microparticles demonstrated potential cell protection against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress.

  17. Novel injectable, self-gelling hydrogel-microparticle composites for bone regeneration consisting of gellan gum and calcium and magnesium carbonate microparticles. (United States)

    Douglas, Timothy E L; Łapa, Agata; Reczyńska, Katarzyna; Krok-Borkowicz, Małgorzata; Pietryga, Krzysztof; Samal, Sangram Keshari; Declercq, Heidi A; Schaubroeck, David; Boone, Marijn; Van der Voort, Pascal; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Stevens, Christian V; Bliznuk, Vitaliy; Balcaen, Lieve; Parakhonskiy, Bogdan V; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cnudde, Veerle; Pamuła, Elżbieta; Skirtach, Andre G


    The suitability of hydrogel biomaterials for bone regeneration can be improved by incorporation of an inorganic phase in particle form, thus maintaining hydrogel injectability. In this study, carbonate microparticles containing different amounts of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were added to solutions of the anionic polysaccharide gellan gum (GG) to crosslink GG by release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) from microparticles and thereby induce formation of hydrogel-microparticle composites. It was hypothesized that increasing Mg content of microparticles would promote GG hydrogel formation. The effect of Mg incorporation on cytocompatibility and cell growth was also studied. Microparticles were formed by mixing Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and [Formula: see text] ions in varying concentrations. Microparticles were characterized physiochemically and subsequently mixed with GG solution to form hydrogel-microparticle composites. The elemental Ca:Mg ratio in the mineral formed was similar to the Ca:Mg ratio of the ions added. In the absence of Mg, vaterite was formed. At low Mg content, magnesian calcite was formed. Increasing the Mg content further caused formation of amorphous mineral. Microparticles of vaterite and magnesium calcite did not induce GG hydrogel formation, but addition of Mg-richer amorphous microparticles induced gelation within 20 min. Microparticles were dispersed homogeneously in hydrogels. MG-63 osteoblast-like cells were cultured in eluate from hydrogel-microparticle composites and on the composites themselves. All composites were cytocompatible. Cell growth was highest on composites containing particles with an equimolar Ca:Mg ratio. In summary, carbonate microparticles containing a sufficient amount of Mg induced GG hydrogel formation, resulting in injectable, cytocompatible hydrogel-microparticle composites.

  18. Bead mediated separation of microparticles in droplets (United States)

    Sung, Ki-Joo; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina; Burns, Mark A.


    Exchange of components such as particles and cells in droplets is important and highly desired in droplet microfluidic assays, and many current technologies use electrical or magnetic fields to accomplish this process. Bead-based microfluidic techniques offer an alternative approach that uses the bead’s solid surface to immobilize targets like particles or biological material. In this paper, we demonstrate a bead-based technique for exchanging droplet content by separating fluorescent microparticles in a microfluidic device. The device uses posts to filter surface-functionalized beads from a droplet and re-capture the filtered beads in a new droplet. With post spacing of 7 μm, beads above 10 μm had 100% capture efficiency. We demonstrate the efficacy of this system using targeted particles that bind onto the functionalized beads and are, therefore, transferred from one solution to another in the device. Binding capacity tests performed in the bulk phase showed an average binding capacity of 5 particles to each bead. The microfluidic device successfully separated the targeted particles from the non-targeted particles with up to 98% purity and 100% yield. PMID:28282412

  19. Microparticles and cancer thrombosis in animal models. (United States)

    Mege, Diane; Mezouar, Soraya; Dignat-George, Françoise; Panicot-Dubois, Laurence; Dubois, Christophe


    Cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) constitutes the second cause of death after cancer. Many risk factors for cancer-associated VTE have been identified, among them soluble tissue factor and microparticles (MPs). Few data are available about the implication of MPs in cancer associated-VTE through animal model of cancer. The objective of the present review was to report the state of the current literature about MPs and cancer-associated VTE in animal model of cancer. Fourteen series have reported the role of MPs in cancer-associated VTE, through three main mouse models: ectopic or orthotopic tumor induction, experimental metastasis by intravenous injection of tumor cells into the lateral tail vein of the mouse. Pancreatic cancer is the most used animal model, due to its high rate of cancer-associated VTE. All the series reported that tumor cell-derived MPs can promote thrombus formation in TF-dependent manner. Some authors reported also the implication of phosphatidylserine and PSGL1 in the generation of thrombin. Moreover, MPs seem to be implicated in cancer progression through a coagulation-dependent mechanism secondary to thrombocytosis, or a mechanism implicating the regulation of the immune response. For these reasons, few authors have reported that antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatments may prevent tumor progression and the formation of metastases in addition of coagulopathy. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Shape-tunable core-shell microparticles. (United States)

    Klein, Matthias K; Saenger, Nicolai R; Schuetter, Stefan; Pfleiderer, Patrick; Zumbusch, Andreas


    Colloidal polymer particles are an important class of materials finding use in both everyday and basic research applications. Tailoring their composition, shape, and functionality is of key importance. In this article, we describe a new class of shape-tunable core-shell microparticles. They are composed of a cross-linked polystyrene (PS) core and a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) shell of varying thickness. In the first step, we prepared highly cross-linked PS cores, which are subsequently transferred into a nonpolar dispersant. They serve as the seed dispersion for a nonaqueous dispersion polymerization to generate the PMMA shell. The shape of the particles can subsequently be manipulated. After the shell growth stage, the spherical PS/PMMA core-shell colloids exhibit an uneven and wrinkled surface. An additional tempering procedure allows for smoothing the surface of the core-shell colloids. This results in polymer core-shell particles with a perfectly spherical shape. In addition to this thermal smoothing of the PMMA shell, we generated a selection of shape-anisotropic core-shell particles using a thermomechanical stretching procedure. Because of the unique constitution, we can selectively interrogate molecular vibrations in the PS core or the PMMA shell of the colloids using nonlinear optical microscopy techniques. This is of great interest because no photobleaching occurs, such that the particles can be tracked in real space over long times.

  1. Diving with microparticles in acoustic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, Alvaro; Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Muller, Peter; Bruus, Henrik; Laurell, Thomas; Kaehler, Christian


    Sound can move particles. A good example of this phenomenon is the Chladni plate, in which an acoustic wave is induced in a metallic plate and particles migrate to the nodes of the acoustic wave. For several years, acoustophoresis has been used to manipulate microparticles in microscopic scales. In this fluid dynamics video, submitted to the 30th Annual Gallery of Fluid Motion, we show the basic mechanism of the technique and a simple way of visualize it. Since acoustophoretic phenomena is essentially a three-dimensional effect, we employ a simple technique to visualize the particles in 3D. The technique is called Astigmatism Particle Tracking Velocimetry and it consists in the use of cylindrical lenses to induce a deformation in the particle shape, which will be then correlated with its distance from the observer. With this method we are able to dive with the particles and observe in detail particle motion that would otherwise be missed. The technique not only permits visualization but also precise quantitat...

  2. Polymethacrylate microparticles gel for topical drug delivery. (United States)

    Labouta, Hagar Ibrahim; El-Khordagui, Labiba K


    Evaluating the potentials of particulate delivery systems in topical drug delivery. Polymethacrylate microparticles (MPs) incorporating verapamil hydrochloride (VRP) as a model hydrophilic drug with potential topical clinical uses, using Eudragit RS100 and Eudragit L100 were prepared for the formulation of a composite topical gel. The effect of initial drug loading, polymer composition, particularly the proportion of Eudragit L100 as an interacting polymer component and the HLB of the dispersing agent on MPs characteristics was investigated. A test MPs formulation was incorporated in gel and evaluated for drug release and human skin permeation. MPs showed high % incorporation efficiency and % yield. Composition of the hybrid polymer matrix was a main determinant of MPs characteristics, particularly drug release. Factors known to influence drug release such as MPs size and high drug solubility were outweighed by strong VRP-Eudragit L100 interaction. The developed MPs gel showed controlled VRP release and reduced skin retention compared to a free drug gel. Topical drug delivery and skin retention could be modulated using particulate delivery systems. From a practical standpoint, the VRP gel developed may offer advantage in a range of dermatological conditions, in response to the growing off-label topical use of VRP.

  3. Evaluation of the surface chemistry and drug-polymer interaction of semi-crystalline micro-particles for the development of controlled release formulations. (United States)

    Mithu, Sadeque H; Haque, Syed N; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Nokhodchi, Ali; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed


    This research work explores the surface chemistry and drug-polymer interaction in the manufactured controlled release micro-particles. Isoniazid (INH) was used as a model anti-tubercular drug while Eudragit® S100 (S100), Eudragit® L100-55 based co-processed Acryl EZE (EZE) and Ethylcellulose ECN10 (ECN10) were used as polymeric carriers. INH containing micro-particles were prepared using a mini spray dryer B-290 (Buchi, Switzerland). The drug polymer ratios were optimized at 1:1 and 1:3 to evaluate the effect of polymers on the release of the drug from the micro-particles. Solid state characterization via SEM and particle size analysis of the manufactured micro-particles showed densely aggregated spherical particles with a mean diameter particles. The physico-chemical characterization carried out by using DSC and XRPD showed an increase in the amorphicity of the drug during the spray drying process while the chemical elemental analysis via XPS revealed a strong intermolecular interaction between the amine group of the drug and the carboxyl group of the polymers. As expected, the in vitro dissolution study showed a slow release pattern for the highly water soluble drug INH in acidic media (pH1.2) for the first 2h followed by a burst release upon changing the pH to 6.8. It was concluded that emerging spray drying processing can be used as a valuable tool to encapsulate drug for controlled release dosage forms by means of facilitating a possible drug/polymer interaction as outlined by novel XPS analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Encapsulation efficiency and controlled release characteristics of crosslinked polyacrylamide particles. (United States)

    Sairam, Malladi; Babu, V Ramesh; Vijaya, Boya; Naidu, Kumar; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M


    Polyacrylamide (pAAm) particles crosslinked with N,N-methylenebis-acrylamide/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (NNMBA/EGDMA) have been prepared in water-methanol medium by the dispersion polymerization using poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), PVP as a steric stabilizer. 5-fluorouracil an anticancer drug, has been loaded in situ into the crosslinked pAAm particles. Plain as well as drug loaded microparticles have been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction studies (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). DSC and XRD studies have indicated a molecular level dispersion of the drug in pAAm particles during in situ loading and SEM pictures have shown the formation of spherical and oval-shaped particles. In vitro release of 5-fluorouracil from the crosslinked pAAm particles has been carried out in 7.4 pH buffer medium. Both encapsulation efficiency and release patterns are found to depend on the nature of the crosslinking agent, amount of crosslinking agent used and the amount of drug loaded. In vitro release studies indicated the controlled release of 5-fluorouracil up to 12 h.

  5. Asbestos: The Case for Encapsulation. (United States)

    Russek, William F.


    Encapsulation has proven to be the safest, surest, and most permanent method of treating sprayed asbestos on ceilings and walls. Federal aid is available to help pay for inspection of school buildings for asbestos and for asbestos removal. (Author/MLF)

  6. Microbes encapsulated within crosslinkable polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidambaram, Devicharan; Liu, Ying; Rafailovich, Miriam H


    The invention relates to porous films comprising crosslinked electrospun hydrogel fibers. Viable microbes are encapsulated within the crosslinked electrospun hydrogel fibers. The crosslinked electrospun hydrogel fibers are water insoluble and permeable. The invention also relates to methods of making and using such porous films.

  7. Encapsulation of polymer photovoltaic prototypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C


    A simple and efficient method for the encapsulation of polymer and organic photovoltaic prototypes is presented. The method employs device preparation on glass substrates with subsequent sealing using glass fiber reinforced thermosetting epoxy (prepreg) against a back plate. The method allows...

  8. Technology of mammalian cell encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uludag, H; De Vos, P; Tresco, PA


    Entrapment of mammalian cells in physical membranes has been practiced since the early 1950s when it was originally introduced as a basic research tool. The method has since been developed based on the promise of its therapeutic usefulness in tissue transplantation. Encapsulation physically isolates

  9. Acetalated dextran encapsulated AR-12 as a host-directed therapy to control Salmonella infection. (United States)

    Hoang, Ky V; Borteh, Hassan M; Rajaram, Murugesan V S; Peine, Kevin J; Curry, Heather; Collier, Michael A; Homsy, Michael L; Bachelder, Eric M; Gunn, John S; Schlesinger, Larry S; Ainslie, Kristy M


    AR-12 has been evaluated in clinical trials as an anti-cancer agent but also has demonstrated host-directed, broad-spectrum clearance of bacteria. We have previously shown that AR-12 has activity in vitro against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Francisella species by inducing autophagy and other host immune pathways. AR-12 treatment of S. Typhimurium-infected mice resulted in a 10-fold reduction in bacterial load in the liver and spleen and an increased survival time. However, AR-12 treatment did not protect mice from death, likely due poor formulation. In the current study, AR-12 was encapsulated in a microparticulate carrier formulated from the novel degradable biopolymer acetalated dextran (Ace-DEX) and subsequently evaluated for its activity in human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs). Our results show that hMDMs efficiently internalized Ace-DEX microparticles (MPs), and that encapsulation significantly reduced host cell cytotoxicity compared to unencapsulated AR-12. Efficient macrophage internalization of AR-12 loaded MPs (AR-12/MPs) was further demonstrated by autophagosome formation that was comparable to free AR-12 and resulted in enhanced clearance of intracellular Salmonella. Taken together, these studies provide support that Ace-DEX encapsulated AR-12 may be a promising new therapeutic agent to control intracellular bacterial pathogens of macrophages by targeting delivery and reducing drug toxicity.

  10. Efficiencies in alginate encapsulation of vegetative explants (United States)

    The goal of this study was to improve a non-mechanized bulk encapsulation technique to standardize encapsulation procedures and reduce the labor time compared to encapsulating individual nodes. Four mm-long nodal segments from Stage II cultures of Hibiscus moscheutos L. ‘Lord Baltimore’ were encapsu...

  11. Characterization of spray dried bioadhesive metformin microparticles for oromucosal administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Madsen, Katrine Dragsbæk; Hyrup, Birgitte


    delivery systems are considered a promising approach as they facilitate a close contact between the drug and the oral mucosa. In this study, bioadhesive chitosan-based microparticles of metformin hydrochloride were prepared by spray drying aqueous dispersions with different chitosan:metformin ratios...... and chitosan grades with increasing molecular weights. A recently developed ex vivo flow retention model with porcine buccal mucosa was used to evaluate the bioadhesive properties of spray dried microparticles. An important outcome of this study was that microparticles with the desired metformin content could...... be prepared and analyzed using the ex vivo retention model. We observed an increase in metformin retention on porcine mucosa with increasing chitosan:metformin ratios, while no effect of increasing the chitosan molecular weight was found. Rheological characterization of feeds for spray drying was performed...

  12. Shape-based separation of microparticles with magnetic fields (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Ran


    Precise manipulations, e.g., sorting and focusing, of nonspherical micro-particles in fluidic environment has important applications in the fields of biology sciences and biomedical engineering. However, non-spherical microparticles are hard to manipulate because they tumble in shear flows. Most of existing techniques, including traditional filtration and centrifugation, and recent microfluidic technology, have difficulty in separating microparticles by shape. We demonstrate a novel shape-based separation technique by combining external magnetic fields with pressure-driven flows in a microchannel. Due to the magnetic field, prolate ellipsoidal particles migrate laterally at different speeds than the spherical ones, leading to effective separation. Our experimental investigations reveal the underlying physical mechanism of the observed shape-dependent migration. We find that the magnetic field breaks the rotational symmetry of the nonspherical particles, and induces shape-dependent lift force and migration velocity.

  13. RDX-based nanocomposite microparticles for significantly reduced shock sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Hongwei, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Stepanov, Victor; Di Stasio, Anthony R. [U.S. Army - Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Picatinny, NJ 07806 (United States); Chou, Tsengming; Lee, Woo Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)


    Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX)-based nanocomposite microparticles were produced by a simple, yet novel spray drying method. The microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which shows that they consist of small RDX crystals ({approx}0.1-1 {mu}m) uniformly and discretely dispersed in a binder. The microparticles were subsequently pressed to produce dense energetic materials which exhibited a markedly lower shock sensitivity. The low sensitivity was attributed to small crystal size as well as small void size ({approx}250 nm). The method developed in this work may be suitable for the preparation of a wide range of insensitive explosive compositions.

  14. Quality control of residual solvent content in polymeric microparticles. (United States)

    Dixit, Kalpana; Athawale, Rajani B; Singh, Sarabjit


    Organic solvents are the innate part of pharmaceutical industry, playing vital role in the bulk drug substance as well as finished product manufacturing. Even though they are used for various crucial purposes, they still lack therapeutic beneficial effect and can be toxic if present in unacceptable limits in final product. Hence, their concentration must be regulated in the final pharmaceutical formulation. With the major development in the market of polymeric microparticles in past few decades, drug product manufacturers are paying more attention towards the development of new techniques for reducing residual solvent content of microparticles. This article sheds light on the importance of removal of organic volatile impurities from the formulation and its regulatory aspects. It also highlights how residual solvent affects various physicochemical characteristics of polymeric microparticles and suggests certain solutions as per the current state of art for limiting organic solvent content in the final product.

  15. Kinetics of release of methylene blue immobilized in calcium alginate microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inal Bakhytkyzy


    Full Text Available The swelling kinetics of microparticles obtained with different concentrations of calcium chloride was studied to learn the ability of sodium alginate to gelation. To increase the effect of prolongation it is necessary to obtain microparticles with sustained release of drugs. For this purpose the drying kinetics of alginate microparticles was investigated. Also the kinetics of release of methylene blue immobilized in calcium alginate microparticles was studied. It was found that the release of methylene blue from the microparticles depends on the amount of immobilized material.

  16. Preparation of ibuprofen/lipid composite microparticles by supercritical fluid technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia WANG; Hui CHEN; Yanni GUO; Yuzhong SU; Hongtao WANG; Jun LI


    Using the CO2-and N2-assisted atomization processes, the production of ibuprofen/lipid composite microparticles is investigated, in which the lipid includes myristic acid and tripalmitin. The produced composite particles show similar morphology to that of the pure lipids obtained by the same process. In the case of the N2-assisted process, the average size of composite part-icles is slightly larger than that of the pure lipid particles due to the difficulty of solidification when using N2. In the case of the CO2-assisted process, the average size of com-posite particles is slightly smaller than that of the pure myr-istic acid particles, but slightly larger than that of the pure tripalmitin particles. The dissolution study reveals that the drug release from the ibuprofen/myristic acid particles is enhanced in comparison with that of the unprocessed ibu-profen. For the particles produced by the N2-assisted pro-cess, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly indicate the encapsulation of ibuprofen into myristic acid. The obtained ibuprofen/tripalmitin composite particles with 5% or 20% of ibuprofen (in mass) evidently show the con-trolled drug release: only about 20% of the drug is released in 500 min from the ibuprofen/tripalmitin composite part-icles consisting of 20% ibuprofen prepared by the CO2-assisted process, and the same release is obtained from the ibuprofen/tripalmitin composite particles containing 5% ibuprofen prepared by the N2-assisted process.

  17. Pharmacodynamics of piroxicam from novel solid lipid microparticles formulated with homolipids from Bos indicus. (United States)

    Nnamani, Petra O; Attama, Anthony A; Kenechukwu, Franklin C; Ibezim, Emmanuel C; Adikwu, Michael U


    The dissolution of piroxicam is a limiting step in its bioavailability on account of its hydrophobicity. The objective of this research was to formulate novel solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) based on homolipids (admixtures of tallow fat (TF) and Softisan(®) 142 (SFT) templated with Phospholipon(®) 90G (P90G), a heterolipid for the delivery of piroxicam. Lipid matrices consisting of TF and SFT in ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 were templated with the heterolipid, P90G and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The SLMs produced by hot homogenization technique using the matrices were characterized in terms of thermal properties, particle size, morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, stability studies and in vitro diffusion studies. In vivo pharmacodynamic study was performed using egg albumin- induced pedal edema in rats. The results showed that addition of Softisan(®) 142 improved the drug holding capacity of the micellar solution of 2:1 mixture of TF and SFT. The in vitro diffusion of piroxicam from this SLM showed maximum release of 87.53 % and followed non-Fickian diffusion kinetic mechanism. At dose equivalence of 10 mg, piroxicamloaded SLMs showed superior in vivo anti-inflammatory properties at 3 h than Feldene(®) and the pure drug sample. This study has shown that surface-modified SLMs could confer favourable properties with respect to drug release and antiinflammatory activity on SLMs for the delivery of piroxicam, thus encouraging further development of the formulations.

  18. Chemically modified inulin microparticles serving dual function as a protein antigen delivery vehicle and immunostimulatory adjuvant. (United States)

    Gallovic, Matthew D; Montjoy, Douglas G; Collier, Michael A; Do, Clement; Wyslouzil, Barbara E; Bachelder, Eric M; Ainslie, Kristy M


    To develop a new subunit vaccine adjuvant, we chemically modified a naturally-occurring, immunostimulatory inulin polysaccharide to produce an acid-sensitive biopolymer (acetalated inulin, Ace-IN). Various hydrophobic Ace-IN polymers were formed into microparticles (MPs) by oil-in-water emulsions followed by solvent evaporation These Ace-IN MPs possessed tunable degradation characteristics that, unlike polyesters used in FDA-approved microparticulate formulations, had only pH-neutral hydrolytic byproducts. Macrophages were passively targeted with cytocompatible Ace-IN MPs. TNF-α production by macrophages treated with Ace-IN MPs could be altered by adjusting the polymers' chemistry. Mice immunized with Ace-IN MPs encapsulating a model ovalbumin (OVA) antigen showed higher production of anti-OVA IgG antibody levels relative to soluble antigen. The antibody titers were also comparable to an alum-based formulation. This proof-of-concept establishes the potential for chemically-modified inulin MPs to simultaneously enable dual functionality as a stimuli-controlled antigen delivery vehicle and immunostimulatory adjuvant.

  19. Involvement of microparticles in diabetic vascular complications. (United States)

    Tsimerman, Gala; Roguin, Ariel; Bachar, Anat; Melamed, Eyal; Brenner, Benjamin; Aharon, Anat


    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased coagulability and vascular complications. Circulating microparticles (MPs) are involved in thrombosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. However, the role of MPs in T2DM vascular complications is unclear. We characterised the cell origin and pro-coagulant profiles of MPs obtained from 41 healthy controls and 123 T2DM patients with coronary artery disease, retinopathy and foot ulcers. The effects of MPs on endothelial cell coagulability and tube formation were evaluated. Patients with severe diabetic foot ulcers expressed the highest levels of MPs originated from platelet and endothelial cells and negatively-charged phospholipid-bearing MPs. MP coagulability, calculated from MP tissue factor (TF) and TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI) ratio, was low in healthy controls and in diabetic retinopathy patients (1.8, p≥0.002). MPs of all T2DM patients induced a more than two-fold increase in endothelial cell TF (antigen and gene expression) but did not affect TFPI levels. Tube networks were longest and most stable in endothelial cells that were incubated with MPs of healthy controls, whereas no tube formation occurred in MPs of diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. MPs of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic foot ulcer patients induced branched tube networks that were unstable and collapsed over time. This study demonstrates that MP characteristics are related to the specific type of vascular complications and may serve as a bio-marker for the pro- coagulant state and vascular pathology in patients with T2DM.

  20. Micro-particle in surface snow at Princess Elizabeth Land,East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    During the Austral summer of 1996/1997, the First Chinese Antarctic Inland Expedition reached the inland area about 330 km along the direction around 76°E from Zhongshan Station, and collected 84 surface snow samples at an interval of 4 kin. Micro-particle analysis of the samples indicates that the micro-particle concentration apparently decreases with the increasing of altitude, and the amplitudes of micro-particle concentration is much larger in the lower altitude than in the higher altitude. Further analysis of grain-size distributions of micro-particle, percentage of micro-particles from different sources and variations with altitude suggest that microparticles in this area are from a considerably dominant source. Although this area is controlled by polar easterly wind and katabatic wind, transportation and deposition of the micro-particles are mainly influenced by marine transportation in coastal area.

  1. Interfacial tension based on-chip extraction of microparticles confined in microfluidic Stokes flows (United States)

    Huang, Haishui; He, Xiaoming


    Microfluidics involving two immiscible fluids (oil and water) has been increasingly used to produce hydrogel microparticles with wide applications. However, it is difficult to extract the microparticles out of the microfluidic Stokes flows of oil that have a Reynolds number (the ratio of inertia to viscous force) much less than one, where the dominant viscous force tends to drive the microparticles to move together with the surrounding oil. Here, we present a passive method for extracting hydrogel microparticles in microfluidic Stokes flow from oil into aqueous extracting solution on-chip by utilizing the intrinsic interfacial tension between oil and the microparticles. We further reveal that the thickness of an "extended confining layer" of oil next to the interface between oil and aqueous extracting solution must be smaller than the radius of microparticles for effective extraction. This method uses a simple planar merging microchannel design that can be readily fabricated and further integrated into a fluidic system to extract microparticles for wide applications.

  2. Nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate microparticle surface modified with chitosan for mucosal delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanjanakawinkul, Watchara [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Rades, Thomas [School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand); Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit [Department of Manufacturing Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Pongjanyakul, Thaned, E-mail: [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)


    Magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay, and nicotine (NCT), a basic drug, can interact electrostatically to form microparticles. Chitosan (CS) was used for the surface modification of the microparticles, and a lyophilization method was used to preserve the original particle morphology. The microparticles were characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties, NCT content, mucoadhesive properties, and release and permeation across porcine esophageal mucosa. The results showed that the microparticles formed via electrostatic interaction between MAS and protonated NCT had an irregular shape and that their NCT content increased with increasing NCT ratios in the microparticle preparation solution. High molecular weight CS (800 kDa) adsorbed to the microparticle surface and induced a positive surface charge. CS molecules intercalated into the MAS silicate layers and decreased the crystallinity of the microparticles, leading to an increase in the release rate and diffusion coefficient of NCT from the microparticles. Moreover, the microparticle surface modified with CS was found to have higher NCT permeation fluxes and mucoadhesive properties, which indicated the significant role of CS for NCT mucosal delivery. However, the enhancement of NCT permeation and of mucoadhesive properties depended on the molecular weight and concentration of CS. These findings suggest that NCT-MAS microparticle surface modified with CS represents a promising mucosal delivery system for NCT. Highlights: ► Nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate microparticles were prepared using electrostatic interaction. ► Lyophilization was used for drying and maintaining an original morphology of the microparticles. ► Chitosan (CS) was used for surface modification of the microparticles at acidic pH. ► Surface modification using CS caused an increase in release and permeation of nicotine. ► Microparticle surface-modified with CS presented better mucoadhesive properties.

  3. Design and production of gentamicin/dextrans microparticles by supercritical assisted atomisation for the treatment of wound bacterial infections. (United States)

    Aquino, Rita P; Auriemma, Giulia; Mencherini, Teresa; Russo, Paola; Porta, Amalia; Adami, Renata; Liparoti, Sara; Della Porta, Giovanna; Reverchon, Ernesto; Del Gaudio, Pasquale


    In this work, the supercritical assisted atomisation (SAA) is proposed, for the first time, for the production of topical carrier microsystems based on alginate-pectin blend. Gentamicin sulphate (GS) was loaded as high soluble and hygroscopic antibiotic model with poor flowability. Particularly, different water solutions of GS/alginate/pectin were processed by SAA to produce spherical microparticles (GAP) of narrow size (about 2 μm). GS loading was varied between 20% and 33% (w/w) with an encapsulation efficiency reaching about 100%. The micronised powders also showed high flow properties, good stability and constant water content after 90 days in accelerated storage conditions. The release profiles of the encapsulated drug were monitored using vertical diffusion Franz cells to evaluate the application of GAP microsystems as self-consistent powder formulation or in specific fibres or gels for wound dressing. All formulations showed an initial burst effect in the first 6h of application (40-65% of GS loaded), and in particular GAP4 produced with a GS/alginate/pectin ratio of 1:3:1, exhibited the ability to release GS continuously over 6 days. Antimicrobial tests against Staphylococcus aureus indicated that GS antibiotic activity was preserved at 6 days and higher than pure GS at 12 and 24 days for all SAA formulations, especially for GAP1.

  4. Hydrophobin-Encapsulated Quantum Dots. (United States)

    Taniguchi, Shohei; Sandiford, Lydia; Cooper, Maggie; Rosca, Elena V; Ahmad Khanbeigi, Raha; Fairclough, Simon M; Thanou, Maya; Dailey, Lea Ann; Wohlleben, Wendel; von Vacano, Bernhard; de Rosales, Rafael T M; Dobson, Peter J; Owen, Dylan M; Green, Mark


    The phase transfer of quantum dots to water is an important aspect of preparing nanomaterials that are suitable for biological applications, and although numerous reports describe ligand exchange, very few describe efficient ligand encapsulation techniques. In this report, we not only report a new method of phase transferring quantum dots (QDs) using an amphiphilic protein (hydrophobin) but also describe the advantages of using a biological molecule with available functional groups and their use in imaging cancer cells in vivo and other imaging applications.

  5. Encapsulation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in PLA microspheres using supercritical emulsion extraction to produce bactericidal nanocomposites (United States)

    Campardelli, R.; Della Porta, G.; Gomez, V.; Irusta, S.; Reverchon, E.; Santamaria, J.


    In this work, PLA microparticles containing TiO2 (anatase) nanoparticles have been produced using the Continuous Supercritical Emulsion Extraction technique (SEE-C). A stabilized anatase colloidal suspension (15 ± 5 nm) in ethanol aqueous solution was obtained by precipitation from solutions of titanium alkoxides and directly used as the water internal phase of a water-in-oil in water double emulsion or suspended as a powder in the organic phase of a solid-in-oil in water emulsion. Micro- (0.9 ± 0.5 μm) and submicro-particles (203 ± 40 nm) have been produced, with TiO2 nominal loadings of 1.2, 2.4, and 3.6 wt%. High TiO2 encapsulation efficiencies up to about 90 % have been obtained. PLA/TiO2 particles have been characterized by TEM and XPS to investigate the dispersion of the metal oxide in the polymeric matrix. The photo-assisted bactericidal activity of TiO2-containing microparticles against a biofilm-forming strain of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in specific assays under UV light. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles and PLA/TiO2 particles showed the same bactericidal activity.

  6. Encapsulation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in PLA microspheres using supercritical emulsion extraction to produce bactericidal nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campardelli, R., E-mail:; Della Porta, G. [University of Salerno, Department of Industrial Engineering (Italy); Gomez, V.; Irusta, S. [University of Zaragoza, Aragon Institute of Nanoscience (INA) (Spain); Reverchon, E., E-mail: [University of Salerno, Department of Industrial Engineering (Italy); Santamaria, J., E-mail: [University of Zaragoza, Aragon Institute of Nanoscience (INA) (Spain)


    In this work, PLA microparticles containing TiO{sub 2} (anatase) nanoparticles have been produced using the Continuous Supercritical Emulsion Extraction technique (SEE-C). A stabilized anatase colloidal suspension (15 {+-} 5 nm) in ethanol aqueous solution was obtained by precipitation from solutions of titanium alkoxides and directly used as the water internal phase of a water-in-oil in water double emulsion or suspended as a powder in the organic phase of a solid-in-oil in water emulsion. Micro- (0.9 {+-} 0.5 {mu}m) and submicro-particles (203 {+-} 40 nm) have been produced, with TiO{sub 2} nominal loadings of 1.2, 2.4, and 3.6 wt%. High TiO{sub 2} encapsulation efficiencies up to about 90 % have been obtained. PLA/TiO{sub 2} particles have been characterized by TEM and XPS to investigate the dispersion of the metal oxide in the polymeric matrix. The photo-assisted bactericidal activity of TiO{sub 2}-containing microparticles against a biofilm-forming strain of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in specific assays under UV light. Pure TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and PLA/TiO{sub 2} particles showed the same bactericidal activity.

  7. Encapsulation of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BIOMA 5920 with alginate-human-like collagen and evaluation of survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. (United States)

    Su, Ran; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Fan, Dai-Di; Mi, Yu; Yang, Chan-Yuan; Jia, Xin


    Alginate (ALg)-human-like collagen (HLC) microspheres were prepared by the technology of electrostatic droplet generation in order to develop a biocompatible vehicle for probiotic bacteria. Microparticles were spherical with mean particle size of 400μm. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of ALg-HLC microspheres could reach 92-99.2%. Water-soluble and fibrous human-like collagen is combined with sodium alginate through intermolecular hydrogen bonding and electrostatic force which were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thus the matrix of ALg-HLC was very stable. Bifidobacterium longum BIOMA 5920, as a kind of probiotic bacteria, was encapsulated with alginate-human-like collagen to survive and function in simulated gastrointestinal juice. Microparticles were very easy to degradation in simulated intestinal juices. After incubation in simulated gastric (pH 2.0, 2h), the encapsulated B. longum BIOMA 5920 numbers were 4.81 ± 0.38 log cfu/g. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of a novel spray congealing procedure with emulsion-based methods for the micro-encapsulation of water-soluble drugs in low melting point triglycerides. (United States)

    McCarron, Paul A; Donnelly, Ryan F; Al-Kassas, Rasil


    The particle size characteristics and encapsulation efficiency of microparticles prepared using triglyceride materials and loaded with two model water-soluble drugs were evaluated. Two emulsification procedures based on o/w and w/o/w methodologies were compared to a novel spray congealing procedure. After extensive modification of both emulsification methods, encapsulation efficiencies of 13.04% tetracycline HCl and 11.27% lidocaine HCl were achievable in a Witepsol-based microparticle. This compares to much improved encapsulation efficiencies close to 100% for the spray congealing method, which was shown to produce spherical particles of approximately 58 microm. Drug release studies from a Witepsol formulation loaded with lidocaine HCl showed a temperature-dependent release mechanism, which displayed diffusion-controlled kinetics at temperatures approximately 25 degrees C, but exhibited almost immediate release when triggered using temperatures close to that of skin. Therefore, such a system may find application in topical semi-solid formulations, where a temperature-induced burst release is preferred.

  9. Leukocyte Activation and Circulating Leukocyte-Derived Microparticles in Preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, Christianne A. R.; Jebbink, Jiska; Nieuwland, Rienk; Faas, Marijke M.; Boer, Kees; Sturk, Augueste; Van Der Post, Joris A. M.


    Preeclampsia shows characteristics of an inflammatory disease including leukocyte activation. Analyses of leukocyte-derived microparticles (MP) and mRNA expression of inflammation-related genes in leukocytes may establish which subgroups of leukocytes contribute to the development of preeclampsia. B

  10. Alginate-based hybrid aerogel microparticles for mucosal drug delivery. (United States)

    Gonçalves, V S S; Gurikov, P; Poejo, J; Matias, A A; Heinrich, S; Duarte, C M M; Smirnova, I


    The application of biopolymer aerogels as drug delivery systems (DDS) has gained increased interest during the last decade since these structures have large surface area and accessible pores allowing for high drug loadings. Being biocompatible, biodegradable and presenting low toxicity, polysaccharide-based aerogels are an attractive carrier to be applied in pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, some polysaccharides (e.g. alginate and chitosan) present mucoadhesive properties, an important feature for mucosal drug delivery. This feature allows to extend the contact of DDS with biological membranes, thereby increasing the absorption of drugs through the mucosa. Alginate-based hybrid aerogels in the form of microparticles (alginate and further dried with supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2). Spherical mesoporous aerogel microparticles were obtained for alginate, hybrid alginate/pectin and alginate/κ-carrageenan aerogels, presenting high specific surface area (370-548m(2)g(-1)) and mucoadhesive properties. The microparticles were loaded with ketoprofen via adsorption from its solution in sc-CO2, and with quercetin via supercritical anti-solvent precipitation. Loading of ketoprofen was in the range between 17 and 22wt% whereas quercetin demonstrated loadings of 3.1-5.4wt%. Both the drugs were present in amorphous state. Loading procedure allowed the preservation of antioxidant activity of quercetin. Release of both drugs from alginate/κ-carrageenan aerogel was slightly faster compared to alginate/pectin. The results indicate that alginate-based aerogel microparticles can be viewed as promising matrices for mucosal drug delivery applications.

  11. Biodegradable nanocomposite microparticles as drug delivering injectable cell scaffolds. (United States)

    Wen, Yanhong; Gallego, Monica Ramos; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov; Jorgensen, Lene; Everland, Hanne; Møller, Eva Horn; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck


    Injectable cell scaffolds play a dual role in tissue engineering by supporting cellular functions and delivering bioactive molecules. The present study aimed at developing biodegradable nanocomposite microparticles with sustained drug delivery properties thus potentially being suitable for autologous stem cell therapy. Semi-crystalline poly(l-lactide/dl-lactide) (PLDL70) and poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA85) were used to prepare nanoparticles by the double emulsion method. Uniform and spherical nanoparticles were obtained at an average size of 270-300 nm. The thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 (TRAP-6) was successfully loaded in PLDL70 and PLGA85 nanoparticles. During the 30 days' release, PLDL70 nanoparticles showed sustainable release with only 30% TRAP-6 released within the first 15 days, while almost 80% TRAP-6 was released from PLGA85 nanoparticles during the same time interval. The release mechanism was found to depend on the crystallinity and composition of the nanoparticles. Subsequently, mPEG-PLGA nanocomposite microparticles containing PLDL70 nanoparticles were produced by the ultrasonic atomization method and evaluated to successfully preserve the intrinsic particulate properties and the sustainable release profile, which was identical to that of the nanoparticles. Good cell adhesion of the human fibroblasts onto the nanocomposite microparticles was observed, indicating the desired cell biocompatibility. The presented results thus demonstrate the development of nanocomposite microparticles tailored for sustainable drug release for application as injectable cell scaffolds.

  12. Non-paraxial beam to push and pull microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Qiu, C.-W.


    We discuss a feasibility of the pulling (backward) force acting on a spherical microparticle in a non-paraxial Bessel beam. The effect can be explained by the strong interaction of particle's multipoles or by the conservation of momentum in the system “photons-particle.” It is remarkable that the...

  13. Mechanically robust microfluidics and bulk wave acoustics to sort microparticles (United States)

    Dauson, Erin R.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Greve, David W.; Healy, Gregory P.; Oppenheim, Irving J.


    Sorting microparticles (or cells, or bacteria) is significant for scientific, medical and industrial purposes. Research groups have used lithium niobate SAW devices to produce standing waves, and then to align microparticles at the node lines in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, silicone) microfluidic channels. The "tilted angle" (skewed) configuration is a recent breakthrough producing particle trajectories that cross multiple node lines, making it practical to sort particles. However, lithium niobate wafers and PDMS microfluidic channels are not mechanically robust. We demonstrate "tilted angle" microparticle sorting in novel devices that are robust, rapidly prototyped, and manufacturable. We form our microfluidic system in a rigid polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, acrylic) prism, sandwiched by lead-zirconium-titanate (PZT) wafers, operating in through-thickness mode with inertial backing, that produce standing bulk waves. The overall configuration is compact and mechanically robust, and actuating PZT wafers in through-thickness mode is highly efficient. Moving to this novel configuration introduced new acoustics questions involving internal reflections, but we show experimental images confirming the intended nodal geometry. Microparticles in "tilted angle" devices display undulating trajectories, where deviation from the straight path increases with particle diameter and with excitation voltage to create the mechanism by which particles are sorted. We show a simplified analytical model by which a "phase space" is constructed to characterize effective particle sorting, and we compare our experimental data to the predictions from that simplified model; precise correlation is not expected and is not observed, but the important physical trends from the model are paralleled in the measured particle trajectories.

  14. Process for Encapsulating Protein Crystals (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Mosier, Benjamin


    A process for growing protein crystals encapsulated within membranes has been invented. This process begins with the encapsulation of a nearly saturated aqueous protein solution inside semipermeable membranes to form microcapsules. The encapsulation is effected by use of special formulations of a dissolved protein and a surfactant in an aqueous first liquid phase, which is placed into contact with a second, immiscible liquid phase that contains one or more polymers that are insoluble in the first phase. The second phase becomes formed into the semipermeable membranes that surround microglobules of the first phase, thereby forming the microcapsules. Once formed, the microcapsules are then dehydrated osmotically by exposure to a concentrated salt or polymer solution. The dehydration forms supersaturated solutions inside the microcapsules, thereby enabling nucleation and growth of protein crystals inside the microcapsules. By suitable formulation of the polymer or salt solution and of other physical and chemical parameters, one can control the rate of transport of water out of the microcapsules through the membranes and thereby create physicochemical conditions that favor the growth, within each microcapsule, of one or a few large crystals suitable for analysis by x-ray diffraction. The membrane polymer can be formulated to consist of low-molecular-weight molecules that do not interfere with the x-ray diffraction analysis of the encapsulated crystals. During dehydration, an electrostatic field can be applied to exert additional control over the rate of dehydration. This protein-crystal-encapsulation process is expected to constitute the basis of protein-growth experiments to be performed on the space shuttle and the International Space Station. As envisioned, the experiments would involve the exposure of immiscible liquids to each other in sequences of steps under microgravitational conditions. The experiments are expected to contribute to knowledge of the precise

  15. One-Step Generation of Cell-Encapsulating Compartments via Polyelectrolyte Complexation in an Aqueous Two Phase System. (United States)

    Hann, Sarah D; Niepa, Tagbo H R; Stebe, Kathleen J; Lee, Daeyeon


    Diverse fields including drug and gene delivery and live cell encapsulation require biologically compatible encapsulation systems. One widely adopted means of forming capsules exploits cargo-filled microdroplets in an external, immiscible liquid phase that are encapsulated by a membrane that forms by trapping of molecules or particles at the drop surface, facilitated by the interfacial tension. To eliminate the potentially deleterious oil phase often present in such processes, we exploit the aqueous two phase system of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and dextran. We form capsules by placing dextran-rich microdroplets in an external PEG-rich phase. Strong polyelectrolytes present in either phase form complexes at the drop interface, thereby forming a membrane encapsulating the fluid interior. This process requires considerable finesse as both polyelectrolytes are soluble in either the drop or external phase, and the extremely low interfacial tension is too weak to provide a strong adsorption site for these molecules. The key to obtaining microcapsules is to tune the relative fluxes of the two polyelectrolytes so that they meet and complex at the interface. We identify conditions for which complexation can occur inside or outside of the drop phase, resulting in microparticles or poor encapsulation, respectively, or when properly balanced, at the interface, resulting in microcapsules. The resulting microcapsules respond to the stimuli of added salts or changes in osmotic pressure, allowing perturbation of capsule permeability or triggered release of capsule contents. We demonstrate that living cells can be sequestered and interrogated by encapsulating Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and using a Live/Dead assay to assess their viability. This method paves the way to the formation of a broad variety of versatile functional membranes around all aqueous capsules; by tuning the fluxes of complexing species to interact at the interface, membranes comprising other complexing

  16. Magnetic microparticles for harvesting Dunaliella tertiolecta microalgae (United States)

    Manousakis, Emmanouil; Manariotis, Ioannis D.


    Microalgae based biofuels have been considered as a sustainable alternative to traditional fuels due to the higher biomass yield and lipid productivity, and the ability to be cultivated in non arable land making them not antagonistic with food supply chain. Due to the dilute nature of algal cultures and the small size of algae cells, the cost of microalgae harvesting is so far a bottleneck in microalgal based biofuel production. It is estimated that the algal recovery cost is at least 20-30% of the total biomass production cost. Various processes have been employed for the recovery of microalgal biomass, which include centrifugation, gravity separation, filtration, flocculation, and flotation. Recently, magnetophoric harvesting has received increased attention for algal separation, although it has been first applied for algal removal since the mid of 1970s. The magnetic separation process is based on bringing in contact the algal cells with the magnetic particles, and separating them from the liquid by an external magnetic force. The aim of this work was to investigate the harvesting of microalgae cells using Fe3O4 magnetic microparticles (MPs). Dunaliella tertiolecta was selected as a representative for marine microalgae. D. tertiolecta was cultivated under continuous artificial light, in 20 L flasks. Fe3O4 MPs were prepared by microwave irradiation of FeSO4 7H2O in an alkaline solution. Numerous batch and flow-through experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of the magnetic material addition on microalgae removal. Batch experiments were conducted examining different initial algal and MPs concentration, and algal culture volume. Flow-through experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale column made of Plexiglass. External magnetic field was applied by arranging at various points across the column length NdFeB magnets. Algal removal in flow-through experiments ranged from 70 to 85% depending on the initial MPs concentration and the hydraulic

  17. Assessing the biodegradability of microparticles disposed down the drain. (United States)

    McDonough, Kathleen; Itrich, Nina; Casteel, Kenneth; Menzies, Jennifer; Williams, Tom; Krivos, Kady; Price, Jason


    Microparticles made from naturally occurring materials or biodegradable plastics such as poly(3-hydroxy butyrate)-co-(3-hydroxy valerate), PHBV, are being evaluated as alternatives to microplastics in personal care product applications but limited data is available on their ultimate biodegradability (mineralization) in down the drain environmental compartments. An OECD 301B Ready Biodegradation Test was used to quantify ultimate biodegradability of microparticles made of PHBV foam, jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, stearyl stearate, blueberry seeds and walnut shells. PHBV polymer was ready biodegradable reaching 65.4 ± 4.1% evolved CO2 in 5 d and 90.5 ± 3.1% evolved CO2 in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles (125-500 μm) were mineralized extensively with >66% CO2 evolution in 28 d and >82% CO2 evolution in 80 d. PHBV foam microparticles were mineralized at a similar rate and extent as microparticles made of jojoba wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, and stearyl stearate which reached 84.8  ± 4.8, 84.9  ± 2.2, 82.7  ± 4.7, and 86.4 ± 3.2% CO2 evolution respectively in 80 d. Blueberry seeds and walnut shells mineralized more slowly only reaching 39.3  ± 6.9 and 5.1 ± 2.8% CO2 evolution in 80 d respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Encapsulation methods for organic electrical devices (United States)

    Blum, Yigal D.; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijian


    The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device encapsulated by alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The encapsulation methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

  19. Differential procoagulant activity of microparticles derived from monocytes, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells: impact of active tissue factor. (United States)

    Shustova, Olga N; Antonova, Olga A; Golubeva, Nina V; Khaspekova, Svetlana G; Yakushkin, Vladimir V; Aksuk, Svetlana A; Alchinova, Irina B; Karganov, Mikhail Y; Mazurov, Alexey V


    Microparticles released by activated/apoptotic cells exhibit coagulation activity as they express phosphatidylserine and some of them - tissue factor. We compared procoagulant properties of microparticles from monocytes, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells and assessed the impact of tissue factor in observed differences. Microparticles were sedimented (20 000g, 30 min) from the supernatants of activated monocytes, monocytic THP-1 cells, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells. Coagulation activity of microparticles was examined using plasma recalcification assay. The size of microparticles was evaluated by dynamic light scattering. Tissue factor activity was measured by its ability to activate factor X. All microparticles significantly accelerated plasma coagulation with the shortest lag times for microparticles derived from monocytes, intermediate - for microparticles from THP-1 cells and endothelial cells, and the longest - for microparticles from granulocytes and platelets. Average diameters of microparticles ranged within 400-600 nm. The largest microparticles were produced by endothelial cells and granulocytes, smaller - by monocytes, and the smallest - by THP-1 cells and platelets. The highest tissue factor activity was detected in microparticles from monocytes, lower activity - in microparticles from endothelial cells and THP-1 cells, and no activity - in microparticles from platelets and granulocytes. Anti-tissue factor antibodies extended coagulation lag times for microparticles from monocytes, endothelial cells and THP-1 cells and equalized them with those for microparticles from platelets and granulocytes. Higher coagulation activity of microparticles from monocytes, THP-1 cells and endothelial cells in comparison with microparticles from platelets and granulocytes is determined mainly by the presence of active tissue factor.

  20. Galectin-3 binding protein links circulating microparticles with electron dense glomerular deposits in lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C T; Østergaard, O; Rekvig, O P


    OBJECTIVE: A high level of galectin-3-binding protein (G3BP) appears to distinguish circulating cell-derived microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of this study is to characterize the population of G3BP-positive microparticles from SLE patients compared to healthy controls......, explore putative clinical correlates, and examine if G3BP is present in immune complex deposits in kidney biopsies from patients with lupus nephritis. METHODS: Numbers of annexin V-binding and G3BP-exposing plasma microparticles from 56 SLE patients and 36 healthy controls were determined by flow...... in kidney biopsies from one non-SLE control and from patients with class IV (n = 2) and class V (n = 1) lupus nephritis using co-localization immune electron microscopy. RESULTS: Microparticle-G3BP, microparticle-C1q and microparticle-immunoglobulins were significantly (P 

  1. Synthesis and morphology of triangular pyramid-shaped puerarin microparticle with nanostructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A type of triangular pyramid-shaped microparticles of puerarin was synthesized by using oil-in-oil microemulsion approach which is simple and economical under the action of copper substrate.The pyramid-shaped microparticles would be made up of deposit of nanospheres or nanorods and have two significant characters.One is its complex surface morphology like coral reef.The other is a lot of nanopores in existence in the microparticle body.Two possible formation routes were speculated.

  2. Vascular complications in diabetes: Microparticles and microparticle associated microRNAs as active players. (United States)

    Alexandru, Nicoleta; Badila, Elisabeta; Weiss, Emma; Cochior, Daniel; Stępień, Ewa; Georgescu, Adriana


    The recognition of the importance of diabetes in vascular disease has greatly increased lately. Common risk factors for diabetes-related vascular disease include hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, hypercoagulability, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. All of these factors contribute to the endothelial dysfunction which generates the diabetic complications, both macro and microvascular. Knowledge of diabetes-related vascular complications and of associated mechanisms it is becoming increasingly important for therapists. The discovery of microparticles (MPs) and their associated microRNAs (miRNAs) have opened new perspectives capturing the attention of basic and clinical scientists for their potential to become new therapeutic targets and clinical biomarkers. MPs known as submicron vesicles generated from membranes of apoptotic or activated cells into circulation have the ability to act as autocrine and paracrine effectors in cell-to-cell communication. They operate as biological vectors modulating the endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, coagulation, angiogenesis, thrombosis, subsequently contributing to the progression of macro and microvascular complications in diabetes. More recently, miRNAs have started to be actively investigated, leading to first exciting reports, which suggest their significant role in vascular physiology and disease. The contribution of MPs and also of their associated miRNAs to the development of vascular complications in diabetes was largely unexplored and undiscussed. In essence, with this review we bring light upon the understanding of impact diabetes has on vascular biology, and the significant role of MPs and MPs associated miRNAs as novel mediators, potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in vascular complications in diabetes.

  3. Fabrication of pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles for recovery of skin barrier function. (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hoon; Park, Woo Ram; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Cho, Eun Chul; An, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin-Woong; Oh, Seong-Geun


    The recovery of skin barrier functions was investigated with pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles. The microparticles were prepared by using a fluid bed technique where lipid components (a pseudo-ceramide, cholesterol and a fatty acid) were coated on a sugar seed, and a polymer was subsequently coated on the lipid microparticles. The microparticles contained large amount of pseudo-ceramide, and the pseudo-ceramide was in the form of lamellar structures mixed with other lipid components. In addition, the microparticles were stably dispersed in aqueous media or emulsion systems without any disruption of the microparticles' structures, thereby supplying sufficient amount of the pseudo-ceramide to skins for improving skin barrier functions such as preventing water loss. Such a role of the microparticles was proven by evaluating in vivo the efficacy of the lipid microparticles in reducing a trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) of impaired murine skins. As a result, the novel pseudo-ceramide-based lipid microparticles for barrier recovery may potentially be applied in the field of dermatology, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On the origin of microparticles: From "platelet dust" to mediators of intercellular communication. (United States)

    Hargett, Leslie A; Bauer, Natalie N


    Microparticles are submicron vesicles shed from a variety of cells. Peter Wolf first identified microparticles in the midst of ongoing blood coagulation research in 1967 as a product of platelets. He termed them platelet dust. Although initially thought to be useless cellular trash, decades of research focused on the tiny vesicles have defined their roles as participators in coagulation, cellular signaling, vascular injury, and homeostasis. The purpose of this review is to highlight the science leading up to the discovery of microparticles, feature discoveries made by key contributors to the field of microparticle research, and discuss their positive and negative impact on the pulmonary circulation.

  5. Spray-dried chitosan/acid/NaCl microparticles enhance saltiness perception. (United States)

    Yi, Cheng; Tsai, Min-Lang; Liu, Tristan


    The composition, physicochemical properties and salinity of spray-dried chitosan/acid/NaCl microparticles were tested to ensure a low-sodium and high-salinity salty agent. The spray-dried chitosan/acid/NaCl microparticles were hollow and had a favourable hygroscopicity, and increased NaCl content and decreased organic acid content. Their size of the microparticles was 15.4-32.0μm and increased with NaCl concentration. The microparticles of acetic and lactic acid groups had a NaCl crystal size of 1-2 and 1-4μm, respectively. The NaCl crystals of acetic, lactic and citric acid group microparticles were distributed on the microparticle matrices, mostly on the microparticle surface and mainly on the inner walls of the microparticles walls, respectively. The acetic and lactic acid group microparticles were relatively smaller than general salt, with NaCl crystals distributed on the particle surfaces. Consequently, they were perceived as saltier than general salt and could potentially be regarded as a low-sodium salt for surface-salted foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Refractory absorber/emitter using monolayer of ceramic microparticles (United States)

    Dyachenko, P. N.; do Rosário, J. J.; Leib, E. W.; Petrov, A. Y.; Störmer, M.; Weller, H.; Vossmeyer, T.; Schneider, G. A.; Eich, M.


    We present a self-assembled refractory absorber/emitter without the necessity to structure the metallic surface itself, still retaining the feature of tailored optical properties for visible light emission and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. We have demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that monolayers of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) microparticles on a tungsten layer can be used as large area, efficient and thermally stable selective absorbers/emitters. The band edge of the absorption is based on critically coupled microsphere resonances. It can be tuned from visible to near-infrared range by varying the diameter of the microparticles. We demonstrated the optical functionality of the structure after annealing up to temperatures of 1000°C under vacuum conditions. In particular it opens up the route towards high efficiency TPV systems with emission matched to the photovoltaic cell.

  7. Microparticles based on natural and synthetic polymers for ophthalmic applications. (United States)

    Tataru, G; Popa, M; Costin, D; Desbrieres, J


    Sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose/poly(vinyl alcohol) particles suitable for application in ocular drug administration were prepared by crosslinking with epichlorohydrin in an alkaline medium, in reverse emulsion. The influence of parameters related with the particles elaboration process (ratio between polymer mixture and crosslinking agent, concentration of polymer solution, duration of crosslinking reaction, stirring intensity, etc.) based on their composition, size, and swelling ability was studied. Obtained microparticles fulfill the requirements for biomaterials-they are formed from biocompatible polymers; the acute toxicity value (LD(50)) is high enough to consider these materials as weakly toxic (hence able to introduce within the organism); they are able to include and release drugs in a controlled way. The in vivo adrenalin ocular delivery from the microparticles was tested on voluntary human patient. The particles showed good adhesion properties without irritation to the patient and proved the capability to treat the ocular congestion. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Encapsulation of methotrexate loaded magnetic microcapsules for magnetic drug targeting and controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakkarapani, Prabu [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology & Centre for Excellence in Nanobio Translational Research, Anna University, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology Campus, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Subbiah, Latha, E-mail: [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology & Centre for Excellence in Nanobio Translational Research, Anna University, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology Campus, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Palanisamy, Selvamani; Bibiana, Arputha [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology & Centre for Excellence in Nanobio Translational Research, Anna University, Bharathidasan Institute of Technology Campus, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Ahrentorp, Fredrik; Jonasson, Christian; Johansson, Christer [Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Arvid Hedvalls backe 4, SE-411 33 Göteborg (Sweden)


    We report on the development and evaluation of methotrexate magnetic microcapsules (MMC) for targeted rheumatoid arthritis therapy. Methotrexate was loaded into CaCO{sub 3}-PSS (poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)) doped microparticles that were coated successively with poly (allylamine hydrochloride) and poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) by layer-by-layer technique. Ferrofluid was incorporated between the polyelectrolyte layers. CaCO{sub 3}-PSS core was etched by incubation with EDTA yielding spherical MMC. The MMC were evaluated for various physicochemical, pharmaceutical parameters and magnetic properties. Surface morphology, crystallinity, particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, drug release pattern, release kinetics and AC susceptibility studies revealed spherical particles of ~3 µm size were obtained with a net zeta potential of +24.5 mV, 56% encapsulation and 18.6% drug loading capacity, 96% of cumulative drug release obeyed Hixson-Crowell model release kinetics. Drug excipient interaction, surface area, thermal and storage stability studies for the prepared MMC was also evaluated. The developed MMC offer a promising mode of targeted and sustained release drug delivery for rheumatoid arthritis therapy. - Highlights: • Development of methotrexate magnetic microcapsules (MMC) by layer-by-layer method. • Characterization of physicochemical, pharmaceutical and magnetic properties of MMC. • Multiple layers of alternative polyelectrolytes prolongs methotrexate release time. • MMC is capable for targeted and sustained release rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

  9. Different encapsulation strategies for implanted electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler Sebastian


    Full Text Available Recent advancements in implant technology include increasing application of electronic systems in the human body. Hermetic encapsulation of electronic components is necessary, specific implant functions and body environments must be considered. Additional functions such as wireless communication systems require specialized technical solutions for the encapsulation.

  10. Self-organized internal architectures of chiral micro-particles



    The internal architecture of polymeric self-assembled chiral micro-particles is studied by exploring the effect of the chirality, of the particle sizes, and of the interface/surface properties in the ordering of the helicoidal planes. The experimental investigations, performed by means of different microscopy techniques, show that the polymeric beads, resulting from light induced polymerization of cholesteric liquid crystal droplets, preserve both the spherical shape and the internal self-org...

  11. Possible roles of platelet-derived microparticles in atherosclerosis. (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Ting; Wang, Zi; Hu, Yan-Wei


    Platelets and platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) play important roles in cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis. Continued research has revealed that PMPs have numerous functions in atherosclerosis, not only in thrombosis formation, but also by induction of inflammation. PMPs also induce formation of foam cells. Recent evidence strongly indicates a significant role of PMPs in atherosclerosis. Here, current research on the function of PMPs in atherosclerosis is reviewed.

  12. Optical coherence tomography-based micro-particle image velocimetry. (United States)

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R Daniel; Iftimia, Nicusor; Hammer, Daniel X; Nedyalkov, Ivaylo; Wosnik, Martin; Legner, Hartmut


    We present a new application of optical coherence tomography (OCT), widely used in biomedical imaging, to flow analysis in near-wall hydrodynamics for marine research. This unique capability, called OCT micro-particle image velocimetry, provides a high-resolution view of microscopic flow phenomena and measurement of flow statistics within the first millimeter of a boundary layer. The technique is demonstrated in a small flow cuvette and in a water tunnel.

  13. Incorporation of iodine in polymeric microparticles and emulsions (United States)

    Kolontaeva, Olga A.; Khokhlova, Anastasia R.; Markina, Natalia E.; Markin, Alexey V.; Burmistrova, Natalia A.


    Application of different methods for formation of microcontainers containing iodine is proposed in this paper. Two types of microcontainers: microemulsions and microparticles have been investigated, conditions and methods for obtaining microcontainers were optimized. Microparticles were formed by layer-by-layer method with cores of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as templates. Incorporation of complexes of iodine with polymers (chitosan, starch, polyvinyl alcohol) into core, shell and hollow capsules was investigated and loadings of microparticles with iodine were estimated. It was found that the complex of iodine with chitosan adsorbed at CaCO3 core is the most stable under physiological conditions and its value of loading can be 450 μg of I2 per 1 g of CaCO3. Moreover, chitosan was chosen as a ligand because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as very low toxicity while its complex with iodine is very stable. A small amount of microparticles containing a iodine-chitosan complex can be used for prolonged release of iodine in the human body since iodine daily intake for adults is around 100 μg. "Oil-in-water" emulsions were prepared by ultrasonication of iodinated oils (sunflower and linseed) with sodium laurilsulfate (SLS) as surfactant solution. At optimal conditions, the homogenous emulsions remained stable for weeks, with total content of iodine in such emulsion being up to 1% (w/w). The oil:SLS ratio was equal to 1:10 (w/w), optimal duration and power of ultrasound exposure were 1.5 min and 7 W, correspondingly. Favorable application of iodized linseed oil for emulsion preparation with suitable oil microdroplets size was proved.

  14. Pneumatic capillary gun for ballistic delivery of microparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Rinberg, D; Groisman, A; Rinberg, Dmitry; Simonnet, Claire; Groisman, Alex


    A pneumatic gun for ballistic delivery of microparticles to soft targets is proposed and demonstrated. The particles are accelerated by a high speed flow of Helium in a capillary tube. Vacuum suction applied to a concentric, larger diameter tube is used to completely divert the flow of Helium from the gun nozzle and prevent it from hitting the target. Depths of penetration of micron-sized gold particles into agarose gels and their speeds of ejection from the gun nozzle are measured.

  15. Encapsulation of probiotic bacteria in biopolymeric system. (United States)

    Huq, Tanzina; Khan, Avik; Khan, Ruhul A; Riedl, Bernard; Lacroix, Monique


    Encapsulation of probiotic bacteria is generally used to enhance the viability during processing, and also for the target delivery in gastrointestinal tract. Probiotics are used with the fermented dairy products, pharmaceutical products, and health supplements. They play a great role in maintaining human health. The survival of these bacteria in the human gastrointestinal system is questionable. In order to protect the viability of the probiotic bacteria, several types of biopolymers such as alginate, chitosan, gelatin, whey protein isolate, cellulose derivatives are used for encapsulation and several methods of encapsulation such as spray drying, extrusion, emulsion have been reported. This review focuses on the method of encapsulation and the use of different biopolymeric system for encapsulation of probiotics.

  16. Hydroxyapatite microparticles as feedback-active reservoirs of corrosion inhibitors. (United States)

    Snihirova, D; Lamaka, S V; Taryba, M; Salak, A N; Kallip, S; Zheludkevich, M L; Ferreira, M G S; Montemor, M F


    This work contributes to the development of new feedback-active anticorrosion systems. Inhibitor-doped hydroxyapatite microparticles (HAP) are used as reservoirs, storing corrosion inhibitor to be released on demand. Release of the entrapped inhibitor is triggered by redox reactions associated with the corrosion process. HAP were used as reservoirs for several inhibiting species: cerium(III), lanthanum(III), salicylaldoxime, and 8-hydroxyquinoline. These species are effective corrosion inhibitors for a 2024 aluminum alloy (AA2024), used here as a model metallic substrate. Dissolution of the microparticles and release of the inhibitor are triggered by local acidification resulting from the anodic half-reaction during corrosion of AA2024. Calculated values and experimentally measured local acidification over the aluminum anode (down to pH = 3.65) are presented. The anticorrosion properties of inhibitor-doped HAP were assessed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The microparticles impregnated with the corrosion inhibitors were introduced into a hybrid silica-zirconia sol-gel film, acting as a thin protective coating for AA2024, an alloy used for aeronautical applications. The protective properties of the sol-gel films were improved by the addition of HAP, proving their applicability as submicrometer-sized reservoirs of corrosion inhibitors for active anticorrosion coatings.

  17. Moldless PEGDA-Based Optoelectrofluidic Platform for Microparticle Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Mo Yang


    Full Text Available This paper reports on an optoelectrofluidic platform which consists of the organic photoconductive material, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc, and the photocrosslinkable polymer, poly (ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA. TiOPc simplifies the fabrication process of the optoelectronic chip due to requiring only a single spin-coating step. PEGDA is applied to embed the moldless PEGDA-based microchannel between the top ITO glass and the bottom TiOPc substrate. A real-time control interface via a touch panel screen is utilized to select the target 15 μm polystyrene particles. When the microparticles flow to an illuminating light bar, which is oblique to the microfluidic flow path, the lateral driving force diverts the microparticles. Two light patterns, the switching oblique light bar and the optoelectronic ladder phenomenon, are designed to demonstrate the features. This work integrating the new material design, TiOPc and PEGDA, and the ability of mobile microparticle manipulation demonstrates the potential of optoelectronic approach.

  18. Functionalized diatom silica microparticles for removal of mercury ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu, Jonas Addai-Mensah and Dusan Losic


    Full Text Available Diatom silica microparticles were chemically modified with self-assembled monolayers of 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPTMS, 3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (APTES and n-(2-aminoethyl-3-aminopropyl-trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMS, and their application for the adsorption of mercury ions (Hg(II is demonstrated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that the functional groups (–SH or –NH2 were successfully grafted onto the diatom silica surface. The kinetics and efficiency of Hg(II adsorption were markedly improved by the chemical functionalization of diatom microparticles. The relationship among the type of functional groups, pH and adsorption efficiency of mercury ions was established. The Hg(II adsorption reached equilibrium within 60 min with maximum adsorption capacities of 185.2, 131.7 and 169.5 mg g-1 for particles functionalized with MPTMS, APTES and AEAPTMS, respectively. The adsorption behavior followed a pseudo-second-order reaction model and Langmuirian isotherm. These results show that mercapto- or amino-functionalized diatom microparticles are promising natural, cost-effective and environmentally benign adsorbents suitable for the removal of mercury ions from aqueous solutions.

  19. Thulium-170-labeled microparticles for local radiotherapy: preliminary studies. (United States)

    Polyak, Andras; Das, Tapas; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kiraly, Reka; Dabasi, Gabriella; Joba, Robert Peter; Jakab, Csaba; Thuroczy, Julianna; Postenyi, Zita; Haasz, Veronika; Janoki, Gergely; Janoki, Gyozo A; Pillai, Maroor R A; Balogh, Lajos


    The present article describes the preparation, characterization, and biological evaluation of Thulium-170 ((170)Tm) [T1/2 = 128.4 days; Eβmax = 968 keV; Eγ = 84 keV (3.26%)] labeled tin oxide microparticles for its possible use in radiation synovectomy (RSV) of medium-sized joints. (170)Tm was produced by irradiation of natural thulium oxide target. 170Tm-labeled microparticles were synthesized with high yield and radionuclidic purity (> 99%) along with excellent in vitro stability by following a simple process. Particle sizes and morphology of the radiolabeled particles were examined by light microscope, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscope and found to be of stable spherical morphology within the range of 1.4-3.2 μm. The preparation was injected into the knee joints of healthy Beagle dogs intraarticularly for biological studies. Serial whole-body and regional images were taken by single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) and SPECT-CT cameras up to 9 months postadministration, which showed very low leakage (< 8% of I.D.) of the instilled particles. The majority of leaked radiocolloid particles were found in inguinal lymph nodes during the 9 months of follow-up. All the animals tolerated the treatment well; the compound did not show any possible radiotoxicological effect. These preliminary studies showed that 170Tm-labeled microparticles could be a promising nontoxic and effective radiopharmaceutical for RSV applications or later local antitumor therapy.

  20. Promoting optofluidic actuation of microparticles with plasmonic nanoparticles (United States)

    Burgin, Julien; Si, Satyabrata; Delville, Marie-Hélène; Delville, Jean-Pierre


    The amplitude of optical forces on flowing dielectric microparticles can be actuated by coating them partially with metallic nanospheres and exposing them to laser light within the surface plasmon resonance. Here, optical forces on both pure silica particles and silica-gold raspberries are characterized within an optical chromatography setup by measuring the Stokes drag versus laser beam power. Results are compared to Mie theory predictions for both core dielectric particles and core-shell ones where the shell is described by a continuous dielectricmetal composite of dielectric constant determined from the Maxwell Garnett approach. The nice observed quantitative agreement demonstrates that radiation pressure forces are directly related to the metal concentration present at the microparticle surface and that nano-metallic objects increase the magnitude of optical forces compared to pure dielectric particles of the same overall size, even at very low metal concentration. Behaving as "micro-sized nanoparticles", the benefit of microparticles coated with metallic nanospheres is thus twofold: (i) to enhance optofluidic manipulation and transport at the microscale and (ii) to increase sensing capabilities at the nanoscale, compared to separated pure dielectric particles and single metallic nanosystems.

  1. Effects of spray drying conditions on the physicochemical properties of the Tramadol-Hcl microparticles containing Eudragit® RS and RL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Patel


    Full Text Available The preparation of Tramadol-HCL spray-dried microspheres can be affected by the long drug recrystallization time. Polymer type and drug-polymer ratio as well as manufacturing parameters affect the preparation. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the possibility to obtain tramadol spray-dried microspheres using the Eudragit® RS and RL; the influence of the spray-drying parameters on morphology, dimension, and physical stability of microspheres was studied. The effects of matrix composition on microparticle properties were characterized by Laser Light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction study, FT-infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy. The spray-dried microparticles were evaluated in terms of shape (SEM, size distribution (Laser light scattering method, production yield, drug content, initial drug loding and encapsulation efficiency. The results of X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis reveals the conversion of crystalline drug to amorphous. FTIR analysis confirmed the absence of any drug polymer interaction. The results indicated that the entrapment efficiency (EE, and product yield were depended on polymeric composition and polymeric ratios of the microspheres prepared. Tramadol microspheres based on Eudragit® blend can be prepared by spray-drying and the nebulization parameters do not influence significantly on particle properties.

  2. Effects of spray drying conditions on the physicochemical properties of the Tramadol-Hcl microparticles containing Eudragit(®) RS and RL. (United States)

    Patel, A S; Soni, T; Thakkar, V; Gandhi, T


    The preparation of Tramadol-HCL spray-dried microspheres can be affected by the long drug recrystallization time. Polymer type and drug-polymer ratio as well as manufacturing parameters affect the preparation. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the possibility to obtain tramadol spray-dried microspheres using the Eudragit(®) RS and RL; the influence of the spray-drying parameters on morphology, dimension, and physical stability of microspheres was studied. The effects of matrix composition on microparticle properties were characterized by Laser Light scattering, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction study, FT-infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy. The spray-dried microparticles were evaluated in terms of shape (SEM), size distribution (Laser light scattering method), production yield, drug content, initial drug loding and encapsulation efficiency. The results of X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis reveals the conversion of crystalline drug to amorphous. FTIR analysis confirmed the absence of any drug polymer interaction. The results indicated that the entrapment efficiency (EE), and product yield were depended on polymeric composition and polymeric ratios of the microspheres prepared. Tramadol microspheres based on Eudragit(®) blend can be prepared by spray-drying and the nebulization parameters do not influence significantly on particle properties.

  3. Point contacts in encapsulated graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handschin, Clevin [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Swiss Nanoscience Institute, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Fülöp, Bálint; Csonka, Szabolcs [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics and Condensed Matter Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budafoki ut 8, 1111 Budapest (Hungary); Makk, Péter; Blanter, Sofya; Weiss, Markus; Schönenberger, Christian, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Material Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)


    We present a method to establish inner point contacts with dimensions as small as 100 nm on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) encapsulated graphene heterostructures by pre-patterning the top-hBN in a separate step prior to dry-stacking. 2- and 4-terminal field effect measurements between different lead combinations are in qualitative agreement with an electrostatic model assuming point-like contacts. The measured contact resistances are 0.5–1.5 kΩ per contact, which is quite low for such small contacts. By applying a perpendicular magnetic field, an insulating behaviour in the quantum Hall regime was observed, as expected for inner contacts. The fabricated contacts are compatible with high mobility graphene structures and open up the field for the realization of several electron optical proposals.

  4. UPEC biomimickry at the urothelial barrier: lectin-functionalized PLGA microparticles for improved intravesical chemotherapy. (United States)

    Neutsch, Lukas; Wambacher, Michael; Wirth, Eva-Maria; Spijker, Sylvia; Kählig, Hanspeter; Wirth, Michael; Gabor, Franz


    The urgent demand for more potent treatment schedules in bladder cancer (BCa) therapy calls for a refinement of the intravesical administration modalities. However, progress on drug delivery systems tailored to the penetration-hostile urothelial barrier lags behind the advancements in comparable fields. This study reports on a multimodal, carrier-based delivery concept that combines biorecognitive targeting with modified release strategies for improved intravesical chemotherapy. The plant lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was immobilized on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles (MP) to induce stable cytoadhesion via cellular carbohydrate chains, similar to the specific attachment mechanism utilized by uropathogenic bacteria. A panel of DNA-selective chemotherapeutics with established track record in uro-oncology was screened for physicochemical compatibility with the polymeric carrier formulation. Critical limitations in encapsulation efficiency were found for mitomycin C (MMC), doxorubicin (DOX), and gemcitabine hydrochloride (GEM), despite multiparametric optimization of the preparation conditions. In contrast, the amphiphilic 4-(N)-stearoyl prodrug of gemcitabine (GEM-C18) exhibited excellent processability with PLGA. In vitro bioassays on 5637 human BCa cells showed that the enhanced cytoadhesion of WGA-GEM-C18-PGLA-MP traces back to the specific lectin/carbohydrate interaction, and is not easily disrupted by adverse environmental factors. Owing to several synergistic effects, the combined prodrug/targeting approach resulted in strong cytostatic response even when adjusting the exposure scheme to the confined temporal conditions of instillative treatment. Our results highlight the importance of fine-tuning both pharmacokinetic and pharmacologic parameters to gain adequate impact on urothelial cancer cells, and assign promising potential to glycan-targeted delivery concepts for the intravesical route.

  5. Formulation and Evaluation of Microparticles for Controlled Delivery of Tramadol HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel SB


    Full Text Available Although Tramadol has less analgesic power than morphine, it presents fewer side effects andconsequently is currently considered as a drug of choice in the treatment of chronic pain. The aim of thepresent work was to study preparation of controlled drug delivery of Tramadol HCl via oral route. Drugwas encapsulated within polymethacrylate copolymer i.e. Eudragit RS100 and Eudragit RL100, bysolvent evaporation method using acetone/liquid paraffin system. FTIR and DSC of Tramadol HCl andit combination with Excipients shows no change in peak of absorbance and melting point.Microparticles of different drug-polymer concentrations 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 were prepared. Magnesiumstearate was used as droplet stabilizer and lubricant in concentration of 0.3% (v/v. Selectedformulations were characterized for their micromeritics property, % yield, drug loading, particle size,surface morphology and release behaviour. In-vitro dissolution tests were performed by usingdissolution media with two different pH i.e. 1.2 pH for 2 hrs and 6.8 pH for 10 hrs. All the selectedformulations exhibited a controlled release for almost 12 hrs. Among the entire prepared batches F25shows good % drug loading (48.33%, high % yield (93% and good controlled release (98% within 12hrs. The mean particle size of microspheres ranged from 252 ± 24.54 μm. Scanning electron microscopyof microspheres revealed a spherical and uniform appearance with smooth surface. Stability study wasperformed for batch F10 shows 96.78% drug release in 12 hrs. Release of TmH was best fitted toHiguchi model and Korsmeyer-Peppas model because it presented highest values of correlationcoefficient (R2 = 0.9822.

  6. Core-shell microparticles for protein sequestration and controlled release of a protein-laden core. (United States)

    Rinker, Torri E; Philbrick, Brandon D; Temenoff, Johnna S


    Development of multifunctional biomaterials that sequester, isolate, and redeliver cell-secreted proteins at a specific timepoint may be required to achieve the level of temporal control needed to more fully regulate tissue regeneration and repair. In response, we fabricated core-shell heparin-poly(ethylene-glycol) (PEG) microparticles (MPs) with a degradable PEG-based shell that can temporally control delivery of protein-laden heparin MPs. Core-shell MPs were fabricated via a re-emulsification technique and the number of heparin MPs per PEG-based shell could be tuned by varying the mass of heparin MPs in the precursor PEG phase. When heparin MPs were loaded with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and then encapsulated into core-shell MPs, degradable core-shell MPs initiated similar C2C12 cell alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as the soluble control, while non-degradable core-shell MPs initiated a significantly lower response (85+19% vs. 9.0+4.8% of the soluble control, respectively). Similarly, when degradable core-shell MPs were formed and then loaded with BMP-2, they induced a ∼7-fold higher C2C12 ALP activity than the soluble control. As C2C12 ALP activity was enhanced by BMP-2, these studies indicated that degradable core-shell MPs were able to deliver a bioactive, BMP-2-laden heparin MP core. Overall, these dynamic core-shell MPs have the potential to sequester, isolate, and then redeliver proteins attached to a heparin core to initiate a cell response, which could be of great benefit to tissue regeneration applications requiring tight temporal control over protein presentation.

  7. Increasing the thermal storage capacity of a phase change material by encapsulation: preparation and application in natural rubber. (United States)

    Phadungphatthanakoon, Songpon; Poompradub, Sirilux; Wanichwecharungruang, Supason P


    Existing encapsulated organic phase change materials (PCM) usually contain a shell material that possesses a poor heat storage capacity and so results in a lowered latent heat storage density of the encapsulated PCM compared to unencapsulated PCM. Here, we demonstrate the use of a novel microencapsulation process to encapsulate n-eicosane (C20) into a 2:1 (w/w) ratio blend of ethyl cellulose (EC):methyl cellulose (MC) to give C20-loaded EC/MC microspheres with an increased heat storage capacity compared to the unencapsulated C20. Up to a 29 and 24% increase in the absolute enthalpy value during crystallization and melting were observed for the encap-C20/EC/MC microparticles with a 9% (w/w) EC/MC polymer content. The mechanism that leads to the increased latent heat storage capacity is discussed. The blending of the water-dispersible C20-loaded EC/MC microspheres into natural rubber latex showed excellent compatibility, and the obtained rubber composite showed not only an obvious thermoregulation property but also an improved mechanical property.

  8. Stability of Trans-Resveratrol Encapsulated in a Protein Matrix Produced Using Spray Drying to UV Light Stress and Simulated Gastro-Intestinal Digestion. (United States)

    Koga, Clarissa C; Andrade, Juan E; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Lee, Youngsoo


    Trans-resveratrol has demonstrated the potential to provide both therapeutic and preventive activities against chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. The incorporation of trans-resveratrol into food products would allow for broader access of this bioactive compound to a larger population. However, this strategy is limited by instability of trans-resveratrol under environmental conditions and within the digestive system leading to isomerization of trans-resveratrol (bioactive form) to cis-resveratrol (bio-inactive form). Studies in the stabilization of trans-resveratrol into protein microparticles are presented. Trans-resveratrol was encapsulated using whey protein concentrate (WPC) or sodium caseinate (SC), with or without anhydrous milk fat (AMF). Binding of resveratrol and aromatic residues in protein was estimated utilizing the Stern-Volmer equation and the number of tryptophan residues. The stability of encapsulated resveratrol was evaluated after exposure to ultraviolet A (UVA) light and 3-stage in vitro digestion. After UVA light exposure, SC-based microcapsules maintained a higher trans:cis resveratrol ratio (0.63, P < 0.05) than WPC-based microcapsules (0.43) and unencapsulated resveratrol (0.49). In addition, encapsulation of resveratrol in both protein microparticles led to an increased digestive stability and bioaccessibility in comparison to unencapsulated resveratrol (47% and 23%, respectively, P < 0.05). SC-based microcapsules provided a higher digestive stability and bioaccessibility (86% and 81%; P < 0.05) compared to WPC-based microcapsules (71% and 68%). The addition of AMF to the microcapsules did not significantly change the in vitro digestion values. In conclusion, SC-based microencapsulation increased the stability of trans-resveratrol to UVA light exposure and simulated digestion conditions. This encapsulation-system-approach can be extended to other labile, bioactive polyphenols.

  9. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles supporting activated protein C-mediated regulation of blood coagulation. (United States)

    Koshiar, Ruzica Livaja; Somajo, Sofia; Norström, Eva; Dahlbäck, Björn


    Elevated levels of erythrocyte-derived microparticles are present in the circulation in medical conditions affecting the red blood cells. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles expose phosphatidylserine thus providing a suitable surface for procoagulant reactions leading to thrombin formation via the tenase and prothrombinase complexes. Patients with elevated levels of circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles have increased thrombin generation in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether erythrocyte-derived microparticles are able to support the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles were isolated using ultracentrifugation after incubation of freshly prepared erythrocytes with the ionophore A23187 or from outdated erythrocyte concentrates, the different microparticles preparations yielding similar results. According to flow cytometry analysis, the microparticles exposed phoshatidylserine and bound lactadherin, annexin V, and protein S, which is a cofactor to activated protein C. The microparticles were able to assemble the tenase and prothrombinase complexes and to stimulate the formation of thrombin in plasma-based thrombin generation assay both in presence and absence of added tissue factor. The addition of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay inhibited thrombin generation in a dose-dependent fashion. The anticoagulant effect of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody that prevents binding of protein S to microparticles and also attenuated by anti-TFPI antibodies. In the presence of erythrocyte-derived microparticles, activated protein C inhibited tenase and prothrombinase by degrading the cofactors FVIIIa and FVa, respectively. Protein S stimulated the Arg306-cleavage in FVa, whereas efficient inhibition of FVIIIa depended on the synergistic cofactor activity of protein S and FV. In summary, the erythrocyte-derived microparticle

  10. Principle and Method of Preparation of Explosive Micro-particles Through the Supercritical Anti-solvent Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Liang-an; LIU Xue-wu; LI Zhi-yi; WANG Xiao-tong; YIN Xing-bo


    In explosive research area, one of important trends is to study on the preparation technology of explosive microparticles. A new principle and method based on supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process is put forward and discussed for the preparation of explosive micro-particles. The satisfactory micro-particles of explosives can be obtained easily by its particular mechanism of creating micro-particles, and operating conditions at normal temperature. This method is good for further study and development.

  11. Activation of the Inflammasome and Enhanced Migration of Microparticle-Stimulated Dendritic Cells to the Draining Lymph Node


    Meraz, Ismail M.; Melendez, Brenda; Gu, Jianhua; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Liu, Xuewu; Andersson, Helen A.; Serda, Rita E.


    Porous silicon microparticles presenting pathogen-associated molecular patterns mimic pathogens, enhancing internalization of the microparticles and activation of antigen presenting dendritic cells. We demonstrate abundant uptake of microparticles bound by the TLR-4 ligands LPS and MPL by murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC). Labeled microparticles induce concentration-dependent production of IL-1β, with inhibition by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK supporting activation of the N...

  12. Electrospray Encapsulation of Toll-Like Receptor Agonist Resiquimod in Polymer Microparticles for the Treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis (United States)


    caused by Leishmania, an intracellular protozoan parasite genus that is transmitted to humans via sandflies . Infection with the Leishmania parasite can...super- natant was stored in a 96 well plate at −20 °C. After all samples were collected they were brought up to room temperature and the fluorescence

  13. Formulation of porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles by electrospray deposition method for controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Yazhou; Wang, Bochu, E-mail:; Deng, Jia; Zhu, Liancai; Cao, Yang


    In the present study, the electrospray deposition was successfully applied to prepare the porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles by one-step processing. Metronidazole was selected as the model drug. The porous PLGA microparticles had high drug loading and low density, and the porous structure can be observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The production time has been shortened considerably compared with that of the traditional multi-emulsion method. In addition, no chemical reaction occurred between the drug and polymer in the preparation of porous microparticles, and the crystal structure of drug did not change after entrapment into the porous microparticles. The porous microparticles showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric fluid, and the release followed non-Fickian or case II transport. Furthermore, porous microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro. The results indicated that electrospray deposition is a good technique for preparation of porous microparticles, and the low-density porous PLGA microparticles has a potential for the development of gastroretentive systems or for pulmonary drug delivery. - Highlights: • The porous PLGA microparticles were successfully prepared by the electrospray deposition method at one step. • The porous microparticles had high loading capacity and low density. • The microparticle showed a sustained release in the simulated gastric liquid. • The microparticles showed a slight cytotoxicity in vitro.

  14. Development of novel encapsulated formulations using albumin-chitosan as a polymer matrix for ocular drug delivery (United States)

    Addo, Richard Tettey

    Designing formulations for ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical scientist due to the unique anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of the eye. Current treatment protocols for administration of drugs in eye diseases are primarily solution formulations, gels or ointments. However, these modes of delivery have several drawbacks such as short duration of exposure, need for repeated administrations and non-specific toxicity. We hypothesize that development of ocular drugs in microparticles will overcome the deficiencies of the current modalities of treatment. We based the hypothesis on the preliminary studies conducted with encapsulated tetracaine, an anesthetic used for surgical purposes and atropine, a medication used for several ophthalmic indications including mydriatic and cycloplegic effects. However, atropine is well absorbed into the systemic circulation and has been reported to exert severe systemic side effects after ocular administration (Hoefnagel D. 1961, Morton H. G. 1939 and Lang J. C. 1995) and may lead to serious side effects including death in extreme cases with pediatric use. Based on these observations, the focus of this dissertation is to formulate microparticulate drug carrier for treatment of various conditions of the eye. Purpose: To prepare, characterize, study the in vitro and in vivo interaction of albumin-chitosan microparticles (BSA-CSN MS), a novel particulate drug carrier for ocular drug delivery. Method: Microparticle formulations were prepared by method of spray drying. The percentage drug loading and efficiency were assessed using USP (I) dissolution apparatus. Using Malvern Zeta-Sizer, we determined size and surface charge of the fabrication. Surface morphology of the microparticles was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Microparticles were characterized in terms of thermal properties using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCET-1) were

  15. Distinct features of circulating microparticles and their relationship to clinical manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer T; Østergaard, Ole; Johnsen, Christina;


    Characterization of the abundance, origin, and annexin V (AnxV)-binding capabilities of circulating microparticles (MPs) in SLE patients and healthy controls and to determine any associations with clinical parameters.......Characterization of the abundance, origin, and annexin V (AnxV)-binding capabilities of circulating microparticles (MPs) in SLE patients and healthy controls and to determine any associations with clinical parameters....

  16. Nicotine-magnesium aluminum silicate microparticle surface modified with chitosan for mucosal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjanakawinkul, Watchara; Rades, Thomas; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit


    Magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay, and nicotine (NCT), a basic drug, can interact electrostatically to form microparticles. Chitosan (CS) was used for the surface modification of the microparticles, and a lyophilization method was used to preserve the original particle...

  17. Facile and High-Throughput Synthesis of Functional Microparticles with Quick Response Codes. (United States)

    Ramirez, Lisa Marie S; He, Muhan; Mailloux, Shay; George, Justin; Wang, Jun


    Encoded microparticles are high demand in multiplexed assays and labeling. However, the current methods for the synthesis and coding of microparticles either lack robustness and reliability, or possess limited coding capacity. Here, a massive coding of dissociated elements (MiCODE) technology based on innovation of a chemically reactive off-stoichimetry thiol-allyl photocurable polymer and standard lithography to produce a large number of quick response (QR) code microparticles is introduced. The coding process is performed by photobleaching the QR code patterns on microparticles when fluorophores are incorporated into the prepolymer formulation. The fabricated encoded microparticles can be released from a substrate without changing their features. Excess thiol functionality on the microparticle surface allows for grafting of amine groups and further DNA probes. A multiplexed assay is demonstrated using the DNA-grafted QR code microparticles. The MiCODE technology is further characterized by showing the incorporation of BODIPY-maleimide (BDP-M) and Nile Red fluorophores for coding and the use of microcontact printing for immobilizing DNA probes on microparticle surfaces. This versatile technology leverages mature lithography facilities for fabrication and thus is amenable to scale-up in the future, with potential applications in bioassays and in labeling consumer products.

  18. Characterization of blood borne microparticles as markers of premature coronary calcification in newly menopausal women. (United States)

    Jayachandran, Muthuvel; Litwiller, Robert D; Owen, Whyte G; Heit, John A; Behrenbeck, Thomas; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Araoz, Philip A; Budoff, Matthew J; Harman, S Mitchell; Miller, Virginia M


    While the risk for symptomatic atherosclerotic disease increases after menopause, currently recognized risk factors do not identify ongoing disease processes in low-risk women. This study tested the hypothesis that circulating cell-derived microparticles may reflect disease processes in women defined as low risk by the Framingham risk score. The concentration and phenotype of circulating microparticles were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of apparently healthy menopausal women, screened for enrollment into the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Microparticles were evaluated by flow cytometry, and coronary artery calcification (CAC) was scored using 64-slice computed tomography scanners. The procoagulant activity of isolated microparticles was determined with a sensitive fluorescent thrombin generation assay. Chronological age, body mass index, serum lipids, systolic blood pressure (Framingham risk score 50; range, 93-315 Agatston units) CAC compared with women without calcification. The total concentration and percentage of microparticles derived from platelets and endothelial cells were greatest in women with high CAC scores. The thrombin-generating capacity of the isolated microparticles correlated with phosphatidylserine expression, which also was greatest in women with high CAC scores. The percentages of microparticles expressing granulocyte and monocyte markers were not significantly different among groups. Therefore, the characterization of platelet and endothelial microparticles may identify early menopausal women with premature CAC who would not otherwise be identified by the usual risk factor analysis.

  19. Bilayer mucoadhesive microparticles for the delivery of metoprolol succinate: Formulation and evaluation. (United States)

    Kumar, Krishan; Dhawan, Neha; Sharma, Harshita; Patwal, Pramod S; Vaidya, Shubha; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar


    Metoprolol succinate is a very potent drug for the treatment of hypertension but suffers from poor bioavailability due to its erratic absorption in lower GI tract. Therefore, in the present study, it was hypothesized that by formulating mucoadhesive particles, the residence time in the GIT and release of drug may be prolonged that will enhance the bioavailability of metoprolol succinate. Metoprolol succinate loaded chitosan microparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method. The optimized microparticles were coated with sodium alginate to form a layer over chitosan microparticles to increase the mucoadhesive strength and to release the drug in controlled manner. Coated and uncoated microparticles were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, entrapment efficiency, drug loading and in vitro drug release. The coated microparticles showed comparatively less drug release in the 0.1 N HCl while sustained release in PBS (pH 6.8) as compared to uncoated microparticles. The in vivo study on albino rats demonstrated an increase in bioavailability of the coated microparticles as compared to marketed formulation. From the study it can be concluded that alginate coated chitosan microparticles could be a useful carrier for the oral delivery of metoprolol succinate.

  20. Eudragit® microparticles for the release of budesonide: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Cortesi


    Full Text Available This study compares the behaviour of budesonide-containing microparticles made of Eudragit® RS or Eudragit® RS/Eudragit® RL 70:30 (w/w prepared either by solvent evaporation or spray-drying technique. The loading efficiency of budesonide within microparticles was about 72% for microparticles prepared by solvent evaporation and around 78% for spray-dried microparticles. Thermal analyses were assessed to collect information about the structural stability of budesonide within the polymeric microspheres. The in vitro release was performed using simulating gastric (fasted state simulated gastric fluid and intestinal (fasted state simulated intestinal fluid fluids as the receiving solutions. After 3 h the drug release from Eudragit® RS/Eudragit® RL microparticles was about 6-fold higher than that obtained in the case of monopolymer microparticles. Using fasted state simulated intestinal fluid the drug was released between 4 and 30% in both types of preparations. Eudragit® RS microparticles showed a better protection of the drug from gastric acidity than those of Eudragit® RS/Eudragit® RL allowing us to propose Eudragit® RS microparticles as a hypothetical system of colon specific controlled delivery.

  1. Gelatin microparticles containing propolis obtained by spray-drying technique: preparation and characterization. (United States)

    Bruschi, M L; Cardoso, M L C; Lucchesi, M B; Gremião, M P D


    Gelatin microparticles containing propolis extractive solution (PES) were prepared by spray-drying technique. The optimization of the spray-drying operating conditions and the proportions of gelatin and mannitol were investigated. Regular particle morphology was obtained when mannitol was used, whereas mannitol absence produced a substantial number of coalesced and agglomerated microparticles. Microparticles had a mean diameter of 2.70 microm without mannitol and 2.50 microm with mannitol. The entrapment efficiency for propolis of the microparticles was upto 41% without mannitol and 39% with mannitol. The microencapsulation by spray-drying technique maintained the activity of propolis against Staphylococcus aureus. These gelatin microparticles containing propolis would be useful for developing intermediary or eventual propolis dosage form without the PES' strong and unpleasant taste, aromatic odour, and presence of ethanol.

  2. Assessing consumption of bioactive micro-particles by filter-feeding Asian carp (United States)

    Jensen, Nathan R.; Amberg, Jon J.; Luoma, James A.; Walleser, Liza R.; Gaikowski, Mark P.


    Silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (SVC) and bighead carp H. nobilis (BHC) have impacted waters in the US since their escape. Current chemical controls for aquatic nuisance species are non-selective. Development of a bioactive micro-particle that exploits filter-feeding habits of SVC or BHC could result in a new control tool. It is not fully understood if SVC or BHC will consume bioactive micro-particles. Two discrete trials were performed to: 1) evaluate if SVC and BHC consume the candidate micro-particle formulation; 2) determine what size they consume; 3) establish methods to evaluate consumption of filter-feeders for future experiments. Both SVC and BHC were exposed to small (50-100 μm) and large (150-200 μm) micro-particles in two 24-h trials. Particles in water were counted electronically and manually (microscopy). Particles on gill rakers were counted manually and intestinal tracts inspected for the presence of micro-particles. In Trial 1, both manual and electronic count data confirmed reductions of both size particles; SVC appeared to remove more small particles than large; more BHC consumed particles; SVC had fewer overall particles in their gill rakers than BHC. In Trial 2, electronic counts confirmed reductions of both size particles; both SVC and BHC consumed particles, yet more SVC consumed micro-particles compared to BHC. Of the fish that ate micro-particles, SVC consumed more than BHC. It is recommended to use multiple metrics to assess consumption of candidate micro-particles by filter-feeders when attempting to distinguish differential particle consumption. This study has implications for developing micro-particles for species-specific delivery of bioactive controls to help fisheries, provides some methods for further experiments with bioactive micro-particles, and may also have applications in aquaculture.

  3. Influence of peripheral blood microparticles of pregnant women with preeclampsia on the phenotype of monocytes. (United States)

    Sokolov, Dmitriy I; Ovchinnikova, Olga M; Korenkov, Daniil A; Viknyanschuk, Alice N; Benken, Konstantin A; Onokhin, Kirril V; Selkov, Sergey A


    Platelet- and endothelial-derived microparticles influence the phenotype of peripheral blood leukocytes and induce production of proinflammatory cytokines. The influence of blood plasma microparticles of pregnant women on the surface receptor expression on intact or activated monocytes is still unexplored. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that peripheral blood microparticles of women with normal pregnancy and women with preeclampsia have different influence on the expression of surface molecules on monocytes. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of blood plasma microparticles of pregnant women on the phenotypic properties of intact and activated THP-1 monocytes. Microparticles were isolated from peripheral blood samples of nonpregnant women, healthy pregnant women, and women with preeclampsia. THP-1 cell line was used as a model of monocytes. Microparticles of nonpregnant women decreased CD18, CD49d, and CD54 expressions and increased CD11c, CD31, CD47, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expressions. Microparticles of healthy pregnant women increased CD18, CD54, and integrin β7 expressions and decreased CD11a and CD29 expressions. Microparticles of women with preeclampsia decreased CD18 expression on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-activated ТНР-1 cells. Microparticles of nonpregnant women, women with normal pregnancy, and pregnant women with preeclampsia decreased CD181 expression on intact and TNF-α-activated THP-1 cells. Therefore, blood plasma microparticles of women with normal pregnancy and women with preeclampsia have different influences on the expression of surface molecules on THP-1 monocytes.

  4. Dynamics of rigid microparticles at the interface of co-flowing immiscible liquids in a microchannel. (United States)

    Jayaprakash, K S; Banerjee, U; Sen, A K


    We report the dynamical migration behavior of rigid polystyrene microparticles at an interface of co-flowing streams of primary CP1 (aqueous) and secondary CP2 (oils) immiscible phases at low Reynolds numbers (Re) in a microchannel. The microparticles initially suspended in the CP1 either continue to flow in the bulk CP1 or migrate across the interface into CP2, when the stream width of the CP1 approaches the diameter of the microparticles. Experiments were performed with different secondary phases and it is found that the migration criterion depends on the sign of the spreading parameter S and the presence of surfactant at the interface. To substantiate the migration criterion, experiments were also carried out by suspending the microparticles in CP2 (oil phase). Our study reveals that in case of aqueous-silicone oil combination, the microparticles get attached to the interface since S90°. For complete detachment of microparticles from the interface into the secondary phase, additional energy ΔG is needed. We discuss the role of interfacial perturbation, which causes detachment of microparticles from the interface. In case of mineral and olive oils, the surfactants present at the interface prevents attachment of the microparticles to the interface due to the repulsive disjoining pressure. Finally, using a aqueous-silicone oil system, we demonstrate size based sorting of microparticles of size 25μm and 15μm respectively from that of 15μm and 10μm and study the variation of separation efficiency η with the ratio of the width of the aqueous stream to the diameter of the microparticles ρ.

  5. Encapsulation of isohexenylnaphthazarins in cyclodextrins. (United States)

    Assimopoulou, A N; Papageorgiou, V P


    Naturally occurring isohexenylnaphthazarins (IHN), such as Alkannin, Shikonin (A/S) and their derivatives, are potent pharmaceutical substances with a wide spectrum of biological activity. In the present study, inclusion complexes of alkannin and shikonin commercial samples and IHN derivatives in the form of an oily extract of Alkanna tinctoria roots were formed with beta-cyclodextrin (CD) and beta-HPCD. These complexes were investigated to evaluate the effect of complexation on their aqueous solubility, decoloration, and also the percentage of polymeric A/S and IHN derivatives enclosed in the CDs cavity, since these decrease the active monomeric IHN. Both beta-CD and beta-HPCD increased the aqueous solubility of A/S and IHN derivatives and thus inclusion complexes can be used as drug delivery systems for A/S in both internal (capsules, tablets) and external hydrophilic pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations (creams, gels, sprays) with enhanced bioavailability. The inclusion complexes formed had a pale purple colour, contributing to the partial decoloration of the A/S and thus of the fi nal pharmaceutical preparations. Finally, CDs selectively included more monomeric and less polymeric IHN, compared with the initial each time sample that is encapsulated; thus inclusion complexes may present enhanced biological activity.

  6. Lipid encapsulated phenolic compounds by fluidization (United States)

    Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a phenolic compound present in grain crops and lignocellulose biomass, was encapsulated with saturated triglycerides using a laboratory fluidizer. Stability of t...

  7. Ultrasound-induced encapsulated microbubble phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, Michiel; Wamel, van Annemieke; Lancée, Charles T.; Jong, de Nico


    When encapsulated microbubbles are subjected to high-amplitude ultrasound, the following phenomena have been reported: oscillation, translation, coalescence, fragmentation, sonic cracking and jetting. In this paper, we explain these phenomena, based on theories that were validated for relatively big

  8. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candido, Paula de Castro Menezes; Werner, Andrea de Freitas; Pereira, Izabela Machado Flores; Matos, Breno Assuncao; Pfeilsticker, Rudolf Moreira; Silva Filho, Raul, E-mail: [Hospital Felicio Rocho, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, a rare cause of bowel obstruction, was described as a complication associated with peritoneal dialysis which is much feared because of its severity. The authors report a case where radiological findings in association with clinical symptoms have allowed for a noninvasive diagnosis of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, emphasizing the high sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography to demonstrate the characteristic findings of such a condition. (author)

  9. Encapsulated Thermoelectric Modules for Advanced Thermoelectric Systems (United States)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Jinushi, Takahiro; Ishijima, Zenzo


    An encapsulated thermoelectric (TE) module consists of a vacuum-tight stainless-steel container in which an SiGe or BiTe TE module is encapsulated. This construction enables maximum performance and durability because: the thermal expansion mismatch between the hot and cold sides of the container can be accommodated by a sliding sheet in the container; the TE module inside is always kept in a vacuum environment, therefore no oxidation can occur; and the pressure difference between the inside and outside of the container reduces thermal contact resistance inside the container. Our encapsulated SiGe module features higher operating temperature—up to 650°C for both hot and cold sides. Other high-temperature modules and conventional BiTe modules, including both-sides and one-side skeleton types, have been encapsulated. Several variants of the encapsulated module are available. Encapsulated thermoelectric modules with integrated coolers contain cooling panels through which water can pass. If the module hot side is heated by a radiating heat source (radiation coupling) or convection of a hot gas or fluid (convection coupling), no pressing force on the module is necessary. It therefore features minimum contact resistance with the cooling duct, because no pressure is applied, maximum TE power, and minimum installation cost. Another, larger, variant is a quadruple flexible container in which four modules (each of maximum size 40 mm × 40 mm) are encapsulated. These encapsulated modules were used in a powder metallurgy furnace and were in use for more than 3000 h. Application to cryogenic temperatures simulating the liquid nitrogen gas vaporizer has been also attempted.

  10. Laser plasma jet driven microparticles for DNA/drug delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Menezes

    Full Text Available This paper describes a microparticle delivery device that generates a plasma jet through laser ablation of a thin metal foil and uses the jet to accomplish particle delivery into soft living targets for transferring biological agents. Pure gold microparticles of 1 µm size were coated with a plasmid DNA, pIG121Hm, and were deposited as a thin layer on one surface of an aluminum foil. The laser (Nd:YAG, 1064 nm wavelength ablation of the foil generated a plasma jet that carried the DNA coated particles into the living onion cells. The particles could effectively penetrate the target cells and disseminate the DNA, effecting the transfection of the cells. Generation of the plasma jet on laser ablation of the foil and its role as a carrier of microparticles was visualized using a high-speed video camera, Shimadzu HPV-1, at a frame rate of 500 kfps (2 µs interframe interval in a shadowgraph optical set-up. The particle speed could be measured from the visualized images, which was about 770 m/s initially, increased to a magnitude of 1320 m/s, and after a quasi-steady state over a distance of 10 mm with an average magnitude of 1100 m/s, started declining, which typically is the trend of a high-speed, pulsed, compressible jet. Aluminum launch pad (for the particles was used in the present study to make the procedure cost-effective, whereas the guided, biocompatible launch pads made of gold, silver or titanium can be used in the device during the actual clinical operations. The particle delivery device has a potential to have a miniature form and can be an effective, hand-held drug/DNA delivery device for biological applications.

  11. Accelerating protein release from microparticles for regenerative medicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Lisa J., E-mail:; Kirby, Giles T.S.; Cox, Helen C.; Qodratnama, Roozbeh; Qutachi, Omar; Rose, Felicity R.A.J.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.


    There is a need to control the spatio-temporal release kinetics of growth factors in order to mitigate current usage of high doses. A novel delivery system, capable of providing both structural support and controlled release kinetics, has been developed from PLGA microparticles. The inclusion of a hydrophilic PLGA–PEG–PLGA triblock copolymer altered release kinetics such that they were decoupled from polymer degradation. A quasi zero order release profile over four weeks was produced using 10% w/w PLGA–PEG–PLGA with 50:50 PLGA whereas complete and sustained release was achieved over ten days using 30% w/w PLGA–PEG–PLGA with 85:15 PLGA and over four days using 30% w/w PLGA–PEG–PLGA with 50:50 PLGA. These three formulations are promising candidates for delivery of growth factors such as BMP-2, PDGF and VEGF. Release profiles were also modified by mixing microparticles of two different formulations providing another route, not previously reported, for controlling release kinetics. This system provides customisable, localised and controlled delivery with adjustable release profiles, which will improve the efficacy and safety of recombinant growth factor delivery. Highlights: ► A new delivery system providing controlled release kinetics has been developed. ► Inclusion of hydrophilic PLGA–PEG–PLGA decoupled release kinetics from degradation. ► Using 10% triblock copolymer produced quasi zero order release over four weeks. ► Mixing microparticle formulations provided another route for controlling release. ► This system provides customisable, localised and controlled delivery of growth factors.

  12. Protein encapsulation in polymeric microneedles by photolithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochhar JS


    Full Text Available Jaspreet Singh Kochhar,1 Shui Zou,2 Sui Yung Chan,1 Lifeng Kang11Department of Pharmacy, 2Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, SingaporeBackground: Recent interest in biocompatible polymeric microneedles for the delivery of biomolecules has propelled considerable interest in fabrication of microneedles. It is important that the fabrication process is feasible for drug encapsulation and compatible with the stability of the drug in question. Moreover, drug encapsulation may offer the advantage of higher drug loading compared with other technologies, such as drug coating.Methods and results: In this study, we encapsulated a model protein drug, namely, bovine serum albumin, in polymeric microneedles by photolithography. Drug distribution within the microneedle array was found to be uniform. The encapsulated protein retained its primary, secondary, and tertiary structural characteristics. In vitro release of the encapsulated protein showed that almost all of the drug was released into phosphate buffered saline within 6 hours. The in vitro permeation profile of encapsulated bovine serum albumin through rat skin was also tested and shown to resemble the in vitro release profile, with an initial release burst followed by a slow release phase. The cytotoxicity of the microneedles without bovine serum albumin was tested in three different cell lines. High cell viabilities were observed, demonstrating the innocuous nature of the microneedles.Conclusion: The microneedle array can potentially serve as a useful drug carrier for proteins, peptides, and vaccines.Keywords: poly (ethylene glycol diacrylate, microneedles, protein stability, photolithography, biocompatibility

  13. Live cell refractometry based on non-SPR microparticle sensor. (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Chen, David D Y; Yu, Lirong; Luo, Yong


    Unlike the nanoparticles with surface plasmon resonance, the optical response of polystyrene microparticles (PSMPs) is insensitive to the chemical components of the surrounding medium under the wavelength-dependent differential interference contrast microscopy. This fact is exploited for the measurement of the refractive index of cytoplasm in this study. PSMPs of 400 nm in diameter were loaded into the cell to contact cytoplasm seamlessly, and the refractive index information of cytoplasm could be extracted by differential interference contrast microscopy operated at 420 nm illumination wavelength through the contrast analysis of PSMPs images. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Single microparticles mass measurement using an AFM cantilever resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Marco; Ferrini, Gianluca; Puglisi, Roberto; Balduzzi, Donatella; Galli, Andrea


    In this work is presented a microbalance for single microparticle sensing based on resonating AFM cantilever. The variation of the resonator eigenfrequency is related to the particle mass positioned at the free apex of the cantilever. An all-digital phase locked loop (PLL) control system is developed to detect the variations in cantilever eigenfrequency. Two particle populations of different materials are used in the experimental test, demonstrating a mass sensitivity of 15 Hz/pg in ambient conditions. Thereby it is validated the possibility of developing an inexpensive, portable and sensitive microbalance for point-mass sensing.

  15. Interfacial synthesis and widely controllable conductivity of polythiophene microparticles. (United States)

    Li, Xin-Gui; Li, Ji; Meng, Qing-Kai; Huang, Mei-Rong


    Fine polythiophene (PTh) microparticles were successfully synthesized by a novel interfacial polymerization at a dynamic interface between two immiscible solvents, i.e., n-hexane and acetonitrile or nitromethane containing thiophene and oxidant, respectively. The polymerization yield, size, and electrical conductivity of the microparticles are optimized by facilely regulating the medium species, oxidant species, oxidant/monomer ratio, monomer concentration, and polymerization temperature. The microparticles were thoroughly characterized by IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffractometry, laser particle-size analyzer, and simultaneous TG-DSC technique. The yield rises with increasing oxidant/monomer ratio, monomer concentration, and polymerization temperature. However, low monomer concentration, low polymerization temperature, and modest oxidant/monomer ratio are all favorable for the formation of the PTh with good, large pi-conjugation and high conductivity. With decreasing the thiophene concentration from 200 to 50 mM at a fixed FeCl3/thiophene molar ratio of 3 at 0 degrees C in hexane/nitromethane biphase system, the PTh obtained exhibits a steadily enhanced conductivity from 10(-12) to 0.01 S cm(-1) and gradually darkening color from crimson to black. Under the same conditions, the PTh obtained in hexane/acetonitrile usually possesses lower yield but higher conductivity than that in hexane/nitromethane. The conductivity will be further enhanced to 1.1 and 4.4 S cm(-1) if the PTh powders are doped in iodine vapor and simply carbonized at 25 through 999 degrees C in nitrogen, respectively. The PTh is fine particles with the number-average diameter of 2.67-3.95 microm and low size polydispersity index between 1.12 and 1.23. The black particles carbonized at 25 to 999 degrees C are much smaller than original PTh particles, with the number-average diameter of 279 nm and size polydispersity index of 1.09. This interfacial approach provides an optimal

  16. Equilibrium fluctuations in the theory of surface processes on microparticles (United States)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.


    The question of the role of equilibrium fluctuations in the adsorption theory and kinetics of surface processes occurring on the particles of the nanometer size range is discussed. Differences are put forward that need to be introduced to the fluctuation theory of surface processes on microparticles and that generalize Hill's approach to describing the thermodynamic properties of small systems. We show the importance of allowing for the discrete character of adsorption centers on the surfaces and their heterogeneity when describing adsorption isotherms and the rates of adsorption processes.

  17. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using optoelectronic tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Verma; R Dasgupta; N Kumar; S Ahlawat; A Uppal; P K Gupta


    We report the development of an optoelectronic tweezers set-up which works by lightinduced dielectrophoresis mechanism to manipulate microparticles. We used thermal evaporation technique for coating the organic polymer, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as a photoconductive layer on ITO-coated glass slide. Compare to the conventional optical tweezers, the technique requires optical power in W range and provides a manipulation area of a few mm2. The set-up was used to manipulate the polystyrene microspheres and red blood cells (RBCs). The RBCs could be attracted or repelled by varying the frequency of the applied AC bias.

  18. Alteration of kafirin and kafirin film structure by heating with microwave energy and tannin complexation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Byaruhanga, YB


    Full Text Available . R.; Rao, G. R. Vibrational analysis of substituted phenols, Part I, vibrational spectra, normal coordinate analysis and transferability of force constants of some formyl, methoxy-, formylmethoxy-, methyl- and halogeno-phenols. Spectrochim. Acta...

  19. pH-responsive and enzymatically-responsive hydrogel microparticles for the oral delivery of therapeutic proteins: Effects of protein size, crosslinking density, and hydrogel degradation on protein delivery. (United States)

    Koetting, Michael Clinton; Guido, Joseph Frank; Gupta, Malvika; Zhang, Annie; Peppas, Nicholas A


    Two potential platform technologies for the oral delivery of protein therapeutics were synthesized and tested. pH-responsive poly(itaconic acid-co-N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (P(IA-co-NVP)) hydrogel microparticles were tested in vitro with model proteins salmon calcitonin, urokinase, and rituximab to determine the effects of particle size, protein size, and crosslinking density on oral delivery capability. Particle size showed no significant effect on overall delivery potential but did improve percent release of encapsulated protein over the micro-scale particle size range studied. Protein size was shown to have a significant impact on the delivery capability of the P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogel. We show that when using P(IA-co-NVP) hydrogel microparticles with 3 mol% tetra(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate crosslinker, a small polypeptide (salmon calcitonin) loads and releases up to 45 μg/mg hydrogel while the mid-sized protein urokinase and large monoclonal antibody rituximab load and release only 19 and 24 μg/mg hydrogel, respectively. We further demonstrate that crosslinking density offers a simple method for tuning hydrogel properties to variously sized proteins. Using 5 mol% TEGDMA crosslinker offers optimal performance for the small peptide, salmon calcitonin, whereas lower crosslinking density of 1 mol% offers optimal performance for the much larger protein rituximab. Finally, an enzymatically-degradable hydrogels of P(MAA-co-NVP) crosslinked with the peptide sequence MMRRRKK were synthesized and tested in simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. These hydrogels offer ideal loading and release behavior, showing no degradative release of encapsulated salmon calcitonin in gastric conditions while yielding rapid and complete release of encapsulated protein within 1h in intestinal conditions.

  20. Pirfenidone inhibits p38-mediated generation of procoagulant microparticles by human alveolar epithelial cells. (United States)

    Neri, Tommaso; Lombardi, Stefania; Faìta, Francesca; Petrini, Silvia; Balìa, Cristina; Scalise, Valentina; Pedrinelli, Roberto; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Celi, Alessandro


    Pirfenidone is a drug recently approved for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis but its mechanisms of action are partially unknown. We have previously demonstrated that the airways of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis contain procoagulant microparticles that activate coagulation factor X to its active form, Xa, a proteinase that signals fibroblast growth and differentiation, thus potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. We also reported that in vitro exposure of human alveolar cells to H2O2 causes microparticle generation. Since p38 activation is involved in microparticle generation in some cell models and p38 inhibition is one of the mechanisms of action of pirfenidone, we investigated the hypothesis that H2O2-induced generation of microparticles by alveolar cells is dependent on p38 phosphorylation and is inhibited by pirfenidone. H2O2 stimulation of alveolar cells caused p38 phosphorylation that was inhibited by pirfenidone. The drug also inhibited H2O2 induced microparticle generation as assessed by two independent methods (solid phase thrombin generation and flow cytometry). The shedding of microparticle-bound tissue factor activity was also inhibited by pirfenidone. Inhibition of p38-mediated generation of procoagulant microparticle is a previously unrecognized mechanism of action of the antifibrotic drug, pirfenidone.

  1. Controlled release behaviour of protein-loaded microparticles prepared via coaxial or emulsion electrospray. (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Xiaoping; Liu, Wentao; Zhang, Feng; Cai, Qing; Deng, Xuliang


    Biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles are an effective way to achieve sustained drug release. In this study, we investigated a sustained release model of PLGA microparticles with incorporated protein via either emulsion or coaxial electrospray techniques. PLGA (75:25) was used as the carrier, and bovine serum albumin as a model protein. Coaxial electrospray resulted in a type of core-shell structure with mean diameters of 2.41 ± 0.60 µm and a centralised protein distribution within the core. Emulsion electrospray formed bigger microparticles with mean diameters of 22.75 ± 8.05 µm and a heterogeneous protein distribution throughout the microparticles. The coaxial electrospray microparticles presented a much slighter burst release than the emulsion electrospray microparticles. Loading efficiency was significantly higher (p coaxial group than emulsion group. This indicated that both emulsion and coaxial electrospray could produce protein-loaded microparticles with sustained release behaviour, but the former revealed a superior approach for drug delivery.

  2. Novel hierarchical microparticles super-assembled from nanoparticles with the induction of casein micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Xiaopeng, E-mail:; Duan, Jiangjiang; Wang, Yong; Yu, Zhaoju [Xiamen University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials (China)


    We have demonstrated a solution-based synthesis of novel waxberry-like hierarchical ZnO microparticles in the presence casein micelles under mild conditions. The microstructures of the sub-micrometer-sized hierarchical microparticles were characterized, and the synthesis conditions were optimized. The formation mechanism of the hierarchical microparticle was analyzed through control experiments. The hierarchical ZnO microparticles are found to be super-assemblies of 30-70 nm ZnO nanoparticles, which are thought to be based on casein micelle induction followed by Ostwald ripening. In the same manner, copper-based hierarchical microparticles with a similar morphology have also been successfully synthesized. By controlling the synthetic time or temperature, solid or hollow microparticles can be fabricated. The narrowly distributed ZnO microparticles have a high specific surface area, exhibiting great potential application in fields such as photocatalytic and energy conversion. Our findings may meanwhile open a new bottom-up strategy in order to construct structurally sophisticated nanomaterials.

  3. Galvanic zinc-copper microparticles inhibit melanogenesis via multiple pigmentary pathways. (United States)

    Won, Yen-Kim; Lin, Connie B; Seiberg, Miri; Chen, Nannan; Hu, Yaping; Rossetti, Dianne; Saliou, Claude; Loy, Chong-Jin


    The endogenous electrical field of human skin plays an important role in many skin functions. However, the biological effects and mechanism of action of externally applied electrical stimulation on skin remain unclear. Recent study showed that galvanic zinc-copper microparticles produce electrical stimulation and reduce inflammatory and immune responses in intact skin, suggesting the important role of electrical stimulation in non-wounded skin. The objective of this study is to investigate the biological effect of galvanic zinc-copper microparticles on skin pigmentation. Our findings showed that galvanic zinc-copper microparticles inhibited melanogenesis in a human melanoma cell line (MNT-1), human keratinocytes and melanoma cells co-cultures, and in pigmented epidermal equivalents. Treatment of galvanic zinc-copper microparticles inhibited melanogenesis by reducing the promoter transactivation of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1 in human melanoma cells. In a co-culture Transwell system of keratinocytes and melanoma cells, galvanic zinc-copper microparticles reduced melanin production via downregulation of endothelin-1 secretion from keratinocytes and reduced tyrosinase gene expression in melanoma cells. In addition, exposure of pigmented epidermal equivalents to galvanic zinc-copper microparticles resulted in reduced melanin deposition. In conclusion, our data demonstrated for the first time that galvanic zinc-copper microparticles reduced melanogenesis in melanoma cells and melanin deposition in pigmented epidermal equivalents by affecting multiple pigmentary pathways.

  4. Cytokine production induced by non-encapsulated and encapsulated Porphyromonas gingivalis strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, A.; Dekker, D.C.; van Pampus, M.G.; Harmsen, H.J.; Aarnoudse, J.G.; Abbas, F.; Faas, M.M.


    Objective: Although the exact reason is not known, encapsulated gram-negative Porphyromonas gingivalis strains are more virulent than non-encapsulated strains. Since difference in virulence properties may be due to difference in cytokine production following recognition of the bacteria or their prod

  5. New alginic acid–atenolol microparticles for inhalatory drug targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceschan, Nazareth Eliana; Bucalá, Verónica [Planta Piloto de Ingeniería Química (PLAPIQUI), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS), Camino La Carrindanga Km 7, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Departamento de Ingeniería Química, UNS, Avenida Alem 1253, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Ramírez-Rigo, María Verónica, E-mail: [Planta Piloto de Ingeniería Química (PLAPIQUI), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS), Camino La Carrindanga Km 7, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, UNS, San Juan 670, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina)


    The inhalatory route allows drug delivery for local or systemic treatments in a noninvasively way. The current tendency of inhalable systems is oriented to dry powder inhalers due to their advantages in terms of stability and efficiency. In this work, microparticles of atenolol (AT, basic antihypertensive drug) and alginic acid (AA, acid biocompatible polyelectrolyte) were obtained by spray drying. Several formulations, varying the relative composition AT/AA and the total solid content of the atomized dispersions, were tested. The powders were characterized by: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Powder X-ray Diffraction, while also the following properties were measured: drug load efficiency, flow properties, particles size and density, moisture content, hygroscopicity and morphology. The ionic interaction between AA and AT was demonstrated, then the new chemical entity could improve the drug targeting to the respiratory membrane and increase its time residence due to the mucoadhesive properties of the AA polymeric chains. Powders exhibited high load efficiencies, low moisture contents, adequate mean aerodynamic diameters and high cumulative fraction of respirable particles (lower than 10 μm). - Highlights: • Novel particulate material to target atenolol to the respiratory membrane was developed. • Crumbled microparticles were obtained by spray drying of alginic–atenolol dispersions. • Ionic interaction between alginic acid and atenolol was demonstrated in the product. • Amorphous solids with low moisture content and high load efficiency were produced. • Relationships between the feed formulation and the product characteristics were found.

  6. Formation of Gold Microparticles by Ablation with Surface Plasmons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Molian


    Full Text Available The formation of gold microparticles on a silicon substrate through the use of energetic surface plasmons is reported. A laser-assisted plasmonics system was assembled and tested to synthesize gold particles from gold thin film by electrical field enhancement mechanism. A mask containing an array of 200 nm diameter holes with a periodicity of 400 nm was prepared and placed on a silicon substrate. The mask was composed of 60 µm thick porous alumina membrane sputter-coated with 100 nm thin gold film. A Nd:YAG laser with 1064 nm wavelength and 230 µs pulse width (free-running mode was then passed through the mask at an energy fluence of 0.35 J/cm2. The extraordinary transmission of laser light through alumina/gold micro-hole optical antenna created both extended and localized surface plasmons that caused the gold film at the bottom of the mask to fragment into microparticles and deposit on the silicon substrate that is in direct contact with the mask. The surface plasmon method is simpler, quicker, more energy efficient, and environmentally safer than existing physical and chemical methods, as well as being contamination-free, and can be extended to all types of materials that will in turn allow for new possibilities in the formation of structured surfaces.

  7. A Reconfigurable Microfluidics Platform for Microparticle Separation and Fluid Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ki Hahn


    Full Text Available Microfluidics is an engineering tool used to control and manipulate fluid flows, with practical applications for lab-on-a-chip, point-of-care testing, and biological/medical research. However, microfluidic platforms typically lack the ability to create a fluidic duct, having an arbitrary flow path, and to change the path as needed without additional design and fabrication processes. To address this challenge, we present a simple yet effective approach for facile, on-demand reconfiguration of microfluidic channels using flexible polymer tubing. The tubing provides both a well-defined, cross-sectional geometry to allow reliable fluidic operation and excellent flexibility to achieve a high degree of freedom for reconfiguration of flow pathways. We demonstrate that microparticle separation and fluid mixing can be successfully implemented by reconfiguring the shape of the tubing. The tubing is coiled around a 3D-printed barrel to make a spiral microchannel with a constant curvature for inertial separation of microparticles. Multiple knots are also made in the tubing to create a highly tortuous flow path, which induces transverse secondary flows, Dean flows, and, thus, enhances the mixing of fluids. The reconfigurable microfluidics approach, with advantages including low-cost, simplicity, and ease of use, can serve as a promising complement to conventional microfabrication methods, which require complex fabrication processes with expensive equipment and lack a degree of freedom for reconfiguration.

  8. Circulating Endothelial Microparticles: A Key Hallmark of Atherosclerosis Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshav Raj Paudel


    Full Text Available The levels of circulating microparticles (MPs are raised in various cardiovascular diseases. Their increased level in plasma is regarded as a biomarker of alteration in vascular function. The prominent MPs present in blood are endothelial microparticles (EMPs described as complex submicron (0.1 to 1.0 μm vesicles like structure, released in response to endothelium cell activation or apoptosis. EMPs possess both physiological and pathological effects and may promote oxidative stress and vascular inflammation. EMPs release is triggered by inducer like angiotensin II, lipopolysaccharide, and hydrogen peroxide leading to the progression of atherosclerosis. However, there are multiple physiological pathways for EMPs generation like NADPH oxidase derived endothelial ROS formation, Rho kinase pathway, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Endothelial dysfunction is a key initiating event in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Atheroemboli, resulting from ruptured carotid plaques, is a major cause of stroke. Increasing evidence suggests that EMPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, acting as a marker of damage, either exacerbating disease progression or triggering a repair response. In this regard, it has been suggested that EMPs have the potential to act as biomarkers of disease status. This review aims to provide updated information of EMPs in relation to atherosclerosis pathogenesis.

  9. [Effect of microparticles on echinocandin B production by Aspergillus nidulans]. (United States)

    Niu, Kun; Hu, Yibo; Mao, Jian; Zou, Shuping; Zheng, Yuguo


    Anidulafungin is an effective antifungal medicine, which can inhibit activities of candida in vitro and in vivo. Echinocandin B (ECB) is the key precursor of Anidulafungin, thus the price and market prospect of Anidulafungin is directly due to the fermentation titer of ECB. In this study, Aspergillus nidulans was used for ECB fermentation, and the influence of adding microparticles on ECB fermentation was studied, such as talcum powder, Al2O3, and glass beads. The particle size and concentration were the key factors for mycelium morphology and ECB production, and ECB production could reach 1 262.9 mg/L and 1 344.1 mg/L by adding talcum powder of 20 g/L (d50 = 14.2 μm) and 7 glass beads (6 mm), an increase by 33.2% and 41.7%, respectively. The results indicated that the mycelium morphology of filamentous microorganisms and the product yield of fermentation could be improved by adding microparticles remarkably, and it provide an important method for the fermentative optimization of filamentous microorganisms.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic application of polyhedron zinc oxide microparticles (United States)

    Jamil, Saba; Ramzan Saeed Ashraf Janjua, Muhammad; Khan, Shanza Rauf; Jahan, Nazish


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) microparticles of unique morphology were synthesized by the microwave heating method. The composition and morphology of the synthesized microparticles were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is clear from the XRD pattern that the product is highly pure and crystalline. It is shown from the SEM images that the hexagonal unit cells are arranged in the form of a polyhedral lattice. The length of the sides is equal at the middle of the lattice, and unequal on the terminal sides of the lattice. This is due to the alignment of the hexagonal unit cells. The size distribution histogram of the product possesses a sharp band which shows that it is monodisperse. This means that a monodisperse product can be obtained by the microwave heating method. The synthesized particles were used as a catalyst for the thermal degradation of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and the catalytic reduction of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The effect of temperature on the value of the apparent rate constant was also studied, and the values of the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. This shows that the catalyst possesses high efficiency for thermally degrading of substances at low temperatures and rapidly reducing the nitroarenes in an aqueous medium.

  11. Cytotoxicity assessment of porous silicon microparticles for ocular drug delivery. (United States)

    Korhonen, Eveliina; Rönkkö, Seppo; Hillebrand, Satu; Riikonen, Joakim; Xu, Wujun; Järvinen, Kristiina; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Kauppinen, Anu


    Porous silicon (PSi) is a promising material for the delivery and sustained release of therapeutic molecules in various tissues. Due to the constant rinsing of cornea by tear solution as well as the short half-life of intravitreal drugs, the eye is an attractive target for controlled drug delivery systems, such as PSi microparticles. Inherent barriers ensure that PSi particles are retained in the eye, releasing drugs at the desired speed until they slowly break down into harmless silicic acid. Here, we have examined the in vitro cytotoxicity of positively and negatively charged thermally oxidized (TOPSi) and thermally carbonized (TCPSi) porous silicon microparticles on human corneal epithelial (HCE) and retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells. In addition to ocular assessment under an inverted microscope, cellular viability was evaluated using the CellTiter Blue™, CellTiter Fluor™, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. CellTiter Fluor proved to be a suitable assay but due to non-specific and interfering responses, neither CellTiter Blue nor LDH assays should be used when evaluating PSi particles. Our results suggest that the toxicity of PSi particles is concentration-dependent, but at least at concentrations less than 200μg/ml, both positively and negatively charged PSi particles are well tolerated by human corneal and retinal epithelial cells and therefore applicable for delivering drug molecules into ocular tissues.

  12. Composite microparticles of halloysite clay nanotubes bound by calcium carbonate. (United States)

    Jin, Yi; Yendluri, Raghuvara; Chen, Bin; Wang, Jingbo; Lvov, Yuri


    Natural halloysite clay nanotubes with 15 nm inner and 75 nm outer diameters have been used as vehicles for sustained release of drugs in composite hollow microparticles "glued" with CaCO3. We used a layer-by layer assembly accomplished alginate binding with Ca(2+) followed by CO2 bubbling to prepare the composite microspheres of CaCO3 and polyelectrolytes (PE) modified halloysite nanotubes (HNTs-PE2/CaCO3) with the diameter of about 5-10 μm. These microparticles have empty spherical structure and abundant pore distributions with maxima at 2.5, 3.9, 6.0 and 13.3 nm, and higher surface area of 82.3 m(2) g(-1) as characterized by SEM and BET test. We loaded drugs in these micro-nano carriers of tight piles of halloysite nanotube with end clogged with CaCO3. The sustained release of Nifedipine drug from HNTs-PE2/CaCO3 composite microspheres was slower than for pristine halloysite nanotubes.

  13. In vitro assessment of biopolymer-modified porous silicon microparticles for wound healing applications. (United States)

    Mori, Michela; Almeida, Patrick V; Cola, Michela; Anselmi, Giulia; Mäkilä, Ermei; Correia, Alexandra; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Caramella, Carla; Santos, Hélder A


    The wound healing stands as very complex and dynamic process, aiming the re-establishment of the damaged tissue's integrity and functionality. Thus, there is an emerging need for developing biopolymer-based composites capable of actively promoting cellular proliferation and reconstituting the extracellular matrix. The aims of the present work were to prepare and characterize biopolymer-functionalized porous silicon (PSi) microparticles, resulting in the development of drug delivery microsystems for future applications in wound healing. Thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (THCPSi) microparticles were coated with both chitosan and a mixture of chondroitin sulfate/hyaluronic acid, and subsequently loaded with two antibacterial model drugs, vancomycin and resveratrol. The biopolymer coating, drug loading degree and drug release behavior of the modified PSi microparticles were evaluated in vitro. The results showed that both the biopolymer coating and drug loading of the THCPSi microparticles were successfully achieved. In addition, a sustained release was observed for both the drugs tested. The viability and proliferation profiles of a fibroblast cell line exposed to the modified THCPSi microparticles and the subsequent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were also evaluated. The cytotoxicity and proliferation results demonstrated less toxicity for the biopolymer-coated THCPSi microparticles at different concentrations and time points comparatively to the uncoated counterparts. The ROS production by the fibroblasts exposed to both uncoated and biopolymer-coated PSi microparticles showed that the modified PSi microparticles did not induce significant ROS production at the concentrations tested. Overall, the biopolymer-based PSi microparticles developed in this study are promising platforms for wound healing applications.

  14. Salbutamol sulphate-ethylcellulose microparticles: formulation and in-vitro evaluation with emphasis on mathematical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Murtaza


    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study: This study reports the laboratory optimization for the preparation of salbutamol sulphate-ethylcellulose microparticles by a non-solvent addition coacervation technique through adjustment of the ratio of salbutamol sulphate to ethylcellulose. The variation of drug release between the microparticles and tabletted microparticles was also investigated. "nMethods: In vitro release profiles of developed microparticles and tabletted microparticles were studied using USP XXIV dissolution apparatus I and II, respectively, in 450 ml double distilled water at 50 rpm maintained at 37°C. "nResults: White microparticles with no definite shape having good entrapment efficiency (96.68 to 97.83% and production yield (97.48 ± 1.21 to 98.35 ± 1.08% were obtained. In this investigation, initial burst effect was observed in the drug release behavior. The rate of drug release from microparticles decreased as the concentration of polyisobutylene was increased from 6% to 12% during microencapsulation. The release pattern of tabletted microparticles was affected significantly (p < 0.05 by the addition of hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC as excepient and insignificantly (p > 0.05 by the type of dissolution media and stirring speed. Tabletted microparticles showed good stability and reproducibility. Ethylcellulose was found to be compatible with salbutamol sulphate. The drug release from all formulations was best fit to Higuchi's equation and the mechanism of drug release was anomalous diffusion from all formulations. "nConclusion: The results of this study suggest that by using ethylcellulose it is possible to design a single-unit, sustained-release oral dosage form of salbutamol sulphate for indication of twice a day.

  15. Four-dimensional (4D) tracking of high-temperature microparticles (United States)

    Wang, Zhehui; Liu, Q.; Waganaar, W.; Fontanese, J.; James, D.; Munsat, T.


    High-speed tracking of hot and molten microparticles in motion provides rich information about burning plasmas in magnetic fusion. An exploding-wire apparatus is used to produce moving high-temperature metallic microparticles and to develop four-dimensional (4D) or time-resolved 3D particle tracking techniques. The pinhole camera model and algorithms developed for computer vision are used for scene calibration and 4D reconstructions. 3D positions and velocities are then derived for different microparticles. Velocity resolution approaches 0.1 m/s by using the local constant velocity approximation.

  16. Pullulan: an advantageous natural polysaccharide excipient to formulate tablets of alendronate-loaded microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Mota Ferreira


    Full Text Available This work reports the preparation of tablets by direct compression of sodium alendronate-loaded microparticles, using pullulan as filler. The tableting properties of pullulan were compared with those of microcrystalline cellulose and lactose. Pullulan tablets showed low variations in average weight, thickness and drug content. Moreover, these tablets exhibited a higher hardness compared to the other excipients. In vitro release studies showed that only pullulan was capable to maintain gastroresistance and release properties of microparticles, due to its ability to protect particles against damage caused by compression force. Thus, pullulan was considered an advantageous excipient to prepare tableted microparticles.

  17. Early results of microwave transmission experiments through an overly dense rectangular plasma sheet with microparticle injection (United States)

    Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.


    These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.

  18. Microparticles engineered to highly express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ decreased inflammatory mediator production and increased adhesion of recipient monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Sahler

    Full Text Available Circulating blood microparticles are submicron vesicles released primarily by megakaryocytes and platelets that act as transcellular communicators. Inflammatory conditions exhibit elevated blood microparticle numbers compared to healthy conditions. Direct functional consequences of microparticle composition, especially internal composition, on recipient cells are poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate if microparticle composition could impact the function of recipient cells, particularly during inflammatory provocation. We therefore engineered the composition of megakaryocyte culture-derived microparticles to generate distinct microparticle populations that were given to human monocytes to assay for influences recipient cell function. Herein, we tested the responses of monocytes exposed to either control microparticles or microparticles that contain the anti-inflammatory transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ. In order to normalize relative microparticle abundance from two microparticle populations, we implemented a novel approach that utilizes a Nanodrop Spectrophotometer to assay for microparticle density rather than concentration. We found that when given to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, microparticles were preferentially internalized by CD11b+ cells, and furthermore, microparticle composition had a profound functional impact on recipient monocytes. Specifically, microparticles containing PPARγ reduced activated monocyte production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared to activated monocytes exposed to control microparticles. Additionally, treatment with PPARγ microparticles greatly increased monocyte cell adherence. This change in morphology occurred simultaneously with increased production of the key extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and increased expression of the fibronectin-binding integrin, ITGA5. PPARγ microparticles

  19. Sol-gel method for encapsulating molecules (United States)

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ashley, Carol S.; Bhatia, Rimple; Singh, Anup K.


    A method for encapsulating organic molecules, and in particular, biomolecules using sol-gel chemistry. A silica sol is prepared from an aqueous alkali metal silicate solution, such as a mixture of silicon dioxide and sodium or potassium oxide in water. The pH is adjusted to a suitably low value to stabilize the sol by minimizing the rate of siloxane condensation, thereby allowing storage stability of the sol prior to gelation. The organic molecules, generally in solution, is then added with the organic molecules being encapsulated in the sol matrix. After aging, either a thin film can be prepared or a gel can be formed with the encapsulated molecules. Depending upon the acid used, pH, and other processing conditions, the gelation time can be from one minute up to several days. In the method of the present invention, no alcohols are generated as by-products during the sol-gel and encapsulation steps. The organic molecules can be added at any desired pH value, where the pH value is generally chosen to achieve the desired reactivity of the organic molecules. The method of the present invention thereby presents a sufficiently mild encapsulation method to retain a significant portion of the activity of the biomolecules, compared with the activity of the biomolecules in free solution.

  20. The demise of plastic encapsulated microcircuit myths (United States)

    Hakim, E. B.; Agarwal, R. K.; Pecht, M.


    Production of microelectronic devices encapsulated in solid, molded plastic packages has rapidly increased since the early 1980's. Today, millions of plastic-encapsulated devices are produced daily. On the other hand, only a few million hermetic (cavity) packages are produced per year. Reasons for the increased use of plastic-encapsulated packages include cost, availability, size, weight, quality, and reliability. Markets taking advantage of this technology range from computers and telecommunications to automotive uses. Yet, several industries, the military in particular, will not accept such devices. One reason for this reluctance to use the best available commercial parts is a perceived risk of poor reliability, derived from antiquated military specifications, standards, and handbooks; other common justifications cite differing environments; inadequate screens; inadequate test data, and required government audits of suppliers' processes. This paper describes failure mechanisms associated with plastic encapsulation and their elimination. It provides data indicating the relative reliability of cavity and solid-encapsulated packaging, and presents possible approaches to assuring quality and reliability in the procuring and applying this successful commercial technology.

  1. Nondestructive Assay Options for Spent Fuel Encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jansson, Peter [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)


    This report describes the role that nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and systems of NDA techniques may have in the context of an encapsulation and deep geological repository. The potential NDA needs of an encapsulation and repository facility include safeguards, heat content, and criticality. Some discussion of the facility needs is given, with the majority of the report concentrating on the capability and characteristics of individual NDA instruments and techniques currently available or under development. Particular emphasis is given to how the NDA techniques can be used to determine the heat production of an assembly, as well as meet the dual safeguards needs of 1) determining the declared parameters of initial enrichment, burn-up, and cooling time and 2) detecting defects (total, partial, and bias). The report concludes with the recommendation of three integrated systems that might meet the combined NDA needs of the encapsulation/repository facility.

  2. Characteristics of DSSC Panels with Silicone Encapsulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Gu Kang


    Full Text Available Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC allow light transmission and the application of various colors that make them especially suitable for building-integrated PV (BIPV application. In order to apply DSSC modules to windows, the module has to be panelized: a DSSC module should be protected with toughened glass on the entire surface. Up to the present, it seems to be common to use double glazing with DSSC modules, with air gaps between the glass pane and the DSSC modules. Few studies have been conducted on the characteristics of various glazing methods with DSSC modules. This paper proposes a paneling method that uses silicone encapsulant, analyzing the performance through experimentation. Compared to a multilayered DSSC panel with an air gap, the encapsulant-applied panel showed 6% higher light transmittance and 7% higher electrical efficiency. The encapsulant also prevented electrolyte leakage by strengthening the seals in the DSSC module.

  3. Degradation of Silicone Encapsulants in CPV Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Can; Miller, David C.; Tappan, Ian A.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.


    High efficiency multijunction solar cells in terrestrial concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) modules are becoming an increasingly cost effective and viable option in utility scale power generation. As with other utility scale photovoltaics, CPV modules need to guarantee operational lifetimes of at least 25 years. The reliability of optical elements in CPV modules poses a unique materials challenge due to the increased UV irradiance and enhanced temperature cycling associated with concentrated solar flux. The polymeric and thin film materials used in the optical elements are especially susceptible to UV damage, diurnal temperature cycling and active chemical species from the environment. We used fracture mechanics approaches to study the degradation modes including: the adhesion between the encapsulant and the cell or secondary optical element; and the cohesion of the encapsulant itself. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of materials degradation under elevated stress conditions is critical for commercialization of CPV technology and can offer unique insights into degradation modes in similar encapsulants used in other photovoltaic modules.

  4. Suppression of intrinsic roughness in encapsulated graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Joachim Dahl; Gunst, Tue; Gregersen, Søren Schou


    Roughness in graphene is known to contribute to scattering effects which lower carrier mobility. Encapsulating graphene in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) leads to a significant reduction in roughness and has become the de facto standard method for producing high-quality graphene devices. We have...... fabricated graphene samples encapsulated by hBN that are suspended over apertures in a substrate and used noncontact electron diffraction measurements in a transmission electron microscope to measure the roughness of encapsulated graphene inside such structures. We furthermore compare the roughness...... of these samples to suspended bare graphene and suspended graphene on hBN. The suspended heterostructures display a root mean square (rms) roughness down to 12 pm, considerably less than that previously reported for both suspended graphene and graphene on any substrate and identical within experimental error...

  5. Assessment of bioburden encapsulated in bulk materials (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Newlin, Laura; Chung, Shirley Y.; Ellyin, Raymond


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) imposes bioburden limitations on all spacecraft destined for solar system bodies that might harbor evidence of extant or extinct life. The subset of microorganisms trapped within solid materials during manufacture and assembly is referred to as encapsulated bioburden. In the absence of spacecraft-specific data, NASA relies on specification values to estimate total spacecraft encapsulated bioburden, typically 30 endospores/cm3 or 300 viable cells/cm3 in non-electronic materials. Specification values for endospores have been established conservatively, and represent no less than an order of magnitude greater abundance than that derived from empirical assessments of actual spacecraft materials. The goal of this study was to generate data germane to determining whether revised bulk encapsulated material values (lower than those estimated by historical specifications) tailored specifically to the materials designated in modern-day spacecraft design could be used, on a case-by-case basis, to comply with planetary protection requirements. Organic materials having distinctly different chemical properties and configurations were selected. This required more than one experimental and analytical approach. Filtration was employed for liquid electrolytes, lubricants were suspended in an aqueous solution and solids (wire and epoxy sealant) were cryogenically milled. The final data characteristic for all bioburden estimates was microbial colony formation in rich agar growth medium. To assess survival potential, three non-spore-forming bacterial cell lines were systematically encapsulated in an epoxy matrix, liberated via cryogenic grinding, and cultured. Results suggest that bulk solid materials harbor significantly fewer encapsulated microorganisms than are estimated by specification values. Lithium-ion battery electrolyte reagents housed fewer than 1 CFU/cm3. Results also demonstrated that non-spore-forming microorganisms

  6. Temperature responsive hydroxypropyl cellulose for encapsulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitfeld, Kevin A.; Guo, Tingtai; Yang, George; Schaefer, Dale W. (UCIN)


    This work focuses on the use of temperature responsive gels (TRGs) (polymeric hydrogels with a large temperature-dependent change in volume) for flavor retention at cooking temperatures. Specifically, we have studied a gel with a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) that swells at low temperatures and collapses at high temperatures. In the collapsed state, the polymer acts as a transport barrier, keeping the volatile flavors inside. We have successfully synthesized a cellulose gel that exhibits this volume change and have encapsulated an oil phase inside the gel. The flavor-loaded encapsulated oil exhibited an increased release time when compared to similar gelatin capsules.

  7. Performance evaluation soil samples utilizing encapsulation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlgran, James R.


    Performance evaluation soil samples and method of their preparation are described using encapsulation technology to encapsulate analytes which are introduced into a soil matrix for analysis and evaluation by analytical laboratories. Target analytes are mixed in an appropriate solvent at predetermined concentrations. The mixture is emulsified in a solution of polymeric film forming material. The emulsified solution is polymerized to form microcapsules. The microcapsules are recovered, quantitated and introduced into a soil matrix in a predetermined ratio to form soil samples with the desired analyte concentration.

  8. Epoxy Foam Encapsulants: Processing and Dielectric Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Domeier; Marion Hunter


    The dielectric performance of epoxy foams was investigated to determine if such materials might provide advantages over more standard polyurethane foams in the encapsulation of electronic assemblies. Comparisons of the dielectric characteristics of epoxy and urethane encapsulant foams found no significant differences between the two resin types and no significant difference between as-molded and machined foams. This study specifically evaluated the formulation and processing of epoxy foams using simple methylhydrosiloxanes as the flowing agent and compared the dielectric performance of those to urethane foams of similar density.

  9. Preparation, characterization and pharmacokinetics of doxycycline hydrochloride and florfenicol polyvinylpyrroliddone microparticle entrapped with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes suspension. (United States)

    Li, Xianqiang; Xie, Shuyu; Pan, Yuanhu; Qu, Wei; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Yuan, Zonghui


    In order to effectively control the bacterial pneumonia in pigs, doxycycline hydrochloride (DoxHcl) and florfenicol (FF) microparticle suspension together with inclusion complexes was prepared by using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as host molecules, polyvinylpyrroliddone (PVP) as polymer carriers and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as suspending agents. In vitro antibacterial activity, properties, stability and pharmacokinetics of the suspension were studied. The results demonstrated that DoxHcl and FF had a synergistic or additive antibacterial activity against Streptococcus suis, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis. The size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of microparticles were 1.46 ± 0.06 μm, 0.30 ± 0.02 and 1.53 ± 0.04 mV, respectively. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DoxHcl and FF was 45.28% ± 3.30% and 89.69% ± 2.71%, respectively. The re-dispersed time and sedimentation rate of the suspension were 1 min and 1. The suspension went through the 9-gage needle smoothly with withdrawal volume of 9.12 ± 0.87 mL/min. The suspension showed good stability when stored away from light, no irritation at the injection site and sustained release in PBS buffer. After intramuscular administration to pig, DoxHcl and FF could maintain over 0.15 μg/mL for 72 h. Compared to the control injection, the suspension increased the elimination half-life (T½ke) as well as mean residence time (MRT) of DoxHcl from 5.73 to 9.77 h and from 12.02 to 18.81 h, and those of FF from 12.02 to 26.19 h and from 12.02 to 28.16 h, respectively. The suspension increased the bioavailability of DoxHcl and FF by 1.74 and 1.13-fold, respectively. These results suggest that the compound suspension is a promising formulation for pig pneumonia therapy.

  10. Preparation of Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin Microparticles through a Facile Electrospinning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang Li


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to fabricate Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF microparticles using electrospinning under mild processing conditions. To improve processability of the ASF solution, poly(ethylene oxide (PEO was used to regulate viscosity of ASF solution for electrospinning. It was found that the blend of ASF with PEO could form a bead-on-string structure with well spherical particles. Furthermore, aqueous ethanol and ultrasonic treatments could disrupt the nanofibrillar string structure between particles and ultimately produced water-insoluble ASF particles with submicron scale. Cell viability studies indicated that the ASF microparticles were nontoxic to EA926 cells. Moreover, fluorescent images based on FITC labeling showed that the ASF microparticles were easily uptaken by the cells. Aqueous-based electrospinning provides a potentially useful option for the fabrication of ASF microparticles based on this unique fibrous protein.

  11. Functionalised alginate flow seeding microparticles for use in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). (United States)

    Varela, Sylvana; Balagué, Isaac; Sancho, Irene; Ertürk, Nihal; Ferrando, Montserrat; Vernet, Anton


    Alginate microparticles as flow seeding fulfil all the requirements that are recommended for the velocity measurements in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). These spherical microparticles offer the advantage of being environmentally friendly, having excellent seeding properties and they can be produced via a very simple process. In the present study, the performances of alginate microparticles functionalised with a fluorescent dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), for PIV have been studied. The efficacy of fluorescence is appreciated in a number of PIV applications since it can boost the signal-to-noise ratio. Alginate microparticles functionalised with RhB have high emission efficiency, desirable match with fluid density and controlled size. The study of the particles behaviour in strong acid and basic solutions and ammonia is also included. This type of particles can be used for measurements with PIV and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) simultaneously, including acid-base reactions.

  12. Probiotic and prebiotic-probiotic PEC microparticles for sustaining and enhancing intestinal probiotic growth. (United States)

    Harshitha, K; Kulkarni, P K; Vaghela, Rudra; Kumar Varma, V Naga Sravan; Deshpande, D Rohan; Hani, Umme


    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate Polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) microparticles composing Lactobacillus Acidophilus (probiotic) and Fructo oligosaccharide-Lactobacillus Acidophilus (prebiotic-probiotic), for sustaining and enhancing intestinal growth of probiotic bacteria. Gum Karaya-Chitosan(GK-CH) was used to fabricate PEC microparticles by extrusion method. The prepared microparticles were characterized for FT-IR, DSC and particle size and evaluated for percentage yield, swelling, surface morphology, entrapment rate and further studied for influence of prebiotic over probiotic growth. The fabricated PEC microparticles composed of Probiotic and Prebiotic- Probiotic have exhibited sustainability of probiotic bacteria for 12 hrs in GIT conditions and presence of prebiotic in the preparation enhanced the probiotic cell growth. Hence, it can be concluded that PEC between GK-CH was found to be successful in sustaining cell release and presence of prebiotic was found to enhance the probiotic cell growth.

  13. Multipole Electrodynamic Ion Trap Geometries for Microparticle Confinement under Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Mihalcea, Bogdan M; Stan, Cristina; Visan, Gina T; Ganciu, Mihai; Filinov, Vladimir E; Lapitsky, Dmitry S; Deputatova, Lidiya V; Syrovatka, Roman A


    Trapping of microparticles and aerosols is of great interest for physics and chemistry. We report microparticle trapping in multipole linear Paul trap geometries, operating under Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure (SATP) conditions. An 8-electrode and a 12-electrode linear trap geometries have been designed and tested with an aim to achieve trapping for larger number of particles and to study microparticle dynamical stability in electrodynamic fields. We report emergence of planar and volume ordered structures of the microparticles, depending on the a.c. trapping frequency and particle specific charge ratio. The electric potential within the trap was mapped using the electrolytic tank method. Particle dynamics was simulated using a stochastic Langevin equation. We emphasize extended regions of stable trapping with respect to quadrupole traps, as well as good agreement between experiment and numerical simulations.

  14. Distinct features of circulating microparticles and their relationship to clinical manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer T; Østergaard, Ole; Johnsen, Christina


    Characterization of the abundance, origin, and annexin V (AnxV)-binding capabilities of circulating microparticles (MPs) in SLE patients and healthy controls and to determine any associations with clinical parameters....

  15. Characterization of Free and Porous Silicon-Encapsulated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Platforms for the Development of Theranostic Vaccines. (United States)

    Lundquist, Charles M; Loo, Christopher; Meraz, Ismail M; Cerda, Jorge De La; Liu, Xuewu; Serda, Rita E


    Tracking vaccine components from the site of injection to their destination in lymphatic tissue, and simultaneously monitoring immune effects, sheds light on the influence of vaccine components on particle and immune cell trafficking and therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we create a hybrid particle vaccine platform comprised of porous silicon (pSi) and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). The impact of nanoparticle size and mode of presentation on magnetic resonance contrast enhancement are examined. SPION-enhanced relaxivity increased as the core diameter of the nanoparticle increased, while encapsulation of SPIONs within a pSi matrix had only minor effects on T2 and no significant effect on T2* relaxation. Following intravenous injection of single and hybrid particles, there was an increase in negative contrast in the spleen, with changes in contrast being slightly greater for free compared to silicon encapsulated SPIONs. Incubation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) with pSi microparticles loaded with SPIONs, SIINFEKL peptide, and lipopolysaccharide stimulated immune cell interactions and interferon gamma production in OT-1 TCR transgenic CD8(+) T cells. Overall, the hybrid particle platform enabled presentation of a complex payload that was traceable, stimulated functional T cell and BMDC interactions, and resolved in cellular activation of T cells in response to a specific antigen.

  16. Characterization of Free and Porous Silicon-Encapsulated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Platforms for the Development of Theranostic Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles M. Lundquist


    Full Text Available Tracking vaccine components from the site of injection to their destination in lymphatic tissue, and simultaneously monitoring immune effects, sheds light on the influence of vaccine components on particle and immune cell trafficking and therapeutic efficacy. In this study, we create a hybrid particle vaccine platform comprised of porous silicon (pSi and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs. The impact of nanoparticle size and mode of presentation on magnetic resonance contrast enhancement are examined. SPION-enhanced relaxivity increased as the core diameter of the nanoparticle increased, while encapsulation of SPIONs within a pSi matrix had only minor effects on T2 and no significant effect on T2* relaxation. Following intravenous injection of single and hybrid particles, there was an increase in negative contrast in the spleen, with changes in contrast being slightly greater for free compared to silicon encapsulated SPIONs. Incubation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC with pSi microparticles loaded with SPIONs, SIINFEKL peptide, and lipopolysaccharide stimulated immune cell interactions and interferon gamma production in OT-1 TCR transgenic CD8+ T cells. Overall, the hybrid particle platform enabled presentation of a complex payload that was traceable, stimulated functional T cell and BMDC interactions, and resolved in cellular activation of T cells in response to a specific antigen.

  17. Synthesis of Flexible Aerogel Composites Reinforced with Electrospun Nanofibers and Microparticles for Thermal Insulation


    Huijun Wu; Yantao Chen; Qiliang Chen; Yunfei Ding; Xiaoqing Zhou; Haitao Gao


    Flexible silica aerogel composites in intact monolith of 12 cm were successfully fabricated by reinforcing SiO2 aerogel with electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) webs via electrospinning and sol-gel processing. Three electrospun PVDF webs with different microstructures (e.g., nanofibers, microparticles, and combined nanofibers and microparticles) were fabricated by regulating electrospinning parameters. The as-electrospun PVDF webs with various microstructures were impregnated into the ...

  18. Regulatory T Cell-Enriching Microparticles for Promoting Vascularized Composite Allotransplant Survival (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0244 TITLE: Regulatory T Cell-Enriching Microparticles for Promoting Vascularized Composite Allotransplant Survival...2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Regulatory T Cell-Enriching Microparticles for Promoting Vascularized Composite Allotransplant Survival... trauma , sepsis/disease, cancer, and congenital defects. In most cases, current reconstructive strategies are sub-optimal or fail to provide optimal

  19. Double aperture focusing transducer for controlling microparticle motions in trapezoidal microchannels with surface acoustic waves (United States)

    Tan, Ming K.; Tjeung, Ricky; Ervin, Hannah; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James


    We present a method for controlling the motion of microparticles suspended in an aqueous solution, which fills in a microchannel fabricated into a piezoelectric substrate, using propagating surface acoustic waves. The cross-sectional shape of this microchannel is trapezoidal, preventing the formation of acoustic standing waves across the channel width and therefore allowing the steering of microparticles. The induced acoustic streaming transports these particles to eliminate the use of external pumps for fluid actuation.

  20. Volumetric initiation of gaseous detonation by radiant heating of suspended microparticles (United States)

    Efremov, V. P.; Ivanov, M. F.; Kiverin, A. D.; Yakovenko, I. S.


    The concept of detonation wave initiation in the local volume of a fuel-gas mixture containing suspended chemically neutral microparticles heated by radiant energy from an external source is proposed. Mechanisms of initiation of the combustion and detonation waves in a region of accumulation of the radiation- heated microparticles have been studied by numerical simulation methods. Criteria that determine geometric dimensions of a region of the two-phase medium, which are necessary for the initiation of detonation waves, are formulated.

  1. Experimental Validation of an Optical System for Interrogation of Dermally-Implanted Microparticle Sensors



    Dermally-implanted microparticle sensors are being developed for on-demand monitoring of blood sugar levels. For these to be deployed in vivo, a matched opto-electronic system for delivery of excitation, collection and analysis of escaping fluorescent signal is needed. Previous studies predicted the characteristics of fluorescence from microparticle sensors to facilitate design of hardware system. Based on the results of simulations, we designed and constructed the optical part of this opto-e...

  2. Magnetophoresis of diamagnetic microparticles in a weak magnetic field. (United States)

    Zhu, Gui-Ping; Hejiazan, Majid; Huang, Xiaoyang; Nguyen, Nam-Trung


    Magnetic manipulation is a promising technique for lab-on-a-chip platforms. The magnetic approach can avoid problems associated with heat, surface charge, ionic concentration and pH level. The present paper investigates the migration of diamagnetic particles in a ferrofluid core stream that is sandwiched between two diamagnetic streams in a uniform magnetic field. The three-layer flow is expanded in a circular chamber for characterisation based on imaging of magnetic nanoparticles and fluorescent microparticles. A custom-made electromagnet generates a uniform magnetic field across the chamber. In a relatively weak uniform magnetic field, the diamagnetic particles in the ferrofluid move and spread across the chamber. Due to the magnetization gradient formed by the ferrofluid, diamagnetic particles undergo negative magnetophoresis and move towards the diamagnetic streams. The effects of magnetic field strength and the concentration of diamagnetic particles are studied in detail.

  3. Controllable precipitation of naproxen micro-particles with different morphologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Cheng; Kangkang Jin; Jing Cheng; Fang Yang; Zhigang Shen; Jianfeng Chen; Lixiong Wen


    A simple precipitation method was proposed to prepare naproxen micro-particles with different controllable morphologies,using capillary video microscopy to study the precipitation process.Different particle shapes were obtained including spherical,platelet-like,stick-like,needle-like,and butterfly-like,all in the micro-size range.It was found that the sizes and morphologies of the formed naproxen particles were sensitive to the nature and concentration of the added surfactant,and depended significantly on processing conditions such as temperature,stirring speed,and initial drug concentration.In addition,precipitation with different surfactant types and concentrations would not affect the crystal microstructure of the formed naproxen particles.

  4. Grain size record of microparticles in the Muztagata ice core

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Guangjian; YAO; Tandong; XU; Baiqin; LI; Zheng; TIAN; Lide; DUAN; Keqin; WEN; Linke


    The dust transport and sediment characteristics are discussed based on analysis of microparticle size and size distribution in the Muztagata ice core at 6350 m a.s.l. The finer particles with diameter of 1―5μm are the dominant fraction in number, while middle and coarse particles mainly contribute to the total volume. The lognormal distribution characteristics can be seen for some high concentration samples, showing that model size and standard variation are greater than that in the Greenland ice cores. However, size-volume distribution of some low concentration samples is abnormal. Those distributions reflect the dust deposit process in high mountain glaciers at mid-low latitudes and show differences from those in polar ice sheet.

  5. Ultrasound-induced acoustophoretic motion of microparticles in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Peter Barkholt; Rossi, M.; Marín, Á. G.;


    We derive analytical expressions for the three-dimensional (3D) acoustophoretic motion of spherical microparticles in rectangular microchannels. The motion is generated by the acoustic radiation force and the acoustic streaming-induced drag force. In contrast to the classical theory of Rayleigh...... streaming in shallow, infinite, parallel-plate channels, our theory does include the effect of the microchannel side walls. The resulting predictions agree well with numerics and experimental measurements of the acoustophoretic motion of polystyrene spheres with nominal diameters of 0.537 and 5.33 μm. The 3......D particle motion was recorded using astigmatism particle tracking velocimetry under controlled thermal and acoustic conditions in a long, straight, rectangular microchannel actuated in one of its transverse standing ultrasound-wave resonance modes with one or two half-wavelengths. The acoustic...

  6. Magnetic microparticle aggregation for viscosity determination by MR. (United States)

    Hong, Rui; Cima, Michael J; Weissleder, Ralph; Josephson, Lee


    Micron-sized magnetic particles were induced to aggregate when placed in homogeneous magnetic fields, like those of MR imagers and relaxometers, and then spontaneously returned to their dispersed state when removed from the field. Associated with the aggregation and dispersion of the magnetic particles were time-dependent increases and decreases in the spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of the water. Magnetic nanoparticles, with far smaller magnetic moments per particle, did not undergo magnetically induced aggregation and exhibited time-independent values of T2. The rate of T2 change associated with magnetic microparticle aggregation was used to determine the viscosity of liquid samples, providing a method that can be of particular advantage for determining the viscosity of small volumes of potentially biohazardous samples of blood or blood plasma. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Magnetic Microparticle Aggregation For Viscosity Determination By Magnetic Resonance (United States)

    Hong, Rui; Cima, Michael J.; Weissleder, Ralph; Josephson, Lee


    Micron-sized magnetic particles were induced to aggregate when placed in homogeneous magnetic fields, like those of magnetic resonance (MR) imagers and relaxometers, and then spontaneously returned to their dispersed state when removed from the field. Associated with the aggregation and dispersion of the magnetic particles were time dependent increases and decreases in the spin-spin relaxation time (T2) of the water. Magnetic nanoparticles, with far smaller magnetic moments per particle, did not undergo magnetically induced aggregation, and exhibited time independent values of T2. The rate of T2 change associated with magnetic micro-particle aggregation was used to determine the viscosity of liquid samples, providing a method that can be of particular advantage for determining the viscosity of small volumes of potentially biohazardous samples of blood or blood plasma. PMID:18306403

  8. Nano and microparticles emission during laser cleaning of stone (United States)

    Ostrowski, Roman; Marczak, Jan; Strzelec, Marek; Barcikowski, Stephan


    Air contaminants which emerge during laser ablation often cause health risks if released in the workplace and decrease laser cleaning efficiency if redeposited at the material surface. In addition, ultra-fine particles are generated if short laser pulses are applied. Consequently, a description of the nano and microparticle aerosol generation and the influence of the laser parameters, such as fluence and pulse energy, and type of material surface on the particle size distribution is given in the presented paper. The conducted experiments have shown that for applied laser fluences almost 80% of all emitted particles are in the nanoparticle size range of 30 - 100 nm. The high respirability of such particles can pose health risks, so suitable capture systems near to the processing zone or personal protective equipment such as respiratory masks are required.

  9. Numerical Simulation of Single Microparticle Trajectory in an Electrodynamic Balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯昭华; 朱家骅; 杨雪峰; 夏素兰; 关国强; DavisE.J.


    By introducing Oseen's formula to describe the viscous drag force, a more complete motion equation for a charged microparticle levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB) has been put forward and solved numerically by the classic Runge-Kutta method in this paper. The theoretical results have firstly demonstrated the existence of the particle oscillations and their characteristics, especially of the springpoint oscillation at large amplitude .And through the comparisons of theoretical and experimental trajectories, the adopted motion equation has proved to be able to rigorously describe the particle motion in non-Stokes region--the shape of trajectory and frequencycharacteristics are fairlv consistent and the deviations of amnliturla c~n n~llzll~r ho lo~ th~n 1cIfr/~

  10. Distinct proteome pathology of circulating microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Tanassi, Julia Tanas


    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is poorly understood but has been linked to defective clearance of subcellular particulate material from the circulation. This study investigates the origin, formation, and specificity of circulating microparticles (MPs) in patients...... with SLE based on comprehensive MP proteome profiling using patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and healthy donors (HC) as controls. METHODS: We purified MPs from platelet-poor plasma using differential centrifugation of samples from SLE (n = 45), SSc (n = 38), and two sets of HC (n = 35, n = 25). MP......-MPs (which we propose to call luposomes) are highly specific for SLE, i.e. not found in MP preparations from HC or patients with another autoimmune, systemic disease, SSc. In SLE-MPs platelet proteins and mitochondrial proteins are significantly diminished, cytoskeletal proteins deranged, and glycolytic...

  11. Ultrasound-induced acoustophoretic motion of microparticles in three dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Peter B; Marin, Alvaro G; Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Laurell, Thomas; Kaehler, Christian J; Bruus, Henrik


    We derive analytical expressions for the three-dimensional (3D) acoustophoretic motion of spherical microparticles in rectangular microchannels. The motion is generated by the acoustic radiation force and the acoustic streaming-induced drag force. In contrast to the classical theory of Rayleigh streaming in shallow, infinite, parallel-plate channels, our theory does include the effect of the microchannel side walls. The resulting predictions agree well with numerics and experimental measurements of the acoustophoretic motion of polystyrene spheres with nominal diameters of 0.537 um and 5.33 um. The 3D particle motion was recorded using astigmatism particle tracking velocimetry under controlled thermal and acoustic conditions in a long, straight, rectangular microchannel actuated in one of its transverse standing ultrasound-wave resonance modes with one or two half-wavelengths. The acoustic energy density is calibrated in situ based on measurements of the radiation dominated motion of large 5-um-diam particles...

  12. Circulating endothelial microparticles in female migraineurs with aura. (United States)

    Liman, Thomas G; Bachelier-Walenta, Katrin; Neeb, Lars; Rosinski, Jana; Reuter, Uwe; Böhm, Michael; Endres, Matthias


    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are vesicles that are released from activated endothelial cells and serve as a surrogate for endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED may be involved in migraine pathophysiology and contribute to the increased risk of ischemic stroke, particularly in female migraineurs with aura (MA). We sought to determine whether EMPs are elevated in women with MA. In this case-control study, EMPs were detected by analysing surface markers using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Surface markers were measured covering the main cell lines relevant in cardiovascular disease like endothelial cells, platelets, monocytes and leucocytes. Microparticles (MPs) were identified in correlation to calibration by 1 -µm calibrator beads (Beckman Coulter). Arterial stiffness was assessed using fingertip tonometry and the heart rate-adjusted augmentation index (AI). We included 29 patients with MA and 29 matched controls. MA patients had significantly higher EMPs (CD62E(+)AnnexinV(+): 5142/µl vs 1535/µl; p < 0.001; CD144(+)AnnexinV(+): 6683/µl vs 3107/µl; p < 0.001), monocytic (CD14(+)AnnexinV(+) 6378 vs 3161; p < 0.001), and platelet MPs (CD62P(+)CD42b(+)AnnexinV(+) 5450 vs 3204; p < 0.001). Activated EMPs (CD62E(+)AnnexinV(+)) correlated with heart-rate adjusted AI (r = 0.46; p < 001). EMP levels are significantly elevated in women with MA and correlated with increased AI. Our findings suggest that endothelial activation is present in women with MA. This might contribute to higher stroke risk in MA. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions:

  13. Precipitation of fluticasone propionate microparticles using supercritical antisolvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Vatanara


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: The ability of supercritical fluids (SCFs, such as carbon dioxide, to dissolve and expand or extract organic solvents and as result lower their solvation power, makes it possible the use of SCFs for the precipitation of solids from organic solutions. The process could be the injection of a solution of the substrate in an organic solvent into a vessel which is swept by a supercritical fluid. The aim of this study was to ascertain the feasibility of supercritical processing to prepare different particulate forms of fluticasone propionate (FP, and to evaluate the influence of different liquid solvents and precipitation temperatures on the morphology, size and crystal habit of particles. Method: The solution of FP in organic solvents, was precipitated by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 at two pressure and temperature levels. Effects of process parameters on the physicochemical characteristics of harvested microparticles were evaluated. Results: Particle formation was observed only at the lower selected pressure, whilst at the higher pressure, no precipitation of particles was occurred due to dissolution of FP in supercritical antisolvent. The micrographs of the produced particles showed different morphologies for FP obtained from different conditions. The results of thermal analysis of the resulted particles showed that changes in the processing conditions didn't influence thermal behavior of the precipitated particles. Evaluation of the effect of temperature on the size distribution of particles showed that increase in the temperature from 40 oC to 50 oC, resulted in reduction of the mean particle size from about 30 µm to about 12 μm. ‍Conclusion: From the results of this study it may be concluded that, processing of FP by supercritical antisolvent could be an approach for production of diverse forms of the drug and drastic changes in the physical characteristics of microparticles could be achieved by changing the

  14. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kosterin, Paul [Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Salzberg, Brian M. [Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Thom, Stephen R., E-mail: [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)


    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  15. Encapsulation into complex coacervate core micelles promotes EGFP dimerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolles, A.; Dongen, Van N.J.E.; Westphal, A.H.; Visser, A.J.W.G.; Kleijn, J.M.; Berkel, Van W.J.H.; Borst, J.W.


    Complex coacervate core micelles (C3Ms) are colloidal structures useful for encapsulation of biomacromolecules. We previously demonstrated that enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) can be encapsulated into C3Ms using the diblock copolymer

  16. Surface morphology of spray-dried nanoparticle-coated microparticles designed as an oral drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. R. Beck


    Full Text Available This paper was devoted to studying the influence of coating material (nanocapsules or nanospheres, drug model (diclofenac, acid or salt and method of preparation on the morphological characteristics of nanoparticle-coated microparticles. The cores of microparticles were obtained by spray drying or evaporation and the coating was applied by spray drying. SEM analyses showed nanostructures coating the surface of nanocapsule-coated microparticles and a rugged surface for nanosphere-coated microparticles. The decrease in their surface areas was controlled by the nanoparticulated system, which was not dependent on microparticle size. Optical microscopy and X-ray analyses indicated that acid diclofenac crystals were present in formulations prepared with the acid as well as in the nanocapsule-coated microparticles prepared with the salt. The control of coating is dependent on the use of nanocapsules or nanospheres and independent of either the characteristics of the drug or the method of preparing the core.

  17. Enhancing microparticle internalization by nonphagocytic cells through the use of noncovalently conjugated polyethyleneimine. (United States)

    Patiño, Tania; Nogués, Carme; Ibáñez, Elena; Barrios, Leonardo


    Development of micro- and nanotechnology for the study of living cells, especially in the field of drug delivery, has gained interest in recent years. Although several studies have reported successful results in the internalization of micro- and nanoparticles in phagocytic cells, when nonphagocytic cells are used, the low internalization efficiency represents a limitation that needs to be overcome. It has been reported that covalent surface modification of micro- and nanoparticles increases their internalization rate. However, this surface modification represents an obstacle for their use as drug-delivery carriers. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to increase the capability for microparticle internalization of HeLa cells through the use of noncovalently bound transfection reagents: polyethyleneimine (PEI) Lipofectamine™ 2000 and FuGENE 6(®). Both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry techniques allowed us to precisely quantify the efficiency of microparticle internalization by HeLa cells, yielding similar results. In addition, intracellular location of microparticles was analyzed through transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy procedures. Our results showed that free PEI at a concentration of 0.05 mM significantly increased microparticle uptake by cells, with a low cytotoxic effect. As determined by transmission electron and confocal microscopy analyses, microparticles were engulfed by plasma-membrane projections during internalization, and 24 hours later they were trapped in a lysosomal compartment. These results show the potential use of noncovalently conjugated PEI in microparticle internalization assays.

  18. Control of Alginate Core Size in Alginate-Poly (Lactic-Co-Glycolic) Acid Microparticles (United States)

    Lio, Daniel; Yeo, David; Xu, Chenjie


    Core-shell alginate-poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microparticles are potential candidates to improve hydrophilic drug loading while facilitating controlled release. This report studies the influence of the alginate core size on the drug release profile of alginate-PLGA microparticles and its size. Microparticles are synthesized through double-emulsion fabrication via a concurrent ionotropic gelation and solvent extraction. The size of alginate core ranges from approximately 10, 50, to 100 μm when the emulsification method at the first step is homogenization, vortexing, or magnetic stirring, respectively. The second step emulsification for all three conditions is performed with magnetic stirring. Interestingly, although the alginate core has different sizes, alginate-PLGA microparticle diameter does not change. However, drug release profiles are dramatically different for microparticles comprising different-sized alginate cores. Specifically, taking calcein as a model drug, microparticles containing the smallest alginate core (10 μm) show the slowest release over a period of 26 days with burst release less than 1 %.

  19. Macroporous Composite Cryogels with Embedded Polystyrene Divinylbenzene Microparticles for the Adsorption of Toxic Metabolites from Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Eichhorn


    Full Text Available Composite monolithic adsorbents were prepared by the incorporation of neutral polystyrene divinylbenzene (PS-DVB microparticles into macroporous polymer structures produced by cryogelation of agarose or poly(vinyl alcohol. The composite materials exhibited excellent flow-through properties. Scanning electron microscopy of the composite cryogels revealed that the microparticles were covered by thin films of poly(vinyl alcohol or agarose and thus were withheld in the monolith structure. Plain PS-DVB microparticles showed efficient adsorption of albumin-bound toxins related to liver failure (bilirubin and cholic acid and of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6. The rates of adsorption and the amount of adsorbed factors were lower for the embedded microparticles as compared to the parent PS-DVB microparticles, indicating the importance of the accessibility of the adsorbent pores. Still, the macroporous composite materials showed efficient adsorption of albumin-bound toxins related to liver failure as well as efficient binding of cytokines, combined with good blood compatibility. Thus, the incorporation of microparticles into macroporous polymer structures may provide an option for the development of adsorption modules for extracorporeal blood purification.

  20. Circulating endothelial cells and procoagulant microparticles in patients with glioblastoma: prognostic value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Reynés

    Full Text Available AIM: Circulating endothelial cells and microparticles are prognostic factors in cancer. However, their prognostic and predictive value in patients with glioblastoma is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential prognostic value of circulating endothelial cells and microparticles in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with standard radiotherapy and concomitant temozolomide. In addition, we have analyzed the methylation status of the MGMT promoter. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the concomitant treatment. Blood samples from healthy volunteers were also obtained as controls. Endothelial cells were measured by an immunomagnetic technique and immunofluorescence microscopy. Microparticles were quantified by flow cytometry. Microparticle-mediated procoagulant activity was measured by endogen thrombin generation and by phospholipid-dependent clotting time. Methylation status of MGMT promoter was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. RESULTS: Pretreatment levels of circulating endothelial cells and microparticles were higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001. After treatment, levels of microparticles and thrombin generation decreased, and phospholipid-dependent clotting time increased significantly. A high pretreatment endothelial cell count, corresponding to the 99(th percentile in controls, was associated with poor overall survival. MGMT promoter methylation was present in 27% of tumor samples and was associated to a higher overall survival (66 weeks vs 30 weeks, p<0.004. CONCLUSION: Levels of circulating endothelial cells may have prognostic value in patients with glioblastoma.

  1. Bioresponsive Materials for Drug Delivery Based on Carboxymethyl Chitosan/Poly(γ-Glutamic Acid) Composite Microparticles. (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoting; Tong, Zongrui; Chen, Yu; Mo, Yanghe; Feng, Huaiyu; Li, Peng; Qu, Xiaosai; Jin, Shaohua


    Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) microparticles are a potential candidate for hemostatic wound dressing. However, its low swelling property limits its hemostatic performance. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) is a natural polymer with excellent hydrophilicity. In the current study, a novel CMCS/PGA composite microparticles with a dual-network structure was prepared by the emulsification/internal gelation method. The structure and thermal stability of the composite were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effects of preparation conditions on the swelling behavior of the composite were investigated. The results indicate that the swelling property of CMCS/PGA composite microparticles is pH sensitive. Levofloxacin (LFX) was immobilized in the composite microparticles as a model drug to evaluate the drug delivery performance of the composite. The release kinetics of LFX from the composite microparticles with different structures was determined. The results suggest that the CMCS/PGA composite microparticles are an excellent candidate carrier for drug delivery.

  2. Physical Characterization of Mouse Deep Vein Thrombosis Derived Microparticles by Differential Filtration with Nanopore Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Peramo


    Full Text Available With the objective of making advancements in the area of pro-thrombotic microparticle characterization in cardiovascular biology, we present a novel method to separate blood circulating microparticles using a membrane-based, nanopore filtration system. In this qualitative study, electron microscopy observations of these pro-thrombotic mouse microparticles, as well as mouse platelets and leukocytes obtained using a mouse inferior vena cava ligation model of deep-vein thrombosis are presented. In particular, we present mouse microparticle morphology and microstructure using SEM and TEM indicating that they appear to be mostly spherical with diameters in the 100 to 350 nm range. The nanopore filtration technique presented is focused on the development of novel methodologies to isolate and characterize blood circulating microparticles that can be used in conjunction with other methodologies. We believe that determination of microparticle size and structure is a critical step for the development of reliable assays with clinical or research application in thrombosis and it will contribute to the field of nanomedicine in thrombosis.

  3. Functionalized Raspberry-Like Microparticles obtained by Assembly of Nanoparticles during Electrospraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eun Chul; Jeong, Unyong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Yoon Kyun [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The present study suggests a novel method to produce raspberry-like microparticles containing diverse functional materials inside. The raspberry-like microparticles were produced from a random assembly of uniformly-sized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles via electrospraying. The solution containing the PMMA nanoparticles were supplied through the inner nozzle and compressed air was emitted through the outer nozzle. The air supply helped fast evaporation of acetone, so it enabled copious amount of microparticles as dry powder. The microparticles were highly porous both on the surface and interiors, hence various materials with a function of UV-blocking (TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and methoxyphenyl triazine) or anti-aging (ethyl(4-(2,3-dihydro-1H-indene-5-carboxyamido) benzoate)) were loaded in large amount (17 wt % versus PMMA). The surface and interior structures of the microparticles were dependent on the characteristics of functional materials. The results clearly suggest that the process to prepare the raspberry-like microparticles can be an excellent approach to generate functional microstructures.

  4. Preparation, Characterization and Properties of Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic acid Composite Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongrui Tong


    Full Text Available Alginate (Alg is a renewable polymer with excellent hemostatic properties and biocapability and is widely used for hemostatic wound dressing. However, the swelling properties of alginate-based wound dressings need to be promoted to meet the requirements of wider application. Poly(γ-glutamic acid (PGA is a natural polymer with high hydrophility. In the current study, novel Alg/PGA composite microparticles with double network structure were prepared by the emulsification/internal gelation method. It was found from the structure characterization that a double network structure was formed in the composite microparticles due to the ion chelation interaction between Ca2+ and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA and the electrostatic interaction between the secondary amine group of PGA and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA. The swelling behavior of the composite microparticles was significantly improved due to the high hydrophility of PGA. Influences of the preparing conditions on the swelling behavior of the composites were investigated. The porous microparticles could be formed while compositing of PGA. Thermal stability was studied by thermogravimetric analysis method. Moreover, in vitro cytocompatibility test of microparticles exhibited good biocompatibility with L929 cells. All results indicated that such Alg/PGA composite microparticles are a promising candidate in the field of wound dressing for hemostasis or rapid removal of exudates.

  5. Cefazolin-loaded mesoporous silicon microparticles show sustained bactericidal effect against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman K Yazdi


    Full Text Available Cefazolin is an antibiotic frequently used in preoperative prophylaxis of orthopedic surgery and to fight secondary infections post-operatively. Although its systemic delivery in a bulk or bolus dose is usually effective, the local and controlled release can increase its effectiveness by lowering dosages, minimizing total drug exposure, abating the development of antibiotic resistance and avoiding the cytotoxic effect. A delivery system based on mesoporous silicon microparticles was developed that is capable of efficiently loading and continuously releasing cefazolin over several days. The in vitro release kinetics from mesoporous silicon microparticles with three different nanopore sizes was evaluated, and minimal inhibitory concentration of cefazolin necessary to eliminate a culture of Staphylococcus aureus was identified to be 250 µg/mL. A milder toxicity toward mesenchymal stem cells was observed from mesoporous silicon microparticles over a 7-day period. Medium pore size-loaded mesoporous silicon microparticles exhibited long-lasting bactericidal properties in a zone inhibition assay while they were able to kill all the bacteria growing in suspension cultures within 24 h. This study demonstrates that the sustained release of cefazolin from mesoporous silicon microparticles provides immediate and long-term control over bacterial growth both in suspension and adhesion while causing minimal toxicity to a population of mesenchymal stem cell. Mesoporous silicon microparticles offer significant advantageous properties for drug delivery applications in tissue engineering as it favorably extends drug bioavailability and stability, while reducing concomitant cytotoxicity to the surrounding tissues.

  6. Spent nuclear fuel rods encapsulated in copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, H.D.


    Using hot isostatic pressing, spent nuclear fuel rods and other radioactive wastes can be encapsulated in solid copper. The copper capsule which is formed is free of pores and cracks, and is highly resistant to attack by reducing ground waters. Such capsules should contain radioactive materials safely for hundreds of thousands of years in underground storage.

  7. Encapsulation of thermal energy storage media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhau, Jaspreet; Goswami, Dharendra; Jotshi, Chand K.; Stefanakos, Elias K.


    In one embodiment, a phase change material is encapsulated by forming a phase change material pellet, coating the pellet with flexible material, heating the coated pellet to melt the phase change material, wherein the phase change materials expands and air within the pellet diffuses out through the flexible material, and cooling the coated pellet to solidify the phase change material.

  8. Secure Hybrid Encryption from Weakened Key Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Hofheinz (Dennis); E. Kiltz (Eike); A. Menezes


    textabstractWe put forward a new paradigm for building hybrid encryption schemes from constrained chosen-ciphertext secure (CCCA) key-encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) plus authenticated symmetric encryption. Constrained chosen-ciphertext security is a new security notion for KEMs that we propose. It

  9. Antidiabetic Activity from Gallic Acid Encapsulated Nanochitosan (United States)

    Purbowatiningrum; Ngadiwiyana; Ismiyarto; Fachriyah, E.; Eviana, I.; Eldiana, O.; Amaliyah, N.; Sektianingrum, A. N.


    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a health problem in the world because it causes death. One of the phenolic compounds that have antidiabetic activity is gallic acid. However, the use of this compound still provides unsatisfactory results due to its degradation during the absorption process. The solution offered to solve the problem is by encapsulated it within chitosan nanoparticles that serve to protect the bioactive compound from degradation, increases of solubility and delivery of a bioactive compound to the target site by using freeze-drying technique. The result of chitosan nanoparticle’s Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that chitosan nanoparticle’s size is uniform and it is smaller than chitosan. The value of encapsulation efficiency (EE) of gallic acid which encapsulated within chitosan nanoparticles is about 50.76%. Inhibition test result showed that gallic acid-chitosan nanoparticles at 50 ppm could inhibite α-glucosidase activity in 28.87% with 54.94 in IC50. So it can be concluded that gallic acid can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it could inhibit α-glucosidase.

  10. Stability of lipid encapsulated ferulic acid particles (United States)

    Encapsulation of bioactive compounds by a solid lipid matrix provides stability and a mechanism for controlled release in formulated products. Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and have applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a common pheno...

  11. Treatment of Diabetes with Encapsulated Islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Spasojevic, Milica; Faas, Marijke M.; Pedraz, JL; Orive, G


    Cell encapsulation has been proposed for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases since it allows for transplantation of cells in the absence of undesired immunosuppression. The technology has been proposed to be a solution for the treatment of diabetes since it potentially allows a mandatory

  12. Liposome-Encapsulated Hemoglobin for Emergency Resuscitation. (United States)


    have infused liposome -encapsulated amphotericin B to treat patients with systemic fungal infections. Their formulation includes 30% dimyristoyl...procedure, including exploring new industrial-scale methodologies for liposome manufacture. In addition we have focused on basic problems of biophysics...circulation persistance of this new formulation , as produced by the Microfluidizer, is obviously necessary. The influence of negatively-charged lipids on

  13. An Investigation of Membrane-Encapsulated Trypanocides. (United States)


    M) SUV by soybean phosphtolipids MLV was negligible. This suggests that the encapsulation of a preformed * SUV by MIV may be related to the...lipid/g tissue was comparable to that of the same liposomes subjected to centrifugation at 10,000 g for 3 min (13) at an injected dose of 99 vig lipld/g

  14. Treatment of Diabetes with Encapsulated Islets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Spasojevic, Milica; Faas, Marijke M.; Pedraz, JL; Orive, G


    Cell encapsulation has been proposed for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases since it allows for transplantation of cells in the absence of undesired immunosuppression. The technology has been proposed to be a solution for the treatment of diabetes since it potentially allows a mandatory min

  15. Preparation of Biocatalytic Microparticles by Interfacial Self-Assembly of Enzyme-Nanoparticle Conjugates Around a Cross-Linkable Core. (United States)

    Andler, S M; Wang, L-S; Goddard, J M; Rotello, V M


    Rational design of hierarchical interfacial assembly of reusable biocatalytic microparticles is described in this chapter. Specifically, purified enzymes and functionalized nanoparticles are electrostatically assembled at the interface of cross-linked microparticles which are formed through ring opening metathesis polymerization. The diameters of microparticle assemblies average 10μm, and they show enhanced kinetic efficiency as well as improved stability against heat, pH, and solvent denaturation when compared to stabilities of the corresponding native enzymes.

  16. Mechanical Robustness and Hermeticity Monitoring for MEMS Thin Film Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santagata, F.


    Many Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) require encapsulation, to prevent delicate sensor structures being exposed to external perturbations such as dust, humidity, touching, and gas pressure. An upcoming and cost-effective way of encapsulation is zero-level packaging or thin-film encapsulation

  17. Aerosol-Assisted Fast Formulating Uniform Pharmaceutical Polymer Microparticles with Variable Properties toward pH-Sensitive Controlled Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lei


    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is highly attractive for oral drug delivery. Microparticles are a common form of drug carrier for this purpose. There is still a high demand on efficient methods to fabricate microparticles with uniform sizes and well-controlled particle properties. In this paper, uniform hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP-based pharmaceutical microparticles loaded with either hydrophobic or hydrophilic model drugs have been directly formulated by using a unique aerosol technique, i.e., the microfluidic spray drying technology. A series of microparticles of controllable particle sizes, shapes, and structures are fabricated by tuning the solvent composition and drying temperature. It is found that a more volatile solvent and a higher drying temperature can result in fast evaporation rates to form microparticles of larger lateral size, more irregular shape, and denser matrix. The nature of the model drugs also plays an important role in determining particle properties. The drug release behaviors of the pharmaceutical microparticles are dependent on their structural properties and the nature of a specific drug, as well as sensitive to the pH value of the release medium. Most importantly, drugs in the microparticles obtained by using a more volatile solvent or a higher drying temperature can be well protected from degradation in harsh simulated gastric fluids due to the dense structures of the microparticles, while they can be fast-released in simulated intestinal fluids through particle dissolution. These pharmaceutical microparticles are potentially useful for site-specific (enteric delivery of orally-administered drugs.

  18. Acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles and mitigation of biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan


    Provided herein is a universally applicable biofouling mitigation technology using acoustically excited encapsulated microbubbles that disrupt biofilm or biofilm formation. For example, a method of reducing biofilm formation or removing biofilm in a membrane filtration system is provided in which a feed solution comprising encapsulated microbubbles is provided to the membrane under conditions that allow the encapsulated microbubbles to embed in a biofilm. Sonication of the embedded, encapsulated microbubbles disrupts the biofilm. Thus, provided herein is a membrane filtration system for performing the methods and encapsulated microbubbles specifically selected for binding to extracellular polymeric substances (EFS) in a biofilm.

  19. Preparo e caracterização de micropartículas de acetobutirato de celulose e poli(3-hidroxibutirato contendo piroxicam - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.4428 Preparation and characterization of cellulose acetate butyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate microparticles containing piroxicam - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.4428

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Zétola


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da massa molar do acetobutirato de celulose (ABC e da adição de poli(3-hidroxibutirato [PHB] sobre a morfologia das micropartículas, a eficiência de encapsulação e os perfis de liberação do piroxicam. As micropartículas foram preparadas por meio da técnica de emulsão/evaporação do solvente O/A e caracterizadas quanto à morfologia por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O teor de fármaco nas micropartículas foi determinado utilizando o método de espectrofotometria de absorção na região do ultravioleta; os ensaios de liberação realizados, utilizando tampão fosfato pH 6,8. As micropartículas obtidas apresentaram formas irregulares, e aquelas preparadas a partir do ABC com maior massa molar apresentaram maior tamanho. Mediante planejamento fatorial, observou-se que as variáveis analisadas (massa molar do ABC e adição de PHB não influenciaram a eficiência de encapsulação do piroxicam, mas exerceram influência sobre a quantidade inicial de piroxicam liberada a partir das micropartículas.This work aims to evaluate the influence of the cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB molar weight and the addition of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate [PHB] on microparticle morphology, encapsulation efficiency and release profile of piroxicam. The microparticles were prepared using the O/W emulsion/solvent evaporation technique and characterized according to the morphology using scanning electron microscopy. The drug content in the microparticles was determined through UV spectrophotometry and a dissolution assay was conducted using phosphate buffer pH 6.8. The obtained microparticles presented irregular shape; the ones prepared with CAB with large molar weight presented a larger size. Through a factorial design, it was observed that the analyzed variables (CAB molar weight and PHB addition did not influence the encapsulation efficiency, but did influence the initial release of piroxicam from the

  20. Drying Using Supercritical Fluid Technology as a Potential Method for Preparation of Chitosan Aerogel Microparticles. (United States)

    Obaidat, Rana M; Tashtoush, Bassam M; Bayan, Mohammad F; Al Bustami, Rana T; Alnaief, Mohammad


    Supercritical fluid technology offers several advantages in preparation of microparticles. These include uniformity in particle size, morphology, and drug distribution without degradation of the product. One of the recent advantages is preparation of porous aerogel carrier with proper aerodynamic properties. In this study, we aimed to prepare chitosan aerogel microparticles using supercritical fluid (SCF) technology and compare that with microparticles produced by freeze drying (FD). Loading the prepared carriers with a model drug (salbutamol) was also performed. Comparisons of the particle properties and physicochemical characterizations were undertaken by evaluating particle size, density, specific surface area, and porosity. In vitro drug release studies were also investigated. The effect of many variables, such as molecular weight of chitosan oligomers, concentrations of chitosan, and concentrations of tripolyphosphate on the release, were also investigated. Chitosan aerogels were efficiently produced by SCF technology with an average particle size of 10 μm with a tapped density values around 0.12 g/mL, specific surface area (73-103) m(2)/g, and porosity (0.20-0.29) cc/g. Whereas, microparticles produced by FD method were characterized as cryogels with larger particle size (64 microns) with clear cracking at the surface. Sustained release profile was achieved for all prepared microparticles of salbutamol produced by the aforementioned methods as compared with pure drug. The results also demonstrates that chitosan molecular weight, polymer concentration, and tripolyphosphate concentration affected the release profile of salbutamol from the prepared microparticles. In conclusion, SCF technology was able to produce chitosan aerogel microparticles loaded with salbutamol that could be suitable for pulmonary drug delivery system.

  1. Thin film Encapsulations of Flexible Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Fa-Ta


    Full Text Available Various encapsulated films for flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs were studied in this work, where gas barrier layers including inorganic Al2O3 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition, organic Parylene C thin films prepared by chemical vapor deposition, and their combination were considered. The transmittance and water vapor transmission rate of the various organic and inorgabic encapsulated films were tested. The effects of the encapsulated films on the luminance and current density of the OLEDs were discussed, and the life time experiments of the OLEDs with these encapsulated films were also conducted. The results showed that the transmittance are acceptable even the PET substrate were coated two Al2O3 and Parylene C layers. The results also indicated the WVTR of the PET substrate improved by coating the barrier layers. In the encapsulation performance, it indicates the OLED with Al2O3 /PET, 1 pair/PET, and 2 pairs/PET presents similarly higher luminance than the other two cases. Although the 1 pair/PET encapsulation behaves a litter better luminance than the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation, the 2 pairs/PET encapsulation has much better life time. The OLED with 2 pairs/PET encapsulation behaves near double life time to the 1 pair encapsulation, and four times to none encapsulation.

  2. Study of Lysozyme-Loaded Poly-L-Lactide (PLLA Porous Microparticles in a Compressed CO2 Antisolvent Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qian Su


    Full Text Available Lysozyme (LSZ-loaded poly-L-lactide (PLLA porous microparticles (PMs were successfully prepared by a compressed CO2 antisolvent process in combination with a water-in-oil emulsion process using LSZ as a drug model and ammonium bicarbonate as a porogen. The effects of different drug loads (5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0% on the surface morphology, particle size, porosity, tapped density and drug release profile of the harvested PMs were investigated. The results show that an increase in the amount of LSZ added led to an increase in drug load (DL but a decrease in encapsulation efficiency. The resulting LSZ-loaded PLLA PMs (LSZ-PLLA PMs exhibited a porous and uneven morphology, with a density less than 0.1 g·cm−3, a geometric mean diameter of 16.9–18.8 μm, an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.8 μm, a fine particle fraction (FPF of 59.2%–66.8%, and a porosity of 78.2%–86.3%. According to the results of differential scanning calorimetry, the addition of LSZ improved the thermal stability of PLLA. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis and circular dichroism spectroscopy measurement reveal that no significant changes occurred in the molecular structures of LSZ during the fabrication process, which was further confirmed by the evaluation of enzyme activity of LSZ. It is demonstrated that the emulsion-combined precipitation with compressed antisolvent (PCA process could be a promising technology to develop biomacromolecular drug-loaded inhalable carrier for pulmonary drug delivery.

  3. Enhancement of the in vitro penetration of quercetin through pig skin by combined microneedles and lipid microparticles. (United States)

    Paleco, Roberto; Vučen, Sonja R; Crean, Abina M; Moore, Anne; Scalia, Santo


    Silicon microneedle patches were investigated, alone or in combination with lipid microparticles (LMs), as a system to improve the in vitro skin penetration of the antioxidant flavonoid, quercetin. LMs loaded with quercetin were prepared by melt emulsification and sonication. The flavonoid content of LMs was 11.7±0.3% and their mean diameter and polydispersity index were 8.1 μm and 0.66, respectively. Emulsions containing quercetin, free or microencapsulated, were applied to untreated- or microneedle-treated pig skin mounted in Franz diffusion cells. The amount of flavonoid penetrated into the stratum corneum and viable epidermis were measured by HPLC, after validated tape-stripping and bead mill homogenization procedures, respectively. Compared to intact skin, a marked increase in quercetin levels permeated into the stratum corneum (from 1.19 ± 0.12 μg/cm(2) to 2.23 ± 0.54 μg/cm(2)) and viable epidermis (from 0.10 ± 0.01 μg/cm(2) to 0.56 ± 0.27 μg/cm(2)) was achieved when skin was treated with the flavonoid-loaded LMs in combination with microneedle arrays. Conversely, perforation of the cutaneous surface by microneedles did not produce any significant improvement in the skin penetration of non-encapsulated quercetin. The enhanced (5.5-fold) intra-epidermal delivery of quercetin attained by the LM/microneedle strategy described here, is particularly relevant since the main quercetin site of action is in the epidermis.

  4. Stabilization and encapsulation of photosensitive resveratrol within yeast cell. (United States)

    Shi, Guorong; Rao, Liqun; Yu, Huazhong; Xiang, Hua; Yang, Hua; Ji, Runa


    The photosensitive resveratrol was successfully encapsulated in yeast cells for the first time, as characterized by FT-IR spectra, fluorescence and confocal micrographs of the yeast cells, resveratrol and microcapsules. The release characteristic of the obtained yeast-encapsulated resveratrol in simulated gastric fluid was evaluated, and its storage stability as a powder was investigated at 25 degrees C/75% relative humidity (RH), 25 degrees C/90% RH and 60 degrees C under the laboratory fluorescent lighting conditions (ca. 300 lx) or in the dark. Also, the scavenging capacity of yeast-encapsulated resveratrol on DPPH radical was compared with that of non-encapsulated resveratrol. It could be demonstrated clearly that no chemical changes occurred during the encapsulation. Besides, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity increased after the encapsulation. In addition, the yeast-encapsulated resveratrol exhibited good stability, and its bioavailability was enhanced as a result of increased solubility of resveratrol and sustained releasing.

  5. Coagulant activity and cellular origin of circulating tissue factor exposing microparticles in cancer patients - two forms of TF-exposing microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, A.; Boing, A. N.; Di Nisio, M.; Twint, D.; Kamphuisen, P. W.; Nanayakkara, P.; Buller, H. R.; Nieuwland, R.


    Background: Because plasma of cancer patients presenting with venous thrombosis contains high numbers of tissue factor (TF)-exposing microparticles (TF-MP1), TF-MP have been causally linked to the occurrence of venous thrombosis in cancer patients. The relationship between numbers of TF-exposing MP

  6. Release properties of chemical and enzymatic crosslinked gelatin-gum Arabic microparticles containing a fluorescent probe plus vetiver essential oil. (United States)

    Prata, Ana S; Zanin, Maria H A; Ré, Maria I; Grosso, Carlos R F


    Oil-containing gelatin-gum Arabic microparticles were prepared by complex coacervation followed by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde or transglutaminase. A fluorescent mixture, khusimyl dansylate (KD) as the fluorescent compound mixed to the vetiver essential oil, was used as oil model. The effect of the type of crosslinking of the coacervated gelatin-gum Arabic membrane, the physical state of microparticles, wet or freeze-dried and the type of release media, aqueous with surfactants, Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (sds) or Tween 80 (tw) and anhydrous ethanol as organic media on the release rate of the KD from the microparticles, was experimentally investigated. It was shown that the oil was dispersed uniformly throughout the microparticles and the chemical crosslinked microparticles were more resistant to swelling, presenting smaller sizes after hydration. Also the crosslinking effect, transglutaminase or glutaraldehyde, could be confirmed by the integrity of the crosslinked gelatin-gum Arabic microparticles after incubation in the aqueous sds media, compared to complete dissolution of the uncrosslinked microparticles in this media. The cumulative fluorescent KD release from the gelatin-gum Arabic microparticles decreased in the following order of dissolution media: anhydrous ethanol>tw>sds and the wet microparticles have shown a faster KD release than freeze-dried ones. A mathematical model was used to estimate the diffusion coefficient (D). The chemically crosslinked gelatin-gum Arabic microparticles ensured a pronounced retard effect in the KD diffusion, presenting a D varying from 0.02 to 0.6 x 10(-11)cm(2)/s, mainly in an aqueous media, against D varying from 1.05 to 13.9 x 10(-11)cm(2)/s from the enzymatic crosslinked microparticles.

  7. Roughness-controlled self-assembly of mannitol/LB agar microparticles by polymorphic transformation for pulmonary drug delivery. (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Tay, Bao Hui; Mendyk, Aleksander; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Lau, Raymond


    Novel roughness-controlled mannitol/LB Agar microparticles were synthesized by polymorphic transformation and self-assembly method using hexane as the polymorphic transformation reagent and spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles as the starting material. As-prepared microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI). The XRD and DSC results indicate that after immersing spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles in hexane, β-mannitol was completely transformed to α-mannitol in 1 h, and all the δ-mannitol was transformed to α form after 14 days. SEM shows that during the transformation the nanobelts on the spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles become more dispersed and the contour of the individual nanobelts becomes more noticeable. Afterward, the nanobelts self-assemble to nanorods and result in rod-covered mannitol/LB Agar microparticles. FTIR indicates new hydrogen bonds were formed among mannitol, LB Agar, and hexane. SEM images coupled with image analysis software reveal that different surface morphology of the microparticles have different drug adhesion mechanisms. Comparison of ACI results and image analysis of SEM images shows that an increase in the particle surface roughness can increase the fine particle fractions (FPFs) using the rod-covered mannitol microparticles as drug carriers. Transformed microparticles show higher FPFs than commercially available lactose carriers. An FPF of 28.6 ± 2.4% was achieved by microparticles transformed from spray-dried microparticles using 2% mannitol(w/v)/LB Agar as feed solution. It is comparable to the highest FPF reported in the literature using lactose and spray-dried mannitol as carriers.

  8. Activation of the inflammasome and enhanced migration of microparticle-stimulated dendritic cells to the draining lymph node. (United States)

    Meraz, Ismail M; Melendez, Brenda; Gu, Jianhua; Wong, Stephen T C; Liu, Xuewu; Andersson, Helen A; Serda, Rita E


    Porous silicon microparticles presenting pathogen-associated molecular patterns mimic pathogens, enhancing internalization of the microparticles and activation of antigen presenting dendritic cells. We demonstrate abundant uptake of microparticles bound by the TLR-4 ligands LPS and MPL by murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC). Labeled microparticles induce concentration-dependent production of IL-1β, with inhibition by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK supporting activation of the NLRP3-dependent inflammasome. Inoculation of BALB/c mice with ligand-bound microparticles induces a significant increase in circulating levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. Stimulation of BMDC with ligand-bound microparticles increases surface expression of costimulatory and MHC molecules, and enhances migration of BMDC to the draining lymph node. LPS-microparticles stimulate in vivo C57BL/6 BMDC and OT-1 transgenic T cell interactions in the presence of OVA SIINFEKL peptide in lymph nodes, with intact nodes imaged using two-photon microscopy. Formation of in vivo and in vitro immunological synapses between BMDC, loaded with OVA peptide and LPS-microparticles, and OT-1 T cells are presented, as well as elevated intracellular interferon gamma levels in CD8(+) T cells stimulated by BMDC carrying peptide-loaded microparticles. In short, ligand-bound microparticles enhance (1) phagocytosis of microparticles; (2) BMDC inflammasome activation and upregulation of costimulatory and MHC molecules; (3) cellular migration of BMDC to lymphatic tissue; and (4) cellular interactions leading to T cell activation in the presence of antigen.

  9. Anisotropic silica mesostructures for DNA encapsulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aparna Ganguly; Ashok K Ganguli


    The encapsulation of biomolecules in inert meso or nanostructures is an important step towards controlling drug delivery agents. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) are of immense importance owing to their high surface area, large pore size, uniform particle size and chemical inertness. Reverse micellar method with CTAB as the surfactant has been used to synthesize anisotropic mesoporous silica materials. We have used the anisotropic silica nanostructures for DNA encapsulation studies and observed a loading capacity of ∼8 g mg-1 of the sample. On functionalizing the pores of silica with amine group, the amount of DNA loaded on the rods decreases which is due to a reduction in the pore size upon grafting of amine groups.

  10. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: Abdominal cocoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny N Tannoury; Bassam N Abboud


    Abdominal cocoon,the idiopathic form of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis,is a rare condition of unknown etiology that results in an intestinal obstruction due to total or partial encapsulation of the small bowel by a fibrocollagenous membrane.Preoperative diagnosis re quires a high index of clinical suspicion.The early clinical features are nonspecific,are often not recognized and it is difficult to make a definite pre-operative diagnosis.Clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent episodes of small intestinal obstruction combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies.The radiological diagnosis of abdominal cocoon may now be confidently made on computed tomography scan.Surgery is important in the management of this disease.Careful dissection and excision of the thick sac with the release of the small intestine leads to complete recovery in the vast majority of cases.

  11. Encapsulation of high temperature thermoelectric modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, James R.; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Park, Youngsam


    A method of encapsulating a thermoelectric device and its associated thermoelectric elements in an inert atmosphere and a thermoelectric device fabricated by such method are described. These thermoelectric devices may be intended for use under conditions which would otherwise promote oxidation of the thermoelectric elements. The capsule is formed by securing a suitably-sized thin-walled strip of oxidation-resistant metal to the ceramic substrates which support the thermoelectric elements. The thin-walled metal strip is positioned to enclose the edges of the thermoelectric device and is secured to the substrates using gap-filling materials. The strip, substrates and gap-filling materials cooperatively encapsulate the thermoelectric elements and exclude oxygen and water vapor from atmospheric air so that the elements may be maintained in an inert, non-oxidizing environment.

  12. Design documentation: Krypton encapsulation preconceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, D.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    US EPA regulations limit the release of Krypton-85 to the environment from commercial facilities after January 1, 1983. In order to comply with these regulations, Krypton-85, which would be released during reprocessing of commercial nuclear fuel, must be collected and stored. Technology currently exists for separation of krypton from other inert gases, and for its storage as a compressed gas in steel cylinders. The requirements, which would be imposed for 100-year storage of Krypton-85, have led to development of processes for encapsulation of krypton within a stable solid matrix. The objective of this effort was to provide preconceptual engineering designs, technical evaluations, and life cycle costing data for comparison of two alternate candidate processes for encapsulation of Krypton-85. This report has been prepared by The Ralph M. Parsons Company for the US Department of Energy.

  13. Nano-encapsulated PCM via Pickering Emulsification (United States)

    Wang, Xuezhen; Zhang, Lecheng; Yu, Yi-Hsien; Jia, Lisi; Sam Mannan, M.; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Zhengdong


    We designed a two-step Pickering emulsification procedure to create nano-encapsulated phase changing materials (NEPCMs) using a method whose simplicity and low energy consumption suggest promise for scale-up and mass production. Surface-modified amphiphilic zirconium phosphate (ZrP) platelets were fabricated as the Pickering emulsifiers, nonadecane was chosen as the core phase change material (PCM), and polystyrene, the shell material. The resultant capsules were submicron in size with remarkable uniformity in size distribution, which has rarely been reported. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) characterization showed that the capsulation efficiency of NEPCMs, and they were found to be thermal stable, as characterized by the DSC data for the sample after 200 thermal cycles. NEPCMs exhibit superior mechanical stability and mobility when compared with the well-developed micro-encapsulated phase change materials (MEPCMs). NEPCMs find useful applications in thermal management, including micro-channel coolants; solar energy storage media; building temperature regulators; and thermal transfer fabrics.

  14. Continuous-flow encapsulation of ketoprofen in copolymer microbeads via co-axial microfluidic device: influence of operating and material parameters on drug carrier properties. (United States)

    Khan, Ikram Ullah; Serra, Christophe A; Anton, Nicolas; Vandamme, Thierry


    Microchannels based microfluidic systems are able to obtain monodispersed microparticles but are limited by cost, time and channel clogging. We succeeded in on the fly encapsulation of high ketoprofen contents in acrylate-based copolymer microbeads by environment friendly UV induced free radical polymerization in off-the-shelf co-axial microfluidic device. FTIR shows complete polymerization of acrylate monomers and interaction between carboxylic group of ketoprofen and ester group of monomers. DSC and XRD confirm amorphous nature of drug in microbeads. Different comonomer content formulations show limited drug release at low pH, a helpful properties to avoid gastric irritating effect of ketoprofen associated with conventional dosage forms. At pH 6.8 microbeads release higher content of drug by a non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Their drug release rate depends upon the weight content of ethyl acrylate in the formulation as well as their size, increasing by increasing the former and decreasing the later.

  15. Cinnamomum casia Extract Encapsulated Nanochitosan as Antihypercholesterol (United States)

    Ngadiwiyana; Purbowatiningrum; Fachriyah, Enny; Ismiyarto


    Atherosclerosis vascular disease with clinical manifestations such as cardiovascular disease and stroke are the leading cause of death in Indonesia. One solution to these problems is a natural antihypercholesterol medicine by utilizing Cinnamomum casia extract. However, the use of natural extracts to lower blood cholesterol levels do not provide optimal results because it is possible that the active components of extract have been degraded/damaged during the absorption process. So that, we need to do the research to get a combination of chitosan nanoparticles-Cinnamomum casia. extract as a compound which has an antihypercholesterol activity through the in vitro study. Modification of natural extracts encapsulated nanochitosan be a freshness in this study, which were conducted using the method of inclusion. The combination of both has the dual function of protecting the natural extracts from degradation and deliver the natural extracts to the target site. Analysis of nanochitosan using the Particle Size Analyzer (PSA) shows the particle size of synthesis product that is equal to 64.9 nm. Encapsulation efficiency of Cinnamomum casia extract-Chitosan Nanoparticles known through UV-VIS spectrophotometry test and obtained the efficiency encapsulation percentage of 84.93%. Zeta Potential at 193,3 mv that chitosan appropriate for a delivery drug. Antihypercholesterol activity tested in vitro assay that showed the extract-nanoparticle chitosan in concentration 150 ppm gave the highest cholesterol decreasing level in the amount of 49.66% w/v. So it can be concluded that Cinnamomum casia extract can be encapsulated in nanoparticles of chitosan and proved that it has a cholesterol-lowering effect through the in vitro study.

  16. Carbon nanofibers encapsulated in macropores in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkov, V.; Red' kin, A. [Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials, RAS, Institutskaya str. 6, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation)


    This work reports on the development of fuel cells electrodes with a porous silicon structure and carbon nanofibers encapsulated in macropores in silicon. It is demonstrated that decomposition of carbon on a Ni catalyst deposited on the pore walls can be used to create a homogeneous carbon nanotube layer that dramatically increases the specific surface area while simultaneously reducing the resistivity of the macroporous silicon layer. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. PLGA microspheres encapsulating siRNA. (United States)

    De Rosa, Giuseppe; Salzano, Giuseppina


    The therapeutic use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) represents a new and powerful approach to suppress the expression of pathologically genes. However, biopharmaceutical drawbacks, such as short half-life, poor cellular uptake, and unspecific distribution into the body, hamper the development of siRNA-based therapeutics. Poly(lactide-co-glycolide), (PLGA) microspheres can be a useful tool to overcome these issues. siRNA can be encapsulated into the PLGA microspheres, which protects the loaded nucleic acid against the enzymatic degradation. Moreover, PLGA microspheres can be injected directly into the action site, where the siRNA can be released in controlled manner, thus avoiding the need of frequent invasive administrations. The complete biodegradability of PLGA to monomers easily metabolized by the body, and its approval by FDA and EMA for parenteral administration, assure the safety of this copolymer and do not require the removal of the device after the complete drug release. In chapter, a basic protocol for the preparation of PLGA microspheres encapsulating siRNA is described. This protocol is based on a double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique, a well known and easy to reproduce method. This specific protocol has been developed to encapsulate a siRNA anti-TNFα in PLGA microspheres, and it has been designed and optimized to achieve high siRNA encapsulation efficiency and slow siRNA release in vitro. However, it can be extended also to other siRNA as well as other RNA or DNA-based oligonucleotides (miRNA, antisense, decoy, etc.). Depending on the applications, chemical modifications of the backbone and site-specific modification within the siRNA sequences could be required.

  18. Encapsulating peritonitis: computed tomography and surgical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadow, Juliana Santos; Fingerhut, Carla Jeronimo Peres; Fernandes, Vinicius de Barros; Coradazzi, Klaus Rizk Stuhr; Silva, Lucas Marciel Soares; Penachim, Thiago Jose, E-mail: [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Hospital e Maternidade Celso Pierro


    Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis is a rare and frequently severe entity characterized by total or partial involvement of small bowel loops by a membrane of fibrous tissue. The disease presents with nonspecific clinical features of intestinal obstruction, requiring precise imaging diagnosis to guide the treatment. The present report emphasizes the importance of computed tomography in the diagnosis of this condition and its confirmation by surgical correlation. (author)

  19. Tracking Hypoxic Signaling within Encapsulated Cell Aggregates


    Skiles, Matthew L.; Sahai, Suchit; Blanchette, James O.


    In Diabetes mellitus type 1, autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic β-cells results in loss of insulin production and potentially lethal hyperglycemia. As an alternative treatment option to exogenous insulin injection, transplantation of functional pancreatic tissue has been explored1,2. This approach offers the promise of a more natural, long-term restoration of normoglycemia. Protection of the donor tissue from the host's immune system is required to prevent rejection and encapsulation is...

  20. Water encapsulation in a polyoxapolyaza macrobicyclic compound. (United States)

    Mateus, Pedro; Delgado, Rita; Groves, Patrick; Campos, Sara R R; Baptista, António M; Brandão, Paula; Félix, Vítor


    A new heteroditopic macrobicyclic compound (t(2)pN(5)O(3)) containing two separate polyoxa and polyaza compartments was synthesized in good yield through a [1 + 1] "tripod-tripod coupling" strategy. The X-ray crystal structure of H(3)t(2)pN(5)O(3)(3+) revealed the presence of one encapsulated water molecule accepting two hydrogen bonds from two protonated secondary amines and donating a hydrogen bond to one amino group. The acid-base behavior of the compound was studied by potentiometry at 298.2 K in aqueous solution and at ionic strength 0.10 M in KCl. The results revealed unusual protonation behavior, namely a surprisingly low fourth protonation constant contrary to what was expected for the compound. (1)H NMR and DOSY experiments, as well as molecular modeling studies, showed that the water encapsulation and the conformation observed in the solid state are retained in solution. The strong binding of the encapsulated water molecule, reinforced by the cooperative occurrence of a trifurcated hydrogen bond at the polyether compartment of the macrobicycle, account for the very low log K(4)(H) value obtained.

  1. Ultrasonographic findings of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jong Kyu; Lee, Hae Kyung; Moon, Chul; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kwon, Kwi Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyangi University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of the patients with sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP). Thirteen patients with surgically confirmed sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis were involved in this study. Because of intestinal obstruction, all patients had received operations. Among 13 patients, 12 cases had continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 2 months-12 years and 4 months from (mean; 6 years and 10 months), owing to chronic renal failure and one patient had an operation due to variceal bleeding caused by liver cirrhosis. On ultrasonographic examination, all patients showed loculated ascites which were large (n=7) or small (n=6) in amount with multiple separations. The small bowel loops were tethered posteriorly perisaltic movement and covered with the thick membrane. The ultrasonographic of findings of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis were posteriorly tethered small bowels covered with a thick membrane and loculated ascites with multiple septa. Ultrasonographic examination can detect the thin membrane covering the small bowel loops in the early phase of the disease, therefore ultrasonography would be a helpful modality to diagnose SEP early.

  2. Encapsulating peritonitis and familial Mediterranean fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Resat Dabak; Oya Uygur-Bayrami(c)li; Didem K1l1(c) Ayd1n; Can Dolap(c)1oglu; Cengiz Gemici; Turgay Erginel; Cem Turan; Nimet Karaday1


    AIM: To investigate the relationship between encapsulating peritonitis and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). METHODS: The patient had a history of type 2 diabetes and laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed one year ago for cholelithiasis. Eleven months after the operation she developed massive ascites. Biochemical evaluation revealed hyperglycemia, mild Fe deficiency anemia, hypoalbuminemia and a CA-125 level of 2 700 IU. Ascitic evaluation showed characteristics of exudation with a cell count of 580/mm3. Abdominal CT showed omental thickening and massive ascites. At exploratory laparotomy there was generalized thickening of the peritoneum and a laparoscopic clip encapsulated by fibrous tissue was found adherent to the uterus. Biopsies were negative for malignancy and a prophilactic total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy were performed. RESULTS: The histopathological evaluation was compatible with chronic nonspecific findings and mild mesothelial proliferation and chronic inflammation at the uterine serosa and liver biopsy showed inactive cirrhosis. CONCLUSION: The patient was evaluated as sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis induced by the laparoscopic clip acting as a foreign body. Due to the fact that the patient had FMF the immune response was probably exaggerated.

  3. A Biodegradation Study of SBA-15 Microparticles in Simulated Body Fluid and in Vivo. (United States)

    Choi, Youngjin; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Jung Heon; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jaeyun


    Mesoporous silica has received considerable attention as a drug delivery vehicle because of its large surface area and large pore volume for loading drugs and large biomolecules. Recently, mesoporous silica microparticles have shown potential as a three-dimensional vaccine platform for modulating dendritic cells via spontaneous assembly of microparticles in a specific region after subcutaneous injection. For further in vivo applications, the biodegradation behavior of mesoporous silica microparticles must be studied and known. Until now, most biodegradation studies have focused on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs); here, we report the biodegradation of hexagonally ordered mesoporous silica, SBA-15, with micrometer-sized lengths (∼32 μm with a high aspect ratio). The degradation of SBA-15 microparticles was investigated in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in mice by analyzing the structural change over time. SBA-15 microparticles were found to degrade in SBF and in vivo. The erosion of SBA-15 under biological conditions led to a loss of the hysteresis loop in the nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherm and fingerprint peaks in small-angle X-ray scattering, specifically indicating a degradation of ordered mesoporous structure. Via comparison to previous results of degradation of MSNs in SBF, SBA-15 microparticles degraded faster than MCM-41 nanoparticles presumably because SBA-15 microparticles have a pore size (∼8 nm) and a pore volume larger than those of MCM-41 mesoporous silica. The surface functional groups, the residual amounts of organic templates, and the hydrothermal treatment during the synthesis could affect the rate of degradation of SBA-15. In in vivo testing, previous studies focused on the evaluation of toxicity of mesoporous silica particles in various organs. In contrast, we studied the change in the physical properties of SBA-15 microparticles depending on the duration after subcutaneous injection. The pristine SBA-15 microparticles injected

  4. First-principle simulation of the acoustic radiation force on microparticles in ultrasonic standing waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Jakob Herring; Bruus, Henrik


    The recent development in the field of microparticle acoutophoresis in microsystems has led to an increased need for more accurate theoretical predections for the acoustic radiation force on a single microparticle in an ultrasonic standing wave. Increasingly detailed analytical solutions of this ......The recent development in the field of microparticle acoutophoresis in microsystems has led to an increased need for more accurate theoretical predections for the acoustic radiation force on a single microparticle in an ultrasonic standing wave. Increasingly detailed analytical solutions...... of this specific problem can be found in the literature [Settnes ans Bruus, Phys. Rev. E 85, 016327 (2012), and references therein], but none have included the complete contribution from thermoviscous effects. Here, we solve this problem numerically by applying a finite-element method to solve directly the mass...... (continuity), momentum (Navier-Stokes), and energy conservation equations using perturbation theory to second order in the imposed time-harmonic ultrasound field. In a two-stage calculation, we first solve the first-order equations resolving the thermoviscous boundary layer surrounding the microparticle...

  5. Use of the spray chilling method to deliver hydrophobic components: physical characterization of microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Dutra Alvim


    Full Text Available Food industry has been developing products to meet the demands of increasing number of consumers who are concerned with their health and who seek food products that satisfy their needs. Therefore, the development of processed foods that contain functional components has become important for this industry. Microencapsulation can be used to reduce the effects of processing on functional components and preserve their bioactivity. The present study investigated the production of lipid microparticles containing phytosterols by spray chilling. The matrices comprised mixtures of stearic acid and hydrogenated vegetable fat, and the ratio of the matrix components to phytosterols was defined by an experimental design using the mean diameters of the microparticles as the response variable. The melting point of the matrices ranged from 44.5 and 53.4 ºC. The process yield was melting point dependent; the particles that exhibited lower melting point had greater losses than those with higher melting point. The microparticles' mean diameters ranged from 13.8 and 32.2 µm and were influenced by the amount of phytosterols and stearic acid. The microparticles exhibited spherical shape and typical polydispersity of atomized products. From a technological and practical (handling, yield, and agglomeration points of view, lipid microparticles with higher melting point proved promising as phytosterol carriers.

  6. Biosensing utilizing the motion of magnetic microparticles in a microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Giouroudi, Ioanna


    The study for the design of a compact and inexpensive biosensing device, which can be operated either by primary care personnel or by patients as opposed to skilled operators, is presented. The main parts of the proposed device are a microfluidic channel, permanent magnets and functionalized magnetic microparticles. The innovative aspect of the proposed biosensing method is that it utilizes the volumetric increase of magnetic microparticles when analyte binds to their surface. Their velocity decreases drastically when they are accelerated by an externally applied magnetic force within a microfluidic channel. This effect is utilized to detect the presence of analyte e.g. microbes. Analytical calculations showed that a decrease in velocity of approximately 23% can be achieved due to the volumetric change of a magnetic microparticle of View the MathML source1μm diameter when HIV virions of approximately View the MathML source0,135μm are bound to its surface and by keeping its magnetic properties the same. Preliminary experiments were carried out utilizing superparamagnetic microparticles coated with streptavidin and polystyrene microparticles coated with biotin.

  7. Preparation and characterization of chitosan microparticles for immunoaffinity extraction and determination of enrofloxacin. (United States)

    Yang, Yamei; Wang, Yadan; Niu, Rui; Lu, Jiandong; Zhu, Xinsheng; Wang, Yun


    The use of chitosan microparticles as chromatographic support has received much attention. In this study, the effects of process parameters, namely, chitosan molecular weight, chitosan concentration, molar ratio of amino group to aldehyde group, volume ratio of water to oil phase and stirring speed on the size and size distribution of chitosan microparticles and their application for immunoaffinity extraction were extensively investigated. Size distribution analysis indicated that the average diameter of the microparticles was 124μm with Span value of 1.1. The obtained microparticles exhibited low non-specific adsorption and kept stable in the pH range 4.0-10.0. Immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column was prepared by coupling antibody against enrofloxacin (ENR) with chitosan microparticles. Further characterization indicated that the binding capacity of the column was 4392ng ENR/mL gel and the variation of ENR extraction efficiency among columns was less than 5.2%. When challenged with ENR-fortified bovine milk samples, recoveries of ENR by immunoaffinity extraction were found to be in the range of 85.9% to 101.9%, demonstrated the feasibility of the prepared IAC columns for sample clean-up in ENR residue determination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of glucan structure on the swelling and leaching properties of starch microparticles. (United States)

    Bordenave, Nicolas; Janaswamy, Srinivas; Yao, Yuan


    Microparticles were made by a water-in-oil emulsion technique from acid-hydrolyzed and debranched normal, waxy and high-amylose corn starches. The starches prepared had a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) ranging 3.6 × 10(7)-2.5 × 10(4), a polydispersity ranging 1.16-9.16, an apparent amylose content ranging 2.84-100%. These microparticles exhibited crystallinity ranging 4.41-22.84%, swelling power ranging 2.45-7.84 and percentage of leaching ranging 1.72-74.91%. Swelling power in water (R(2)=0.86) and percentage of leaching in water (R(2)=0.89) were modeled by a response surface method, using the following parameters: Mw, polydispersity, apparent amylose content and crystallinity of starch in microparticles. Overall, this study showed the key parameters for controlling the behavior of starch microparticles were related to the cohesiveness of the three-dimensional network, particularly through the retrogradation of starch polymers, the formation of crystallites and junctions zones. Such microparticles could be used for designing economical and biocompatible delivery systems of compounds for food, drug, or other applications.

  9. Aceclofenac-loaded chitosan-tamarind seed polysaccharide interpenetrating polymeric network microparticles. (United States)

    Jana, Sougata; Saha, Abhimunya; Nayak, Amit Kumar; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Basu, Sanat Kumar


    The present work deals with the preparation, characterization and evaluation of glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan-tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) microparticles for prolonged aceclofenac release. The drug entrapment efficiency of these microparticles was found 85.84±1.75 to 91.97±1.30% and their average particle sizes were ranged from 490.55±23.24 to 621.60±53.57 μm. These chitosan-TSP IPN microparticles were characterized by FTIR, DSC, and SEM analyses. The in vitro drug release from these aceclofenac-loaded chitosan-TSP IPN microparticles showed sustained release of aceclofenac over 8h and followed the Korsmeyer-Peppas model (R(2)=0.9809-0.9828) with anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion drug release mechanism. The in vivo studies exhibited sustained anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rats over prolonged period after oral administration of these newly developed aceclofenac-loaded IPN microparticles.

  10. Chitosan-Based Nano-Embedded Microparticles: Impact of Nanogel Composition on Physicochemical Properties. (United States)

    Islam, Paromita; Water, Jorrit J; Bohr, Adam; Rantanen, Jukka


    Chitosan-based nanogels have been widely applied as drug delivery vehicles. Spray-drying of said nanogels allows for the preparation of dry powder nano-embedded microparticles. In this work, chitosan-based nanogels composed of chitosan, alginate, and/or sodium tri-penta phosphate were investigated, particularly with respect to the impact of composition on the resulting physicochemical properties. Different compositions were obtained as nanogels with sizes ranging from 203 to 561 nm. The addition of alginate and exclusion of sodium tri-penta phosphate led to an increase in nanogel size. The nanogels were subsequently spray-dried to form nano-embedded microparticles with trehalose or mannitol as matrix excipient. The microparticles of different composition were mostly spherical with a smooth surface and a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 6-10 µm. Superior redispersibility was observed for microparticles containing amorphous trehalose. This study demonstrates the potential of nano-embedded microparticles for stabilization and delivery of nanogel-based delivery systems.

  11. Preparation of thiomer microparticles and in vitro evaluation of parameters influencing their mucoadhesive properties. (United States)

    Albrecht, K; Zirm, E J; Palmberger, T F; Schlocker, W; Bernkop-Schnürch, A


    It was the aim of this study to develop mucoadhesive microparticulate delivery systems based on thiomers and to investigate parameters influencing their mucoadhesive properties. Microparticles were prepared via coazervation of thiolated or unmodified polycarbophil with fluorescein-diacetate as marker. The protective effect of the polymers toward enzymatic hydrolysis by intestinal enzymes was investigated. Mucoadhesion studies with microparticles, applied in dry and prehydrated form, were performed by ascertaining their residence time on intestinal mucosa. Furthermore, the influence of the amount of thiol groups on mucoadhesion was studied in vitro. Results showed that in comparison to unmodified polycarbophil, thiolated polycarbophil provided a more than 3-fold higher protective effect for the incorporated marker fluorescein-diacetate toward hydrolysis. When being applied in dry form 23.4 +/- 4.8% of the fluorescence marker being embedded in thiomer microparticles remained adhering to the intestinal mucosa within 3 h. In contrast, only 11.6 +/- 2.0% of the marker remained on the mucosa, when the thiomer microparticles were applied in prehydrated form. In addition, tests performed to assess the impact of the amount of thiol groups pointed out that a high amount of thiol groups is advantageous in order to further improve mucoadhesive properties. This knowledge should contribute to the design of highly efficient drug delivery systems being based on thiomer microparticles.

  12. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction. (United States)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bhopale, Veena M; Thom, Stephen R


    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries.

  13. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Schindler


    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS.

  14. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy nanostructural study of shed microparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Issman

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are sub-micron membrane vesicles (100-1000 nm shed from normal and pathologic cells due to stimulation or apoptosis. MPs can be found in the peripheral blood circulation of healthy individuals, whereas elevated concentrations are found in pregnancy and in a variety of diseases. Also, MPs participate in physiological processes, e.g., coagulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Since their clinical properties are important, we have developed a new methodology based on nano-imaging that provides significant new data on MPs nanostructure, their composition and function. We are among the first to characterize by direct-imaging cryogenic transmitting electron microscopy (cryo-TEM the near-to-native nanostructure of MP systems isolated from different cell types and stimulation procedures. We found that there are no major differences between the MP systems we have studied, as most particles were spherical, with diameters from 200 to 400 nm. However, each MP population is very heterogeneous, showing diverse morphologies. We investigated by cryo-TEM the effects of standard techniques used to isolate and store MPs, and found that either high-g centrifugation of MPs for isolation purposes, or slow freezing to -80 °C for storage introduce morphological artifacts, which can influence MP nanostructure, and thus affect the efficiency of these particles as future diagnostic tools.

  15. Endothelial microparticles as conveyors of information in atherosclerotic disease. (United States)

    Schiro, A; Wilkinson, F L; Weston, R; Smyth, J V; Serracino-Inglott, F; Alexander, M Y


    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are complex submicron membrane-shed vesicles released into the circulation following endothelium cell activation or apoptosis. They are classified as either physiological or pathological, with anticoagulant or pro-inflammatory effects respectively. Endothelial dysfunction caused by inflammation is a key initiating event in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Athero-emboli, resulting from ruptured carotid plaques are a major cause of stroke. Current clinical techniques for arterial assessment, angiography and carotid ultrasound, give accurate information about stenosis but limited evidence on plaque composition, inflammation or vulnerability; as a result, patients with asymptomatic, or fragile carotid lesions, may not be identified and treated effectively. There is a need to discover novel biomarkers and develop more efficient diagnostic approaches in order to stratify patients at most risk of stroke, who would benefit from interventional surgery. Increasing evidence suggests that EMPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, acting as a marker of damage, either exacerbating disease progression or triggering a repair response. In this regard, it has been suggested that EMPs have the potential to act as biomarkers of disease status. In this review, we will present the evidence to support this hypothesis and propose a novel concept for the development of a diagnostic device that could be implemented in the clinic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the Particle Formation Process of Structured Microparticles. (United States)

    Baldelli, Alberto; Boraey, Mohammed A; Nobes, David S; Vehring, Reinhard


    The particle formation process for microparticles of cellulose acetate butyrate dried from an acetone solution was investigated experimentally and theoretically. A monodisperse droplet chain was used to produce solution microdroplets in a size range of 55-70 μm with solution concentrations of 0.37 and 10 mg/mL. As the droplets dried in a laminar air flow with a temperature of 30, 40, or 55 °C, the particle formation process was recorded by two independent optical methods. Dried particles in a size range of 10-30 μm were collected for morphology analysis, showing hollow, elongated particles whose structure was dependent on the drying gas temperature and initial solution concentration. The setup allowed comprehensive measurements of the particle formation process to be made, including the period after initial shell formation. The early particle formation process for this system was controlled by the diffusion of cellulose acetate butyrate in the liquid phase, whereas later stages of the process were dominated by shell buckling and folding.

  17. Porous silicon microparticles for delivery of siRNA therapeutics. (United States)

    Shen, Jianliang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Lee, Yeonju; Wolfram, Joy; Yang, Zhizhou; Mao, Zong-Wan; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa


    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used to suppress gene expression, thereby providing a new avenue for the treatment of various diseases. However, the successful implementation of siRNA therapy requires the use of delivery platforms that can overcome the major challenges of siRNA delivery, such as enzymatic degradation, low intracellular uptake and lysosomal entrapment. Here, a protocol for the preparation and use of a biocompatible and effective siRNA delivery system is presented. This platform consists of polyethylenimine (PEI) and arginine (Arg)-grafted porous silicon microparticles, which can be loaded with siRNA by performing a simple mixing step. The silicon particles are gradually degraded over time, thereby triggering the formation of Arg-PEI/siRNA nanoparticles. This delivery vehicle provides a means for protecting and internalizing siRNA, without causing cytotoxicity. The major steps of polycation functionalization, particle characterization, and siRNA loading are outlined in detail. In addition, the procedures for determining particle uptake, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficacy are also described.

  18. Microparticles as players in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandru, N.; Georgescu, A.


    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the world and include all diseases and conditions of the heart and blood vessels. The main cause of most CVD is atherosclerosis, which is an abnormal build-up of fat and other substances which form plaque inside the arteries. Atherosclerosis is most serious when it leads to reduced or blocked blood supply to the heart (causing angina or heart attack) or to the brain (causing a stroke). The majority of CVD is caused by risk factors that can be controlled, treated or modified. Microparticles (MPs) are now recognized as potential biomarkers and key elements in the development of CVD. Although MP generation is a physiological phenomenon, their shedding from a variety of cell types into body fluid is intensified in response to cellular activation, high shear stress, as well as cellular apoptosis. In this review we outline distinct aspect of MP generation and their side as players n the CVD development.

  19. Antiplatelet Agents Inhibit the Generation of Platelet-Derived Microparticles (United States)

    Giacomazzi, Alice; Degan, Maurizio; Calabria, Stefano; Meneguzzi, Alessandra; Minuz, Pietro


    Platelet microparticles (PMPs) contribute to thrombogenesis but the effects of antiplatelet drugs on PMPs generation is undefined. The present study investigated the cellular events regulating PMPs shedding, testing in vitro platelet agonists and inhibitors. Platelet-rich plasma from healthy subjects was stimulated with arachidonic acid (AA), U46619, collagen type-I (10 and 1.5 μg/mL), epinephrine, ADP or TRAP-6 and pre-incubated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 and 10 μmol/L), SQ-29,548, apyrase, PSB-0739, or eptifibatide. PMPs were detected by flow-cytometry using CD61 and annexin-V as fluorescent markers. Platelet agonists induced annexin V-positive PMPs shedding. The strongest response was to high concentration collagen. ADP-triggered PMPs shedding was dose-independent. ASA reduced PMPs induced by AA- (645, 347–2946 vs. 3061, 446–4901 PMPs/μL; median ad range, n = 9, P PMP shedding. The crucial role of the fibrinogen receptor and the collagen receptor in PMPs generation, independently of platelet aggregation, was identified. PMID:27695417

  20. Procoagulant behavior and platelet microparticle generation on nanoporous alumina. (United States)

    Ferraz, Natalia; Hong, Jaan; Karlsson Ott, Marjam


    In the present work, we have investigated platelet microparticle (PMP) generation in whole blood after contact with nanoporous alumina. Alumina membranes with pore sizes of 20 and 200 nm in diameter were incubated with whole blood and the number of PMP in the fluid phase was determined by flow cytometry. The role of the complement system in PMP generation was investigated using an analog of the potent complement inhibitor compstatin. Moreover, the procoagulant activity of the two pore size membranes were compared by measuring thrombin formation. Results indicated that PMP were not present in the fluid phase after whole blood contact with either of the alumina membranes. However, scanning electron microscope micrographs clearly showed the presence of PMP clusters on the 200 nm pore size alumina, while PMP were practically absent on the 20 nm membrane. We probed no influence of complement activation in PMP generation and adhesion and we hypothesize that other specific material-related protein-platelet interactions are taking place. A clear difference in procoagulant activity between the membranes could also be seen, 20 nm alumina showed 100% higher procoagulant activity than 200 nm membrane. By combining surface evaluation and flow cytometry analyses of the fluid phase, we are able to conclude that 200 nm pore size alumina promotes PMP generation and adhesion while the 20 nm membrane does not appreciably cause any release or adhesion of PMP, thus indicating a direct connection between PMP generation and nanoporosity.

  1. Optimization of scaled-up chitosan microparticles for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasuriya, A Champa; Bhat, Archana, E-mail: a.jayasuriya@utoledo.ed [Department of Orthopaedics, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)


    The aim of this study was to scale-up and optimize the chitosan (CS) microparticles (MPs) from 1x batch (41-85 mg) to 4x batch (270-567 mg) to be used in bone regeneration. The MPs used in the present study were prepared by double emulsification technique using CS as a base material under physiologically friendly conditions throughout the process. Structural integrity of MPs was improved creating cross-links between amine groups in CS and phosphate groups in tripolyphosphate (TPP) which has been used as an ionic cross-linking agent. The cross-linking density was varied using different amounts of TPP to CS such as 0%, 8%, 32%, 64% and 110% (w/w). The CS MPs were approximately spherical in shape with a size of 30-50{mu}m according to scanning electron microscopy results. X-ray diffraction data revealed having TPP in the CS MPs. The evidence of ionic cross-links in the CS MPs was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infra Red. When we scaled-up the yield of MPs, we investigated that 64% TPP cross-linking density provided the best quality MPs. In addition, those MPs provided the yield from 75 mg to 310 mg when scaled up from 1x to 4x batch, respectively. The MPs developed have a great potential to be used as an injectable scaffold for bone regeneration including orthopedic and craniofacial applications using minimally invasive conditions compared with conventional three-dimensional scaffolds.

  2. Magnetic microparticle-polydimethylsiloxane composite for reversible microchannel bonding. (United States)

    Tsao, Chia-Wen; Lee, Yueh-Pu


    In this study, an iron oxide magnetic microparticles and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (MMPs-PDMS) composite material was employed to demonstrate a simple high-strength reversible magnetic bonding method. This paper presents the casting of opaque-view (where optical inspection through the microchannels was impossible) and clear-view (where optical inspection through the microchannel was possible) MMPs-PDMS. The influence of the microchannel geometries on the casting of the opaque-view casting was limited, which is similar to standard PDMS casting. Clear-view casting performance was highly associated with the microchannel geometries. The effects of the microchannel layout and the gap between the PDMS cover layer and the micromold substrate were thoroughly investigated. Compared with the native PDMS bonding strength of 31 kPa, the MMPs-PDMS magnetic bonding experiments showed that the thin PDMS film with an MMPs-PDMS layer effectively reduced the surface roughness and enhanced MMPs-PDMS reversible magnetic bonding strength. A thin PDMS film-coated opaque-view MMPs-PDMS device exhibited the greatest bonding strength of 110 kPa, and a clear-view MMPs-PDMS device with a thin PDMS film attained a magnetic bonding strength of 81 kPa.

  3. Governing Principles of Alginate Microparticle Synthesis with Centrifugal Forces. (United States)

    Eral, Huseyin Burak; Safai, Eric R; Keshavarz, Bavand; Kim, Jae Jung; Lee, Jisoek; Doyle, P S


    A controlled synthesis of polymeric particles is becoming increasingly important because of emerging applications ranging from medical diagnostics to self-assembly. Centrifugal synthesis of hydrogel microparticles is a promising method, combining rapid particle synthesis and the ease of manufacturing with readily available laboratory equipment. This method utilizes centrifugal forces to extrude an aqueous polymer solution, sodium alginate (NaALG) through a nozzle. The extruded solution forms droplets that quickly cross-link upon contact with aqueous calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution to form hydrogel particles. The size distribution of hydrogel particles is dictated by the pinch-off behavior of the extruded solution through a balance of inertial, viscous, and surface tension stresses. We identify the parameters dictating the particle size and provide a numerical correlation predicting the average particle size. Furthermore, we create a phase map identifying different pinch-off regimes (dripping without satellites, dripping with satellites, and jetting), explaining the corresponding particle size distributions, and present scaling arguments predicting the transition between regimes. By shedding light on the underlying physics, this study enables the rational design and operation of particle synthesis by centrifugal forces.

  4. An Optical Biosensing Platform using Reprecipitated Polyaniline Microparticles (United States)

    Nemzer, Louis; Epstein, Arthur


    A great deal of effort remains focused on the goal of developing a continuous in vivo glucose monitoring system for patients with diabetes mellitus. We report a proof-of-concept study on a reagentless optical biosensing platform that circumvents the problems usually associated with direct glucose detection by utilizing the UV-VIS absorption properties of polyaniline, a biocompatible polymer. When the enzyme glucose oxidase is entrapped within reprecipitated polyaniline microparticles, a glucose molecule readily donates two protons and two electrons to the polyaniline, reversibly altering the polymer's oxidation state. The resultant change can be monitored by measuring the absorption at wavelengths that fall within the ``optical window'' for skin. The micro-structured morphology also insures a high surface-area to volume ratio. Data from in vitro prototype devices indicate that in the low enzyme-loading regime, the response can be fit to the Michaelis-Menten model for enzyme kinetics, but at higher enzyme loading, diffusion effects dominate. As a biosensing platform, the system also has the potential to be adapted to detect other biologically relevant analytes, including cholesterol and ethanol.

  5. Microparticles: A Pivotal Nexus in Vascular Homeostasis and Disease. (United States)

    McGinn, Ciaran M; MacDonnell, Brian F; Shan, Chun Xu; Wallace, Robert; Cummins, Philip M; Murphy, Ronan P


    Microvesicles (MVs) are submicron intact particles released from the cellular membrane of eukaryotic cells. MVs can be sub-categorised into microparticles (MPs), which are between 100nm- 1micron in size, and exosomes, measuring less than 100nm. Once thought to be cellular debris, MPs are now known to play important biological effector functions. Their biogenesis and release are as a result highly regulated processes in response to cellular activation or stress, and apoptosis. MPs are now known to play a crucial role in maintaining physiological homeostasis and have been demonstrated to be involved in numerous biological processes, including inflammation, cardiovascular disease, immune response, cancer dissemination, coagulation and angiogenesis. Consequently, there is active interest in studying MPs, and their 'cause and effect' in the initiation and potentiation of various pathologies. Circulating levels, both quantitative and qualitative, of MPs is thought to be a reflective index of cardiovascular competence. Therefore, studies to understand the biological relevance of the various permutations and combinations of circulating MPs, their cellular origin and bioactive cargo may lead to increased understanding of the sequelae of CVD and associated diseases. This review synopsizes our current understanding of the role of MPs in cardiovascular disease, their biogenesis and effector function, and their future use as both diagnostic and prognostic indices of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Using annexin V-coated magnetic beads to capture active tissue factor-bearing microparticles from body fluids. (United States)

    Gieseler, Frank; Gamperl, Hans; Theophil, Frederike; Stenzel, Inga; Quecke, Tabea; Ungefroren, Hendrik; Lehnert, Hendrik


    Microparticles, found in all body fluids including peripheral blood, are important elements that regulate cellular interactions under both physiological and pathological conditions. They play an important role in blood clot formation and increased cell aggregation. However, little is known about the components of the microparticles and their mechanism of action. A method to quantify and assess the underlying mechanism of action of microparticles in pathologies is therefore desirable. We present a specific method to isolate cell-derived microparticles from malignant effusions using annexin V-coated magnetic microbeads. The microparticles can be detected by flow cytometry. Our results show that the microparticles can be isolated with >80% specificity when bound to annexin V-coated magnetic beads, which was originally developed for the detection of apoptotic cells. We also show that the isolated microparticles were still functionally active and can be used for further analysis. Thus, our method enables isolation as well as structural and functional characterisation of the microparticles which are produced in numerous patho-physiological situations. This should help gain a deeper insight into various disease situations, which in turn should pave the way for the development of novel drugs and specific therapy strategies. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  7. Formulation of olfactory-targeted microparticles with tamarind seed polysaccharide to improve nose-to-brain transport of drugs. (United States)

    Yarragudi, Sasi B; Richter, Robert; Lee, Helen; Walker, Greg F; Clarkson, Andrew N; Kumar, Haribalan; Rizwan, Shakila B


    Targeted delivery and retention of drug formulations in the olfactory mucosa, the target site for nose-to-brain drug absorption is a major challenge due to the geometrical complexity of the nose and nasal clearance. Recent modelling data indicates that 10μm-sized microparticles show maximum deposition in the olfactory mucosa. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that 10μm-sized mucoadhesive microparticles would preferentially deposit on, and increase retention of drug on, the olfactory mucosa in a novel 3D-printed human nasal-replica cast under simulated breathing. The naturally occurring mucoadhesive polymer, tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) was used to formulate the microparticles using a spray drying technique. Physicochemical properties of microparticles such as size, morphology and mucoadhesiveness was investigated using a combination of laser diffraction, electron microscopy and texture-analysis. Furthermore, FITC-dextrans (5-40kDa) were incorporated in TSP-microparticles as model drugs. Size-dependent permeability of the FITC-dextrans was observed ex vivo using porcine nasal mucosa. Using the human nasal-replica cast, greater deposition of 10μm TSP-microparticles in the olfactory region was observed compared to TSP-microparticles 2μm in size. Collectively, these findings support our hypothesis that 10μm-sized mucoadhesive microparticles can achieve selective deposition and retention of drug in the olfactory mucosa.

  8. Neurokinin 1 receptor mediates membrane blebbing and sheer stress-induced microparticle formation in HEK293 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Chen

    Full Text Available Cell-derived microparticles participate in intercellular communication similar to the classical messenger systems of small and macro-molecules that bind to specialized membrane receptors. Microparticles have been implicated in the regulation of a variety of complex physiopathologic processes, such as thrombosis, the control of innate and adaptive immunity, and cancer. The neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R is a Gq-coupled receptor present on the membrane of a variety of tissues, including neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system, immune cells, endocrine and exocrine glands, and smooth muscle. The endogenous agonist of NK1R is the undecapeptide substance P (SP. We have previously described intracellular signaling mechanisms that regulate NK1R-mediated rapid cell shape changes in HEK293 cells and U373MG cells. In the present study, we show that the activation of NK1R in HEK293 cells, but not in U373MG cells, leads to formation of sheer-stress induced microparticles that stain positive with the membrane-selective fluorescent dye FM 2-10. SP-induced microparticle formation is independent of elevated intracellular calcium concentrations and activation of NK1R present on HEK293-derived microparticles triggers detectable calcium increase in SP-induced microparticles. The ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and the dynamin inhibitor dynasore inhibited membrane blebbing and microparticle formation in HEK293 cells, strongly suggesting that microparticle formation in this cell type is dependent on membrane blebbing.

  9. Quasi-static motion of microparticles at the depinning contact line of an evaporating droplet on PDMS surface (United States)

    Yu, Ying-Song; Xia, Xue-Lian; Zheng, Xu; Huang, Xianfu; Zhou, Jin-Zhi


    In this paper, evaporation of sessile water droplets containing fluorescent polystyrene (PS) microparticles on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces with different curing ratios was studied experimentally using laser confocal microscopy. At the beginning, there were some microparticles located at the contact line and some microparticles moved towards the line. Due to contact angle hysteresis, at first both the contact line and the microparticles were pinned. With the depinning contact line, the microparticles moved together spontaneously. Using the software ImageJ, the location of contact lines at different time were acquired and the circle centers and radii of the contact lines were obtained via the least square method. Then the average distance of two neighbor contact lines at a certain time interval was obtained to characterize the motion of the contact line. Fitting the distance-time curve at the depinning contact line stage with polynomials and differentiating the polynomials with time, we obtained the velocity and acceleration of both the contact line and the microparticles located at the line. The velocity and the maximum acceleration were, respectively, of the orders of 1 μm/s and 20-200 nm/s2, indicating that the motion of the microparticles located at the depinning contact line was quasi-static. Finally, we presented a theoretical model to describe the quasi-static process, which may help in understanding both self-pinning and depinning of microparticles.

  10. One-Step Production of Protein-Loaded PLGA Microparticles via Spray Drying Using 3-Fluid Nozzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Feng; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Andersen, Sune Klint;


    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using a spray-dryer equipped with a 3-fluid nozzle to microencapsulate protein drugs into polymeric microparticles.......The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of using a spray-dryer equipped with a 3-fluid nozzle to microencapsulate protein drugs into polymeric microparticles....

  11. Dusty plasma microparticle cloud control and rapid electrostatic mutual-repulsion expansion in a DC glow discharge (United States)

    Gillman, Eric; Amatucci, Bill


    Microparticles in plasma discharges rapidly charge up, typically collecting a net negative charge due to the relatively high mobility of electrons compared to ions. Electrostatic forces can be utilized to control charged microparticle behavior and motion in a plasma discharge. In these experiments a metal wire loop is supplied with an electric potential that can be controlled independently from the DC plasma glow discharge electrodes. By varying the voltage on the wire loop, we can attract, trap, manipulate, suspend, and/or repel microparticles that originate from the DC glow discharge. Experiments studied the properties of electrostatic self-repulsion of a cloud of charged microparticles. By pulsing the plasma and controlling wire loop potential, a cloud of trapped microparticles is released and allowed to rapidly expand. A simple force balance simulation code is used as a model to compare and benchmark actual experimental results. This work was supported by the Naval Research Laboratory base program.

  12. Microparticle record in the Guliya ice core and its comparison with polar records since the last interglacial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guangjian; YAO Tandong; L.G. Thompson; LI Zhongqin


    Based on the study of oxygen isotope and microparticle in the Guliya ice core, atmospheric dust and environmental changes in the northwest Tibetan Plateau since the last interglacial were revealed. The microparticle record indicates that Iow dust load on the Plateau in the interglacial.Particle concentration increased rapidly when the climate turned into the last glacial and reached the maximum during the MIS 4. In the Last Glacial Maximum, however, the enhancement of microparticle concentration was slight, differing to those in the Antarctic and Greenland. On the orbital timescale, both the temperature on the Tibetan Plateau and summer solar insolation in the Northern Hemisphere had their impact on the microparticle record, but the difference in phase and amplitude also existed. Though having the same dust source, microparticle records in the ice cores on the Tibetan Plateau and the Greenland seem to have different significance.

  13. Extended release microparticle-in-gel formulation of octreotide: Effect of polymer type on acylation of peptide during in vitro release. (United States)

    Vaishya, Ravi D; Mandal, Abhirup; Patel, Sulabh; Mitra, Ashim K


    Polymeric microparticles (MPs)-in-gel formulations for extended delivery of octreotide were developed. We investigated influence of polymer composition on acylation of octreotide and kinetics of release during in vitro release from biodegradable polymeric formulations. Polycaprolactone (PCL), polylactic acid (PLA), polyglycolic acid (PGA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) based triblock (TB≈PCL10k-PEG2k-PCL10k) and pentablock (PBA≈PLA3k-PCL7k-PEG2k-PCL7k-PLA3k and PBB≈PGA3k-PCL7k-PEG2k-PCL7k-PGA3k) polymers were investigated. Octreotide was encapsulated in MPs using methanol-oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation method. The particles were characterized for size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and in vitro release. Release samples were subjected to HPLC analysis for quantitation and HPLC-MS analysis for identification of native and chemically modified octreotide adducts. Entrapment efficiency of methanol-oil/water method with TB, PBA and PBB polymers were 45%, 60%, and 82%, respectively. A significant fraction of released octreotide was acylated from lactide and glycolide based PBA (53%) and PBB (92%) polymers. Substantial amount of peptide was not released from PBB polymers after 330 days of incubation. Complete release of octreotide was achieved from TB polymer over a period of 3 months with minimal acylation of peptide (13%). PCL based polymers resulted in minimal acylation of peptide and hence may be suitable for extended peptide and protein delivery. Conversely, polymers having PLA and PGA blocks may not be appropriate for peptide delivery due to acylation and incomplete release.

  14. Internal structure of cesium-bearing radioactive microparticles released from Fukushima nuclear power plant (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Noriko; Mitome, Masanori; Kotone, Akiyama-Hasegawa; Asano, Maki; Adachi, Kouji; Kogure, Toshihiro


    Microparticles containing substantial amounts of radiocesium collected from the ground in Fukushima were investigated mainly by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray microanalysis with scanning TEM (STEM). Particles of around 2 μm in diameter are basically silicate glass containing Fe and Zn as transition metals, Cs, Rb and K as alkali ions, and Sn as substantial elements. These elements are homogeneously distributed in the glass except Cs which has a concentration gradient, increasing from center to surface. Nano-sized crystallites such as copper- zinc- and molybdenum sulfide, and silver telluride were found inside the microparticles, which probably resulted from the segregation of the silicate and sulfide (telluride) during molten-stage. An alkali-depleted layer of ca. 0.2 μm thick exists at the outer side of the particle collected from cedar leaves 8 months after the nuclear accident, suggesting gradual leaching of radiocesium from the microparticles in the natural environment.

  15. Fabrication and application of porous silicon multilayered microparticles in sustained drug delivery (United States)

    Maniya, Nalin H.; Patel, Sanjaykumar R.; Murthy, Z. V. P.


    In the present study, the ability of porous silicon (PSi) based distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) microparticles for sustained and observable delivery of the antiviral agent acyclovir (ACV) is demonstrated. DBR was fabricated by electrochemical etching of single crystal silicon wafers and ultrasonic fractured to prepare microparticles. The hydrogen-terminated native surface of DBR microparticles was modified by thermal oxidation and thermal hydrosilylation. Particles were loaded with ACV and drug release experiments were conducted in phosphate buffered saline. Drug loading and surface chemistry of particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Drug release profiles from PSi DBR particles show sustained release behavior from all three studied surface chemistries. Drug release from particles was also monitored from change in color of particles.

  16. Microparticle Formation and Crystallization Rate of HMX with Supercritical CO2 Antisolvent Recrystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Microparticle formation and crystallization rate of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (HMX) in acetone solution using supercritical carbon dioxide antisolvent (GAS) recrystallization were studied. Scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction and infrared radiation were used to examine particle size, crystallinity and chemical structure. The results show that β-HMX microparticle in different average size (2-9.5μm) and with narrow size distribution were obtained by controlling the expansibility, expansion speed, initial concentration and temperature during recrystallization of HMX. The formation of nuclei may be a main cause of consumption of solute when the solution is expanded rapidly enough and the equilibrium concentration is lower, in which almost monodisperse microparticle can be obtained.

  17. Microparticle Formation and Crystallization Rate of HMX with Supercritical CO2 Antisolvent Recrystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建国; 周展云; 邓修


    Microparticle formation and crystallization rate of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-l,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (HMX) in acetone solution using supercritical carbon dioxide antisolvent (GAS) recrystallization were studied. Scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction and infrared radiation were used to examine particle size, crystallinity and chemical structure. The results show that β-HMX microparticle in different average size (2--9.5μm) and with narrow size distribution were obtained by controlling the expansibility, expansion speed, initial concentration and temperature during recrystallization of HMX. The formation of nuclei may be a main cause of consumption of solute when the solution is expanded rapidly enough and the equilibrium concentration is lower, in which almost monodisperse microparticle can be obtained.

  18. Periodontitis as a risk factor for systemic disease: Are microparticles the missing link? (United States)

    Badran, Zahi; Struillou, Xavier; Verner, Christian; Clee, Thibaud; Rakic, Mia; Martinez, Maria C; Soueidan, Assem


    Periodontitis is an oral inflammatory disease affecting the teeth supportive tissue. Its bacterial infectious etiology is well established. Periodontitis has been associated with increased prevalence of systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, preeclampsia, preterm birth and inflammatory bowel disease. The rational of considering periodontitis as risk factor for systemic disease is the passage of inflammatory cytokines and/or bacteria in the bloodstream, thus affecting distant organs. Membrane microparticles are released by multiple cells in inflammatory environment. Recent data suggested the role of these microparticles in the pathogenic process of many systemic diseases, that can be also associated to periodontitis. We hypothesized that periodontitis could be a chronic reservoir of microparticles, hence elucidating partially the interaction with systemic diseases initiation or progression.

  19. Magnetic Control of Lateral Migration of Ellipsoidal Microparticles in Microscale Flows (United States)

    Zhou, Ran; Sobecki, Christopher A.; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Yanzhi; Wang, Cheng


    Precise manipulations of nonspherical microparticles by shape have diverse applications in biology and biomedical engineering. Here, we study lateral migration of ellipsoidal paramagnetic microparticles in low-Reynolds-number flows under uniform magnetic fields. We show that magnetically induced torque alters the rotation dynamics of the particle and results in shape-dependent lateral migration. By adjusting the direction of the magnetic field, we demonstrate versatile control of the symmetric and asymmetric rotation of the particles, thereby controlling the direction of the particle's lateral migration. The particle rotations are experimentally measured, and their symmetry or asymmetry characteristics agree well with the prediction from a simple theory. The lateral migration mechanism is found to be valid for nonmagnetic particles suspended in a ferrofluid. Finally, we demonstrate shape-based sorting of microparticles by exploiting the proposed migration mechanism.

  20. Possible role of rf melted microparticles on the operation of high-gradient accelerating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Nusinovich


    Full Text Available High-gradient accelerating structures should operate reliably for a long time. Therefore studies of various processes which may lead to disruption of such an operation are so important. In the present paper, the dissipation of rf electromagnetic energy in metallic microparticles is analyzed accounting for the temperature dependence of the skin depth. Such particles may appear in structures, for example, due to mechanical fracture of irises in strong rf electric fields. It is shown that such microparticles with dimensions on the order of the skin depth, being immersed in the region of strong rf magnetic field, can absorb enough energy in long-pulse operation to be melted. Then, the melted clumps can impinge on the surface of a structure and create nonuniformities leading to field enhancement and corresponding emission of dark current. Results are given for several geometries and materials of microparticles.

  1. A Microfluidic Chip Using Phenol Formaldehyde Resin for Uniform-Sized Polycaprolactone and Chitosan Microparticle Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chen Hsieh


    Full Text Available This study develops a new solvent-compatible microfluidic chip based on phenol formaldehyde resin (PFR. In addition to its solvent-resistant characteristics, this microfluidic platform also features easy fabrication, organization, decomposition for cleaning, and reusability compared with conventional chips. Both solvent-dependent (e.g., polycaprolactone and nonsolvent-dependent (e.g., chitosan microparticles were successfully prepared. The size of emulsion droplets could be easily adjusted by tuning the flow rates of the dispersed/continuous phases. After evaporation, polycaprolactone microparticles ranging from 29.3 to 62.7 μm and chitosan microparticles ranging from 215.5 to 566.3 μm were obtained with a 10% relative standard deviation in size. The proposed PFR microfluidic platform has the advantages of active control of the particle size with a narrow size distribution as well as a simple and low cost process with a high throughput.

  2. Alginate/chitosan microparticles for tamoxifen delivery to the lymphatic system. (United States)

    Coppi, G; Iannuccelli, V


    Oral administration of the nonsteroidal anti-estrogen tamoxifen (TMX) is the treatment of choice for metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. With the aim to improve TMX oral bioavailability and decrease its side effects, crosslinked alginate microparticles for the targeting to the lymphatic system by Peyer's patch (PP) uptake were developed and in vitro characterized. TMX was molecularly dispersed inside the microparticles and an electrostatic interaction involving the TMX tertiary amine was detected by rheological and FT-IR assays. Microparticles showed a size less than 3mum, then suitability to be taken up by M cells in PP and a positive surface charge. Moreover, TMX loading level as well as in vitro release behaviour was affected by the polymer network connected with the mannuronic/guluronic ratio of the alginate chains.

  3. Erosion processes and micro-particle production in gas discharge lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letardi, T.; Giordano, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione


    The erosion processes of the cathode for pulsed excimer gas lasers are explained by comparing the initiation conditions of the pulsed excimer gas laser discharge to that of the vacuum discharge breakdown. The number of the micro-particles, generated due to the above cathode-processes, are estimated. Several possible influences of the micro-particles on performances of the gas discharge lasers are analyzed. Two methods for eliminating the micro-particles or reducing their influences are discussed. [Italian] Viene descritto, comparandolo con la scarica in vuoto, il processo di erosione del catodo di un laser ad eccimeri a scarica. Viene stimato il numero delle micro-particelle generate dal processo di scarica. Vengono analizzate le possibili influenze di tali micro-particelle sulle prestazioni dei laser a scarica. Sono presentati e discussi due possibili metodi per la eliminazione delle micro-particelle generate dalla scarica.

  4. Porous microwells for geometry-selective, large-scale microparticle arrays (United States)

    Kim, Jae Jung; Bong, Ki Wan; Reátegui, Eduardo; Irimia, Daniel; Doyle, Patrick S.


    Large-scale microparticle arrays (LSMAs) are key for material science and bioengineering applications. However, previous approaches suffer from trade-offs between scalability, precision, specificity and versatility. Here, we present a porous microwell-based approach to create large-scale microparticle arrays with complex motifs. Microparticles are guided to and pushed into microwells by fluid flow through small open pores at the bottom of the porous well arrays. A scaling theory allows for the rational design of LSMAs to sort and array particles on the basis of their size, shape, or modulus. Sequential particle assembly allows for proximal and nested particle arrangements, as well as particle recollection and pattern transfer. We demonstrate the capabilities of the approach by means of three applications: high-throughput single-cell arrays; microenvironment fabrication for neutrophil chemotaxis; and complex, covert tags by the transfer of an upconversion nanocrystal-laden LSMA.

  5. Analysis for the axial force exerted on a micro-particle in the optical vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The axial force exerting to a micro-particle in the TEM01* doughnut mode is calculated by using the ray-optic model. The calculated results show that the optical vortex possesses two advantages in trapping the high-index micro-particles compared with that of the conventional optical tweezers,of which one is the axial force induced by the optical vortex and is three times as great as that of the optical tweezers under the same power level, and the other is of two equilibrium positions in the optical vortex, which indicates that optical vortex is more suitable in trapping particles. Furthermore, the optical vortex can trap the low-index micro-particles, which can not by the conventional optical tweezers.

  6. Single-, few-, and multilayer graphene not exhibiting significant advantages over graphite microparticles in electroanalysis. (United States)

    Goh, Madeline Shuhua; Pumera, Martin


    This report compares the electroanalytical performances of single- (G-SL), few- (G-FL), and multilayer graphene (G-ML), graphite microparticles, and edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrodes in terms of sensitivity, linearity, and repeatability. We show that in the case of differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) detection of ascorbic acid, the sensitivity of a G-SL electrode is about 30% greater than that of G-ML and about 40% greater than graphite microparticles. However, in the case of DPV determination of uric acid, sensitivity is practically the same for all (G-SL, G-FL, and G-ML) and, importantly, the graphite microparticles do provide higher sensitivity than graphenes do for this analyte. Graphenes also do not provide a significant advantage in terms of repeatability. We pose the question of whether the efforts leading to the bulk method of producing single-layer graphene are justified for electroanalytical applications.

  7. A Technique for Measuring Microparticles in Polar Ice Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimitsu Sakurai


    Full Text Available We describe in detail our method of measuring the chemical forms of microparticles in polar ice samples through micro-Raman spectroscopy. The method is intended for solid ice samples, an important point because melting the ice can result in dissociation, contamination, and chemical reactions prior to or during a measurement. We demonstrate the technique of measuring the chemical forms of these microparticles and show that the reference spectra of those salts expected to be common in polar ice are unambiguously detected. From our measurements, Raman intensity of sulfate salts is relatively higher than insoluble dust due to the specific Raman scattering cross-section of chemical forms of microparticles in ice.

  8. Silicon microfluidic flow focusing devices for the production of size-controlled PLGA based drug loaded microparticles. (United States)

    Keohane, Kieran; Brennan, Des; Galvin, Paul; Griffin, Brendan T


    The increasing realisation of the impact of size and surface properties on the bio-distribution of drug loaded colloidal particles has driven the application of micro fabrication technologies for the precise engineering of drug loaded microparticles. This paper demonstrates an alternative approach for producing size controlled drug loaded PLGA based microparticles using silicon Microfluidic Flow Focusing Devices (MFFDs). Based on the precise geometry and dimensions of the flow focusing channel, microparticle size was successfully optimised by modifying the polymer type, disperse phase (Qd) flow rate, and continuous phase (Qc) flow rate. The microparticles produced ranged in sizes from 5 to 50 μm and were highly monodisperse (coefficient of variation <5%). A comparison of Ciclosporin (CsA) loaded PLGA microparticles produced by MFFDs vs conventional production techniques was also performed. MFFDs produced microparticles with a narrower size distribution profile, relative to the conventional approaches. In-vitro release kinetics of CsA was found to be influenced by the production technique, with the MFFD approach demonstrating the slowest rate of release over 7 days (4.99 ± 0.26%). Finally, MFFDs were utilised to produce pegylated microparticles using the block co-polymer, PEG-PLGA. In contrast to the smooth microparticles produced using PLGA, PEG-PLGA microparticles displayed a highly porous surface morphology and rapid CsA release, with 85 ± 6.68% CsA released after 24h. The findings from this study demonstrate the utility of silicon MFFDs for the precise control of size and surface morphology of PLGA based microparticles with potential drug delivery applications.

  9. An on-line remote supervisory system for microparticles based on image analysis (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Hua; Jiang, Ming-Shun; Sui, Qing-Mei


    A new on-line remote particle analysis system based on image processing has been developed to measure microparticles. The system is composed of particle collector sensor (PCS), particle image sensor (PIS), image remote transmit module and image processing system. Then some details of image processing are discussed. The main advantage of this system is more convenient in particle sample collection and particle image acquisition. The particle size can be obtained using the system with a deviation abot less than 1 μm, and the particle number can be obtained without deviation. The developed system is also convenient and versatile for other analyses of microparticle for academic and industrial application.

  10. Measurement of small light absorption in microparticles by means of optically induced rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya; Maksimyak, P. P.;


    The absorption parameters of micro-particles have been associated with the induced spin exerted upon the particle, when embedded in a circularly polarized coherent field. The induced rotational speed is theoretically analyzed, showing the influence of the beam parameters, the parameters of the pa......The absorption parameters of micro-particles have been associated with the induced spin exerted upon the particle, when embedded in a circularly polarized coherent field. The induced rotational speed is theoretically analyzed, showing the influence of the beam parameters, the parameters...

  11. Micro-particle filter made in SU-8 for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Urs; Fetz, Stefanie


    We have integrated a micro-particle filter in a polymer cantilever to filter micro-particles from a fluid while simultaneously measuring the amount of filtered particles. In a 3,8 mum thick SU-8 cantilever a filter was integrated with pore sizes between 3 and 30 mum. The chip was inserted...... in a microfluidic system and water with differently sized polystyrene beads was pumped through the filter. Particles which are larger than the pore sizes, cannot pass the filter and will increase the flow resistance of the cantilever. With more and more captured particles the cantilever starts to deflect, which can...

  12. Low-power wireless on-chip microparticle manipulation with process variation compensation


    Kishiwada, Yasushi; Iwasaki, Hirosuke; Ueda, Shun; Dei, Yoshiaki; Miyawaki, Yusuke; Matsuoka, Toshimasa


    A chip with which to manipulate microparticles using wireless power transfer and pulse-driven dielectrophoresis has been designed and fabricated using a 0.18-µm CMOS process. The chip enables microparticle manipulation using a 0.35-V power supply and a 10∼100kHz clock, which are generated on the chip by means of an on-chip coil, a rectifier and a ring oscillator circuit with process variation compensation circuits. The proposed process variation compensation with effective gate-width tuning a...

  13. Electrochemical Oxidation of Paracetamol Mediated by MgB2 Microparticles Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode


    Mohammed Zidan; Tan Wee Tee; A. Halim Abdullah; Zulkarnain Zainal; Goh Joo Kheng


    A MgB2 microparticles modified glassy carbon electrode (MgB2/GCE) was fabricated by adhering microparticles of MgB2 onto the electrode surface of GCE. It was used as a working electrode for the detection of paracetamol in 0.1 M KH2PO4 aqueous solution during cyclic voltammetry. Use of the MgB2/GCE the oxidation process of paracetamol with a current enhancement significantly by about 2.1 times. The detection limit of this modified electrode was found to be 30 μM. The sensitivity under conditio...

  14. Biocompatibility Assessment of Si-based Nano- and Micro-particles (United States)

    Jaganathan, Hamsa; Godin, Biana


    Silicon is one of the most abundant chemical elements found on the Earth. Due to its unique chemical and physical properties, silicon based materials and their oxides (e.g. silica) have been used in several industries such as building and construction, electronics, food industry, consumer products and biomedical engineering/medicine. This review summarizes studies on effects of silicon and silica nano- and micro-particles on cells and organs following four main exposure routes, namely, intravenous, pulmonary, dermal and oral. Further, possible genotoxic effects of silica based nanoparticles are discussed. The review concludes with an outlook on improving and standardizing biocompatibility assessment for nano- and micro-particles. PMID:22634160

  15. Carbon Microparticles from Organosolv Lignin as Filler for Conducting Poly(Lactic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janea Köhnke


    Full Text Available Carbon microparticles were produced from organosolv lignin at 2000 °C under argon atmosphere following oxidative thermostabilisation at 250 °C. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and electro-conductivity measurements revealed that the obtained particles were electrically conductive and were composed of large graphitic domains. Poly(lactic acid filled with various amounts of lignin-derived microparticles showed higher tensile stiffness increasing with particle load, whereas strength and extensibility decreased. Electric conductivity was measured at filler loads equal to and greater than 25% w/w.

  16. Thermoresponsive latexes for fragrance encapsulation and release. (United States)

    Popadyuk, N; Popadyuk, A; Kohut, A; Voronov, A


    To synthesize cross-linked latex particles protecting the encapsulated fragrance at ambient temperatures and facilitating the release of cargo at the temperature of the surface of the skin that varies in different regions of the body between 33.5 and 36.9°C. Poly(stearyl acrylate) (PSA), a polymer with long crystallizable alkyl side chains (undergoes order-disorder transitions at 45°C), was chosen as the main component of the polymer particles. As a result, new thermoresponsive polymer particles for fragrance encapsulation were synthesized and characterized, including assessing the performance of particles in triggered release by elevated temperature. To obtain network domains of various crystallinity, stearyl acrylate was copolymerized with dipropylene glycol acrylate caprylate (DGAC) (comonomer) in the presence of a dipropylene glycol diacrylate sebacate (cross-linker) using the miniemulsion process. Comonomers and a cross-linker were mixed directly in a fragrance during polymerization. Fragrance release was evaluated at 25, 31, 35 and 39°C to demonstrate a new material potential in personal/health care skin-related applications. Particles protect the fragrance from evaporation at 25°C. The fragrance release rate gradually increases at 31, 35 and 39°C. Two slopes were found on release plots. The first slope corresponds to a rapid fragrance release. The second slope indicates a subsequent reduction in the release rate. Crystalline-to-amorphous transition of PSA triggers the release of fragrances from cross-linked latex particles at elevated temperatures. The presence of the encapsulated fragrance, as well as the inclusion of amorphous fragments in the polymer network, reduces the particle crystallinity and enhances the release. Release profiles can be tuned by temperature and controlled by the amount of loaded fragrance and the ratio of comonomers in the feed mixture. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Effects of different cyclodextrins on the morphology, loading and release properties of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide)-microparticles containing the hypnotic agent etizolam. (United States)

    Lopedota, A; Cutrignelli, A; Trapani, A; Boghetich, G; Denora, N; Laquintana, V; Trapani, G; Liso, G


    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the feasibility of using microparticles (MPs) constituted by the biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and a number of cyclodextrins (CDs) as an orally sustained delivery system of the hypnotic agent etizolam (ETZ). A further aim of the work was to investigate the effects of different CDs on the morphology, loading, and release properties of the MPs prepared. For these purposes, ETZ alone, and ETZ/CD-PLGA loaded MPs were prepared by the W/O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation method. It was found that the release of ETZ in vitro was more prolonged over three days with a kinetic constant proportional to t(1/2). It was also demonstrated that the CDs in these MPs are able to modulate several properties such as morphology, drug loading, and release properties. In fact, marked differences in shape, surface, and encapsulation efficiencies were noted depending on the presence, hydrophilicity, and charge of the CD employed. The obtained results induce us to consider the present ETZ-containing formulations as new valuable tools for the treatment of different insomnia categories.

  18. Characterization of microparticles after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Freeman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R is a well-studied model of liver injury and has demonstrated a biphasic injury followed by recovery and regeneration. Microparticles (MPs are a developing field of study and these small membrane bound vesicles have been shown to have effector function in other physiologic and pathologic states. This study was designed to quantify the levels of MPs from various cell origins-platelets, neutrophils, and endolethial cells-following hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: A murine model was used with mice undergoing 90 minutes of partial hepatic ischemia followed by various times of reperfusion. Following reperfusion, plasma samples were taken and MPs of various cell origins were labeled and levels were measured using flow cytometry. Additionally, cell specific MPs were further assessed by Annexin V, which stains for the presence of phosphatidylserine, a cell surface marker linked to apoptosis. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance with subsequent Student-Newman-Keuls test with data presented as the mean and standard error of the mean. RESULTS: MPs from varying sources show an increase in circulating levels following hepatic I/R injury. However, the timing of the appearance of different MP subtypes differs for each cell type. Platelet and neutrophil-derived MP levels demonstrated an acute elevation following injury whereas endothelial-derived MP levels demonstrated a delayed elevation. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to characterize circulating levels of cell-specific MPs after hepatic I/R injury and suggests that MPs derived from platelets and neutrophils serve as markers of inflammatory injury and may be active participants in this process. In contrast, MPs derived from endothelial cells increase after the injury response during the reparative phase and may be important in angiogenesis that occurs in the regenerating liver.

  19. Distinct proteome pathology of circulating microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Tanassi, Julia T; Iversen, Line V; Jacobsen, Søren; Heegaard, Niels H H


    The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is poorly understood but has been linked to defective clearance of subcellular particulate material from the circulation. This study investigates the origin, formation, and specificity of circulating microparticles (MPs) in patients with SLE based on comprehensive MP proteome profiling using patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and healthy donors (HC) as controls. We purified MPs from platelet-poor plasma using differential centrifugation of samples from SLE (n = 45), SSc (n = 38), and two sets of HC (n = 35, n = 25). MP proteins were identified and quantitated after trypsin digestion by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The abundance of specific proteins was compared between the groups using univariate statistics and false discovery rate correction for multiple comparisons. Specific proteins and protein ratios were explored for diagnostic and disease activity information using receiver-operating characteristic curves and by analysis of correlations of protein abundance with disease activity scores. We identify and quantitate more than 1000 MP proteins and show that a subpopulation of SLE-MPs (which we propose to call luposomes) are highly specific for SLE, i.e. not found in MP preparations from HC or patients with another autoimmune, systemic disease, SSc. In SLE-MPs platelet proteins and mitochondrial proteins are significantly diminished, cytoskeletal proteins deranged, and glycolytic enzymes and apoptotic proteins significantly increased. Normal MPs are efficiently removed in SLE, but aberrant MPs, derived from non-lymphoid leukocytes, are less efficiently removed and abundantly produced leading to an altered MP proteome in SLE. The data suggest that an abnormal generation of MPs may partake in the pathology of SLE and that new diagnostic, monitoring, and treatment strategies targeting these processes may be advantageous.

  20. Clinical CVVH model removes endothelium-derived microparticles from circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhafeez H. Abdelhafeez


    Full Text Available Background: Endothelium-derived microparticles (EMPs are submicron vesicles released from the plasma membrane of endothelial cells in response to injury, apoptosis or activation. We have previously demonstrated EMP-induced acute lung injury (ALI in animal models and endothelial barrier dysfunction in vitro. Current treatment options for ALI are limited and consist of supportive therapies. We hypothesize that standard clinical continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH reduces serum EMP levels and may be adapted as a potential therapeutic intervention. Materials and methods: EMPs were generated from plasminogen activation inhibitor-1 (PAI-1-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Flow cytometric analysis was used to characterize EMPs as CD31- and annexin V-positive events in a submicron size gate. Enumeration was completed against a known concentration of latex beads. Ultimately, a concentration of ~650,000 EMP/mL perfusate fluid (total 470 mL was circulated through a standard CVVH filter (pore size 200 μm, flow rate 250 mL/hr for a period of 70 minutes. 0.5 mL aliquots were removed at 5- to 10-minute intervals for flow cytometric analysis. EMP concentration in the dialysate was measured at the end of 4 hours to better understand the fate of EMPs. Results: A progressive decrease in circulating EMP concentration was noted using standard CVVH at 250 mL/hr (a clinical standard rate from a 470 mL volume modelling a patient's circulation. A 50% reduction was noted within the first 30 minutes. EMPs entering the dialysate after 4 hours were 5.7% of the EMP original concentration. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that standard CVVH can remove EMPs from circulation in a circuit modelling a patient. An animal model of hemofiltration with induction of EMP release is required to test the therapeutic potential of this finding and potential of application in early treatment of ALI.