Sample records for kadono infested tea

  1. Formation and emission of linalool in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves infested by tea green leafhopper (Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda). (United States)

    Mei, Xin; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Lanting; Fu, Xiumin; Li, Jianlong; Tang, Jinchi; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin


    Famous oolong tea (Oriental Beauty), which is manufactured by tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) infected with tea green leafhoppers, contains characteristic volatile monoterpenes derived from linalool. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of linalool in tea exposed to tea green leafhopper attack. The tea green leafhopper responsible for inducing the production of characteristic volatiles was identified as Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda. E. (M.) onukii attack significantly induced the emission of linalool from tea leaves (ptea leaves exposed to E. (M.) onukii attack. This information should prove helpful for the future use of stress responses of plant secondary metabolism to improve quality components of agricultural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancement of the reproductive potential of Mallada boninensis Okamoto (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae, a predator of red spider mite infesting tea: An evaluation of artificial diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanthakumar Duraikkannu


    Full Text Available Green lacewing Mallada boninensis is an important predator of various soft-bodied arthropods, including red spider mites in tea. Efforts were made to develop mass rearing technology for this predator in a cost effective manner. Three combinations of artificial diets (Protinex (AD1, egg yolk (AD2 and royal jelly (AD3 based were evaluated in comparison with standard diet (Protinex + Honey. All the tested diets influenced the egg-laying capacity of M. boninensis. The egg yolk-based diet resulted in more egg production than the other two diets. Survival of all life stages of M. boninensis was also observed on each diet and no significant difference was noticed. Results revealed that the egg yolk-based diet is the best of the three diet combinations tested in view of high fecundity and survival rate of M. boninensis.

  3. leech infestation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 1, 2013 ... fish, amphibians, and mammals. Infestation occurs by drinking infested water from quiet streams, pools and springs. They attach to their hosts ... trauma, foreign body ingestion, throat pain, fever, dysphagia and drug intake. He has no malena, haematuria, epistaxis or ecchymotic spots on the body. He had ...

  4. Delusional infestation. (United States)

    Freudenmann, Roland W; Lepping, Peter


    This papers aims at familiarizing psychiatric and nonpsychiatric readers with delusional infestation (DI), also known as delusional parasitosis. It is characterized by the fixed belief of being infested with pathogens against all medical evidence. DI is no single disorder but can occur as a delusional disorder of the somatic type (primary DI) or secondary to numerous other conditions. A set of minimal diagnostic criteria and a classification are provided. Patients with DI pose a truly interdisciplinary problem to the medical system. They avoid psychiatrists and consult dermatologists, microbiologists, or general practitioners but often lose faith in professional medicine. Epidemiology and history suggest that the imaginary pathogens change constantly, while the delusional theme "infestation" is stable and ubiquitous. Patients with self-diagnosed "Morgellons disease" can be seen as a variation of this delusional theme. For clinicians, clinical pathways for efficient diagnostics and etiology-specific treatment are provided. Specialized outpatient clinics in dermatology with a liaison psychiatrist are theoretically best placed to provide care. The most intricate problem is to engage patients in psychiatric therapy. In primary DI, antipsychotics are the treatment of choice, according to limited but sufficient evidence. Pimozide is no longer the treatment of choice for reasons of drug safety. Future research should focus on pathophysiology and the neural basis of DI, as well as on conclusive clinical trials, which are widely lacking. Innovative approaches will be needed, since otherwise patients are unlikely to adhere to any study protocol.

  5. Black Tea (United States)

    ... mental alertness as well as learning, memory, and information processing skills. It is also used for treating headache; ... of carbamazepine. Since black tea contains caffeine, in theory taking black tea with carbamazepine might decrease the ...

  6. Green Tea (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  7. Tick infestation in human beings in the Nilgiris and Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, India. (United States)

    Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Arul Prakash, M


    Thirteen human beings were infested with ticks at Sandynallah and Gudalur of the Nilgiris district and Mottur Suruvakkam of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu from January 2016 to December 2016. The collected ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides , Otobius megnini and Hyalomma isaaci. The tick infestation was observed more on the persons working with animals (sheep and goats) than those working in tea estate. The person infested with R. haemaphysaloides revealed erythematous papule (2 mm size) and inflammatory lesion up to 16 days whereas, the people infested with H. isaaci showed continuous itching and irritation for > 6 months and wound formation (0.5 cm) at the biting site. The people infested with O. megnini showed irritation, vomiting sensation and fever.

  8. Swelling and infusion of tea in tea bags. (United States)

    Yadav, Geeta U; Joshi, Bhushan S; Patwardhan, Ashwin W; Singh, Gurmeet


    The present study deals with swelling and infusion kinetics of tea granules in tea bags. The swelling and infusion kinetics of tea bags differing in tea loading and tea bag shapes were compared with loose tea. Increment in temperature and dipping frequency of tea bag in hot water increased the infusion kinetics of tea bags. Reduction in particle size enhanced the swelling and infusion kinetics of tea in a tea bag. The effects of tea particle size, tea bag dipping rate, loading of tea granules in tea bag and tea bag shapes on infusion kinetics were investigated. Increase in tea loading in tea bags resulted in reduced infusion kinetics. Double chambered tea bag showed the highest swelling (30%) and infusion kinetics (8.30% Gallic acid equivalence) while single chambered tea bags showed the lowest kinetics, amongst the various bags studied. The swelling and infusion kinetics of loose tea was always faster and higher than that of tea bags. It was found that overall effect of percentage filling of tea granules and height of tea bed in a tea bag affects tea infusion kinetics the most. Weibull model was found to be in good agreement with the swelling data.

  9. Infestation caused by acanthocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Crotti


    Full Text Available An on-line case of infestation caused by M. moniliformis is descripted. This rodents’ worm, belonging to acanthocephala, can be rarely responsible of human intestinal pathology. The case is the pretext for a brief revision on this parasitosis. So, biological, epidemiological, clinical and diagnostical findings are reported.

  10. Insecticidal activity of neem oil against Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae nymphs on Paraguay tea seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Formentini

    Full Text Available Abstract Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Paraguay tea ampul is one of the most important pests of Paraguay tea plants, and prohibition of synthetic insecticide use for control of this pest has led to the search for alternative methods. This laboratory study aimed to compare different control strategies for G. spegazziniana, utilizing a commercial neem seed oil product. Paraguay tea seedlings were treated with neem oil solution both pre- and post-infestation with 5th instar nymphs. The systemic action of neem oil was also evaluated by treating plant soil with the neem oil solution, followed by transfer of the insects to plants 24 h post-treatment. Spray treatments were effective against the pest, especially post-infestation (80% mortality, demonstrating the potential of neem oil for control of the Paraguay tea ampul. No significant effects were observed with respect to systemic activity.

  11. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea) were determined. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in Japan. The results are shown in a table. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Wudang Daoist Tea Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean De Bernardi; Zheng Weibin


    This article explores the promotion of tea culture at Wudang Mountain, a Daoist tem-ple complex in Hubei Province that is a popular tourist destination. At shops in temples and market areas, vendors brand their tea as Wudang Daoist tea, emphasizing its health benefits and connecting their teas to the Daoist discourse of life-nourishing ( yang sheng) practices. In their marketing materi-als and on their websites, the management of the Eight Immortal Temple Tea Plantation further cites folklore and mythic history to claim profound local roots for Wudang tea culture. In so doing, this company echoes the memory narratives of more fa-mous Chinese teas like Iron Guanyin and Dahong-pao. In China as elsewhere, convenient travel now puts people in contact with areas and peoples that a few decades earlier only a few non-locals explored. As a consequence of a global trend towards com-modification, members of local groups, including distinctive ethnocultural groups, now seek to create distinctive local brands for a tourist market. Corpo-rations now regularly mine local traditions to find i-tems that they can transform into commodities for a wider market ( Comaroff and Comaroff 2009 ) . One of Hubei’s richest tourism assets is the Daoist temple complex at Wudang Moutain, which draws pilgrims and tourists from China and Greater China. China’s State Council identified Wudang Moutain as a National Key Scenic Area in 1982 , and UNESCO added its ancient temples to its World Heritage list in 1994 . The Chinese govern-ment has worked with the Daoist Federation to de-velop Wudang’s temples and pavilions, which are spread over 400 square kilometers of mountainous terrain, into a major tourist destination. The gov-ernment tourist office promotes Wudang Mountain for its scenic beauty, its deep historical heritage, its religious culture, and famous martial arts. Al-though its tea culture is less renowned, local tea sellers claim that Wudang tea has a deep history and Daoist

  13. The Czech Tea Profession and the Phenomenon of Tea Rooms


    Schröderová, Karolína


    In this bachelor thesis I have focused on the Czech tea culture and tea profession across tea rooms. I have dealt with influences that led to the present tea rooms' appearances. Furthermore I am dealing with ways of tea culture spreading, and what conduces to the tea room establishing. I am using the term of subculture in the connection with the tea culture, its meaning and position in the Czech culture. The main data source were semi- structured interviews with the tea rooms owners, all comp...

  14. Ocular leech infestation

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    Lee YC


    Full Text Available Yueh-Chang Lee, Cheng-Jen Chiu Department of Ophthalmology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC Abstract: This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. Keywords: leech, ocular foreign body, conjunctival reaction, pediatric ophthalmology

  15. Antidiabetic Effects of Tea. (United States)

    Fu, Qiu-Yue; Li, Qing-Sheng; Lin, Xiao-Ming; Qiao, Ru-Ying; Yang, Rui; Li, Xu-Min; Dong, Zhan-Bo; Xiang, Li-Ping; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Lu, Jian-Liang; Yuan, Cong-Bo; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong


    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.

  16. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease (United States)

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.


    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  17. Tea Tells All (United States)

    Roever, Carol


    A beverage, as well as the way it is served, can be a window into the soul of a culture. For the author and her husband, Turkish tea helped them understand and enjoy the culture of Turkey. They learned that the broad nuances of culture can be as instructive as a classroom experience. The tea story begins in Chicago in the spring of 2005 when the…

  18. Chernobyl radioactivity in Turkish tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molzahn, D.; Tufail, M.; Patzelt, P.


    Radioactivity measurement of Turkish tea of 1986 crops is reported. The total cesium activity ranged from about 5500 Bq kg -1 up to 43600 Bq kg -1 . Some other fission products from Chernobyl could be detected in the tea samples, e.g., 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 110m Ag and 125 Sb. In addition, some activity values found in tea from USSR are given. The transfer rate of cesium from tea leaves to tea water was found to be about 74%. (author) 6 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  19. Fluorine content of Fukien teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, T H; Lin, C S; Wu, C; Liao, C E; Lin, H Y


    A study was made on the fluorine contents of Fukien teas and analytical results indicated the amount ranged from 5.7 to 35.5 mg. per 100 grams of dry tea. The high content of fluorine was found not to be due to contamination nor to the high fluorine content of the soil in which the tea plant was cultivated. Differences in the methods of manufacture had no effect on the fluorine content of the final products. Different varieties of tea plants have different powers to absorb fluorine from the soil. Of the two varieties of tea plants studied, Shui-Sen leaves possessed the lower fluorine content. Age of the tea leaves exerted an important influence on the fluorine content, the older leaves containing considerably more fluorine than the younger. The amount of fluorine that may be extracted in a two per cent infusion varies from 29.1 per cent for fresh leaves to 50.5 per cent for black tea. The process of roasting and rolling rendered the fluorine more soluble, hence the amount extracted increased in green tea. Fermentation further increased the extractability of the fluorine; thus the amount extracted was the highest in black tea, which was fermented, less in the semi-fermented oolong tea, and least in the unfermented green tea. The extractability of fluorine was also increased with age of the leaves.

  20. Tea Bowl: Imperfect Harmony


    Mehring, Gretchen A; Greater Lafayette Museum of Art,


    These tea bowls, with their intimate scale and individual personalities, simultaneeously offer an apprectiation of the past and the contemporary. The subtle beauty of traditional-style bowls contrasts with the more exuberant contemporary idiom, raising an awareness of the role that art has, and can play, in everyday life.

  1. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Japanese tea were determined using radiochemical analysis. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in June 1983, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 250 +- 6.0 pCi/kg and 88.0 +- 3.2 pCi/kg, respectively, in tea collected from Tagata-gun, Shizuoka. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Japanese tea were determined using radiochemical analysis. Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected from six sampling locations in June 1984, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The maximum value of Sr-90 was 88+-3.7 pCi/kg in tea collected from Kyoto; the maximum value of Cs-137 was 99.0+-3.60 pCi/kg collected from Kagoshima. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Residues and contaminants in tea and tea infusions: a review. (United States)

    Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Tosun, Alev; Shim, Jae-Han


    Consumers are very aware of contaminants that could pose potential health hazards. Most people drink tea as an infusion (adding hot water); however, in some countries, including India, China and Egypt, tea is drunk as a decoction (tea and water are boiled together). An infusion usually brings the soluble ingredients into solution, whereas a decoction brings all soluble and non-soluble constituents together. Therefore, a cup of tea may contain various kinds of contaminants. This review focuses on green and black tea because they are most commonly consumed. The target was to examine the transfer rate of contaminants - pesticides, environmental pollutants, mycotoxins, microorganisms, toxic heavy metals, radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) and plant growth regulators - from tea to infusion/brewing, factors contributing to the transfer potential and contaminants degradation, and residues in or on the spent leaves. It is concluded that most contaminants leaching into tea infusion are not detected or are detected at a level lower than the regulatory limits. However, the traditional practice of over-boiling tea leaves should be discouraged as there may be a chance for more transfer of contaminants from the tea to the brew.

  4. Recent advances on tea polyphenols (United States)

    Kanwar, Jyoti; Taskeen, Mujtaba; Mohammad, Imthiyaz; Huo, Congde; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Qing Ping


    Over the past decade many scientific and medical studies have focused on green tea for its long-purported health benefits. There is convincing evidence that tea is a cup of life. It has multiple preventive and therapeutic effects. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of tea polyphenols and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancers. Of the various polyphenols in tea, (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant, and active compound studied in tea research. EGCG inhibits several molecular targets to inhibit cancer initiation and modulates several essential survival pathways to block cancer progression. Herein, we describe the various mechanisms of action of EGCG and also discuss previous and current ongoing clinical trials of EGCG and green tea polyphenols in different cancer types. PMID:22201858

  5. Tea and cake [second edition


    Wood, Philippa; MacLellan, Tamar


    Tea & Cake is an edited version of the original book produced by Philippa Wood in 2007. The book takes a nostalgic look at childhood memories of ‘baking with mother’ or special tea-time treats. The book combines ink-jet printing with typewritten text and rubber stamps; doilly end-papers and embroidered traycloth covers.

  6. Determination of Cu, Fe, Zn Elements in Soil, Root Tea Plants, Tea Leaves, and Tea Beverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyanto; Zainul-Kamal


    One of the causes of land quality damage was due to the pollution of Cu, Fe, and Zn so that it could directly and also indirectly cause the occurrence of pollution of plants which is growing on it for example tea plant that has been used by society for making of tea beverage. The sampling of soil, root tea plants, tea leaves and tea beverage samples were done in June, 2005 at sub district of Keparakan, Temanggung, Central Java. The purpose of research was to determine the content of Cu, Fe and Zn in soil, root tea plants, tea leaves and tea beverage. The research was done by digesting the sample with nitric acid until the clear solution was obtained, then it was added by aquabidest until 10.0 ml. Determination of Cu, Fe and Zn content used AAS instrument. The average concentration of Cu Fe and Zn obtained in deep soil samples area 0.155 ± 0.005 ppm, 127.16 ± 2.65 ppm, and 0.68 ± 0.02 ppm respectively, in surface soil samples are 0.355 ± 0.025 ppm, 360.59 ± 13.17 ppm and 0.78 ± 0.01 ppm respectively, in root of tea plants samples area 0.241 ± 0.098 ppm, 13.16 ± 1.34 ppm and 2.64 ± 0.06 ppm respectively, in tea leaves are 0.211 ± 0.013 ppm, 3.35 ± 0.886 ppm, and 0.795 ± 0.016 ppm respectively and in tea beverage 0.142 ± 0.086 ppm, 6.11 ± 0.35 ppm and 0.66 ± 0.02 ppm respectively. (author)

  7. Influence of simultaneous infestations of Prostephanus truncatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specific objective was to determine the number of the insect pests at F1 and F2 and the grain weight losses caused by the simultaneous pests\\' infestations of shelled maize in the search for a control strategy. The results showed a change in adult insect numbers from F1 to F2. During single infestation the change in P.

  8. [Historical consideration of tea trees and tea flowers, especially regarding the use of tea flowers as food]. (United States)

    Harima, Shoichi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Tokuoka, Kiyoshi


    Not only tea leaves, but also many kinds of plants have been used as tea, even those plants not belonging to Camellia sinensis, and they should be called "tea out of tea" in the Lucidophyllous forest zone. Generally, the tea leaf is drank after being decocted (almost boiled). The growth distribution of tea ranges in a belt-like zone of 30-40 degrees north latitude. Therefore, tea might have grown wild as "YAMACHA (mountain tea)" from ancient times in Japan as well as China. The first recored of tea drinking in Japan is the ceremony of "GYOUCHA" at the Imperial Court of the Emperor SHOUMU in 729. On the other hand, the oldest book about tea in China (CHAKYOU) was written in 770. Therefore, it seems that tea drinking started at nearly the same time in both countries. Tea was dispensed as medical supplies by Chinese medicinal prescription (SENKYUCHACHOUSAN) in Japan, but in China, tea was used as powdered medicine for drinking (SEICHA). However, the leaf of a certain plant used as "tea out of tea," was applied as a galenical preparation for traditional Chinese medicinal constitution. However, it is not possible to judge whether or not there was adaptability in Chinese medicine theory. In Japan, when tea was first consumed as a food, other than a few exceptions tea leaves were used as a coarse tea (BANCHA) until the latter half of the Meiji period. Mixing in air by stirring a tea solution, and at the same time, letting tea match with hot water. It was wisdom to improve the taste. As a result, in order to make bubble well, both of the condition and technique were devised. One of the approaches was to add the dried plant of Leguminosae (saponin) or tea flower (saponin), when "BANCHA" was decorted. And also tools such as a bamboo tea whisk (CHASEN) as well as bowl (GOROHACHI-CHAWAN), were conceived. "FURICHA" was served as a medicine by KUUYASHOUNIN in Japan in 951. Afterwards, the prayer ceremonies at shrines and temples used CHARAZU," showing the custom to serve tea in

  9. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  10. Environmental and nutritional requirements for tea cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiboland Roghieh


    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is an important beverage crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics under acid soil conditions. Increased awareness of the health-promoting properties of the tea beverage has led to an increase in its level of consumption over the last decades. Tea production contributes significantly to the economy of several tea-cultivating countries in Asia and Africa. Environmental constrains, particularly water deficiency due to inadequate and/or poorly distributed rainfall, seriously limit tea production in the majority of tea-producing countries. It is also predicted that global climate change will have a considerable adverse impact on tea production in the near future. Application of fertilizers for higher production and increased quality and quantity of tea is a common agricultural practice, but due to its environmental consequences, such as groundwater pollution, the rate of fertilizer application needs to be reconsidered. Cultivation of tea under humid conditions renders it highly susceptible to pathogens and pest attacks. Application of pesticides and fungicides adversely affects the quality of tea and increases health risks of the tea beverage. Organic cultivation as an agricultural practice without using synthetic fertilizers and other chemical additives such as pesticides and fungicides is a sustainable and eco-friendly approach to producing healthy tea. A growing number of tea-producing countries are joining organic tea cultivation programmes in order to improve the quality and to maintain the health benefits of the tea produced.

  11. The Tea Culture and Its Forms Across the Czech Tea Rooms


    Schröderová, Karolína


    In this bachelor thesis I have focused on the Czech tea culture across tea rooms. I have described the specifics of the tea rooms and of the tea culture. Furthermore I am dealing with ways of tea culture spreading, and what is the process of the tea room establishing. I am using the term of subculture in the connection with the tea culture, its meaning and position in the Czech culture. The main data source were semi-structured interviews with the tea rooms owners, all complemented by a parti...

  12. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues* (United States)

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi


    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea’s medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  13. TEA, Trastorno del Espectro Autista :


    Vegas Martín, Irene


    La autora expone los aspectos fundamentales sobre el concepto del TEA para posteriormente mostrarnos un caso práctico y su tratamiento durante unos meses con la finalidad que sea un trabajo de consulta práctico

  14. Tea, coffee and prostate cancer. (United States)

    Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W


    Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    they may also transmit pathogens, thereby acting as vectors of diseases (Parola et al., ... transmit pathogens that causes some human diseases such as lyme diseases ... annulatus (14.6%), Hyloma trucatus (4.7%) infesting dogs in. Wurukum ...

  16. Tea production characteristics of tea growers (plantations and smallholdings and livelihood dimensions of tea workers in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise M. Biggs


    Full Text Available This article provides summary data regarding tea production in Assam, India. Questionnaires were completed by tea producers and focus group discussions undertaken with tea workers. These data are presented for the four main tea growing regions of the state (Cachar, North Bank, South Bank and Upper Assam. Tables detail tea production characteristics of the tea plantations for both large- (> 10 ha and small- (< 10 ha holders. Figures provide supplementary information for research by Biggs et al. [1] regarding fertilizer application, landscape management strategies, healthcare provisioning and educational facilities within plantations, as well as detailing the livelihood dimensions of tea workers. The questions posed to producers are also included. For further context underpinning the research for which these data were collated, see ‘The tea landscape of Assam: multi-stakeholder insights into sustainable livelihoods under a changing climate’ by Biggs et al. [1].

  17. Aluminum bioavailability from tea infusion. (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L


    The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer (26)Al. (26)Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous (27)Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentration x time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F=0.3%), or basic sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) in cheese (F=0.1-0.3%), but greater than acidic SALP in a biscuit (F=0.1%). Time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 1.25, 1.5, 8 and 4.8h, respectively. These results of oral Al bioavailability x daily consumption by the human suggest tea can provide a significant amount of the Al that reaches systemic circulation. This can allow distribution to its target organs of toxicity, the central nervous, skeletal and hematopoietic systems. Further testing of the hypothesis that Al contributes to Alzheimer's disease may be more warranted with studies focusing on total average daily food intake, including tea and other foods containing appreciable Al, than drinking water.

  18. The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Erhan Eroğlu


    Full Text Available In this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. But these data were not statistically significant for green tea. The effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. The decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. Thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.

  19. Pharmacovigilance: Tiens Slimming Tea Causes Increased Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possible link between the constituents of the slimming tea and increased blood pressure and also provide evidence of other possible harmful effects that may occur with the use of the slimming tea. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, hypertension, slimming tea. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol.

  20. Chocolate as a source of tea flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Kromhout, D.


    The antioxidant catechin content of chocolate is four times that of tea. Chocolate contributed 20% of the catechin intake in a representative sample of the Dutch population, and tea contributes 55%. Epidemiological assessments of health effects of tea should include other foods that are sources of

  1. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward


    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  2. Probable Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Kombucha Tea (United States)

    Srinivasan, Radhika; Smolinske, Susan; Greenbaum, David


    Kombucha tea is a health beverage made by incubating the Kombucha “mushroom” in tea and sugar. Although therapeutic benefits have been attributed to the drink, neither its beneficial effects nor adverse side effects have been reported widely in the scientific literature. Side effects probably related to consumption of Kombucha tea are reported in four patients. Two presented with symptoms of allergic reaction, the third with jaundice, and the fourth with nausea, vomiting, and head and neck pain. In all four, use of Kombucha tea in proximity to onset of symptoms and symptom resolution on cessation of tea drinking suggest a probable etiologic association. PMID:9346462

  3. A case of Kombucha tea toxicity. (United States)

    SungHee Kole, Alison; Jones, Heather D; Christensen, Russell; Gladstein, Jay


    Kombucha "mushroom'' tea is touted to have medicinal properties. Here, we present a case of hyperthermia, lactic acidosis, and acute renal failure within 15 hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. A 22 year old male, newly diagnosed with HIV, became short of breath and febrile to 103.0F, within twelve hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. He subsequently became combative and confused, requiring sedation and intubation for airway control. Laboratories revealed a lactate of 12.9 mmol/L, and serum creatinine of 2.1 mg/dL. Kombucha tea is black tea fermented in a yeast-bacteria medium. Several case reports exist of serious, and sometimes fatal, hepatic dysfunction and lactic acidosis within close proximity to ingestion. While Kombucha tea is considered a healthy elixir, the limited evidence currently available raises considerable concern that it may pose serious health risks. Consumption of this tea should be discouraged, as it may be associated with life-threatening lactic acidosis.

  4. Green Tea and Other Tea Polyphenols: Effects on Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Saric


    Full Text Available Polyphenols are antioxidant molecules found in many foods including nuts, fruits, vegetables, chocolate, wine, and tea. Polyphenols have antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic properties. Recent studies suggest that tea polyphenols may be used for reducing sebum production in the skin and for treatment of acne vulgaris. This review examines the evidence for use of topically and orally ingested tea polyphenols against sebum production and for acne treatment and prevention. The PubMed database was searched for studies on tea polyphenols, sebum secretion, and acne vulgaris. Of the 59 studies found, eight met the inclusion criteria. Two studies evaluated tea polyphenol effects on sebum production; six studies examined tea polyphenol effects on acne vulgaris. Seven studies evaluated topical tea polyphenols; one study examined systemic tea polyphenols. None of the studies evaluated both topical and systemic tea polyphenols. Tea polyphenol sources included green tea (six studies and tea, type not specified (two studies. Overall, there is some evidence that tea polyphenols in topical formulation may be beneficial in reducing sebum secretion and in treatment of acne. Research studies of high quality and with large sample sizes are needed to assess the efficacy of tea polyphenols in topical and oral prevention of acne vulgaris and lipid synthesis by the sebaceous glands.

  5. Emerald ash borer infestation rates in Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana. (United States)

    Eric L. Smith; Andrew J. Storer; Bryan K. Roosien


    The goal of this study was to obtain an estimate of the infestation rate of ash trees with emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Fairmaire; Coleoptera; Buprestidae), across its primary infestation zone of...

  6. Multiple ectoparasites infest Microcebus griseorufus at Beza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple ectoparasites infest Microcebus griseorufus at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar. IA Rodriguez, E Rasoazanabary, LR Godfrey. Abstract. The mouse lemur Microcebus griseorufus at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve and general vicinity in southwestern Madagascar were surveyed for ectoparasites as ...

  7. Protective effects of rooibos ( Aspalathus linearis ), green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares the modulation of oxidative stress by an indigenous herbal tea, rooibos, Chinese green tea and commercial rooibos and green tea supplements in rat testicular tissue. Male Wistar rats (n = 60) were fed with either fermented rooibos, “green” rooibos, Chinese green tea, commercial rooibos or green tea ...

  8. Preservation of kombucha tea-effect of temperature on tea components and free radical scavenging properties. (United States)

    Jayabalan, Rasu; Marimuthu, Subbaiya; Thangaraj, Periyasamy; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Binupriya, Arthur Raj; Swaminathan, Krishnaswami; Yun, Sei Eok


    Kombucha tea is sugared black tea fermented with a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts (tea fungus) for 14 days. The tea tastes slightly sweet and acidic. The formation of tea fungal biofilms during storage is a big problem when kombucha tea is being stored and commercialized. Various thermal treatments have been tried for long-term storage of kombucha tea. The present study revealed the influence of heat on the biochemical constituents and the free radical scavenging properties of kombucha tea. Heat treatment at 60, 65, and 68 degrees C for 1 min controlled biofilm formation in kombucha tea without changing its clarity, taste, and flavor. However, tea polyphenols and black tea quality parameters showed varying stability during the storage period. A decrease in free radical scavenging properties was also found during the storage period. Because the biological activities of kombucha tea depended on the biochemical constituents, it was concluded that heat treatment was not a suitable method for kombucha tea preservation.

  9. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans (United States)

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan


    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443

  10. Flea (Pulex simulans) infestation in captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). (United States)

    Mutlow, Adrian G; Dryden, Michael W; Payne, Patricia A


    A pair of captive adult giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) presented heavily infested with a flea species (Pulex simulans) commonly found on Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the central United States. In this case, the flea was demonstrated to have completed its entire life cycle with the anteaters as the host. A single treatment of topical imidacloprid, coupled with removal and replacement of infested bedding, was rapidly effective at controlling the infestation and no adverse effects of the drug were noted. Control of the anteater infestation also removed the flea infestation of aardvarks in the same building.

  11. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W


    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu3 1Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA We have been surprised and gratified by the readers’ responses to our article, The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction, which was published in December 2012.1 In the six months since that time, we have received numerous questions and observations about the article, and about the TEA instrument. Respondents were clinicians: physicians, counselors, therapists, nurses; as well as administrators and policy makers.  View original paper by Ling W, Farabee D, Liepa D, Wu LT. 

  12. Health Benefits of Theanine in Green Tea: A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Zhejiang University Tea Research Institute, Hangzhou 310058, 2Guizhou Tea and Tea Products Quality Supervision and. Inspection ... The bioactive functions of theanine as well as its .... the concentrations of dopamine (DA) and hepatic.

  13. Cytomorphological characterization of tea cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, H.; Khalil, I.H.; Shah, S.M.A.; Khanzada, T.Z.; Abbasi, F.M; Ahmad, H.; Shah, Z.


    Cytomorphological characterization was performed on tea cultivars, three each of Camellia sinensis and Camellia assamica species. For plant morphological study, one and a half year old healthy shoots were obtained from the selected mother bushes of the six tea cultivars. The field experiment conducted in randomized complete block design having four replications was aimed at evaluating plant height, number of leaves plant-l, number of branches plant-l, number of flowers plant-1, fresh and dry leaf weight plant-I. The data indicated significant difference between the two species with narrow leaved cultivars having increased plant height, number of leaves and branches plant-I than the broad leaved cultivars, but less number of flowers plant-l, fresh and dry leaf weight. Karyotype analysis indicated that both the groups are diploid with 2n = 30. On the basis of chromosome morphology, C. assamica had larger chromosomes (3-10.5 mu m) as compared to C. sinensis (3.9-8 mu m). C. assamica has relatively advanced features as compared to C. sinensis. However, both the groups possessed mostly median to sub-median centromeres with no secondary constrictions which possibly indicates that little or no evolutionary changes have taken place in tea and that the karyotype is still at a primitive stage, with C. sinensis being more primitive than C. assamica. Our results suggest that both the groups are different from each other in morphological as well as cytological attributes and could therefore generate more germplasm if the two species could be involved in tea breeding programs. (author)

  14. Xerophilic mycopopulations of teas in bulk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrinjar Marija M.


    Full Text Available d.o.o., Novi Sad AU Krunić Vesna J. AF EKOLd.o.o., Novi Sad KW teas % mould contamination % thermal treatment KR nema Other the water, tea is the most popular beverage in the world today. They are used for ages, in the beginning as refreshing drinks, and later more for their healing properties. Teas have been demonstrated to show antioxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-microbial properties. Considering that the teas, during the production, are not treated with any temperature, there is high risk for contamination with different type of microorganisms, especially with moulds. Moulds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes and under favorable conditions of temperature and humidity, moulds grow on many commodities including cereals, oil seeds, nuts, herbs and spices. Most of them are potential producers of mycotoxins which present a real hazard to human health. The aim of this work was to investigate total mould count and to identify moulds isolated from teas in bulk, than from teas treated with hot, sterile, distilled water and from the tea filtrates. Tested teas were peppermint, sage, yarrow, black tea, bearberry, lemon balm, mixture of teas from Zlatibor. In teas in balk was observed high contamination with different kinds of moulds (1.84-4.55 cfu/g, such as Aspergillus awamori, A. lovaniensis, A niger, A. phoenicus, A. repens, A. restrictus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, Eurotium amstelodami, E. chevalieri, E. herbariorum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. The most frequent were species from Aspergillus and Eurotium genera. Thermal treatment with hot, sterile, distilled water reduced the number of fungal colonies. Aspergillus awamori was the most resistant and appeared in six samples of filtrates of tea, Aspergillus niger in one sample and Penicillium chrysogenum in one sample.

  15. Analyzing organic tea certification and traceability system within the Taiwanese tea industry. (United States)

    Wang, Mao-Chang; Yang, Chin-Ying


    We applied game theory to the organic tea certification process and traceability system used by the Taiwanese tea industry to elucidate the strategic choices made by tea farmers and organic tea certification agencies. Thus, this paper clarifies how relevant variables affect the organic certification process and traceability system used within the tea industry. The findings indicate that farmers who generate high revenues experience failures regarding tea deliveries, cash outflow, damage compensation, and quasi-rent. An additional problem included the high costs yielded when tea farmers colluded with or switched organic tea certification agencies. Furthermore, there could be decreasing levels of personal interest in planting non-organic tea and lowering the costs of planting organic tea and the managerial accounting costs of building comprehensive traceability systems; thus, the analysis yielded strong results and a superior equilibrium. This research is unprecedented, using an innovative model and providing a novel analysis structure for use in the tea industry. These results contribute to the field of literature and should serve as a valuable reference for members of the tea industry, government, and academia. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Transfer of 226Ra and 137Cs from tea leaves to drinking tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathivand, A. A.; Amidi, J.; Heravi, G. H.


    Two of the important radionuclides which are entered to environment and human diet are radium-226 ( 226 Ra) and cesium-137( 137 Cs). It is clear that the methods for preparation of foods such as peeling, washing, cooking or frying can affect the dose which is received by human due the to consumption of foodstuffs. An experiment has been performed at the environmental monitoring section of National Radiation Protection Department, aiming to measure the transfer of 226 Ra and 137 Cs from the tea leaves to drinking part of tea. Materials and Methods:Tea samples were pulverized to obtain a homogenous matrix which was weighed and placed In 1000 cm 3 Marinelli beaker. After making tea, the liquid tea and tea-discard were analyzed separately. Measurement of 226 Ra and 137 Cs was performed by gamma spectrometry system using a high purity germanium detector with 40% relative efficiency. The detector was shielded by 10 cm lead all sides with cadmium -copper as liners. Results: It was found that the activity concentration transferred from tea leaves to drinking tea for 137 Cs and 226 Ra are less than 2% and 17% respectively. Conclusion: On the basis of these measurements it seems that no significant levels of radioactivity of 226 Ra and 137 Cs can be found in drinking part of tea. The low concentration of the mentioned radionuclides in drinking tea is mostly due to tea dust and can be removed by its washing before preparing tea

  17. Green tea phytocompounds as anticancer: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ullah


    Full Text Available Green tea is universally considered significant and its benefits have been experimentally explored by researchers and scientists. Anticancer potential of green tea has been completely recognized now. Green tea contains anti-cancerous constituents and nutrients that have powerful remedial effects. By using electronic data base (1998–2015, different compounds in green tea possessing anticancer activity including epigallocatechin-3-gallate, paclitaxel and docetaxel combinations, ascorbic acid, catechins, lysine, synergistic arginine, green tea extract, proline, and green tea polyphenols has been reported. Green tea extracts exhibited remedial potential against cancer of lung, colon, liver, stomach, leukemic cells, prostate, breast, human cervical cells, head, and neck. For centuries, green tea has been utilized as medicine for therapeutic purposes. It originated in China and extensively used in Asian countries for blood pressure depression and as anticancer medicine. Green tea has therapeutic potential against many diseases such as lowering of blood pressure, Parkinson’s disease, weight loss, esophageal disease, skin-care, cholesterol, Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhar Samudera


    Full Text Available Since 2000, Indonesian tea has experienced a lot of problems such as land use change of plantation, lower selling prices, and low productivity. The objectives of this study are to analyze the competitiveness of tea in Indonesia and formulate priority improvements that can support the increasing competitiveness of Indonesian tea. The methods used to analyze the competitiveness were the Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA and the Export Product Dynamics (EPD, and to formulate strategies to increase competitiveness, Importance Performance Analysis (IPA was applied. Based on RCA, the types of Indonesian tea which have strong competitiveness are HS 090 210 and HS 090240. The EPD analysis showed that only tea of HS 090210 is in the rising star position, while the HS 090220, HS 090230 and HS090240 tea types are on the retreat position. Based on IPA, sub-determinants which are priority to improve are in quadrant A (under act consisting of five sub-factors, namely the availability of human resources with the capbility of production management, marketing and possess an entrepreneurial spirit; availability and ease of access to capital; strengthening of the structure of Indonesian tea agribusiness; the government policies in improving domestic demand conditions and in encouraging the development of tea processing industry.Keywords: competitiveness, tea, RCA, EPD, IPA

  19. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, Ayhan [Sirnak University, Engineering Faculty, Sirnak (Turkey); Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)


    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton). (author)

  20. Tea seed upgrading facilities and economic assessment of biodiesel production from tea seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan


    Green tea seed (Camellia sinensisL. Kuntze) oil was used in this work. The tea seed oil contains more than 84% unsaturated fatty acid, such as oleic acid (62.5% by weight), linoleic acid (18.1% by weight) and linolenic acid. The biodiesel from tea seed oil in itself is not significantly different from biodiesel produced from vegetable oils. However, tea seed oil has lower pour point and lower viscosity as different common vegetable oils. Crude tea seed oil is one of the cheapest vegetable oil feedstocks with average price, 514 (US$/ton).

  1. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion of commercial tea products available in uae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessa, F.; Khan, S.A.


    In the present study, twenty four commercial tea samples were assayed to determine their free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic contents based on the brewing/infusing period. Tea samples were infused/brewed in 200 mL boiled water at 120 degree C for 1, 2 and 5 min, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of tea infusion/brewing were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay method. The results were ranged from 67.81-90.51% for black tea bags, 90.37-94.51% for green tea bags, 24.66-92.25% for black tea powder, 16.08-93.06% for green tea powder and 32.90- 45.54% for Camomile herbal infusion. The results showed that 1 or 2 min black tea bags infusion exhibited highest radical scavenging activity than 5 min infusion. Antioxidant activities of tea powders were variable with the amount of tea powder. It was observed that antioxidant activity increased with increasing boiling time for smaller amount of sample. In contrary, shorter boiling time was better for larger amount of sample. The polyphenol contents of tea infusion were determined and the results were expressed as milligram quercetin equivalent/200 mL of tea infusion. The polyphenol content was increased with increased brewing period. In contrary, brewing for longer time rendered extract less antiradical activity. This study suggests that infusing tea bag for 1 or 2 min is sufficient for getting infusion with maximum radical scavenging activity and in case of tea powder, shorter boiling time is better for larger amount of powder or small amount of powder should be boiled for minimum 5 min for rendering extract with maximum radical scavenging activity. (author)

  2. Evaluation of gamma irradiation of teas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerolis, Luanai G.L.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Leal, Alexandre S., E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Krambrock, Klaus, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Ressonancia Paramagnetica Eletronica


    There is a growing interest in the determination of non-essential traces elements in agroindustrial products. The continuous ingestion and accumulation in the organism of such elements, that may be toxic, can cause hazards to the human health in the long term. Reliable analytical techniques are necessary to monitor such products, including teas. In this work, the neutron activation technique is being employed to determine the trace elements in teas, due to its high sensibility and the possibility to perform a multi-elementary analysis. The gamma irradiation of teas is also being studied, because the shelf life can be extended and no chemical product is added to the teas. There is a concern related to the formation of free radicals in the teas, which is being accessed with electronic paramagnetic resonance. The results of the gamma irradiation up to 20 kGy of Camelia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, and Matricaria recutita are presented. (author)

  3. Evaluation of gamma irradiation of teas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerolis, Luanai G.L.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Menezes, Maria A.B.C.; Leal, Alexandre S.; Krambrock, Klaus


    There is a growing interest in the determination of non-essential traces elements in agroindustrial products. The continuous ingestion and accumulation in the organism of such elements, that may be toxic, can cause hazards to the human health in the long term. Reliable analytical techniques are necessary to monitor such products, including teas. In this work, the neutron activation technique is being employed to determine the trace elements in teas, due to its high sensibility and the possibility to perform a multi-elementary analysis. The gamma irradiation of teas is also being studied, because the shelf life can be extended and no chemical product is added to the teas. There is a concern related to the formation of free radicals in the teas, which is being accessed with electronic paramagnetic resonance. The results of the gamma irradiation up to 20 kGy of Camelia sinensis, Ilex paraguariensis, and Matricaria recutita are presented. (author)

  4. Effect of green tea phytochemicals on mood and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs


    Background: Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea

  5. Labour unfreedoms in the tea supply chains : WUR Studium Generals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)


    textabstractThe bulk of tea consumed in the Netherlands comes from South Asia, with Sri Lanka and India being among the largest tea exporters world-wide. Tea is the second most popular beverage after water and it is often considered a 'cheap drink'. This session highlights, however, that tea

  6. Oligomerization and hydroxylation of green tea catechins by oxidative enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, J.W.


    Black teas are known for their characteristic brown colour, bitter taste and astringent mouth feel. These sensory characteristics are mainly influenced by the phenolic oxidation products present in black tea. The oxidation of phenolics from green tea leaves during black tea manufacturing is an


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States)


    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver


    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via

  9. Risks associated with consumption of herbal teas. (United States)

    Manteiga, R; Park, D L; Ali, S S


    Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. Health-oriented individuals are turning to herbal teas as alternatives to caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cocoa and for low-caloric supplements. The popularity of herbal tea consumption has increased significantly during the past two decades in the U.S. Hundreds of different teas made up of varied mixtures of roots, leaves, seeds, barks, or other parts of shrubs, vines, or trees are sold in health food stores. Although chemists have been characterizing toxic plant constituents for over 100 years, toxicological studies of herbal teas have been limited and, therefore, the safety of many of these products is unknown. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites that are not essential in the production of energy and whose role may be in the defense mechanisms as plant toxins to their interactions with other plants, herbivores, and parasites. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were among the first naturally occurring carcinogens identified in plant products, and their presence in herbal teas is a matter of public health significance. Some herbal tea mixtures and single-ingredient herbal teas have been analyzed for toxic/mutagenic potential by bioassay and chromatographic techniques. Numerous human and animal intoxications have been associated with naturally occurring components, including pyrrolizidine alkaloids, tannins, and safrole. Thus, the prevention of human exposure to carcinogens or mutagens present in herbal tea mixture extracts is crucial. Preparation of infusion drinks prepared from plants appears to concentrate biologically active compounds and is a major source of PA poisoning. The quantity and consumption over a long period of time is of major concern. It is recommended that widespread consumption of herbal infusions should be minimized until data on the levels and varieties of carcinogens, mutagens, and toxicants are made available.

  10. Skin infections and infestations in prison inmates. (United States)

    Oninla, Olumayowa A; Onayemi, Olaniyi


    Skin infections and infestations are common in a prison environment. The prison is in dynamic equilibrium with the larger society. Hence, it serves as a reservoir of infections which can spread to the larger society. The study sets out to find out how rampant these infections might be in the prison and the factors responsible. Inmates at a Nigerian prison in Ilesha, Osun State, were examined for skin infections. Personal hygiene and living conditions were critically examined. The overall prevalent rate of infectious dermatoses was 49.2% (150/305). There were 178 infections. Dermatophytes accounted for 64%, pityriasis versicolor 27%, bacterial infections 3.4%, and others 5.6%. Only frequency of soap use and accommodation arrangement significantly contributed to the overall prevalence. However, infectious dermatoses were significantly affected by prison status (PP = 0.04), frequency of bath (PP = 0.025), changing of clothing (PP = 0.05), accommodation arrangement (P = 0.0001), frequency of soap usage (P = 0.005), and toilet facility (P = 0.001). The HIV status of the inmates was unknown. Hence, effect of HIV infection cannot be ascertained. Skin infections and infestations are common in prison. A change in living conditions and personal hygiene will definitely help in reducing these infections. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast. (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun


    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comprehensive Lipidome-Wide Profiling Reveals Dynamic Changes of Tea Lipids during Manufacturing Process of Black Tea. (United States)

    Li, Jia; Hua, Jinjie; Zhou, Qinghua; Dong, Chunwang; Wang, Jinjin; Deng, Yuliang; Yuan, Haibo; Jiang, Yongwen


    As important biomolecules in Camellia sinensis L., lipids undergo substantial changes during black tea manufacture, which is considered to contribute to tea sensory quality. However, limited by analytical capacity, detailed lipid composition and its dynamic changes during black tea manufacture remain unclear. Herein, we performed tea lipidome profiling using high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), which allows simultaneous and robust analysis of 192 individual lipid species in black tea, covering 17 (sub)classes. Furthermore, dynamic changes of tea lipids during black tea manufacture were investigated. Significant alterations of lipid pattern were revealed, involved with chlorophyll degradation, metabolic pathways of glycoglycerolipids, and other extraplastidial membrane lipids. To our knowledge, this report presented most comprehensive coverage of lipid species in black tea. This study provides a global and in-depth metabolic map of tea lipidome during black tea manufacture.

  13. Cancer Prevention by Tocopherols and Tea Polyphenols (United States)

    Yang, Chung S.; Li, Guangxun; Yang, Zhihong; Guan, Fei; Chen, Amber; Ju, Jihyeung


    Tocopherols (vitamin E) and tea polyphenols have been reported to have cancer preventive activities. Large-scale human trials with high doses of alpha-tocopherol, however, have produced disappointing results. This review presents data showing that γ- and δ-tocopherols inhibit colon, lung, mammary and prostate carcinogenesis in animal models, whereas α-tocopherol is ineffective in animal and human studies. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed. A broad cancer preventive activity of green tea polyphenols has been demonstrated in animal models, and many mechanisms have been proposed. The cancer preventive activity of green tea in humans, however, has not been conclusively demonstrated and remains to be further investigated. PMID:23403075

  14. Determination of pesticide residue transfer rates (percent) from dried tea leaves to brewed tea. (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Cheung, Wendy; Leung, Daniel


    This paper presents a study on pesticide residue transfer rates (%) from dried tea leaves to brewed tea. In the study, a brewing procedure simulated the preparation of a hot tea drink as in routine. After brewing, pesticide residues were extracted from brewed tea using a method known as QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe). An UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to identify and quantify up to 172 pesticides in both tea leaves and brewed tea samples. Quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves with isotopically labeled standards or a chemical analogue as internal standards, and the calibration curves consisted of six points (0.4, 2.0, 8.0, 16.0, 24.0, and 40.0 μg/L equivalent in sample). The method was validated at four concentration levels (4.0, 12, 20.0, and 32.0 μg/L equivalent in sample) using five different brewed tea matrices on two separate days per matrix. Method performance parameters included overall recovery, intermediate precision, and measurement uncertainty, which were evaluated according to a nested experimental design. Approximately, 95% of the pesticides studied had recoveries between 81 and 110%, intermediate precision ≤20%, and measurement uncertainty ≤40%. From a pilot study of 44 incurred tea samples, pesticide residues were examined for their ability to transfer from dried tea leaves to brewed tea. Each sample, both tea leaves and brewed tea, was analyzed in duplicate. Pesticides were found to have different transfer rates (%). For example, imidacloprid, methomyl, and carbendazim had transfer rates of 84.9, 83.4, and 92.4%, respectively.

  15. Aboveground insect infestation attenuates belowground Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. (United States)

    Song, Geun Cheol; Lee, Soohyun; Hong, Jaehwa; Choi, Hye Kyung; Hong, Gun Hyong; Bae, Dong-Won; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min


    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease. Although Agrobacterium can be popularly used for genetic engineering, the influence of aboveground insect infestation on Agrobacterium induced gall formation has not been investigated. Nicotiana benthamiana leaves were exposed to a sucking insect (whitefly) infestation and benzothiadiazole (BTH) for 7 d, and these exposed plants were inoculated with a tumorigenic Agrobacterium strain. We evaluated, both in planta and in vitro, how whitefly infestation affects crown gall disease. Whitefly-infested plants exhibited at least a two-fold reduction in gall formation on both stem and crown root. Silencing of isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), required for salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, compromised gall formation indicating an involvement of SA in whitefly-derived plant defence against Agrobacterium. Endogenous SA content was augmented in whitefly-infested plants upon Agrobacterium inoculation. In addition, SA concentration was three times higher in root exudates from whitefly-infested plants. As a consequence, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of roots of whitefly-infested plants was clearly inhibited when compared to control plants. These results suggest that aboveground whitefly infestation elicits systemic defence responses throughout the plant. Our findings provide new insights into insect-mediated leaf-root intra-communication and a framework to understand interactions between three organisms: whitefly, N. benthamiana and Agrobacterium. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Studies on pest infestation of commercial samples of cowpeas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight loss in both the infested beans and maize increased with increase in the number of emergence holes. Public health implications of the insect infestation of the stored products such as reduction in nutritive value and accumulation of undesirable residues were discussed. Improved storage and pest control techniques ...

  17. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman


    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  18. some nutritional aspects of haemonchosis in experimentally infested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nutritional aberration has been described as anorexia in both pure (Evans, Blunt & Southcott, 1963) and mixed infestations where Haemonchus contortus was prominent. (Clark, Ortlepp, Bosman, Laurence, Groenewald & Quin,. 1951; Shumard et al. 1957). Further observations on nutritional aspects of a pure infestation of ...

  19. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 20, 2011 ... chemical properties of gum were determined for infested and control trees. A. senegal infested by A. ... also in the textile, pottery, lithography, cosmetics and ... Deforestation within the gum belt has lead to an increase in desert .... Atomic Absorption = V*N EDTA*1000/Volume of extract (mg/l). Where, V is the ...

  20. Strongyloides stercoralis infestation in HIV seropositive patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A contemporary surge in diarrhoeal illnesses due to parasitic infestations is believed to be a synergy between endemicity and HIV seropositivity. Aim: To determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infestation among HIV seropositive patients at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital.

  1. Population structure and growth of polydorid polychaetes that infest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polydorid polychaetes can infest cultured abalone thereby reducing productivity. In order to effectively control these pests, their reproductive biology must be understood. The population dynamics and reproduction of polydorids infesting abalone Haliotis midae from two farms in South Africa is described using a ...

  2. Molecular detection of protozoan parasites in ticks infesting cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of protozoan parasite load in the ticks infesting cattle entering the country by hooves through a major trans-boundary route in Ogun State was carried out using ... This is the first report on protozoan parasites detected in ticks infesting cattle entering Nigeria through a major trans-boundary route in Nigeria.

  3. Spatio-temporal distribution of the infestations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial distribution of the infestations revealed experimental plots having recorded between 0 and 8 ... Infestations were also independent of abiotic factors (rainfall, temperature and ... chemical fight, by terrestrial way, air or systemic, ... the implementation of efficient fight plan strategy. ..... Influence of abiotic factors on the.

  4. Intestinal Worm Infestation and Anaemia in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Bahadur Raut


    Conclusions: Aanaemia is prevalent in pregnant women of PHCRC, chapagaun and there was a significant correlation between anaemia and worm infestation. However, the relation among the haemoglobin level, iron, folic acid and albendazole was not significant. Keywords: anaemia; infestation; pregnant women; worm. | PubMed


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The caffeine content of nuts of Cola nitida and C. acuminata infested by insect pests in four major geographical zones of Nigeria have been determined and compared with the uninfested ones using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The findings showed that the infestation has no significant effect on the ...

  6. Profiling elements in Puerh tea from Yunnan province, China. (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyang; Ma, Guicen; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin


    Puerh tea, as the most representative Chinese dark tea, has attracted global interest in recent years. Profiling the levels of metal elements in Puerh tea is very important since its presence is related to human health. In this study, 41 elements in 98 Puerh tea samples from Yunnan province, China including Puerh raw tea and Puerh ripe tea were evaluated by microwave digestion combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry . The content of toxic elements, essential elements and rare earth elements of Puerh tea from different regions was discussed in detail. The concentrations of Ba, Cr, As, Pb, Bi, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, Be, Ag and Tl showed significant differences (p tea from different regions. This study provided a comprehensive database for Puerh tea quality control and intake risk assessment.

  7. Adverse effects of concentrated green tea extracts. (United States)

    Schönthal, Axel H


    A myriad of health claims are being made in favor of the consumption of green tea. However, mostly due to the easy availability and greater than ever popularity of highly concentrated green tea extracts, sometimes combined with an attitude of more-is-better, certain health risks of green tea consumption have begun to emerge. Among such risks are the possibility of liver damage, the potential to interact with prescription drugs to alter their therapeutic efficacy, and the chance to cause harm when combined with other highly popular herbal remedies. This review will summarize documented examples of adverse effects of green tea in humans, and will discuss risks of copious consumption of highly concentrated green tea extracts as indicated by studies in animals. While there is no intention to minimize any of the scientifically established benefits of the use of green tea, the purpose of this review is to focus primarily on the potential for adverse effects and raise awareness of the rare, yet under-appreciated risks. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Kombucha fermentation test used for various types of herbal teas (United States)

    Novi Primiani, C.; Pujiati; Mumtahanah, Mahda; Ardhi, Waskitho


    Tea is a common drink in the community, the benefits of tea can be improved by processing fermented tea called kombucha. Kombucha is a refreshing drink made from tea water plus sugar, obtained through the fermentation process by acetic acid bacteria and fungi, is consumed for its health benefits. The common Kombucha starter is called SCOOBY (Simbyotic of Bacteri and Yeast). Kombucha research using herbal tea is very rarely done, it is necessary kombucha research using a variety of herbal teas to determine the quality of its inhibitory power against bacteria and its quality compared with kombucha berkomposisi tea Camelia sinensis in general. The purpose of this research was to know kombucha quality with ph parameter, thickness of nata, total acid and its inhibitory power to Escherchia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This research used Randomized Block Design (RAK) method using 1 tea type treatment, with 3 replications. The first type of green tea (P1), roselle tea (P2), mangosteen peel tea (P3), soursop leaf tea (P4), moringa leaf tea (P5) and yellow leaf tea (P6), so there are 18 treatment combinations. Based on statistical analysis, there was influence of tea type to kombucha quality. Treatments of P1 and P2 were found to have an optimum and significant effect for kombucha. the results in level of acidity [pH] on green tea (P1) was 3.05, nata thickness of 4.63 and total acid of 0.69. Acidity in roselle tea (P2) was 2.86, nata thickness of 3.83, and total acid of 0.71. While the lowest quality was found in the treatment of mangosteen peel (P3) tea with pH 2.57, nata thickness of 0.35, and total acid of 0.79.

  9. Protective effects of Mengshan green tea and hawk tea against UV-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Ren Zhenglong; Zhang Huaiyu; Tang Zongxiang; Luo Peigao


    A group of cultured normal human skin-derived fibroblasts was used as the cell model to investigate protective and repair effects of aqueous extracts of Mengshan green tea and Hawk tea against 320-400 nm UV-ray irradiation, with the methods of MTT colorimetry and LDH release. It was found that the aqueous extracts had strong protective effect on fibroblasts against the UV-rays with dose dependence. There were no significant differences between the two kinds of tea aqueous extracts in a higher concentration of 5 mg/mL, whereas at lower concentrations of 2.5 and 1.25 mg/mL the, green tea aqueous extract was less effective than the hawk-tea aqueous extract in protecting fibroblasts from the UV-ray damage. Meanwhile, it was discovered that the green tea and hawk-tea aqueous extract could repair damages induced by the UV irradiation with dose dependence. But there were no statistically significant differences between the two kinds of aqueous extract. The effects may be related to antioxidant effect of tea polyphenol. (authors)

  10. Investigation of inorganic constituents of commercial tea brands and fresh tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.; Hussain, I.


    The inorganic constituents including total hardness, total alkalinity, chlorides (Cr/sup -1/), sulphates (SO/sub 4/sup -2/), nitrates (NO/sub 3/sup -1/, nitrites (NO/sub 2/sup -1/ and phosphates (PO/sub 4/sup -3/) along with pH were monitored in various tea brands and fresh tea leaves available in Pakistan. The commercial 14 tea samples were collected from the local markets in Peshawar while fresh tea leaves was obtained directly from tea plants at the National Tea Research Center, Mansehra, Pakistan and analyzed for the above parameters. The results were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) standards for drinking water quality which showed that some parameters were higher than the WHO permissible levels indicating the environmental pollution threat in areas where the tea plants were grown Efforts have been made to draw any correlations with the reported constituents of the tea samples for the beneficial health effects or otherwise and their daily intake. The adverse effects of the tested parameters on human health have also been discussed. (author)

  11. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements. (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira


    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Behavior of cesium-134 in the tea tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yinliang; Chen Kaixuan; Chen Chuangqun


    The radioactivity changes of 134 Cs in the aged and the young leaves followed an exponential regression function after spraying 134 Cs in the tea trees. Contamination by spraying 134 Cs greatly harmed tea tree and by irrigating or mixing 134 Cs with soil resulted in a potential endangerment. The concentrating ability of tea leaves for 134 CS was very low and K value was 0.02. After the fresh tea leaves were processed to dry tea, the content of 134 Cs decreased by about 13.3%. When the tea leaves were soaked in hot water, the extraction ratio was around 83.6%

  13. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer (United States)

    Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong


    Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed. PMID:27483305

  14. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal. (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B


    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  15. Weed infestation of onion in soil reduced cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażej-Woźniak


    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in the years 1998-2000 in GD Felin. The influence of no-tillage cultivation and conventional tillage with spring ploughing on weed infestation of onion was compared. In experiment four cover crop mulches (Sinapis alba L., Vicia sativa L., Phacelia tanacetifolia B., Avena sativa L. were applied. From annual weeds in weed infestation of onion in great number Matricaria chamomilla L., and Senecio vulgaris L. stepped out. and from perennial - Agropyron repens (L.P.B. Reduced soil cultivation system (no-tillage caused the significant growth of primary weed infestation of onion in comparison with conventional tillage. In all years of investigations the executed pre-sowing ploughing limited significantly the annual weeds' number in primary weed infestation. The applied mulches from cover plants limited in considerable degree the number of primary weed infestation. In all years of investigations the most weeds stepped out on control object. Among investigated cover crop mulches Vicia sativa L. and Avena sativa L. had a profitable effect on decrease of onion`s primary weed infestation. Soil cultivation system and cover crop mulches had no signi ficant residual influence on the secondary weed infestation of onion.

  16. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-Mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota. (United States)

    Kong, Hyun G; Kim, Byung K; Song, Geun C; Lee, Soohyun; Ryu, Choong-Min


    Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. Infestation from phloem-sucking insects such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves was previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1-V3 region) by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation, and the fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. recruited to the rhizosphere were confirmed to exhibit insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads to the recruitment of specific groups of rhizosphere bacteria by the plant, which confer beneficial traits to the host plant. This

  17. Aboveground Whitefly Infestation-mediated Reshaping of the Root Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Gi Kong


    Full Text Available Plants respond to various types of herbivore and pathogen attack using well-developed defensive machinery designed for self-protection. The phloem-sucking insect infestation such as whitefly and aphid on plant leaves were previously shown to influence both the saprophytic and pathogenic bacterial community in the plant rhizosphere. However, the modulation of the root microbial community by plants following insect infestation has been largely unexplored. Only limited studies of culture-dependent bacterial diversity caused by whitefly and aphid have been conducted. In this study, to obtain a complete picture of the belowground microbiome community, we performed high-speed and high-throughput next-generation sequencing. We sampled the rhizosphere soils of pepper seedlings at 0, 1, and 2 weeks after whitefly infestation versus the water control. We amplified a partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V1–V3 region by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Our analysis revealed that whitefly infestation reshaped the overall microbiota structure compared to that of the control rhizosphere, even after 1 week of infestation. Examination of the relative abundance distributions of microbes demonstrated that whitefly infestation shifted the proteobacterial groups at week 2. Intriguingly, the population of Pseudomonadales of the class Gammaproteobacteria significantly increased after 2 weeks of whitefly infestation and confirmed the recruitment of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. exhibiting the insect-killing capacity. Additionally, three taxa, including Caulobacteraceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Flavobacteriaceae, and three genera, including Achromobacter, Janthinobacterium, and Stenotrophomonas, were the most abundant bacterial groups in the whitefly-infested plant rhizosphere. Our results indicate that whitefly infestation leads plant recruiting specific group of rhizosphere bacteria conferring beneficial traits for host plant. This study provides a new

  18. Population nutrikinetics of green tea extract. (United States)

    Scholl, Catharina; Lepper, Anna; Lehr, Thorsten; Hanke, Nina; Schneider, Katharina Luise; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Seufferlein, Thomas; Stingl, Julia Carolin


    Green tea polyphenols may contribute to the prevention of cancer and other diseases. To learn more about the pharmacokinetics and interindividual variation of green tea polyphenols after oral intake in humans we performed a population nutrikinetic study of standardized green tea extract. 84 healthy participants took green tea extract capsules standardized to 150 mg epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) twice a day for 5 days. On day 5 catechin plasma concentrations were analyzed using non-compartmental and population pharmacokinetic methods. A strong between-subject variability in catechin pharmacokinetics was found with maximum plasma concentrations varying more than 6-fold. The AUCs of EGCG, EGC and ECG were 877.9 (360.8-1576.5), 35.1 (8.0-87.4), and 183.6 (55.5-364.6) h*μg/L respectively, and the elimination half lives were 2.6 (1.8-3.8), 3.9 (0.9-10.7) and 1.8 (0.8-2.9) h, respectively. Genetic polymorphisms in genes of the drug transporters MRP2 and OATP1B1 could at least partly explain the high variability in pharmacokinetic parameters. The observed variability in catechin plasma levels might contribute to interindividual variation in benefical and adverse effects of green tea polyphenols. Our data could help to gain a better understanding of the causes of variability of green tea effects and to improve the design of studies on the effects of green tea polyphenols in different health conditions. NCT01360320.

  19. 9,10-Anthraquinone deposit in tea plantation might be one of the reasons for contamination in tea. (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Zhou, Li; Luo, Fengjian; Zhang, Xinzhong; Sun, Hezhi; Yang, Mei; Lou, Zhengyun; Chen, Zongmao


    9,10-Anthraquinone (AQ) was a new contaminant, with unknown sources, occurred globally in tea. European Union (EU) fixed the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02mg/kg. The pollution source of AQ in tea was traced from the view of AQ deposit on tea crop by simulation. The possible contamination pathway and main factors to decrease AQ were explored in tea cultivation- tea manufacture- tea infusion, on the basis of AQ analytical methods by using solvent extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) quantification. 58.8-84.6% of AQ degraded in tea processing, and drying played a key role to reduce the AQ contamination. Certain concentration of AQ deposited on tea shoots could resulted in AQ beyond the MRL of 0.02mg/kg in tea. AQ leaching into tea brew (about 10%) could lead to the possible health risk. AQ deposit on tea crop during the tea cultivation might cause the AQ contamination in tea. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Antimutagenicity and catechin content of soluble instant teas. (United States)

    Constable, A; Varga, N; Richoz, J; Stadler, R H


    The antimutagenic properties of soluble instant teas were examined using the bacterial Ames assay. Inhibition of the numbers of revertants induced from a number of known mutagens indicates that aqueous extracts of instant teas have antimutagenic activity and antioxidative properties, and can inhibit nitrosation reactions. Despite a significant reduction in the amounts of major green tea catechins, quantified using reversed-phase HPLC with electro-chemical detection, no differences in antimutagenicity were observed between the instant teas, a black fermented tea and a green tea. Oxidation of polyphenolic compounds which occurs during the production of instant tea does not therefore decrease the antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimutagenic properties. This suggests that catechins are not the only compounds responsible for the protective effects of teas.

  1. Monitoring of essential and toxic metals in imported herbal teas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Teas are the most consumed beverage worldwide after water, and its consumption ... Key words: Herbal teas, food safety, health risk assessment, THQ, EDI, HI, toxic metals ...

  2. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.


    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process

  3. Photoprotective Effect of Tea and its Extracts against Ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure induces photodamage of skin. It is a matter of ... to the skin as well as the photoprotective effects of tea and its extracts have been highlighted. ..... storage of skin cream supplemented with green tea catechins or EGCG ...

  4. Infestation of the human kidney with Dioctophyma renale. (United States)

    Ignjatovic, Ivan; Stojkovic, Ivica; Kutlesic, Cedo; Tasic, Suzana


    Human infestation with Dioctophyma renale is presented. Clinical signs and diagnostic findings are unspecific. They are discussed and a conservative therapeutic approach is suggested. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dutta


    Full Text Available Concomitant infestation of Ascaridia spp. along with Raillietina spp. and Emeria spp. has been identified in Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus of Ramnabagan Mini Zoo, Burdwan, West Bengal, India.

  6. Infestation of fruit fly, Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infestation of fruit fly, Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango ( Mangifera indica L.) in peninsular Malaysia. ... Abstract. A survey was carried out in mango orchards in Peninsular Malaysia with aimed to determine the ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  7. Importance of husk covering on field infestation of maize by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 20, 2008 ... An experiment was conducted to determine the importance of husk covering on field infestation of maize by the maize ... high yielding plants with no consideration for resistance ..... provided financial support for the study.

  8. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of Athrixia phylicoides DC. (bush tea), Monsonia burkeana (special tea) and synergistic effects of both combined herbal teas. (United States)

    Tshivhandekano, Itani; Ntushelo, Khayalethu; Ngezimana, Wonder; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel; Mudau, Fhatuwani Nixwell


    To determine the chemical compositions and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.), special tea (Monsonia burkeana) and synergy (combination of bush tea and special tea). Total polyphenols were determined using the methods reported by Singleton and Rossi (1965) and modified by Waterman and Mole (1994). Tannins were determined using vanillin HCL methods described by Prince et al. (1978). Total antioxidants were determined using the methods described by Awika et al. (2004). The micro dilution technique using 96-well micro-plates, as described by Eloff (1998) was used to obtain the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) values of the ethanol extracts against the microorganisms under study. The microbes strain used was Gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia; Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and a fungus Candida albicans. The results demonstrated that special tea contains significantly higher content of total polyphenols (8.34 mg/100 g) and total antioxidant (0.83 mg/100 g) as compared to bush tea [total polyphenols (6.41 mg/100g) and total antioxidant (0.63 mg/100g)] and combination of bush tea and special tea [total polyphenols (6.42 mg/100 g) and total antioxidant (0.64 mg/100 g)]. There was no significant difference in tannins between bush tea, special tea and synergy. The results of antimicrobial activity (MIC and MMC) demonstrated that the ethanol extracts of bush tea, special tea and synergy possessed antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms at different zones. The MIC of bush tea ranged from 1.56 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 0.78 to 12.50 mg/mL. Special tea's MIC ranged from 0.39 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 0.01 to 12.50 mg/mL. The MIC of synergy ranged from 3.13 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 3

  9. Insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree and andiroba oils on flies associated with livestock. (United States)

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C; Vaucher, R A; Baldissera, M D; Raffin, R; Boligon, A; Athayde, M; Baretta, D; Machado, G; DA Silva, A S


    This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal and repellent effects of tea tree, Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), and andiroba, Carapa guianensis (Sapindales: Meliaceae), essential oils on two species of fly. For in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To evaluate the insecticidal effects of the oils, adult flies of Haematobia irritans (L.) and Musca domestica L. (both: Diptera: Muscidae) were separated by species in test cages (n = 10 per group), and subsequently tested with oils at concentrations of 1.0% and 5.0% using a negative control to validate the test. Both oils showed insecticidal activity. Tea tree oil at a concentration of 5.0% was able to kill M. domestica with 100.0% efficacy after 12 h of exposure. However, the effectiveness of andiroba oil at a concentration of 5.0% was only 67.0%. The insecticidal efficacy (100.0%) of both oils against H. irritans was observed at both concentrations for up to 4 h. The repellency effects of the oils at concentrations of 5.0% were tested in vivo on Holstein cows naturally infested by H. irritans. Both oils demonstrated repellency at 24 h, when the numbers of flies on cows treated with tea tree and andiroba oil were 61.6% and 57.7%, respectively, lower than the number of flies on control animals. It is possible to conclude that these essential oils have insecticidal and repellent effects against the species of fly used in this study. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion


    Mozūraitienė, Vilija


    Objective of the study: To examine and systematize assortment of herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion and also to find out public opinion about herbal products, food supplements and teas for improvement of digestion using questionnaire. Aim of the study: (1) To examine which digestive tract ailments are treated most frequently herbal products, food supplements and teas. (2) To examine which herbal products, food supplements and teas are used most frequent...

  11. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants* (United States)

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi


    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (Ptea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

  12. Management of tick infestation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasani Ayodhya


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out during the month of January 2014 when a total of 148 dogs with history of various diseases were presented to the Campus Veterinary Hospital, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India. Out of 148 dogs that were presented to the hospital, 48 dogs had the clinical signs of loss of hair, itching, and reduced food intake. The dogs were restless and continuously rubbed their bodies against the walls in the houses, and scratching with their legs. Clinical examination of the dogs revealed presence of alopecia, pruritus, and the formation of small crusts. All 48 dogs were treated with ivermectin by subcutaneous injection dosed at 0.02 mL/kg body weight at a weekly interval for 2 to 3 weeks. All dogs were bathed with cypermethrin shampoo weekly once for 2-3 weeks. In the present study, it was observed that ivermectin/cypermethrin combination therapy was effective for the management of tick infestation in dogs.

  13. Optical Sensing of Weed Infestations at Harvest. (United States)

    Barroso, Judit; McCallum, John; Long, Dan


    Kochia ( Kochia scoparia L.), Russian thistle ( Salsola tragus L.), and prickly lettuce ( Lactuca serriola L.) are economically important weeds infesting dryland wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) production systems in the western United States. Those weeds produce most of their seeds post-harvest. The objectives of this study were to determine the ability of an optical sensor, installed for on-the-go measurement of grain protein concentration, to detect the presence of green plant matter in flowing grain and assess the potential usefulness of this information for mapping weeds at harvest. Spectra of the grain stream were recorded continuously at a rate of 0.33 Hz during harvest of two spring wheat fields of 1.9 and 5.4 ha. All readings were georeferenced using a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver with 1 m positional accuracy. Chlorophyll of green plant matter was detectable in the red (638-710 nm) waveband. Maps of the chlorophyll signal from both fields showed an overall agreement of 78.1% with reference maps, one constructed prior to harvest and the other at harvest time, both based on visual evaluations of the three green weed species conducted by experts. Information on weed distributions at harvest may be useful for controlling post-harvest using variable rate technology for herbicide applications.

  14. DNA landmarks for genetic diversity assessment in tea genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most important non-alcoholic beverages of the world. Natural genetic diversity in tea has been reduced due to continue selection in favor of desirable traits. The present study was conducted to estimate genetic diversity in tea genotypes cultivated in Pakistan using 20 randomly amplified ...

  15. Health Benefits of Tea Consumption | Sharma | Tropical Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tea is the most common beverage after water. It is extracted from the leaves of Camellia sinensis (family: Theaceae). It is consumed in different forms, namely, oolong, green, black and Ilex tea depending on post-harvest treatment and chemical components. Being rich in natural antioxidants, tea is reported to be used in the ...

  16. Nutritive value of tea (Camellia sinensis, Linn) waste for cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthasubramaniam, C R; Menachery, M


    Tea waste, the residue of instant tea manufacturing, was subjected to feeding trails in cattle in order to find out its nutritive value. The material possesses a digestable crude protein of 9.7% and a total digestible N of 43.0%. The total tanins represented only 1.9%. Results indicated that tea waste is a potential feed source for livestock.

  17. Antiviral effects of green tea ( Camellia sinensis ) against pathogenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tea is the second most addictive worldwide after formulations containing caffeine in carbonated beverage. Green tea is made from leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. In the repertoire of traditional Chinese medicine, green tea beverages have played a fundamental role associated with their culture.

  18. Optimal extraction parameters of Theabrownin from Sichuan Dark Tea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sichuan Dark Tea is a popular beverage with hypolipidemic and lifting greasy properties in the minority neighborhoods of Sichuan and Tibet regions. The theabrownin, an important pigment of dark tea, has been proven for the role of the hypolipidemic property in Sichuan Dark Tea. The objective of the study ...

  19. Physico-Chemical, Microbiological Profiles of Blends of Tea and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sample of tea obtained from Mambilla, Nigeria highland was blended with mistletoe - a known medicinal parasitic plant of cocoa. The ratios of the blends were Tea(T)/Mistletoe (M) 90:10 10:90, 75:25, 25:75, and 50:50 while ordinary tea and mistletoes served as control samples. Chemical analyses of blends were done ...

  20. Formulation and Sensory Evaluation of Herb Tea from Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sensory appeal of tea, like all food products, is an important consideration in new product de-velopment. Tea in general and herb tea in particular are gaining increasing consumer attention due to a growing awareness of health benefits derived from their consumption. Even though sev-eral underutilized plants exist with ...

  1. Productivity and resource use in ageing tea plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamau, D.M.


    Keywords: Kenya, Camellia sinensis L., clones, seedlings, tea industry, management, N-P-K, biomass, made tea yields.

    The tea industry in Kenya is rural-based and provides livelihood to over three million people along the value chain. The industry which started in the first quarter of the

  2. Poppy tea drinking in East Anglia. (United States)

    London, M; O'Regan, T; Aust, P; Stockford, A


    Poppy tea drinking was a widespread traditional practice in the Fenlands of East Anglia during the nineteenth century. The subsequent social changes which led to greater integration of the area with the rest of the country may have contributed to a decline in the practice. In recent years poppy tea drinking has been revived within the illicit drug using community and a survey using a self-report questionnaire was carried out among patients attending the Cambridge Drug Dependency Unit. Forty-three patients admitted to drinking poppy tea, usually during the summer months and on an intermittent basis. The potency of the infusion varied and was unpredictable but in general was low. Although poisoning from herbicides and pesticides was seen as the main risk, it is in the main perceived by drug users as a harmless secondary activity existing alongside the more regular and more potent drugs of misuse.

  3. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market. (United States)

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon


    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.

  4. Elemental PIXE analysis of oolong tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.


    The contamination of heavy metals in food becomes a serious problem. We analyzed oolong tea from different production areas by PIXE using very simple sample preparation and examined trace elements contained in these samples. From the results of this experiment, we could know oolong tea which analyzed in this experiment contains various minerals such as K, Ca, P, S, Cl, Fe, Mn, Cu and Cr but not toxic element of As which detection limit of PIXE was lower than the standard values given by the food hygiene law in Japan. (author)

  5. Effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites. (United States)

    Dinç Ata, Gül; Gokay, Osman; Müjdeci, Arzu; Kivrak, Tugba Congara; Mokhtari Tavana, Armin


    To investigate the effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites. Two methacrylate-based (Arabesk Top, Grandio) and a silorane-based (Filtek Silorane) resin composites were used. 110 cylindrical samples of each resin composite were prepared (2 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter), polished and stored in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours). They were randomly divided into 11 groups (n= 10) and color measurements were taken. Then the samples were immersed in tap water (control), a black tea, a green tea or one of the eight herbal-fruit teas (37°C for 1 week) and subsequently subjected to the final color measurements. The color change of samples (ΔE*) was calculated, data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests. Teas, resin composites and their interactions were significant (P= 0.000). All the teas and control caused color changes in all three resin composites. Rosehip tea caused the most color changes, while tap water showed the least in all resin composites. Arabesk Top had the most staining potential in all the teas and control, whereas Filtek Silorane was the most stain resistant except Grandio immersed in sage tea. Color stability of all resin composites used were affected from both structure of resin materials and constituents of teas used. All resin composites were susceptible to staining by all teas especially rosehip tea. Arabesk Top composite showed the greatest color susceptibility in all teas and Filtek Silorane the least with one exception. Color of resin composites can be negatively affected from teas consumed. Clinicians should advise patients that drinking different kind of teas could intensify surface staining of resin based restorations.

  6. Japanese tea leaves: a possible biological standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuwa, Keiichiro; Notsu, Kenji; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi; Kato, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yuko.


    Japanese Tea Leaves, prepared by pulverizing with an agate ball mill and sieving with a Saran fiber sieve (50 mesh) were assessed as a possible biological standard reference material for elemental analysis. The metal content of the tea leaves was determined independently at two laboratories using atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry. Neutron activation analysis was also performed to determine the content (21 elements) of Tea Leaves. For some elements the result from the various methods were compared. The characteristics of Tea Leaves are discussed and the elemental composition is compared to that of Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM, 1571). The most significant characteristic of Tea Leaves was the high manganese content. (auth.)

  7. Preliminary criteria for the handling of radioactive tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezemre, A.Y.


    Two years after the Chernobyl accident, tea plantations in northeastern Turkey, at Rize and its surroundings especially, were affected by radioactive fallout. As a radiological countermeasure, the turkish Atomic energy commission (AEC) was called in before tea packing and set up a maximum permissible limit of 12,500 Bq/kg for dry tea in the market; 58,078 t of radioactive tea (≥ 25,000 Bq/kg) were set apart as radioactive waste. In its concern to determine the best solution about the handling of radioactive tea and considering the national conditions, the AEC developed four preliminary criteria that led to select the burial option. (author)

  8. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in tea (Japanese tea); from May 1980 to Jun. 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Five hundred grams of manufactured green tea was collected, carbonized and ashed in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish. The results obtained from May 1980 to June 1980 were shown in a table. (J.P.N.)

  9. Evaluation of Blue Gum Chalid Infestation Woodlots in Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otuoma, J.; Muchiri, M.N


    Blue gum chalcid (BGC) Leptocybe invasa is a gall-forming wasp that belongs to the insect order Hymenoptera, family Eulophidae. It attacks a wide range of Eucalyptus species mostly between the seedling stage and five years of age. BGC causes damage to eucalyptus by forming bump-shaped galls on the leaf midribs, petioles and stems.Twisted and knobbed leaves manifest severe infestation. The aim of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of BGC and extent of host plant damage in Eucalyptus woodlots in Western Kenya. The study was carried out in six permanent sampling plots in Eucalyptus woodlots in Busia, Bungoma, Kakamega and Nyando. Trees were assessed for crown damage by estimating and classifying the density of galls on the leaves into four levels of infestation: low (greater than 50% of foliage canopy with galls and no twisted or knobbed leaves), moderate (greater than 50% of foliage with galls and less than 50% of the leaves twisted and knobbed), high (greater than 50% of the leaves twisted and knobbed, galls on the twigs and some twigs deformed and severe (greater than 50% of the twigs deformed and regeneration foliage observed). An evaluation of the pests' infestation and the extent of host plant damage indicated that, 4% of the trees and severe infestation; 5% high; 20% moderate and 70% low. Approximately 1% of trees died as a result of loss of foliage attributable to severe infestation. Other observations from the study were that the severity of BGC infestation tended to decline as trees grew older and BGC infestation retarded tree growth

  10. Assessment of Culturable Tea Rhizobacteria Isolated from Tea Estates of Assam, India for Growth Promotion in Commercial Tea Cultivars (United States)

    Dutta, Jintu; Handique, Pratap J.; Thakur, Debajit


    In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) screening for indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. Fifty isolates showed all the PGP traits and five isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19, and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3-fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1-fold, root length by 2.2-fold and shoot length by 1.6-fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (P biofertilizer for growth promotion of tea crops. PMID:26617590

  11. Study of nutritional value of dried tea leaves and infusions of black, green and white teas from Chinese plantations (United States)

    Czernicka, Maria; Zaguła, Grzegorz; Bajcar, Marcin; Saletnik, Bogdan; Puchalski, Czesław

    The processing of tea leaves determines the contents of bioactive ingredients, hence it should be expected that each variety of tea, black, red or green, will represent a different package of compounds of physiological importance. Taste and aroma, as well as price and brand are the main factors impacting consumers’ preferences with regard to tea of their choice; on the other hand consumers less frequently pay attention to the chemical composition and nutritional value of tea. The purpose of the study was assessment of the nutritional value of black, green and white high-quality tea leaf from Chinese plantations based on the chemical composition of the dried leaves as well as minerals and caffeine content in tea infusions. The research material included 18 high-quality loose-leaf teas produced at Chinese plantations, imported to Poland, and purchased in an online store. The analyses included examination of the dried tea leaves for their chemical composition (contents of water, protein, volatile substances and ash) and assessment of selected minerals and caffeine contents in the tea infusions. High-quality Chinese green teas were found with the most valuable composition of minerals, i.e. the highest contents of Zn, Mn, Mg, K, Ca and Al and the highest contents of protein in comparison to the other products. Chinese black teas had the highest contents of total ash and caffeine and white teas were characterized with high content of volatile substances, similar to the black teas, and the highest content of water and the lowest content of total ash. The three types of tea brews examined in the present study, in particular green tea beverages, significantly enhance the organism’s mineral balance by providing valuable elements

  12. Metaphysics of the tea ceremony: a randomized trial investigating the roles of intention and belief on mood while drinking tea. (United States)

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Radin, Dean


    This study explored whether drinking tea "treated" with good intentions would enhance mood more than drinking ordinary tea, under double-blind, randomized conditions. Each evening, for seven days in a row, volunteers recorded their mood using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. On days three, four, and five of the test, each participant drank 600 mL of oolong tea in the morning and again in the afternoon. One randomly assigned group blindly received tea that had been intentionally treated by three Buddhist monks; the other group blindly received untreated tea from the same source. On the last day of the test, each person indicated what type of tea he/she believed he/she had been drinking. Stratified, random sampling was used to assign 189 adults into two groups matched by age, gender, the psychological trait of neuroticism, and the amount of tea consumed on average per day. All participants were Taiwanese and lived in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, and the test was conducted over the course of one week to reduce mood fluctuations due to changes in local weather and other common influences. Those who drank treated tea showed a greater increase in mood than those who drank untreated tea (Cohen's d = 0.65, P = .02, two-tailed). Change in mood in those who believed that they were drinking treated tea was much better than those who did not believe (Cohen's d = 1.45, P = .00002, two-tailed). Tea treated with good intentions improved mood more than ordinary tea derived from the same source. Belief that one was drinking treated tea produced a large improvement in mood, but only if one was actually drinking the treated tea, indicating that belief and intentional enhancement interact. This also suggests that the esthetic and intentional qualities associated with the traditional tea ceremony may have subtle influences that extend beyond the ritual itself. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of Agricultural Water Productivity for Tea Production in Tea Fields of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kourosh majdsalimi


    Full Text Available Water productivity index is one of the main factors in efficient use of water for agricultural products. In this study, the rate of water productivity (WP in six irrigated tea fields and three rainfed (no irrigation were assessed by farmer’s management for two years (2009-2010. Yield of each tea field in successive harvests, soil moisture monitoring by gravimetric soil and use of water balance equation was conducted during the growing seasons. Volume of water entered to irrigation system and amount of water reached to surface level were also measured. Tea mean yield in irrigated and rainfed field were 2843 and 1095 Kg. ha-1, respectively. Average of gross irrigation and effective rainfall (WP and irrigation water productivity (IWP in the irrigated fields were 4.39 and 4.55 kg (made tea ha-1 mm-1 and average of net WP (actual evaportanspiration and net IWP was 5.18 and 6.61 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively. Average WP in rainfed tea fields was 3.4 kg ha-1 for each mm of effective rainfall. The most effective factors on WP reduction in tea fields were improper harvesting operations (un standard plucking and economic problems. Moreover, improper operation and maintenance and old irrigation systems and unprincipled irrigation scheduling in irrigated tea fields were also effective on WP reduction. Comparing the results of this study with other studies in past, showed that by implementing the proper methods in irrigation management and appropriate agricultural practices can improve water productivity in tea fields.

  14. Tea shoot production in relation to rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature in Pagilaran tea estate, Batang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudono, P.


    Tea shoot production pattern in PT Pagilaran tea estate, Batang, is studied in relation to rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature. Pagilaran tea estate is located at 700-1,500 m above the sea level, with temperature of 15-30 deg. C and rainfall ranging from 4,500 mm to 7,000 mm per year. However, the area is also characterized by two up to three dry months for every three years. Monthly data of rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature were collected and were related to tea shoot production using correlation and regression analysis. The results indicated that there was no significant different pattern of tea shoot production form the three estate units (Kayulandak, Pagilaran, and Andongsili). Monthly shoots production increases during October up to December, and then goes down in January up to February. It fluctuated at a lesser degree in the upper units (Kayulandak and Andongsili) which might be attributed to better soil moisture available in the area. They are right below a forests area which understandably serves as rainfall catchment area and maintains soil moisture of the area below in a better condition. Weak to moderate correlation was obtained when monthly tea shoot production was correlated to amount of rainfall (r = -0.3771), days of rainfall (r = -0.3512), maximum temperature (r = -0.3502), minimum temperature (r = -0.2786), and solar radiation (r=0.6607) of the same month. On regressing monthly tea shoot production to those variables, rainfall and duration of solar radiation turned out to be the two significant factors through the following equation y = 759.5616-0.1802 xi-1 + 0.1057 xi-2 + 0.5239 zi-1 (R at the power of 2 = 0.3398), where y = tea shoots production, x=amount of monthly rainfall, z=duration of solar radiation, and i refer to month [in

  15. Tea and cancer prevention: an evaluation of the epidemiologic literature. (United States)

    Kohlmeier, L; Weterings, K G; Steck, S; Kok, F J


    Animal and in vitro studies provide evidence of an anticarcinogenic potential of active ingredients in teas. This review encompasses epidemiologic studies of stomach, colon, and lung cancer as well as the evidence of a relationship between tea drinking and cancer at large in humans. Cohort studies do not suggest a protective role for tea drinking in the total risk of cancer. Site-specific studies reveal a more complex picture. The epidemiologic studies on tea drinking and stomach cancer do not justify claims of a cancer-protective effect. A protective effect of green tea on the development of colon cancer is suggested. The evidence regarding black tea is less clear, with some indication of a risk of colon or rectal cancer associated with regular use of black tea. The studies on tea and lung cancer also suggest an increased risk with increased tea consumption. The range and crude categorization of tea consumption, choice of control groups, and inadequate control for confounding might have obscured possible relationships. From the limited studies that suggest a favorable effect from tea, it is likely that benefits are restricted to high intakes in high-risk populations.

  16. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health. (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa


    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.

  17. Monogenean infestations and mortality in wild and cultured Red Sea fishes (United States)

    Paperna, I.; Diamant, A.; Overstreet, R. M.


    Hyperinfection by the gill-infesting monogenean Allobivagina sp. (Microcotylea) caused mass mortalities in juveniles of Siganus luridus cultured in seawater earthen ponds and holding tanks in Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea). Other species of Siganus and adults of S. luridus cultured in the same systems acquired a low intensity of infestation. Most hyperinfected fish were emaciated and anaemic with hematocrit values below 10 %. Skin and mouth infestations by the monogenean Benedenia monticelli (Capsaloidea) caused mass mortalities in grey mullets (Mugilidae). These mortalities occurred in large individuals in wild populations of Liza carinata from lagoonal habitats in the Gulf of Suez and in most species of grey mullets cultured in Eilat. The intensity of infestation correlated positively with severity of infestation, and the common sites of infestation corresponded with areas of severe pathological alterations. Spontaneous recovery followed the climax of an epizootic, both for infested S. luridus and infested grey mullets. Decline in infestation coincided with remission of the pathological signs.

  18. Stability of green tea catechins in commercial tea leaves during storage for 6 months. (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, C E; Lee, S-U; Kozukue, N


    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea products, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea ingredients, we determined by HPLC 7 catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-catechin (C), (+)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), (-)-gallocatechin 3-gallate (GCG), (-)-epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG), and (-)-catechin 3-gallate (CG)] in samples of 8 commercial green tea leaves of unknown history sold as tea bags in the United States, Korea, and Japan. The samples were stored at 20 degrees C and sampled at 1 wk and 1, 2, 4, and 6 mo. The following ranges in the initial values (0 controls) were observed (in mg/g tea leaves): EGC and C, 0 to trace amounts; EC, 1.9 to 21.1; EGCG, 13.3 to 113.0; GCG, 0.2 to 1.6; ECG, 5.7 to 50.5; CG 0.5 to 3.7; total catechins 36.5 to 169.7. Statistical analysis of the results and plots of changes in individual and total catechin levels as a function of storage time indicate a progressive decrease in the content in the total levels, most of which is due to losses in the most abundant catechins, EGCG and ECG. Possible mechanisms of degradations of catechins during storage and the possible significance of the results to consumers of tea are discussed.

  19. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition* (United States)

    Fan, Dong-mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-ping; Lu, Ya-ting; Wang, Xiao-chang


    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols. PMID:28124839

  20. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition. (United States)

    Fan, Dong-Mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-Ping; Lu, Ya-Ting; Wang, Xiao-Chang

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols.

  1. Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure (United States)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common ingredient found in blended herbal teas, and beverages made from the dried calyces of this plant are popular worldwide. In vitro studies have shown that H. sabdariffa has antioxidant properties and, in animal models of hypertension, extracts of this plant lower blood ...

  2. Caffeine Content of Tea and Coffee

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 13, 1974 ... The xanthines (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) occur in plants widely distributed throughout the world. Best known for the preparation of beverages are coffee beans which contain caffeine, tea leaves which contain caffeine and theophylline, and cocoa seeds which contain caffeine and ...

  3. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activity of Green Tea Polyphenols ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity is one of the most popular approaches for treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and others. In the present study, we evaluated inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by different concentrations of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) extract using ...

  4. Understanding Kombucha Tea Fermentation: A Review. (United States)

    Villarreal-Soto, Silvia Alejandra; Beaufort, Sandra; Bouajila, Jalloul; Souchard, Jean-Pierre; Taillandier, Patricia


    Kombucha is a beverage of probable Manchurian origins obtained from fermented tea by a microbial consortium composed of several bacteria and yeasts. This mixed consortium forms a powerful symbiosis capable of inhibiting the growth of potentially contaminating bacteria. The fermentation process also leads to the formation of a polymeric cellulose pellicle due to the activity of certain strains of Acetobacter sp. The tea fermentation process by the microbial consortium was able to show an increase in certain biological activities which have been already studied; however, little information is available on the characterization of its active components and their evolution during fermentation. Studies have also reported that the use of infusions from other plants may be a promising alternative. Kombucha is a traditional fermented tea whose consumption has increased in the recent years due to its multiple functional properties such as anti-inflammatory potential and antioxidant activity. The microbiological composition of this beverage is quite complex and still more research is needed in order to fully understand its behavior. This study comprises the chemical and microbiological composition of the tea and the main factors that may affect its production. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Kubo, M. Kenya; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Nomura, Kiyoshi


    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  6. Insect pests of tea and their management. (United States)

    Hazarika, Lakshmi K; Bhuyan, Mantu; Hazarika, Budhindra N


    Globally, 1031 species of arthropods are associated with the intensively managed tea Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze monoculture. All parts of the plant, leaf, stem, root, flower, and seed, are fed upon by at least one pest species, resulting in an 11%-55% loss in yield if left unchecked. There has been heavy use of organosynthetic pesticides since the 1950s to defend the plant against these pests, leading to rapid conversion of innocuous species into pests, development of resistance, and undesirable pesticide residues in made tea. As a result of importer and consumer concerns, pesticide residues have become a major problem for the tea industry. Integrated pest management (IPM) may help to overcome the overuse of pesticides and subsequent residues. We review the advances made in our understanding of the biology and ecology of major insect and mite pests of tea, host plant resistance, cultural practices, biocontrol measures, and need-based application of botanicals and safer pesticides to understand the present status of IPM and to identify future challenges to improvement.

  7. Different clinical allergological features of Taenia solium infestation. (United States)

    Minciullo, Paola Lucia; Cascio, Antonio; Isola, Stefania; Gangemi, Sebastiano


    The tapeworm Taenia ( T. ) solium can be responsible for two different conditions: taeniasis and cysticercosis. Helminth infections in human host cause an immune response associated with elevated levels of IgE, tissue eosinophilia and mastocytosis, and with the presence of CD4+ T cells that preferentially produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Individuals exposed to helminth infections may have allergic inflammatory responses to parasites and parasite antigens. PubMed search of human cases of allergic reactions occurring during T. solium infestation was performed combining the terms (allergy, urticaria, angioedema, asthma, anaphylaxis) with T. solium . A study was considered eligible for inclusion in the review if it reported data on patients with T. solium infestation who had signs or symptoms of allergy. In literature we found six articles reporting the association between an allergic reaction and T. solium infestation: two cases of urticaria, two cases of relapsing angioedema, one case of asthma and two cases of anaphylaxis. Despite the large diffusion of T. solium infestation, we found only a few cases of concomitant allergic reaction and the presence of Taenia in the host. The association between T. solium infestation and allergic manifestations has never been clearly demonstrated, and in absence of a well-documented causality the hypotheses are merely speculative. Therefore, the association between Taenia infection and allergy needs to be thoroughly studied to better clarify if this association may really exist and which is the pathogenetic mechanism supported.

  8. A Community-Based Surveillance on Determinants of Rodent Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Hua Pai


    Full Text Available Rodent infestation is an important factor in the transmission of infectious diseases of public health importance. From October to November 1998, surveillance stations were established in 110 boroughs of Kaohsiung City in southern Taiwan. Boroughs were chosen by random sampling 10 boroughs from each of 11 districts (464 boroughs in the city. The extent of rodent infestation was determined by cage trapping. The possibility of applying a community-based control program was evaluated by investigating associated demographic and environmental factors as well as related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. A total of 90 rodents were trapped in 41% of the 110 boroughs. Using univariate analyses, 17 factors were significantly associated with rodent infestation. A lack of knowledge that rodent control relies on community cooperation was the most important factor among the seven variables associated with the extent of rodent infestation (OR 3.1 by logistic multiple regression. This revealed the importance of community cooperation in controlling rodent infestation. Moreover, improvement of environmental hygiene associated with garbage problems, such as cleanliness of storage rooms and closets, and the hygiene of empty space and resource recycling stations should not be ignored.

  9. Residue pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during green tea manufacturing and their transfer rates during tea brewing. (United States)

    Gao, Guanwei; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Pingxiang; Hao, Zhenxia; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Wang, Chen; Lu, Chengyin


    Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in green tea and tea infusion were determined using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their dissipation pattern during green tea processing and infusion. Concentration and evaporation of PAHs during tea processing were the key factors affecting PAH residue content in product intermediates and in green tea. PAH residues in tea leaves increased by 2.4-3.1 times during the manufacture of green tea using the electric heating model. After correction to dry weight, PAH residue concentrations decreased by 33.5-48.4% during green tea processing because of PAH evaporation. Moreover, spreading and drying reduced PAH concentrations. The transfer rates of PAH residues from green tea to infusion varied from 4.6% to 7.2%, and PAH leaching was higher in the first infusion than in the second infusion. These results are useful for assessing exposure to PAHs from green tea and in formulating controls for the maximum residue level of PAHs in green tea.

  10. Production of mycotoxins on artificially and naturally infested building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Gravesen, S.; Nielsen, P.A.


    , especially Asp. ustus and Asp. niger produced many unknown secondary metabolites on the building materials. Analyses of wallpaper and glass-fibre wallpaper naturally infested with Asp. versicolor revealed sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin. Analyses of naturally infested wallpaper showed that C......In this study, the ability to produce mycotoxins during growth on artificially infested building materials was investigated for Penicillium chrysogenum, Pen. polonicum, Pen. brevicompactum, Chaetomium spp., Aspergillus ustus, Asp. niger, Ulocladium spp., Alternaria spp., and Paecilomyces spp., all...... isolated from water-damaged building materials. Spores from the different isolates of the above mentioned species were inoculated on gypsum board with and without wallpaper and on chipboard with and without wallpaper. Fungal material was scraped off the materials, extracted, and analyzed using high...

  11. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.


    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224

  12. Parasite infestation increases on coral reefs without cleaner fish (United States)

    Grutter, A. S.; De Brauwer, M.; Bshary, R.; Cheney, K. L.; Cribb, T. H.; Madin, E. M. P.; McClure, E. C.; Meekan, M. G.; Sun, D.; Warner, R. R.; Werminghausen, J.; Sikkel, P. C.


    Mutualisms are pivotal in shaping ecological communities. Iconic images of cleaner fish entering the mouths of predatory fish clients to remove ectoparasites epitomize their mutual benefit. Experimental manipulations of cleaner wrasse reveal declines in fish size and growth, and population abundance and diversity of client fishes in the absence of cleaner wrasse. Fishes grow more slowly and are less abundant and diverse on reefs without cleaner wrasse, both for larger species that are regularly cleaned and have high ectoparasite loads ("attractive species"), and for those smaller species that are rarely cleaned and are rarely infested with parasites ("unattractive species"). We therefore considered whether these previously observed declines in individual and population parameters on reefs without cleaners were related to increased ectoparasite infestation using an attractive species ( Hemigymnus melapterus, Labridae) and an unattractive species ( Pomacentrus amboinensis, Pomacentridae). Traps with these fish as a form of bait were deployed to sample blood-sucking gnathiid ectoparasites (Gnathiidae: Isopoda) on reefs from which cleaners ( Labroides dimidiatus, Labridae) have been removed for 13 yr. Cleaner fish could not enter traps to access the clients/hosts, but gnathiids could enter the traps to infest hosts; thus, this method sampled the indirect effect of cleaners on gnathiid infestation of fish. Infestation was higher on reefs without cleaners than on those with them. The effect was only detected during the daytime when cleaners are active and only on the attractive species ( H. melapterus). Thus, cleaner presence indirectly reduced fish exposure to parasites in a species that is highly susceptible to parasites, but not in one that is rarely infested with parasites. This suggests that cleaner presence indirectly reduces exposure of a common fish species to harmful parasites, which may explain some observed benefits in fishes at this location.

  13. Isolation of Cronobacter sakazakii from different herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija M.


    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii is an emerging food-borne pathogen that has increasingly raised interest among the whole public community and food industry, especially in the production of powder infant formula. It has been isolated from water, sediment and soil. The question is whether this pathogen can be present in herbal teas. Herbal teas are widely used for great number of health problems, as an additional or sometimes only “medicine” given. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of C. sakazakii in herbal teas which are traditionally used for all restricted populations, including newborns and immunocompromised infant and adults. Methods. In this study 150 samples of dried herbal teas were tested: Children (Baby tea (11, Althaea officinalis (7, Sennae folium (4, Mentha piperita (8, Hypericum perforatum (3, Thymus serpyllum (5, Matricaria recutita (6, Fruit tea (18, Black, Green and Rooibos tea (11, Salvia officinalis (9, Arctostaphylos uva ursi (5, Urtica dioica (3, Achillea millefolium (2, Melissa officinalis (4, Cynosbati fructus (3, Flower Herbal tea (3 and 17 different mixtures of tea (48 samples. The presence of C. sakazakii was also investigated in previously positive samples of prepared teas (48 samples after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. C. sakazakii was isolated by the use of the official method ISO TS 22964 : 2006 and confirmed with the biochemical test API 20E (Biomerieux-France. Results. The obtained results showed that C. sakazakii was isolated from 48 (32% samples dried herbal teas. C. sakazakii was not isolated only from 2 (4% of the 48 tested samples of prepared tea and in 46 (96% of the samples C. sakazakii remained viable after 2 h, 12 h and 24 h. Conclusion. Herbal teas should be carefully used, especially for infants and immunocompromited people with severe chronic diseases because of the possibility of infection by C. sakazakii. Better control and improve testing as well as new facts about

  14. Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas. (United States)

    Wani, Z A; Allaie, I M; Shah, B M; Raies, A; Athar, H; Junaid, S


    The present study pertains to the Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs infested with fleas. Twenty dogs were presented to the Divison of Surgery, SKUAST-K for different surgical procedures. Majority of the dogs had a history of pruritus, loss of weight as well as rubbing their perineal region against the wall. On external examination dogs were found infested with Ctenocephalides canis. When dogs were anesthetized, motile segments were seen coming out of their anus, which were then identified as mature segments of D. caninum.

  15. Transfer of ochratoxin A from raw black tea to tea infusions prepared according to the Turkish tradition. (United States)

    Toman, Jakub; Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Kilic, Mehmet Akif; Roubal, Tomas; Grosse, Yann; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie


    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a natural contaminant of food including tea with multiple toxic effects, which poses a threat to human health. In terms of lifestyle, the Turkish population is a frequent visitor of tearooms, and the traditional Turkish tea preparation is one of the most popular ways of preparing tea infusion. The aim of this study was to investigate OTA transfer from raw black tea to the tea infusion prepared according to the Turkish tradition. A high-performance liquid chromatography method with a limit of quantification of 0.35 ng g -1 was used for OTA determination. The OTA amount in raw black teas from Turkey ranged from ≤0.35 ng g -1 up to 56.7 ng g -1 . An homogenised sample of black tea naturally contaminated with 55.0 ng g -1 was used to prepare infusions. The OTA transfer from the black tea to the infusion was found to be 41.5% ± 7%. These data are important for the realisation of a 'Total Diet study' (TDS). The TDS can be a complementary tool to estimate the population dietary exposure to OTA across the entire diet by analysing main foods prepared 'as consumed' (tea infusions) and not 'as purchased' (raw tea). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Comparison of Catechins and Antioxidant Activity in Four kinds of Sichuan tea (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Chen, Shengxiang; Zhu, Mingzhu; Meng, Xueli


    Absract:Catechins of the nine representative teas produced in Sichuan, which belonged to green tea, yellow tea, dark tea and black tea, were determined by UHPLC. Their antioxidant activity was determined by the hydroxyl radical scavenging. The results showed that: the total amount of their catechins was between 0.45(Qingzhuan) ˜ 121.21 mg/g (Mengding ganlu), and the order for theirs was green tea > yellow tea > dark tea (black tea); except Qingzhuan, their EGCG contents were between 1.07 ± 0.01 (Chuanhong gongfu) ˜ 76.16 ±0.43 mg/g (Mengding ganlu), and the order for theirs was green tea > yellow tea> dark tea (black tea); EGCG3“Me, which only remained in green and yellow tea, their contents were between 0.05±0.02 (Mengding Huangya) ˜ 0.39±0.04 mg/g (Mengding ganlu); their hydroxyl radical scavenging was between 48.37±0.20 (Fuzhuan) ˜75.51±0.63% (Mengding Huangya) and their IC50 was between 3.31±0.028 ˜5.18±0.012 mg/mL, the order for their clear rates was yellow tea> green tea> dark tea (black tea). Mengding Huangya showed the highest antioxidant activity in sichuan tea.

  17. Polyphenolic chemistry of tea and coffee: a century of progress. (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang


    Tea and coffee, the most popular beverages in the world, have been consumed for thousands of years for their alluring flavors and health benefits. Polyphenols, particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids, are of great abundance in tea and coffee and contribute a lot to their flavor and health properties. This paper reviews the polyphenol chemistry of tea and coffee, specifically their stability, and scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). During the manufacturing and brewing process, green tea and black tea polyphenols undergo epimerization and oxidation, respectively. Meanwhile, the lactonization and the polymerization of chlorogenic acid are the major causes for the degradation of polyphenols in coffee. Tea catechins, besides having antioxidant properties, have the novel characteristic of trapping reactive carbonyl species. The A ring of the catechins is the binding site for RCS trapping, whereas the B ring is the preferred site for antioxidation.

  18. Antioxidant activity of polyphenols from green and toasted mate tea. (United States)

    Coentrão, Patricia de Abreu Marques; Teixeira, Valéria Laneuville; Netto, Annibal Duarte Pereira


    The production and distribution of toasted mate tea in Brazil has increased, which has resulted in its greater consumption. Mate tea is obtained by roasting non-fermented erva-mate in order to produce toasted erva-mate or toasted mate tea. However, although the product is much appreciated, studies of its chemical composition and the concentration of polyphenols, particularly flavonols present in toasted mate tea, are few and often controversial. This paper elucidates some misunderstandings involving the nomenclature of erva-mate and toasted mate, and mainly provides an overview of the composition of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of toasted mate tea and its raw material, erva-mate, in comparison with other teas, the compositions of which were found in the literature.

  19. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ying Huang


    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  20. Chernobyl radioactivity in Turkish tea and its possible health consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goekmen, I.G.; Birguel, O.; Kence, A.


    The dose estimates from the tea consumption was done following a different approach than previous studies. Instead of using the radioactivity data obtained by measuring only limited number of contaminated tea samples in our laboratories, the data reported by the Turkish Atomic Energy Agency Authority covering all the tea product of 1986 were used for dose estimates. In addition the collective effective dose equivalent in Turkey was estimated. Although in this study contamination only in one product, namely tea, was discussed, it turned out to be important as it was consumed by large populations in Turkey so contributed to the doses significantly. Precautions to be taken were summarized, one simple precaution 'rinsing of tea before brewing' was sufficient to remove half of the contamination from tea without any drawbacks. (author). 19 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. An interesting case of opium tea toxicity. (United States)

    Seyani, Chitsa; Green, Peregrine; Daniel, Lisa; Pegden, Amanda


    We present an unusual cause of respiratory arrest resulting from sole ingestion of home-brewed opium tea. A 64-year-old woman was found unresponsive and in respiratory arrest by a first responder. There were no obvious signs of regular recreational drug use. On presentation to the local district general hospital, the patient was in extremis, with severe physiological and biochemical derangements. A naloxone infusion was commenced and she later made a good recovery. It was subsequently discovered that she had brewed opium tea from opium buds she had picked from a nearby commercial poppy farm, a practice she had learnt while in Afghanistan. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Sorption of lead from aqueous solutions by spent tea leaf | Yoshita ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pb) from solution. The Pb removal by the spent tea leaf adsorbent depended on pretreatment of spent tea leaf, adsorption contact time and adsorbent dosage. The optimum pretreatment conditions were confirmed to be that tea leaf was ground ...

  3. Performance Assessment of Communication Enhancement Devices TEA HI Threat Headset (United States)


    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0076 Performance Assessment of Communication Enhancement Devices: TEA HI Threat Headset Hilary L. Gallagher...of Communication Enhancement Devices: TEA HI Threat Headset 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14-D-6501 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT in military applications. Objective performance data provided an assessment of the performance of these devices. The TEA HI Threat headset

  4. Green Tea Modulation of Obesity and Breast Cancer Risk (United States)


    tea on weight reduction in obese Thais : A randomized, controlled trial. Physiology & behavior 2008; 93(3):486-491. 4. Nagao T, Meguro S, Hase T...1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0013 TITLE: Green Tea Modulation of Obesity...2013 2. REPORT TYPE Annual Summary 3. DATES COVERED 1 March 2012 – l 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Green Tea Modulation of Obesity and Breast Cancer Risk

  5. [Development of cough-relieving herbal teas]. (United States)

    Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Vytautas


    Cough-relieving medicinal herbs in tea are used from ancient times. Mucilage present in them or secretion produced under the influence of the active substances covers the oral and throat mucosa soothing its irritability and relieving dry, tiresome cough. It is known that the mixtures of medicinal herbs (Specias) have a complex influence on the human organism and the rational combination of medicinal herbs can improve their curative action and decrease the undesirable side effects. Having summarized the properties of those medicinal herbs we decided to create two formulations of cough-relieving herbal tea. The first formulation consists of marshmallow roots, liquorice roots and lime flowers, the second -- of marshmallow roots, Iceland moss and lime flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances in the compounds were applied. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. The expiry date of both cough-relieving herbal teas was approved to be 2 years.

  6. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.


    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  7. A comparative study on infestation of three varieties of maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to study the infestation of three maize varieties (Maize suwan I–Y, Maize T2 USR – White single cross and Maize suwan 123) by Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Infestation was assessed by counting the numbers of alive and dead adults and the number of infested and uninfested seeds. It was found out ...

  8. 9 CFR 72.12 - Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle; exposure to tick infestation... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.12 Cattle; exposure to tick infestation after treatment or inspection prohibited. The cattle shall not be exposed to tick infestation...

  9. Survey of Hard Ticks (Ixodidae) Infesting Camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the prevalence and abundance of hard ticks infesting camels, 414 nomadic one - humped camels in Kano State, northwestern Nigeria were selected by random sampling and examined for the presence of ticks on their bodies between January and December 2007. Three species of ticks, Amblyomma ...

  10. Rabbit management and occurrences of mange mite infestations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality between September and December 2015 to explore the rabbit farming and assess the common health problems with a focus on epidemiology of mange infestation. A total of 18 rabbit farms with 622 animals from 9 wards were investigated. A questionnaire ...

  11. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  12. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Giorda


    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  13. Effects of insecticide spray application on insect pest infestation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were conducted during the 2008 - 2009 cropping season to determine the minimal insecticide application which can reduce cowpea yield losses on the field due to insect pest infestations in the Transkei region of South Africa. Treatments consisted of five cowpea varieties and four regimes of insecticide spray ...

  14. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the beetle Agrilus nubeculosus and gum arabic production by Acacia senegal. Some trees were tapped and left open to facilitate infestation by A. nubeculosus and others were covered with wire mesh as control. Gum yield, physical and chemical properties of ...

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation in HIV seropositive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opportunistic parasites such as Cryptosporidium,. Cyclospora and Isospora species. It is also important to note that this report will be the first documentation on HIV/AIDS and intestinal parasites from this center. And it aims to determine the frequency and pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation, including protozoan species ...

  16. Coping with the gypsy moth on new frontiers of infestation (United States)

    David A. Gansner; Owen W. Herrick; Garland N. Mason; Kurt W. Gottschalk


    Forest managers on new frontiers of infestation are searching for better ways to cope with the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). Presented herea are information and guidelines for remedial action to minimize future losses. Methods for assessing potential stand defoliation (susceptibility) and mortality (vulnerability), monitoring insect populations, and...

  17. Armillifer armillatus infestation in Human; public health scenario of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report cases of Armillifer Armillatus infestation in three Nigerian adults within two and half years in our health facility. The first patient was a 70 year old farmer and a regular consumer of snake meat for over 50 years. He presented in February, 2014 for follow-up visit as he was a known systemic hypertensive patient.

  18. Charring does not affect wood infestation by subterranean termites (United States)

    C.J. Peterson; P.D. Gerard; T.L. Wagner


    Fire is an important part of forest ecosystems, as is the insect fauna. Changes in wood brought aboutby fire may alter the ability of termites to use the wood, interrupting the decay cycle of woody debris.The ability of termites to find, infest, and feed upon wood after it had been charred was evaluated in

  19. A case report of Dermanyssus gallinae infestation in three cats. (United States)

    Di Palma, Antonella; Leone, Federico; Albanese, Francesco; Beccati, Massimo


    Dermanyssus gallinae is a major threat for the poultry industry; these mites also feed on the blood of many other birds, small mammals and potentially humans. Three cats with dermatitis attributed to D. gallinae infestation. Two 40-day-old kittens, living in a rural area, and one 7-year-old female indoor cat, were presented with a pruritic skin condition. Mite specimens were collected from the cats and examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Cytological and histological examinations of the skin lesions were performed. A diagnosis of D. gallinae infestation was made after identification of the mites. Histological findings were compatible with eosinophilic dermatitis. Clinical improvement was noted two weeks after treatment. The two kittens showed chronic blood loss which reflects the ability of D. gallinae mites to switch host. For the indoor cat, mites were presumed to be carried by birds regularly present on the balcony of the apartment. This demonstrates that mite infestation is possible even in urban areas, through contact with birds or their abandoned nests. When birds are not present, cats or other small mammals as well as humans, can be infested. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming? (United States)

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  1. The antiplaque efficacy of white tea extract mouthrinse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipika Kalyan Mitra


    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to assess the antiplaque efficacy of a mouthwash containing white tea. It also assessed the antibacterial properties of white tea against Prevotella intermedia (Pi, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa in vitro. Materials and Methods: Forty-five subjects with healthy periodontium were randomly chosen and were divided into three groups and advised to use mouthwashes A, B, and C (Group A, white tea; Group B, distilled water [placebo]; Group C, chlorhexidine for 4 days. They were advised to refrain from any kind of mechanical oral hygiene techniques. Plaque index (PI was checked on day 1 and 5. In vitro testing for against Pi, Pg, and Aa against white tea extract was undertaken. Results: PI significantly increased from day 1 to day 5 (P < 0.01 in Groups A, B, and C. In inter-group comparison, there was a statistical significant difference between white tea mouthrinse group and placebo group, chlorhexidine group and placebo group and also chlorhexidine group and white tea mouthrinse group. However, chlohexidine showed superior antiplaque activity. In vitro test, white tea showed effective inhibition against all three bacterial strains Pi, Pg, and Aa at 1% concentration. Conclusion: White tea mouthrinse potently inhibits plaque formation although not as comparable to chlorhexidine mouthrinse. Hence, for those preferring herbal products, white tea mouthrinse is a good option.

  2. Effects of an Intensive Resistant Training Sessions and Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeil Afzalpour


    Full Text Available Background: Intensive and acute exercise trainings may induce oxidative stress, but antioxidant supplements may attenuate its degenerative consequences. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of green tea supplementation on the oxidative stress indices after an intensive resistance training session. Materials and Methods: 40 non-athletes (without regular physical activity women were randomly divided into 4 equal (n=10 groups including green tea supplementation, green tea supplementation plus resistance training, resistance training, and control groups. After supplementation period (600 mg/day, 14 days, resistance training and green tea supplementation plus resistance training groups performed an intensive resistance training session at 75-85 % of one repetition maximum. The malondialdehyde and total thiol were measured as oxidative stress indices. Data were analyzed by using of repeated measure ANOVA and LSD tests at p<0.056T. Results: Results showed that after 14 days of green tea consumption, malondialdehyde significantly decreased in green tea supplementation (p=0.03 and green tea supplementation plus resistance training (p=0.01 groups, while total thiol increased significantly (p=0.01 in two green tea supplementation groups. However, an intensive resistance training session increased malondialdehyde (p=0.01 without any significantly changes in total thiol (p=0.426T. Conclusion: It seems that green tea supplementation can inhibit exercise-induced protein and lipid oxidation in non-athletes women via enhancement of antioxidant defense system of the body6T.6T

  3. Commercialized non-Camellia tea: traditional function and molecular identification

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    Ping Long


    Full Text Available Non-Camellia tea is a part of the colorful Chinese tea culture, and is also widely used as beverage and medicine in folk for disease prevention and treatment. In this study, 37 samples were collected, including 33 kinds of non-Camellia teas and 4 kinds of teas (Camellia. Traditional functions of non-Camellia teas were investigated. Furthermore, non-Camellia teas of original plants were characterized and identified by molecular methods. Four candidate regions (rbcL, matK, ITS2, psbA-trnH were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. In addition, DNA barcodes were used for the first time to discriminate the commercial non-Camellia tea and their adulterants, and to evaluate their safety. This study showed that BLASTN and the relevant phylogenetic tree are efficient tools for identification of the commercial non-Camellia tea and their adulterants. However, some sequences from original plants have not been found and there is a limitation of sequence number of original plants in GenBank. Submitting more original plant sequences to the GenBank will be helpful for evaluating the safety of non-Camellia teas.

  4. Spectroscopic Study of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Leaves Extraction (United States)

    Marzuki, A.; Suryanti, V.; Virgynia, A.


    This paper reports the analysis of UV-VIS-NIR absorption spectra of different concentrations of green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf extract in two different solvent systems (chloroform and ethyl acetate). In those solvents, two different peaks characterizing green tea are observed at different wavelengths, namely 296 nm and 329 nm (extracted in chloroform) and 391 nm and 534 nm (extracted in ethyl acetate). We then investigated the absorption spectra change as function of green tea concentration in both solvents. We found that light absorption increases linearly with the increase of green tea concentration. Different wavelengths, however, respond this change differently. However, the way it changes is wavelength dependence.

  5. Heavy Metal Concentration in Black Tea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Yousefi


    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Tea is one of the most important beverages that consumes in several parts of the world including Iran. Tea plant can be contaminated during manufacturing processes and growth period by pollutants such as heavy metals. In this study, the concentration of some heavy metals in different brands of both Iranian and imported black tea to Iran was investigated to survey the human exposure to such pollutants. Materials & Methods: The study was carried out on different brands of black tea that most widely consume in Iran. The samples were collected from available supermarkets in Tehran city and concentrations of Mn, Cd and Cu were determined in black tea, using ICP-OES. Finally obtained results, by one way ANOVA analysis, compared to maximum contaminant concentration which is determined by WHO. Results: Results showed that concentrations of measured heavy metals in sampled black tea were different according to the brand of tea. The mean of Mn, Cu and Cd elements in all tea samples were 664.78, 26.15 and 0.194 µg/g, respectively. Generally, Cu content in studied samples was not significantly above WHO but Cd content, in some cases, was significantly higher than WHO. The guideline value is not given by WHO for Mn content of tea. Conclusions: According to the obtained results, Cd content is exceeding than WHO standards, therefore, control of Cd, as a toxic element that can accumulate in living systems, is necessary.

  6. Role of chlorophylls, amino acids and sugars in tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dev Choudhury, M.N.


    Plucked tea shoots from clones of different varieties of tea were withered, rolled, fermented and fired by CTC and orthodox methods of manufacture. Quantitative changes in the levels of chlorophylls, amino acids and water soluble sugars during different stages of processing of tea and also changes in the contents of their degradation products were studied by feeding 14 C-labelled phenylalanine, glucose, sodium carbonate and sodium propionate to the excised shoots and subsequently analysing the products. Results are discussed and suggestions have been made about adjusting the conditions of manufacture so that the teas with desired chemical constituents are produced. (M.G.B.)

  7. Scale and causes of lead contamination in Chinese tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wenyan; Zhao Fangjie; Shi Yuanzhi; Ma Lifeng; Ruan Jianyun


    We investigated the scale and causes of Pb contamination in Chinese tea. Lead concentrations in 1225 tea samples collected nationally between 1999 and 2001 varied from -1 dry weight (DW), with 32% of the samples exceeding the national maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of 2.0 mg kg -1 DW and a significant difference between tea types. There was an increasing trend in tea Pb concentration from 1989 to 2000. Proximity to highway and surface dust contamination were found to cause elevated Pb concentrations in tea leaves. Furthermore, Pb concentration in tea leaves correlated significantly and positively with soil extractable Pb, and negatively with soil pH, suggesting that root uptake of Pb from soils also contributed to Pb accumulation in tea. Potential contributions to human Pb intake from drinking tea were small at the median or national MPC Pb values, but considerable at the highest concentration found in the study. - 32% of Chinese tea samples exceeded the national maximum permissible concentration for Pb

  8. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags. (United States)

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab


    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  9. Does hair coat length affect flea infestation in naturally infested dogs? (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme Araujo Collares da; Lins, Luciana Araujo; Irala, Márcio Josué Costa; Cárcamo, Marcial Corrêa; Ribeiro, Paulo Bretanha


    The Siphonaptera are parasitic insects of endothermic animals and Ctenocephalides felis and Pulex irritans are important parasites of dogs. This study evaluated the effect of hair coat length and time of year on the population size of C. felis and P. irritans in naturally infested dogs. Fleas were collected from 14 dogs on a monthly basis for a year (February 2015 to January 2016) at a rural property in Bagé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The dogs were divided into two groups based on hair coat length: short coat (coat length coat (coat length > 5.0 cm, n= 7). In total, 2057 fleas were collected, 1541 of which were C. felis (74.91%) and 516 were P. irritans (25.08%). The number of C. felis and P. irritans individuals was significantly affected by hair coat length and time of year. The variation in flea numbers over the study months was higher in long-coated than in short-coated dogs for the two flea species and flea numbers increased with increasing mean monthly temperatures. The results provide a better understanding of behavioral aspects of flea communities in dogs and may help develop control strategies targeting these parasites.

  10. Intestinal parasitic infestations in children living in Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korzeniewski


    Full Text Available Background. Intestinal parasitic infestations pose one of the biggest health problems of the contemporary world. Objectives. The aim of this article was to present the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children living in a large urban agglomeration. Material and methods . 1823 children (916 girls and 907 boys, aged 3–6, attending 31 different pre-schools in Warsaw, were examined in 2014. Stool specimens were tested in the Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine of the Military Institute of Medicine by light microscopy using three different diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation with distilled water, Fülleborn’s flotation. The material for testing, fixed in 10% formalin, was collected three times at 2–3-day intervals. Results . Parasitological examination of the stool specimens showed intestinal parasitic infestations in 47 children (2.57% of the study group. Only 7 children were infested with pathogenic parasites (6 cases of giardiasis and 1 enterobiasis and required antiparasitic treatment. 17 children were infested with potentially pathogenic protozoa (Blasocystis sp. and 26 with non-pathogenic protozoa ( Entamoeba coli , Endolimax nanai , but because of lack of gastrointestinal symptoms (asymptomatic carriage they did not require a treatment. Conclusions . Performed examination show low infection rates among children from a large urban agglomeration. In the absence of epidemiological surveillance over the prevalence of the majority of intestinal parasitic diseases in Poland, and because some diagnostic centres generate positive test results using valueless methods, the propagation of parasitological diagnostics in light microscopy in direction of prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestations, especially among patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, is strongly recommended.

  11. Exploratory analysis of coupling development strategy of tea culture and psychological traveling — Taking Wuzhou Liupao Tea as an example


    Feng Yi


    Psychological travel is a new-type travel mode with wide applicability. From aspect of cultural connotation, tea culture is naturally related to psychological travel. The coupling of these two has generated “tea-culture” psychological travel product which can fit current social trend. Based on reference from literatures and materials, this thesis conducted field investigation and interviews for study. It illustrates the preconditions for the coupling of tea culture and psychological travel; a...

  12. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics. (United States)

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan


    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  13. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Zioła-Frankowska


    Full Text Available The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  14. In vitro activity of 23 tea extractions and epigallocatechin gallate against Candida species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ming; Zhai, Lin; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling


    In this study, we investigate the susceptibility of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus fumigatus using the EUCAST microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method (final tea supernatant concentration range 5.......0-0.005 mg/ml) to 23 different teas and tea catechins including epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) isolated from green tea. All teas exhibited potent in vitro antifungal activity against C. glabrata. Six out of nine green teas and three of eight black teas had an MIC of 0.078 mg/ml, one white tea had an MIC...... of 0.156 mg/ml, and finally three of five oolong teas had an MIC of 0.156 mg/ml. Three teas exhibited activity against C. albicans (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), one green tea was active against C. parapsilosis (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), but none were effective against C. krusei, C. tropicalis or A. fumigatus...

  15. Green Nanotechnology from Tea: Phytochemicals in Tea as Building Blocks for Production of Biocompatible Gold Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Nune, Satish K; Chanda, Nripen; Shukla, Ravi; Katti, Kavita; Kulkarni, Rajesh R; Thilakavathi, Subramanian; Mekapothula, Swapna; Kannan, Raghuraman; Katti, Kattesh V


    Phytochemicals occluded in tea have been extensively used as dietary supplements and as natural pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various diseases including human cancer. Results on the reduction capabilities of phytochemicals present in tea to reduce gold salts to the corresponding gold nanoparticles are presented in this paper. The phytochemicals present in tea serve the dual roles as effective reducing agents to reduce gold and also as stabilizers to provide robust coating on the gold nanoparticles in a single step. The Tea-generated gold nanoparticles (T-AuNPs), have demonstrated remarkable in vitro stability in various buffers including saline, histidine, HSA, and cysteine solutions. T-AuNPs with phytochemical coatings have shown significant affinity toward prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. Results on the cellular internalization of T-AuNPs through endocytosis into the PC-3 and MCF-7 cells are presented. The generation of T-AuNPs follows all principles of green chemistry and have been found to be non toxic as assessed through MTT assays. No 'man made' chemicals, other than gold salts, are used in this true biogenic green nanotechnological process thus paving excellent opportunities for their applications in molecular imaging and therapy.

  16. Novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Zijuan tea and biosynthetic pathway of caffeoylated catechin in tea plant. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Fu, Xi-Wen; Dai, Xin-Long; Hua, Fang; Chu, Gang-Xiu; Chu, Ming-Jie; Hu, Feng-Lin; Ling, Tie-Jun; Gao, Li-Ping; Xie, Zhong-Wen; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu


    Zijuan tea is a special cultivar of Yunnan broad-leaf tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) with purple buds, leaves, and stems. Phytochemical study on this tea led to the discovery of three hydroxycinnamoylated catechins (HCCs) (1-3), seven other catechins (4-10), three proanthocyanidins (11-13), five flavones and flavone glycosides (14-18), two alkaloids (19, 20), one steroid (21), and one phenylpropanoid glycoside (22). The isolation and structural elucidation of the caffeoylated catechin (1) by means of spectroscopic techniques were described. We also provide the first evidence that 1 is synthesized via a two-step pathway in tea plant. The three HCCs (1-3) were investigated on their bioactivity through molecular modeling simulation and biochemical experiments. Our results show that they bind acetylcholinesterase (AChE) tightly and have strong AChE inhibitory activity with IC 50 value at 2.49, 11.41, 62.26μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbae Oh


    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE and tea pomace extracts (TPE by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD

  18. Consumption of green tea, but not black tea or coffee, is associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeko Noguchi-Shinohara

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine whether the consumption of green tea, coffee, or black tea influences the incidence of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI in older people. We conducted a population-based prospective study with Japanese residents aged >60 years from Nakajima, Japan (the Nakajima Project. Participants received an evaluation of cognitive function and blood tests. The consumption of green tea, coffee, and black tea was also evaluated at baseline. Of 723 participants with normal cognitive function at a baseline survey (2007-2008, 490 completed the follow up survey in 2011-2013. The incidence of dementia during the follow-up period (mean ± SD: 4.9 ± 0.9 years was 5.3%, and that of MCI was 13.1%. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of overall cognitive decline (dementia or MCI was 0.32 (95% CI: 0.16-0.64 among individuals who consumed green tea every day and 0.47 (95% CI: 0.25-0.86 among those who consumed green tea 1-6 days per week compared with individuals who did not consume green tea at all. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio for the incidence of dementia was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.06-1.06 among individuals who consumed green tea every day compared with those who did not consume green tea at all. No association was found between coffee or black tea consumption and the incidence of dementia or MCI. Our results indicate that green tea consumption is significantly associated with reduced risk of cognitive decline, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

  19. Productivity and biochemical properties of green tea in response to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The expression of three homologues of the expansin genes, which regulate plant cell growth, and the CsCHS gene encoding a tea chalcone synthase, which critically regulates the biosynthesis of catechols, were induced in germinal leaves of tea plants following treatment with HpaG1–94 or HpaGXooc. Higher levels of ...

  20. Chronic Tea Consumption Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic Tea Consumption Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats: Some Associated Mechanisms. ... Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences ... In experiment 5, group 9 (kept on NF and indomethacin solution) also had similar BP as group 10 (kept on ... KEY WORDS: Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), rats, tea.

  1. Nanobiotechnology for the production of biofuels from spent tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioenergy is the only alternative and cheap source of energy which can be made easily available to the world. The present experiment included three steps for the conversion of spent tea (Camellia sinensis) into biofuels. In the first step, spent tea was gasified using Co nano catalyst at 300°C and atmospheric pressure.

  2. Tea-drinking habit among new university students: Associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu Chen Tseng


    Full Text Available The habit of drinking tea is highly prevalent in Asian countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tea drinking and to explore the correlated factors on tea drinking among young new students in the university, using a validated self-reported questionnaire. This study was carried out with 5936 new students in a university in Taiwan. It comprised a self-administered structured questionnaire, including items related to personal and medical history, and lifestyle habits, using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ-12. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests were also performed. In total, 2065 (36.1% students were in the tea-drinking group. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed the following factors were significant predictors of tea drinking: postgraduate students (p < 0.001, coffee drinking (p < 0.001, alcohol drinking (p < 0.001, minor mental morbidity (p = 0.009, poorer sleepers (p = 0.037, higher body mass index (p = 0.004, and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (p < 0.001. Our data showed that the tea-drinking habit was correlated with higher body mass index, which was contrary to the findings of a previous study. In clinical practice, perhaps we could consider more tea-drinking-related factors when we suggest tea consumption.

  3. Productivity and biochemical properties of green tea in response to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    either of the elements increased the effects (Liu et al 2006). .... proteins were prepared for use in tea. ... at 4 oC and diluted with tap water immediately before ... classes by the conventional standards (Wang 1981); .... As shown in table 2, the fresh weight of tea-picking units ..... flavonoids in cardiovascular health; Mol. Nutr.

  4. Characterization of Black and Green Tea from Local Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ancuta Socaci


    Full Text Available The leaves from Camellia sinensis are used from ancient times for preparation of tea but also as raw material for different extracts which are used in food industry as well as in pharmaceutical or cosmetic products. Due to the increasing interest in tea health benefits, the aim of the present study was to characterize several brands of green and black tea found on local market, regarding their content in total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively a chromogenic system of NaNO2–Al(NO33–NaOH based method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed through the evaluation of free radical scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The results obtained for the green and black tea samples varied widely, depending on the tea variety. The antioxidant capacity of the analyzed teas ranged between 12.10 and 40.03%RSA, while the total phenolic content was within 2090 and 6080 mg GA/ 100g. The concentrantion in flavonoids was between 9.04 and 15.34 g/100g of tea.

  5. Health Benefits of Theanine in Green Tea: A Review | Liang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theanine is an amide exclusively present in tea and some fungi, and is an important bioactive component of tea. The bioactive effects of theanine include antitumour, anti-diabetic, antihypertensive, anti-stress activities, and the ability to improve cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It also has protective effect on ...

  6. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic activities of tea polyphenols

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial resistance to antibiotics has become an increasing global problem and there is a need to find out novel potent antimicrobial agents with alternative modes of action as accessories to antibiotic therapy. This study investigated the antioxidant, antimicrobial and synergistic properties of tea polyphenols. The tea ...

  7. Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated tea plantation soil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude oil contamination of soil is a major concern for tea industry in Assam, India. Crude oil is a persistent organic contaminant which alters soil physical and biochemical characteristics and makes tea plants more susceptible against crude oil contamination. Therefore, two native bacterial strains designated as AS 03 and ...

  8. Do leaf surface characteristics affect Agrobacterium infection in tea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The host range specificity of Agrobacterium with five tea cultivars and an unrelated species (Artemisia parviflora) having extreme surface characteristics was evaluated in the present study. The degree of Agrobacterium infection in the five cultivars of tea was affected by leaf wetness, micro-morphology and surface chemistry.

  9. Proximate, caffeine and tannin analyses in some brands of tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China, Kenya, India, Srilanka and Mambilla) tea leaves samples sold in Kano markets was conducted. The moisture content was generally high in all the tea samples and ranged from 5.6% in Mambila to 7.5% in India samples. Ash content was ...

  10. Tea and coronary heart disease : protection through estrogenlike activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Witteman, J.C.; Launer, L.J.; Lamberts, S.J.; Pols, H.A.


    Tea drinking appears to be protective against coronary heart disease in a number of epidemiologic studies. It has been suggested that tea flavonols with antioxidative activity, including quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin,1 could account for the favorable effect on cardiovascular health. In the

  11. Herbal antihyperlipidemic formulation of cocoa tea: Preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and characterize a formulation containing an ethanol extract of Camellia ptilophylla leaves (cocoa tea), with a focus on antihyperlipidemic and anti-obesity activities. Methods: An aloe vera–based formulation of an ethanol extract of cocoa tea (C. ptilophylla) was prepared. The formulation was given ...

  12. Trace microanalysis of uranium in Indian tea samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, V.; Prasad, Rajendra


    The microscopic detection of radiation damage in plastic detectors has been used for the microanalysis of uranium contents in tea samples, commercially available in the market. The uranium concentration has been found to vary from 0.007±0.0001 to 0.12±0.001 ppm in various tea leaves. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  13. Radioactive 32P fertilizing experiment in a vegetative tea nursery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmawijaya, M.I.


    To support the Indonesian tea replanting programme, Vegetative Propagation (VP) clonal tea plants of a high-yielding and high-quality variety are prepared. For a quick start of growth in the nursery and eventual good crop, the soils filled into polythene sleeves should have optimum conditions for rooting. The VP nursery manuring recommendation in Indonesia is 135 g N+72 g P 2 O 5 +70 g K 2 O per cubic metre of topsoil. Uptake of phosphorus by young VP tea plants in the nursery was studied by using 32 P-labelled superphosphate. A specific activity of 0.3 mCi/g (11 MBq/g) P 2 O 2 was still detectable 12 weeks after treatment of manuring. The laboratory analytical data proved that the P-fertilizer utilization by young VP tea plant was less than 1%. The best time for P-fertilizer application was the time of planting. It seems that the P uptake in the VP tea nursery starts with the early growth of the tea cutting. To increase the efficiency of P manuring in relation to the slower and lesser phosphate adsorption by the young VP tea plants, the best application is effected at 10 cm depth of soil. Mixing P fertilizers with soil also gives higher uptake of fertilizer P. So tea plants can use phosphate efficiently when placed as close to active roots as possible. (author)

  14. Is ascaridol het contact-allergeen in tea tree oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M.L.A.; Christoffers, W.A.; Blömeke, B.; Coenraads, P.J.


    Tea tree oil is used as a natural remedy, but is also a popular ingredient in household and cosmetic products. Oxidation of tea tree oil may result in degradation products, such as ascaridole, which may cause allergic contact dermatitis. We investigated the prevalence of sensitization to ascaridole,

  15. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere (United States)

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John


    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  16. Supreme matters: tea parties and the activism of restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurzbauer, H.


    An essay on the impact of Tea Parties on the appointment of Supreme Court Justices. According to recently released statistics, one-fifth of all US citizens are Tea Party Supporters: predominately white conservatives convinced of the 'evils' of the Obama administration. Taking their cue from the

  17. Detection of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in German licensed herbal medicinal teas. (United States)

    Schulz, M; Meins, J; Diemert, S; Zagermann-Muncke, P; Goebel, R; Schrenk, D; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M; Abdel-Tawab, M


    Because of the hepatotoxic, mutagenic, and cancerogenic effects of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) recommends not to exceed a daily PA intake of 0.007 µg/kg body weight (0.42 µg/60 kg adult). In a recent study conducted by the BfR, up to 5647 µg PA/kg dried herbal material were detected in tea products marketed as food. The present study aimed at elucidating whether medicinal teas licensed or registered as medicinal products contain PAs as well. One hundred sixty-nine different commercially available medicinal teas, i.e. 19 nettle (Urtica dioica L.), 12 fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), 14 chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), 11 melissa (Melissa officinalis L.) and 4 peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) teas as well as 109 tea mixtures were analyzed for the presence of 23 commercially available PAs. LC/MS was used for the determination of the PAs In general, the total PA contents ranging 0-5668 µg/kg. Thirty percent of the tested single-ingredient tea products and 56.9% of the tested medicinal tea mixtures were found to contain PA concentrations above the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 10 µg/kg. In 11 medicinal teas PA contents >300 µg/kg dry herb were determined thus exceeding the recommended limit for PA intake by BfR. In addition three products of the investigated tea mixtures revealed extremely high PA contents of 4227, 5137, and 5668 µg/kg. Generally, single-ingredient tea products contained much less or even no detectable amounts of PAs when compared to the tea mixtures. PAs in the range between 13 and 1080 µg/kg were also detected in five analyzed aqueous herbal infusions of the medicinal tea mixture products with the highest PA content. Two out of the five investigated herbal infusions exceeded the recommended BfR limit for PA intake. This study demonstrates clearly that also medicinal teas licensed as medicinal products may partly contain high amounts of PAs exceeding current recommendations. For

  18. [Study on processed senna found in health teas]. (United States)

    Takahashi, Mitsuko; Miyazawa, Maki; Sakurai, Katsumi; Watabe, Kenjiro; Kojima, Takashi


    Sennoside A and B were detected in 21 commercial health tea products surveyed in 2000-2007, but there were 8 products in which the leaves could not be identified as senna because the leaves had become discolored. The results of assay of sennoside levels and TLC chromatograms suggested that processed senna had been used in these products. Next, with reference to tea and health tea manufacturing methods, pharmaceutical senna was roasted or wet-processed experimentally. The results indicated that the discolored leaves contained in commercial health tea were most likely derived from senna leaves. Moreover, sennosides in medicinal doses were detected in some processed senna samples, and were determined to have a cathartic action in mice. Based on morphological confirmation and the results of component analysis, including sennoside, the discolored leaves found in commercial health teas were therefore determined to be senna leaves. There may be possible health risks, including diarrhea.

  19. Coffee, tea, and cocoa and risk of stroke. (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C


    Current evidence from experimental studies in animals and humans along with findings from prospective studies indicates beneficial effects of green and black tea as well as chocolate on cardiovascular health, and that tea and chocolate consumption may reduce the risk of stroke. The strongest evidence exists for beneficial effects of tea and cocoa on endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol (tea only), and insulin sensitivity (cocoa only). The majority of prospective studies have reported a weak inverse association between moderate consumption of coffee and risk of stroke. However, there are yet no clear biological mechanisms whereby coffee might provide cardiovascular health benefits. Awaiting the results from further long-term RCTs and prospective studies, moderate consumption of filtered coffee, tea, and dark chocolate seems prudent.

  20. Advanced phytochemical analysis of herbal tea in China. (United States)

    Zhao, J; Deng, J W; Chen, Y W; Li, S P


    Herbal tea is a commonly consumed beverage brewed from the leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, stems and roots of plants species rather than Camellia sinensis L., which has been widely used for health care and diseases prevention for centuries. With the increasing consumption of herbal tea, a number of public health issues e.g., efficacy, safety and quality assurance have attracted concern. However, to date, there is no a review focus on herbal tea. Phytochemical analysis, as a key step to investigate the chemical composition of herbal tea and ensure the quality, is very important. In this review, we summarized and discussed the recent development (2005-2012) in phytochemical analysis of herbal tea commonly used in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Green tea as a source of food antioxidants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Jie

    of green tea catechins and green tea extract were investigated in terms of scavenging efficiency of the food-derived free radicals. The relevant experimental methods were based on electrochemical detection of oxygen consumption, electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, Rancimat test and liposome...... induced by free radicals. Moreover, the combinations of green tea catechins and green tea extract with α-tocopherol were found to exert synergistic antioxidant effects in the heterogeneous systems such as o/w emulsions. Secondly, the ability of green tea catechins to reduce the protein radicals generated...... and proteins. Lipid oxidation as well as the Maillard reactions can affect the quality of foods. An efficient way to retard or inhibit both types of reactions can be achieved by utilizing natural antioxidants, which are normally presumed to be safe when the source is plant material, “Generally Recognized...

  2. Influence of black tea concentrate on kombucha fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.


    Full Text Available Kombucha is cultivated on substrates prepared with different concentrations of black tea and substrate obtained by diluting a substrate with highest concentration of black tea with cold tap water. Qualify of produced beverages is compared with the beverage obtained in traditional fermentation of 1.5 g/L of black tea, sweetened with 70 g/L of sucrose. Inoculation was performed with 10% (v/v of fermentation liquid from previous process, and the fermentation was carried out at 28°C under aerobic conditions, for ten days. Process of fermentation was monitored by following pH, total acids. D-gluconic acid and caffeine content. Beverages obtained in fermentation with diluted black tea concentrate had similar amounts of investigated metabolites compared with traditional one. Use of diluted black tea concentrate as a substrate needs the shorter time for the substrate preparation, which significantly saves energy.

  3. Intercropping System for Protection the Potato Plant from Insect Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby


    Full Text Available The use of intercropping system provides an option for insect control for organic farmers that are limited in their chemical use. Additionally, intercropping systems can be attractive to conventional growers as a cost-effective insect control solution. A study was carried out for two seasons 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to evaluate the effect of intercropping of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. with onion (Allium cepa L. on whitefly (Bemicia tabasi Gennadius and aphids’ Myzus persicae Sulz. and Aphis gossypii Glover infestation in potato fields. Results indicated that intercropping significantly reduced potato plant infestation with whitefly by 42.7, 51.3% while it was 62.69% reduction with aphids during the two successive winter seasons than when potato plants were cultivated alone. Therefore, intercropping could be recommended as a protection method of reducing pest population in the fields.

  4. Delusional infestation with unusual pathogens: a report of three cases. (United States)

    Dewan, P; Miller, J; Musters, C; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P


    Delusional infestation (DI) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a fixed, false belief that the patient is infested with extracorporeal agents. It is known by several names, including the more commonly used term 'delusional parasitosis'. The psychiatric disease is responsible for the cutaneous pathology. About 90% of patients with DI seek help from dermatologists, and most reject psychiatric referral. Thus, effective management requires incorporation of psychiatric principles. We report three cases of DI with inanimate materials, and examine 'Morgellons' disease. We believe that patients with unusual presentations of DI are likely to be seen more commonly in the future. These patients appear to be a subgroup of DI, and may be even more difficult to treat than other patients with DI. © The Author(s). CED © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Ectoparasitic infestation of dogs in Bendel State, Nigeria. (United States)

    Ugochukwu, E I; Nnadozie, C C


    An investigation into ectoparasitic infestation of different breeds of dogs presented to four veterinary clinics in Benin, Sapele and Auchi in Bendel State of Nigeria during the period January 1983 to December 1983 is presented. Of a total of 820 dogs examined for ectoparasites 246 (30.00%) were infected by ticks, 226 (27.56%) by lice, 212 (25.85%) by fleas and 109 (13.29%) by mites. The species of ectoparasites identified and their prevalence rates were Rhipicephalus sanguineus (19.5%), Otobius megnini (10.48%), Ctenocephalides canis (25.85%), Demodex canis (13.29%). Common clinical symptoms evinced in this species include scratching, licking, irritation, restlessness, alopecia, otitis externa and dermatitis. Some aspects of epidemiology of canine ectoparasitic infestation are discussed.

  6. Thelazia callipaeda infestation in Bangladesh: a case report. (United States)

    Akhanda, A H; Akonjee, A R; Hossain, M M; Rahman, M A; Mishu, F A; Hasan, M F; Akhanda, T H


    A 5 years old girl was admitted to Ophthalmology department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh with excessive watering, redness and movement of something in her right eye for last 2 months. She had unaided visual acuity- 6/6, matted eye lashes and mucoid discharge in right eye. Follicles were present on the fornices and lower palpebral conjunctiva of the same eye. On eversion of the right upper lid there were silicon tube like coiled moving structures seen at the lateral part of the upper fornics. Six nematodes were seen in the upper fornics around the duct of lacrimal glands. After removing the nematodes, one specimen was sent to parasitology department of Bangladesh Agriculture University for species identification. They reported that sending specimen is an adult "Thelazia Callipaeda". By the present study, the presence of human ocular T. callipaeda infestation is second reported case in Bangladesh. Ophthalmologists should be aware about parasitic infestation of conjunctiva.

  7. Beneficial Effects of Green Tea Catechins on Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monira Pervin


    Full Text Available Tea is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Green tea, black tea, and oolong tea are made from the same plant Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze. Among them, green tea has been the most extensively studied for beneficial effects on diseases including cancer, obesity, diabetes, and inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Several human observational and intervention studies have found beneficial effects of tea consumption on neurodegenerative impairment, such as cognitive dysfunction and memory loss. These studies supported the basis of tea’s preventive effects of Parkinson’s disease, but few studies have revealed such effects on Alzheimer’s disease. In contrast, several human studies have not reported these favorable effects with regard to tea. This discrepancy may be due to incomplete adjustment of confounding factors, including the method of quantifying consumption, beverage temperature, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and differences in genetic and environmental factors, such as race, sex, age, and lifestyle. Thus, more rigorous human studies are required to understand the neuroprotective effect of tea. A number of laboratory experiments demonstrated the benefits of green tea and green tea catechins (GTCs, such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, and proposed action mechanisms. The targets of GTCs include the abnormal accumulation of fibrous proteins, such as Aβ and α-synuclein, inflammation, elevated expression of pro-apoptotic proteins, and oxidative stress, which are associated with neuronal cell dysfunction and death in the cerebral cortex. Computational molecular docking analysis revealed how EGCG can prevent the accumulation of fibrous proteins. These findings suggest that GTCs have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and could be useful for the development of new drugs.

  8. Green tea supplementation produces better neuroprotective effects than red and black tea in Alzheimer-like rat model. (United States)

    Schimidt, Helen L; Garcia, Alexandre; Martins, Alexandre; Mello-Carpes, Pamela B; Carpes, Felipe P


    Green tea from Camellia sinensis plays a neuroprotective role in different neurodegenerative conditions, such as memory deficits in Alzheimer disease (AD). However, whether other teas from Camellia sinensis present similar neuroprotective effect still is not clear. Here we investigate effects of green, red and black tea supplementation on memory and hippocampus oxidative status in a rat model of Alzheimer-like disease (AD-like). Wistar male rats were supplemented with green, red or black tea during 8weeks before Aβ intra-hippocampal injection (2μL of Aβ-25-35, CA1 region). AD and sham rats were submitted to memory tests. After euthanasia, oxidative status in the bilateral hippocampus was quantified. Green and red teas avoid memory deficits in AD rats, but only green tea also avoids oxidative stress and damage in the hippocampus. Green tea was more effective for neuroprotection than red and black teas from the Camellia sinensis in the AD rat model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimutagenic activity of green tea and black tea extracts studied in a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krul, C.A.M.; Luiten-Schuite, A.; Tenfelde, A.; Ommen, B. van; Verhagen, H.; Havenaar, R.


    An in vitro gastrointestinal model, which simulates the conditions in the human digestive tract, was used to determine potential antimutagenic activity of extracts of black tea and green tea. In this paper, results are presented on the availability for absorption of potential antimutagenic compounds

  10. There are more asthmatics in homes with high cockroach infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarinho E.


    Full Text Available Although asthma has been commonly associated with sensitivity to cockroaches, a clear causal relationship between asthma, allergy to cockroaches and exposure levels has not been extensively investigated. The objective of the present study was to determine whether asthma occurs more frequently in children living in homes with high cockroach infestation. The intensity of household infestation was assessed by the number of dead insects after professional pesticide application. Children living in these houses in the metropolitan area of Recife, PE, were diagnosed as having asthma by means of a questionnaire based on the ISAAC study. All children had physician-diagnosed asthma and at least one acute exacerbation in the past year. Children of both sexes aged 4 to 12 years who had been living in the households for more than 2 years participated in this transverse study and had a good socioeconomic status. In the 172 houses studied, 79 children were considered to have been exposed to cockroaches and 93 not to have been exposed. Children living in residences with more than 5 dead cockroaches after pesticide application were considered to be at high infestation exposure. Asthma was diagnosed by the questionnaire in 31.6% (25/79 of the exposed group and in 11.8% (11/93 of the non-exposed group (P = 0.001, with a prevalence ratio of 3.45 (95%CI, 1.48-8.20. The present results indicate that exposure to cockroaches was significantly associated with asthma among the children studied and can be considered a risk factor for the disease. Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana were the species found in 96% of the infested houses.

  11. Influence of storage on fungal infestation in spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, T.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.


    The present work was carried out to study the influence of storage and gamma radiation on fungal control in spices. The spices were irradiated with 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 KGy and stored under ambient conditions for 12 months. Fungal infestation decreased to undetectable levels upon irradiation of these spices especially at higher doses and increased with advanced storage period both the irradiated and unirradiated samples. (orig. /A.B.)

  12. Lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in central Oromia. (United States)

    Tafese, Adane; Jibat, Tariku; Aklilu, Nigatu; Zewdu, Hanna; Kumsa, Bersissa


    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and species composition of lice infesting horses in three agroecological zones in seven different districts in central Oromia from November 2011 to April 2012. For this purpose, a total of 420 horses were thoroughly examined for presence of lice. Collected lice were identified to species level under a microscope. The study showed an overall prevalence of 28.8 % (121/420) lice infestation on horses. We identified two spp. of lice on horses namely, Bovicola (Werneckiella) equi and Haematopinus asini with an overall prevalence of 22.9 % (96/420) and 5.9 % (25/420), respectively. The overall prevalence of lice infestation on horses in districts was 48.3, 43.3, 33.3, 23.3, 21.7, 18.3 and 13.3 %, in Debre Brehan, Shashemene, Hawassa, Akaki, Adama, Modjo and Bishoftu, respectively. B. equi was encountered as the predominant species on horses in all districts. Higher overall prevalence of lice infestation was recorded in highland agroecology than mid and lowland agroecological zones. Similarly, our study revealed significantly higher overall prevalence of lice on saddle horses than on cart horses. In view of the findings of the present study two species of lice are responsible for health and welfare problems of horses in all the districts. Detailed epidemiological studies on the significance, prevalence and role of lice as vectors of zoonotic pathogens in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems warrant urgent attention. Animal owners and veterinarians should consider lice control in horses as part of the ectoparasite control in other species of animals.

  13. Evaluation of the relationship between androgenetic alopecia and demodex infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zari Javidi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA is one of the most common dermatologic disorders with a multifactorial etiology. Inflammatory activators such as Demodex infestation may play a role in the pathogenesis of some cases of androgenetic alopecia that do not respond to common treatments such as minoxidil and finasteride. The goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between Demodex infestation and AGA. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 41 patients with AGA referred to the Dermatology Clinic of Imam Reza Hospital and 33 healthy individuals were evaluated as control. All of them were between 20 and 40 years old men. In order to identify Demodex infestation they were referred to the Parasitology laboratory. Results: Demodex was detected in 19.5% of patients and 15.2% of controls; therefore, there was no significant relationship between them statistically ( P = 0.0787. Most of patients (85.4% had greasy hair. The most common pattern of baldness was II degree in Hamilton scale. Conclusion: There is no relation between AGA and Demodex.

  14. Parameter Optimization of Black Tea Fermentation Machine Based on RSM and BP-AdaBoost-GA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Chunwang; Zhao, Jiewen; Zhu, Hongkai


    Fermentation is the key procedure in processing of congou black tea, which directly decides the quality and flavor of tea products. Fermentation experiments were conducted on a novel drum-type fermentation machine as the platform, the performance parameters of fermentation machine were clarified...... of black tea, moderate rotation and mixing material can enhance the quality of black tea and shorten the fermentation time....

  15. Altering the phenolics profile of a green tea leaves extract using exogenous oxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloop, A.J.W.; Gruppen, H.; Bisschop, Robbin; Vincken, Jean Paul


    Transformation from green tea leaves into black tea involves oxidation of catechins into theaflavins and other complex phenolics by endogenous enzymes in tea leaves. By employing tyrosinase and laccase, both from Agaricus bisporus, on green tea catechins, the oxidation process was directed

  16. A Test for Relative Efficiency in the Smallholder Tea Sub-sector in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite availability of tea growing technologies to all Kenya tea farmers, green leaf production in smallholder sub-sector remains low. Tea in Kenya is grown in the East of the Rift Valley and the West of the Rift Valley regions. It is assumed that tea farms behave according to a certain decision rule termed as profit ...

  17. 19 CFR 12.33 - Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Tea § 12.33 Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes. (a) The importation of any merchandise as tea which is inferior in purity...

  18. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases (United States)


    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  19. Analysis of the major chemical compositions in Fuzhuan brick-tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuzhuan brick-tea, a fungal-fermented tea, is commonly consumed in northwest China; in places such as Sinkiang and Tibet and is thought to be helpful in digestion. To better understand Fuzhuan brick-tea and its function on digestion, the Fuzhuan brick-tea's chemical compounds were surveyed at pivotal process phases, ...

  20. Effect of aqueous plant extracts on tea red spider mite, Oligonychus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 4, 2009 ... integrated mite management. Key words: Tea ... Scientific name. Family. Parts used .... C.V.%. 8.64. Mean of five observations (30 eggs/observation). 100 numbers of ..... This work is part of a Tea Research Association in-house project ... innovation in tea science and sustainable development in tea. Industry ...

  1. The study of antioxidant activity of white tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chernousova


    Full Text Available Antioxidants protect the organism from the harmful effects of free radicals. High content of antioxidants is characteristic for red wine, olive oil, tea. Today in Russia is well studied the antioxidant activity of black and green tea, but the choice of teas found in the sale, much wider. The aim of the work was to study antioxidant activity of white tea, as well as its comparison with the parameters of green tea and rooibos. Spectrophotometrically compared the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts white, green tea, drink rooibos using the adrenaline autooxidation reaction in alkaline medium (pH 10.65. The correctness of the spectrophotometric determination was confirmed on the device “Tsvet Yauza-01-AA” (Russia. As a standard used quercetin. In the initial period of time (up to 5 min tea extracts “Java”, «Elixir immortality» and rooibos are equally affect the values of optical density. After 10 min the optical density takes different values for different extracts, however this time is recommended to determine antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity of the extract has white tea «Greenfield». Rooibos extract antioxidant activity could be compared with “Elixir of immortality” white tea аctivity. The lowest value of antioxidant activity of green tea “Princess JAVA”. The effect of water temperature on the antioxidant activity of extracts was investigated. The highest value was found in tea «Greenfield» at a brewing temperature of 70 °C, which decreases with increasing temperature to 100 °C. The water temperature has a minimal effect on the antioxidant activity of the rooibos extract, but a small maximum at 80 °C is observed. The minimum value of antioxidant activity is the extract of green tea «Princess JAVA», but it increases with the temperature rise up to 100 °C. The study was conducted according to the content of antioxidants from the brewing time. For this, the device “Tsvet Yauza-01-AA” was

  2. Parasites in the fossil record: a Cretaceous fauna with isopod-infested decapod crustaceans, infestation patterns through time, and a new ichnotaxon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiël A Klompmaker

    Full Text Available Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%, arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp, to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations.

  3. Possibility of irradiation degradation of Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin in green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yifang; Wan Xiaochun; Hou Ruyan; Zhang Haiwei; Zhao Xiuxia; Wang Xiaohui


    The effects of 60 Co γ irradiation and green tea manufacturing processing on degradation of Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin in green tea during its manufacturing processing were studied. The two pesticides were sprayed onto the tea bushes and fresh tea leaves were picked at the same day, respectively. Half of the fresh leaves were processed into green tea. The fresh tea leaves and green tea were irradiated at 5 kGy and the Fenpropathrin in fresh tea degraded 7.3% after irradiation, while Deltamethrin degraded 14.7%. In green tea, Fenpropathrin and Deltamethrin degraded 2.2% and 12.1% respectively after irradiation. Green tea manufacturing processes could reduce 16.4% of Fenpropathrin, and 4.4% of Deltamethrin. (authors)

  4. An inverse association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk. (United States)

    Chen, Yuetong; Wu, Yuan; Du, Mulong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Lingjun; Tong, Na; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin; Gu, Dongying; Chen, Jinfei


    It is well known that the tea extracts, mainly polyphenols as chemo-preventive elements, could act as cancer progression blockers. Although the association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk has been widely investigated, the results still remain inconsistent. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to evaluate their relationships by enrolling qualified 29 literatures. The summary odds ratio (OR) of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. lowest tea consumption was 0.93 with 0.87-1.00 of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among all studies with modest heterogeneity (P = 0.001, I2 = 43.4%). Stratified analysis revealed that tea, especially green tea, had a protective effect among female and rectal cancer patients. Particularly, the dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant inverse association between an increment of 1 cup/day of tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in the subgroup of the green tea drinking (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.01, Pnonlinear = 0.003) and female (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56-0.81, Pnonlinear colorectal cancer risk, which may have significant public health implications in the prevention of colorectal cancer and further similar researches.

  5. Black tea: Phytochemicals, cancer chemoprevention, and clinical studies. (United States)

    Singh, Brahma N; Rawat, A K S; Bhagat, R M; Singh, B R


    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is the most popular, flavored, functional, and therapeutic non-alcoholic drink consumed by two-thirds of the world's population. Black tea leaves are reported to contain thousands of bioactive constituents such as polyphenols, amino acids, volatile compounds, and alkaloids that exhibit a range of promising pharmacological properties. Due to strong antioxidant property, black tea inhibits the development of various cancers by regulating oxidative damage of biomolecules, endogenous antioxidants, and pathways of mutagen and transcription of antioxidant gene pool. Regular drinking of phytochemicals-rich black tea is linked to regulate several molecular targets, including COX-2, 5-LOX, AP-1, JNK, STAT, EGFR, AKT, Bcl2, NF-κB, Bcl-xL, caspases, p53, FOXO1, TNFα, PARP, and MAPK, which may be the basis of how dose of black tea prevents and cures cancer. In vitro and preclinical studies support the anti-cancer activity of black tea; however, its effect in human trails is uncertain, although more clinical experiments are needed at molecular levels to understand its anti-cancer property. This review discusses the current knowledge on phytochemistry, chemopreventive activity, and clinical applications of black tea to reveal its anti-cancer effect.

  6. Biotreatment of air containing triethylamine (TEA vapor in biotrickling filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Safari Variani


    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of waste air containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs using cheap and environmentally friendly methods is one of active fields in air pollution control. Objective: The aim of this study was to treat air containing triethylamine (TEA vapor using biotrickling filter inoculated with microbial species decomposing TEA. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the School of Health affiliated to Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Biotreatment was performed with biotrickling filter inoculated with microbial species decomposing TEA for two months. The biotrickling filter was set up with air containing TEA as the sole source of carbon, at Empty Bed Residence Times (EBRT of 36 sec, and inlet concentration of 84 ppm. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings: Treatment of TEA contaminated air was made after an adaptation period of 11 days. Despite an increase in mass loading to 111 g/m3/h, TEA was eliminated with 109 g/m3/h capacity and 94-100% removal efficiency by zero order kinetics.Elimination capacity and removal efficiency were close to each other and confirmed109 g/m3/h as loading region with critical elimination capacity. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it is possible to treat air containing TEA vapor in biotrickling filter.

  7. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Knowles

    Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  8. Association between tea consumption and osteoporosis: A meta-analysis. (United States)

    Sun, Kang; Wang, Le; Ma, Qingping; Cui, Qiaoyun; Lv, Qianru; Zhang, Wenzheng; Li, Xinghui


    Previous reports have suggested a potential association of tea consumption with the risk of osteoporosis. As such association is controversial, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and osteoporosis. We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and WanFang databases until March 30, 2016, using the keywords "tea and osteoporosis," without limits of language. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were derived by using random-effects models throughout the analyses. We conducted the analysis of the statistical heterogeneity using Cochrane I. The funnel plot was used to speculate the publication bias, while the subgroup analysis and multiround elimination method were employed. Our study was based on 17 journal articles, including 2 prospective cohort studies, 4 case-control studies, and 11 cross-sectional studies. In the present study, the total OR of osteoporosis for the highest versus the lowest categories of tea consumption was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.46-0.83), with significant heterogeneity among studies (I = 94%, P tea consumption and osteoporosis. Subgroup analysis showed that tea consumption could reduce the risk of osteoporosis in all examined subgroups. In the present study, it can be concluded from the results that tea consumption can reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  9. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.


    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  10. Metabolomics-Driven Nutraceutical Evaluation of Diverse Green Tea Cultivars (United States)

    Ida, Megumi; Kosaka, Reia; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nesumi, Atsushi; Saito, Takeshi; Kanda, Tomomasa; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi


    Background Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity) of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6) and Sunrouge (SR) strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive extract

  11. Biophysical Approach to Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Green Tea Catechins


    Masami Suganuma; Atsushi Takahashi; Tatsuro Watanabe; Keisuke Iida; Takahisa Matsuzaki; Hiroshi Y. Yoshikawa; Hirota Fujiki


    Green tea catechin and green tea extract are now recognized as non-toxic cancer preventives for humans. We first review our brief historical development of green tea cancer prevention. Based on exciting evidence that green tea catechin, (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in drinking water inhibited lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, we and other researchers have studied the inhibitory mechanisms of metastasis with green tea catechins using biomechanical tools, atomic force microscopy (AF...

  12. Sarcoptic mange infestation in rabbits in an organized farm at Tamil Nadu. (United States)

    Arul Prakash, M; Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Tensingh Gnanaraj, P; Ramesh Saravanakumar, V


    Sarcoptes scabiei are burrowing mites which causes major constraints in rabbit production. Eighty-eight rabbits were examined for mange infestation at University Research Farm, Tamil Nadu. Overall incidence of mange infestation in rabbit was 23.6 %. On microscopical examination, the mite was identified as Sacoptes scabiei var cuniculi. Among the breeds, Soviet Chinchilla were found to be infested more (57.14 %) followed by New Zealand White (28.57 %) and White Giant (28.57 %). Among the age groups, adults (33.33 %) were heavily infested than the grower (21.88 %) whereas, suckling had no infestation of mange. Among the sex, males (21.95 %) were heavily infested than the females (14.89 %). Lesions were mostly found on the edges of ear, nose, face and legs and characterized by loss of hair, thickening of the skin, irregular dried dirty encrusted scabs with erythema and disfigurement of face and ear.

  13. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bawin


    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research.

  14. Production of tea vinegar by batch and semicontinuous fermentation


    Kaur, Pardeep; Kocher, G. S.; Phutela, R. P.


    The fermented tea vinegar combines the beneficial properties of tea and vinegar. The complete fermentation takes 4 to 5 weeks in a batch culture and thus can be shortened by semi continuous/ continuous fermentation using immobilized bacterial cells. In the present study, alcoholic fermentation of 1.0 and 1.5% tea infusions using Saccharomyces cerevisae G was carried out that resulted in 84.3 and 84.8% fermentation efficiency (FE) respectively. The batch vinegar fermentation of these wines wit...

  15. Tea Contains Potent Inhibitors of Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B


    Ma, Junfeng; Li, Zhe; Xing, Shu; Ho, Wanting Tina; Fu, Xueqi; Zhao, Zhizhuang Joe


    Tea is widely consumed all over the world. Studies have demonstrated the role of tea in prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases including diabetes and obesity, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. PTP1B is a widely expressed tyrosine phosphatase which has been defined as a target for therapeutic drug development to treat diabetes and obesity. In screening for inhibitors of PTP1B, we found that aqueous extracts of teas exhibited potent PTP1B inhibitory effects with an IC50 val...

  16. Yogi Detox Tea: A Potential Cause of Acute Liver Failure. (United States)

    Kesavarapu, Keerthana; Kang, Mitchell; Shin, Jaewook James; Rothstein, Kenneth


    We present a case of acute fulminant liver failure from a liver detoxification tea. We present a 60-year-old female with weakness, lethargy, scleral icterus, jaundice, and worsening mental status. She drank herbal tea three times a day for 14 days prior to symptom development. Liver tests were elevated. Remaining laboratory tests and imaging were negative for other etiologies. An ultrasound-guided liver biopsy showed submassive necrosis. A literature search on the ingredients shows six ingredients as having hepatotoxic effects and remaining ingredients as having very sparse hepatoprotective data. Healthcare professionals should discuss herbal medication and tea use and report adverse effects.

  17. Yogi Detox Tea: A Potential Cause of Acute Liver Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthana Kesavarapu


    Full Text Available We present a case of acute fulminant liver failure from a liver detoxification tea. We present a 60-year-old female with weakness, lethargy, scleral icterus, jaundice, and worsening mental status. She drank herbal tea three times a day for 14 days prior to symptom development. Liver tests were elevated. Remaining laboratory tests and imaging were negative for other etiologies. An ultrasound-guided liver biopsy showed submassive necrosis. A literature search on the ingredients shows six ingredients as having hepatotoxic effects and remaining ingredients as having very sparse hepatoprotective data. Healthcare professionals should discuss herbal medication and tea use and report adverse effects.

  18. Development of the Diagnostic Expert System for Tea Processing (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    A diagnostic expert system for tea processing which can presume the cause of the defect of the processed tea was developed to contribute to the improvement of tea processing. This system that consists of some programs can be used through the Internet. The inference engine, the core of the system adopts production system which is well used on artificial intelligence, and is coded by Prolog as the artificial intelligence oriented language. At present, 176 rules for inference have been registered on this system. The system will be able to presume better if more rules are added to the system.

  19. A Case of Hepatotoxicity Related to Kombucha Tea Consumption. (United States)

    Gedela, Maheedhar; Potu, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Gali, Vasantha L; Alyamany, Kimberlee; Jha, Lokesh K


    The use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) is widespread and growing due to the popular notion that these products are of natural origins and safe. Kombucha (or "mushroom") tea is one HDS that is consumed by people for various perceived health benefits. Kombucha tea is a well-known health beverage made by fermenting sweet black tea with a round, flat, gray fungus for a week or longer. There is concern, however, from the evidence of a few case reports currently available, that it may pose life-threatening and/or adverse effects for users.

  20. Occurrence and Residue Pattern of Phthalate Esters in Fresh Tea Leaves and during Tea Manufacturing and Brewing. (United States)

    Liu, Pingxiang; Chen, Hongping; Gao, Guanwei; Hao, Zhenxia; Wang, Chen; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xin


    The residues of 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) in fresh tea leaves and made tea were determined via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their distribution and degradation characteristics during tea planting and processing. Five PAEs were detected in all fresh tea leaves, and higher concentrations were detected in mature leaves. The distribution of PAEs in fresh tea leaves ranged from 69.7 to 2244.0 μg/kg. The degradative percentages of ∑ 5 PAEs during green tea manufacturing ranged from 61 to 63% and were significantly influenced by the drying process. The transfer rates of PAEs-D 4 ranged from 5.2 to 100.6%. PAEs with a high water solubility showed the highest transfer coefficient in the range of 91.8-100.6%, whereas PAEs with a high log K ow showed a low leaching efficiency below 11.9%. These results benefit the risk evaluation and establishment of a maximum residue limit for PAEs in tea.

  1. Dissipation kinetics of beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in tea and their transfer from processed tea to infusion. (United States)

    Paramasivam, M; Deepa, M; Selvi, C; Chandrasekaran, S


    Dissipation kinetics of mixed formulation consisting beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in tea crop under an open field ecosystem was investigated. The mixed formulation was applied on tea plant at recommended (27 + 63) and double the recommended (54 + 126g a.i./ha) dose and residues were determined using gas chromatography-electron capture detector and high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector for beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid, respectively. The limit of quantification of analytical method was 0.05µg/g and the average recoveries were ranged from 88.36% to 103.49% with relative standard deviations of less than 6% at three spiked levels. The experimental results showed that in the green tea leaves imidacloprid dissipated faster than beta-cyfluthrin with the half-life ranging between 1.20-1.39 and 2.89-3.15days, respectively. The beta-cyfluthrin residues present in the processed tea not transferred into the tea infusion during the infusion process and imidacloprid transferred in the range 43.12-49.7%. On the basis of the transfer of residues from processed tea to infusion, a waiting period of 17 days for tea plucking after pesticide application at recommended dose may be suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Formation of (E)-nerolidol in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves exposed to multiple stresses during tea manufacturing. (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Zeng, Lanting; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gui, Jiadong; Mei, Xin; Fu, Xiumin; Dong, Fang; Tang, Jingchi; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Ziyin


    (E)-Nerolidol is a volatile sesquiterpene that contributes to the floral aroma of teas (Camellia sinensis). The unique manufacturing process for oolong tea involves multiple stresses, resulting in a high content of (E)-nerolidol, which is not known to form in tea leaves. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of (E)-nerolidol in tea exposed to multiple stresses during tea manufacture. C. sinensis (E)-nerolidol synthase (CsNES) recombinant protein, found in the cytosol, was found to transform farnesyl diphosphate into (E)-nerolidol. CsNES was highly expressed during the oolong tea turn over process, resulting in (E)-nerolidol accumulation. Continuous mechanical damage, simulating the turn over process, significantly enhanced CsNES expression level and (E)-nerolidol content. The combination of low temperature stress and mechanical damage had a synergistic effect on (E)-nerolidol formation. This is the first evidence of (E)-nerolidol formation mechanism in tea leaves and a characteristic example of plant volatile formation in response to dual stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fluorescent Staining of Tea Pathogenic Fungi in Tea Leaves Using Fluorescein-labeled Lectin (United States)

    Yamada, Kengo; Yoshida, Katsuyuki; Sonoda, Ryoichi

    Fluorochrome-labeled lectin, fluorescein conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) was applied to stain tea pathogenic fungi in tea leaf tissue. Infected leaves were fixed and decolorized with a mixture of ethanol and acetic acid, and cleared with 10% KOH for whole mount before staining with F-WGA. Hyphae of Pestalotiopsis longiseta, Pseudocercospora ocellata, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum theae-sinensis fluoresced brightly in whole mount and sectioned samples of infected leaf tissue. In browned tissue, hyphae did not fluoresce frequently in whole mount sample. Autofluorescence of leaf tissue was strong in browned tissue of sections, it was removed by 10% KOH treatment before staining. Penetration hyphae of C. theae-sinensis in cell wall of trichome and hyphae in basal part of trichome did not fluoresced frequently. In whole mount samples of tea leaf infected with Exobasidium vexans and E. reticulatum, hymenia appeared on leaf surface fluoresced, but hyphae in leaf tissue did not fluoresce. In sectioned samples, hyphae fluoresced brightly when sections were treated with 10% KOH before staining.

  4. Tracking residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in green, herbal, and black tea leaves and infusions of commercially available tea products marketed in Poland. (United States)

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan; Zalesak, Michal; Pohoryło, Anna


    The content of residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was examined in green, herbal, and black tea leaves as well as in their infusions prepared from tea products marketed in the main supermarkets in Poland. It was found that the detected mean levels of organochlorine residues in tea leaves ranged from tea occurred in the highest concentrations. Among dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolites the highest level of p,p'DDT (1.96 ng g -1 dw) was in green tea samples. The transfer of OCPs from tea leaves to brew was investigated. The present study revealed that during the infusion process, a significant percentage of the residues, particularly pesticides with high water solubility, were transferred to the infusions. The obtained results show that the percentage transfer of each pesticides from tea to the tea infusions ranged from 6.74% (heptachlor) to 86.6% (endrin). The detected residues were below current MRLs for these pesticides.

  5. Production Efficiency Audit on Tea Beverage Agroindustry

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    Hendra Adiyatna, . Marimin


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate and to apply economic efficiency performance measurement methods for tea beverage agroindustry. These measurements were based on twelve technique and economic efficiency criteria, which illustrate the condition of the processes. This illustration was able to explain the material and the energy utilization, variance of the processes and product, handling of the waste and acceptance in the market. The methodology was divided into three steps: (1 defining the technique and the economic criteria, appropriate to the circumstance of the processes, (2 state efficiency the level status, (3 evaluation and structure prioritizing of the processes improvement alternatives. The results of this work indicates that there are seven appropriate criteria. The status of the efficiency is in the medium level. The improvement priorities recommended include optimization of material and energy usage and minimization of breaktime of the critical processes

  6. Aspergillus acidus from Puerh tea and black tea does not produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Varga, J.; Thrane, Ulf


    the mycotoxins ochratoxin A, fumonisins B-2 and B-4. With this in mind, we performed a preliminary study to determine if production of these mycotoxins by black Aspergilli isolated from Puerh and black tea can occur. An examination of 47 isolates from Puerh tea and black tea showed that none of these was A....... niger. A part of the calmodulin gene in 17 isolates were sequenced, and these 17 isolates were all identified as Aspergillus acidus (=A. foetidus var. acidus). The rest of the 47 isolates were also identified as A. acidus from their metabolite profile. Neither production of ochratoxin A nor fumonisins B...

  7. Analysis of the Heterogeneity of Weed Infestation in Cereal Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winkler


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the heterogeneity of the incidence of individual weed species on a selected experimental field. This field was situated in the cadastre of the village Žabčice (South Moravian Region, Czech Republic. To evaluate the intensity of weed infestation, a field experiment was established. In 2011, altogether 33 weed species were identified in a stand of spring barley. In the next year, the total number of weeds in a stand of winter wheat was 22. Basing on results of the evaluation of infestation heterogeneity it was possible to detect the following trends: The first one concerned the incidence of significantly dominant species Chenopodium album and Veronica hederifolia in stands of spring barley and winter wheat, respectively. The second one expressed the incidence of the so-called sub-dominant species. Regarding the character of the incidence of these weed species it would be suitable to kill them by means of a targeted application of herbicides. Finally, the third trend concerned the incidence of that group of weeds that occurred in the major part of the experimental plot but in low numbers only. The abundance of these species was minimal and the total number of weed plants did not exceed the limit of 100 specimens. This group of weeds involved also those species that were markedly more frequent on plots situated closer to the margin of the experimental field. The targeted application of herbicides can be performed on plots with a lower level of weed infestation; another possibility, however, seems to be a targeted intervention that helps to control the incidence of a certain weed species and/or that is performed along the margin of the field where the different weed species are more frequent.

  8. Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Oliveira-Filho, Edmilson F; Soares, Fábio Angelo M; Souza, Bruno O F; Valença, Raul Baltazar P; Sá, Fabrício B


    Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in the State of Pernambuco are reviewed, based on the current literature and new collections recently carried out by the authors. To date, three tick species have been found on amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco. Amblyomma fuscum appears to be exclusively associated with Boa constrictor, its type host. Amblyomma rotundatum has a relatively low host-specificity, being found on toads, snakes, and iguana. Amblyomma dissimile has been found on a lizard and also small mammals (i.e., rodents and marsupials). New tick-host associations and locality records are given.

  9. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 19, 2007 ... Key words: Agaricus bisporus, wheat straw, waste tea leaves, wheat chaff, pin head formation, compost temperature .... kg then filled into plastic bags as 7 kg wet weight basis. ..... substrate environment for mushroom growing.

  10. proximate, caffeine and tannin analyses in some brands of tea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    fifteen essential trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and ... grade, distilled water was used as solvent for solution preparation and all ... weighing the ash and calculation (ACCA, 2002). Ether .... Pharmacologyonline 3: 164-174.

  11. Polymeric nanoparticles encapsulating white tea extract for nutraceutical application. (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Lubinu, Giuseppe; Madau, Pierluigi; Pala, Nicolino; Nurra, Salvatore; Mariani, Alberto; Sechi, Mario


    With the aim to obtain controlled release and to preserve the antioxidant activity of the polyphenols, nanoencapsulation of white tea extract into polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and alginate was successfully performed. NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and were characterized in terms of morphology and chemical properties. Total polyphenols and catechins contents before and after encapsulation were determined. Moreover, in vitro release profiles of encapsulated polyphenols from NPs were investigated in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The antioxidant activity and stability of encapsulated extract were further evaluated. Interestingly, NPs released 20% of the polyphenols in simulated gastric medium, and 80% after 5 h at pH 7.4, showing a good capacity to control the polyphenols delivery. Furthermore, DPPH(•) assay confirmed that white tea extract retained its antioxidant activity and NPs protected tea polyphenols from degradation, thus opening new perspectives for the exploitation of white tea extract-loaded NPs for nutraceutical applications.

  12. Evaluation of γ-radiation on green tea odor volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, G.B.; Duarte, R.C.; Araujo, M.M.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gamma radiation effects on green tea odor volatiles in green tea at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatile organic compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The green tea had a large influence on radiation effects, increasing the identified volatiles in relation to control samples. The dose of 10 kGy was responsible to form the majority of new odor compounds following by 5 and 20 kGy. However, the dose of 5 kGy was the dose that degraded the majority of volatiles in non-irradiated samples, following by 20 kGy. The dose of 15 kGy showed has no effect on odor volatiles. The gamma radiation, at dose up to 20 kGy, showed statistically no difference between irradiated and non irradiated green tea on odors compounds.

  13. Monitoring of essential and toxic metals in imported herbal teas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Teas are the most consumed beverage worldwide after water, and its consumption among. Nigerians has ... toxic metals in food and beverages with regards to the permissible ...... Risk assessment and risk management, in: D.R. ...

  14. Productive efficiency of tea industry: A stochastic frontier approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 21, 2010 ... Key words: Technical efficiency, stochastic frontier, translog ... present low performance of the tea industry in Bangladesh. ... The Technical inefficiency effect .... administrative, technical, clerical, sales and purchase staff.

  15. Extraction and analysis of tea (Camellia sinensis) seed oil from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 20, 2013 ... spectrophotometer (Model JENWAY6705, multi-cell changer) against a blank ... All the tea seed oil extracts were golden yellow in color and liquid at .... respectively, the two being products of oxidative rancidity. (Chindo et al.

  16. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea leaves based composts and locally available casing materials Part III: Dry matter, protein, and carbohydrate contents of Agaricus bisporus.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of kombucha made from Rtanj tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.


    Full Text Available Kombucha is a beverage with special therapeutic properties produced by the metabolic activity of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria in sweetened black tea (traditional cultivation medium. The antimicrobial activity of kombucha (for consumption made from black tea and Rtanj tea, as well as particular control samples, was examined by the modified disc diffusion method. Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sp., Sarcina lutea, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Rhodotorula sp. Candida pseudotropi-calis and Saccharomyces cerevisae have been used as test organisms. Acetic acid and kombucha samples show significant antimicrobial activity against all bacteria except Sarcina lutea. The other control samples (neutralized kombucha, tea and a "model sistem" show less bacteriostatic activity. Kombucha and acetic acid solution show borderline inhibitory activity against some moulds, while was no activity against yeasts.

  18. Diversity of catechin in northeast Indian tea cultivars. (United States)

    Sabhapondit, Santanu; Karak, Tanmoy; Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Goswami, Bhabesh Chandra; Hazarika, Mridul


    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaf contains a large amount of catechins (a group of very active flavonoids) which contribute to major quality attributes of black tea. Based on morphological characters tea plants were classified as Assam, China, and Cambod varieties. The present study is an attempt for biochemical fingerprinting of the tea varieties based on catechin composition in green leaf of cultivars grown in Northeast India. Assam variety cultivars contained the highest level of catechins followed by Cambod and China. The average catechin contents were 231 ± 7 mg g(-1), 202 ± 5 mg g(-1), and 157 ± 4 mg g(-1) of dry weight of green leaf for Assam, Cambod, and China cultivars, respectively. Among the individual catechins the variations in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC) were the most prominent among the varieties. High EGC content was found to be a characteristic of Assam variety which was further corroborated through multivariate analysis.

  19. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Strengths and Limits of the Evidence (United States)

    ... the Netherlands. 2. Tea, wine, fruit juices, and chocolate milk. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2000; ... prostate cancer: An evaluation of the complementary/alternative therapy approach. Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations 2005; ...

  20. Changing labour power on smallholder tea farms in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone; Okinda, Obadia


    Informal wage workers on smallholder tea farms make important contributions to world export of tea. The literature on Global Production Networks only recently begun to pay more detailed attention to conceptualizing the role that labour plays in such networks and has so far focused mainly......, that labour agency in export-oriented smallholder tea production in developing countries may not be advanced much by the sustainability certifications demanded by Western buyers and second, that labour agency can nevertheless be present at ‘the margins’ of Global Production Networks even though informal rural...... wage workers are most often assumed to lack both ‘structural’ and ‘associational’ power. These arguments are made on the basis of a case study of on-farm wage labour in smallholder tea production in Kenya. The article finds labours bargaining power to be stronger in some locations compared to others...

  1. Kombucha, the fermented tea: microbiology, composition, and claimed health effects. (United States)

    Greenwalt, C J; Steinkraus, K H; Ledford, R A


    Kombucha is a slightly sweet, slightly acidic tea beverage consumed worldwide, but historically in China, Russia, and Germany. Kombucha is prepared by fermenting sweetened black tea preparations with a symbiotic culture of yeasts and bacteria. Potential health effects have created an increased interest in Kombucha. Yet, only a few research studies have shown that Kombucha has in vitro antimicrobial activity and enhances sleep and pain thresholds in rats. Furthermore, Kombucha consumption has proven to be harmful in several documented instances.

  2. Clinical study on constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue. (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jung; Bae, Young-Chun; Choi, Na-Rae; Ryu, Seung-Yeob; Kwon, Young-Mi; Joo, Jong-Cheon


    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue with no diagnosed cause, which is called Mibyeong in Korea. Males and females with ages between 40 and 59 years who had complained of fatigue for 1 month consistently or for 6 months intermittently without a definite cause were recruited. At the same time, a Chalder fatigue scale (CFS) score of 19 was essential for participation in this study. Sixty five subjects completed the entire process, including blood tests and tests with medical devices. Five assessments of health status were accomplished over 8 weeks by using the CFS and the visual analogue scale (VAS). To ensure that the constitutional herbal tea was being safely used, we conducted and analyzed renal function and liver function tests. For the diagnosis of the Sasang constitution, the Sasang Constitutional Analysis Tool (SCAT) was used, and a specialist in Sasang constitutional medicine made the final diagnosis based on the SCAT result. Constitutional herbal tea was served four weeks after the first visit. The subjects took the constitutional herbal tea twice a day for one month. The results are as follows: The CFS and the VAS scores were significantly improved for the subjects in the constitutional herbal tea. No abnormalities were found on the blood tests to evaluate safety after taking the constitutional herbal tea. The improvements in the CFS and the VAS scores due to the constitutional herbal tea had no significant differences according to the Sasang constitution. Constitutional herbal tea may be used to reduce fatigue and improve health and has no adverse effect on either the kidney or the liver.

  3. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun


    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  4. Green tea moisturizer improves skin hydration in elderly


    Oentarini Tjandra; Linda J Wijayadi; Marcella E Rumawas


    BACKGROUND Dry skin is a major skin health problem in elderly. Green tea, which has an antioxidant effect, has recently been used as an active ingredient in moisturizing creams; yet the effect has not been well studied. This study compares the skin hydration effect of green tea and vitamin E moisturizer among elderly. METHODS This quasi-experimental study involved 60 elderly living in Tresna Werda Budi Mulia 4 Social Institution, Jakarta. Using the Runve HL 611 skin analyzer, skin c...

  5. Evaluation Model of Tea Industry Information Service Quality


    Shi , Xiaohui; Chen , Tian’en


    International audience; According to characteristics of tea industry information service, this paper have built service quality evaluation index system for tea industry information service quality, R-cluster analysis and multiple regression have been comprehensively used to contribute evaluation model with a high practice and credibility. Proved by the experiment, the evaluation model of information service quality has a good precision, which has guidance significance to a certain extent to e...

  6. Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel tea. (United States)

    Zeller, Annette; Rychlik, Michael


    The flavor of fennel fruits and fennel tea was examined by aroma extract dilution analysis of the respective dichloromethane extracts. In both fennel fruits and tea, trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, and trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors followed by fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, estragole, and beta-myrcene. On the basis of these results, the odorants showing higher FD factors were quantified in tea as well as in fruits, and odor activity values (OAV) in tea were calculated by dividing the concentration of the compound by its recognition threshold in water. The highest OAV was found for trans-anethole, followed by estragole, fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and anisaldehyde. From a comparison of the concentrations of odorants in fruits and tea, trans-anethole and estragole showed similar extraction rates of approximately 10-15%, whereas the extraction rates for (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and limonene were below 2%. In contrast to this, fenchone, camphor, linalool, and carvone showed higher extraction rates (26-50%), whereas the high apparent extraction rates of anisalcohol (393%) and vanilline (480%) were attributed to the formation from precursors. Sensory studies of aqueous models containing odorants in the amounts quantified in fennel teas revealed high similarity of the models with the tea and proved that all impact odorants had been identified in their correct concentrations. Further sensory experiments showed that estragole had no odor impact on the overall flavor of fennel tea, and, therefore, a reduction of estragole in fennel products would have no negative impact on their sensoric quality. In contrast to this, trans-anethole and fenchone were found to be character impact compounds of fennel.

  7. [The method to remove nitrite from tap water by tea]. (United States)

    Lu, M; Chen, L; Xian, H


    Drinking water (tap water) is polluted in pipelines by bacteria after long distance transportation. The water contains nitrite (NO2-) which is potentially harmful to human health. The nitrite concentrations range from 0.10 to 2.0 mg/L. Our experiment proved that NO2- could not be removed by boiling, but could be removed by tea. As a natural antioxidant, tea contains several antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid and catechins, which removed NO2- from tap water effectively.

  8. Safety and anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of various tea types in mice (United States)

    Han, Manman; Zhao, Guangshan; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Dongxu; Sun, Feng; Ning, Jingming; Wan, Xiachun; Zhang, Jinsong


    Tea, a beverage consumed worldwide, has proven anti-hyperglycemic effects in animal models. Better efficacies of tea beverages are frequently associated with high-dose levels, whose safety attracts considerable attention. Based on the inherent nature of tea catechin oxidation, fresh tea leaves are manufactured into diverse tea types by modulating the oxidation degree of catechins. The present study aimed to assess various tea types for their safety properties and anti-hyperglycemic effects. Mice were allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for one week, and the rare smoked tea caused salient adverse reactions, including hepatic and gastrointestinal toxicities; meanwhile, the widely-consumed green and black teas, unlike the rare yellow tea, suppressed growth in fast-growing healthy mice. When mice were fed a high-fat diet and allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for 25 days, only yellow tea significantly reduced blood glucose. Therefore, various teas showed different safety profiles as well as anti-hyperglycemic efficacy strengths. To achieve an effective and safe anti-hyperglycemic outcome, yellow tea, which effectively suppressed high-fat diet-induced early elevation of hepatic thioredoxin-interacting protein, is an optimal choice. PMID:27531374

  9. Metabolic dependence of green tea on plucking positions revisited: a metabolomic study. (United States)

    Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Bum-Jin; Hwang, Jeong-Ah; Ko, Kwang-Sup; Chung, Jin-Oh; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Jun; Hong, Young-Shick


    The dependence of global green tea metabolome on plucking positions was investigated through (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis coupled with multivariate statistical data set. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), were employed for a finding metabolic discrimination among fresh green tea leaves plucked at different positions from young to old leaves. In addition to clear metabolic discrimination among green tea leaves, elevations in theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid levels but reductions in catechins, such as epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), glucose, and sucrose levels were observed, as the green tea plant grows up. On the other hand, the younger the green tea leaf is, the more theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid but the lesser catechins accumlated in the green tea leaf, revealing a reverse assocation between theanine and catechins levels due to incorporaton of theanine into catechins with growing up green tea plant. Moreover, as compared to the tea leaf, the observation of marked high levels of theanine and low levels of catechins in green tea stems exhibited a distinct tea plant metabolism between the tea leaf and the stem. This metabolomic approach highlights taking insight to global metabolic dependence of green tea leaf on plucking position, thereby providing distinct information on green tea production with specific tea quality.

  10. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses to the Ingestion of Caffeinated Herbal Tea: Drink It Hot or Cold? (United States)

    Maufrais, Claire; Sarafian, Delphine; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre


    Aim: Tea is usually consumed at two temperatures (as hot tea or as iced tea). However, the importance of drink temperature on the cardiovascular system and on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses to the ingestion of caffeinated herbal tea (Yerba Mate) at cold or hot temperature in healthy young subjects. We hypothesized that ingestion of cold tea induces a higher increase in energy expenditure than hot tea without eliciting any negative effects on the cardiovascular system. Methods: Cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses were analyzed in 23 healthy subjects (12 men and 11 women) sitting comfortably during a 30-min baseline and 90 min following the ingestion of 500 mL of an unsweetened Yerba Mate tea ingested over 5 min either at cold (~3°C) or hot (~55°C) temperature, according to a randomized cross-over design. Results: Averaged over the 90 min post-drink ingestion and compared to hot tea, cold tea induced (1) a decrease in heart rate (cold tea: -5 ± 1 beats.min -1 ; hot tea: -1 ± 1 beats.min -1 , p hot tea: +3.7%, p hot tea while decreasing cardiac load as suggested by the decrease in the double product. Further experiments are needed to evaluate the clinical impact of unsweetened caffeinated herbal tea at a cold temperature for weight control.

  11. The Benefits and Risks of Consuming Brewed Tea: Beware of Toxic Element Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Schwalfenberg


    Full Text Available Background. Increasing concern is evident about contamination of foodstuffs and natural health products. Methods. Common off-the-shelf varieties of black, green, white, and oolong teas sold in tea bags were used for analysis in this study. Toxic element testing was performed on 30 different teas by analyzing (i tea leaves, (ii tea steeped for 3-4 minutes, and (iii tea steeped for 15–17 minutes. Results were compared to existing preferred endpoints. Results. All brewed teas contained lead with 73% of teas brewed for 3 minutes and 83% brewed for 15 minutes having lead levels considered unsafe for consumption during pregnancy and lactation. Aluminum levels were above recommended guidelines in 20% of brewed teas. No mercury was found at detectable levels in any brewed tea samples. Teas contained several beneficial elements such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Of trace minerals, only manganese levels were found to be excessive in some black teas. Conclusions. Toxic contamination by heavy metals was found in most of the teas sampled. Some tea samples are considered unsafe. There are no existing guidelines for routine testing or reporting of toxicant levels in “naturally” occurring products. Public health warnings or industry regulation might be indicated to protect consumer safety.

  12. [Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves]. (United States)

    Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M


    The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.

  13. Coffee and tea: perks for health and longevity? (United States)

    Bhatti, Salman K; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J


    Tea and coffee, after water, are the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and are the top sources of caffeine and antioxidant polyphenols in the American diet. The purpose of this review is to assess the health effects of chronic tea and/or coffee consumption. Tea consumption, especially green tea, is associated with significantly reduced risks for stroke, diabetes and depression, and improved levels of glucose, cholesterol, abdominal obesity and blood pressure. Habitual coffee consumption in large epidemiological studies is associated with reduced mortality, both for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. In addition, coffee intake is associated with risks of heart failure, stroke, diabetes mellitus and some cancers in an inverse dose-dependent fashion. Surprisingly, coffee is associated with neutral to reduced risks for both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. However, caffeine at high doses can increase anxiety, insomnia, calcium loss and possibly the risk of fractures. Coffee and tea can generally be recommended as health-promoting additions to an adult diet. Adequate dietary calcium intake may be particularly important for tea and coffee drinkers.

  14. Fluorine in food with special reference to tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Hitchcock, A.E.; Gwirtsman, J.

    A review of the literature showed that in 1932 commercial tea, Camellia sinensis Kuntze (Thea sinensis L., Camellia thea Link.), was known to contain fluorine (F). Since ornamental camellias (C. japonica L.) and tea are members of the Theaceae family, comparisons were made of the F in leaves of the two species. The dry leaves of various domestic brands of tea, composed mostly of young leaves, contained 72 to 115 parts per million (p.p.m.) F and Chinese tea 131 to 178 p.p.m. F on a dry weight basis. One sample of fresh leaves of greenhouse grown tea plants contained 1530 p.p.m. F on a dry weight basis and the older leaves of ornamental camellias up to 3062 p.p.m. F. One sample of young leaves of C. japonica contained 67 p.p.m. F. Thus both species of Camellia have the capacity to accumulate relatively large amounts of F, especially in the older leaves. The infusion (beverage) from one tea bag in 4.5 fluid oz. of water contained 0.8 to 1.7 p.p.m. F after 3 minutes steeping and 1.0 to 2.0 p.p.m. F after 3 minutes boiling.

  15. Development and efficacy assessments of tea seed oil makeup remover. (United States)

    Parnsamut, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N


    The efficacy of tea seed oil to clean foundation and eyeliner was evaluated. The safe and efficient tea seed oil makeup remover was developed. In vitro cleansing efficacy of makeup remover was UV-spectrophotometric validated. The stability evaluation by means of accelerated stability test was conducted. In vitro and in vivo cleansing efficacy of the removers was conducted in a comparison with benchmark majorly containing olive oil. Tea seed oil cleaned 90.64±4.56% of foundation and 87.62±8.35% of eyeliner. The stable with most appropriate textures base was incorporated with tea seed oil. Three tea seed oil removers (50, 55 and 60%) were stabled. The 60% tea seed oil remover significantly removed foundation better than others (94.48±3.37%; Pmakeup removers had been developed. The consumers' choices towards the makeup remover containing the bio-oils are widen. In vitro cleansing efficacy during the course of makeup remover development using UV-spectrophotometric method feasible for pharmaceutic industries is encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. An Update on the Health Benefits of Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda C. Reygaert


    Full Text Available Green tea, which is produced from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. Over the past 30 years or more, scientists have studied this plant in respect to potential health benefits. Research has shown that the main components of green tea that are associated with health benefits are the catechins. The four main catechins found in green tea are: (−-epicatechin (EC, (−-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG, (−-epigallocatechin (EGC, and (−-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG. Of these four, EGCG is present in the largest quantity, and so has been used in much of the research. Among the health benefits of green tea are: anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, and benefits in cardiovascular disease and oral health. Research has been carried out using various animal models and cells lines, and is now more and more being carried out in humans. This type of research will help us to better understand the direct benefits of green tea. This review will focus primarily on research conducted using human subjects to investigate the health benefits of green tea.

  17. Dissipation, transfer and safety evaluation of emamectin benzoate in tea. (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Luo, Fengjian; Zhang, Xinzhong; Jiang, Yaping; Lou, Zhengyun; Chen, Zongmao


    The dissipation and residue of emamectin benzoate in tea leaves and the residue transfer from tea leaves to tea brew were investigated by modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass (UPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries ranged 85.3-101.3% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005mgkg(-1) in tea leaves and 0.0004mgL(-1) in brew. Emamectin benzoate dissipated rapidly in tea with half-life (t1/2) of 1.0-1.3days. The terminal residues of emamectin benzoate were less than 0.062mgkg(-1). The leaching rate of emamectin benzoate from freshly-made tea to brew was emamectin benzoate at the recommended dosage was negligible to humans depending on risk quotient (RQ) value, that was lower than 1 significantly. This study could provide guidance for the safe use of emamectin benzoate and serve as a reference for the establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Lead induced oxidative stress: beneficial effects of Kombucha tea. (United States)

    Dipti, P; Yogesh, B; Kain, A K; Pauline, T; Anju, B; Sairam, M; Singh, B; Mongia, S S; Kumar, G Ilavazhagan Devendra; Selvamurthy, W


    To evaluate the effect of oral administration of Kombucha tea (K-tea) on lead induced oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley rats were administered 1 mL of 3.8% lead acetate solution daily alone or in combination with K-tea orally for 45 d, and the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Oral administration of lead acetate to rats enhanced lipid peroxidation and release of creatine phosphokinase and decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase, GPx). Lead treatment did not alter humoral immunity, but inhibited DTH response when compared to the control. Lead administration also increased DNA fragmentation in liver. Oral administration of Kombucha tea to rats exposed to lead decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage with a concomitant increase in the reduced glutathione level and GPx activity. Kombucha tea supplementation relieved the lead induced immunosuppression to appreciable levels. The results suggest that K-tea has potent antioxidant and immunomodulating properties.

  19. Metabolism of methylamine in the tea plant (Thea sinensis L.) (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeo


    1. The metabolism of methylamine in excised shoot tips of tea was studied with micromolar amounts of [14C]methylamine. Of the [14C]methylamine supplied 57% was utilized by tea shoots during the 10h experimental period. 2. The main products of [14C]methylamine metabolism in tea shoots were serine, γ-glutamylmethylamide, theobromine, caffeine and CO2. There was also incorporation of the label into glutamate, aspartate, RNA purine nucleotides and S-adenosylmethionine. 3. The formation of methylamine from γ-glutamylmethylamide was confirmed by feeding tea shoots with γ-glutamyl[14C]methylamide. The products of γ-glutamyl[14C]methylamide metabolism in tea plants were serine, theobromine, caffeine, glutamate and aspartate. 4. The results indicate that the oxidation of methylamine to formaldehyde is the first step of methylamine utilization. Labelled formaldehyde released by the metabolism of methylamine leads to the incorporation of the label into metabolites on the C1 pathways of this compound. It is also suggested that formaldehyde is further oxidized via formate to CO2. 5. The role of γ-glutamylmethylamide in methylamine metabolism in tea plants is discussed. 6. Results support the view that theobromine is the immediate precursor of caffeine. PMID:4721610

  20. Detection of greenbug infestation on wheat using ground-based radiometry (United States)

    Yang, Zhiming

    Scope of methods of study. The purpose of this greenhouse study was to characterize stress in wheat caused by greenbugs using ground-based radiometry. Experiments were conducted to (a) identify spectral bands and vegetation indices sensitive to greenbug infestation; (b) differentiate stress caused due to greenbugs from water stress; (c) examine the impacts of plant growth stage on detection of greenbug infestation; and (d) compare infestations due to greenbug and Russian wheat aphid. Wheat (variety-TAM 107) was planted (seed spacing 1 in. x 3 in.) in plastic flats with dimension 24 in. x 16 in. x 8.75 in. Fifteen days after sowing, wheat seedlings were infested with greenbugs (biotype-E). Nadir measurement of canopy reflectance started the day after infestation and lasted until most infested plants were dead. Using a 16-band Cropscan radiometer, spectral reflectance data were collected daily (between 13:00--14:00 hours) and 128 vegetation indices were derived in addition to greenbug counts per tiller. Using SAS PROC MIXED, sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was identified based on Threshold Day. Subsequent to Threshold Day there was a consistent significant spectral difference between control and infested plants. Sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was further examined using correlation and relative sensitivity analyses. Findings and conclusions. Results show that it is possible to detect greenbug-induced stress on wheat using hand-held radiometers, such as Cropscan. Band 694 nm and the ratio-based vegetation index (RVI) derived from the band 694 nm and 800 nm were identified as most sensitive to greenbug infestation. Landsat TM bands and their derived vegetation indices also show potential for detecting wheat stress caused by greenbug infestation. Also, RVIs particularly derived using spectral band 694 nm and 800 nm were found useful in differentiating greenbug infestation from water stress. Furthermore, vegetation indices such as Normalized total

  1. [Fast Detection of Camellia Sinensis Growth Process and Tea Quality Informations with Spectral Technology: A Review]. (United States)

    Peng, Ji-yu; Song, Xing-lin; Liu, Fei; Bao, Yi-dan; He, Yong


    The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved

  2. The impact of stubble crop on spring barley weed infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Wrzesińska


    Full Text Available The condition and degree of weed infestation were determined in a spring barely crop grown in a short-term monoculture after mulching the soil with plants grown as a stubble crop (the control treatment without cover crop – lacy phacelia, white mustard, sunflower. The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2013 on good rye soil complex using a split-block design in four replications. The obtained results (the mean from all years of the experiment showed that the stubble crop, especially sunflower, reduced the diversity of weed species without causing at the same time changes in weed species dominance. In all the control treatments of the experiment, Chenopodium album and Fallopia convolvulus were the dominant species. The degree of spring barley weed infestation depended on the species grown in the cover crop. White mustard and lacy phacelia slightly increased the number of weeds but their fresh matter significantly increased. However, the sunflower cover crop significantly increased the number of weeds without any substantial differentiation of their fresh mass.

  3. Tenancy, Marriage, and the Boll Weevil Infestation, 1892-1930. (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre; Feigenbaum, James; Muller, Christopher


    In the early twentieth century, the cotton-growing regions of the U.S. South were dominated by families of tenant farmers. Tenant farming created opportunities and incentives for prospective tenants to marry at young ages. These opportunities and incentives especially affected African Americans, who had few alternatives to working as tenants. Using complete-count Census of Population data from 1900-1930 and Census of Agriculture data from 1889-1929, we find that increases in tenancy over time increased the prevalence of marriage among young African Americans. We then study how marriage was affected by one of the most notorious disruptions to southern agriculture at the turn of the century: the boll weevil infestation of 1892-1922. Using historical Department of Agriculture maps, we show that the boll weevil's arrival reduced the share of farms worked by tenants as well as the share of African Americans who married at young ages. When the boll weevil infestation altered African Americans' opportunities and incentives to marry, the share of African Americans who married young fell accordingly. Our results provide new evidence about the effect of economic and political institutions on demographic transformations.

  4. Do Aphids Alter Leaf Surface Temperature Patterns During Early Infestation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cahon


    Full Text Available Arthropods at the surface of plants live in particular microclimatic conditions that can differ from atmospheric conditions. The temperature of plant leaves can deviate from air temperature, and leaf temperature influences the eco-physiology of small insects. The activity of insects feeding on leaf tissues, may, however, induce changes in leaf surface temperatures, but this effect was only rarely demonstrated. Using thermography analysis of leaf surfaces under controlled environmental conditions, we quantified the impact of presence of apple green aphids on the temperature distribution of apple leaves during early infestation. Aphids induced a slight change in leaf surface temperature patterns after only three days of infestation, mostly due to the effect of aphids on the maximal temperature that can be found at the leaf surface. Aphids may induce stomatal closure, leading to a lower transpiration rate. This effect was local since aphids modified the configuration of the temperature distribution over leaf surfaces. Aphids were positioned at temperatures near the maximal leaf surface temperatures, thus potentially experiencing the thermal changes. The feedback effect of feeding activity by insects on their host plant can be important and should be quantified to better predict the response of phytophagous insects to environmental changes.

  5. Survival of Salmonella on chamomile, peppermint, and green tea during storage and subsequent survival or growth following tea brewing. (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Stam, Christina N; Gradl, Dana R; Chen, Zhengzai; Larkin, Emily L; Pickens, Shannon R; Chirtel, Stuart J


    The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35 °C at low (90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25 °C with low RH > 35 °C with low RH > 25 °C with high RH > 35 °C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25 °C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35 °C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55 °C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25 °C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process.

  6. Volatiles from Psylla-infested pear trees and their possible involvement in attraction of anthocorid predators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scutareanu, P.; Drukker, B.; Bruin, J.; Posthumus, M.A.; Sabelis, M.W.


    Previous work showed that anthocorid predators aggregate around gauze cages containing Psylla-infested trees in a pear orchard. Because anthocorids responded to odor from Psylla-infested leaves in a laboratory test, it was hypothesized that these aggregative responses in the field were triggered by

  7. Effects of intensive forest management practices on insect infestation levels and loblolly pine growth (United States)

    John T. Nowak; C. Wayne Berisford


    Intensive forest management practices have been shown to increase tree growth and shorten rotation time. However, they may also lead to an increased need for insect pest management because of higher infestation levels and lower action thresholds. To investigate the relationship between intensive management practices arid insect infestation, maximum growth potential...

  8. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in two districts of lower Punjab, Pakistan. (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Kasib


    Bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of Pakistan. The current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determinants. Multiple stage cluster random sampling was used and 3500 cattle and buffaloes from the two districts were selected. Prevalence of bovine tick infestation was significantly higher (OR=1.95; p2025; 47.3%). Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the major tick species (33.5%; 1173/3500), followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13%; 456/3500). The highest monthly prevalence in both the districts was found in July. Ticks were not found in Layyah from November to March and in Muzaffargarh from December to March. The average number of ticks was proportional to the prevalence of infestation. Also, tick infestation in a 7cmx7cm dewlap of the animal was proportional to that of the rest of body. Prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with district, host species and breed. In cattle, prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with age and sex of host. The results of this study provide better understanding of disease epidemiology in the study districts, which will help for planning of control strategies.

  9. Seasonal pattern of infestation by the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in pomegranate cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, S.A.; Goldansaz, S.H.; Fotoukkiaii, S.M.; Menken, S.B.J.; Groot, A.T.


    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) orchards in the Middle East are typically composed of a mix of different cultivars in which variation in fruit infestation by carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been observed. However, seasonal variation in infestation and

  10. Head lice infestation in school children of a low socio- economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 4, 2008 ... In the old Gaza city and the rural village Jabalia within the Gaza Governorate the rate of infestation with lice was 14.1% in the primary school girls. (Al-Shawa, 2006). In a high socio-economy area in Izmir,. Turkey, 4.2% of the studied population of the secondary and elementary school children were infested ...

  11. Efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of Sorghum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinstra, M.R.; Soumana, S.; Al-Khatib, K.; Kapran, I.; Toure, A.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.; Ochanda, N.W.; Salami, I.; Kayentao, M.; Dembele, S.


    Witchweed (Striga spp.) infestations are the greatest obstacle to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grain production in many areas in Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of herbicide seed treatments for controlling Striga infestation of sorghum. Seeds of an

  12. Determination of tea fluorine concentration with 19F(p, αγ)16O prompt nuclear reaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Daihua; Shen Guantao; Li Deyi; Wu Junheng


    Experiments of 19 F(p, αγ) 16 O prompt nuclear reaction analyses of tea F contents were performed on a Cockroft-Walton accelerator. The principle and apparatus are described. More than 150 varieties tea samples were examined. Results show that for the same variety of tea samples, the higher the grade of the tea, the higher the F concentration it contains, and for different varieties, the better the tea, the lower the F concentration of the tea

  13. A comparison of aluminum levels in tea products from Hong Kong markets and in varieties of tea plants from Hong Kong and India. (United States)

    Fung, K F; Carr, H P; Poon, B H T; Wong, M H


    This study project aimed to investigate the concentrations of aluminum (Al) in tea products available in Hong Kong markets. Tea samples consisting of 47 different tea bags and 28 samples of tea leaves were analysed for concentrations of Al. All tea samples released Al (0.70-5.93 mg L(-1)) during a standard infusion period. In comparison to the Joint FAO/WHO Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake guideline of 7 mg Al kg(-1) body weight, it was concluded that tea made with these tea leaves will not impose adverse human health impacts. The relative effects of age, soil available Al, and genetic differences on the levels of Al accumulated by tea bushes were investigated. It was found that there was no definite trend between the amount of Al accumulated and the age of tea bushes. The soil available Al influenced the levels of Al in Camellia sinensis to a certain extent, but it was evident that the ability of different varieties of C. sinensis to accumulate Al was variable. C. sinensis accumulated Al in all stages of growth. Young seedlings had lower contents of Al while the mobility of Al within the tea bushes was high. In a manner typical of hyperaccumulators, Al was not retained in the roots, but was consistently transported to the shoots. Aluminum in the tea bush was distributed between the different parts in the following order: mature leaves>roots>branches>young leaves.

  14. Tick infestation on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare in Tamil Nadu. (United States)

    Soundararajan, C; Nagarajan, K; Muthukrishnan, S; Arul Prakash, M


    The prevalence of tick infestation and their predilection sites on sheep, goat, horse and wild hare were studied at various places of Tamil Nadu, India. The prevalence of tick infestation in Madras red sheep, Tellicherry goat and horse was 77.11, 78.21 and 13.33%, respectively. Sheep were heavily infested with Haemaphysalis bispinosa followed by Hyalomma isaaci , Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides and H . anatolicum . The ticks from goats were identified as H . bispinosa , R . haemaphysaloides , H . isaaci and R . sanguineus . Horses were infested with Otobus megnini and R . sanguineus . The ticks on wild hare ( Lepus nigricollis ) were identified as R . haemaphysaloides and H . bispinosa . Wild hare acts as a source of infestation to the sheep and goats since these animals shared the same field.

  15. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model (United States)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  16. Differences in quality parameters between types of commercial tea from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Eugenia Thea


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE To determine differences in quality parameters between different types of tea elaborated in Argentina, water extract, crude fibre, caffeine, total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, sorption isotherms and colour parameters (L, a, b were determined. Fifty-one industrial samples of commercially available teas including green tea, semifermented tea, black tea and black tea sub-product (BTSP were used for this study.Water extract contents were significantly higher in black tea and green tea (40.3% and 40.7% w/w, respectively, while semifermented tea and BTSP showed higher levels of crude fibre (22.3% and 20.4% w/w, respectively. Caffeine contents of black teas (2.7% w/w were significantly higher than in the other types of tea. Green teas revealed the highest concentrations of phenolic compounds and the major antioxidant activities (14.9 g GAE/100g dm and 30.0 g AAE/100g dm, respectively. The results also highlighted significant differences (p<0.05 in colour values between the different types of tea.

  17. Antioxidative and Antimelanoma Effects of Various Tea Extracts via a Green Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihui Chen


    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis contains high level of antioxidant elements and is a well-known beverage consumed worldwide. The purpose of this study is to compare different concentrations of green tea, black tea, oolong tea 861, oolong tea 732, and jasmine green tea. These five types of tea extracts were known to have antioxidative properties, reducing power, and metal ion chelating activity. The current study compared these five extracts in terms of their inhibiting effects on human malignant melanoma: A2058 and A375. To determine the cell viability between normal cell and malignant melanoma cells, an MTT assay was applied to evaluate the cytotoxic potential on human melanoma cells, with all tea extracts showing decreased cell viability with increasing tea extract concentrations. Cytotoxicity on HaCat (normal skin cells showed no effect on the cell viabilities at lower concentrations of the tea extracts. These results suggest the antioxidative effect of five tea extracts that protect against oxidation and melanoma production, with green tea and jasmine green tea showing the lowest cell viability when tested against malignant melanoma cells.

  18. Tea and herbal infusions: Their antioxidant activity and phenolic profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoui, A.; Mansouri, A.; Panagiotis Kefalas; Boskou, G.


    Tea and herbal infusions have been studied for their polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profile. The total phenolics recovered by ethyl acetate from the water extract, were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and ranged from 88.1 ± 0.42 (Greek mountain tea) to 1216 ± 32.0 mg (Chinese green tea) GAE (Gallic acid equivalents)/cup. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by two methods, DPPH and chemiluminescence assays, using Trolox and quercetin as standards. The EC50 of herbal extracts ranged from 0.151 ± 0.002 mg extract/mg DPPH (0.38 quercetin equivalents and 0.57 Trolox equivalents), for Chinese green tea, to 0.77 ± 0.012 mg extract/mg DPPH (0.08 quercetin equivalents and 0.13 Trolox equivalents), for Greek mountain tea. Chemiluminescence assay results showed that the IC50 ranged from 0.17 ± 3.4 x 103 lg extract/ml of the final solution in the measuring cell (1.89 quercetin and 5.89 Trolox equivalents) for Chinese green tea, to 1.10 ± 1.86 x 102 g extract/ml of the final solution in the measuring cell (0.29 quercetin and 0.90 Trolox equivalents) for Greek mountain tea. The phenolic profile in the herbal infusions was investigated by LC-DAD-MS in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. About 60 different flavo- noids, phenolic acids and their derivatives have been identified. (author)

  19. Effects of {gamma}-radiation on white tea volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail:; Purgatto, Eduardo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental


    Tea is the second most widely consumed beverages in the world and is processed from two and a bud of Camellia sinensis (L.). Depending on the processing may give rise to four mainly teas (green, black, oolong and white tea). The white tea is the one that has recently awakened interest in scientific community due the fact that this tea has more antioxidant property and activity than green tea. A further industrialization and commercialization of these plants become a problem of public health. The presence of potentially toxigenic fungi can be found in these products, indicating a great potential for the presence of mycotoxins that can cause acute and chronic effects in different organs and systems of the human body. Ionizing radiation is one of the most effective means disinfecting dry food ingredients. This treatment can inhibit cellular life division, like microorganisms, promoting a molecular structural modification. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white tea. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at {sup 60}Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20-kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydrodistillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The results show that the quantities of volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. About 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all radiation doses and 47.53% of new compounds were identified after irradiation. (author)

  20. Effects of tea and coffee on cardiovascular disease risk. (United States)

    Bøhn, Siv K; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D


    Tea and coffee have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), both positively and negatively. Epidemiological data suggest that black and green tea may reduce the risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke by between 10 and 20%. Experimental and clinical trial data generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects on risk factors and pathways linked to the development of CVD. Controversy still exists regarding the effects of coffee, where there have been concerns regarding associations with hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, long term moderate intake of coffee is not associated with detrimental effects in healthy individuals and may even protect against the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The detrimental effects of coffee may be associated with the acute pressor effects, most likely due to caffeine at high daily intakes, and lipids from boiled coffee can contribute to raised serum cholesterol. Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in uptake, metabolism and excretion of tea and coffee compounds are also associated with differential biological effects. Potential mechanisms by which tea and coffee phytochemicals can exert effects for CVD protection include the regulation of vascular tone through effects on endothelial function, improved glucose metabolism, increased reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of foam cell formation, inhibition of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and effects on platelet function (adhesion and activation, aggregation and clotting). The phytochemical compounds in tea and coffee and their metabolites are suggested to influence protective endogenous pathways by modulation of gene-expression. It is not known exactly which compounds are responsible for the suggestive protective effects of tea and coffee. Although many biologically active compounds have been identified with known biological effects, tea and coffee contain many unidentified compounds with potential

  1. Tea consumption and risk of ischaemic heart disease (United States)

    Li, Xia; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Si, Jiahui; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yiping; Ren, Xiaolan; Jiang, Ge; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming


    Objective To prospectively examine the association between tea consumption and the risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods Prospective study using the China Kadoorie Biobank; participants from 10 areas across China were enrolled during 2004–2008 and followed up until 31 December 2013. After excluding participants with cancer, heart disease and stroke at baseline, the present study included 199 293 men and 288 082 women aged 30–79 years at baseline. Information on IHD incidence was collected through disease registries and the new national health insurance databases. Results During a median follow-up of 7.2 years, we documented 24 665 (7.19 cases/1000 person-years) incident IHD cases and 3959 (1.13 cases/1000 person-years) major coronary events (MCEs). Tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of IHD and MCE. In the whole cohort, compared with participants who never consumed tea during the past 12 months, the multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for less than daily and daily tea consumers were 0.97 (0.94 to 1.00) and 0.92 (0.88 to 0.95) for IHD, 0.92 (0.85 to 1.00) and 0.90 (0.82 to 0.99) for MCE. No linear trends in the HRs across the amount of tea were observed in daily consumers for IHD and MCE (PLinear >0.05). The inverse association between tea consumption and IHD was stronger in rural (PInteraction 0.006 for IHD, tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of IHD. PMID:28077466

  2. Effects of γ-radiation on white tea volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Purgatto, Eduardo


    Tea is the second most widely consumed beverages in the world and is processed from two and a bud of Camellia sinensis (L.). Depending on the processing may give rise to four mainly teas (green, black, oolong and white tea). The white tea is the one that has recently awakened interest in scientific community due the fact that this tea has more antioxidant property and activity than green tea. A further industrialization and commercialization of these plants become a problem of public health. The presence of potentially toxigenic fungi can be found in these products, indicating a great potential for the presence of mycotoxins that can cause acute and chronic effects in different organs and systems of the human body. Ionizing radiation is one of the most effective means disinfecting dry food ingredients. This treatment can inhibit cellular life division, like microorganisms, promoting a molecular structural modification. The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of radiation on volatile formation in white tea. Samples were irradiated in room temperature at 60 Co source Gammacell 220 (A.E.C. Ltda) at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20-kGy. The volatiles organic compound was extracted by hydrodistillation and the extract was separated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The results show that the quantities of volatiles formations are directly proportional to the increase of radiation dose. About 37.86% of the compounds were stable at all radiation doses and 47.53% of new compounds were identified after irradiation. (author)

  3. Large-bodied Demodex mite infestation in 4 dogs. (United States)

    Hillier, Andrew; Desch, Clifford E


    Large-bodied Demodex mites were detected in 4 dogs. The mites were readily detected in material obtained via deep skin scrapings and were most commonly found on the trunk. The mites were distinguishable from D. canis, because adult males were approximately 100% longer and adult females were approximately 50% longer than adult male and female D. canis mites, respectively. The large-bodied mites were found in the hair follicles, sebaceous ducts, and sebaceous glands in histologic sections of skin from 2 dogs. All dogs had adult-onset generalized demodicosis. Two dogs had coexistent iatrogenic hypercortisolism, 1 dog had hypothyroidism, and 1 dog did not have coexistent disease. Infestations responded to miticidal therapy, control of the coexistent disease, or both.

  4. Simulated radiation disinfestation of infested cocoa beans in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.


    Four major insect pests persistently affect the cocoa industry in Ghana, the world's leading exporter of cocoa, despite the conventional methods of chemical control in practice. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission currently is investigating the possible use of radiation for the control of both insect attack and microbial spoilage of cocoa beans in storage. Radiation response studies of the four major insect pests that significantly affect the quality of dried cocoa beans in storage have been evaluated. Results herein reported were based on simulated bulk infestation radiation disinfestation of dried cocoa under field and laboratory conditions at ambient temperature (25 to 32 0 C). The comparative efficiency of locally available packaging materials best suited for bagging of the dried cocoa beans at and after irradiation have been assessed concurrently. The author concludes by identifying and discussing possible factors that could affect the technology of radiation disinfestation of cocoa beans under the Ghanaian context. (author)

  5. Hookworm infestation in children presenting with melena-case series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, A.; Cheema, H.A.; Alvi, A; Suleman, H.


    Hookworm infection is common in children and can present with symptoms of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and severe anemia. Ten children below 5 years presenting with me lena and severe pallor were seen from December 2006 to May 2007 in the gastroenterology and hepatology department of children's hospital, Lahore. All patients had history of transfusion. Complete blood picture, eosinophil count with peripheral smear, stool complete examination for ova and cysts were performed in all cases while upper and lower gastrointestinal Endoscopies were performed in three patients to locate the source of bleeding. Stool routine examination in all these cases confirmed hook worm ova. These patients were managed with Antihelmenthic and stool complete examination was done three days after the medicine. There was no mortality. Though upper gastrointestinal bleeding with hookworm infestation is very rare but in the developing Countries it should be considered when other causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are ruled out. (author)

  6. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi


    Full Text Available Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation.

  7. Ventilation in homes infested by house-dust mites. (United States)

    Sundell, J; Wickman, M; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, S L


    Thirty single-family homes with either high (> or = 2000 ng/g) or low (< or = 1000 ng/g) house-dust mite (HDM) allergen levels in mattress dust were examined for ventilation, thermal climate, and air quality (formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC). Elevated concentrations of HDM allergen in mattress and floor dust were associated with the difference in absolute humidity between indoor and outdoor air, as well as with low air-change rates of the home, particularly the bedroom. No correlation was found between concentration of TVOC or formaldehyde in bedroom air and HDM allergen concentration. In regions with a cold winter climate, the air-change rate of the home and the infiltration of outdoor air into the bedroom appear to be important for the infestation of HDM.

  8. The Effect of Green Tea and Sour Tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Muscle Damage in Athletes. (United States)

    Hadi, Amir; Pourmasoumi, Makan; Kafeshani, Marzieh; Karimian, Jahangir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan


    Additional oxygen consumption during intense exercises may lead to oxidative stress and contribute to muscular fatigue. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), which contain various flavonoids and polyphenols, have many healthful properties such as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and heart protecting effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer athletes. This randomized, double-blind control trial was conducted on 54 male soccer players. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups to receive: 450 mg/d green tea extract (GTE) in the first group (n = 18), 450 mg/d sour tea extract (STE) in the second group (n = 18) and 450 mg/d maltodextrin in the control group (n = 18). Fasting whole blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and the end of the study to quantify the serum levels of muscle damage indices, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). After six weeks intervention, athletes who received GTE and STE supplements compared with the placebo had a significantly decreased MDA level (P = 0.008). Furthermore, STE supplementation resulted in a significant increase in TAC level compared with GTE and placebo groups (P = 0.01). However, supplementation with GTE and STE had no significant effects on muscle damage indices. GTE and STE supplementation have beneficial effects on oxidative stress status in male athletes. However, both kinds of tea extract did not affect muscle damage status.

  9. Reflectance spectroscopy of biochemical components as indicators of tea, Camellia Sinensis, quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bian, B.M.; Skidmore, A.K.; Schlerf, M.; Fei, T.; Liu, Y.F.; Wang, T.


    The potential of reflectance spectroscopy to estimate the concentration of biochemical compounds related to tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)) quality (total tea polyphenols and free amino acids) is demonstrated. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was performed to establish the relationship between

  10. Safety and efficacy of herbal tea for patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Syarihan Abdullah


    Conclusion: GC Tea has benefits in reducing risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity. GC Tea also has antioxidant properties that help reduce risk of cancer. Only mild adverse effects were reported when consuming these herbs in recommended dose.

  11. Comparative assessment of total polyphenols, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of different tea varieties of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yead Morshed Nibir


    Conclusions: Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated that Bangladeshi tea, especially the green tea, may act as a substitute for natural antioxidants and as a promising antibacterial agent for beneficial influence in human health.

  12. Study on essential and toxic elements intake from drinking of Chinese tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Qing Zhang; Bang-Fa Ni; Wei-Zhi Tian; Gui-Ying Zhang; Dong-Hui Huang; Cun-Xiong Liu; Cai-Jin Xiao; Hong-Chao Sun; Chang-Jun Zhao


    Twenty different brands of Chinese tea were analyzed for multiple trace elements, including some essential and toxic elements, by neutron activation analysis (NAA). A comparison among tea brands from China, India, US and other countries was made for the ranges and averages of concentrations for Na, K, Mn, Cu, and Br. It has been observed that the trace element contents in tea leaves are largely dependent upon the soil and the environment where the tea grows. Chinese tea is rich in Mn and Cu comparing with those of other counties surveyed, but is indigent in Na. The transference ratio for each element determined (i.e., the fraction of an element in tea leave transferred into solution when tea is leached by percolation) is also reported. Adult daily intakes of some essential and toxic elements from tea drinking were also estimated. (author)

  13. Nano-watt fueling from a micro-scale microbial fuel cell using black tea waste

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Alqarni, Wejdan Mohammed Mofleh; Kalantan, Kalthom Kamil Saleh; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Mink, Justine E.


    In this report, we show the rapid assessment of black tea as potential fuel to power up nanopower systems using a microsized, simplistic and sustainable air-cathode microbial fuel cell. It was found that tea produced more power compared

  14. A Two Years Study of Ticks infesting Goats and Sheep in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlKhalifa, Mohamed S.; Khalil, Galila M.; Diab, Fathi M.


    The weather in Abha was characterized by a temperature of 11.7-23.7 degree C, a relative humidity 0f 40-92% and rainfall of 0.2-275mm during a study period of 1990 and 1991. More ticks infested the goats in 1990 than in 1991 while more ticks infested sheep in 1991 than in 1990. The tick species collected monthly from 10 goats during these years were, respectively, Rhipicephalus turanicus (95.1 and 67.1%), Haemaphysalis sulcata (4.0 and 25.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (0.2 and 1.0%) and H. impeltatum (0.7 and 6.1%). Goat infestation rate with R. turanicus was 60-100% in 1990 with peaks in January, April, July, November and December when 90-100% of the goats were infested with 6.3-8.3 ticks/goat. In 1991, goat infestation rate was 10-100% with peaks in April, July and December when all goats were infested with 5.6-9.0 ticks/goat, with a sex ratio of 0.40:1-2.00:1 in both years, respectively. The ticks collected monthly from 10 sheep during these years were, respectively, R. turanicus (89.2 and 86.2%), Haem. sulcata (5.7 and 4.9%), H. a. anatolicum (1.2 and 1.0%), H. a. excavatum (0.7 and 1.2%), H. dromedarii (0.9 and 0.4%), H. marginatum rufipes (1.4 and 4.1%), H. m. turanicum (0.0 and 1.2%) and H. impeltatum (0.9 and 1.0%). Sheep infestation rate with R. turanicus was 30-100% in both years with a peak in June in 1990 when all sheep were infested with 13.8 ticks/sheep and 2 peaks in April and June in 1991 when all sheep were infested with 25.0-29.6 ticks/sheep, with a sex ratio of 0.2:1-2.6:1 and 0.6:1-4.5:1 in these years, respectively. The change in R. turanicus infestation in goats and sheep was not correlated with temperature, relative humidity or rainfall during both years except for the infestation in sheep in 1991, which was positively correlated with rainfall. With the exception of R. turanicus and Haem. sulcata, the other tick species infest primarily animals other than sheep and goats. It is recommended that control measures be directed toward the

  15. Green Tea Antioxidative Potential in Irradiated Pregnant Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafafy, Y.A.; Roushdy, H.ML.; Ashry, O.M.; Salama, S.F.; Abdel-Haliem, M.; Mossad, M.N.


    Green tea (Gt) derived from the leaves of Camellia sinensis contains polyphenolic compounds, also known as epicatechins, which are antioxidants in nature. This study aims to evaluate the possible anti oxidative potential of 2 concentrations of green tea extract in pregnant rats exposed to fractionated 3 Gy gamma irradiation of 1Gy installments at the 7 th, 11 th and 15 th days of gestation. Total and absolute white blood cells count, red blood cells count, hematocrit value, hemoglobin content and blood indices as well as glutathione were significantly decreased by irradiation at the end of the gestation period. Lipid peroxidation, serum lipid profile (total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol cone.) were elevated. Serum Na+ decreased and K+ ions elevated. Results revealed significant protection by both green tea cone, to counts of RBCs, WBCs, Hg, Ht, as well as lymphocytes and monocytes. Glutathione decreased with both green tea cone, and dropped further with both treatments. Lipid peroxidation and lipid profile were depressed. Moreover, Na+ and K+ levels were significantly ameliorated by both green tea cone., which suggests its applicability as an effective radioprotector. The steadily increasing use of nuclear and radiation technology extended to different fields, which has been paralleled by increasing potential risk for radiation exposure (Kajioka et al, 2000). The low-level radioactivity by environmental, medical and occupational settings has been found to cause several kinds of health damage including premature births, congenital defects, infant mortality, mental retardation, heart ailments, allergies/asthma, cancer, genetic damage and chronic fatigue syndrome (Sternglass, 1986)

  16. Coffee and tea consumption and the risk of Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Hu, Gang; Bidel, Siamak; Jousilahti, Pekka; Antikainen, Riitta; Tuomilehto, Jaakko


    Several prospective studies have assessed the association between coffee consumption and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, but the results are inconsistent. We examined the association of coffee and tea consumption with the risk of incident PD among 29,335 Finnish subjects aged 25 to 74 years without a history of PD at baseline. During a mean follow-up of 12.9 years, 102 men and 98 women developed an incident PD. The multivariate-adjusted (age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, education, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, alcohol and tea consumption, and history of diabetes) hazard ratios (HRs) of PD associated with the amount of coffee consumed daily (0, 1-4, and > or = 5 cups) were 1.00, 0.55, and 0.41 (P for trend = 0.063) in men, 1.00, 0.50, and 0.39 (P for trend = 0.073) in women, and 1.00, 0.53, and 0.40 (P for trend = 0.005) in men and women combined (adjusted also for sex), respectively. In both sexes combined, the multivariate-adjusted HRs of PD for subjects drinking > or = 3 cups of tea daily compared with tea nondrinkers was 0.41 (95% CI 0.20-0.83). These results suggest that coffee drinking is associated with a lower risk of PD. More tea drinking is associated with a lower risk of PD. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Reactions of green and black teas with Cu(II). (United States)

    Goodman, B A; Ferreira Severino, J; Pirker, K F


    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of the products of reactions between Cu(II) and samples of green and black teas showed spectral components from at least six different Cu(II) complexes with both tea types. Several of these complexes were common to both teas in spite of major differences in their polyphenol compositions. The pH range observed for complex formation, and the total signal intensity in the pH range 4-8, were greatly different from those for the reactions of Cu(II) with (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid, the main polyphenols responsible for the free radical signals observed during oxidation of these beverages. Components with spectral parameters similar to those of Cu(II) complexes with theanine, the major amino acid in tea, may contribute to two of the spectra recorded under acidic conditions. However, the initial complexes formed at the lowest pH values investigated are still unidentified. EPR spectra with parameters consistent with Cu(II) polyphenol complexes were only observed under alkaline conditions, thus suggesting that components of tea other than polyphenols might be more important in reactions with copper, and possibly other transition metals, in solutions under physiological conditions. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  18. Agricultural knowledge and information system on tea farming in Vietnam : implications for strengthening the extension service


    Kieu Thi Thu, Huong


    Tea plays an important role in improving income and generating employment in the northern uplands of Vietnam. However, the tea sector is reportedly performing below its potential: low yields and productivity, and low product quality. Among the major problems affecting tea production is the limited access of tea producers to information both in production and marketing; low level of connections between actors in agricultural extension, researchers and the farmers themselves. This research t...

  19. Transition to Organic Tea Production in the Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam: Economic and Environmental Impacts


    Nghia Dai Tran


    This study from Vietnam shows that a switch from conventional to organic tea productions would bring real environmental, health and economic benefits for the country's farmers and its society as a whole. In particular, the amount of agrochemical residue and waste produced by tea production would be reduced. Farmers would also be able to enjoy a better livelihood as they could command a premium price for their organic tea products. The study therefore recommends that organic tea production is ...

  20. The protective activity of tea against infection by Vibrio cholerae O1. (United States)

    Toda, M; Okubo, S; Ikigai, H; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, Y; Shimamura, T


    Extracts of black tea exhibited bactericidal activity against Vibrio cholerae O1. The tea extract inhibited the haemolysin activity of V. cholerae O1, El Tor and the morphological changes of Chinese hamster ovary cells induced by cholera toxin. Tea extract also reduced fluid accumulation induced by cholera toxin in sealed adult mice and by V. cholerae O1 in ligated intestinal loops of rabbits. These findings suggest that tea has protective activity against V. cholerae O1.

  1. Lead poisoning from drinking Kombucha tea brewed in a ceramic pot. (United States)

    Phan, T G; Estell, J; Duggin, G; Beer, I; Smith, D; Ferson, M J

    Kombucha tea is an alternative therapy that is gaining popularity as a remedy for a diverse range of ailments. We report two cases of symptomatic lead poisoning requiring chelation therapy in a married couple who had been drinking Kombucha tea for six months, brewing the tea in a ceramic pot. We postulate that acids in the tea eluted lead from the glaze pigment used in the ceramic pot, in a manner analogous to elution of lead from crystal decanters by wine and spirits.

  2. The scavenging effects of tea polyphenol and quercetin on active oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Ruoying; Cheng Jiwu; Hu Tianxi; Tu Tiechen; Dong Jirong; Wang Wenfeng; Lin Nianyun


    The abilities of scavenging active oxygen species, O 2 free radical and OH., by tea polyphenols and quercetin have been studied by chemiluminescence, ESR and pulse radiolysis. Tea polyphenols and quercetin are all phenolic antioxidants. The synergetic studies show that both tea polyphenols and quercetin are strong free radical scavengers. Tea polyphenols are better than quercetin. the results from CL studies are in good accord with those from ESR and PR studies

  3. Occurrence of Functional Molecules in the Flowers of Tea (Camellia sinensis Plants: Evidence for a Second Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyong Chen


    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is an important crop, and its leaves are used to make the most widely consumed beverage, aside from water. People have been using leaves from tea plants to make teas for a long time. However, less attention has been paid to the flowers of tea plants, which is a waste of an abundant resource. In the past 15 years, researchers have attempted to discover, identify, and evaluate functional molecules from tea flowers, and have made insightful and useful discoveries. Here, we summarize the recent investigations into these functional molecules in tea flowers, including functional molecules similar to those in tea leaves, as well as the preponderant functional molecules in tea flowers. Tea flowers contain representative metabolites similar to those of tea leaves, such as catechins, flavonols, caffeine, and amino acids. The preponderant functional molecules in tea flowers include saponins, polysaccharides, aromatic compounds, spermidine derivatives, and functional proteins. We also review the safety and biological functions of tea flowers. Tea flower extracts are proposed to be of no toxicological concern based on evidence from the evaluation of mutagenicity, and acute and subchronic toxicity in rats. The presence of many functional metabolites in tea flowers indicates that tea flowers possess diverse biological functions, which are mostly related to catechins, polysaccharides, and saponins. Finally, we discuss the potential for, and challenges facing, future applications of tea flowers as a second resource from tea plants.

  4. An analysis of antioxidants, organoleptics and hedonics with variations of boiling time in Jasmine tea and Jasmine root tea a study on Kaliprau, Pemalang (United States)

    Arifan, Fahmi; Winarni, Sri; Handoyo, Gentur; Nurdiana, Asri; Nabila Rahma H, Afkar; Risdiyanti, Sri


    There are so many jasmine plantations without any preservation and post production in Kaliprau, Pemalang. The aims of this research are analyzing the amount of antioxidant and organoleptic-hedonic test. The measurement of antioxidant used in this research is using DPPH. The organoleptic and hedonic test on 25 respondents. Jasmines that been used on this research are the flower and the root part. Through the test, some results have been found from the jasmine tea’s sampling with the boiling time of 15 minutes and it contain antioxidant for about 55.0% and 74.84% for the jasmine root tea. Whereas for the boiling time of 30 minutes, it contained 54.00% of antioxidant for the jasmine tea and 84.00% of antioxidant in jasmine root tea. Jasmine tea and jasmine root tea contains flavonoids. Despite the large amount of antioxidant were found in jasmine tea and jasmine root tea (50-100%). There’s a decreasing of antioxidant amount found in the samples, along with the prolonged boiling time. 84% of tresponden like the scent, flavor, color and the texture of jasmine tea and jasmine root tea. These products are finally accepted by the people and have its large amount of antioxidant contain for the jasmine tea.

  5. Radiocaesium concentration of the first crop of processed tea and it's extracts, and the second crop of processed tea manufactured in Kanagawa Prefecture in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya; Takeda, Hajime; Okamoto, Tamotsu; Funahashi, Hideto; Kita, Nobuhiro


    We conducted this study to understand the relation of 137 Cs concentration of the first crop of processed tea and that of its extracts manufactured in Kanagawa Prefecture in 2012. In the case of the first crop, processed tea was brewed in 30 times its volume in hot water (at 90℃) for 1 minute, the 137 Cs concentration of processed tea extracts was diluted to 1/68.9 that of processed tea on average and extraction efficiency of 137 Cs from processed tea was 46.2% on average. The correlation coefficient between 137 Cs concentration of the first crop of processed tea and that of extracts was 0.799(p 137 Cs concentration of the first and second crops of processed tea was analyzed. The 137 Cs concentration of the second crop of processed tea was 0.69 compared with that of the first crop of processed tea on average. The correlation coefficient between 137 Cs concentration of the first and second crop of processed tea was 0.803(p<0.01). (author)

  6. Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis and Associated Factors among Primary School Girls in Sirik County, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sanei-Dehkordi


    Full Text Available Background Head lice infestation (pediculosis is a serious health problem that can cause a high level of anxiety and psychological frustration, especially in developing countries.Socio-demographic factors are important determinants of the occurrence of head lice infestation. This study aimed to determine the head lice infestations and the factors affecting the rate of infestationin primary school girls.   Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 358 school girls from two urban and three rural primary school girls in Sirik County, Southern Iran, were randomly selected. For the diagnosis of head lice infestation, students were examined carefully by visual inspection of the scalp and hair for the presence of lice. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and associated factors of head lice infestation. SPSS version 21.0 was used to analyze the data. Results The prevalence of head lice infestation among primary school girls was 56.15%. There were significant associations between head lice infestation and age (p

  7. Bark-beetle infestation affects water quality in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado (United States)

    Mikkelson, K.; Dickenson, E.; Maxwell, R. M.; McCray, J. E.; Sharp, J. O.


    In the previous decade, millions of acres in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado have been infested by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) leading to large-scale tree mortality. These vegetation changes can impact hydrological and biogeochemical processes, possibly altering the leaching of natural organic matter to surrounding waters and increasing the potential for harmful disinfection byproducts (DBP) during water treatments. To investigate these adverse outcomes, we have collected water quality data sets from local water treatment facilities in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado that have either been infested with MPB or remain a control. Results demonstrate significantly more total organic carbon (TOC) and DBPs in water treatment facilities receiving their source water from infested watersheds as compared to the control sites. Temporal DBP concentrations in MPB-watersheds also have increased significantly in conjunction with the bark-beetle infestation. Interestingly, only modest increases in TOC concentrations were observed in infested watersheds despite more pronounced increases in DBP concentrations. Total trihalomethanes, a heavily regulated DBP, was found to approach the regulatory limit in two out of four reporting quarters at facilities receiving their water from infested forests. These findings indicate that bark-beetle infestation alters TOC composition and loading in impacted watersheds and that this large-scale phenomenon has implications on the municipal water supply in the region.

  8. Field infestation of rambutan fruits by internal-feeding pests in Hawaii. (United States)

    McQuate, G T; Follett, P A; Yoshimoto, J M


    More than 47,000 mature fruits of nine different varieties of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) were harvested from orchards in Hawaii to assess natural levels of infestation by tephritid fruit flies and other internal feeding pests. Additionally, harvested, mature fruits of seven different rambutan varieties were artificially infested with eggs or first-instars of Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), or oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) to assess host suitability. When all varieties were combined over two field seasons of sampling, fruit infestation rates were 0.021% for oriental fruit fly, 0.097% for Cryptophlebia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and 0.85% for pyralids (Lepidoptera). Species of Cryptophlebia included both C. illepida (Butler), the native Hawaiian species, and C. ombrodelta (Lower), an introduced species from Australia. Cryptophlebia spp. had not previously been known to attack rambutan. The pyralid infestation was mainly attributable to Cryptoblabes gnidiella (Milliere), a species also not previously recorded on rambutan in Hawaii. Overall infestation rate for other moths in the families Blastobasidae, Gracillariidae, Tineidae, and Tortricidae was 0.061%. In artificially infested fruits, both species of fruit fly showed moderately high survivorship for all varieties tested. Because rambutan has such low rates of infestation by oriental fruit fly and Cryptophlebia spp., the two primary internal-feeding regulatory pests of rambutan in Hawaii, it may be amenable to the alternative treatment efficacy approach to postharvest quarantine treatment.

  9. Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation of Tea Production Chains in Anxi, China (United States)

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare tea production systems in Anxi, China. Tea production was classified into three phases, i.e., the nursery, the plantation and tea processing, and each phase was evaluated. The results showed that the nursery subsystems...

  10. Both phenolic and non-phenolic green tea fractions inhibit migration of cancer cells (United States)

    Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-p...

  11. Effect of ultraviolet B irradiation on accumulation of catechins in tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of UV-B irradiation time on accumulation of foliar catechins in two tea cultivars was investigated. Low influence rate and short term irradiation of UV-B stimulated accumulation of major tea catechins, resulting in an increase in level of total catechins. Excessive irradiation of UV-B supressed the accumulation of tea ...

  12. Study on flavour volatiles of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile components of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) tea produced by two different kinds of technological process separately namely: vacuum and water immersion were studied. It was shown by the sensory evaluation that the color of the soup and the extracted leaves of GABA tea were similar to that of the oolong tea, ...

  13. Pu-erh Tea Inhibits Tumor Cell Growth by Down-Regulating Mutant p53 (United States)

    Zhao, Lanjun; Jia, Shuting; Tang, Wenru; Sheng, Jun; Luo, Ying


    Pu-erh tea is a kind of fermented tea with the incorporation of microorganisms’ metabolites. Unlike green tea, the chemical characteristics and bioactivities of Pu-erh tea are still not well understood. Using water extracts of Pu-erh tea, we analyzed the tumor cell growth inhibition activities on several genetically engineered mouse tumor cell lines. We found that at the concentration that did not affect wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) growth, Pu-erh tea extracts could inhibit tumor cell growth by down-regulated S phase and cause G1 or G2 arrest. Further study showed that Pu-erh tea extracts down-regulated the expression of mutant p53 in tumor cells at the protein level as well as mRNA level. The same concentration of Pu-erh tea solution did not cause p53 stabilization or activation of its downstream pathways in wild type cells. We also found that Pu-erh tea treatment could slightly down-regulate both HSP70 and HSP90 protein levels in tumor cells. These data revealed the action of Pu-erh tea on tumor cells and provided the possible mechanism for Pu-erh tea action, which explained its selectivity in inhibiting tumor cells without affecting wild type cells. Our data sheds light on the application of Pu-erh tea as an anti-tumor agent with low side effects. PMID:22174618

  14. Review and perspective on the composition and safety of green tea extracts (United States)

    The growing body of evidence regarding the putative health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis), including reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, has led to an increase in the consumption of brewed green tea and the formulation of green tea extracts (GTE) into a variety of food and ...

  15. The anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract in Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Fei, Tianyi; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang; Xie, Tianpei; Xu, Jifeng; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping


    Tea includes puer tea, black tea, green tea and many others. By using model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract were systemically examined in this study. We found that water extract of puer tea, black tea and green tea all increased the lifespan of worms, postponed Aβ-induced progressive paralysis in Alzheimer's disease transgenic worms, and improved the tolerance of worms to the oxidative stress induced by heavy metal Cr 6+ . Moreover, the anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract at low concentration were different among 4 kinds of brands of green tea. The underlying mechanisms were further explored using genetically manipulated-mutant worms. The anti-oxidative stress effects of green tea water extract depend on the dietary restriction and germline signaling pathways, but not the FOXO and mitochondrial respiratory chain signals. Therefore, tea water extract provides benefits of anti-aging, anti-AD and anti-oxidation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Copper bioavailability from breakfasts containing tea : influence of the addition of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaquero, M.P.; Veldhuizen, M.; Dokkum, W. van; Hamer, C.J.A. van den; Schaafsma, G.


    The influence of drinking tea on copper bioavailability is unclear, particularly when tea is consumed with food. A breakfast meal containing white bread, margarine, strawberry jam, cheese and tea, with or without milk, was digested in; vitro and the dialysis of copper investigated. Reference

  17. Addition of milk does not affect the absorption of flavonols from tea in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollman, P.C.H.; Hof, van het K.H.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Katan, M.B.


    Tea is a major source of flavonols, a subclass of antioxidant flavonoids present in plant foods which potentially are beneficial to human health. Milk added to tea, a frequent habit in the United Kingdom, could inhibit absorption of tea flavonoids, because proteins can bind flavonoids effectively.

  18. Migration and Accumulation of Octachlorodipropyl Ether in Soil-Tea Systems in Young and Old Tea Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liao


    Full Text Available The migration and accumulation of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE in soil-tea systems were investigated using a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD method in young and old tea gardens. When the residual concentration of OCDPE was 100 g a.i. hm−2 in soils, the peak concentrations of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were 0.365 mg/kg and 0.144 mg/kg, taking 45 days and 55 days, respectively. Equations for the accumulation curves of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were Ct = 0.0227e0.0566t (R2 = 0.9154 and Ct = 0.0298e−0.0306t (R2 = 0.7156, and were Ct = 3.8435e0.055t (R2 = 0.9698 and Ct = 1.5627e−0.048t (R2 = 0.9634 for dissipation curves, with a half-life of 14.4 days and 12.6 days, respectively. These results have practical guiding significance for controlling tea food safety.

  19. Effects of gamma radiation on sensorial properties in black tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Silva, Priscila V.; Santillo, Amanda G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ana.paula.silveira@usp.b, E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The black tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most consumed beverage in the world and its consumption has increased, manly in occidental countries, due to the fact that this drink has large antioxidants quantities. In this type of tea, the taste determines the product qualities and its final value. Several studies reported that food irradiation is an excellent process to disinfect food, reducing storage losses and extended its shelf life. This treatment can inhibit cellular division, promoting a molecular and DNA structural modification. Depending on the dose applied, the irradiation can modify sensorial properties, influencing the marked cost. The sensorial analysis is one of the main tests to detect any better or worse changes, by consumers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on sensorial properties in black tea. Samples will be irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source, at doses of 0, 5, and 10 kGy. (author)

  20. Effects of gamma radiation on sensorial properties in black tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, Ana Paula M.; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Silva, Priscila V.; Santillo, Amanda G.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.


    The black tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most consumed beverage in the world and its consumption has increased, manly in occidental countries, due to the fact that this drink has large antioxidants quantities. In this type of tea, the taste determines the product qualities and its final value. Several studies reported that food irradiation is an excellent process to disinfect food, reducing storage losses and extended its shelf life. This treatment can inhibit cellular division, promoting a molecular and DNA structural modification. Depending on the dose applied, the irradiation can modify sensorial properties, influencing the marked cost. The sensorial analysis is one of the main tests to detect any better or worse changes, by consumers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on sensorial properties in black tea. Samples will be irradiated with a 60 Co source, at doses of 0, 5, and 10 kGy. (author)

  1. Foliar absorption of 15N labeled urea by tea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshina, Tsuguo; Kozai, Shuji; Ishigaki, Kozo


    The effect of foliar application on the nitrogen nutrient status of tea shoots has been studied using 15 N labelled urea. Furthermore, the difference in nitrogen utilization by tea plant between foliar applied and top dressed nitrogen was investigated using 15 N labelled urea and ammonium sulfate. The foliar application of urea increased the amount of chlorophyll and total nitrogen in the new shoot, and the foliar application was more effective under shading condition. The urea sprayed upon old leaves prior to the opening of new leaf translocated to the new shoots. However, the foliar application after the opening of new leaf was more effective on nitrogen absorption by new shoots than one prior to that, and rather than top dressing for new shoots. It could be recognized that the foliar application of urea raises the nitrogen nutrient status of tea leaves in summer. (author)

  2. Effect of irradiation decontamination on the qualities of green tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Liu Chunquan; Yu Gang; Zhao Yongfu; Ji Ping; Jin Jie; Gu Guiqiang


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of irradiation on the main chemical components, such as heavy metal elements, pesticide residues as well as sensory qualities of green tea. The results indicated that irradiation had no significant impact on proteins, tea polyphenols, theine and heavy metal elements, slight differences in the contents of soluble sugar and amino acids. The content of cypermethrin reduced with the increase of irradiation dose. The color, liquor color, flavor and aroma of the tea decoction changed slightly when irradiated at the dose lower than 5 kGy. It was concluded that the optimal doses for the purpose of green team decontamination was at the range of 3-5 kGy according to the analysis of various quality factors. (authors)

  3. How would you like your tea, vicar? (United States)

    Jamnadas-Khoda, Benjamin; See, M S; Cubison, Colonel T C; Dheansa, B S


    Scald injuries are the commonest cause of paediatric burns leading to hospital admission both in the United Kingdom (National Burn Care Review Committee Report; 2001) and around the world. The cost and significant morbidity resulting from scald injuries reiterates the need for effective prevention campaigns for primary caregivers. The majority of scalds in children occur in the kitchen (49%) at home. Three children a day under the age of 5 (1100/year) are involved in scalds resulting from pulling on a cup of beverage onto themselves. We therefore aim to study the temperature of common beverages made at home and their potential to cause significant thermal injury. Common household beverages were formulated to assess the thermal characteristics. Each beverage was made in a standardized environment with constant ambient temperature of 22 degrees C. Beverages were made in 230 ml ceramic mugs, using boiled water from an electric kettle, instant coffee granules and teabags. Hot milk and hot water were prepared for comparison. Temperature readings were taken from 0 to 10 min. Cooling curves were then plotted. Milky beverages had the lowest starting temperatures (75-77 degrees C). Black tea and black coffee remained at temperatures greater than 65 degrees C despite cooling for 10 min. The addition of sugar did not alter the cooling rate. Similarly there was very little difference in cooling rates for skimmed and full fat milk. Addition of 10 ml rather than 5 ml of milk lowered the starting temperature and increased the cooling rates. Hot beverages can cause significant scald injuries especially in the paediatric population. We demonstrated the potential for a full thickness burn despite cooling for 10 min or the addition of cold milk. Thus the complacent attitude surrounding beverages under such conditions should be abolished. Our work also reiterates the need for education amongst caregivers regarding the handling of hot beverages in order to reduce the number of

  4. Green tea and its anti-angiogenesis effects. (United States)

    Rashidi, Bahman; Malekzadeh, Mehrnoush; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Masoudifar, Aria; Mirzaei, Hamed


    The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis. Indeed, they are the targets for anti-angiogenic drugs currently approved. Green tea (from the Camellia sinensis plant) is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is able to inhibit angiogenesis by different mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Green tea and its polyphenolic substances (like catechins) show chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic features in various types of cancer and experimental models for human cancers. The tea catechins, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have multiple effects on the cellular proteome and signalome. Note that the polyphenolic compounds from green tea are able to change the miRNA expression profile associated with angiogenesis in various cancer types. This review focuses on the ability of the green tea constituents to suppress angiogenesis signaling and it summarizes the mechanisms by which EGCG might inhibit the VEGF family. We also highlighted the miRNAs affected by green tea which are involved in anti-angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for carambolas infested with Caribbean fruit flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, W.P.; Windeguth, D.L. von


    Carambolas infested with the Caribbean fruit fly Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), eggs and larvae were exposed to ionizing gamma radiation. Probit 9 was estimated to be 22.95 Gy (95% fiducial limits 16.68 Gy - 49.73 Gy). Over 100,000 immature A. suspensa infesting carambolas were treated at 50 Gy with no adult survivors. This dose did not cause any observable damage to the fruit. The 50 Gy dose satisfies quarantine requirements for treatment of fruits exposed from fruit fly infested areas. (author) [es

  6. Annoying vacation souvenir: Fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium sp.) infestation in an Austrian fisherman. (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Haberl, Renate; Langner, Cord; Krejs, Günter J; Eherer, Andreas


    Diphyllobothriosis is infestation with the fish tapeworm. Although the worldwide incidence has decreased in recent decades, increased travel and the new popularity of dishes involving raw fish (e.g. sushi) may provide a higher risk of infestation in formerly low-risk areas. We report an Austrian fisherman who passed a 75 cm tapeworm segment in his stool. Infestation presumably occurred 14 months earlier during a fishing tour in Alaska. At presentation, the patient was asymptomatic, reported no weight loss and showed neither anaemia nor eosinophilia. He was cured with a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight praziquantel.



    Han, Yuqi


    China once acted as the world’s largest consumer and exporter of tea, but at the same time, it has always been nagged by the lack of brands. Faced with the changing marketing environment and consumer demand, building a strong brand has become the paramount task for Chinese tea companies to stand out in the fierce competitions. Marketing communication is always a significant tool in terms of building the brand awareness and favorable brand image among consumers. Lipton, which is the world’s le...

  8. Kombucha: is a cup of tea good for you? (United States)

    Holbourn, Ailsa; Hurdman, Judith


    A 54-year-old asthmatic woman presented to hospital with a 10-day history of breathlessness. On examination, she was tachypnoeic with mild wheeze. She had preserved peak flows and was saturating at 100% on room air. Investigations revealed severe metabolic lactic acidosis. On further questioning, it transpired that she drank kombucha tea, which has been linked to lactic acidosis. She made a full recovery with supportive management and cessation of the tea. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Efficient TEA CO2 laser based coating removal system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prinsloo, FJ


    Full Text Available stream_source_info Prinsloo_2007.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11617 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Prinsloo_2007.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Efficient TEA CO2 laser based... by keeping energy density below the damage threshold. The advantage of a pulsed TEA CO2 laser system is that a laser frequency and temporal profile can be chosen to maximize paint removal and concurrently minimize substrate damage. To achieve...

  10. The design of tea garden environmental monitoring system based on WSN (United States)

    Chen, Huajun; Yuan, Lina


    Through the application of wireless sensor network (WSN) in tea garden, it can realize the change of traditional tea garden to the modern ones, and effectively improves the comprehensive productive capacity of tea garden. According to the requirement of real-time remote in agricultural information collection and monitoring and the power supply affected by environmental limitations, based on WSN, this paper designs a set of tea garden environmental monitoring system, which achieves the monitoring nodes with ad-hoc network as well as automatic acquisition and transmission to the tea plantations of air temperature, light intensity, soil temperature and humidity.

  11. Probable gastrointestinal toxicity of Kombucha tea: is this beverage healthy or harmful? (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Smolinske, S; Greenbaum, D


    Kombucha tea is a health beverage made by incubating the Kombucha "mushroom" in tea and sugar. Although therapeutic benefits have been attributed to the drink, neither its beneficial effects nor adverse side effects have been reported widely in the scientific literature. Side effects probably related to consumption of Kombucha tea are reported in four patients. Two presented with symptoms of allergic reaction, the third with jaundice, and the fourth with nausea, vomiting, and head and neck pain. In all four, use of Kombucha tea in proximity to onset of symptoms and symptom resolution on cessation of tea drinking suggest a probable etiologic association.

  12. Helicopter thermal imaging for detecting insect infested cadavers. (United States)

    Amendt, Jens; Rodner, Sandra; Schuch, Claus-Peter; Sprenger, Heinz; Weidlich, Lars; Reckel, Frank


    One of the most common techniques applied for searching living and even dead persons is the FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared) system fixed on an aircraft like e.g. a helicopter, visualizing the thermal patterns emitted from objects in the long-infrared spectrum. However, as body temperature cools down to ambient values within approximately 24h after death, it is common sense that searching for deceased persons can be just applied the first day post-mortem. We postulated that the insect larval masses on a decomposing body generate a heat which can be considerably higher than ambient temperatures for a period of several weeks and that such heat signatures might be used for locating insect infested human remains. We examined the thermal history of two 70 and 90kg heavy pig cadavers for 21days in May and June 2014 in Germany. Adult and immature insects on the carcasses were sampled daily. Temperatures were measured on and inside the cadavers, in selected maggot masses and at the surroundings. Thermal imaging from a helicopter using the FLIR system was performed at three different altitudes up to 1500ft. during seven day-flights and one night-flight. Insect colonization was dominated by blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) which occurred almost immediately after placement of the cadavers. Larvae were noted first on day 2 and infestation of both cadavers was enormous with several thousand larvae each. After day 14 a first wave of post-feeding larvae left the carcasses for pupation. Body temperature of both cadavers ranged between 15°C and 35°C during the first two weeks of the experiment, while body surface temperatures peaked at about 45°C. Maggot masses temperatures reached values up to almost 25°C above ambient temperature. Detection of both cadavers by thermal imaging was possible on seven of the eight helicopter flights until day 21. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A comparative study of the effect of green tea and sour tea on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Kafeshani


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD are a set of metabolic disorders affecting heart and blood vessels. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. have attracted significant attention recently due to their high popularity, nutrient profile and therapeutic effects. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on blood pressure and lipid profile in healthy adult men. METHODS: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial included 54 healthy adult men. The participants were randomly assigned to two intervention groups receiving 450 mg green tea or sour tea and one placebo group which consumed 450 mg placebo (maltodextrin for 6 weeks. Blood pressure, lipid profile, dietary intake and physical activity were measured pre- and post-intervention and compared. RESULTS: After 6 weeks of intervention, sour tea supplementation led to a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP compared with the placebo group. However, we faild to find any significant difference in SBP between green tea and control groups. Also, no significant changes were observed in diastolic blood pressure (DBP and lipid profile between the three groups. In comparison with baseline, there was a significant increase in the mean level of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C in green tea and sour tea groups. Also, the interventions resulted in significant decrease in the mean levels of serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and DBP in the sour tea group compared with the pre-intervention value. CONCLUSION: On the basis of our findings, sour tea supplementation led to decreased SBP in healthy men compared with the placebo, but there was no significant difference between their effects on DBP and lipid profile. 


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baidya


    Full Text Available There are about 20 species of obligate and 50 species of facultative myiasis producing flies found in India. Out of these, the Old World screwworm fly Chrysomyia bezziana is the most important obligate myiasis-causing fly. Three repeated infestations at an interval of one month each, larvae of C. bezziana developed in the clinically abraded wounds in cattle. Average weights of the larvae during the 1st, 2nd and 3rd infestation were 62.18+0.441, 56.53+0.389 and 56.45+0.485 mg, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed significant (P<0.05 reduction in larval weight during the 2nd and 3rd infestations compared to the larval weight of the initial infestation.

  15. Mineral content of insect infested stored legumes treated with edible oils. (United States)

    Modgil, R


    Mineral content of three insect (pulse beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis L.) infested legumes viz. chick pea, mung pea and pigeon pea stored for six months and treated with three edible oils viz. groundnut, mustard and coconut oil has been studied. With increase in storage period significant increase in calcium, phosphorus and iron content of untreated legumes was observed. After three months of storage slight increase in three minerals was observed in the legumes treated with coconut oil which continued till the end of sixth months as compared to other two oil treated counterparts. The storage period was associated with insect infestation which in turn influenced the mineral content of legumes. Ground nut and mustard oils were able to protect legumes for six months against insect infestation when applied in small amounts (0.5%). Whereas coconut oil had protective effect against insect infestation for four months only.

  16. Relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density in Bushehr population

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    Somayeh Amiri


    Full Text Available Background: Tea consumption is common throughout the world, especially in Iran and it was known as the most common beverages. Several studies evaluated negative effect of coffee and relationship between its caffeine content with bone density. But relationship between tea drinking and bone mineral density is less observed. Considering high amount of tea consumption and prevalence of osteoporosis in Iran, it is important to investigate this relationship.Materials and Method: Population study includes 1125 subjects (aged 20- 72 years randomly selected by cluster sampling in Bushehr, who participated in general project of prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The participants were categorized based on degree of tea consumption: high tea drinkers (more than 4 cups of tea per day and low tea drinkers (equal or less than 4 cups of tea per day.Results: In high tea drinkers, mean score for bone density was significantly higher in neck and total femur. But this difference in isolated groups (according to sex, age and both of them was not seen.Conclusion: The result of this study indicates on a direct relationship between tea drinking and increasing of bone mineral density. Moreover, it shows the prevalence of osteoporosis is lower in people who have a regular daily habit of tea consumption

  17. Metabolomics analysis reveals the metabolic and functional roles of flavonoids in light-sensitive tea leaves. (United States)

    Zhang, Qunfeng; Liu, Meiya; Ruan, Jianyun


    As the predominant secondary metabolic pathway in tea plants, flavonoid biosynthesis increases with increasing temperature and illumination. However, the concentration of most flavonoids decreases greatly in light-sensitive tea leaves when they are exposed to light, which further improves tea quality. To reveal the metabolism and potential functions of flavonoids in tea leaves, a natural light-sensitive tea mutant (Huangjinya) cultivated under different light conditions was subjected to metabolomics analysis. The results showed that chlorotic tea leaves accumulated large amounts of flavonoids with ortho-dihydroxylated B-rings (e.g., catechin gallate, quercetin and its glycosides etc.), whereas total flavonoids (e.g., myricetrin glycoside, epigallocatechin gallate etc.) were considerably reduced, suggesting that the flavonoid components generated from different metabolic branches played different roles in tea leaves. Furthermore, the intracellular localization of flavonoids and the expression pattern of genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways indicate a potential photoprotective function of dihydroxylated flavonoids in light-sensitive tea leaves. Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and the antioxidation effects of flavonoids help chlorotic tea plants survive under high light stress, providing new evidence to clarify the functional roles of flavonoids, which accumulate to high levels in tea plants. Moreover, flavonoids with ortho-dihydroxylated B-rings played a greater role in photo-protection to improve the acclimatization of tea plants.

  18. Differential Contribution of Jasmine Floral Volatiles to the Aroma of Scented Green Tea

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    Jian-Xia Shen


    Full Text Available Tea volatiles’ generation and retention over manufacturing processes are crucial for tea quality. In this study, floral volatile adsorption and retention in green tea scented with Jasminum sambac flowers were examined over the scenting process. Out of 34 enhanced volatiles in the scented tea, β-ionone, β-linalool, indole, and methyl anthranilate were the most potent odorants with 5.1–45.2-fold higher odor activity values than the corresponding controls in the nonscented tea. Scenting efficiencies for the floral volatiles retained in the scented tea (the percentage of volatile abundance over its corresponding amount in jasmine flowers ranged from 0.22% for α-farnesene to 75.5% for β-myrcene. Moreover, due to additional rounds of heat treatment for scented green tea manufacturing, some volatiles such as carotenoid-derived geraniol and β-ionone and lipid-derived (Z-jasmone were heat-enhanced and others such as nonanal were heat-desorbed in the scented green tea. Our study revealed that dynamic volatile absorption and desorption collectively determined tea volatile retention and tea aroma. Our findings may have a great potential for practical improvement of tea aroma.

  19. Estimating Biochemical Parameters of Tea (camellia Sinensis (L.)) Using Hyperspectral Techniques (United States)

    Bian, M.; Skidmore, A. K.; Schlerf, M.; Liu, Y.; Wang, T.


    Tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.)) is an important economic crop and the market price of tea depends largely on its quality. This research aims to explore the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing on predicting the concentration of biochemical components, namely total tea polyphenols, as indicators of tea quality at canopy scale. Experiments were carried out for tea plants growing in the field and greenhouse. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), which has proven to be the one of the most successful empirical approach, was performed to establish the relationship between reflectance and biochemical concentration across six tea varieties in the field. Moreover, a novel integrated approach involving successive projections algorithms as band selection method and neural networks was developed and applied to detect the concentration of total tea polyphenols for one tea variety, in order to explore and model complex nonlinearity relationships between independent (wavebands) and dependent (biochemicals) variables. The good prediction accuracies (r2 > 0.8 and relative RMSEP < 10 %) achieved for tea plants using both linear (partial lease squares regress) and nonlinear (artificial neural networks) modelling approaches in this study demonstrates the feasibility of using airborne and spaceborne sensors to cover wide areas of tea plantation for in situ monitoring of tea quality cheaply and rapidly.

  20. Concentrations and solubility of selected trace metals in leaf and bagged black teas commercialized in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Polechońska


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in bagged and leaf black teas of the same brand and evaluate the percentage transfer of metals to tea infusion to assess the consumer exposure. Ten leaf black teas and 10 bagged black teas of the same brand available in Poland were analyzed for Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Al, and Fe concentrations both in dry material and their infusion. The bagged teas contained higher amounts of Pb, Mn, Fe, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf teas of the same brand, whereas the infusions of bagged tea contained higher levels of Mn, Ni, Al, and Cr compared with leaf tea infusions. Generally, the most abundant trace metals in both types of tea were Al and Mn. There was a wide variation in percentage transfer of elements from the dry tea materials to the infusions. The solubility of Ni and Mn was the highest, whereas Fe was insoluble and only a small portion of this metal content may leach into infusion. With respect to the acceptable daily intake of metals, the infusions of both bagged and leaf teas analyzed were found to be safe for human consumption.

  1. Exposure and risk assessment for aluminium and heavy metals in Puerh tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Hongbin; Qiao, Li; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Jianjiang


    As the consumption of Puerh tea is booming because of its multiple health-promoting effects, the possible health risks resulting from long-term exposure to metals contained in this tea need to be evaluated. To assess the human risk associated with drinking Puerh tea, concentrations of aluminium, lead, cadmium, mercury, zinc, copper and arsenic were determined in samples of Puerh tea, tea leaves from the plants, and planted soil collected from the Yunnan province, China. Site-specific exposure parameters such as body weight and consumption rate of Puerh tea were investigated in Kunming and Puer cities using face-to-face surveys. Health risks were evaluated for the inhabitants of Kunming and Puer cities by gender and by age groups. Although the Puerh tea plant easily absorbs aluminium from soil, the concentrations of Al and six other elements in Puerh tea were all far below the safety concentration limits of China. Both the HQ (Hazard Quotient) values for single elements and the HI (Hazard Index) value for all seven elements were far below one, indicating no non-carcinogenic risks from these seven elements for inhabitants of Kunming and Puer under the current consumption rates of Puerh tea. However, probabilistic estimation of carcinogenic risk shows that the 95th percentile carcinogenic rate of arsenic in Puerh tea approaches the accepted risk level of 10 -4 for the highest exposure group. Therefore, the arsenic in Puerh tea is of concern.

  2. Ambient Profiling of Phenolic Content in Tea Infusions by Matrix-Assisted Ionization in Vacuum (United States)

    Cody, Robert B.


    Matrix-assisted ionization in vacuum (MAIV) was used to analyze the polyphenol content of ten different tea infusions. Nine different Camellia sinensis infusions were analyzed including three green teas, two black teas, two oolong teas, jasmine tea, and white tea. An infusion of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea was also analyzed. Each freshly brewed tea was diluted 1:1 with methanol, and 100 ppm of phenolphthalein was added as an internal standard. An excess of 3-nitrobenzonitrile (NBN) was added to each vial, and the solution containing NBN crystals was analyzed by aspiration directly into the mass spectrometer sampling orifice. A working curve constructed for dilutions of catechin with phenolphthalein internal standard showed good linearity for five replicates of each concentration. The measured relative abundances of flavonoid polyphenols in each tea were in good agreement with previously reported values. Polyphenol content in tea infusions varied from 19.2 to 108.6 mg 100 mL-1. In addition to the expected catechin flavonoids, abundant quinic acid and gallic acid was detected in the C. sinensis infusions. Characteristic A. linearis flavonoids were detected in the rooibos tea.

  3. Polyphenol Bioaccessibility and Sugar Reducing Capacity of Black, Green, and White Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Coe


    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a widely consumed beverage and recognised for its potential enhancing effect on human health due to its rich polyphenol content. While a number of studies have investigated the quantity and type of polyphenols present in different tea samples, no study has reported the potential effect of digestive enzymes on the availability of tea polyphenols for human absorption or the subsequent impact on glycaemic response. The objectives of the present study were to assess the total polyphenol content of different teas, to assess the bioaccessibility of polyphenols in whole and bagged teas, and to determine the effect of black, white, and green tea infusions on sugar release. All of the teas were a significant source of polyphenols (10–116 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g. There was an overall increase in the release of polyphenols from both the bagged and the whole teas following in vitro digestion. Bagged green tea significantly ( reduced rapidly digestible starch from white bread samples compared to control and black and white bagged teas. The present study confirms that tea is a rich source of polyphenols and highlights the potential benefits it may have on modulating glycaemic response in humans.

  4. Analyses of fungal community by Illumina MiSeq platforms and characterization of Eurotium species on Liupao tea, a distinctive post-fermented tea from China. (United States)

    Mao, Yan; Wei, BaoYao; Teng, JianWen; Huang, Li; Xia, Ning


    Liupao tea is a distinctive Chinese dark tea obtained by indigenous tea fermentation facilitated by the symbiotic association of bacteria and fungi. The composition of fungal community in 4 Liupao tea samples stored for several years under natural microbial fermentation was evaluated by MiSeq sequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed 3 phyla, 6 families, 8 genera. The genera Eurotium and Aspergillus were dominant fungi in almost all the samples. A total of 85 strains found in 41 other tea samples were species of Eurotium. amstelodami, Eurotium. niveoglaucum, Eurotium. repens, Eurotium. rubrum, Eurotium. tonophilum and Eurotium. cristatum by culture-dependent method. Of these species, E. repens, E. rubrum and E. tonophilum have not been previously associated with Liupao tea. This report is the first to reveal fungal flora composition using Illumina-based sequencing and provide useful information for relevant studies on the isolation of Eurotium species in Liupao tea. The predominant molds are Eurotium species, and the comparison of fungal diversity in dark teas is worth considering. The taxonomic analysis of the microbial community would also aid the further study of functional genes and metabolic pathways of Liupao tea fermentation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Uptake, Translocation, Metabolism, and Distribution of Glyphosate in Nontarget Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.). (United States)

    Tong, Mengmeng; Gao, Wanjun; Jiao, Weiting; Zhou, Jie; Li, Yeyun; He, Lili; Hou, Ruyan


    The uptake, translocation, metabolism, and distribution behavior of glyphosate in nontarget tea plant were investigated. The negative effects appeared to grown tea saplings when the nutrient solution contained glyphosate above 200 mg L -1 . Glyphosate was highest in the roots of the tea plant, where it was also metabolized to aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA). The glyphosate and AMPA in the roots were transported through the xylem or phloem to the stems and leaves. The amount of AMPA in the entire tea plant was less than 6.0% of the amount of glyphosate. The glyphosate level in fresh tea shoots was less than that in mature leaves at each day. These results indicated that free glyphosate in the soil can be continuously absorbed by, metabolized in, and transported from the roots of the tea tree into edible leaves, and therefore, free glyphosate residues in the soil should be controlled to produce teas free of glyphosate.

  6. On Tea Bowl from Jianzhan to Tenmoku: Material Culture and Intangible Culture in Cultural Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Guan


    Full Text Available According to precise and scientific literature that recorded, Chinese tea culture has a documented history of more than 1700 years. During which period, Yuan Dynasty was considered a crucial turning-point with great changes. The current tea culture in China is an adoption and innovation of Ming and Qing dynasty, especially in the form of processing technology. For those elements inherited from Tang and Song dynasties, however, they were more directly adopted systematically by Japan. Ever since powdered tea culture from Song dynasty was accepted in Japan, Jianzhan, the tea bowl that gained renowned reputation in the Song tea culture was also introduced and became tenmoku (tianmu after localization. As the transformation of Chinese tea culture ended in Japan, Japanese tea culture of wabi-cha was shaped after the tenmoku’s obvious decline in value. Jianzhan’s prosper, and tenmoku’s emergence and transition, all proved a definitive impact from intangible culture.

  7. Determination of alpha activity produced by Indian tea samples using solid state nuclear track detection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, Ameer; Naqvi, A.H.; Srivastava, D.S.


    India has first place in the world in the production, consumption and export of tea. The average production of tea in India is about 780 million kg annually. Indian population uses tea as a favourite beverage specially with the breakfast. Tea leaves are perennial plants and they have extension root system spread over deeper layers in the soil. Soil contains uranium as trace element. Hence, uranium is transferred to the leaves as a result of uptake from the soil over the years. Since many of the decay products of uranium are alpha emitters hence tea is a source of alpha radioactivity and can cause damaging effects. Therefore, data on alpha activity of tea samples will be useful in estimating these harmful effects at least qualitatively. In the present study the alpha activity produced by thirteen samples of tea available in the local market was measured

  8. Predispersal infestation of Vochysia haenkeana seeds by Lius conicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Letícia Oliveira Lourenço

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The deficient development of fertile seeds of native forest plant species in Brazil limits the reproduction of these plants in various conditions. Among the limiting biotic factors in quality and quantity of the forest seeds, borer insects are quite prominent, before and after their dispersion. This study reports for the first time a host of the buprestid beetle Lius conicus (Gory & Laporte, 1840. The larval development of L. conicus takes place in the seed capsules of Vochysia haenkeana Mart. (Vochysiaceae, a typical tree species in the Brazilian cerrado biome. In two regions of the cerrado in Goiás State, Brazil, almost ripe fruits of V. haenkeana were collected directly from the plants. After natural drying, and fruit and seed processing in laboratory, damage caused by the L. conicus larvae was quantified and qualified. Bigger fruits were preferred as hosts. Fruits developing on the eastern side of the plant were most frequently occupied by L. conicus. Seed lots of bigger fruits showed damage up to 37.5% from the infestation by L. conicus larvae. There was only one larva per fruit, which damaged all the seeds of the capsule (three or four and generally consumed around 26% of the seed dry mass.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiation on Cysticercusbovisin infested cattle carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Mashak


    Full Text Available Taeniasis is one of the parasitic zoonotic diseases that could transmit through the consuming of semi-cooked or raw beef infested with Cysticercosebovis. Irradiation as a safe approach can be applied in order to eliminate parasites from foods. It can be used as a control method to prevent parasitic foodborne diseases. Therefore, in this study the cattle muscles containing live cysts were selected from two slaughterhouses of Alborz province and were subjected for gamma irradiation with different doses (0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1 and 1.5 KGY. Afterwards, the samples were stained with Eosin Methylene-Blue and were observed with light microscope to determine the viability of the cysts. The analysis of data was conducted with SPSS version 22. The results indicated that 0.8, 0.9, 1 and 1.5 KGY doses were capable to inactivate viable cysts significantly, with 72%, 82.6%, 90.9% and 91.6%, respectively. Therefore, 1 KGY is recommended as appropriate dose for elimination of C. bovis.

  10. On tea, donuts and non-commutative geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Nikolaev


    Full Text Available As many will agree, it feels good to complement a cup of tea by a donut or two. This sweet relationship is also a guiding principle of non-commutative geometry known as Serre Theorem. We explain the algebra behind this theorem and prove that elliptic curves are complementary to the so-called non-commutative tori.

  11. Black tea extract and dental caries formation in hamsters. (United States)

    Linke, Harald A B; LeGeros, Racquel Z


    Several studies have suggested that green tea and Oolong tea extracts have antibacterial and anticariogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a standardized black tea extract (BTE) on caries formation in inbred hamsters on a regular and a cariogenic diet. Eighty hamsters were divided into four groups of 20 animals each. Two groups received a pelleted regular diet (LabChow) with water or BTE ad libitum. The other two groups received a powdered cariogenic diet (Diet 2000, containing 56% sucrose) with water or BTE ad libitum. The animals were kept for 3 months on their respective diets and then were sacrificed. The heads were retained, the jaws were prepared and stained using alizarin mordant red II, and were then scored for dental caries according to the Keyes method. This is the first study indicating that BTE, as compared with water, significantly decreased caries formation by 56.6% in hamsters on a regular diet and by 63.7% in hamsters on a cariogenic diet (P cariogenic diet group BTE, reduced the mandibular caries score of the hamsters slightly more than the maxillary caries score. The fluoride content of the standardized BTE solution was frequently monitored during the experiment; the mean fluoride concentration was found to be 4.22 ppm. A frequent intake of black tea can significantly decrease caries formation, even in the presence of sugars in the diet.

  12. [Identification of green tea brand based on hyperspectra imaging technology]. (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Liang; Liu, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Feng-Le; He, Yong


    Hyperspectral imaging technology was developed to identify different brand famous green tea based on PCA information and image information fusion. First 512 spectral images of six brands of famous green tea in the 380 approximately 1 023 nm wavelength range were collected and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed with the goal of selecting two characteristic bands (545 and 611 nm) that could potentially be used for classification system. Then, 12 gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features (i. e., mean, covariance, homogeneity, energy, contrast, correlation, entropy, inverse gap, contrast, difference from the second-order and autocorrelation) based on the statistical moment were extracted from each characteristic band image. Finally, integration of the 12 texture features and three PCA spectral characteristics for each green tea sample were extracted as the input of LS-SVM. Experimental results showed that discriminating rate was 100% in the prediction set. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) assessment methods were used to evaluate the LS-SVM classification algorithm. Overall results sufficiently demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging technology can be used to perform classification of green tea.

  13. Repetitively pulsed, double discharge TEA CO/sub 2/ laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, D C; James, D J; Ramsden, S A


    The design and operation of a repetitively pulsed TEA CO/sub 2/ laser is described. Average powers of up to 400 W at a repetition frequency of 200 pulses/s have been obtained. The system has also been used to provide long pulses (over 20 and tunable single axial mode pulses.

  14. Green Tea and Its Extracts in Cancer Prevention and Treatment

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    Johannes Schulze


    Full Text Available Green tea (GT and green tea extracts (GTE have been postulated to decrease cancer incidence. In vitro results indicate a possible effect; however, epidemiological data do not support cancer chemoprevention. We have performed a PubMED literature search for green tea consumption and the correlation to the common tumor types lung, colorectal, breast, prostate, esophageal and gastric cancer, with cohorts from both Western and Asian countries. We additionally included selected mechanistical studies for a possible mode of action. The comparability between studies was limited due to major differences in study outlines; a meta analysis was thus not possible and studies were evaluated individually. Only for breast cancer could a possible small protective effect be seen in Asian and Western cohorts, whereas for esophagus and stomach cancer, green tea increased the cancer incidence, possibly due to heat stress. No effect was found for colonic/colorectal and prostatic cancer in any country, for lung cancer Chinese studies found a protective effect, but not studies from outside China. Epidemiological studies thus do not support a cancer protective effect. GT as an indicator of as yet undefined parameters in lifestyle, environment and/or ethnicity may explain some of the observed differences between China and other countries.

  15. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

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    Yating Zhang


    Full Text Available As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  16. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea. (United States)

    Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Qin, Guangyong


    As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE) technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  17. Characterization of Armillaria isolates from tea (Camellia sinensis) in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otieno, W.; Perez Sierra, A.; Termorshuizen, A.J.


    Armillaria is a primary root rot pathogen of tea (Camellia sinensis) in Kenya. The main species presently described in this country are A. mellea and A. heimii. A survey covering fourteen districts of Kenya was carried out and forty-seven isolates of Armillaria collected. Cultural morphology,

  18. Kenyan purple tea anthocyanins ability to cross the blood brain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... demonstration that Kenyan purple tea ACNs can cross the BBB, reinforcing the brain's antioxidant capacity. Hence, there is need to study ACNs as suitable candidates for dietary supplements that could support antioxidant capacity in the brain and have potential to provide neuroprotection in neurodegenerative conditions.

  19. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj P Jain


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb.

  20. Evaluation of γ-radiation on oolong tea odor volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, G.B.; Duarte, R.C.; Santillo, A.G.; Pinto e Silva, M.E.M.; Purgatto, E.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gamma radiation effects on odor volatiles in oolong tea at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatile organic compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The irradiation has a large influence on oolong tea odor profile, once it was identified 40% of new compounds after this process, the 5 kGy and 20 kGy were the doses that degraded more volatiles found naturally in this kind of tea and the dose of 10 kGy was the dose that formed more new compounds. Statistical difference was found between the 5 kGy and 15 kGy volatile profiles, however the sensorial analysis showed that the irradiation at dose up 20 kGy did not interfere on consumer perception. - Highlights: ► Forty percent of compounds identified with odor were formed after irradiation. ► Dose of 5 kGy and 20 kGy were the radiation dose that degraded more odors compounds. ► Gamma radiation showed has a direct influence on volatile compounds in oolong tea.

  1. Some engineering properties of shelled and kernel tea ( Camellia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some engineering properties (size dimensions, sphericity, volume, bulk and true densities, friction coefficient, colour characteristics and mechanical behaviour as rupture ... The static coefficients of friction of shelled and kernel tea seeds for the large and small sizes higher values for rubber than the other friction surfaces.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifedotun Aina

    supported the use of artemisia annua tea and capsules for the treatment of malaria ... There is also the need for further studies to determine the active ... night sleep, cleared nasal and head stuffiness', and felt relieved from malaria .... antioxidants and their potential synergism with artemisinin against malaria and cancer.

  3. Improving the sweet aftertaste of green tea infusion with tannase. (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Na; Yin, Jun-Feng; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Du, Qi-Zhen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Xu, Yong-Quan


    The present study aims to improve the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability of green tea infusion by hydrolyzing (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with tannase. The results showed that the intensity of the sweet aftertaste and the score of overall acceptability of the green tea infusion significantly increased with the extension of the hydrolyzing treatment. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were found to be the main contributors for the sweet aftertaste, based on a trial compatibility with EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC monomers, and a synergistic action between EGC and EC to sweet aftertaste was observed. A 2.5:1 (EGC/EC) ratio with a total concentration of 3.5 mmol/L gave the most satisfying sweet aftertaste, and the astringency significantly inhibited the development of the sweet aftertaste. These results can help us to produce a tea beverage with excellent sweet aftertaste by hydrolyzing the green tea infusion with tannase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes. TI Mbata, LU Debiao, A Saikia. Abstract. The antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis on Listeria monocytogenes were investigated using agar-gel diffusion, paper disk ...

  5. The legend of laphet: A Myanmar fermented tea leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thazin Han


    Conclusion: Fermentation is the traditional method. Epigallocatechin gallate is a powerful constituent of laphet for human health. Its caffeinated effect is also popular in Myanmar society. This study will contribute to understanding Myanmar fermented tea leaves and spread the legend of laphet around the world.

  6. Diversity of Catechin in Northeast Indian Tea Cultivars (United States)

    Sabhapondit, Santanu; Karak, Tanmoy; Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Goswami, Bhabesh Chandra; Hazarika, Mridul


    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaf contains a large amount of catechins (a group of very active flavonoids) which contribute to major quality attributes of black tea. Based on morphological characters tea plants were classified as Assam, China, and Cambod varieties. The present study is an attempt for biochemical fingerprinting of the tea varieties based on catechin composition in green leaf of cultivars grown in Northeast India. Assam variety cultivars contained the highest level of catechins followed by Cambod and China. The average catechin contents were 231 ± 7 mg g−1, 202 ± 5 mg g−1, and 157 ± 4 mg g−1 of dry weight of green leaf for Assam, Cambod, and China cultivars, respectively. Among the individual catechins the variations in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC) were the most prominent among the varieties. High EGC content was found to be a characteristic of Assam variety which was further corroborated through multivariate analysis. PMID:22448135

  7. Assessment of the Biological Treatability of Black Tea Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anaerobic degradability of tea beverage processing effluent was assessed using a stationary upflow anaerobic filter. The filter, with an active column of 1.2m height, inner diameter of 100 mm and filled with rock as the attachment medium was operated at room temperature ranging between 20-250C throughout the ...

  8. Clinical efficacy of a tea-bag formulation of Cryptolepis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a tea bag formulation of the root of C. sanguinolenta. Design: This is a prospective descriptive open trial. Setting: Patients were recruited from Korle-Bu, Mamprobi and Dansoman Polyclinics. Subjects: Forty-four subjects with uncomplicated malaria were recruited for ...

  9. Antioxidant capacity of different types of tea products | Karori ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, twelve different types of commercial tea samples were assayed to determine their phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography using a binary gradient system was used for the identification and quantification of individual catechins. Subsequently ...

  10. Productive efficiency of tea industry: A stochastic frontier approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an economy where recourses are scarce and opportunities for a new technology are lacking, studies will be able to show the possibility of raising productivity by improving the industry's efficiency. This study attempts to measure the status of technical efficiency of tea-producing industry for panel data in Bangladesh using ...

  11. Discrimination of Xihulongjing tea grade using an electronic tongue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five grades of Xihulongjing tea (grade: AAA, AA, A, B and C, from the same region and processed with the same processing method) were discriminated using -Astree II electronic tongue (e-tongue) coupled with pattern recognition methods including principal component analysis (PCA), canonical discriminant analysis ...

  12. Effects of Malathion Dust and Mexican Tea Powder ( Chenopodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted in the laboratory at the Bako Agricultural Research Center, from January to July 2013. Combinations of different rates of Malathion and Mexican tea powder were evaluated against the maize weevil in no choice situations. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete design with ...

  13. some factors influencing the free fluoride content in black tea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Fluoride is an essential micro-nutrient owing to its role in the prevention of dental caries. Chronic exposure to high levels of the ion (F-) results in both dental and skeletal fluorosis. A study was carried out to determine free fluoride content in tea (Camellia sinensis) infusions of different grades of black Cut, Tear and Curl ...

  14. Improvement effect of green tea on hepatic dysfunction, lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have evaluated the antioxidant effect of green tea on cadmium-induced hepatic dysfunction and stress oxidant in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were administered cadmium by injection with 20 μmoles/Kg bw/3 days for six months. Results revealed a significant (p < 0.05) liver dysfunction, lipid peroxidation and a decline in ...

  15. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the pin head formation time and yield values of Agaricus bisporus on some casing materials. Composts were prepared basically from wheat straw and waste tea leaves by using wheat chaff as activator substance. Temperatures of the compost formulas were measured during ...

  16. Photoprotective Effect of Tea and its Extracts against Ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure induces photodamage of skin. It is a matter of concern that the level of UV radiation reaching the earth surface is increasing as a result of depletion of the stratospheric ozone, and climate change. It is urgently necessary to develop strategies to protect the skin from UV-induced injuries. Tea extracts ...

  17. Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 16, 2008 ... green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes. Mbata, T. I.1*, Debiao, L. U.2 and Saikia, A.3. 1Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P. M. B 5025, Awka, Nigeria. 2Cash Crops Bureau, Zhejianq Provincial Department of Agriculture, Hangzhou, 310020, ...

  18. Quantification of Tea Flavonoids by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (United States)

    Freeman, Jessica D.; Niemeyer, Emily D.


    We have developed a laboratory experiment that uses high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify flavonoid levels in a variety of commercial teas. Specifically, this experiment analyzes a group of flavonoids known as catechins, plant-derived polyphenolic compounds commonly found in many foods and beverages, including green and black…

  19. Discrimination of Xihulongjing tea grade using an electronic tongue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 15, 2009 ... the same processing method) were discriminated using α-Astree II electronic tongue (e-tongue) ... discovery and quantification of many of the key taste and ..... flavonoids from tea samples of different origins by HPLC-DAD-ESI-.

  20. Getting Something for Nothing: Trump, Fraud, and the Tea Party (United States)

    Bordelon, David


    David Bordelon identifies himself as one of the majority of Americans who voted to keep Trump out of office. In this article he discusses his confusion by the Tea Party's fixation on welfare fraud, and inability to recognize it in President Trump's behavior. The author says that he can only hope that his confusion will be shared, and progress to…

  1. Effect of organic cultivation of rooibos tea plants ( Aspalathus linearis )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shoots of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren) plants, cultivated organically by small-scale farmers in Nieuwoudtville, are harvested for the production of tea. These practices could lead to decreasing soil fertility. It was hypothesised that soil from cultivated rooibos plots will have lower nutrient ...

  2. The Secret between Storytelling and Retelling: Tea, School, & Narrative (United States)

    Yu, Jie


    In this paper, I will tell two of my personal stories to try to explore the secret or opaque space between the original telling and retelling of stories in narrative inquiry. Based upon my difficult struggles with the two stories of tea, school, and narrative, I suggest that narrative inquiry has to be a complex loop of relationship, reflexivity,…

  3. Effect of Tea Theaflavins and Catechins on Microvascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Fuchs


    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of flavonoid-rich black and green tea on macrocirculation have been well established. Theaflavins are unique to black tea as they are formed from catechins during the enzymatic oxidation of tea leaves. The study was performed to gain more insight into the effects of theaflavins on microcirculation and to compare effects with another important flavonoid class, the green tea derived catechins, which have been reported to improve vascular function. Twenty-four healthy subjects were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study. On six different days, subjects received capsules with a single dose of catechins (500 mg, four varying doses of theaflavins (100 to 500 mg or placebo. Microcirculation was assessed after each treatment by Pulse Amplitude Tonometry (EndoPAT at baseline and 2, 4 and 6 h after test product intake. The EndoPAT reactive hyperemia response was improved by 500 mg catechins (reactive hyperemia index (RHI: 0.2; p = 0.04 and by 500 mg theaflavins (RHI: 0.19; p = 0.06 compared to placebo. Also, 300 mg theaflavins increased the RHI (0.28; p = 0.02, but no effects were observed at lower doses. The study suggests moderate effects of single doses of catechins and theaflavins on peripheral microcirculation.

  4. Effect of Tea Theaflavins and Catechins on Microvascular Function (United States)

    Fuchs, Dagmar; de Graaf, Young; van Kerckhoven, Roeland; Draijer, Richard


    Beneficial effects of flavonoid-rich black and green tea on macrocirculation have been well established. Theaflavins are unique to black tea as they are formed from catechins during the enzymatic oxidation of tea leaves. The study was performed to gain more insight into the effects of theaflavins on microcirculation and to compare effects with another important flavonoid class, the green tea derived catechins, which have been reported to improve vascular function. Twenty-four healthy subjects were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study. On six different days, subjects received capsules with a single dose of catechins (500 mg), four varying doses of theaflavins (100 to 500 mg) or placebo. Microcirculation was assessed after each treatment by Pulse Amplitude Tonometry (EndoPAT) at baseline and 2, 4 and 6 h after test product intake. The EndoPAT reactive hyperemia response was improved by 500 mg catechins (reactive hyperemia index (RHI): 0.2; p = 0.04) and by 500 mg theaflavins (RHI: 0.19; p = 0.06) compared to placebo. Also, 300 mg theaflavins increased the RHI (0.28; p = 0.02), but no effects were observed at lower doses. The study suggests moderate effects of single doses of catechins and theaflavins on peripheral microcirculation. PMID:25514559

  5. Green tea yogurt: major phenolic compounds and microbial growth. (United States)

    Amirdivani, Shabboo; Baba, Ahmad Salihin Hj


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fermentation of milk in the presence of green tea (Camellia sinensis) with respect to changes in antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Pasteurized full fat cow's milk and starter culture were incubated at 41 °C in the presence of two different types of green tea extracts. The yogurts formed were refrigerated (4 °C) for further analysis. The total phenolic content was highest (p yogurt (MGT) followed by steam-treated green tea (JGT) and plain yogurts. Four major compounds in MGTY and JGTY were detected. The highest concentration of major phenolic compounds in both samples was related to quercetin-rhamnosylgalactoside and quercetin-3-O-galactosyl-rhamnosyl-glucoside for MGTY and JGTY respectively during first 7 day of storage. Diphenyl picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods showed highest antioxidant capacity in MGTY, JGTY and PY. Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus spp. were highest in MGTY followed by JGTY and PY. This paper evaluates the implementation of green tea yogurt as a new product with functional properties and valuable component to promote the growth of beneficial yogurt bacteria and prevention of oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant activity of yogurt.

  6. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of 27 cultivars of tea. (United States)

    Zeng, Liang; Luo, Liyong; Li, Hongjun; Liu, Ruihai


    Tea, rich in phytochemicals, has been suggested to have human health benefits. The phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of 27 tea cultivars were determined. Wide ranges of variation were found in analyzed cultivars for the contents of water-soluble phenolics (121.6-223.7 mg/g dry weight (DW)), total catechins (TC) (90.5-177.2 mg/g DW), antioxidant activities (PSC values 627.3-2332.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW, ORAC values (1865.1-3489.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW), CAA values (37.7-134.3 μmol of QE/g DW without PBS wash and 25.3-75.4 μmol of QE/g DW with PBS wash) and antiproliferative activity (53.0-90.8% at the concentration of 400 μg/mL extracts). The PSC, ORAC and CAA values were significantly correlated with phenolics, epicatechin gallate (ECG), CC and TC. Knowledge of specific differences among tea cultivars is important for breeding tea cultivars and gives sights to its potential application to promote health.

  7. Tea Time: Raising Awareness and Support for Extension (United States)

    Franz, Nancy K.; Fahey, Chris


    In a time of reliance on electronic media for information, chaotic programming environments, and declining public resources, Extension workers need to find unique ways to connect with stakeholders to maintain and increase support for programming. To address this need, we developed, conducted, and evaluated a series of stakeholder teas. We found…

  8. PAH in Some Brands of Tea and Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navaratnam, Marin Arosha; Jewula, J.


    The presence of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea and coffee were investigated with focus on four PAHs (PAH4), classified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as suitable indicators; benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo[a]pyrene (Ba......P). PAH4 from samples of 18 brands of tea leaves and 13 brands of coffee were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by highly automated clean up steps for gel permeation chromatography (SX-3) and solid phase extraction (500mg silica). GC-MS were applied for detection of PAH4. The limit...... of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.1–0.3 μg/kg with recoveries from 94–106% for PAH4. Concentrations of PAH4 followed the pattern of the total sum of 25 PAHs with higher concentrations with a maximum of 115 μg/kg in tea leaves compared to 5.1 μg/kg in coffee. The highest PAH4 levels were found in black tea...

  9. Influence of acoustic waves on TEA CO2 laser performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Bergmann, H


    Full Text Available In this paper the author’s present results on the influence of acoustic waves on the output laser beam from high repetition rate TEA CO2 lasers. The authors show that acoustic waves generated inside the cavity lead to deterioration in beam quality...

  10. Extraction of caustic potash from spent tea for biodiesel Production (United States)

    Sulaiman, Sarina; Faiz Che Fisol, Ahmad; Sharikh, Atikah Mohamed; Noraini Jimat, Dzun; Jamal, Parveen


    Biodiesel is an alternative to non-renewable fossil fuels due to its low gas emission and economical value. This study aims to extract caustic potash (KOH) from spent tea and to optimize the transesterfication process based on parameters such as amount of catalyst, reaction temperature and methanol to oil ratio. The spent tea was first dried at 60°C prior to calcination at 600°C for two hours. Caustic Potash were extracted from the calcined spent tea. The transesterification process was done based on Design of Experiments (DOE) to study the effects of amount of catalyst ranging from 0.5 wt % to 2.5 wt %, reaction temperature from 55°C to 65°C and methanol to oil ratio from 6:1 to 12:1 at a constant agitation rate of 300 rpm for three hours. The calcined spent tea produced was recorded the highest at 54.3 wt % and the extracted catalyst was 2.4 wt %. The optimized biodiesel yield recorded was 56.95% at the optimal conditions of 2.5 wt % amount of catalyst, 65°C reaction temperature and 9:1 methanol to oil ratio.

  11. Absorption Enhanced Liquid Ablation with TEA CO2 Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sterling, Enrique


    ... that strongly absorbs radiation in the 8-11 m wavelength interval. A TEA CO2 laser (λ = 10.6 m), 300 ns pulse width and 8 J pulse energy, was used for ablation of water diluted NaBF4 contained in a conical aluminum nozzle...

  12. Exotic plant infestation is associated with decreased modularity and increased numbers of connectors in mixed-grass prairie pollination networks (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Rabie, Paul A.; Droege, Sam; Larson, Jennifer L.; Haar, Milton


    The majority of pollinating insects are generalists whose lifetimes overlap flowering periods of many potentially suitable plant species. Such generality is instrumental in allowing exotic plant species to invade pollination networks. The particulars of how existing networks change in response to an invasive plant over the course of its phenology are not well characterized, but may shed light on the probability of long-term effects on plant-pollinator interactions and the stability of network structure. Here we describe changes in network topology and modular structure of infested and non-infested networks during the flowering season of the generalist non-native flowering plant, Cirsium arvense in mixed-grass prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, USA. Objectives were to compare network-level effects of infestation as they propagate over the season in infested and non-infested (with respect to C. arvense) networks. We characterized plant-pollinator networks on 5 non-infested and 7 infested 1-ha plots during 4 sample periods that collectively covered the length of C. arvense flowering period. Two other abundantly-flowering invasive plants were present during this time: Melilotus officinalis had highly variable floral abundance in both C. arvense-infested and non-infested plots andConvolvulus arvensis, which occurred almost exclusively in infested plots and peaked early in the season. Modularity, including roles of individual species, and network topology were assessed for each sample period as well as in pooled infested and non-infested networks. Differences in modularity and network metrics between infested and non-infested networks were limited to the third and fourth sample periods, during flower senescence of C. arvenseand the other invasive species; generality of pollinators rose concurrently, suggesting rewiring of the network and a lag effect of earlier floral abundance. Modularity was lower and number of connectors higher in infested

  13. Changes of Constituents and Activity to Apoptosis and Cell Cycle During Fermentation of Tea (United States)

    Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Lu; Ge, Ya-kun; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei


    Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black tea and pu-erh tea aqueous extracts were analyzed and compared. The polysaccharide and caffeine levels were substantially higher in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, while the polyphenol level was higher in the unfermented green tea. Hence, a treatment of tea aqueous extract and the components, which are emerging as promising anticancer agents, were pursued to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhance apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the cell viability and flow cytometry analysis for apoptotic cells indicated effects in a dose-dependent inhibition manner for the three tea treatment groups. The apoptosis rates were found to be elevated after 48 h of treatment with 31.2, 125, and 500 μg/mL of green tea extract, the higher catechins content may be involved in the mechanism. Cell cycle was arrested in S phase in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, and the populations were significantly decreased in G2/M phases, possibly due to the oxidation of tea polyphenols, which causes an increase of theabrownins. CCC-HEL-1 normal cells were not sensitive to tea extract. These findings suggest that the fermentation process causes changes of the compounds which might be involved in the changes of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. PMID:21673927

  14. Infestation of the banana root borer among different banana plant genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, we aimed to investigate Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae infestation among different banana genotypes in a commercial banana orchard over the course of 30 months. Banana root borer infestation was compared in 20 banana genotypes, including five varieties and 15 hybrids. Overall, we observed that 94.17% of pest infestation cases occurred in the cortex region, and only 5.83% occurred in the central cylinder. Genotypes least sensitive to infestation were the Prata Anã (AAB and Pacovan (AAB varieties, where no damage was recorded. Among the hybrid genotypes, PV 9401 and BRS Fhia 18 showed intermediate levels of sensitivity, while BRS Tropical hybrids (AAAB, PA 9401 (AAAB, BRS Vitoria (AAAB, YB 4203 (AAAB, and Bucaneiro (AAAA were the most sensitive to attack by banana root borer. This study demonstrated that the infestation of the banana root borer varies according banana plant genotype, and the utilization of less susceptible genotypes could reduce infestation rates of C. sordidus.

  15. Circulating oxidative stress caused by Psoroptes natalensis infestation in Indian water buffaloes. (United States)

    Mahajan, Sumit; Panigrahi, Padma Nibash; Dey, Sahadeb; Dan, Ananya; Kumar, Akhilesh; Mahendran, K; Maurya, P S


    The present study reports the circulating oxidative stress associated with Psoroptes natalensis infestation in Indian water buffaloes. Three non-descriptive water buffaloes, age ranging between 4 and 9 years, presented to Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, IVRI, for treatment served as clinical subject. The infested animals were treated with Ivermectin subcutaneously and Amitraz topically along with antioxidant like ascorbic acid, Vitamin E and selenium. The level of lipid peroxidase was significantly higher (3.94 ± 0.34) in Psoroptes infested buffalo and was reduced significantly ( P  ≤ 0.05) after treatment (1.56 ± 0.40). The significantly higher levels of MDA before treatment signify the role of lipid peroxide mediated skin lesions in P. natalensis infested buffaloes. Similarly the activities of the body antioxidant like GSH and CAT were significantly higher ( P  ≤ 0.05) after treatment. The less level of the body antioxidant (GSH) and reduced activities of the antioxidant enzymes like CAT and SOD before treatment imply that Psoroptes mite-infested buffaloes were in a state of significant oxidative stress. The study provides information on oxidative stress indices in P. natalensis infested buffaloes and gives additional insight regarding the pathogenesis of the disease and its management.

  16. Seasonal infestation of donkeys by lice: phenology, risk factors and management. (United States)

    Ellse, L; Burden, F A; Wall, R


    A longitudinal study was undertaken over a 21 months period to examine the seasonal abundance of lice infesting donkeys, the risk factors which predispose donkeys to infestation and the effectiveness of louse management. All the lice seen were Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus. A strong seasonal pattern, which was correlated with mean monthly temperature, was observed with higher prevalence and intensity in the cooler, winter months (October-March). Overall infestation in these animals was over-dispersed, suggesting that some individuals are strongly predisposed to infestation. Donkey age and mean hair length were characteristics which affected louse prevalence: older and younger donkeys and donkeys with longer hair harboured the highest numbers of lice. However, the practice of coat-clipping, to reduce the infestation, resulted in a lower louse prevalence only in the summer, suggesting that clipping is not an effective form of louse control in cooler months. Higher louse burdens were associated with larger areas of visible excoriation and hair damage, suggesting that B. ocellatus does adversely impact animal welfare. However, the ability of animal carers to estimate louse presence or absence accurately on an individual donkey was not sufficiently high to allow targeted selective treatment of heavily infested animals to be employed effectively. As animals are housed in closed herds these findings suggest that clipping in the summer and treating all animals with insecticide in late autumn, prior to turn-in may be an effective louse management strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression and Activity of Lysozyme in Apis Mellifera Carnica Brood Infested with Varroa Destructor

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    Zaobidna Ewa A.


    Full Text Available Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite that attacks the honey bee, and previous studies have suggested that parasitosis caused by this mite is accompanied by immunosuppresion in the host. In this study, the effect of mite infestation on the expression of the lysozyme-1 (lys-1 gene and lysozyme activity in Apis mellifera carnica was determined. The experiment was carried out on the five developmental stages of honey bee workers and drones. Developmental and gender-related differences in gene expression and lysozyme activity were observed in a Varroa destructor-infested brood. The relative expression of the lys-1 gene increased in a infested worker brood and decreased in a drone brood except for P3 pupae. In the final stage of development, the lys-1 gene expression was significantly lower in infested newly emerged workers and drones. Changes in the relative expression of the lys-1 gene in infested individuals was poorly manifested at the level of enzyme activity, whereas at the two final stages of development (P5 and I there was a positive correlation between relative lys-1 expression and lysozyme activity in infested bees of both genders (r=0.988, r=0.999, respectively. The results of this study indicate that V. destructor influences the lysozyme-linked immune response in bees.

  18. Stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata) infesting food in various types of packaging. (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Volek, Vlado


    From 2008 to 2014, stored product mites have been reported from prepackaged dried food on the market in the Czech Republic. The infestation was by Carpoglyphus lactis (L.) in dried fruits and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) in dog feed. The infestation is presumably caused by poor protection of the packages. We compared various packaging methods for their resistance to mites using dried apricots and dog feed in laboratory experiments. The trial packages included nine different plastic films, monofilm, duplex and triplex, and one type of plastic cup (ten replicates per packaging type). All packaging materials are available on the Czech market for dried food products. The samples of dried food were professionally packed in a factory and packaged dried apricots were exposed to C. lactis and dog food to T. putrescentiae. After 3 months of exposure, the infestation and mite density of the prepackaged food was assessed. Mites were found to infest six types of packages. Of the packaging types with mites, 1-5 samples were infested and the maximum abundance was 1,900 mites g(-1) of dried food. Mites entered the prepackaged food by faulty sealing. Inadequate sealing is suggested to be the major cause of the emerged infestation of dried food.

  19. Parasitic infestation in appendicitis. A retrospective analysis of 660 patients and brief literature review

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    Eren Altun


    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the incidence of parasitic infestations and inflammation accompanying parasitosis in a series of appendectomy cases. Methods: Six-hundred-sixty patients who had undergone appendectomy in Bingöl State Hospital, Bingol, Turkey with the preliminary diagnosis of appendicitis between January 2012 and February 2015 were included in this retrospective study. They were retrospectively evaluated in terms of age, gender and pathological findings. Cases diagnosed with parasitic infestations were re-evaluated histopathologically for inflammatory response. Results: The mean age was 19.6 years, and the male/female ratio was 1.8. When evaluated in terms of histopathological diagnoses, 573 (86.8% were diagnosed as acute appendicitis, and parasitic infestation was identified in 12 (1.8%. Among cases with parasitic infestation, Enterobius vermicularis was identified in 9 (75% and Taenia in 3 (25% cases. Of cases with Enterobius vermicularis, 4 (44.4% had lymphoid hyperplasia, 1 (11.1% had normal-structured appendix vermiformis, and 4 (44.4% had findings of acute appendicitis. All cases with taeniasis had an inflammatory response: acute appendicitis was identified in 2 (66% and acute gangrenous appendicitis in 1 (33% of them. Conclusion: Parasitic infestations are among the probable causes in appendicitis etiology and should be kept in mind during differential diagnosis. However, whether every parasitic infestation leads to appendiceal inflammatory response is controversial.

  20. A farmer friendly and economic IPM strategy to combat root-knot nematodes infesting lentil


    Rose Rizvi; Rizwan Ali Ansari; Gulshan Zehra; Irshad Mahmood


    An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of Rhizobium sp., waste tea leaves, eggshell powder, and composted cow dung manure on the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on lentil in Botany department AMU, Aligarh, India. When used alone, composted cow dung was better in reducing galling and nematode multiplication and improving lentil growth followed by eggshell powder, Rhizobium sp., and waste tea leaves. Significant result in the integrated management of M. incognita was obtain...

  1. Delusional infestation is typically comorbid with other psychiatric diagnoses: review of 54 patients receiving psychiatric evaluation at Mayo Clinic. (United States)

    Hylwa, Sara A; Foster, Ashley A; Bury, Jessica E; Davis, Mark D P; Pittelkow, Mark R; Bostwick, J Michael


    Delusional infestation, which encompasses both delusions of parasitosis and delusions of infestation with inanimate objects (sometimes called Morgellons disease), has been said to represent a distinct and encapsulated delusion, that is, a stand-alone diagnosis. Anecdotally, we have observed that patients with delusional infestation often have one or more psychiatric comorbid conditions and that delusional infestation should not be regarded as a stand-alone diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to identify whether patients with delusional infestation have psychiatric comorbid conditions. We therefore identified patients who had been formally evaluated in the Department of Psychiatry during their visit to Mayo Clinic. We retrospectively searched for and reviewed the cases of all patients with delusional infestation seen from 2001 through 2007 at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, and who underwent psychiatric evaluation. The diagnoses resulting from psychiatric evaluation were analyzed. During the 7-year study period, 109 patients seen for delusional infestation at Mayo Clinic were referred to the Department of Psychiatry, 54 (50%) of whom actually followed through with psychiatric consultation. Of these 54 patients, 40 (74%) received additional active psychiatric diagnoses; 14 patients (26%) had delusional infestation alone. Abnormal personality traits were rarely documented. Most patients with delusional infestation have multiple coexisting or underlying psychiatric disorders. Therefore, evaluation by a psychiatrist, when possible, is advised for all patients with delusional infestation. Copyright © 2012 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Distribution and infestation levels of Crypticerya multicicatrices Kondo and Unruh (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae on San Andrés island

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    Takumasa Kondo Kondo


    Full Text Available The fluted scale Crypticerya multicicatrices (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae is an invasive insect that became a major pest on the island of San Andrés. To generate control strategies for this insect, its distribution and infestation levels on palm species, fruit trees, leguminous trees and other plant species were determined during January 14–18, 2013. A total of 96 points were sampled in order to determine the distribution of the insect on the island. During the study, the fluted scale was found distributed throughout the island of San Andrés, including Haynes Cay and Johnny Cay. The palms were the plants with the highest levels of infestation, 70.8% had some degree of infestation (37.5% high infestation levels; followed by fruit trees which had 65.6% with some degree of infestation (30.2% high infestation levels; followed by leguminous trees which had 59.6% with some degree of infestation (13.5% high infestation levels and finally “other hosts” which had 51.1% with some level of infestation (11.5% high infestation levels. This study is the first detailed mapping of C. multicicatrices on the island of San Andrés which will become the basis for future work on the population dynamics of the fluted scale and its distribution on the island.

  3. The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'. (United States)

    Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K


    The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably

  4. Spectral features based tea garden extraction from digital orthophoto maps (United States)

    Jamil, Akhtar; Bayram, Bulent; Kucuk, Turgay; Zafer Seker, Dursun


    The advancements in the photogrammetry and remote sensing technologies has made it possible to extract useful tangible information from data which plays a pivotal role in various application such as management and monitoring of forests and agricultural lands etc. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of spectral signatures for extraction of tea gardens from 1 : 5000 scaled digital orthophoto maps obtained from Rize city in Turkey. First, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was derived from the input images to suppress the non-vegetation areas. NDVI values less than zero were discarded and the output images was normalized in the range 0-255. Individual pixels were then mapped into meaningful objects using global region growing technique. The resulting image was filtered and smoothed to reduce the impact of noise. Furthermore, geometrical constraints were applied to remove small objects (less than 500 pixels) followed by morphological opening operator to enhance the results. These objects served as building blocks for further image analysis. Finally, for the classification stage, a range of spectral values were empirically calculated for each band and applied on candidate objects to extract tea gardens. For accuracy assessment, we employed an area based similarity metric by overlapping obtained tea garden boundaries with the manually digitized tea garden boundaries created by experts of photogrammetry. The overall accuracy of the proposed method scored 89 % for tea gardens from 10 sample orthophoto maps. We concluded that exploiting the spectral signatures using object based analysis is an effective technique for extraction of dominant tree species from digital orthophoto maps.

  5. Application of the Kombucha 'tea fungus' for the enhancement of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory properties of ten herbal teas. (United States)

    Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Choo, Candy; Waisundara, Viduranga Y


    Ten herbal teas (Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelos flower, A. marmelos root bark, Aerva lanata, Asteracantha longifolia, Cassia auriculata, Hemidesmus indicus, Hordeum vulgare, Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia) were fermented with the Kombucha 'tea fungus'. The pH values of the fermented beverages ranged from 4.0 to 6.0 by day 7, while the titratable acidity ranged from 2.5 to 5.0g/mL (PKombucha beverages to have statistically significant increases (P<0.05) by day 7. The α-amylase inhibitory activities ranged from 52.5 to 67.2μg/mL in terms of IC50 values following fermentation, while the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities ranged from 95.2 to 196.1μg/mL. In conclusion, an enhancement of the antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory potential of the herbal teas was observed by adding the tea fungus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Infection Courts in Watermelon Plants Leading to Seed Infestation by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum. (United States)

    Petkar, Aparna; Ji, Pingsheng


    Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a seed-transmitted disease that causes significant yield loss in watermelon production. The pathogen may infect watermelon seeds latently, which can be an important inoculum source and contribute to severe disease outbreak. However, information regarding infection courts of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum leading to infestation of watermelon seeds is limited. To determine how seeds in watermelon fruit can be infested by F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum during the watermelon growing season, greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 where watermelon flowers and immature fruit were inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum. Seeds were extracted from mature watermelon fruit, and infestation of watermelon seeds was determined by isolation of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum and further confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Inoculation of the pericarp of immature fruit resulted in 17.8 to 54.4% of infested seeds under field conditions and 0.6 to 12.8% of infested seeds under greenhouse conditions when seeds were not surface disinfested prior to isolation. Seed infestation was also detected in 0 to 4.5% of the seeds when seeds were surface disinfested prior to isolation. Inoculation of pistil resulted in 0 to 7.2% and 0 to 18.3% of infested seeds under greenhouse and field conditions when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Inoculation of peduncle resulted in 0.6 to 6.1% and 0 to 10.0% of infested seeds in the greenhouse and field experiments when seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested before isolation, respectively. Seed infestation was also detected in all the experiments using real-time PCR assay when pericarp or pistil was inoculated, and in three of four experiments when peduncle was inoculated, regardless of whether seeds were surface disinfested or not disinfested. Pericarp and peduncle of immature watermelon fruit

  7. Determination of trace elements in tea by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Chunhui; Zeng Guoqiang; Ge Liangquan; Li Jun; Wen Ziqiang


    Background: Measuring trace elements in tea can determine its nutritional value, verify the authenticity and place of origin, and detect the poisonous and harmful elements remaining in tea due to the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Purpose: In order to reduce the time for sample preparation and the costs of equipment maintenance, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy was used to determine the trace elements in tea which is rapid, non-destructive and accurate. The contents of more than 20 elements can be measured simultaneously. Methods: Sample pieces were made by the sample preparation method of boric acid rebasing. To avoid the exogenous environmental pollution subjected in the growth of tea, we removed the residual dust of the tea by cleaning it. According to the principle that the standard samples should be similar types with the samples to be analyzed to select standard samples. The curves were built by SuperQ, which contained compiling the measurement conditions, establishing the measurement conditions, checking the angles, determining the measurement times, checking PHD and adding the contents and the names of sample pieces. The accuracy of the method can be obtained by comparing the measured values with the trace element contents of standard samples. The contents of trace elements in tea determined by WDXRF can be used to classify the tea attribution and the tea species through cluster analysis of SPSS software. Results: (1) The results show that the biggest relative standard deviation is 0.43% of Pb, and the precision is very good. (2) Five kinds of tea are taken separately in Fujian and Yunnan, measured three times with the established working curves. And tree diagram of cluster analysis can be obtained with SPSS software to analyze the measured average values with cluster analysis, coupling method between groups and Minkowski distance measurement techniques. It can be seen that in the tree diagram, when the

  8. Microsatellite markers from tea green leafhopper Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii: a powerful tool for studying genetic structure in tea plantations. (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Dietrich, Christopher H; Qin, Daozheng


    Tea green leafhopper is one of the most dominant pests in Chinese tea plantations. Recent evidence, including morphological and molecular data, revealed that tea green leafhopper in China is the same species as in Japan, Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda. Previous morphological study that revealed variation in the structure of the male genitalia within and among populations of this species suggested that there may be significant population-level genetic variation. To provide powerful molecular markers to explore the population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this pest in China, microsatellite markers were obtained by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO). Eighteen polymorphic markers were evaluated for five populations of E. (M.) onukii, Two related empoascine leafhopper species were selected to test the transferability of the markers. Population genetic structure of E. (M.) onukii was detected using Structure analysis, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and variance analysis. The identified markers were polymorphic with total number of alleles ranging from 6 to 24 per locus, observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.133 to 0.9 and 0.183 to 0.926, respectively, and the polymorphic information content value over all populations varied from 0.429 to 0.911. This is the first study to demonstrate that microsatellite markers provide valuable information for genetic structure of E. (M.) onukii in Chinese tea plantations. There is obvious genetic differentiation between the two populations in the Southwest tea area. These microsatellite markers will be the powerful tools for genetic studies of E. (M.) onukii and improve understanding of the microevolution of this species.

  9. Fermentation Characteristics, Tannin Contents and Ruminal Degradation of Green Tea and Black Tea By-products Ensiled at Different Temperatures

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    Makoto Kondo


    Full Text Available Green and black tea by-products, obtained from ready-made tea industry, were ensiled at 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C. Green tea by-product silage (GTS and black tea by-product silage (BTS were opened at 5, 10, 45 days after ensiling. Fermentation characteristics and nutrient composition, including tannins, were monitored and the silages on day 45 were subjected to in vitro ruminal fermentation to assess anti-nutritive effects of tannins using polyethylene glycol (PEG as a tannin-binding agent. Results showed that the GTS and BTS silages were stable and fermented slightly when ensiled at 10°C. The GTS stored at 20°C and 30°C showed rapid pH decline and high acetic acid concentration. The BTS was fermented gradually with moderate change of pH and acid concentration. Acetic acid was the main acid product of fermentation in both GTS and BTS. The contents of total extractable phenolics and total extractable tannins in both silages were unaffected by storage temperatures, but condensed tannins in GTS were less when stored at high temperature. The GTS showed no PEG response on in vitro gas production, and revealed only a small increase by PEG on NH3-N concentration. Storage temperature of GTS did not affect the extent of PEG response to both gas production and NH3-N concentration. On the other hand, addition of PEG on BTS markedly increased both the gas production and NH3-N concentration at any ensiled temperature. It can be concluded that tannins in both GTS and BTS suppressed rumen fermentation, and tannins in GTS did more weakly than that in BTS. Ensiling temperature for both tea by-products did not affect the tannin’s activity in the rumen.

  10. Determination and comparison of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in pu-erh and other types of Chinese tea. (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Ma, Yan; Wei, Zhen-zhen; Yuan, Wen-xia; Li, Ya-li; Zhang, Chun-hua; Xue, Xiao-ting; Zhou, Hong-jie


    Two previous studies have reported that pu-erh tea contains a high level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and has several physiological functions. However, two other researchers have demonstrated that the GABA content of several pu-erh teas was low. Due to the high value and health benefits of GABA, analysis of mass-produced pu-erh tea is necessary to determine whether it is actually enriched with GABA. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of GABA in tea, the results of which were verified by amino acid analysis using an Amino Acid Analyzer (AAA). A total of 114 samples of various types of Chinese tea, including 62 pu-erh teas, 13 green teas, 8 oolong teas, 8 black teas, 3 white teas, 4 GABA teas, and 16 process samples from two industrial fermentations of pu-erh tea (including the raw material and the first to seventh turnings), were analyzed using HPLC. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the GABA content in pu-erh tea was significantly lower than that in other types of tea (p GABA content decreased during industrial fermentation of pu-erh tea (p GABA was not a major bioactive constituent and resolved the disagreement GABA content in pu-erh tea. In addition, the GABA content in white tea was found to be significantly higher than that in the other types of tea (p GABA-enriched white tea.

  11. Cluster analysis of the biochemical composition in 53 Sichuan EGCG3"Me tea resources (United States)

    Li, J. H.; Chen, S. X.; Zhu, M. Z.; Meng, X. L.


    The EGCG3"Me contents in the young tea leaves of 102 tea resources in sichuan were analyzed accurately using HPLC-DAD. The results revealed that there was a wide variation in EGCG3"Me levels among different tea resources. The EGCG3"Me content in different tea resources was in a range from 0 to 11.04 mg/g, mean was 2.33 mg/g.53 tea resources contained EGCG3"Me, accounting for 51.96% of the total number of resources survey. Shucha5, Jinguanyin, Chengxi11, Fenghuang-dancong, Chongpi 71-1 were found to contain higher EGCG3"Me content (>10mg/g).Cluster analysis showed that: 53 Sichuan EGCG3"Me tea resources were divided into six groups and the difference was obvious between their biochemical composition; tea resources rich in EGCG3"Me were mainly distributed in Sichuan, Chongqing and Fujian Province, mostly were shrub and mid-leaf, mainly existed in tea resources which were suitable to make green tea, oolong tea. The morphological and biochemical distribution provided a good theoretical basis for selecting and utilizing higher EGCG3"Me resources.

  12. Tea Consumption Reduces the Incidence of Neurocognitive Disorders: Findings from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study. (United States)

    Feng, L; Chong, M-S; Lim, W-S; Gao, Q; Nyunt, M S; Lee, T-S; Collinson, S L; Tsoi, T; Kua, E-H; Ng, T-P


    To examine the relationships between tea consumption habits and incident neurocognitive disorders (NCD) and explore potential effect modification by gender and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. Population-based longitudinal study. The Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study (SLAS). 957 community-living Chinese elderly who were cognitively intact at baseline. We collected tea consumption information at baseline from 2003 to 2005 and ascertained incident cases of neurocognitive disorders (NCD) from 2006 to 2010. Odds ratio (OR) of association were calculated in logistic regression models that adjusted for potential confounders. A total of 72 incident NCD cases were identified from the cohort. Tea intake was associated with lower risk of incident NCD, independent of other risk factors. Reduced NCD risk was observed for both green tea (OR=0.43) and black/oolong tea (OR=0.53) and appeared to be influenced by the changing of tea consumption habit at follow-up. Using consistent non-tea consumers as the reference, only consistent tea consumers had reduced risk of NCD (OR=0.39). Stratified analyses indicated that tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of NCD among females (OR=0.32) and APOE ε4 carriers (OR=0.14) but not males and non APOE ε4 carriers. Regular tea consumption was associated with lower risk of neurocognitive disorders among Chinese elderly. Gender and genetic factors could possibly modulate this association.

  13. White tea (Camellia sinensis extract reduces oxidative stress and triacylglycerols in obese mice

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    Lílian Gonçalves Teixeira


    Full Text Available White tea is an unfermented tea made from young shoots of Camellia sinensis protected from sunlight to avoid polyphenol degradation. Although its levels of catechins are higher than those of green tea (derived from the same plant, there are no studies addressing the relationship between this tea and obesity associated with oxidative stress.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of white tea on obesity and its complications using a diet induced obesity model. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce obesity (Obese group or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% white tea extract (Obese + WTE for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue, serum lipid profile, and oxidative stress were studied. White tea supplementation was not able to reduce food intake, body weight, or visceral adiposity. Similarly, there were no changes in cholesterol rich lipoprotein profile between the groups. A reduction in blood triacylglycerols associated with increased cecal lipids was observed in the group fed the diet supplemented with white tea. White tea supplementation also reduced oxidative stress in liver and adipose tissue. In conclusion, white tea extract supplementation (0.5% does not influence body weight or adiposity in obese mice. Its benefits are restricted to the reduction in oxidative stress associated with obesity and improvement of hypertriacylglycerolemia.

  14. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Maleki


    Full Text Available With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan. The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea, respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas ( P 0.05. Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers.

  15. Sensory and Instrumental Flavor Changes in Green Tea Brewed Multiple Times (United States)

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores; Chambers, Edgar


    Green teas in leaf form are brewed multiple times, a common selling point. However, the flavor changes, both sensory and volatile compounds, of green teas that have been brewed multiple times are unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine how the aroma and flavor of green teas change as they are brewed multiple times, to determine if a relationship exists between green tea flavors and green tea volatile compounds, and to suggest the number of times that green tea leaves can be brewed. The first and second brews of the green tea samples provided similar flavor intensities. The third and fourth brews provided milder flavors and lower bitterness and astringency when measured using descriptive sensory analysis. In the brewed liquor of green tea mostly linalool, nonanal, geraniol, jasmone, and β-ionone volatile compounds were present at low levels (using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The geraniol, linalool, and linalool oxide compounds in green tea may contribute to the floral/perfumy flavor. Green teas in leaf form may be brewed up to four times: the first two brews providing stronger flavor, bitterness, and astringency whereas the third and fourth brews will provide milder flavor, bitterness, and astringency. PMID:28239138

  16. Development and Application of UPLC-QTof/MS Method for the Differentiation between Tea Varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandrić, Zora


    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is one of the most popularly consumed beverages worldwide. It has been used as a natural medicine for thousands of years, containing many compounds beneficial to health. The two most popular varieties are green (favoured in Asia) and black tea (favoured in the western countries). The different growing season, geographical regions, processing and fermentation methods create many varieties of tea, some of which have premium value compared to the others. The expansion of the consumer market, which has increased demand for “manufactured” food as well as transported “pure” food such as tea, has encouraged adulteration simply because of the prospects for increased profit. The adulteration of tea has become a common problem. Mixing exhausted tealeaves with leaves of some other plants (e.g. elder, hawthorn, sloe), addition of the dust of the tea leaves and sand, chemical enhancement of green tea (with Prussian blue and sulphate of lime or gypsum) and simply redried and resold tea-leaves, are some of the main examples of tea adulteration. To help address these issues, the Food and Environmental Protection Laboratory (FEPL) applied an untargeted metabolomics approach previously developed for some other commodities (e.g. honey, fruit juices) to investigate the possibility of distinguishing teas from different origins, and detecting varieties that had been adulterated.

  17. Characterization of tea polyphenols as potential environment-friendly fire retardants (United States)

    Yao, Fengqi; Zhai, Chunjie; Wang, Haihui; Tao, Junjun


    In this work we investigated the oxidation properties of tea polyphenols and their potential as the fire retardants. Two types of tea polyphenols were adopted, which were extracted from red tea and green tea leaves, respectively. Their macroscopic performance during pyrolysis and oxidation at elevated temperatures were examined by using a heating furnace. Mass change, heat evolution and gas products of tea polyphenols during heating in air were also monitored by using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) integrated with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in conjunction with online Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectroscopy (MS). A tea polyphenol sample first becomes a brown semi-fluid after heating, and gradually turns into highly-porous black chars with significantly expanded volume. By raising the temperature to ∼550 °C at a rate of 10 °C/min, the mass of a sample reduces by nearly 70% to form a large quantity of inert gases that are mainly composed of H2O and CO2. It was found that the aerial oxidation products of tea polyphenols in the solid phase possess good heat insulation property; meanwhile, the substantial release of a lot of water and its evaporation during oxidation of tea polyphenols removes a large amount of heat from a sample located in a heating environment. The heat insulation of tea polyphenols may withstand up to 550 °C. The present work confirms tea polyphenols as potential superior and environment-friendly fire retardants.

  18. An EPR study on tea: Identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners (United States)

    Bıyık, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep


    Tea ( Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 °C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 °C while Mn 2+ sextet disappears just above 100 °C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn 2+ and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe 3+ line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

  19. Branchial cymothoids infesting the marine food fishes of Malabar coast. (United States)

    Panakkool-Thamban, Aneesh; Ameri Kottarathil, Helna; Kappalli, Sudha


    Occurrence of cymothoid isopods parasitizing the branchial chamber of marine food fishes along the Malabar coast was investigated. Live and fresh fishes collected from the Ayyikkara fish landing center (Lat. 11°51'N, Long. 75°22'E; Malabar coast, India) were subjected to the thorough observation for the presence of branchial cymothoids for 3 consecutive years (November 2009-November 2012). Among the recovered cymothoids, 11 species were branchial residents belonging to 6 genera; the species include Agarna malayi, Catoessa gruneri, C. boscii, Joryma hilsae, J. brachysoma, J. engraulidis, J. sawayah, Mothocya collettei, M. renardi, Norileca indica and Ryukyua circularis ; highest prevalence being exhibited by two species of Mothocya , ( M. renardi and M. collettei ) parasitizing the belonidaen fishes, Strongylura leiura (92.15 %) and Tylosurus crocodilus crocodilus (87.2 %) respectively. Except Mothocya species, which preferred the branchial floor for infestation, all recovered branchial cymothoids were found attached the inner wall of the operculum. In several instances, the parasites appeared in male-female pairs, one in each branchial cavity. Ovigerous female members of all species of branchial cymothoids except R. circularis showed remarkable bending either towards left or right depending on whether they are located in right or left branchial cavity of their respective host fishes. The deleterious effects of parasitization by all recovered branchial cymothoids include the formation of a pit like depression in the branchial chamber and atrophy of the gill filament; the damage was more pronounced in the gill cavity of parasitized host fishes where the ovigerous female member was accommodated.

  20. Radiographic analysis of the internal infestation in stored corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores y Bermudez, R.


    The danger represented by insects for the preservation of stored cereals and derived products has given rise to concern. In Mexico the storage of maize continues to raise a variety of problems for the governmental and private institutions concerned. The work described here is part of a research programme on the possible development and application of the technique of disinfesting grain by irradiation. The Mexican National Nuclear Energy Institute, Physics Institute and Nuclear Research Centre (Mexican National Autonomous University) are taking part jointly in the programme. Among the special aims of the programme is a series of entomological observations based on radiography. In particular, the present research is aimed at determining, by this technique, whether the cavities produced in maize kernels by infestation are occupied or not. For this purpose it was necessary first to adapt the X-ray equipment with which to work. The equipment, of a new type that had not been used before, was designed exclusively for medical diagnosis and consists of a ''Practix'' unit made by Philips which operates at up to 100 kV. The first stage of the work was to install and operate the equipment, after which the optimum operating conditions were sought, using Kodak industrial AA 54 film (fine grain). For this purpose a number of X-ray photographs of maize kernels were taken and the various degrees of contrast and definition were examined. The following were found to be the best conditions for observing detail within the kernels and revealing whether the cavities are occupied or not: operating voltage 55 kV; current 20 mA; focus-film distance 70 cm; exposure time 2 seconds. (author)

  1. Changing climate and the value of the tea landscape in Assam (United States)

    Biggs, E. M.; Gupta, N.; Duncan, J.; Saikia, S. D.


    Tea production has a measurable impact upon millions of people's livelihoods in northeast India. The region is experiencing changes in climate characteristics which are placing added pressure on the tea industry for sustaining livelihoods. To increase understanding of the role of tea within the Assam landscape, this research has engaged with multiple local tea-producing stakeholders. Approximately 65% of Assam's tea is produced in large plantations, with the remaining 35% produced in smallholdings. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on land management practices operationalised by plantation managers and smallholders. Focus group sessions using the Delphi technique were conducted with tea workers (labourers for the plantations) to ascertain the level of importance of the tea sector to sustaining their livelihoods. Questionnaires and focus group surveys also attempted to establish stakeholder understanding of climate change. Data were analysed using spatial statistics to investigate intra- and inter-region variation in responses. Focus group responses were categorised to determine the livelihood asset base available to tea workers within plantations, with patterns of (dis)similarity observed spatially. Results indicate that land management practices (e.g. fertiliser and pesticide application), tea processing methods (e.g. onsite factory and energy generation), and social provisions for tea workers (e.g. sanitation and education facilities) varied greatly across the main tea growing regions of Assam. Tea workers listed numerous environmental and social factors as important for sustaining livelihoods, with the top ranked factors similar across some plantations (e.g. drinking water availability and access). Plantation managers are highly concerned with how climate conditions are affecting tea production, and although workers were aware of climate change issues in some plantations, socioeconomic conditions seemed of more pressing concern to their livelihoods.

  2. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region. (United States)

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun


    The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8-12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  3. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

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    Zhipeng Fan


    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea, and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results: The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05, urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05, and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05 were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions: Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  4. Artificial infestation of Boophilus microplus in beef cattle heifers of four genetic groups

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    Ana Mary da Silva


    Full Text Available Resistance of beef cattle heifers to the cattle tick Boophilus microplus was evaluated by artificial infestation of 66 beef cattle heifers of the following genetic groups: 16 Nelore (NE, 18 Canchim x Nelore (CN, 16 Angus x Nelore (AN and 16 Simmental x Nelore (SN. The animals, with a mean age of 16.5 months, were maintained with no chemical tick control in a Brachiaria decumbens pasture. Four artificial infestations with 20,000 B. microplus larvae were carried out 14 days apart and from day 18 to day 22 of each infestation the number of engorged female ticks (> 4.5 mm was counted on the left side of each heifer. Data were analyzed as the percentage of return (PR = percentage of ticks counted relative to the number infested, transformed to (PR¼, and as log10 (Cij + 1, in which Cij is the number of ticks in each infestation, using the least squares method with a model that included the effects of genetic group (GG, animal within GG (error a, infestation number (I, GG x I and the residual (error b. Results indicated a significant GG x I interaction, because AN and SN heifers had a higher percentage of return than CN and NE heifers, while CN heifers showed a higher percentage of return than the NE heifers only in infestations 3 and 4. Transformed percentages of return were NE = 0.35 ± 0.06, AN = 0.89 ± 0.06, CN = 0.54 ± 0.05 and SN = 0.85 ± 0.06.

  5. Intestinal helminth infestation is associated with increased bronchial responsiveness in children. (United States)

    da Silva, Emerson R; Sly, Peter D; de Pereira, Marilyn U; Pinto, Leonardo A; Jones, Marcus H; Pitrez, Paulo M; Stein, Renato T


    Non-atopic asthma is the predominant phenotype in non-affluent parts of Latin America. We recently reported that infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides increased the risk of non-atopic asthma in less affluent areas of Brazil but the mechanism is unclear. The present study was conducted to determine whether helminth infestation is associated with heightened bronchial responsiveness (BHR), a common finding in asthma. A random sample of 50 asthmatic and 50 non-asthmatic controls (mean age 10.1 years) were selected from a larger cohort (n = 1,011) without knowledge of their helminth infestation status. Three stool samples were collected from each child on different days and each sample was analyzed by the Kato-Katz method for quantitative determination of helminth eggs. Bronchial provocation tests were performed with inhaled 4.5% hypertonic saline using the ISAAC Phase II standardized protocol. There was no difference between the prevalence of positive BHR in the asthmatics (20.4%) compared with the controls (14.6%) (P = 1.0). Helminth infestation was detected in 24.0% of children, with A. lumbricoides being the most common. Children with high load infestation (>or=100 eggs/g) were five times more likely to have BHR than children with low load or no infestation. Despite the small sample size the results of the present study suggest that the link between high load helminth infestation and non-atopic asthma may be mediated via heightened bronchial responsiveness, possibly due to an inflammatory response to the pulmonary phase of the helminth life cycle.

  6. Preventive efficacy of Frontline® Combo and Certifect® against Dipylidium caninum infestation of cats and dogs using a natural flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestation model. (United States)

    Beugnet, Frederic; Delport, Peet; Luus, Hermann; Crafford, Dione; Fourie, Josephus


    Two studies were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of two monthly topical anti-flea products for the prevention of Dipylidium caninum infestations in cats and dogs. A single treatment with Frontline(®) Combo spot-on for cats (fipronil-(S)-methoprene) and two successive monthly treatments of Certifect(®) for dogs (fipronil-amitraz-(S)-methoprene) were assessed for the prevention of D. caninum infestations following weekly challenges of treated cats or dogs with metacestode naturally-infected fleas. The rate of infestations using the model in cats versus dogs explains the choice of a 1-month trial in cats and a 2-month trial in dogs. The experimental flea-infection model resulted in a range of 22-53% of the fleas being infected by Dipylidium cysticercoids. The arithmetic mean flea counts recorded for the untreated cats ranged from 51.2 to 68. The geometric mean flea counts recorded for the Frontline Combo treated cats differed significantly (p caninum proglottids by cats, 100% (6/6) of the control cats and 0% (0/6) of Frontline Combo treated cats were infested with D. caninum. Frontline Combo spot-on for cats was therefore 100% effective in preventing infection with D. caninum. In dogs, 7 out of the 8 control group dogs (87.5%) produced proglottids following infestation of infected fleas, whereas 0 out of 8 dogs (0%) in the treated group were infected. The infection rates of the two groups were significantly different. The percent effectiveness for the Certifect treatment group for the prevention of D. caninum infection was 100% during this 2-month trial. No treatment-related adverse events were observed in either cats or dogs during these studies. © F. Beugnet et al., Published by EDP Sciences 2013.

  7. Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity of Apis mellifera bee tea.

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    Janielle da Silva Melo da Cunha

    Full Text Available Diabetes has emerged as one of the largest global epidemics; it is estimated that by 2035, there will be 592 million diabetic people in the world. Brazilian biodiversity and the knowledge of traditional peoples have contributed to the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. Apis mellifera bee tea is used by indigenous Brazilians to treat diabetes, and this traditional knowledge needs to be recorded and studied.The objective of this study was to record the use and to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity of Apis mellifera bee tea, which is used by the Guarani and Kaiowá indigenous people for the treatment of diabetes. Semi-structured interviews were performed with Guarani and Kaiowá ethnic indigenous people from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, seeking to identify the animal species used for medicinal purposes. For the experimental procedures, tea prepared with macerated Apis mellifera bees was used. In vitro assays were performed to evaluate antioxidant activity; direct free radical scavenging, protection against oxidative hemolysis, lipid peroxidation were evaluated in human erythrocytes and potential in inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs. In vivo, normoglycemic Swiss male mice treated with Apis mellifera tea (AmT were subjected to the oral glucose tolerance test and compared with control and metformin-treated groups. Diet-induced diabetic mice were treated for 21 days with AmT and evaluated for glycemia and malondialdehyde levels in the blood, liver, nervous system, and eyes. During interviews, the indigenous people described the use of Apis mellifera bee tea for the treatment of diabetes. In in vitro assays, AmT showed direct antioxidant activity and reduced oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde generation in human erythrocytes. The AmT inhibited the formation of AGEs by albumin-fructose pathways and methylglyoxal products. In vivo, after oral glucose

  8. Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity of Apis mellifera bee tea. (United States)

    Melo da Cunha, Janielle da Silva; Alfredo, Tamaeh Monteiro; Dos Santos, Jéssica Maurino; Alves Junior, Valter Vieira; Rabelo, Luiza Antas; Lima, Emerson Silva; Boleti, Ana Paula de Araújo; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Dos Santos, Edson Lucas; de Picoli Souza, Kely


    Diabetes has emerged as one of the largest global epidemics; it is estimated that by 2035, there will be 592 million diabetic people in the world. Brazilian biodiversity and the knowledge of traditional peoples have contributed to the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. Apis mellifera bee tea is used by indigenous Brazilians to treat diabetes, and this traditional knowledge needs to be recorded and studied.The objective of this study was to record the use and to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity of Apis mellifera bee tea, which is used by the Guarani and Kaiowá indigenous people for the treatment of diabetes. Semi-structured interviews were performed with Guarani and Kaiowá ethnic indigenous people from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, seeking to identify the animal species used for medicinal purposes. For the experimental procedures, tea prepared with macerated Apis mellifera bees was used. In vitro assays were performed to evaluate antioxidant activity; direct free radical scavenging, protection against oxidative hemolysis, lipid peroxidation were evaluated in human erythrocytes and potential in inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In vivo, normoglycemic Swiss male mice treated with Apis mellifera tea (AmT) were subjected to the oral glucose tolerance test and compared with control and metformin-treated groups. Diet-induced diabetic mice were treated for 21 days with AmT and evaluated for glycemia and malondialdehyde levels in the blood, liver, nervous system, and eyes. During interviews, the indigenous people described the use of Apis mellifera bee tea for the treatment of diabetes. In in vitro assays, AmT showed direct antioxidant activity and reduced oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde generation in human erythrocytes. The AmT inhibited the formation of AGEs by albumin-fructose pathways and methylglyoxal products. In vivo, after oral glucose overload, normoglycemic

  9. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib


    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  10. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in green tea affected in harvesting time and their correlation to consumer preference. (United States)

    Kim, Youngmok; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Mina K


    Current study was designed to find out how tea harvesting time affects the volatile and non-volatile compounds profiles of green tea. In addition, correlation of instrumental volatile and non-volatile compounds analyses to consumer perception were analyzed. Overall, earlier harvested green tea had stronger antioxidant capacity (~61.0%) due to the polyphenolic compounds from catechin (23,164 mg/L), in comparison to later harvested green teas (11,961 mg/L). However, high catechin content in green tea influenced negatively the consumer likings of green tea, due to high bitterness (27.6%) and astringency (13.4%). Volatile compounds drive consumer liking of green tea products were also identified, that included linalool, 2,3-methyl butanal, 2-heptanone, (E,E)-3,5-Octadien-2-one. Finding from current study are useful for green tea industry as it provide the difference in physiochemical properties of green tea harvested at different intervals.

  11. Pesticide usage pattern in tea ecosystem, their retrospects and alternative measures. (United States)

    Gurusubramanian, G; Rahman, A; Sarmah, M; Ray, Somnath; Bora, S


    Tea is a perennial plantation crop grown under monoculture providing favorable conditions for a variety of pests. The concept of pest control has undergone a considerable change over the past few decades. In recent years there has been a greater dependence on the use of pesticides (7.35-16.75 kgha(-1)) with little importance laid on other safe control methods for the management of tea pests. Due to this practice, the tea pests showed a higher tolerance/ resistance status due to formation of greater amount of esterases, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase. Thus, over reliance on pesticides end up with pesticide residue in made tea (DDT - 10.4-47.1%; endosulfan - 41.1-98.0%; dicofol- 0.0-82.4%; ethion - 0.0-36.2%; cypermethrin - 6.0- 45.1%). The growing concern about the pesticide residue in made tea, its toxicity hazards to consumers, the spiraling cost of pesticides and their application have necessitated a suitable planning which will ensure a safe, economic as well as effective pest management in tea. At present it is a global concern to minimize chemical residue in tea and European union and German law imposed stringent measures for the application of chemicals in tea and fixed MRL values at market at global level, central insecticide board and prevention of food adulteration regulation committee have reviewed the MRL position for tea and has recommended 10 insecticides, 5 acaricides, 9 herbicides and 5 fungicides for use in tea and issued the tea distribution and export control order 2005 which will help the country to limit the presence of undesirable substances in tea. This review attempts to provide the readers with a comprehensive account of pesticide use in North East in tea, surveillance report of the European community regarding the residue level in Assam and Darjeeling tea, recent amendments by international and national regulatory bodies, revised MRL values of pesticides in tea, an update about the current strategies for the management

  12. Wide Ranging Insect Infestation of the Pioneer Mangrove Sonneratia alba by Two Insect Species along the Kenyan Coast.

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    Elisha Mrabu Jenoh

    Full Text Available Insect infestation of mangroves currently threatens mangrove forest health and management. In the Western Indian Ocean region, little is known about insect damage to mangroves despite the fact that numerous infestations have occurred. In Kenya, infestations of Sonneratia alba have persisted for almost two decades, yet the taxonomic identity of the infesting pest(s, the extent of infestation, the pests' biology, the impacts of infestation on host and the ecosystem, the host's defensive strategies to the infestation are poorly understood. S. alba is a ubiquitous, pioneer mangrove species of the Indo-Pacific, occurring along the waterfront in a variety of mangrove ecosystem settings. Our main objectives were to identify the pest(s responsible for the current dieback of S. alba in Kenya, and to determine the extent of infestation. To identify the pests responsible for infestation, we trapped emergent insects and reared larvae in the laboratory. To determine the overall extent of infestation within the S. alba zone, we assessed nine sites along the entire Kenyan coastline for the presence or absence of infested mangroves. Insect infestation in two mangrove embayments (Gazi and Mida was quantified in depth. Two wood-boring insects were identified: a metarbelid moth (Lepidoptera, Cossoidea of undescribed genus and the beetle Bottegia rubra (Cerambycidae, Lamiinae.The metarbelid moth infests mangroves in both northern (from Ngomeni to Kiunga and southern regions (from Vanga to Mtwapa of the Kenyan coast. B. rubra appeared in low density in Gazi, and in high density in Mida, Kilifi, and Ngomeni, with densities gradually decreasing northward. Insect infestation levels reached 18% in Gazi and 25% of S. alba stands in Mida. Our results indicate that B. rubra has the ability to infest young mangrove trees and expand its range, posing a danger to rehabilitation efforts where plantations have been established. Thus, there is great need for forest managers to

  13. Evaluation on the effectiveness of actions for controlling infestation by rodents in Campo Limpo region, Sao Paulo Municipality, Brazil. (United States)

    de Masi, Eduardo; Vilaça, Pedro José; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe


    Rodents are responsible for the transmission of more than 60 diseases both to human beings and to domestic animals. The increase in rodent infestation in a given area brings several health problems to the nearby population. Thus, when infestation increases, it is time to take intervention measures. Although many countries have implemented programs aimed at controlling rodent infestation, literature on studies evaluating the effectiveness of intervention measures in urban areas is scarce. Aimed at contributing to the understanding of rodents' population dynamics in urban areas, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the control methods proposed by "Programa de Vigilancia e Controle de Roedores do Municipio de Sao Paulo" (Program for Rodents Surveillance and Control in Sao Paulo Municipality), conducted on Jardim Comercial District. As a first step, a survey to assess infestation rates was conducted in 1529 dwellings located in the area studied. After that, a chemical control upon rodents was accomplished in every dwelling infested. One week and six months after completion of control measures, a new evaluation on infestation rates was carried out, in order to verify the effectiveness of the procedures taken and to estimate the re-infestation capacity. Initial infestation rate was 40.0%, and the final infestation rate, 14.4%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the control methods utilized was 63.8%. It can thus be concluded that the control methods applied were quite effective.

  14. Study of the infestation rate of the kidney and spleen of domestic ruminants by Linguatula serrata nymphs in Urmia slaughterhouse

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    S Rasouli


    Full Text Available In this study, the prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in kidneys and spleens of 800 domestic ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat in different sexes, ages and seasons was investigated. First, the kidneys and spleens were examined macroscopically. Then, a digestion method was also applied. Infestation rate in the spleen of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat were %0/5, %0, %0/5 and %1/5 respectively. No infestation was found in the kidneys. The results of this study shows that the infestation of domestic ruminants to Linguatula serrat nymphs in different sexes and ages were not significant. Also the infestation rate in different seasons was not significant.

  15. Influence of household rat infestation on leptospira transmission in the urban slum environment. (United States)

    Costa, Federico; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Felzemburgh, Ridalva D M; Santos, Norlan; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Santos, Andreia C; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothe; Araujo, Wildo N; Santana, Carlos; Childs, James E; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I


    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the principal reservoir for leptospirosis in many urban settings. Few studies have identified markers for rat infestation in slum environments while none have evaluated the association between household rat infestation and Leptospira infection in humans or the use of infestation markers as a predictive model to stratify risk for leptospirosis. We enrolled a cohort of 2,003 urban slum residents from Salvador, Brazil in 2004, and followed the cohort during four annual serosurveys to identify serologic evidence for Leptospira infection. In 2007, we performed rodent infestation and environmental surveys of 80 case households, in which resided at least one individual with Leptospira infection, and 109 control households. In the case-control study, signs of rodent infestation were identified in 78% and 42% of the households, respectively. Regression modeling identified the presence of R. norvegicus feces (OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 2.13-11.47), rodent burrows (2.80; 1.06-7.36), access to water (2.79; 1.28-6.09), and un-plastered walls (2.71; 1.21-6.04) as independent risk factors associated with Leptospira infection in a household. We developed a predictive model for infection, based on assigning scores to each of the rodent infestation risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the prediction score produced a good/excellent fit based on an area under the curve of 0.78 (0.71-0.84). Our study found that a high proportion of slum households were infested with R. norvegicus and that rat infestation was significantly associated with the risk of Leptospira infection, indicating that high level transmission occurs among slum households. We developed an easily applicable prediction score based on rat infestation markers, which identified households with highest infection risk. The use of the prediction score in community-based screening may therefore be an effective risk stratification strategy for targeting control

  16. Sensory quality evaluation for appearance of needle-shaped green tea based on computer vision and nonlinear tools. (United States)

    Dong, Chun-Wang; Zhu, Hong-Kai; Zhao, Jie-Wen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Chen, Quan-Sheng


    Tea is one of the three greatest beverages in the world. In China, green tea has the largest consumption, and needle-shaped green tea, such as Maofeng tea and Sparrow Tongue tea, accounts for more than 40% of green tea (Zhu et al., 2017). The appearance of green tea is one of the important indexes during the evaluation of green tea quality. Especially in market transactions, the price of tea is usually determined by its appearance (Zhou et al., 2012). Human sensory evaluation is usually conducted by experts, and is also easily affected by various factors such as light, experience, psychological and visual factors. In the meantime, people may distinguish the slight differences between similar colors or textures, but the specific levels of the tea are hard to determine (Chen et al., 2008). As human description of color and texture is qualitative, it is hard to evaluate the sensory quality accurately, in a standard manner, and objectively. Color is an important visual property of a computer image (Xie et al., 2014; Khulal et al., 2016); texture is a visual performance of image grayscale and color changing with spatial positions, which can be used to describe the roughness and directivity of the surface of an object (Sanaeifar et al., 2016). There are already researchers who have used computer visual image technologies to identify the varieties, levels, and origins of tea (Chen et al., 2008; Xie et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2017). Most of their research targets are crush, tear, and curl (CTC) red (green) broken tea, curly green tea (Bilochun tea), and flat-typed green tea (West Lake Dragon-well green tea) as the information sources. However, the target of the above research is to establish a qualitative evaluation method on tea quality (Fu et al., 2013). There is little literature on the sensory evaluation of the appearance quality of needle-shaped green tea, especially research on a quantitative evaluation model (Zhou et al., 2012; Zhu et al., 2017).

  17. Authentication of Botanical Origin in Herbal Teas by Plastid Noncoding DNA Length Polymorphisms. (United States)

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Uncu, Ayse Ozgur; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami


    The aim of this study was to develop a DNA barcode assay to authenticate the botanical origin of herbal teas. To reach this aim, we tested the efficiency of a PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) approach on commercial herbal tea samples using two noncoding plastid barcodes, the trnL intron and the intergenic spacer between trnL and trnF. Barcode DNA length polymorphisms proved successful in authenticating the species origin of herbal teas. We verified the validity of our approach by sequencing species-specific barcode amplicons from herbal tea samples. Moreover, we displayed the utility of PCR-CE assays coupled with sequencing to identify the origin of undeclared plant material in herbal tea samples. The PCR-CE assays proposed in this work can be applied as routine tests for the verification of botanical origin in herbal teas and can be extended to authenticate all types of herbal foodstuffs.

  18. Green Tea Consumption Affects Cognitive Dysfunction in the Elderly: A Pilot Study

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    Kazuki Ide


    Full Text Available Green tea is known to have various health benefits for humans. However, the effect of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction remains to be clinically verified. We conducted a clinical study to investigate the effects of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction. Twelve elderly nursing home residents with cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination Japanese version (MMSE-J score: <28 participated in the study (2 men, 10 women; mean age, 88 years. The participants consumed green tea powder 2 g/day for 3 months. After three months of green tea consumption, the participants’ MMSE-J scores were significantly improved (before, 15.3 ± 7.7; after, 17.0 ± 8.2; p = 0.03. This result suggests that green tea consumption may be effective in improving cognitive function or reducing the progression of cognitive dysfunction; however, long-term large-scale controlled studies are needed to further clarify the effect.

  19. Determination of 210Po in tea, mat and their infusions and its annual intake by Syrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.


    Polonium-210 was determined in 34 kinds of imported tea and 9 kinds of mat collected from the Syrian local market. The 210 Po concentration was found to vary from 5.5 to 39 Bq x kg -1 and 47 to 82 Bq x kg -1 in tea and mat samples, respectively. In addition 210 Po was also determined in tea and mat infusions where different infusion conditions have been examined: amount, temperature and infusion time. The results have shown that the amount of 210 Po transferred from tea and mat leaves to the aqueous extract ranged from 9 to 21% and 3 to 15%, respectively. The annual intake of 210 Po by Syrians due to tea consumption and mat infusions was calculated and found to be 9 Bq and 151 Bq for tea and mat respectively: washing of mat with warm water is recommended before preparation the infusions to decrease the annual intake of 210 Po. (author)

  20. Study unique artistic lopburi province for design brass tea set of bantahkrayang community (United States)

    Pliansiri, V.; Seviset, S.


    The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to study the production process of handcrafted Brass Tea Set; and 2) to design and develop the handcrafted of Brass Tea Set. The process of design was started by mutual analytical processes and conceptual framework for product design, Quality Function Deployment, Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, Principles of Craft Design, and Principle of Reverse Engineering. The experts in field of both Industrial Product Design and Brass Handicraft Product, have evaluated the Brass Tea Set design and created prototype of Brass tea set by the sample of consumers who have ever bought the Brass Tea Set of Bantahkrayang Community on this research. The statistics methods used were percentage, mean ({{{\\overline X}} = }) and standard deviation (S.D.) 3. To assess consumer satisfaction toward of handcrafted Brass tea set was at the high level.

  1. Unexplained severe illness possibly associated with consumption of Kombucha tea--Iowa, 1995. (United States)


    Kombucha tea is a popular health beverage made by incubating the Kombucha mushroom in sweet black tea. Although advocates of Kombucha tea have attributed many therapeutic effects to the drink (1-3), its beneficial and/or adverse effects have not been determined scientifically. During April 1995, cases of unexplained severe illness (including one death) occurred in two persons in a rural town in northwestern Iowa who had been drinking Kombucha tea daily for approximately 2 months. Based on the findings of a preliminary investigation by the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH), on April 10 IDPH issued a news release recommending that persons refrain from drinking Kombucha tea until the role of the tea in the two cases of illness had been evaluated fully. This report summarizes the investigation of these cases by the IDPH, CDC, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

  2. A billion cups: The diversity, traditional uses, safety issues and potential of Chinese herbal teas. (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Yang, Jin-Chao; Cunningham, Anthony B; Towns, Alexandra Maria; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Hua-Ying; Li, Jian-Wen; Yang, Xue-Fei


    Herbal teas have long been consumed by Chinese people for preventive and/or therapeutic healthcare. Although herbal teas are widely consumed by many cultural groups in different regions of China, no thorough review has been undertaken to assess the diversity of the country's herbal tea usage. This literature review, complemented by a quantitative survey in an important tea market in Kunming, begins to fill this knowledge gap. The study aims to summarize the current knowledge of plant species used as herbal teas by different cultural groups in different regions of China, with a focus on the teas' perceived traditional healthcare functions, related phytochemical/pharmaceutical research, and safety issues. The study involved a comprehensive literature review and a market survey. The literature review was based on published ethnobotanical studies of herbal teas in China. We searched the Web of Science™, ELSEVIER, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and the China Science and Technology Journal Database to locate relevant studies (including journal articles, Masters/PhD dissertations and books) that were published before March 2017. A species list was compiled based on the review and supplemented with information retrieved from the Scifinder database ( and the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010). A Use Value Index was employed for ranking the most cited species. Based on the 29 most cited species, we discussed the current research status in relation to healthcare benefits and safety concerns of herbal teas in China. To better understand the current status of the herbal tea market in China, we also surveyed 136 tea vendors at the Xiongda Tea Market in Kunming. Information gathered from the survey included the species sold, the sale prices and the form of the herbal tea product. The literature identified 759 plant species used as herbal tea in China and the market survey identified an additional 23 species. Most of the species used were

  3. Chemical activation of tea waste and use for the removal of chromium (Vi) from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, K.; Bhatti, I.; Ansari, A.K.


    Tea waste is the residue left after the preparation of tea. At present the tea waste is regarded as a waste product having no use. In this study, tea waste is converted into an adsorbent. Tea waste is chemically activated with phosphoric acid at low temperature 450 degree C. This activated carbon is then utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of Chromium (VI) from aqueous solution. The various sorption parameters i.e pH, sorbent dose sorbate concentration, shaking time and shaking speed are first optimized. 75% of chromium from aqueous solution is effectively removed at pH 2. The best optimum conditions were obtained when 1 gm of sorbent was agitated at 100 rpm with 60 mg/l of sorbate for 50 minutes. Better results were obtained when low concentrations of sorbates were used. Hence tea waste could also be successfully used for the sorption of Chromium (VI), from industrial waste water. (author)

  4. Efficacy of the d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen association against mites in naturally co-infested rabbits

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    Julio I. Fernandes


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen association against Psoroptes ovis, Cheyletiella parasitivorax, and Leporacarus gibbus infestations in naturally co-infested rabbits. Twenty crossbreed (New Zealand White x California rabbits concurrently infested by the three mite species were randomly divided in two groups. All rabbits presented with hyperemia, erythema and formation of crusts in the ear canals caused by P. ovis. Infestations by both C. parasitivorax and L. gibbus were considered asymptomatic in all animals.Ten animals were treated with a 4.4% d-phenothrin and 0.148% pyriproxyfen spray formulation until have their body surface uniformly sprayed, including external ear canals. The other ten rabbits remained untreated, serving as control group. Observations were done on days +7, +14, +21, +28, and +35 post-treatment. The d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen association showed 100% efficacy against the three mite species and was responsible for the remission of psoroptic mange lesions on treated animals. No signs of intoxication were observed. The results indicate that d-phenothrin/pyriproxyfen spray formulation in a single application is an effective and clinically safe option for the control of different mite infestations in rabbits.

  5. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes.

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    Zachary C DeVries

    Full Text Available Histamine is used in bronchial and dermal provocation, but it is rarely considered an environmental risk factor in allergic disease. Because bed bugs defecate large amounts of histamine as a component of their aggregation pheromone, we sought to determine if histamine accumulates in household dust in bed bug infested homes, and the effects of bed bug eradication with spatial heat on histamine levels in dust. We collected dust in homes and analyzed for histamine before, and up to three months after bed bug eradication. Histamine levels in bed bug infested homes were remarkably high (mean = 54.6±18.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust and significantly higher than in control homes not infested with bed bugs (mean < 2.5±1.9 μg/100 mg of sieved household dust. Heat treatments that eradicated the bed bug infestations failed to reduce histamine levels, even three months after treatment. We report a clear association between histamine levels in household dust and bed bug infestations. The high concentrations, persistence, and proximity to humans during sleep suggest that bed bug-produced histamine may represent an emergent contaminant and pose a serious health risk in the indoor environment.

  6. Infestation of froghopper nymphs changes the amounts of total phenolics in sugarcane

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    Silva Rafael José Navas da


    Full Text Available The increased rate of sugarcane harvest without previous burn has provided a very favorable environment to the froghopper Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854, with high moisture and low temperature variation. Few works have studied the response of sugarcane to this pest, so little is known about resistant cultivars. Plant phenolics are widely studied compounds because of their known antiherbivore effect. This research aims to determine if the attack of M. fimbriolata nymphs stimulates the accumulation of total phenolics in sugarcane. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse and arranged in completely randomized design, in a 3 X 2 X 4 factorial with three replications. Second instar nymphs of M. fimbriolata were infested at the following rates: control, 2-4 and 4-8 nymphs per pot (first-second infestations, respectively. Pots were covered with nylon net and monitored daily to isolate the effect of leaf sucking adults. Leaf and root samples were collected and kept frozen in liquid nitrogen until analyses. Infested plants showed higher levels of phenolics in both root and leaf tissues. In roots, the cultivar SP80-1816 accumulated more phenolic compounds in response to the infestation of M. fimbriolata. On the other hand, higher levels were found in leaves and roots of control plants of SP86-42, which might be an indication of a non-preference mechanism. The increase of total phenolics in sugarcane infested with root-sucking froghopper nymphs does not seem to be useful to detect the resistance to this pest.

  7. High exposure to Tunga penetrans (Linnaeus, 1758 correlates with intensity of infestation

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    Hermann Feldmeier


    Full Text Available Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease widespread in resource-poor urban and rural communities in Brazil. Inhabitants of an urban slum in Northeast Brazil were examined for the presence of tungiasis lesions and followed-up twice a week for a period of three weeks. Each time the number, stages, and topographic localization of lesions were recorded on a documentation sheet. The infestation rate (number of newly embedded sand fleas per individual and day remained stable during the observation period. The infestation rate was significantly related to the intensity of infestation (total number of lesions present (rho = 0.70, p < 0.0001 and the proportion of viable lesions (rho = 0.28, p < 0.0001. The results indicate that in an endemic area the infestation intensity and the proportion of viable lesions can be used as a proxy to assess the exposure of individuals at risk for tungiasis. Persistently high infestation rates during the transmission season favour the use of prevention measures against invading sand fleas (such as a repellent rather than a drug to kill already embedded parasites.

  8. Tick infestation on wild snakes in northern part of western Ghats of India. (United States)

    Pandit, Pranav; Bandivdekar, Ruta; Geevarghese, G; Pande, Satish; Mandke, Omkar


    In total, 167 individuals of 30 species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families were examined for tick infestation from November 2008 to March 2010. Only two species of snakes, Ptyas mucosa (L., 1758) (Indian rat snake) and Naja naja (L., 1758) (spectacled cobra), were found infested by ticks. All ticks collected were identified to be Amblyomma gervaisi [previously Aponomma gervaisi (Lucas, 1847) 1. The average prevalence of these ticks on Indian rat snakes (n=48) was 29.16%, with abundance of 7.02 ticks per individual; on spectacled cobras (n=20), average prevalence was 30.00%, with abundance of 6.9 ticks per individual. The nymphs and males were predominant. All the ticks were found on the dorsal aspect of the body of the snake, and no ticks were recorded on the head, tail, or ventral body. The rate of tick infestation was highest in scrubland and was lowest in evergreen forests. Female Indian rat snakes showed higher tick infestation rates than male Indian rat snakes. Using Mann-Whitney U test, we found that longer snakes of both species had significantly higher rate of tick infestation in both the species of snakes.

  9. Infestation of zooplankton with Triaenophorus and Proteocephalus procercoids (Cestoda in a deep oligotrophic lake

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    Peter Anegg


    Full Text Available In spring 2004, a massive infestation of the whitefish population in the Austrian Lake Achensee with Triaenophorus crassus was observed. Procercoids, the larval stage of parasitic cestodes, infest copepods as their first intermediate host. Therefore, in spring 2011, zooplankton samples were taken weekly at two sampling sites and depth ranges to determine the abundances of crustaceans as well as percentages of infected copepods and temporal occurrence of parasites. In addition, whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus stomach contents were analysed for food spectrum and parasite infestation. From the end of June to mid-August, procercoids of Triaenophorus spp. were detected in Cyclops abyssorum, the only first intermediate host for this parasite in Lake Achensee. Highest percentages of infected copepods were reached in mid-July (prevalence: 0.38%. Furthermore, an infestation of Proteocephalus sp. was observed in this copepod species, which occurred earlier until the end of the sampling period (prevalence: 1.34%. Besides C. abyssorum, also Eudiaptomus gracilis was occasionally infected with Proteocephalus (prevalence: 0.05%. The procercoids were found in both depth ranges, with no clear vertical infestation preference. More female C. abyssorum were Triaenophorus-infected than males, while the opposite was observed for Proteocephalus infection. The whitefish stomachs contained large numbers of Proteocephalus and Triaenophorus procercoids, coinciding with the occurrence of these parasites in the copepods.

  10. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

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    Durand R.


    Full Text Available Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97% and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6% apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6% reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%. DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124 had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs.

  11. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis

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    R.C. Jayasinghe


    Full Text Available Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis. However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest. Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka.

  12. Define Colony Number of Subterranean Termites Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Selected Infested Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Hafiz Abdul Majid; Abu Hassan Ahmad


    Termites are one of the social insects living in large colonies that can cause economic loss. The objective of this study was to estimate foraging territory of infested subterranean termites on building structure. A mark-recapture study was conducted on eight Coptotermes gestroi colonies located at selected infested building structures in Penang, Malaysia. From the foraging study, the population of C. gestroi was estimated to be within the range of 106,592±6,968 to 4,185,000±2,127,328. Additionally, the foraging territory was from 13 to 300 m 2 of the infested building structures. Meanwhile the maximum foraging distance was from 4 to 30 m of the infested structures. The results indicated that each of the building structures was infested by a single colony. This study also showed that the triple mark recapture technique used to estimate the population size of the termite colony was capable of providing rough estimates of foraging population of C. gestroi. (author)

  13. Neural correlates of delusional infestation responding to aripiprazole monotherapy: a case report

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    Ponson L


    Full Text Available Laura Ponson,1,2 Frédéric Andersson,1 Wissam El-Hage1,2 1Université François-Rabelais de Tours, Inserm, Imagerie et Cerveau UMR U930, Tours, France, 2CHRU de Tours, Clinique Psychiatrique Universitaire, Tours, France Background: The pathophysiology and appropriate pharmacological interventions for delusional infestation remain unknown.Case presentation: Here, we report a case of primary delusional infestation successfully treated with aripiprazole. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate brain structures and functional modifications. Before antipsychotic treatment, pre- versus post-treatment fMRI images revealed a marked increase in brain activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA.Conclusion: Our results highlight the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of delusional infestation and the possible role of SMA dysfunction in delusional infestation. Indeed, our results suggest that psychiatric improvement of delusional infestation is associated with normalization of brain activity, particularly in the SMA. Keywords: supplementary motor area, antipsychotics, fMRI

  14. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C.; Morales, Cinara F.G.


    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  15. The accumulation and elimination of 89Sr in tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxi; Wang Shouxiang; Chen Chuanqun; Sun Zhiming; Hu Bingmin; Huang Dan


    The 89 Sr was added to the tea tree-soil system by different ways. The 89 Sr in the system through the over-ground part of tea tree, was much more than that through soil. The 89 Sr concentration in older leaves was higher than in shoot for a definite treatment. The accumulation elimination law of 89 Sr in leaves varied with the treatments. For the treatment through the over-ground part, the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves and shoot was monotonously decreased with time increasing. But for the treatment through soil the 89 Sr concentration in shoot was increased to reach a peak value, and then decreased slowly; while the 89 Sr concentration in older leaves increased quickly in a period, then increased slowly to attain a saturated value. In addition, the concentration factor of 89 Sr in older leaves and shoot were determined

  16. Chitosan pretreatment for cotton dyeing with black tea (United States)

    Campos, J.; Díaz-García, P.; Montava, I.; Bonet-Aracil, M.; Bou-Belda, E.


    Chitosan is used in a wide range of applications due to its intrinsic properties. Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin and among their most important aspects highlights its bonding with cotton and its antibacterial properties. In this study two different molecular weight chitosan are used in the dyeing process of cotton with black tea to evaluate its influence. In order to evaluate the effect of the pretreatment with chitosan, DSC and reflection spectrophotometer analysis are performed. The curing temperature is evaluated by the DSC analysis of cotton fabric treated with 15 g/L of chitosan, whilst the enhancement of the dyeing is evaluated by the colorimetric coordinates and the K/S value obtained spectrophotometrically. This study shows the extent of improvement of the pretreatment with chitosan in dyeing with natural products as black tea.

  17. Antioxidant effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, E J J; Sathiyaraj, P; Deena, T; Kumar, D S


    Extract from Green Tea (GTE) acts as an antioxidant in acrylamide based polymer gel dosimeter. In this work, PAGAT gel was used for investigation of antioxidant effect of GTE.PAGAT was called PAGTEG (Polyacrylamide green tea extract gel dosimeter) after adding GTE. Free radicals in water cause pre polymerization of polymer gel before irradiation. Polyphenols from GTE are highly effective to absorb the free radicals in water. THPC is used as an antioxidant in polymer gel dosimeter but here we were replaced it by GTE and investigated its effect by spectrophotometer. GTE added PAGAT samples response was lower compared to THPC added sample. To increase the sensitivity of the PAGTEG, sugar was added. This study confirmed that THPC was a good antioxidant for polymer gel dosimeter. However, GTE also can be used as an antioxidant in polymer gel if use less quantity (GTE) and add sugar as sensitivity enhancer

  18. Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis, a new ascosporogenous yeast from 'Kombucha tea'. (United States)

    Kurtzman, C P; Robnett, C J; Basehoar-Powers, E


    A new ascosporogenous yeast, Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis sp. n. (type strain NRRL YB-4811, CBS 8849), is described; it was isolated from Kombucha tea, a popular fermented tea-based beverage. The four known strains of the new species have identical nucleotide sequences in domain D1/D2 of 26S rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of D1/D2 and 18S rDNA sequences places Z. kombuchaensis near Zygosaccharomyces lentus. The two species are indistinguishable on standard physiological tests used for yeast identification, but can be recognized from differences in restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns obtained by digestion of 18S-ITS1 amplicons with the restriction enzymes DdeI and MboI.

  19. Antioxidant Phenolic Compounds from Pu-erh Tea

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    Shu Shan Du


    Full Text Available Eight compounds were isolated from the water extract of Pu-erh tea and their structures were elucidated by NMR and MS as gallic acid (1, (+-catechin (2, (−-epicatechin (3, (−-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (4, (−-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (5, (−-epiafzelechin- 3-O-gallate (6, kaempferol (7, and quercetin (8. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by the DPPH and ABTS scavenging methods with microplate assays. The relative order of DPPH scavenging capacity for these compounds was compound 8 > compound 7 > compound 1 > compound 6 > compound 4 ≈ compound 5 > compound 2 > VC (reference > compound 3, and that of ABTS scavenging capacity was compound 1 > compound 2 > compound 7 ≈ compound 8 > compound 6 > compound 5 > compound 4 > VC (reference > compound 3. The results showed that these phenolic compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of Pu-erh tea.

  20. Preliminary report on the sensitivity of tea plant to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Lijuan


    The seeds of different varieties of tea have been irradiated. In most cases the rate of emergence of seedings was delayed and the rate of emergence of seedlings was decreased with increasing the radiation doses. The more suitable doses for tea seeds were 5 Krads, and the lethal dose is over 7 Krads. Except for the variety Fudingdabai, the survival rate of cuttings was decreased and its growth rate was reduced with increasing the radiation doses. The applicable dose and the lethal dose for cuttings were 0.5-1 Krads and 2 Krads respectively. Irradiation with low dose (below 4 Krads) give a good effect in the germination of pollen. The semilethal dose for pollen is 12 Krads, and the lethal dose is more than 20 Krads