WorldWideScience

Sample records for kac fusion algebra

  1. The Planar Algebra Associated to a Kac Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijay Kodiyalam; Zeph Landau; V S Sunder

    2003-02-01

    We obtain (two equivalent) presentations – in terms of generators and relations-of the planar algebra associated with the subfactor corresponding to (an outer action on a factor by) a finite-dimensional Kac algebra. One of the relations shows that the antipode of the Kac algebra agrees with the `rotation on 2-boxes'.

  2. Tubular algebras and affine Kac-Moody algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct quotient algebras L(A)1C/I(A) of complex degenerate composition Lie algebras L(A)1C by some ideals, where L(A)1C is defined via Hall algebras of tubular algebras A, and to prove that the quotient algebras L(A)1C/I(A) are isomorphic to the corresponding affine Kac-Moody algebras. Moreover, it is shown that the Lie algebra Lre(A)1C generated by A-modules with a real root coincides with the degenerate composition Lie algebra L(A)1C generated by simple A-modules.

  3. Tubular algebras and affine Kac-Moody algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-xin CHEN; Ya-nan LIN

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to construct quotient algebras L(A)C1/I(A) of complex degenerate composition Lie algebras L(A)C1 by some ideals, where L(A)C1 is defined via Hall algebras of tubular algebras A, and to prove that the quotient algebras L(A)C1/I(A) are isomorphic to the corresponding affine Kac-Moody algebras. Moreover, it is shown that the Lie algebra Lre(A)C1 generated by A-modules with a real root coincides with the degenerate composition Lie algebra L(A)C1 generated by simple A-modules.

  4. Kac-Moody Algebras and Controlled Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Wesley, D H

    2007-01-01

    Compactification can control chaotic Mixmaster behavior in gravitational systems with p-form matter: we consider this in light of the connection between supergravity models and Kac-Moody algebras. We show that different compactifications define "mutations" of the algebras associated with the noncompact theories. We list the algebras obtained in this way, and find novel examples of wall systems determined by hyperbolic (but not strictly hyperbolic) algebras. Cosmological models with a smooth pre-big bang phase require that chaos is absent: we show that compactification alone cannot eliminate chaos in the simplest compactifications of the heterotic string on a Calabi-Yau, or M theory on a manifold of G_2 holonomy.

  5. The Kostant partition functions for twisted Kac-Moody algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranabir Chakrabarti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Employing the method of generating functions and making use of some infinite product identities like Euler, Jacobi's triple product and pentagon identities we derive recursion relations for Kostant's partition functions for the twisted Kac-Moody algebras.

  6. The Kostant partition functions for twisted Kac-Moody algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Ranabir Chakrabarti; Santhanam, Thalanayar S.

    2000-01-01

    Employing the method of generating functions and making use of some infinite product identities like Euler, Jacobi's triple product and pentagon identities we derive recursion relations for Kostant's partition functions for the twisted Kac-Moody algebras.

  7. Unique factorization of tensor products for Kac-Moody algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, R.; Viswanath, Sankaran

    2012-01-01

    We consider integrable, category O-modules of indecomposable symmetrizable Kac-Moody algebras. We prove that unique factorization of tensor products of irreducible modules holds in this category, upto twisting by one dimensional modules. This generalizes a fundamental theorem of Rajan for finite dimensional simple Lie algebras over C. Our proof is new even for the finite dimensional case, and uses an interplay of representation theory and combinatorics to analyze the Kac-Weyl character formula.

  8. Boundary algebras and Kac modules for logarithmic minimal models

    CERN Document Server

    Morin-Duchesne, Alexi; Ridout, David

    2015-01-01

    Virasoro Kac modules were initially introduced indirectly as representations whose characters arise in the continuum scaling limits of certain transfer matrices in logarithmic minimal models, described using Temperley-Lieb algebras. The lattice transfer operators include seams on the boundary that use Wenzl-Jones projectors. If the projectors are singular, the original prescription is to select a subspace of the Temperley-Lieb modules on which the action of the transfer operators is non-singular. However, this prescription does not, in general, yield representations of the Temperley-Lieb algebras and the Virasoro Kac modules have remained largely unidentified. Here, we introduce the appropriate algebraic framework for the lattice analysis as a quotient of the one-boundary Temperley-Lieb algebra. The corresponding standard modules are introduced and examined using invariant bilinear forms and their Gram determinants. The structures of the Virasoro Kac modules are inferred from these results and are found to be...

  9. Chromatic polynomials of graphs from Kac-Moody algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, R.; Viswanath, Sankaran

    2013-01-01

    We give a new interpretation of the chromatic polynomial of a simple graph G in terms of the Kac-Moody Lie algebra with Dynkin diagram G. We show that the chromatic polynomial is essentially the q-Kostant partition function of this Lie algebra evaluated on the sum of the simple roots. Applying the Peterson recurrence formula for root multiplicities, we obtain a new realization of the chromatic polynomial as a weighted sum of paths in the bond lattice of G.

  10. Generalized conformal realizations of Kac-Moody algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmkvist, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We present a construction which associates an infinite sequence of Kac-Moody algebras, labeled by a positive integer n, to one single Jordan algebra. For n =1, this reduces to the well known Kantor-Koecher-Tits construction. Our generalization utilizes a new relation between different generalized Jordan triple systems, together with their known connections to Jordan and Lie algebras. Applied to the Jordan algebra of Hermitian 3×3 matrices over the division algebras R, C, H, O, the construction gives the exceptional Lie algebras f4, e6, e7, e8 for n =2. Moreover, we obtain their infinite-dimensional extensions for n ≥3. In the case of 2×2 matrices, the resulting Lie algebras are of the form so(p +n,q+n) and the concomitant nonlinear realization generalizes the conformal transformations in a spacetime of signature (p,q).

  11. Generalized Kac-Moody Algebras from CHL dyons

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, Suresh

    2009-01-01

    We show the existence of a family of generalized Kac-Moody(GKM) superalgebras, G_N, whose Weyl-Kac-Borcherds denominator formula gives rise to a genus-two modular form at level N, Delta_{k/2}(Z), for (N,k)=(1,10),(2,6),(3,4),(5,2). The square of the automorphic form is related to the generating function of the degeneracy of CHL dyons in asymmetric Z_N-orbifolds of the heterotic string compactified on T^6. The new generalized Kac-Moody superalgebras all arise as different `automorphic corrections' of the same Lie algebra and are closely related to a generalized Kac-Moody superalgebra constructed by Gritsenko and Nikulin. The automorphic forms, Delta_{k/2}(Z), seem to arise as additive lifts of weak Jacobi forms of (integral) weight k/2 and index 1/2. We note that the orbifolding acts on the imaginary simple roots of the unorbifolded GKM superalgebra, G_1, leaving the real simple roots untouched. We anticipate that these superalgebras will play a role in understanding the `algebra of BPS states' in CHL compacti...

  12. Generalized Kac-Moody algebras from CHL dyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Suresh; Gopala Krishna, K.

    2009-04-01

    We provide evidence for the existence of a family of generalized Kac-Moody (GKM) superalgebras, Script GN, whose Weyl-Kac-Borcherds denominator formula gives rise to a genus-two modular form at level N, Δk/2(Z), for (N, k) = (1, 10), (2, 6), (3, 4), and possibly (5, 2). The square of the automorphic form is the modular transform of the generating function of the degeneracy of CHL dyons in asymmetric Bbb ZN-orbifolds of the heterotic string compactified on T6. The new generalized Kac-Moody superalgebras all arise as different `automorphic corrections' of the same Lie algebra and are closely related to a generalized Kac-Moody superalgebra constructed by Gritsenko and Nikulin. The automorphic forms, Δk/2(Z), arise as additive lifts of Jacobi forms of (integral) weight k/2 and index 1/2. We note that the orbifolding acts on the imaginary simple roots of the unorbifolded GKM superalgebra, Script G1, leaving the real simple roots untouched. We anticipate that these superalgebras will play a role in understanding the `algebra of BPS states' in CHL compactifications.

  13. Automorphic Forms and Lorentzian Kac-Moody Algebras, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, V A; Gritsenko, Valeri A.; Nikulin, Viacheslav V.

    1996-01-01

    Using the general method which was applied to prove finiteness of the set of hyperbolic generalized Cartan matrices of elliptic and parabolic type, we classify all symmetric (and twisted to symmetric) hyperbolic generalized Cartan matrices of elliptic type and of rank 3 with a lattice Weyl vector. We develop the general theory of reflective lattices T with 2 negative squares and reflective automorphic forms on homogeneous domains of type IV defined by T. We consider this theory as mirror symmetric to the theory of elliptic and parabolic hyperbolic reflection groups and corresponding hyperbolic root systems. We formulate Arithmetic Mirror Symmetry Conjecture relating both these theories and prove some statements to support this Conjecture. This subject is connected with automorphic correction of Lorentzian Kac--Moody algebras. We define Lie reflective automorphic forms which are the most beautiful automorphic forms defining automorphic Lorentzian Kac--Moody algebras, and we formulate finiteness Conjecture for ...

  14. Automorphic Forms and Lorentzian Kac-Moody Algebras, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, V A; Gritsenko, Valeri A.; Nikulin, Viacheslav V.

    1996-01-01

    We give variants of lifting construction, which define new classes of modular forms on the Siegel upper half-space of complex dimension 3 with respect to the full paramodular groups (defining moduli of Abelian surfaces with arbitrary polarization). The data for these liftings are Jacobi forms of integral and half-integral indices. In particular, we get modular forms which are generalizations of the Dedekind eta-function. Some of these forms define automorphic corrections of Lorentzian Kac-Moody algebras with hyperbolic generalized Cartan matrices of rank three classified in Part I of this paper. We also construct many automorphic forms which give discriminants of moduli of K3 surfaces with conditions on Picard lattice. These results are important for Mirror Symmetry and theory of Lorentzian Kac-Moody algebras.

  15. Classification of actions of discrete Kac algebras on injective factors

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    The authors study two kinds of actions of a discrete amenable Kac algebra. The first one is an action whose modular part is normal. They construct a new invariant which generalizes a characteristic invariant for a discrete group action, and we will present a complete classification. The second is a centrally free action. By constructing a Rohlin tower in an asymptotic centralizer, the authors show that the Connes-Takesaki module is a complete invariant.

  16. K3 surfaces, lorentzian Kac-Moody algebras and mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, V A; Gritsenko, Valeri A; Nikulin, Viacheslav V

    1995-01-01

    We consider the variant of Mirror Symmetry Conjecture for K3 surfaces which relates "geometry" of curves of a general member of a family of K3 with "algebraic functions" on the moduli of the mirror family. Lorentzian Kac--Moody algebras are involved in this construction. We give several examples when this conjecture is valid.

  17. Representations of general linear groups and categorical actions of Kac-Moody algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Losev, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This is an expanded version of the lectures given by the author on the 3rd school "Lie algebras, algebraic groups and invariant theory" in Togliatti, Russia. In these notes we explain the concept of a categorical Kac-Moody action by studying an example of the category of rational representations of a general linear group in positive characteristic. We also deal with some more advanced topics: a categorical action on the polynomial representations and crystals of categorical actions.

  18. Projections of Singular Vectors of Verma Modules over Rank 2 Kac-Moody Lie Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Fuchs

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We prove an explicit formula for a projection of singular vectors in the Verma module over a rank 2 Kac-Moody Lie algebra onto the universal enveloping algebra of the Heisenberg Lie algebra and of sl_2 (Theorem 3. The formula is derived from a more general but less explicit formula due to Feigin, Fuchs and Malikov [Funct. Anal. Appl. 20 (1986, no. 2, 103-113]. In the simpler case of A_1^1 the formula was obtained in [Fuchs D., Funct. Anal. Appl. 23 (1989, no. 2, 154-156].

  19. Siegel automorphic form corrections of some lorentzian Kac-Moody Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, V A; Gritsenko, Valeri A; Nikulin, Viacheslav V

    1995-01-01

    We find automorphic form corrections (which are the generalized Lorentzian Kac--Moody Lie superalgebras) for two elliptic Lorentzian Kac--Moody Lie algebras of the rank 3 with a lattice Weyl vector, and calculate multiplicities of their simple and arbitrary imaginary roots. These Kac--Moody Lie algebras are defined by hyperbolic (i.e. with exactly one negative square) symmetric generalized Cartan matrices G_1=\\pmatrix 2&-2&-2\\\\-2&2&-2\\\\-2&-2&2\\endpmatrix, G_2=\\pmatrix 4&-4&-12&-4\\\\-4&4&-4&-12\\\\ -12&-4&4&-4\\\\-4&-12&-4&4\\endpmat rix of the rank 3. Both these algebras have elliptic type (i.e. their Weyl groups have fundamental polyhedra of finite volume in corresponding hyperbolic spaces) and have a lattice Weyl vector. The correcting automoprhic forms are Siegel modular forms: the classical Siegel cusp form of weight 5 (with a multiplier system) which is the product of ten even theta-constants (for the algebra G_1) and a cusp form of weight...

  20. Affine Kac-Moody algebras, CHL strings and the classification of tops

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Vincent; Bouchard, Vincent; Skarke, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Candelas and Font introduced the notion of a `top' as half of a three dimensional reflexive polytope and noticed that Dynkin diagrams of enhanced gauge groups in string theory can be read off from them. We classify all tops satisfying a generalized definition as a lattice polytope with one facet containing the origin and the other facets at distance one from the origin. These objects torically encode the local geometry of a degeneration of an elliptic fibration. We give a prescription for assigning an affine, possibly twisted Kac-Moody algebra to any such top (and more generally to any elliptic fibration structure) in a precise way that involves the lengths of simple roots and the coefficients of null roots. Tops related to twisted Kac-Moody algebras can be used to construct string compactifications with reduced rank of the gauge group.

  1. Symmetries of the Kac-Peterson modular matrices of affine algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Gannon, T

    1994-01-01

    The characters \\chi_\\mu of nontwisted affine algebras at fixed level define in a natural way a representation R of the modular group SL_2(Z). The matrices in the image R(SL_2(Z)) are called the Kac-Peterson modular matrices, and describe the modular behaviour of the characters. In this paper we consider all levels of (A_{r_1}\\oplus\\cdots\\oplus A_{r_s})^{(1)}, and for each of these find all permutations of the highest weights which commute with the corresponding Kac-Peterson matrices. This problem is equivalent to the classification of automorphism invariants of conformal field theories, and its solution, especially considering its simplicity, is a major step toward the classification of all Wess-Zumino-Witten conformal field theories.

  2. Elliptic algebra, Frenkel-Kac construction and root of unity limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoyama, H.; Oota, T.; Yoshioka, R.

    2017-09-01

    We argue that the level-1 elliptic algebra Uq, p(\\widehat{g}) is a dynamical symmetry realized as a part of 2d/5d correspondence where the Drinfeld currents are the screening currents to the q-Virasoro/W block in the 2d side. For the case of Uq, p(\\widehat{sl}(2)) , the level-1 module has a realization by an elliptic version of the Frenkel-Kac construction. The module admits the action of the deformed Virasoro algebra. In a rth root of unity limit of p with q2 → 1 , the {Z}r -parafermions and a free boson appear and the value of the central charge that we obtain agrees with that of the 2d coset CFT with para-Virasoro symmetry, which corresponds to the 4d N=2 SU(2) gauge theory on {R}^4/{Z}r .

  3. Variable coefficient Davey-Stewartson system with a Kac-Moody-Virasoro symmetry algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, F.; Özemir, C.

    2016-06-01

    We study the symmetry group properties of the variable coefficient Davey-Stewartson (vcDS) system. The Lie point symmetry algebra with a Kac-Moody-Virasoro (KMV) structure is shown to be isomorphic to that of the usual (constant coefficient) DS system if and only if the coefficients satisfy some conditions. These conditions turn out to coincide with those for the vcDS system to be transformable to the DS system by a point transformation. The equivalence group of the vcDS system is applied to pick out the integrable subsystems from a class of non-integrable ones. Additionally, the full symmetry group of the DS system is derived explicitly without exponentiating its symmetry algebra. Lump solutions (rationally localized in all directions in ℝ2) introduced by Ozawa for the DS system are shown to hold even for the vcDS system precisely when the system belongs to the integrable class, i.e., equivalent to the DS system. These solutions can be used for establishing exact blow-up solutions in finite time in the space L2(ℝ2) in the focusing case.

  4. The Igusa modular forms and "the simplest" lorentzian Kac-Moody algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, V A; Gritsenko, Valeri A; Nikulin, Viacheslav V

    1996-01-01

    We find automorphic corrections for the Lorentzian Kac--Moody algebras with the simplest generalized Cartan matrices of rank 3: 2 0 -1 2 -2 -1 A_{1,0} = 0 2 -2 and A_{1,I} = -2 2 -1 -1 -2 2 -1 -1 2 For A_{1,0} this correction is given by the Igusa Sp_4(Z)-modular form \\chi_{35} of weight 35, and for A_{1,I} by a Siege modular form of weight 30 with respect to a 2-congruence subgroup. We find infinite product or sum expansions for these forms. Our method of construction of \\chi_{35} leads to the direct construction of Siegel modular forms by infinite product expansions, whose divisors are the Humbert surfaces with fixed discriminants. Existence of these forms was proved by van der Geer in 1982 using some geometrical consideration. We announce a list of all hyperbolic symmetric generalized Cartan matrices A of rank 3 such that A has elliptic or parabolic type, A has a lattice Weyl vector, and A contains the affine submatrix \\tilde{A}_1.

  5. 超双曲型Kac-Moody Lie代数的结构与奇异性%Structure of the Super hyperbolic Type Kac - Moody Lie Algebra and Its Singularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌

    2001-01-01

    给出了超双曲型(以下简称SH-型)Kac-Moody Lie代数的结构定理及部分Dykin结构图,同时也证明了所有SH-型广义Cartan矩阵A=(aij)l×l是非奇异的,且有惯性指数(1-1,1)。%The structure theory of the super hyperbolic type Kac - Moody Lie algebra and its part Dykin groph are given. It is proved that this kind of cartan matrices A= (aij)l× lis nonsingular and its inertial index is (1 - 1,1).

  6. Modular invariance and the fusion algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Verlinde, Erik

    1988-12-01

    We discuss the relation between modular transformations and the fusion algebra, and explain its proof. It is shown that the existence of off-diagonal modular invariant partition functions imply the existence of a non-trivial automorphism of the fusion algebra. This is illustrated using the SU(2) affine models.

  7. Quiver Varieties with Multiplicities, Weyl Groups of Non-Symmetric Kac-Moody Algebras, and Painlevé Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yamakawa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To a finite quiver equipped with a positive integer on each of its vertices, we associate a holomorphic symplectic manifold having some parameters. This coincides with Nakajima's quiver variety with no stability parameter/framing if the integers attached on the vertices are all equal to one. The construction of reflection functors for quiver varieties are generalized to our case, in which these relate to simple reflections in the Weyl group of some symmetrizable, possibly non-symmetric Kac-Moody algebra. The moduli spaces of meromorphic connections on the rank 2 trivial bundle over the Riemann sphere are described as our manifolds. In our picture, the list of Dynkin diagrams for Painlevé equations is slightly different from (but equivalent to Okamoto's.

  8. Quantum cluster algebras and fusion products

    CERN Document Server

    Di Francesco, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    $Q$-systems are recursion relations satisfied by the characters of the restrictions of special finite-dimensional modules of quantum affine algebras. They can also be viewed as mutations in certain cluster algebras, which have a natural quantum deformation. In this paper, we explain the relation in the simply-laced case between the resulting quantum $Q$-systems and the graded tensor product of Feigin and Loktev. We prove the graded version of the $M=N$ identities, and write expressions for these as non-commuting evaluated multi-residues of suitable products of solutions of the quantum $Q$-system. This leads to a simple reformulation of Feigin and Loktev's fusion coefficients as matrix elements in a representation of the quantum $Q$-system algebra.

  9. Kac-Moody exceptional E12 from simplictic tiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S. [Frankfurt Institute for the Advancement of Fundamental Scientific Research, University of Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Alexandria (Egypt)], E-mail: chaossf@aol.com

    2009-08-30

    We give various derivations for the order of a new non classical exceptional Lie group E12. We start from the simplest polyhedra of ordinary three dimensional space and arrive at the exact integer value vertical bar E12 vertical bar = 685. Subsequently we show that a corresponding infinite dimensional but hierarchal KAC-Moody algebra called 4D fusion algebra leads to an exact transfinite dimension equal to Dim E12=(5)({alpha}-bar{sub o})=685.410197, where {alpha}-bar{sub o}=137.082039325 is the E-infinity electromagnetic fine structure constant.

  10. W-extended Kac representations and integrable boundary conditions in the logarithmic minimal models WLM(1,p)

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Jorgen

    2011-01-01

    We construct new Yang-Baxter integrable boundary conditions in the lattice approach to the logarithmic minimal model WLM(1,p) giving rise to reducible yet indecomposable representations of rank 1 in the continuum scaling limit. We interpret these W-extended Kac representations as finitely-generated W-extended Feigin-Fuchs modules over the triplet W-algebra W(p). The W-extended fusion rules of these representations are inferred from the recently conjectured Virasoro fusion rules of the Kac representations in the underlying logarithmic minimal model LM(1,p). We also introduce the modules contragredient to the W-extended Kac modules and work out the correspondingly-extended fusion algebra. Our results are in accordance with the Kazhdan-Lusztig dual of tensor products of modules over the restricted quantum universal enveloping algebra $\\bar{U}_q(sl_2)$ at $q=e^{\\pi i/p}$. Finally, polynomial fusion rings isomorphic with the various fusion algebras are determined, and the corresponding Grothendieck ring of charact...

  11. Geometric Kac-Moody Modularity

    CERN Document Server

    Lynker, M; Lynker, Monika; Schimmrigk, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    It is shown how the arithmetic structure of algebraic curves encoded in the Hasse-Weil L-function can be related to affine Kac-Moody algebras. This result is useful in relating the arithmetic geometry of Calabi-Yau varieties to the underlying exactly solvable theory. In the case of the genus three Fermat curve we identify the Hasse-Weil L-function with the Mellin transform of the twist of a number theoretic modular form derived from the string function of a non-twisted affine Lie algebra. The twist character is associated to the number field of quantum dimensions of the conformal field theory.

  12. Critical dense polymers with Robin boundary conditions, half-integer Kac labels and Z{sub 4} fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Paul A., E-mail: p.pearce@ms.unimelb.edu.au [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Rasmussen, Jørgen, E-mail: j.rasmussen@uq.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Tipunin, Ilya Yu., E-mail: tipunin@gmail.com [TAMM Theory Division, Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninski Pr., 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    For general Temperley–Lieb loop models, including the logarithmic minimal models LM(p,p{sup ′}) with p,p{sup ′} coprime integers, we construct an infinite family of Robin boundary conditions on the strip as linear combinations of Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. These boundary conditions are Yang–Baxter integrable and allow loop segments to terminate on the boundary. Algebraically, the Robin boundary conditions are described by the one-boundary Temperley–Lieb algebra. Solvable critical dense polymers is the first member LM(1,2) of the family of logarithmic minimal models and has loop fugacity β=0 and central charge c=−2. Specialising to LM(1,2) with our Robin boundary conditions, we solve the model exactly on strips of arbitrary finite size N and extract the finite-size conformal corrections using an Euler–Maclaurin formula. The key to the solution is an inversion identity satisfied by the commuting double row transfer matrices. This inversion identity is established directly in the Temperley–Lieb algebra. We classify the eigenvalues of the double row transfer matrices using the physical combinatorics of the patterns of zeros in the complex spectral parameter plane and obtain finitised characters related to spaces of coinvariants of Z{sub 4} fermions. In the continuum scaling limit, the Robin boundary conditions are associated with irreducible Virasoro Verma modules with conformal weights Δ{sub r,s−1/2} =1/(32) (L{sup 2}−4) where L=2s−1−4r, r∈Z, s∈N. These conformal weights populate a Kac table with half-integer Kac labels. Fusion of the corresponding modules with the generators of the Kac fusion algebra is examined and general fusion rules are proposed.

  13. Kac-Moody Symmetry in Hosotani Model

    CERN Document Server

    Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    The symmetry of the massive tower of fields in higher-dimensional Yang-Mills theory compactified on a space-time of the form M_d x S^1 is clarified. The transformations form a loop algebra, a class of Kac-Moody algebras. Since the symmetry is spontaneously broken, vector fields "eat" Goldstone bosons and acquire masses. The field of zero-mass mode can also become massive provided that the field of the internal component develops a vacuum expectation value. The relation between the "restoration" of the symmetry in massive modes and the gauge transformation of the zero-mode vacuum field is discussed.

  14. Partially thermostated Kac model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossounian, Hagop; Vaidyanathan, Ranjini

    2015-08-01

    We study a system of N particles interacting through the Kac collision, with m of them interacting, in addition, with a Maxwellian thermostat at temperature /1 β . We use two indicators to understand the approach to the equilibrium Gaussian state. We prove that (i) the spectral gap of the evolution operator behaves as /m N for large N and (ii) the relative entropy approaches its equilibrium value (at least) at an eventually exponential rate ˜ /m N 2 for large N. The question of having non-zero entropy production at time 0 remains open. A relationship between the Maxwellian thermostat and the thermostat used in the work of Bonetto et al. [J. Stat. Phys. 156(4), 647-667 (2014)] is established through a Van Hove limit.

  15. A Kac CROW Delay Line

    CERN Document Server

    Sumetsky, M

    2013-01-01

    A low-loss CROW delay line with a weak inter-resonator coupling determined by the Kac matrix is dispersionless and can be easily impedance-matched by adjusting the coupling to the input/output waveguide.

  16. The fusion rules for the Temperley-Lieb algebra and its dilute generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belletête, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    The Temperley-Lieb (TL) family of algebras is well known for its role in building integrable lattice models. Even though a proof is still missing, it is agreed that these models should go to conformal field theories in the thermodynamic limit and that the limiting vector space should carry a representation of the Virasoro algebra. The fusion rules are a notable feature of the Virasoro algebra. One would hope that there is an analogous construction for the TL family. Such a construction was proposed by Read and Saleur (2007 Nucl. Phys. B 777 316) and partially computed by Gainutdinov and Vasseur (2013 Nucl. Phys. B 868 223-70) using the bimodule structure over the TL algebras and the quantum group Uq (sl2).We use their definition for the dilute Temperley-Lieb (dTL) family, a generalization of the original TL family. We develop a new way of computing fusion by using induction and show its power by obtaining fusion rules for both dTL and TL. We recover those computed by Gainutdivov and Vasseur and new ones that were beyond their scope. In particular, we identify a set of irreducible TL- or dTL-representations whose behavior under fusion is that of some irreducibles of the minimal models of conformal field theory.

  17. Structure of Solvable Quadratic Lie Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lin-sheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Killing form plays a key role in the theory of semisimple Lie algebras. It is natural to extend the study to Lie algebras with a nondegenerate symmetric invariant bilinear form. Such a Lie algebra is generally called a quadratic Lie algebra which occur naturally in physics[10,12,13]. Besides semisimple Lie algebras, interesting quadratic Lie algebras include the Kac-Moody algebras and the Extended Affine Lie algebras.

  18. The Lie algebra of the N=2-string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, K.

    2006-07-01

    The theory of generalized Kac-Moody algebras is a generalization of the theory of finite dimensional simple Lie algebras. The physical states of some compactified strings give realizations of generalized Kac-Moody algebras. For example the physical states of a bosonic string moving on a 26 dimensional torus form a generalized Kac-Moody algebra and the physical states of a N=1 string moving on a 10 dimensional torus form a generalized Kac-Moody superalgebra. A natural question is whether the physical states of the compactified N=2-string also realize such an algebra. In this thesis we construct the Lie algebra of the compactified N=2-string, study its properties and show that it is not a generalized Kac-Moody algebra. The Fock space of a N=2-string moving on a 4 dimensional torus can be described by a vertex algebra constructed from a rational lattice of signature (8,4). Here 6 coordinates with signature (4,2) come from the matter part and 6 coordinates with signature (4,2) come from the ghost part. The physical states are represented by the cohomology of the BRST-operator. The vertex algebra induces a product on the vector space of physical states that defines the structure of a Lie algebra on this space. This Lie algebra shares many properties with generalized Kac-Moody algebra but we will show that it is not a generalized Kac-Moody algebra. (orig.)

  19. An Elliptic Algebra $U_{q,p}(\\hat{sl_2})$ and the Fusion RSOS Model

    CERN Document Server

    Konno, H

    1997-01-01

    We introduce an elliptic algebra $U_{q,p}(\\hat{sl_2})$ with $p=q^{2r} (r\\in show that this algebra governs a structure of the space of states in the $k-$fusion RSOS model specified by a pair of positive integers $(r,k)$, or equivalently a $q-$deformation of the coset conformal field theory $SU(2)_k\\times SU(2)_{r-k-2}/SU(2)_{r-2}$. Extending the work by Lukyanov and Pugai corresponding to the case $k=1$, we gives a full set of screening operators for $k>1$. The algebra $U_{q,p}(\\hat{sl_2})$ has two interesting degeneration limits, $p\\to 0$ and $p\\to 1$. The former limit yields the quantum affine algebra $U_{q}(\\hat{sl_2})$ whereas the latter yields the algebra ${\\cal A}_{\\hbar,\\eta}(\\hat{sl_2})$, the scaling limit of the elliptic algebra ${\\cal A}_{q,p}(\\hat{sl_2})$. Using this correspondence, we also obtain the highest component of two types of vertex operators which can be regarded as $q-$deformations of the primary fields in the coset conformal field theory.

  20. On boundary fusion and functional relations in the Baxterized affine Hecke algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babichenko, A., E-mail: babichen@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Mathematics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Regelskis, V., E-mail: v.regelskis@surrey.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    We construct boundary type operators satisfying fused reflection equation for arbitrary representations of the Baxterized affine Hecke algebra. These operators are analogues of the fused reflection matrices in solvable half-line spin chain models. We show that these operators lead to a family of commuting transfer matrices of Sklyanin type. We derive fusion type functional relations for these operators for two families of representations.

  1. Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Tabak, John

    2004-01-01

    Looking closely at algebra, its historical development, and its many useful applications, Algebra examines in detail the question of why this type of math is so important that it arose in different cultures at different times. The book also discusses the relationship between algebra and geometry, shows the progress of thought throughout the centuries, and offers biographical data on the key figures. Concise and comprehensive text accompanied by many illustrations presents the ideas and historical development of algebra, showcasing the relevance and evolution of this branch of mathematics.

  2. Weak Hopf Algebras Corresponding to Borcherds-Cartan Matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xia YE; Zhi Xiang WU; Xue Feng MEI

    2007-01-01

    Let y be a generalized Kac-Moody algebra with an integral Borcherds-Cartan matrix. Inthis paper, we define a d-type weak quantum generalized Kac-Moody algebra wUdq(y), which is a weakHopf algebra. We also study the highest weight module over the weak quantum algebra wUdq(y) andWeak A-forms of wUdq(y).

  3. Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Through most of Greek history, mathematicians concentrated on geometry, although Euclid considered the theory of numbers. The Greek mathematician Diophantus (3rd century),however, presented problems that had to be solved by what we would today call algebra. His book is thus the first algebra text.

  4. Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Harley

    1975-01-01

    Algebra presents the essentials of algebra with some applications. The emphasis is on practical skills, problem solving, and computational techniques. Topics covered range from equations and inequalities to functions and graphs, polynomial and rational functions, and exponentials and logarithms. Trigonometric functions and complex numbers are also considered, together with exponentials and logarithms.Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of algebra, each topic explained, illustrated, and accompanied by an ample set of exercises. The proper use of a

  5. The Green formula and heredity of algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    [1]Green, J. A., Hall algebras, hereditary algebras and quantum groups, Invent. Math. 1995, 120: 361-377.[2]Ringel, C. M., Green's theorem on Hall algebras, in Representations of Algebras and Related Topics, CMS Conference Proceedings 19, Providence, 1996, 185-245.[3]Xiao J., Drinfeld double and Ringel-Green theory of Hall Algebras, J. Algebra, 1997, 190: 100-144.[4]Sevenhant, B., Van den Bergh, M., A relation between a conjecture of Kac and the structure of the Hall algebra,J. Pure Appl. Algebra, 2001, 160: 319-332.[5]Deng B., Xiao, J., On double Ringel-Hall algebras, J. Algebra, 2002, 251: 110-149.

  6. Construct Weak Hopf Algebras by Using Borcherds Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Xiang WU

    2009-01-01

    We define a new kind quantized enveloping algebra of a generalized Kac-Moody algebra y by adding a new generator J satisfying Jm = J for some integer m. We denote this algebra by wU τ q (y. This algebra is a weak Hopf algebra if and only if m = 2,3. In general, it is a bialgebra, and contains a Hopf subalgebra. This Hopf subalgebra is isomorphic to the usual quantum envelope algebra U q(y) of a generalized Kac-Moody algebra y.

  7. Infinitely extended Kac table of solvable critical dense polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Paul A; Villani, Simon P

    2012-01-01

    Solvable critical dense polymers is a Yang-Baxter integrable model of polymers on the square lattice. It is the first member LM(1,2) of the family of logarithmic minimal models LM(p,p'). The associated logarithmic conformal field theory admits an infinite family of Kac representations labelled by the Kac labels r,s=1,2,.... In this paper, we explicitly construct the conjugate boundary conditions on the strip. The boundary operators are labelled by the Kac fusion labels (r,s)=(r,1) x (1,s) and involve a boundary field xi. Tuning the field xi appropriately, we solve exactly for the transfer matrix eigenvalues on arbitrary finite-width strips and obtain the conformal spectra using the Euler-Maclaurin formula. The key to the solution is an inversion identity satisfied by the commuting double-row transfer matrices. The transfer matrix eigenvalues are classified by the physical combinatorics of the patterns of zeros in the complex spectral-parameter plane. This yields selection rules for the physically relevant sol...

  8. Kac's Program in Kinetic Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mischler, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of propagation of chaos and mean-field limit for systems of indistinguable particles undergoing collision processes, as formulated by M. Kac (1956) for a simplified model and extended by H. P. McKean (1967) to the Boltzmann equation. We prove quantitative and uniform in time estimates measuring the distance between the many-particle system and the limit system. These estimates imply in particular the propagation of chaos for marginals in weak measure distances but are more general: they hold for non-chaotic initial data and control the complete many-particle distribution. We also prove the propagation of entropic chaos, as defined in [12], answering a question of Kac about the microscopic derivation of the H-theorem. We finally prove estimates of relaxation to equilibrium (in Wasserstein distance and relative entropy) independent of the number of particles. Our results cover the two main Boltzmann physical collision processes with unbounded collision rates: hard spheres and ...

  9. Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Sepanski, Mark R

    2010-01-01

    Mark Sepanski's Algebra is a readable introduction to the delightful world of modern algebra. Beginning with concrete examples from the study of integers and modular arithmetic, the text steadily familiarizes the reader with greater levels of abstraction as it moves through the study of groups, rings, and fields. The book is equipped with over 750 exercises suitable for many levels of student ability. There are standard problems, as well as challenging exercises, that introduce students to topics not normally covered in a first course. Difficult problems are broken into manageable subproblems

  10. Integral forms of Kac-Moody groups and Eisenstein series in low dimensional supergravity theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Kac-Moody groups $G$ over $\\mathbb{R}$ have been conjectured to occur as symmetry groups of supergravities in dimensions less than 3, and their integer forms $G(\\mathbb{Z})$ are conjecturally U-duality groups. Mathematical descriptions of $G(\\mathbb{Z})$, due to Tits, are functorial and not amenable to computation or applications. We construct Kac-Moody groups over $\\mathbb{R}$ and $\\mathbb{Z}$ using an analog of Chevalley's constructions in finite dimensions and Garland's constructions in the affine case. We extend a construction of Eisenstein series on finite dimensional semisimple algebraic groups using representation theory, which appeared in the context of superstring theory, to general Kac-Moody groups. This coincides with a generalization of Garland's Eisenstein series on affine Kac-Moody groups to general Kac-Moody groups and includes Eisenstein series on $E_{10}$ and $E_{11}$. For finite dimensional groups, Eisenstein series encode the quantum corrections in string theory and supergravity theories. T...

  11. Alg\\`ebre combinatoire et effective: des graphes aux alg\\`ebres de Kac, via l'exploration informatique

    CERN Document Server

    Thiéry, Nicolas M

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript synthesizes almost fifteen years of research in algebraic combinatorics, in order to highlight, theme by theme, its perspectives. In part one, building on my thesis work, I use tools from commutative algebra, and in particular from invariant theory, to study isomorphism problems in combinatorics. I first consider algebras of graph invariants in relation with Ulam's reconstruction conjecture, and then, more generally, the age algebras of relational structures. This raises in return structural and algorithmic problems in the invariant theory of permutation groups. In part two, the leitmotiv is the quest for simple yet rich combinatorial models to describe algebraic structures and their representations. This includes the Hecke group algebras of Coxeter groups which I introduced and which relate to the affine Hecke algebras, but also some finite dimensional Kac algebras in relation with inclusions of factors, and the rational Steenrod algebras. Beside being concrete and constructive, such combinat...

  12. OnN Kac's Chaos and Related Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Hauray, Maxime

    2012-01-01

    This paper is devoted to establish quantitative and qualitative estimates related to the notion of chaos as firstly formulated by M. Kac [37] in his study of mean-field limit for systems of N undistinguishable particles as N \\rightarrow \\infty. First, we quantitatively liken three usual measures of Kac's chaos, some involving the all N variables, other involving a finite fixed number of variables. The cornerstone of the proof is a new representation of the Monge-Kantorovich-Wasserstein (MKW) distance for symmetric N-particle probabilities in terms of the distance between the law of the associated empirical measures on the one hand, and a new estimate on some MKW distance on probability spaces endowed with a suitable Hilbert norm taking advantage of the associated good algebraic structure. Next, we define the notion of entropy chaos and Fisher information chaos in a similar way as defined by Carlen et al [17]. We show that Fisher information chaos is stronger than entropy chaos, which in turn is stronger than ...

  13. On indecomposable modules over the Virasoro algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    sU; Yucai(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Chari, V. , Pressley, A., Unitary representations of the Virasoro algebra and a conjecture of Kac, Compositio Math, 1988,67: 315-342.[2]Feign, B. L. , Fuchs, D. B., Verma modules over the Virasoro algebra, Lecture Notes in Math, 1984, 1060: 230-245.[3]Kac, V. G., Some problems on infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and their representations, Lie algebras and related topics,Lecture Notes in Math., 1982, 933: 117-126.[4]Kac, V. G., Infinite Dimensional Lie Algebras, 2nd ed., Boston, Cambridge: Birkhauser, 1985.[5]Kaplansky, I., Santharoubane, L. J., Harish-Chandra modules over the Virasoro algebra, Infinite-dimensional groups with application, Math. Sci. Res. Inst. Pub., 1985, 4: 217-231.[6]Langlands, R., On unitary representations of the Virasoro algebra, Infinite-Dimensional Lie Algebras and Their Application,Singapore: World Scientific, 1986, 141-159.[7]Martin. C. , Piard, A., Indecomposable modules over the Virasoro Lie algebra and a conjecture of V Kac, Comm. Math.Phys., 1991, 137: 109-132.[8]Mathieu, O. , Classification of Harish-Chandra modules over the Virasoro Lie algebra, Invent Math., 1992, 107: 225-234.[9]Su, Y., A classification of indecomposable sl2(2)-modules and a conjecture of Kac on irreducible modules over the Virasoro algebra, J. Alg., 1993, 161: 33-46.[10]Su, Y. , Classification of Harish-Chandra modules over the super-Virasoro algebras, Comm. Alg., 1995, 23: 3653-3675.[11]Su, Y. , Simple modules over the high rank Virasoro algebras, Comm. Alg., 2001, in press.

  14. Laplace operators of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and theta functions

    OpenAIRE

    Kac, Victor G.

    1984-01-01

    Until recently, the generalized Casimir operator constructed by Kac [Kac, V. G. (1974) Funct. Anal. Appl. 8, 68-70] has been the only known element of the center of a completion of the enveloping algebra of a Kac-Moody algebra. It has been conjectured [Deodhar, V. V., Gabber, O. & Kac, V. G. (1982) Adv. Math. 45, 92-116], however, that the image of the Harish-Chandra homomorphism contains all theta functions defined on the interior of the complexified Tits cone and hence separates the orbits ...

  15. Homogeneous Construction of the Toroidal Lie Algebra of Type A1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haifeng Lian; Cui Chen; Qinzhu Wen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we consider an analogue of the level two homogeneous construc-tion of the affine Kac-Moody algebra A1(1) by vertex operators.We construct modules for the toroidal Lie algebra and the extended toroidal Lie algebra of type A1.We also prove that the module is completely reducible for the extended toroidal Lie algebra.

  16. Sugawara construction and Casimir operators for Krichever-Novikov algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichenmaier, M; Schlichenmaier, Martin; Sheinman, Oleg K

    1995-01-01

    We show how to obtain from highest weight representations of Krichever-Novikov algebras of affine type (also called higher genus affine Kac-Moody algebras) representations of centrally extended Krichever-Novikov vector field algebras via the Sugawara construction. This generalizes classical results where one obtains representations of the Virasoro algebra. Relations between the weights of the corresponding representations are given and Casimir operators are constructed. In an appendix the Sugawara construction for the multi-point situation is done.

  17. $W_{\\infty}$ algebra in the integer quantum Hall effects

    OpenAIRE

    Azuma, Hiroo

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the $W_{\\infty}$ algebra in the integer quantum Hall effects. Defining the simplest vacuum, the Dirac sea, we evaluate the central extension for this algebra. A new algebra which contains the central extension is called the $W_{1+\\infty}$ algebra. We show that this $W_{1+\\infty}$ algebra is an origin of the Kac-Moody algebra which determines the behavior of edge states of the system. We discuss the relation between the $W_{1+\\infty}$ algebra and the incompressibility of the int...

  18. Counting statistics: a Feynman-Kac perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoia, A; Dumonteil, E; Mazzolo, A

    2012-01-01

    By building upon a Feynman-Kac formalism, we assess the distribution of the number of collisions in a given region for a broad class of discrete-time random walks in absorbing and nonabsorbing media. We derive the evolution equation for the generating function of the number of collisions, and we complete our analysis by examining the moments of the distribution and their relation to the walker equilibrium density. Some significant applications are discussed in detail: in particular, we revisit the gambler's ruin problem and generalize to random walks with absorption the arcsine law for the number of collisions on the half-line.

  19. Tempered Fractional Feynman-Kac Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiaochao; Barkai, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Functionals of Brownian/non-Brownian motions have diverse applications and attracted a lot of interest of scientists. This paper focuses on deriving the forward and backward fractional Feynman-Kac equations describing the distribution of the functionals of the space and time tempered anomalous diffusion, belonging to the continuous time random walk class. Several examples of the functionals are explicitly treated, including the occupation time in half-space, the first passage time, the maximal displacement, the fluctuations of the occupation fraction, and the fluctuations of the time-averaged position.

  20. Quadratic forms for Feynman-Kac semigroups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibey, Joseph L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Colorado at Denver, Campus Box 110, Denver, CO 80217 (United States)]. E-mail: joseph.hibey@cudenver.edu; Charalambous, Charalambos D. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Avenue, Nicosia (Cyprus)]. E-mail: chadcha@ucy.ac.cy

    2006-05-15

    Some problems in a stochastic setting often involve the need to evaluate the Feynman-Kac formula that follows from models described in terms of stochastic differential equations. Equivalent representations in terms of partial differential equations are also of interest, and these establish the well-known connection between probabilistic and deterministic formulations of these problems. In this Letter, this connection is studied in terms of the quadratic form associated with the Feynman-Kac semigroup. The probability measures that naturally arise in this approach, and thus define how Brownian motion is killed at a specified rate while exiting a set, are interpreted as a random time change of the original stochastic differential equation. Furthermore, since random time changes alter the diffusion coefficients in stochastic differential equations while Girsanov-type measure transformations alter their drift coefficients, their simultaneous use should lead to more tractable solutions for some classes of problems. For example, the minimization of some quadratic forms leads to solutions that satisfy certain partial differential equations and, therefore, the techniques discussed provide a variational approach for finding these solutions.

  1. On the algebra of BPS states

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, J A; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Moore, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    We define an algebra on the space of BPS states in theories with extended supersymmetry. We show that the algebra of perturbative BPS states in toroidal compactification of the heterotic string is closely related to a generalized Kac-Moody algebra. We use D-brane theory to compare the formulation of RR-charged BPS algebras in type II compactification with the requirements of string/string duality and find that the RR charged BPS states should be regarded as cohomology classes on moduli spaces of coherent sheaves. The equivalence of the algebra of BPS states in heterotic/IIA dual pairs elucidates certain results and conjectures of Nakajima and Gritsenko \\& Nikulin, on geometrically defined algebras and furthermore suggests nontrivial generalizations of these algebras. In particular, to any CY 3-fold there are two canonically associated algebras exchanged by mirror symmetry.

  2. On the Algebras of BPS States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Moore, Gregory

    We define an algebra on the space of BPS states in theories with extended supersymmetry. We show that the algebra of perturbative BPS states in toroidal compactification of the heterotic string is closely related to a generalized Kac-Moody algebra. We use D-brane theory to compare the formulation of RR-charged BPS algebras in type II compactification with the requirements of string/string duality and find that the RR charged BPS states should be regarded as cohomology classes on moduli spaces of coherent sheaves. The equivalence of the algebra of BPS states in heterotic/IIA dual pairs elucidates certain results and conjectures of Nakajima and Gritsenko & Nikulin, on geometrically defined algebras and furthermore suggests nontrivial generalizations of these algebras. In particular, to any Calabi-Yau 3-fold there are two canonically associated algebras exchanged by mirror symmetry.

  3. Generalized NLS Hierarchies from Rational $W$ Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Toppan, F

    1994-01-01

    Finite rational $\\cw$ algebras are very natural structures appearing in coset constructions when a Kac-Moody subalgebra is factored out. In this letter we address the problem of relating these algebras to integrable hierarchies of equations, by showing how to associate to a rational $\\cw$ algebra its corresponding hierarchy. We work out two examples: the $sl(2)/U(1)$ coset, leading to the Non-Linear Schr\\"{o}dinger hierarchy, and the $U(1)$ coset of the Polyakov-Bershadsky $\\cw$ algebra, leading to a $3$-field representation of the KP hierarchy already encountered in the literature. In such examples a rational algebra appears as algebra of constraints when reducing a KP hierarchy to a finite field representation. This fact arises the natural question whether rational algebras are always associated to such reductions and whether a classification of rational algebras can lead to a classification of the integrable hierarchies.

  4. The Kac Model Coupled to a Thermostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetto, Federico; Loss, Michael; Vaidyanathan, Ranjini

    2014-08-01

    In this paper we study a model of randomly colliding particles interacting with a thermal bath. Collisions between particles are modeled via the Kac master equation while the thermostat is seen as an infinite gas at thermal equilibrium at inverse temperature . The system admits the canonical distribution at inverse temperature as the unique equilibrium state. We prove that any initial distribution approaches the equilibrium distribution exponentially fast both by computing the gap of the generator of the evolution, in a proper function space, as well as by proving exponential decay in relative entropy. We also show that the evolution propagates chaos and that the one particle marginal, in the large system limit, satisfies an effective Boltzmann-type equation.

  5. The tensor hierarchy algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmkvist, Jakob, E-mail: palmkvist@ihes.fr [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, 35 Route de Chartres, FR-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-01-15

    We introduce an infinite-dimensional Lie superalgebra which is an extension of the U-duality Lie algebra of maximal supergravity in D dimensions, for 3 ⩽ D ⩽ 7. The level decomposition with respect to the U-duality Lie algebra gives exactly the tensor hierarchy of representations that arises in gauge deformations of the theory described by an embedding tensor, for all positive levels p. We prove that these representations are always contained in those coming from the associated Borcherds-Kac-Moody superalgebra, and we explain why some of the latter representations are not included in the tensor hierarchy. The most remarkable feature of our Lie superalgebra is that it does not admit a triangular decomposition like a (Borcherds-)Kac-Moody (super)algebra. Instead the Hodge duality relations between level p and D − 2 − p extend to negative p, relating the representations at the first two negative levels to the supersymmetry and closure constraints of the embedding tensor.

  6. Orbifolds and Cosets of Minimal W-Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tomoyuki; Creutzig, Thomas; Kawasetsu, Kazuya; Linshaw, Andrew R.

    2017-10-01

    Let g be a simple, finite-dimensional Lie (super)algebra equipped with an embedding of sl_2 inducing the minimal gradation on g. The corresponding minimal W-algebra W^k(g, e_{-θ})} introduced by Kac and Wakimoto has strong generators in weights {1,2,3/2}, and all operator product expansions are known explicitly. The weight one subspace generates an affine vertex (super)algebra {V^{k'}(g^{\

  7. Inference in Adaptive Regression via the Kac-Rice Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    distribution, the Tracy- Widom law Johnstone (2001). In this case, our test statistic is based on the conditional distribution of λ1 given λ2...Tracy- Widom limit. The simulation is the work of Yunjin Choi, currently a Ph.D. student in- vestigating the use of the Kac-Rice pivot to inference in...PCA. The example is a rank-one example, demonstrating that the Kac-Rice test is competitive with the Tracy- Widom approximation of Johnstone (2001

  8. Extension of a quantized enveloping algebra by a Hopf algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Suppose that H is a Hopf algebra,and g is a generalized Kac-Moody algebra with Cartan matrix A =(aij)I×I,where I is an index set and is equal to either {1,2,...,n} or the natural number set N.Let f,g be two mappings from I to G(H),the set of group-like elements of H,such that the multiplication of elements in the set {f(i),g(i)|i ∈I} is commutative.Then we define a Hopf algebra Hgf Uq(g),where Uq(g) is the quantized enveloping algebra of g.

  9. Laplace Operators of Infinite-Dimensional Lie Algebras and Theta Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kac, Victor G.

    1984-01-01

    Until recently, the generalized Casimir operator constructed by Kac [Kac, V. G. (1974) Funct. Anal. Appl. 8, 68-70] has been the only known element of the center of a completion of the enveloping algebra of a Kac-Moody algebra. It has been conjectured [Deodhar, V. V., Gabber, O. & Kac, V. G. (1982) Adv. Math. 45, 92-116], however, that the image of the Harish-Chandra homomorphism contains all theta functions defined on the interior of the complexified Tits cone and hence separates the orbits of the Weyl group. Developing the ideas of Feigin and Fuchs [Feigin, B. L. & Fuchs, D. B. (1983) Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 269, 1057-1060], I prove this conjecture. Another application of this method is the Chevalley type restriction theorem for simple finite-dimensional Lie superalgebras.

  10. Positivity of Kac polynomials and DT-invariants for quivers

    CERN Document Server

    Hausel, Tamas; Rodriguez-Villegas, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    We give a cohomological interpretation of both the Kac polynomial and the refined Donaldson-Thomas- invariants of quivers. This interpretation yields a proof of a conjecture of Kac from 1982 and gives a new perspective on recent work of Kontsevich-Soibelman. This is achieved by computing, via an arithmetic Fourier transform, the dimensions of the isoytpical components of the cohomology of associated Nakajima quiver varieties under the action of a Weyl group. The generating function of the corresponding Poincar\\'e polynomials is an extension of Hua's formula for Kac polynomials of quivers involving Hall-Littlewood symmetric functions. The resulting formulae contain a wide range of information on the geometry of the quiver varieties.

  11. Some properties of the Feynman-Kac functional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Graversen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The Feynman-Kac formula and its connections with classical analysis were initiated in the now celebrated paper [6] of M. Kac. It soon became obvious that the formula provides a powerful tool for solving partial differential equations by running the Brownian motion process. K.L. Chung and K.M. Rao in [4] used it to characterize solutions of the Schrödinger equation. In this paper we study some properties of the Feynman-Kac functional using the Brownian motion process. In particular, we are going to use it in connection with the gauge function in order to obtain an energy formula similar to one obtained by G. Dal Maso and U. Mosco in [5].

  12. Enumerative geometry, tau-functions and Heisenberg-Virasoro algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we establish relations between three enumerative geometry tau-functions, namely the Kontsevich-Witten, Hurwitz and Hodge tau-functions. The relations allow us to describe the tau-functions in terms of matrix integrals, Virasoro constraints and Kac-Schwarz operators. All constructed operators belong to the algebra (or group) of symmetries of the KP hierarchy.

  13. A Feynman-Kac formula for geometric quantization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭懋正; 钱敏; 王正栋

    1996-01-01

    The geometric quantization on a homogeneous manifold is studied. For any quantizable function f, the stochastical expression for the unitary group exp(itQ (f)) generated by the quantized operator Q(f) is established. As an application, a Feynman-Kac formula for the compact semisimple Lie group is rederived.

  14. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  15. Permutation Weights and Modular Poincare Polynomials for Affine Lie Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Gungormez, M

    2010-01-01

    Poincare Polynomial of a Kac-Moody Lie algebra can be obtained by classifying the Weyl orbit $W(\\rho)$ of its Weyl vector $\\rho$. A remarkable fact for Affine Lie algebras is that the number of elements of $W(\\rho)$ is finite at each and every depth level though totally it has infinite number of elements. This allows us to look at $W(\\rho)$ as a manifold graded by depths of its elements and hence a new kind of Poincare Polynomial is defined. We give these polynomials for all Affine Kac-Moody Lie algebras, non-twisted or twisted. The remarkable fact is however that, on the contrary to the ones which are classically defined,these new kind of Poincare polynomials have modular properties, namely they all are expressed in the form of eta-quotients. When one recalls Weyl-Kac character formula for irreducible characters, it is natural to think that this modularity properties could be directly related with Kac-Peterson theorem which says affine characters have modular properties. Another point to emphasize is the rel...

  16. Fractional Feynman-Kac equation for weak ergodicity breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Shai; Barkai, Eli

    2011-12-01

    The continuous-time random walk (CTRW) is a model of anomalous subdiffusion in which particles are immobilized for random times between successive jumps. A power-law distribution of the waiting times, ψ(τ) ~ τ(-(1+α)), leads to subdiffusion (x(2) ~ t(α)) for 0 Feynman-Kac equation if the motion is Brownian. Here, we derive forward and backward fractional Feynman-Kac equations for functionals of CTRW in a binding potential. We use our equations to study two specific time averages: the fraction of time spent by a particle in half-box, and the time average of the particle's position in a harmonic field. In both cases, we obtain the probability density function of the time averages for t → ∞ and the first two moments. Our results show that both the occupation fraction and the time-averaged position are random variables even for long times, except for α = 1, when they are identical to their ensemble averages. Using our fractional Feynman-Kac equation, we also study the dynamics leading to weak ergodicity breaking, namely the convergence of the fluctuations to their asymptotic values.

  17. Feynman-Kac formula for stochastic hybrid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    We derive a Feynman-Kac formula for functionals of a stochastic hybrid system evolving according to a piecewise deterministic Markov process. We first derive a stochastic Liouville equation for the moment generator of the stochastic functional, given a particular realization of the underlying discrete Markov process; the latter generates transitions between different dynamical equations for the continuous process. We then analyze the stochastic Liouville equation using methods recently developed for diffusion processes in randomly switching environments. In particular, we obtain dynamical equations for the moment generating function, averaged with respect to realizations of the discrete Markov process. The resulting Feynman-Kac formula takes the form of a differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. We illustrate the theory by calculating the occupation time for a one-dimensional velocity jump process on the infinite or semi-infinite real line. Finally, we present an alternative derivation of the Feynman-Kac formula based on a recent path-integral formulation of stochastic hybrid systems.

  18. Feynman-Kac formula for stochastic hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    We derive a Feynman-Kac formula for functionals of a stochastic hybrid system evolving according to a piecewise deterministic Markov process. We first derive a stochastic Liouville equation for the moment generator of the stochastic functional, given a particular realization of the underlying discrete Markov process; the latter generates transitions between different dynamical equations for the continuous process. We then analyze the stochastic Liouville equation using methods recently developed for diffusion processes in randomly switching environments. In particular, we obtain dynamical equations for the moment generating function, averaged with respect to realizations of the discrete Markov process. The resulting Feynman-Kac formula takes the form of a differential Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. We illustrate the theory by calculating the occupation time for a one-dimensional velocity jump process on the infinite or semi-infinite real line. Finally, we present an alternative derivation of the Feynman-Kac formula based on a recent path-integral formulation of stochastic hybrid systems.

  19. Algebra V homological algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Shafarevich, I

    1994-01-01

    This book, the first printing of which was published as volume 38 of the Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences, presents a modern approach to homological algebra, based on the systematic use of the terminology and ideas of derived categories and derived functors. The book contains applications of homological algebra to the theory of sheaves on topological spaces, to Hodge theory, and to the theory of modules over rings of algebraic differential operators (algebraic D-modules). The authors Gelfand and Manin explain all the main ideas of the theory of derived categories. Both authors are well-known researchers and the second, Manin, is famous for his work in algebraic geometry and mathematical physics. The book is an excellent reference for graduate students and researchers in mathematics and also for physicists who use methods from algebraic geometry and algebraic topology.

  20. Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  1. Left Artinian Algebraic Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Akbari; M. Arian-Nejad

    2001-01-01

    Let R be a left artinian central F-algebra, T(R) = J(R) + [R, R],and U(R) the group of units of R. As one of our results, we show that, if R is algebraic and char F = 0, then the number of simple components of -R = R/J(R)is greater than or equal to dimF R/T(R). We show that, when char F = 0 or F is uncountable, R is algebraic over F if and only if [R, R] is algebraic over F. As another approach, we prove that R is algebraic over F if and only if the derived subgroup of U(R) is algebraic over F. Also, we present an elementary proof for a special case of an old question due to Jacobson.

  2. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Derek [Math Department, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States)

    2003-04-04

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A{sub 5} sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E{sub 8}.

  3. Fractional Feynman-Kac equation for non-brownian functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeman, Lior; Carmi, Shai; Barkai, Eli

    2009-11-06

    We derive backward and forward fractional Feynman-Kac equations for the distribution of functionals of the path of a particle undergoing anomalous diffusion. Fractional substantial derivatives introduced by Friedrich and co-workers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 230601 (2006)10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.230601] provide the correct fractional framework for the problem. For applications, we calculate the distribution of occupation times in half space and show how the statistics of anomalous functionals is related to weak ergodicity breaking.

  4. Tempered fractional Feynman-Kac equation: Theory and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaochao; Deng, Weihua; Barkai, Eli

    2016-03-01

    Functionals of Brownian and non-Brownian motions have diverse applications and attracted a lot of interest among scientists. This paper focuses on deriving the forward and backward fractional Feynman-Kac equations describing the distribution of the functionals of the space and time-tempered anomalous diffusion, belonging to the continuous time random walk class. Several examples of the functionals are explicitly treated, including the occupation time in half-space, the first passage time, the maximal displacement, the fluctuations of the occupation fraction, and the fluctuations of the time-averaged position.

  5. Algebraic Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Norén, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Algebraic statistics brings together ideas from algebraic geometry, commutative algebra, and combinatorics to address problems in statistics and its applications. Computer algebra provides powerful tools for the study of algorithms and software. However, these tools are rarely prepared to address statistical challenges and therefore new algebraic results need often be developed. This way of interplay between algebra and statistics fertilizes both disciplines. Algebraic statistics is a relativ...

  6. New phases of D ge 2 current and diffeomorphism algebras in particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tze, Chia-Hsiung.

    1990-09-01

    We survey some global results and open issues of current algebras and their canonical field theoretical realization in D {ge} 2 dimensional spacetime. We assess the status of the representation theory of their generalized Kac-Moody and diffeomorphism algebras. Particular emphasis is put on higher dimensional analogs of fermi-bose correspondence, complex analyticity and the phase entanglements of anyonic solitons with exotic spin and statistics. 101 refs.

  7. Free-field realisations of BMS$_3$ and super-BMS$_3$ algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mukhi, Sunil; Neogi, Turmoli

    2015-01-01

    We construct an explicit realisation of the BMS$_3$ algebra with nonzero central charges using holomorphic free fields. This can be extended by the addition of chiral matter to a realisation having arbitrary values for the two independent central charges. We show that our construction naturally extends to a coupled SU(2)-BMS$_3$ system where the SU(2) Kac-Moody symmetry is realised via the Wakimoto representation, and to the supersymmetric BMS$_3$ algebra.

  8. Algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lefschetz, Solomon

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to algebraic geometry and a bridge between its analytical-topological and algebraical aspects, this text for advanced undergraduate students is particularly relevant to those more familiar with analysis than algebra. 1953 edition.

  9. Chiral algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Beilinson, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Chiral algebras form the primary algebraic structure of modern conformal field theory. Each chiral algebra lives on an algebraic curve, and in the special case where this curve is the affine line, chiral algebras invariant under translations are the same as well-known and widely used vertex algebras. The exposition of this book covers the following topics: the "classical" counterpart of the theory, which is an algebraic theory of non-linear differential equations and their symmetries; the local aspects of the theory of chiral algebras, including the study of some basic examples, such as the ch

  10. Feynman-Kac-type theorems and Gibbs measures on path space

    CERN Document Server

    Lörinczi, József; Betz, Volker

    2018-01-01

    This is the second updated and extended edition of the successful book on Feynman-Kac Theory. It offers a state-of-the-art mathematical account of functional integration methods in the context of self-adjoint operators and semigroups using the concepts and tools of modern stochastic analysis. Thefirst volume concentrates on Feynman-Kac-type formulae and Gibbs measures. In the second volume, these ideas are applied principally to a rigorous treatment of some fundamental models of quantum field theory.

  11. Weight Representations of Admissible Affine Vertex Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tomoyuki; Futorny, Vyacheslav; Ramirez, Luis Enrique

    2017-08-01

    For an admissible affine vertex algebra {V_k{(\\mathfrak{g})}} of type A, we describe a new family of relaxed highest weight representations of {V_k{(\\mathfrak{g})}}. They are simple quotients of representations of the affine Kac-Moody algebra {\\widehat{\\mathfrak{g}}} induced from the following {\\mathfrak{g}}-modules: (1) generic Gelfand-Tsetlin modules in the principal nilpotent orbit, in particular all such modules induced from {\\mathfrak{sl}_2}; (2) all Gelfand-Tsetlin modules in the principal nilpotent orbit that are induced from {\\mathfrak{sl}_3}; (3) all simple Gelfand-Tsetlin modules over {\\mathfrak{sl}_3}. This in particular gives the classification of all simple positive energy weight representations of {V_k{(\\mathfrak{g})}} with finite dimensional weight spaces for {\\mathfrak{g}=\\mathfrak{sl}_3}.

  12. Categorification of skew-symmetrizable cluster algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Demonet, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new framework for categorifying skew-symmetrizable cluster algebras. Starting from an exact stably 2-Calabi-Yau category C endowed with the action of a finite group G, we construct a G-equivariant mutation on the set of maximal rigid G-invariant objects of C. Using an appropriate cluster character, we can then attach to these data an explicit skew-symmetrizable cluster algebra. As an application we prove the linear independence of the cluster monomials in this setting. Finally, we illustrate our construction with examples associated with partial flag varieties and unipotent subgroups of Kac-Moody groups, generalizing to the non simply-laced case several results of Gei\\ss-Leclerc-Schr\\"oer.

  13. Computer Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelle, Richard; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes the nature and use of computer algebra and its applications to various physical sciences. Includes diagrams illustrating, among others, a computer algebra system and flow chart of operation of the Euclidean algorithm. (SK)

  14. Modern algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Seth

    1990-01-01

    Standard text provides an exceptionally comprehensive treatment of every aspect of modern algebra. Explores algebraic structures, rings and fields, vector spaces, polynomials, linear operators, much more. Over 1,300 exercises. 1965 edition.

  15. Boolean algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    2007-01-01

    This elementary treatment by a distinguished mathematician employs Boolean algebra as a simple medium for introducing important concepts of modern algebra. Numerous examples appear throughout the text, plus full solutions.

  16. Algebraic Topology

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The chapter provides an introduction to the basic concepts of Algebraic Topology with an emphasis on motivation from applications in the physical sciences. It finishes with a brief review of computational work in algebraic topology, including persistent homology.

  17. Temperature environment for 9975 packages stored in KAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-10

    Plutonium materials are stored in the K Area Complex (KAC) in shipping packages, typically the 9975 shipping package. In order to estimate realistic degradation rates for components within the shipping package (i.e. the fiberboard overpack and O-ring seals), it is necessary to understand actual facility temperatures, which can vary daily and seasonally. Relevant facility temperature data available from several periods throughout its operating history have been reviewed. The annual average temperature within the Crane Maintenance Area has ranged from approximately 70 to 74 °F, although there is significant seasonal variation and lesser variation among different locations within the facility. The long-term average degradation rate for 9975 package components is very close to that expected if the component were to remain continually at the annual average temperature. This result remains valid for a wide range of activation energies (which describes the variation in degradation rate as the temperature changes), if the activation energy remains constant over the seasonal range of component temperatures. It is recommended that component degradation analyses and service life estimates incorporate these results. Specifically, it is proposed that future analyses assume an average facility ambient air temperature of 94 °F. This value is bounding for all packages, and includes margin for several factors such as increased temperatures within the storage arrays, the addition of more packages in the future, and future operational changes.

  18. Symmetry algebras in Chern-Simons theories with boundary: canonical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mu-In. E-mail: mipark@physics.sogang.ac.kr

    1999-04-05

    I consider the classical Kac-Moody algebra and Virasoro algebra in Chern-Simons theory with boundary within Dirac's canonical method and Noether's procedure. It is shown that the usual (bulk) Gauss law constraint becomes a second-class constraint because of the boundary effect. From this fact, the Dirac bracket can be constructed explicitly without introducing additional gauge conditions and the classical Kac-Moody and Virasoro algebras are obtained within the usual Dirac method. The equivalence to the symplectic reduction method is presented and the connection to the Banados' work is clarified. Also the generalization to the Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory is considered where the diffeomorphism symmetry is broken by the (three-dimensional) Yang-Mills term. In this case, the same Kac-Moody algebras are obtained although the two theories are sharply different in the canonical structures. Both models realize the holography principle explicitly and the pure CS theory reveals the correspondence of the Chern-Simons theory with boundary/conformal field theory, which is more fundamental and generalizes the conjectured anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence.

  19. Algebraic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lloris Ruiz, Antonio; Parrilla Roure, Luis; García Ríos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a complete and accurate study of algebraic circuits, digital circuits whose performance can be associated with any algebraic structure. The authors distinguish between basic algebraic circuits, such as Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs) and cellular automata, and algebraic circuits, such as finite fields or Galois fields. The book includes a comprehensive review of representation systems, of arithmetic circuits implementing basic and more complex operations, and of the residue number systems (RNS). It presents a study of basic algebraic circuits such as LFSRs and cellular automata as well as a study of circuits related to Galois fields, including two real cryptographic applications of Galois fields.

  20. Drinfeld center of planar algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash

    2012-01-01

    We introduce fusion and contragadient of affine representations of a planar algebra $P$ (not necessarily having finite depth). We prove that if $N \\subset M$ is a subfactor realization of $P$, then the Drinfeld center of the $N$-$N$-bimodule category generated by $_N L^2 (M)_M$, is equivalent to the category Hilbert affine representations of $P$ satisfying certain finiteness criterion. As a consequence, we prove Kevin Walker's conjecture for planar algebras.

  1. Equilibration in the Kac Model Using the GTW Metric d_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossounian, H.

    2017-08-01

    We use the Fourier based Gabetta-Toscani-Wennberg metric d_2 to study the rate of convergence to equilibrium for the Kac model in 1 dimension. We take the initial velocity distribution of the particles to be a Borel probability measure μ on R^n that is symmetric in all its variables, has mean ěc {0} and finite second moment. Let μ _t(dv) denote the Kac-evolved distribution at time t, and let R_μ be the angular average of μ . We give an upper bound to d_2(μ _t, R_μ ) of the form \\min { B e^{-4 λ _1/n+3t}, d_2(μ ,R_μ )} , where λ _1 = n+2/2(n-1) is the gap of the Kac model in L^2 and B depends only on the second moment of μ . We also construct a family of Schwartz probability densities {f_0^{(n)}: R^n→ R} with finite second moments that shows practically no decrease in d_2(f_0(t), R_{f_0}) for time at least 1/2λ with λ the rate of the Kac operator. We also present a propagation of chaos result for the partially thermostated Kac model in Tossounian and Vaidyanathan (J Math Phys 56(8):083301, 2015).

  2. Stochastic foundations of undulatory transport phenomena: generalized Poisson-Kac processes—part I basic theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giona, Massimiliano; Brasiello, Antonio; Crescitelli, Silvestro

    2017-08-01

    This article introduces the notion of generalized Poisson-Kac (GPK) processes which generalize the class of ‘telegrapher’s noise dynamics’ introduced by Kac (1974 Rocky Mount. J. Math. 4 497) in 1974, using Poissonian stochastic perturbations. In GPK processes the stochastic perturbation acts as a switching amongst a set of stochastic velocity vectors controlled by a Markov-chain dynamics. GPK processes possess trajectory regularity (almost everywhere) and asymptotic Kac limit, namely the convergence towards Brownian motion (and to stochastic dynamics driven by Wiener perturbations), which characterizes also the long-term/long-distance properties of these processes. In this article we introduce the structural properties of GPK processes, leaving all the physical implications to part II and part III (Giona et al 2016a J. Phys. A: Math. Theor., 2016b J. Phys. A: Math. Theor.).

  3. Hom-Akivis algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Issa, A Nourou

    2010-01-01

    Non-Hom-associative algebras and Hom-Akivis algebras are introduced. The commutator-Hom-associator algebra of a non-Hom-associative algebra is a Hom-Akivis algebra. It is shown that non-Hom-associative algebras can be obtained from nonassociative algebras by twisting along algebra automorphisms while Hom-Akivis algebras can be obtained from Akivis algebras by twisting along algebra endomorphisms.

  4. Determinant Formula for the Topological N=2 Superconformal Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Dörrzapf, M; Dörrzapf, Matthias; Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    1999-01-01

    The Kac determinant for the Topological N=2 superconformal algebra is presented as well as a detailed analysis of the singular vectors detected by the roots of the determinants. In addition we identify the standard Verma modules containing `no-label' singular vectors (which are not detected directly by the roots of the determinants). We show that in standard Verma modules there are (at least) four different types of submodules, regarding size and shape. We also review the chiral determinant formula, for chiral Verma modules, adding new insights. Finally we transfer the results obtained to the Verma modules and singular vectors of the Ramond N=2 algebra, which have been very poorly studied so far. This work clarifies several misconceptions and confusing claims appeared in the literature about the singular vectors, Verma modules and submodules of the Topological N=2 superconformal algebra.

  5. Determinant formula for the topological N = 2 superconformal algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Doerrzapf, M

    1999-01-01

    The Kac determinant for the topological N = 2 superconformal algebra is presented as well as a detailed analysis of the singular vectors detected by the roots of the determinants. In addition we identify the standard Verma modules containing 'no-label' singular vectors (which are not detected directly by the roots of the determinants). We show that in standard Verma modules there are (at least) four different types of submodules, regarding size and shape. We also review the chiral determinant formula, for chiral Verma modules, adding new insights. Finally we transfer the results obtained to the Verma modules and singular vectors of the Ramond N = 2 algebra, which have been very poorly studied so far. This work clarifies several misconceptions and confusing claims appeared in the literature about the singular vectors, Verma modules and submodules of the topological N = 2 superconformal algebra.

  6. Elliptic algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odesskii, A V [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-12-31

    This survey is devoted to associative Z{sub {>=}}{sub 0}-graded algebras presented by n generators and n(n-1)/2 quadratic relations and satisfying the so-called Poincare-Birkhoff-Witt condition (PBW-algebras). Examples are considered of such algebras, depending on two continuous parameters (namely, on an elliptic curve and a point on it), that are flat deformations of the polynomial ring in n variables. Diverse properties of these algebras are described, together with their relations to integrable systems, deformation quantization, moduli spaces, and other directions of modern investigations.

  7. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and ve...

  8. Linear Algebra and Smarandache Linear Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha, Kandasamy

    2003-01-01

    The present book, on Smarandache linear algebra, not only studies the Smarandache analogues of linear algebra and its applications, it also aims to bridge the need for new research topics pertaining to linear algebra, purely in the algebraic sense. We have introduced Smarandache semilinear algebra, Smarandache bilinear algebra and Smarandache anti-linear algebra and their fuzzy equivalents. Moreover, in this book, we have brought out the study of linear algebra and ve...

  9. Kiddie Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    As educators and policymakers search for ways to prepare students for the rigors of algebra, teachers in the Helena, Montana, school system are starting early by attempting to nurture students' algebraic-reasoning ability, as well as their basic number skills, in early elementary school, rather than waiting until middle or early high school.…

  10. Kiddie Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    As educators and policymakers search for ways to prepare students for the rigors of algebra, teachers in the Helena, Montana, school system are starting early by attempting to nurture students' algebraic-reasoning ability, as well as their basic number skills, in early elementary school, rather than waiting until middle or early high school.…

  11. Algebra-Geometry of Piecewise Algebraic Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Gang ZHU; Ren Hong WANG

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic variety is the most important subject in classical algebraic geometry.As the zero set of multivariate splines,the piecewise algebraic variety is a kind generalization of the classical algebraic variety.This paper studies the correspondence between spline ideals and piecewise algebraic varieties based on the knowledge of algebraic geometry and multivariate splines.

  12. Derivation of quantum work equalities using a quantum Feynman-Kac formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei

    2012-07-01

    On the basis of a quantum mechanical analog of the famous Feynman-Kac formula, we present a method to derive nonequilibrium work equalities for isolated quantum systems, which include the Jarzynski equality and Bochkov-Kuzovlev equality. Compared with other methods in the literature, our method shows a higher similarity in form to the method deriving the fluctuation relations in the classical systems.

  13. On Study of Solutions of Kac-van Moerbeke Lattice and Self-dual Network Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Fu-Ding; JI Min; GONG Ling

    2006-01-01

    The closed form of solutions of Kac-van Moerbeke lattice and self-dual network equations are considered . by proposing transformations based on Riccati equation, using symbolic computation. In contrast to the numerical computation of travelling wave solutions for differential difference equations, our method obtains exact solutions which have physical relevance.

  14. The KAC family of kinesin-like proteins is essential for the association of chloroplasts with the plasma membrane in land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Tsuboi, Hidenori; Kasahara, Masahiro; Imaizumi, Takato; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Wada, Masamitsu

    2012-11-01

    Chloroplasts require association with the plasma membrane for movement in response to light and for appropriate positioning within the cell to capture photosynthetic light efficiently. In Arabidopsis, CHLOROPLAST UNUSUAL POSITIONING 1 (CHUP1), KINESIN-LIKE PROTEIN FOR ACTIN-BASED CHLOROPLAST MOVEMENT 1 (KAC1) and KAC2 are required for both the proper movement of chloroplasts and the association of chloroplasts with the plasma membrane, through the reorganization of short actin filaments located on the periphery of the chloroplasts. Here, we show that KAC and CHUP1 orthologs (AcKAC1, AcCHUP1A and AcCHUP1B, and PpKAC1 and PpKAC2) play important roles in chloroplast positioning in the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and the moss Physcomitrella patens. The knockdown of AcKAC1 and two AcCHUP1 genes induced the aggregation of chloroplasts around the nucleus. Analyses of A. capillus-veneris mutants containing perinuclear-aggregated chloroplasts confirmed that AcKAC1 is required for chloroplast-plasma membrane association. In addition, P. patens lines in which two KAC genes had been knocked out showed an aggregated chloroplast phenotype similar to that of the fern kac1 mutants. These results indicate that chloroplast positioning and movement are mediated through the activities of KAC and CHUP1 proteins, which are conserved in land plants.

  15. BRST Cohomology in Quantum Affine Algebra $U_q(\\widehat{sl_2})$

    CERN Document Server

    Konno, H

    1994-01-01

    Using free field representation of quantum affine algebra $U_q(\\widehat{sl_2})$, we investigate the structure of the Fock modules over $U_q(\\widehat{sl_2})$. The analisys is based on a $q$-analog of the BRST formalism given by Bernard and Felder in the affine Kac-Moody algebra $\\widehat {sl_2}$. We give an explicit construction of the singular vectors using the BRST charge. By the same cohomology analysis as the classical case ($q=1$), we obtain the irreducible highest weight representation space as a nontrivial cohomology group. This enables us to calculate a trace of the $q$-vertex operators over this space.

  16. Geometric Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Chisolm, Eric

    2012-01-01

    This is an introduction to geometric algebra, an alternative to traditional vector algebra that expands on it in two ways: 1. In addition to scalars and vectors, it defines new objects representing subspaces of any dimension. 2. It defines a product that's strongly motivated by geometry and can be taken between any two objects. For example, the product of two vectors taken in a certain way represents their common plane. This system was invented by William Clifford and is more commonly known as Clifford algebra. It's actually older than the vector algebra that we use today (due to Gibbs) and includes it as a subset. Over the years, various parts of Clifford algebra have been reinvented independently by many people who found they needed it, often not realizing that all those parts belonged in one system. This suggests that Clifford had the right idea, and that geometric algebra, not the reduced version we use today, deserves to be the standard "vector algebra." My goal in these notes is to describe geometric al...

  17. College algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Kolman, Bernard

    1985-01-01

    College Algebra, Second Edition is a comprehensive presentation of the fundamental concepts and techniques of algebra. The book incorporates some improvements from the previous edition to provide a better learning experience. It provides sufficient materials for use in the study of college algebra. It contains chapters that are devoted to various mathematical concepts, such as the real number system, the theory of polynomial equations, exponential and logarithmic functions, and the geometric definition of each conic section. Progress checks, warnings, and features are inserted. Every chapter c

  18. Abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an advanced undergraduate- or graduate-level course, Abstract Algebra provides an example-oriented, less heavily symbolic approach to abstract algebra. The text emphasizes specifics such as basic number theory, polynomials, finite fields, as well as linear and multilinear algebra. This classroom-tested, how-to manual takes a more narrative approach than the stiff formalism of many other textbooks, presenting coherent storylines to convey crucial ideas in a student-friendly, accessible manner. An unusual feature of the text is the systematic characterization of objects by universal

  19. Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, Marco; Olberding, Bruce; Swanson, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Commutative algebra is a rapidly growing subject that is developing in many different directions. This volume presents several of the most recent results from various areas related to both Noetherian and non-Noetherian commutative algebra. This volume contains a collection of invited survey articles by some of the leading experts in the field. The authors of these chapters have been carefully selected for their important contributions to an area of commutative-algebraic research. Some topics presented in the volume include: generalizations of cyclic modules, zero divisor graphs, class semigrou

  20. Algebro-Geometric Quasi-Periodic Finite-Gap Solutions of the Toda and Kac-van Moerbeke Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Bulla, W; Holden, H; Teschl, G

    1997-01-01

    Combining algebro-geometric methods and factorization techniques for finite difference expressions we provide a complete and self-contained treatment of all real-valued quasi-periodic finite-gap solutions of both the Toda and Kac-van Moerbeke hierarchies. In order to obtain our principal new result, the algebro-geometric finite-gap solutions of the Kac-van Moerbeke hierarchy, we employ particular commutation methods in connection with Miura-type transformations which enable us to transfer whole classes of solutions (such as finite-gap solutions) from the Toda hierarchy to its modified counterpart, the Kac-van Moerbeke hierarchy, and vice versa.

  1. Algebraic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The workshop continued a series of Oberwolfach meetings on algebraic groups, started in 1971 by Tonny Springer and Jacques Tits who both attended the present conference. This time, the organizers were Michel Brion, Jens Carsten Jantzen, and Raphaël Rouquier. During the last years, the subject...... of algebraic groups (in a broad sense) has seen important developments in several directions, also related to representation theory and algebraic geometry. The workshop aimed at presenting some of these developments in order to make them accessible to a "general audience" of algebraic group......-theorists, and to stimulate contacts between participants. Each of the first four days was dedicated to one area of research that has recently seen decisive progress: \\begin{itemize} \\item structure and classification of wonderful varieties, \\item finite reductive groups and character sheaves, \\item quantum cohomology...

  2. Elementary algebra

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1981-01-01

    Elementary Algebra 2e, Second Edition focuses on the basic principles, operations, and approaches involved in elementary algebra. The book first tackles the basics, linear equations and inequalities, and graphing and linear systems. Discussions focus on the substitution method, solving linear systems by graphing, solutions to linear equations in two variables, multiplication property of equality, word problems, addition property of equality, and subtraction, addition, multiplication, and division of real numbers. The manuscript then examines exponents and polynomials, factoring, and rational e

  3. Elementary algebra

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1986-01-01

    Elementary Algebra, Third Edition focuses on the basic principles, operations, and approaches involved in elementary algebra. The book first ponders on the basics, linear equations and inequalities, and graphing and linear systems. Discussions focus on the elimination method, solving linear systems by graphing, word problems, addition property of equality, solving linear equations, linear inequalities, addition and subtraction of real numbers, and properties of real numbers. The text then takes a look at exponents and polynomials, factoring, and rational expressions. Topics include reducing ra

  4. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. We would like it to match the well-defined algebra of spectral functions describing lights and surface reflectances, but an exact correspondence is impossible after the spectra have been projected to a three-dimensional color space, because of metamerism physically different spectra can produce the same color sensation. Metameric spectra are interchangeable for the purposes of addition, but not multiplication, so any color algebra is necessarily an approximation to physical reality. Nevertheless, because the majority of naturally-occurring spectra are well-behaved (e.g., continuous and slowly-varying), color algebras can be formulated that are largely accurate and agree well with human intuition. Here we explore the family of algebras that result from associating each color with a member of a three-dimensional manifold of spectra. This association can be used to construct a color product, defined as the color of the spectrum of the wavelength-wise product of the spectra associated with the two input colors. The choice of the spectral manifold determines the behavior of the resulting system, and certain special subspaces allow computational efficiencies. The resulting systems can be used to improve computer graphic rendering techniques, and to model various perceptual phenomena such as color constancy.

  5. Anomaly detection in random heterogeneous media Feynman-Kac formulae, stochastic homogenization and statistical inversion

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with the analysis and numerical solution of a stochastic inverse anomaly detection problem in electrical impedance tomography (EIT). Martin Simon studies the problem of detecting a parameterized anomaly in an isotropic, stationary and ergodic conductivity random field whose realizations are rapidly oscillating. For this purpose, he derives Feynman-Kac formulae to rigorously justify stochastic homogenization in the case of the underlying stochastic boundary value problem. The author combines techniques from the theory of partial differential equations and functional analysis with probabilistic ideas, paving the way to new mathematical theorems which may be fruitfully used in the treatment of the problem at hand. Moreover, the author proposes an efficient numerical method in the framework of Bayesian inversion for the practical solution of the stochastic inverse anomaly detection problem.   Contents Feynman-Kac formulae Stochastic homogenization Statistical inverse problems  Targe...

  6. Piecewise algebraic varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Renhong; ZHU Chungang

    2004-01-01

    The piecewise algebraic variety is a generalization of the classical algebraic variety. This paper discusses some properties of piecewise algebraic varieties and their coordinate rings based on the knowledge of algebraic geometry.

  7. Bethe Ansatz and the Spectral Theory of affine Lie algebra--valued connections. The non simply--laced case

    CERN Document Server

    Masoero, Davide; Valeri, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    We assess the ODE/IM correspondence for the quantum $\\mathfrak{g}$-KdV model, for a non-simply laced Lie algebra $\\mathfrak{g}$. This is done by studying a meromorphic connection with values in the Langlands dual algebra of the affine Lie algebra ${\\mathfrak{g}}^{(1)}$, and constructing the relevant $\\Psi$-system among subdominant solutions. We then use the $\\Psi$-system to prove that the generalized spectral determinants satisfy the Bethe Ansatz equations of the quantum $\\mathfrak{g}$-KdV model. We also consider generalized Airy functions for twisted Kac--Moody algebras and we construct new explicit solutions to the Bethe Ansatz equations. The paper is a continuation of our previous work on the ODE/IM correspondence for simply-laced Lie algebras.

  8. Bethe Ansatz and the Spectral Theory of Affine Lie algebra-Valued Connections II: The Non Simply-Laced Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoero, Davide; Raimondo, Andrea; Valeri, Daniele

    2016-09-01

    We assess the ODE/IM correspondence for the quantum g -KdV model, for a non-simply laced Lie algebra g. This is done by studying a meromorphic connection with values in the Langlands dual algebra of the affine Lie algebra g^{(1)} , and constructing the relevant {Ψ} -system among subdominant solutions. We then use the {Ψ} -system to prove that the generalized spectral determinants satisfy the Bethe Ansatz equations of the quantum g -KdV model. We also consider generalized Airy functions for twisted Kac-Moody algebras and we construct new explicit solutions to the Bethe Ansatz equations. The paper is a continuation of our previous work on the ODE/IM correspondence for simply-laced Lie algebras.

  9. Feynman–Kac equation for anomalous processes with space- and time-dependent forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairoli, Andrea; Baule, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    Functionals of a stochastic process Y(t) model many physical time-extensive observables, for instance particle positions, local and occupation times or accumulated mechanical work. When Y(t) is a normal diffusive process, their statistics are obtained as the solution of the celebrated Feynman–Kac equation. This equation provides the crucial link between the expected values of diffusion processes and the solutions of deterministic second-order partial differential equations. When Y(t) is non-Brownian, e.g. an anomalous diffusive process, generalizations of the Feynman–Kac equation that incorporate power-law or more general waiting time distributions of the underlying random walk have recently been derived. A general representation of such waiting times is provided in terms of a Lévy process whose Laplace exponent is directly related to the memory kernel appearing in the generalized Feynman–Kac equation. The corresponding anomalous processes have been shown to capture nonlinear mean square displacements exhibiting crossovers between different scaling regimes, which have been observed in numerous experiments on biological systems like migrating cells or diffusing macromolecules in intracellular environments. However, the case where both space- and time-dependent forces drive the dynamics of the generalized anomalous process has not been solved yet. Here, we present the missing derivation of the Feynman–Kac equation in such general case by using the subordination technique. Furthermore, we discuss its extension to functionals explicitly depending on time, which are of particular relevance for the stochastic thermodynamics of anomalous diffusive systems. Exact results on the work fluctuations of a simple non-equilibrium model are obtained. An additional aim of this paper is to provide a pedagogical introduction to Lévy processes, semimartingales and their associated stochastic calculus, which underlie the mathematical formulation of anomalous diffusion as a

  10. Generalized exterior algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Marchuk, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    Exterior algebras and differential forms are widely used in many fields of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. In this paper we define a notion of $N$-metric exterior algebra, which depends on $N$ matrices of structure constants. The usual exterior algebra (Grassmann algebra) can be considered as 0-metric exterior algebra. Clifford algebra can be considered as 1-metric exterior algebra. $N$-metric exterior algebras for $N\\geq2$ can be considered as generalizations of the Grassmann alg...

  11. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Harold M

    1995-01-01

    In his new undergraduate textbook, Harold M Edwards proposes a radically new and thoroughly algorithmic approach to linear algebra Originally inspired by the constructive philosophy of mathematics championed in the 19th century by Leopold Kronecker, the approach is well suited to students in the computer-dominated late 20th century Each proof is an algorithm described in English that can be translated into the computer language the class is using and put to work solving problems and generating new examples, making the study of linear algebra a truly interactive experience Designed for a one-semester course, this text adopts an algorithmic approach to linear algebra giving the student many examples to work through and copious exercises to test their skills and extend their knowledge of the subject Students at all levels will find much interactive instruction in this text while teachers will find stimulating examples and methods of approach to the subject

  12. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Liesen, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained textbook takes a matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra and presents a complete theory, including all details and proofs, culminating in the Jordan canonical form and its proof. Throughout the development, the applicability of the results is highlighted. Additionally, the book presents special topics from applied linear algebra including matrix functions, the singular value decomposition, the Kronecker product and linear matrix equations. The matrix-oriented approach to linear algebra leads to a better intuition and a deeper understanding of the abstract concepts, and therefore simplifies their use in real world applications. Some of these applications are presented in detailed examples. In several ‘MATLAB-Minutes’ students can comprehend the concepts and results using computational experiments. Necessary basics for the use of MATLAB are presented in a short introduction. Students can also actively work with the material and practice their mathematical skills in more than 300 exerc...

  13. Boolean Algebra of C-Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. Rao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A C- algebra is the algebraic form of the 3-valued conditional logic, which was introduced by F. Guzman and C. C. Squier in 1990. In this paper, some equivalent conditions for a C- algebra to become a boolean algebra in terms of congruences are given. It is proved that the set of all central elements B(A is isomorphic to the Boolean algebra of all C-algebras Sa, where a B(A. It is also proved that B(A is isomorphic to the Boolean algebra of all C-algebras Aa, where a B(A.

  14. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stoll, R R

    1968-01-01

    Linear Algebra is intended to be used as a text for a one-semester course in linear algebra at the undergraduate level. The treatment of the subject will be both useful to students of mathematics and those interested primarily in applications of the theory. The major prerequisite for mastering the material is the readiness of the student to reason abstractly. Specifically, this calls for an understanding of the fact that axioms are assumptions and that theorems are logical consequences of one or more axioms. Familiarity with calculus and linear differential equations is required for understand

  15. Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Nathan

    1979-01-01

    Lie group theory, developed by M. Sophus Lie in the 19th century, ranks among the more important developments in modern mathematics. Lie algebras comprise a significant part of Lie group theory and are being actively studied today. This book, by Professor Nathan Jacobson of Yale, is the definitive treatment of the subject and can be used as a textbook for graduate courses.Chapter I introduces basic concepts that are necessary for an understanding of structure theory, while the following three chapters present the theory itself: solvable and nilpotent Lie algebras, Carlan's criterion and its

  16. Basic algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Nathan

    2009-01-01

    A classic text and standard reference for a generation, this volume and its companion are the work of an expert algebraist who taught at Yale for two decades. Nathan Jacobson's books possess a conceptual and theoretical orientation, and in addition to their value as classroom texts, they serve as valuable references.Volume I explores all of the topics typically covered in undergraduate courses, including the rudiments of set theory, group theory, rings, modules, Galois theory, polynomials, linear algebra, and associative algebra. Its comprehensive treatment extends to such rigorous topics as L

  17. Linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Allenby, Reg

    1995-01-01

    As the basis of equations (and therefore problem-solving), linear algebra is the most widely taught sub-division of pure mathematics. Dr Allenby has used his experience of teaching linear algebra to write a lively book on the subject that includes historical information about the founders of the subject as well as giving a basic introduction to the mathematics undergraduate. The whole text has been written in a connected way with ideas introduced as they occur naturally. As with the other books in the series, there are many worked examples.Solutions to the exercises are available onlin

  18. A description of Kac-systems of multiplicative unitary operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Xiaoxia(

    2001-01-01

    [1]Abramsky, S. , .lung, A. , Domain theory, in Handbook of Logic in Computer Science (eds. Abramsky, S. , Gabay, D. M. ,Maibaum, E. ), Vol. 3, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1994.[2]Freyd, P. J., Algebraically complete categories, in Proc. Category Theory (eds. Carboni, A., Pedicchio, M. C.,Rosolini, G.), Lecture Notes in Mathematics 1448, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991: 95-104.[3]Winskel, G., Larsen, K., Using information systems to solve recursive domain equations effectively, in Semantics of Data Types (eds. Kahn, G., Plotkin, G. D.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science 173, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1984: 109-130.[4]Liang, J. H., Liu, Y. M., Domain theory and topology, Advances of Mathematics (in Chinese), 1999, 28(2): 97-103.[5]Lawson, J. D., Mislove, M., Domain theory and topology, in Open Problems in Topology (eds. Van Mill, J., Reed, G.M.); Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1990.[6]Gierz, G., Hofmann, K. H., Keimel, K. et al., A Compendium of Continuous Lattices, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1980.[7]Amadio, R. M., Curien, P. L., Domain and Lambda-Calculi, Canbridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.[8]Jung, A., Cartesian closed categories of domains, CWI Tracts, Amsterdam: North-Holland, 1988.[9]Liu, Y. M., Liang, J. H., Solution to two problems of J. D. Lawson and M. M. is love, Topology and Its Applications 1996, 69: 153-164.[10]Liang, J. H., Keimel, K., Compact continuous L-domains, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 1999, 38: 81-89.[11]Liang, J. H., A characterizing theorem of continuous B-domains, Chiness Annals of Mathematics (in Chinese), 1998, 19A(6): 699-702.[12]Chen, Y. X., Stone duality and representation of stable domains, Computers and Mathematics with Applications, 1997, 34:27-41.

  19. Algebraic Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Oliver, Bob; Pawałowski, Krzystof

    1991-01-01

    As part of the scientific activity in connection with the 70th birthday of the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, an international conference on algebraic topology was held. In the resulting proceedings volume, the emphasis is on substantial survey papers, some presented at the conference, some written subsequently.

  20. Algebraic Stacks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tomás L Gómez

    2001-02-01

    This is an expository article on the theory of algebraic stacks. After introducing the general theory, we concentrate in the example of the moduli stack of vector bundles, giving a detailed comparison with the moduli scheme obtained via geometric invariant theory.

  1. Central simple Poisson algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Yucai; XU Xiaoping

    2004-01-01

    Poisson algebras are fundamental algebraic structures in physics and symplectic geometry. However, the structure theory of Poisson algebras has not been well developed. In this paper, we determine the structure of the central simple Poisson algebras related to locally finite derivations, over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero.The Lie algebra structures of these Poisson algebras are in general not finitely-graded.

  2. The kinesin-like proteins, KAC1/2, regulate actin dynamics underlying chloroplast light-avoidance in Physcomitrella patens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiyuan Shen; Yen-Chen Liu; Jeffrey P Bibeau; Kyle P Lemoi; Erkan Tzel; Luis Vidali

    2015-01-01

    In plants, light determines chloroplast position;these organelles show avoidance and accumulation re-sponses in high and low fluence-rate light, respectively. Chloroplast motility in response to light is driven by cytoskeletal elements. The actin cytoskeleton mediates chloroplast photorelocation responses in Arabidopsis thali-ana. In contrast, in the moss Physcomitrella patens, both, actin filaments and microtubules can transport chloroplasts. Because of the surprising evidence that two kinesin-like proteins (called KACs) are important for actin-dependent chloroplast photorelocation in vascular plants, we wanted to determine the cytoskeletal system responsible for the function of these proteins in moss. We performed gene-specific silencing using RNA interference in P. patens. We confirmed existing reports using gene knockouts, that PpKAC1 and PpKAC2 are required for chloroplast dispersion under uniform white light conditions, and that the two proteins are functionally equivalent. To address the specific cytoskeletal elements responsible for motility, this loss-of-function approach was combined with cytoskeleton-targeted drug studies. We found that, in P. patens, these KACs mediate the chloroplast light-avoidance response in an actin filament-dependent, rather than a microtubule-dependent manner. Using correlation-decay analysis of cytoskeletal dynamics, we found that PpKAC stabilizes cortical actin filaments, but has no effect on microtubule dynamics.

  3. Algebraic theory of molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Iachello, F

    1995-01-01

    1. The Wave Mechanics of Diatomic Molecules. 2. Summary of Elements of Algebraic Theory. 3. Mechanics of Molecules. 4. Three-Body Algebraic Theory. 5. Four-Body Algebraic Theory. 6. Classical Limit and Coordinate Representation. 8. Prologue to the Future. Appendices. Properties of Lie Algebras; Coupling of Algebras; Hamiltonian Parameters

  4. Nonmonotonic logics and algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAKRABORTY Mihir Kr; GHOSH Sujata

    2008-01-01

    Several nonmonotonie logic systems together with their algebraic semantics are discussed. NM-algebra is defined.An elegant construction of an NM-algebra starting from a Boolean algebra is described which gives rise to a few interesting algebraic issues.

  5. Stability of Feynman-Kac formulae with path-dependent potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Chopin, Nicolas; Rubenthaler, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    Several particle algorithms admit a Feynman-Kac representation such that the potential function may be expressed as a recursive function which depends on the complete state trajectory. An important example is the mixture Kalman filter, but other models and algorithms of practical interest fall in this category. We study the asymptotic stability of such particle algorithms as time goes to infinity. As a corollary, practical conditions for the stability of the mixture Kalman filter, and a mixture GARCH filter, are derived. Finally, we show that our results can also lead to weaker conditions for the stability of standard particle algorithms, such that the potential function depends on the last state only.

  6. Null vectors of the $WBC_2$ algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Bajnok, Z

    1994-01-01

    Using the fusion principle of Bauer et al. we give explicit expressions for some null vectors in the highest weight representations of the \\bc algebra in two different forms. These null vectors are the generalization of the Virasoro ones described by Benoit and Saint-Aubin and analogues of the $W_3$ ones constructed by Bowcock and Watts. We find connection between quantum Toda models and the fusion method.

  7. Real Algebraic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Mahé, Louis; Roy, Marie-Françoise

    1992-01-01

    Ten years after the first Rennes international meeting on real algebraic geometry, the second one looked at the developments in the subject during the intervening decade - see the 6 survey papers listed below. Further contributions from the participants on recent research covered real algebra and geometry, topology of real algebraic varieties and 16thHilbert problem, classical algebraic geometry, techniques in real algebraic geometry, algorithms in real algebraic geometry, semialgebraic geometry, real analytic geometry. CONTENTS: Survey papers: M. Knebusch: Semialgebraic topology in the last ten years.- R. Parimala: Algebraic and topological invariants of real algebraic varieties.- Polotovskii, G.M.: On the classification of decomposing plane algebraic curves.- Scheiderer, C.: Real algebra and its applications to geometry in the last ten years: some major developments and results.- Shustin, E.L.: Topology of real plane algebraic curves.- Silhol, R.: Moduli problems in real algebraic geometry. Further contribu...

  8. Solvable quadratic Lie algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Linsheng

    2006-01-01

    A Lie algebra endowed with a nondegenerate, symmetric, invariant bilinear form is called a quadratic Lie algebra. In this paper, the author investigates the structure of solvable quadratic Lie algebras, in particular, the solvable quadratic Lie algebras whose Cartan subalgebras consist of semi-simple elements, the author presents a procedure to construct a class of quadratic Lie algebras from the point of view of cohomology and shows that all solvable quadratic Lie algebras can be obtained in this way.

  9. Symmetric Boolean Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    DÍaz, R.; Rivas, M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to study Boolean algebras in the category of vector spaces we introduce a prop whose algebras in set are Boolean algebras. A probabilistic logical interpretation for linear Boolean algebras is provided. An advantage of defining Boolean algebras in the linear category is that we are able to study its symmetric powers. We give explicit formulae for products in symmetric and cyclic Boolean algebras of various dimensions and formulate symmetric forms of the inclusion-exclusion principle.

  10. Enhanced gauge groups in N=4 topological amplitudes and Lorentzian Borcherds algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenegger, Stefan; Persson, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    We continue our study of algebraic properties of N=4 topological amplitudes in heterotic string theory compactified on T2, initiated in arXiv:1102.1821. In this work we evaluate a particular one-loop amplitude for any enhanced gauge group h⊂e8⊕e8, i.e. for arbitrary choice of Wilson line moduli. We show that a certain analytic part of the result has an infinite product representation, where the product is taken over the positive roots of a Lorentzian Kac-Moody algebra g++. The latter is obtained through double extension of the complement g=(e8⊕e8)/h. The infinite product is automorphic with respect to a finite index subgroup of the full T-duality group SO(2,18;Z) and, through the philosophy of Borcherds-Gritsenko-Nikulin, this defines the denominator formula of a generalized Kac-Moody algebra G(g++), which is an ’automorphic correction’ of g++. We explicitly give the root multiplicities of G(g++) for a number of examples.

  11. Enhanced Gauge Groups in N=4 Topological Amplitudes and Lorentzian Borcherds Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Hohenegger, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    We continue our study of algebraic properties of N=4 topological amplitudes in heterotic string theory compactified on T^2, initiated in arXiv:1102.1821. In this work we evaluate a particular one-loop amplitude for any enhanced gauge group h \\subset e_8 + e_8, i.e. for arbitrary choice of Wilson line moduli. We show that a certain analytic part of the result has an infinite product representation, where the product is taken over the positive roots of a Lorentzian Kac-Moody algebra g^{++}. The latter is obtained through double extension of the complement g= (e_8 + e_8)/h. The infinite product is automorphic with respect to a finite index subgroup of the full T-duality group SO(2,18;Z) and, through the philosophy of Borcherds-Gritsenko-Nikulin, this defines the denominator formula of a generalized Kac-Moody algebra G(g^{++}), which is an 'automorphic correction' of g^{++}. We explicitly give the root multiplicities of G(g^{++}) for a number of examples.

  12. Algebraic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bliss, Gilbert Ames

    1933-01-01

    This book, immediately striking for its conciseness, is one of the most remarkable works ever produced on the subject of algebraic functions and their integrals. The distinguishing feature of the book is its third chapter, on rational functions, which gives an extremely brief and clear account of the theory of divisors.... A very readable account is given of the topology of Riemann surfaces and of the general properties of abelian integrals. Abel's theorem is presented, with some simple applications. The inversion problem is studied for the cases of genus zero and genus unity. The chapter on t

  13. Piecewise-Koszul algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    It is a small step toward the Koszul-type algebras. The piecewise-Koszul algebras are,in general, a new class of quadratic algebras but not the classical Koszul ones, simultaneously they agree with both the classical Koszul and higher Koszul algebras in special cases. We give a criteria theorem for a graded algebra A to be piecewise-Koszul in terms of its Yoneda-Ext algebra E(A), and show an A∞-structure on E(A). Relations between Koszul algebras and piecewise-Koszul algebras are discussed. In particular, our results are related to the third question of Green-Marcos.

  14. q-Difference Kac-Schwarz Operators in Topological String Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Kanehisa; Nakatsu, Toshio

    2017-02-01

    The perspective of Kac-Schwarz operators is introduced to the authors' previous work on the quantum mirror curves of topological string theory in strip geometry and closed topological vertex. Open string amplitudes on each leg of the web diagram of such geometry can be packed into a multi-variate generating function. This generating function turns out to be a tau function of the KP hierarchy. The tau function has a fermionic expression, from which one finds a vector |W\\rangle in the fermionic Fock space that represents a point W of the Sato Grassmannian. |W\\rangle is generated from the vacuum vector |0\\rangle by an operator g on the Fock space. g determines an operator G on the space V = C((x)) of Laurent series in which W is realized as a linear subspace. G generates an admissible basis {Φ_j(x)}_{j=0}^∞ of W. q-difference analogues A, B of Kac-Schwarz operators are defined with the aid of G. Φ_j(x)'s satisfy the linear equations AΦ_j(x) = q^jΦ_j(x), BΦ_j(x) = Φ_{j+1}(x). The lowest equation AΦ_0(x) = Φ_0(x) reproduces the quantum mirror curve in the authors' previous work.

  15. $q$-difference Kac-Schwarz operators in topological string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Takasaki, Kanehisa

    2016-01-01

    The perspective of Kac-Schwarz operators is introduced to the authors' previous work on the quantum mirror curves of topological string theory in strip geometry and closed topological vertex. Open string amplitudes on each leg of the web diagram of such geometry can be packed into a multi-variate generating function. This generating function turns out to be a tau function of the KP hierarchy. The tau function has a fermionic expression, from which one finds a vector $|W\\rangle$ in the fermionic Fock space that represents a point $W$ of the Sato Grassmanian. $|W\\rangle$ is generated from the vacuum vector $|0\\rangle$ by an operator $g$ on the Fock space. $g$ determines an operator $G$ on the space $V = \\mathbb{C}((x))$ of Laurent series in which $W$ is realized as a linear subspace. $G$ generates an admissible basis $\\{\\Phi_j(x)\\}_{j=0}^\\infty$ of $W$. $q$-difference analogues $A,B$ of Kac-Schwarz operators are defined with the aid of $G$. $\\Phi_j(x)$'s satisfy the linear equations $A\\Phi_j(x) = q^j\\Phi_j(x)$,...

  16. Fourier expansions of Kac-Moody Eisenstein series and degenerate Whittaker vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Fleig, Philipp; Persson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by string theory scattering amplitudes that are invariant under a discrete U-duality, we study Fourier coefficients of Eisenstein series on Kac-Moody groups. In particular, we analyse the Eisenstein series on E_9(R), E_10(R) and E_11(R) corresponding to certain degenerate principal series at the values s=3/2 and s=5/2 that were studied in 1204.3043. We show that these Eisenstein series have very simple Fourier coefficients as expected for their role as supersymmetric contributions to the higher derivative couplings R^4 and \\partial^{4} R^4 coming from 1/2-BPS and 1/4-BPS instantons, respectively. This suggests that there exist minimal and next-to-minimal unipotent automorphic representations of the associated Kac-Moody groups to which these special Eisenstein series are attached. We also provide complete explicit expressions for degenerate Whittaker vectors of minimal Eisenstein series on E_6(R), E_7(R) and E_8(R) that have not appeared in the literature before.

  17. Virasoro frames and their Stabilizers for the E_8 lattice type Vertex Operator Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The concept of a framed vertex operator algebra was studied in [DGH] (q-alg/9707008). This article is an analysis of all Virasoro frame stabilizers of the lattice VOA V for the E_8 root lattice, which is isomorphic to the E_8-level 1 affine Kac-Moody VOA V. We analyze the frame stabilizers, both as abstract groups and as subgroups of the Lie group Aut(V) = E_8(C). Each frame stabilizer is a finite group, contained in the normalizer of a 2B-pure elementary abelian 2-group in Aut(V). In particu...

  18. Universal algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Grätzer, George

    1979-01-01

    Universal Algebra, heralded as ". . . the standard reference in a field notorious for the lack of standardization . . .," has become the most authoritative, consistently relied on text in a field with applications in other branches of algebra and other fields such as combinatorics, geometry, and computer science. Each chapter is followed by an extensive list of exercises and problems. The "state of the art" account also includes new appendices (with contributions from B. Jónsson, R. Quackenbush, W. Taylor, and G. Wenzel) and a well-selected additional bibliography of over 1250 papers and books which makes this a fine work for students, instructors, and researchers in the field. "This book will certainly be, in the years to come, the basic reference to the subject." --- The American Mathematical Monthly (First Edition) "In this reviewer's opinion [the author] has more than succeeded in his aim. The problems at the end of each chapter are well-chosen; there are more than 650 of them. The book is especially sui...

  19. Yoneda algebras of almost Koszul algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zheng Lijing

    2015-11-01

    Let be an algebraically closed field, a finite dimensional connected (, )-Koszul self-injective algebra with , ≥ 2. In this paper, we prove that the Yoneda algebra of is isomorphic to a twisted polynomial algebra $A^!$ [ ; ] in one indeterminate of degree +1 in which $A^!$ is the quadratic dual of , is an automorphism of $A^!$, and = () for each $t \\in A^!$. As a corollary, we recover Theorem 5.3 of [2].

  20. Open algebraic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miyanishi, Masayoshi

    2000-01-01

    Open algebraic surfaces are a synonym for algebraic surfaces that are not necessarily complete. An open algebraic surface is understood as a Zariski open set of a projective algebraic surface. There is a long history of research on projective algebraic surfaces, and there exists a beautiful Enriques-Kodaira classification of such surfaces. The research accumulated by Ramanujan, Abhyankar, Moh, and Nagata and others has established a classification theory of open algebraic surfaces comparable to the Enriques-Kodaira theory. This research provides powerful methods to study the geometry and topology of open algebraic surfaces. The theory of open algebraic surfaces is applicable not only to algebraic geometry, but also to other fields, such as commutative algebra, invariant theory, and singularities. This book contains a comprehensive account of the theory of open algebraic surfaces, as well as several applications, in particular to the study of affine surfaces. Prerequisite to understanding the text is a basic b...

  1. Generalized exterior algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Marchuk, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    Exterior algebras and differential forms are widely used in many fields of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. In this paper we define a notion of $N$-metric exterior algebra, which depends on $N$ matrices of structure constants. The usual exterior algebra (Grassmann algebra) can be considered as 0-metric exterior algebra. Clifford algebra can be considered as 1-metric exterior algebra. $N$-metric exterior algebras for $N\\geq2$ can be considered as generalizations of the Grassmann algebra and Clifford algebra. Specialists consider models of gravity that based on a mathematical formalism with two metric tensors. We hope that the considered in this paper 2-metric exterior algebra can be useful for development of this model in gravitation theory. Especially in description of fermions in presence of a gravity field.

  2. Rigidification of algebras over essentially algebraic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Rosicky, J

    2012-01-01

    Badzioch and Bergner proved a rigidification theorem saying that each homotopy simplicial algebra is weakly equivalent to a simplicial algebra. The question is whether this result can be extended from algebraic theories to finite limit theories and from simplicial sets to more general monoidal model categories. We will present some answers to this question.

  3. WEAKLY ALGEBRAIC REFLEXIVITY AND STRONGLY ALGEBRAIC REFLEXIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoChangli; LuShijie; ChenPeixin

    2002-01-01

    Algebraic reflexivity introduced by Hadwin is related to linear interpolation. In this paper, the concepts of weakly algebraic reflexivity and strongly algebraic reflexivity which are also related to linear interpolation are introduced. Some properties of them are obtained and some relations between them revealed.

  4. The Yoneda algebra of a K_2 algebra need not be another K_2 algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, T.; Phan, Van C.; Shelton, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Yoneda algebra of a Koszul algebra or a D-Koszul algebra is Koszul. K2 algebras are a natural generalization of Koszul algebras, and one would hope that the Yoneda algebra of a K2 algebra would be another K2 algebra. We show that this is not necessarily the case by constructing a monomial K2 algebra for which the corresponding Yoneda algebra is not K2.

  5. The Yoneda algebra of a K_2 algebra need not be another K_2 algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, T; Phan, Van C.; Shelton, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Yoneda algebra of a Koszul algebra or a D-Koszul algebra is Koszul. K2 algebras are a natural generalization of Koszul algebras, and one would hope that the Yoneda algebra of a K2 algebra would be another K2 algebra. We show that this is not necessarily the case by constructing a monomial K2 algebra for which the corresponding Yoneda algebra is not K2.

  6. Block Fusion Systems and the Center of the Group Ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Martin Wedel

    This thesis develops some aspects of the theory of block fusion systems. Chapter 1 contains a brief introduction to the group algebra and some simple results about algebras over a field of positive characteristic. In chapter 2 we define the concept of a fusion system and the fundamental property...

  7. Algebraic cobordism theory attached to algebraic equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Krishna, Amalendu

    2012-01-01

    After the algebraic cobordism theory of Levine-Morel, we develop a theory of algebraic cobordism modulo algebraic equivalence. We prove that this theory can reproduce Chow groups modulo algebraic equivalence and the zero-th semi-topological K-groups. We also show that with finite coefficients, this theory agrees with the algebraic cobordism theory. We compute our cobordism theory for some low dimensional or special types of varieties. The results on infinite generation of some Griffiths groups by Clemens and on smash-nilpotence by Voevodsky and Voisin are also lifted and reinterpreted in terms of this cobordism theory.

  8. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  9. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    CERN Document Server

    Urichuk, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows, and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  10. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urichuk, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.urichuk@uleth.ca [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Walton, Mark A., E-mail: walton@uleth.ca [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  11. Workshop on Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Simis, Aron

    1990-01-01

    The central theme of this volume is commutative algebra, with emphasis on special graded algebras, which are increasingly of interest in problems of algebraic geometry, combinatorics and computer algebra. Most of the papers have partly survey character, but are research-oriented, aiming at classification and structural results.

  12. Probabilistic Concurrent Kleene Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabelle McIver

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide an extension of concurrent Kleene algebras to account for probabilistic properties. The algebra yields a unified framework containing nondeterminism, concurrency and probability and is sound with respect to the set of probabilistic automata modulo probabilistic simulation. We use the resulting algebra to generalise the algebraic formulation of a variant of Jones' rely/guarantee calculus.

  13. Introduction to relation algebras relation algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Givant, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The first volume of a pair that charts relation algebras from novice to expert level, this text offers a comprehensive grounding for readers new to the topic. Upon completing this introduction, mathematics students may delve into areas of active research by progressing to the second volume, Advanced Topics in Relation Algebras; computer scientists, philosophers, and beyond will be equipped to apply these tools in their own field. The careful presentation establishes first the arithmetic of relation algebras, providing ample motivation and examples, then proceeds primarily on the basis of algebraic constructions: subalgebras, homomorphisms, quotient algebras, and direct products. Each chapter ends with a historical section and a substantial number of exercises. The only formal prerequisite is a background in abstract algebra and some mathematical maturity, though the reader will also benefit from familiarity with Boolean algebra and naïve set theory. The measured pace and outstanding clarity are particularly ...

  14. Generalized Quantum Current Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liu

    2001-01-01

    Two general families of new quantum-deformed current algebras are proposed and identified both as infinite Hopf family of algebras, a structure which enables one to define "tensor products" of these algebras. The standard quantum affine algebras turn out to be a very special case of the two algebra families, in which case the infinite Hopf family structure degenerates into a standard Hopf algebra. The relationship between the two algebraic families as well as thefr various special examples are discussed, and the free boson representation is also considered.

  15. The Onsager Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    El-Chaar, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, four realizations of the Onsager algebra are explored. We begin with its original definition as introduced by Lars Onsager. We then examine how the Onsager algebra can be presented as a Lie algebra with two generators and two relations. The third realization of the Onsager algebra consists of viewing it as an equivariant map algebra which then gives us the tools to classify its closed ideals. Finally, we examine the Onsager algebra as a subalgebra of the tetrahedron algebra. Using this fourth realization, we explicitly describe all its ideals.

  16. Perturbations of planar algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Paramita; Gupta, Ved Prakash

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of {\\em weight} of a planar algebra $P$ and construct a new planar algebra referred as the {\\em perturbation of $P$} by the weight. We establish a one-to-one correspondence between pivotal structures on 2-categories and perturbations of planar algebras by weights. To each bifinite bimodule over $II_1$-factors, we associate a {\\em bimodule planar algebra} bimodule corresponds naturally with sphericality of the bimodule planar algebra. As a consequence of this, we reproduce an extension of Jones' theorem (of associating 'subfactor planar algebras' to extremal subfactors). Conversely, given a bimodule planar algebra, we construct a bifinite bimodule whose associated bimodule planar algebra is the one which we start with using perturbations and Jones-Walker-Shlyakhtenko-Kodiyalam-Sunder method of reconstructing an extremal subfactor from a subfactor planar algebra. We show that the perturbation class of a bimodule planar algebra contains a unique spherical unimodular bimodule planar algeb...

  17. Yangians and transvector algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Molev, A. I.

    1998-01-01

    Olshanski's centralizer construction provides a realization of the Yangian for the Lie algebra gl(n) as a subalgebra in the projective limit of a chain of centralizers in the universal enveloping algebras. We give a modified version of this construction based on a quantum analog of Sylvester's theorem. We then use it to get an algebra homomorphism from the Yangian to the transvector algebra associated with the general linear Lie algebras. The results are applied to identify the elementary rep...

  18. Novel Kac-Moody-type affine extensions of non-crystallographic Coxeter groups

    CERN Document Server

    Dechant, Pierre-Philippe; Twarock, Reidun

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent results in mathematical virology, we present novel asymmetric Z[tau]-integer-valued affine extensions of the non-crystallographic Coxeter groups H_2, H_3 and H_4 derived in a Kac-Moody-type formalism. In particular, we show that the affine reflection planes which extend the Coxeter group H_3 generate (twist) translations along 2-, 3- and 5-fold axes of icosahedral symmetry and classify these translations in terms of Fibonacci recursion relations, thus providing a framework to explain results of Keef et al and Wardman at the group level. Finally, we extend this classification to the case of the non-crystallographic Coxeter groups H_2 and H_4. These results should have applications in physics (quasicrystals), biology (viruses) and chemistry (fullerenes).

  19. Markovian nature, completeness, regularity and correlation properties of generalized Poisson-Kac processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giona, Massimiliano; Brasiello, Antonio; Crescitelli, Silvestro

    2017-02-01

    We analyze some basic issues associated with generalized Poisson–Kac (GPK) stochastic processes, starting from the extended notion of the Markovian condition. The extended Markovian nature of GPK processes is established, and the implications of this property derived: the associated adjoint formalism for GPK processes is developed essentially in an analogous way as for the Fokker–Planck operator associated with Langevin equations driven by Wiener processes. Subsequently, the regularity of trajectories is addressed: the occurrence of fractality in the realizations of GPK is a long-term emergent property, and its implication in thermodynamics is discussed. The concept of completeness in the stochastic description of GPK is also introduced. Finally, some observations on the role of correlation properties of noise sources and their influence on the dynamic properties of transport phenomena are addressed, using a Wiener model for comparison.

  20. Quantum cluster algebras and quantum nilpotent algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodearl, Kenneth R.; Yakimov, Milen T.

    2014-01-01

    A major direction in the theory of cluster algebras is to construct (quantum) cluster algebra structures on the (quantized) coordinate rings of various families of varieties arising in Lie theory. We prove that all algebras in a very large axiomatically defined class of noncommutative algebras possess canonical quantum cluster algebra structures. Furthermore, they coincide with the corresponding upper quantum cluster algebras. We also establish analogs of these results for a large class of Poisson nilpotent algebras. Many important families of coordinate rings are subsumed in the class we are covering, which leads to a broad range of applications of the general results to the above-mentioned types of problems. As a consequence, we prove the Berenstein–Zelevinsky conjecture [Berenstein A, Zelevinsky A (2005) Adv Math 195:405–455] for the quantized coordinate rings of double Bruhat cells and construct quantum cluster algebra structures on all quantum unipotent groups, extending the theorem of Geiß et al. [Geiß C, et al. (2013) Selecta Math 19:337–397] for the case of symmetric Kac–Moody groups. Moreover, we prove that the upper cluster algebras of Berenstein et al. [Berenstein A, et al. (2005) Duke Math J 126:1–52] associated with double Bruhat cells coincide with the corresponding cluster algebras. PMID:24982197

  1. Piecewise-Koszul algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-feng; Lü

    2007-01-01

    [1]Priddy S.Koszul resolutions.Trans Amer Math Soc,152:39-60 (1970)[2]Beilinson A,Ginszburg V,Soergel W.Koszul duality patterns in representation theory.J Amer Math Soc,9:473-525 (1996)[3]Aquino R M,Green E L.On modules with linear presentations over Koszul algebras.Comm Algebra,33:19-36 (2005)[4]Green E L,Martinez-Villa R.Koszul and Yoneda algebras.Representation theory of algebras (Cocoyoc,1994).In:CMS Conference Proceedings,Vol 18.Providence,RI:American Mathematical Society,1996,247-297[5]Berger R.Koszulity for nonquadratic algebras.J Algebra,239:705-734 (2001)[6]Green E L,Marcos E N,Martinez-Villa R,et al.D-Koszul algebras.J Pure Appl Algebra,193:141-162(2004)[7]He J W,Lu D M.Higher Koszul Algebras and A-infinity Algebras.J Algebra,293:335-362 (2005)[8]Green E L,Marcos E N.δ-Koszul algebras.Comm Algebra,33(6):1753-1764 (2005)[9]Keller B.Introduction to A-infinity algebras and modules.Homology Homotopy Appl,3:1-35 (2001)[10]Green E L,Martinez-Villa R,Reiten I,et al.On modules with linear presentations.J Algebra,205(2):578-604 (1998)[11]Keller B.A-infinity algebras in representation theory.Contribution to the Proceedings of ICRA Ⅸ.Beijing:Peking University Press,2000[12]Lu D M,Palmieri J H,Wu Q S,et al.A∞-algebras for ring theorists.Algebra Colloq,11:91-128 (2004)[13]Weibel C A.An Introduction to homological algebra.Cambridge Studies in Avanced Mathematics,Vol 38.Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1995

  2. The PBW Filtration, Demazure Modules and Toroidal Current Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Feigin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Let L be the basic (level one vacuum representation of the affine Kac-Moody Lie algebra ^g. The m-th space F_m of the PBW filtration on L is a linear span of vectors of the form x_1dots x_lv_0, where l ≤ m, x_i in ^g and v_0 is a highest weight vector of L. In this paper we give two descriptions of the associated graded space L^{gr} with respect to the PBW filtration. The ''top-down'' description deals with a structure of L^{gr} as a representation of the abelianized algebra of generating operators. We prove that the ideal of relations is generated by the coefficients of the squared field e_θ(z2, which corresponds to the longest root θ. The ''bottom-up'' description deals with the structure of L^{gr} as a representation of the current algebra g otimes C[t]. We prove that each quotient F_m/F_{m-1} can be filtered by graded deformations of the tensor products of m copies of g.

  3. Uniform Frechet algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Goldmann, H

    1990-01-01

    The first part of this monograph is an elementary introduction to the theory of Fréchet algebras. Important examples of Fréchet algebras, which are among those considered, are the algebra of all holomorphic functions on a (hemicompact) reduced complex space, and the algebra of all continuous functions on a suitable topological space.The problem of finding analytic structure in the spectrum of a Fréchet algebra is the subject of the second part of the book. In particular, the author pays attention to function algebraic characterizations of certain Stein algebras (= algebras of holomorphic functions on Stein spaces) within the class of Fréchet algebras.

  4. Deformed Virasoro Algebras from Elliptic Quantum Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, J.; Frappat, L.; Ragoucy, E.

    2017-09-01

    We revisit the construction of deformed Virasoro algebras from elliptic quantum algebras of vertex type, generalizing the bilinear trace procedure proposed in the 1990s. It allows us to make contact with the vertex operator techniques that were introduced separately at the same period. As a by-product, the method pinpoints two critical values of the central charge for which the center of the algebra is extended, as well as (in the gl(2) case) a Liouville formula.

  5. Algebraic theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Algebraic number theory introduces students not only to new algebraic notions but also to related concepts: groups, rings, fields, ideals, quotient rings and quotient fields, homomorphisms and isomorphisms, modules, and vector spaces. Author Pierre Samuel notes that students benefit from their studies of algebraic number theory by encountering many concepts fundamental to other branches of mathematics - algebraic geometry, in particular.This book assumes a knowledge of basic algebra but supplements its teachings with brief, clear explanations of integrality, algebraic extensions of fields, Gal

  6. Normed BCI-algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jia-yin

    2011-01-01

    The notions of norm and distance in BCI-algebras are introduced,and some basic properties in normed BCI-algebras are given.It is obtained that the isomorphic(homomorphic)image and inverse image of a normed BCI-algebra are still normed BCI-algebras.The relations of normaled properties between BCI-algebra and Cartesian product of BCIalgebras are investigated.The limit notion of sequence of points in normed BCI-algebras is introduced,and its related properties are investigated.

  7. Clifford Algebra with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Aragon-Camarasa, G; Aragon, J L; Rodriguez-Andrade, M A

    2008-01-01

    The Clifford algebra of a n-dimensional Euclidean vector space provides a general language comprising vectors, complex numbers, quaternions, Grassman algebra, Pauli and Dirac matrices. In this work, a package for Clifford algebra calculations for the computer algebra program Mathematica is introduced through a presentation of the main ideas of Clifford algebras and illustrative examples. This package can be a useful computational tool since allows the manipulation of all these mathematical objects. It also includes the possibility of visualize elements of a Clifford algebra in the 3-dimensional space.

  8. Lukasiewicz-Moisil algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Boicescu, V; Georgescu, G; Rudeanu, S

    1991-01-01

    The Lukasiewicz-Moisil algebras were created by Moisil as an algebraic counterpart for the many-valued logics of Lukasiewicz. The theory of LM-algebras has developed to a considerable extent both as an algebraic theory of intrinsic interest and in view of its applications to logic and switching theory.This book gives an overview of the theory, comprising both classical results and recent contributions, including those of the authors. N-valued and &THgr;-valued algebras are presented, as well as &THgr;-algebras with negation.Mathematicians interested in lattice theory or symbolic logic, and computer scientists, will find in this monograph stimulating material for further research.

  9. Linear associative algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Abian, Alexander

    1973-01-01

    Linear Associative Algebras focuses on finite dimensional linear associative algebras and the Wedderburn structure theorems.The publication first elaborates on semigroups and groups, rings and fields, direct sum and tensor product of rings, and polynomial and matrix rings. The text then ponders on vector spaces, including finite dimensional vector spaces and matrix representation of vectors. The book takes a look at linear associative algebras, as well as the idempotent and nilpotent elements of an algebra, ideals of an algebra, total matrix algebras and the canonical forms of matrices, matrix

  10. Cellularity of diagram algebras as twisted semigroup algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    The Temperley-Lieb and Brauer algebras and their cyclotomic analogues, as well as the partition algebra, are all examples of twisted semigroup algebras. We prove a general theorem about the cellularity of twisted semigroup algebras of regular semigroups. This theorem, which generalises a recent result of East about semigroup algebras of inverse semigroups, allows us to easily reproduce the cellularity of these algebras.

  11. Hom-alternative algebras and Hom-Jordan algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Makhlouf, Abdenacer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce Hom-alternative algebras and Hom-Jordan algebras. We discuss some of their properties and provide construction procedures using ordinary alternative algebras or Jordan algebras. Also, we show that a polarization of Hom-associative algebra leads to Hom-Jordan algebra.

  12. Families talen en algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Operaties op formele talen geven aanleiding tot bijbehorende operatoren op families talen. Bepaalde onderwerpen uit de algebra (universele algebra, tralies, partieel geordende monoiden) kunnen behulpzaam zijn in de studie van verzamelingen van dergelijke operatoren.

  13. Lie Algebra of Noncommutative Inhomogeneous Hopf Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Lagraa, M

    1997-01-01

    We construct the vector space dual to the space of right-invariant differential forms construct from a first order differential calculus on inhomogeneous quantum group. We show that this vector space is equipped with a structure of a Hopf algebra which closes on a noncommutative Lie algebra satisfying a Jacobi identity.

  14. Cylindric-like algebras and algebraic logic

    CERN Document Server

    Ferenczi, Miklós; Németi, István

    2013-01-01

    Algebraic logic is a subject in the interface between logic, algebra and geometry, it has strong connections with category theory and combinatorics. Tarski’s quest for finding structure in logic leads to cylindric-like algebras as studied in this book, they are among the main players in Tarskian algebraic logic. Cylindric algebra theory can be viewed in many ways:  as an algebraic form of definability theory, as a study of higher-dimensional relations, as an enrichment of Boolean Algebra theory, or, as logic in geometric form (“cylindric” in the name refers to geometric aspects). Cylindric-like algebras have a wide range of applications, in, e.g., natural language theory, data-base theory, stochastics, and even in relativity theory. The present volume, consisting of 18 survey papers, intends to give an overview of the main achievements and new research directions in the past 30 years, since the publication of the Henkin-Monk-Tarski monographs. It is dedicated to the memory of Leon Henkin.

  15. Categories and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, P

    2011-01-01

    L. Badescu: Sur certaines singularites des varietes algebriques.- D.A. Buchsbaum: Homological and commutative algebra.- S. Greco: Anelli Henseliani.- C. Lair: Morphismes et structures algebriques.- B.A. Mitchell: Introduction to category theory and homological algebra.- R. Rivet: Anneaux de series formelles et anneaux henseliens.- P. Salmon: Applicazioni della K-teoria all'algebra commutativa.- M. Tierney: Axiomatic sheaf theory: some constructions and applications.- C.B. Winters: An elementary lecture on algebraic spaces.

  16. Backward Stochastic Differential Equations and Feynman-Kac Formula for Multidimensional L\\'{e}vy Processes, with Applications in Finance

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show the existence and form uniqueness of a solution for multidimensional backward stochastic differential equations driven by a multidimensional L\\'{e}vy process with moments of all orders. The results are important from a pure mathematical point of view as well as in the world of finance: an application to Clark-Ocone and Feynman-Kac formulas for multidimensional L\\'{e}vy processes is presented. Moreover, the Feynman-Kac formula and the related partial differential integral equations provide an analogue of the famous Black-Scholes partial differential equation and thus can be used for the purpose of option pricing in a multidimensional L\\'{e}vy market.

  17. Algebraic statistics computational commutative algebra in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Pistone, Giovanni; Wynn, Henry P

    2000-01-01

    Written by pioneers in this exciting new field, Algebraic Statistics introduces the application of polynomial algebra to experimental design, discrete probability, and statistics. It begins with an introduction to Gröbner bases and a thorough description of their applications to experimental design. A special chapter covers the binary case with new application to coherent systems in reliability and two level factorial designs. The work paves the way, in the last two chapters, for the application of computer algebra to discrete probability and statistical modelling through the important concept of an algebraic statistical model.As the first book on the subject, Algebraic Statistics presents many opportunities for spin-off research and applications and should become a landmark work welcomed by both the statistical community and its relatives in mathematics and computer science.

  18. Connecting Arithmetic to Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darley, Joy W.; Leapard, Barbara B.

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic thinking is a top priority in mathematics classrooms today. Because elementary school teachers lay the groundwork to develop students' capacity to think algebraically, it is crucial for teachers to have a conceptual understanding of the connections between arithmetic and algebra and be confident in communicating these connections. Many…

  19. Arithmetic: Prerequisite to Algebra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Jack W.

    Drawing from research and observations at Lansing Community College (Michigan) (LCC), this paper argues that typical arithmetic courses do little to prepare students to master algebra, and proposes an alternative set of arithmetic skills as actual prerequisites to algebra. The first section offers a description of the algebra sequence at LCC,…

  20. Algebra of timed frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Fokkink, W.J.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Timed frames are introduced as objects that can form a basis of a model theory for discrete time process algebra. An algebraic setting for timed frames is proposed and results concerning its connection with discrete time process algebra are given. The presented theory of timed frames captures the ba

  1. Foundations of algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Weil, A

    1946-01-01

    This classic is one of the cornerstones of modern algebraic geometry. At the same time, it is entirely self-contained, assuming no knowledge whatsoever of algebraic geometry, and no knowledge of modern algebra beyond the simplest facts about abstract fields and their extensions, and the bare rudiments of the theory of ideals.

  2. Deficiently Extremal Gorenstein Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavinder Singh

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this article is to study the homological properties of deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebras. We prove that if / is an odd deficiently extremal Gorenstein algebra with pure minimal free resolution, then the codimension of / must be odd. As an application, the structure of pure minimal free resolution of a nearly extremal Gorenstein algebra is obtained.

  3. REAL PIECEWISE ALGEBRAIC VARIETY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-hong Wang; Yi-sheng Lai

    2003-01-01

    We give definitions of real piecewise algebraic variety and its dimension. By using the techniques of real radical ideal, P-radical ideal, affine Hilbert polynomial, Bernstein-net form of polynomials on simplex, and decomposition of semi-algebraic set, etc., we deal with the dimension of the real piecewise algebraic variety and real Nullstellensatz in Cμ spline ring.

  4. Equivariant Algebraic Cobordism

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Jeremiah

    2010-01-01

    We define equivariant algebraic cobordism for a connected linear algebraic group $G$ over a field of characteristic zero. The construction is based on Totaro's idea of using algebraic approximations for $BG$. We establish the analogous of the properties of an oriented cohomology theory, prove some of the expected properties from an equivariant theory, and make a few computations.

  5. Bases of Schur algebras associated to cellularly stratified diagram algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bowman, C

    2011-01-01

    We examine homomorphisms between induced modules for a certain class of cellularly stratified diagram algebras, including the BMW algebra, Temperley-Lieb algebra, Brauer algebra, and (quantum) walled Brauer algebra. We define the `permutation' modules for these algebras, these are one-sided ideals which allow us to study the diagrammatic Schur algebras of Hartmann, Henke, Koenig and Paget. We construct bases of these Schur algebras in terms of modified tableaux. On the way we prove that the (quantum) walled Brauer algebra and the Temperley-Lieb algebra are both cellularly stratified and therefore have well-defined Specht filtrations.

  6. The generalized Kac-Wakimoto conjecture and support varieties for the Lie superalgebra osp(m|2n)

    CERN Document Server

    Kujawa, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Atypicality is a fundamental combinatorial invariant for simple supermodules of a basic Lie superalgebra. Boe, Nakano, and the author gave a conjectural geometric interpretation of atypicality via support varieties. Inspired by low dimensional topology, Geer, Patureau-Mirand, and the author gave a generalization of the Kac-Wakimoto atypicality conjecture. We prove both of these conjectures for the Lie superalgebra osp(m|2n).

  7. Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dickenstein, Alicia; Sommese, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been a burgeoning of activity in the design and implementation of algorithms for algebraic geometric computation. Some of these algorithms were originally designed for abstract algebraic geometry, but now are of interest for use in applications and some of these algorithms were originally designed for applications, but now are of interest for use in abstract algebraic geometry. The workshop on Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry that was held in the framework of the IMA Annual Program Year in Applications of Algebraic Geometry by the Institute for Mathematics and Its

  8. Computer algebra and operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fateman, Richard; Grossman, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The symbolic computation of operator expansions is discussed. Some of the capabilities that prove useful when performing computer algebra computations involving operators are considered. These capabilities may be broadly divided into three areas: the algebraic manipulation of expressions from the algebra generated by operators; the algebraic manipulation of the actions of the operators upon other mathematical objects; and the development of appropriate normal forms and simplification algorithms for operators and their actions. Brief descriptions are given of the computer algebra computations that arise when working with various operators and their actions.

  9. Split Malcev Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antonio J Calderón Martín; Manuel Forero Piulestán; José M Sánchez Delgado

    2012-05-01

    We study the structure of split Malcev algebras of arbitrary dimension over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. We show that any such algebras is of the form $M=\\mathcal{U}+\\sum_jI_j$ with $\\mathcal{U}$ a subspace of the abelian Malcev subalgebra and any $I_j$ a well described ideal of satisfying $[I_j, I_k]=0$ if ≠ . Under certain conditions, the simplicity of is characterized and it is shown that is the direct sum of a semisimple split Lie algebra and a direct sum of simple non-Lie Malcev algebras.

  10. Lectures on algebraic statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Drton, Mathias; Sullivant, Seth

    2009-01-01

    How does an algebraic geometer studying secant varieties further the understanding of hypothesis tests in statistics? Why would a statistician working on factor analysis raise open problems about determinantal varieties? Connections of this type are at the heart of the new field of "algebraic statistics". In this field, mathematicians and statisticians come together to solve statistical inference problems using concepts from algebraic geometry as well as related computational and combinatorial techniques. The goal of these lectures is to introduce newcomers from the different camps to algebraic statistics. The introduction will be centered around the following three observations: many important statistical models correspond to algebraic or semi-algebraic sets of parameters; the geometry of these parameter spaces determines the behaviour of widely used statistical inference procedures; computational algebraic geometry can be used to study parameter spaces and other features of statistical models.

  11. On some properties of SU(3) Fusion Coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Coquereaux, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Three aspects of the SU(3) fusion coefficients are revisited: the generating polynomials of fusion coefficients are written explicitly; some curious identities generalizing the classical Freudenthal-de Vries formula are derived; and the properties of the fusion coefficients under conjugation of one of the factors, previously analysed in the classical case, are extended to the affine algebra of su(3) at finite level.

  12. The Boolean algebra and central Galois algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Szeto

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Let B be a Galois algebra with Galois group G, Jg={b∈B∣bx=g(xb   for all   x∈B} for g∈G, and BJg=Beg for a central idempotent eg. Then a relation is given between the set of elements in the Boolean algebra (Ba,≤ generated by {0,eg∣g∈G} and a set of subgroups of G, and a central Galois algebra Be with a Galois subgroup of G is characterized for an e∈Ba.

  13. On Derivations Of Genetic Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Qaralleh, Izzat

    2014-11-01

    A genetic algebra is a (possibly non-associative) algebra used to model inheritance in genetics. In application of genetics this algebra often has a basis corresponding to genetically different gametes, and the structure constant of the algebra encode the probabilities of producing offspring of various types. In this paper, we find the connection between the genetic algebras and evolution algebras. Moreover, we prove the existence of nontrivial derivations of genetic algebras in dimension two.

  14. Linear algebra meets Lie algebra: the Kostant-Wallach theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shomron, Noam; Parlett, Beresford N.

    2008-01-01

    In two languages, Linear Algebra and Lie Algebra, we describe the results of Kostant and Wallach on the fibre of matrices with prescribed eigenvalues of all leading principal submatrices. In addition, we present a brief introduction to basic notions in Algebraic Geometry, Integrable Systems, and Lie Algebra aimed at specialists in Linear Algebra.

  15. Linear algebra meets Lie algebra: the Kostant-Wallach theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shomron, Noam; Parlett, Beresford N.

    2008-01-01

    In two languages, Linear Algebra and Lie Algebra, we describe the results of Kostant and Wallach on the fibre of matrices with prescribed eigenvalues of all leading principal submatrices. In addition, we present a brief introduction to basic notions in Algebraic Geometry, Integrable Systems, and Lie Algebra aimed at specialists in Linear Algebra.

  16. The Hall Algebra of Cyclic Serial Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晋云

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, orders <1 and <2 on ((Z)+)nm are introduced and also regarded as orders on the isomorphism classes of finite modules of finite .cyclic algebra R with n simple modules and all the indecomposable projective modules have length m through a one-to-one correspondence between ((Z)+)nm and the isomorphism classes of finite R modules. Using this we prove that the Hall algebra of a cyclic serial algebra is identified with its Loewy subalgebra, and its rational extension has a basis of BPW type, and is a (((Z)+)nm, <2) filtered ring with the associated graded ring as an iterated skew polynomial ring. These results are also generalized to the Hall algebra of a tube over a finite field.

  17. Evolution algebras and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Jianjun Paul

    2008-01-01

    Behind genetics and Markov chains, there is an intrinsic algebraic structure. It is defined as a type of new algebra: as evolution algebra. This concept lies between algebras and dynamical systems. Algebraically, evolution algebras are non-associative Banach algebras; dynamically, they represent discrete dynamical systems. Evolution algebras have many connections with other mathematical fields including graph theory, group theory, stochastic processes, dynamical systems, knot theory, 3-manifolds, and the study of the Ihara-Selberg zeta function. In this volume the foundation of evolution algebra theory and applications in non-Mendelian genetics and Markov chains is developed, with pointers to some further research topics.

  18. Finite-dimensional (*)-serial algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Let A be a finite-dimensional associative algebra with identity over a field k. In this paper we introduce the concept of (*)-serial algebras which is a generalization of serial algebras. We investigate the properties of (*)-serial algebras, and we obtain suficient and necessary conditions for an associative algebra to be (*)-serial.

  19. On the Toroidal Leibniz Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong LIU; Lei LIN

    2008-01-01

    Toroidal Leibniz algebras are the universal central extensions of the iterated loop algebras gOC[t±11 ,...,t±v1] in the category of Leibniz algebras. In this paper, some properties and representations of toroidal Leibniz algebras are studied. Some general theories of central extensions of Leibniz algebras are also obtained.

  20. On hyper BCC-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Borzooei

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We study hyper BCC-algebras which are a common generalization of BCC-algebras and hyper BCK-algebras. In particular, we investigate different types of hyper BCC-ideals and describe the relationship among them. Next, we calculate all nonisomorphic 22 hyper BCC-algebras of order 3 of which only three are not hyper BCK-algebras.

  1. On hyper BCC-algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Borzooei, R. A.; Dudek, W. A.; Koohestani, N.

    2006-01-01

    We study hyper BCC-algebras which are a common generalization of BCC-algebras and hyper BCK-algebras. In particular, we investigate different types of hyper BCC-ideals and describe the relationship among them. Next, we calculate all nonisomorphic 22 hyper BCC-algebras of order 3 of which only three are not hyper BCK-algebras.

  2. Relative Homological Algebra Volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    This is the second revised edition of an introduction to contemporary relative homological algebra. It supplies important material essential to understand topics in algebra, algebraic geometry and algebraic topology. Each section comes with exercises providing practice problems for students as well as additional important results for specialists. The book is also suitable for an introductory course in commutative and ordinary homological algebra.

  3. Lie algebras and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iachello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This course-based primer provides an introduction to Lie algebras and some of their applications to the spectroscopy of molecules, atoms, nuclei and hadrons. In the first part, it concisely presents the basic concepts of Lie algebras, their representations and their invariants. The second part includes a description of how Lie algebras are used in practice in the treatment of bosonic and fermionic systems. Physical applications considered include rotations and vibrations of molecules (vibron model), collective modes in nuclei (interacting boson model), the atomic shell model, the nuclear shell model, and the quark model of hadrons. One of the key concepts in the application of Lie algebraic methods in physics, that of spectrum generating algebras and their associated dynamic symmetries, is also discussed. The book highlights a number of examples that help to illustrate the abstract algebraic definitions and includes a summary of many formulas of practical interest, such as the eigenvalues of Casimir operators...

  4. Developable algebraic surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dongren; WANG Guojin

    2004-01-01

    An algebraic surface can be defined by an implicit polynomial equation F(x,y,z)=0. In this paper, general characterizations of developable algebraic surfaces of arbitrary degree are presented. Using the shift operators of the subscripts of Bézier ordinates, the uniform apparent discriminants of developable algebraic surfaces to their Bézier ordinates are given directly. To degree 2 algebraic surfaces, which are widely used in computer aided geometric design and graphics, all possible developable surface types are obtained. For more conveniently applying algebraic surfaces of high degree to computer aided geometric design, the notion of ε-quasi-developable surfaces is introduced, and an example of using a quasi-developable algebraic surface of degree 3 to interpolate three curves of degree 2 is given.

  5. Algebra Automorphisms of Quantized Enveloping Algebras Uq(■)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查建国

    1994-01-01

    The algebra automorphisms of the quantized enveloping algebra Uq(g) are discussed, where q is generic. To some extent, all quantum deformations of automorphisms of the simple Lie algebra g have been determined.

  6. Cayley-Dickson and Clifford Algebras as Twisted Group Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, John W

    2011-01-01

    The effect of some properties of twisted groups on the associated algebras, particularly Cayley-Dickson and Clifford algebras. It is conjectured that the Hilbert space of square-summable sequences is a Cayley-Dickson algebra.

  7. Symmetric Extended Ockham Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.S. Blyth; Jie Fang

    2003-01-01

    The variety eO of extended Ockham algebras consists of those algealgebra with an additional endomorphism k such that the unary operations f and k commute. Here, we consider the cO-algebras which have a property of symmetry. We show that there are thirty two non-isomorphic subdirectly irreducible symmetric extended MS-algebras and give a complete description of them.2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 06D15, 06D30

  8. Lax operator algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Krichever, Igor M.; Sheinman, Oleg K.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we develop a general concept of Lax operators on algebraic curves introduced in [1]. We observe that the space of Lax operators is closed with respect to their usual multiplication as matrix-valued functions. We construct the orthogonal and symplectic analogs of Lax operators, prove that they constitute almost graded Lie algebras and construct local central extensions of those Lie algebras.

  9. Prediction of Algebraic Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretzky, Paula; King, Kristina; Hill, Nicole; Keithley, Kimberlee; Barlow, Nathaniel; Weinstein, Steven; Cromer, Michael

    2016-11-01

    A widely unexplored type of hydrodynamic instability is examined - large-time algebraic growth. Such growth occurs on the threshold of (exponentially) neutral stability. A new methodology is provided for predicting the algebraic growth rate of an initial disturbance, when applied to the governing differential equation (or dispersion relation) describing wave propagation in dispersive media. Several types of algebraic instabilities are explored in the context of both linear and nonlinear waves.

  10. Structure of algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, A A

    1939-01-01

    The first three chapters of this work contain an exposition of the Wedderburn structure theorems. Chapter IV contains the theory of the commutator subalgebra of a simple subalgebra of a normal simple algebra, the study of automorphisms of a simple algebra, splitting fields, and the index reduction factor theory. The fifth chapter contains the foundation of the theory of crossed products and of their special case, cyclic algebras. The theory of exponents is derived there as well as the consequent factorization of normal division algebras into direct factors of prime-power degree. Chapter VI con

  11. Lectures in general algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosh, A G; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Lectures in General Algebra is a translation from the Russian and is based on lectures on specialized courses in general algebra at Moscow University. The book starts with the basics of algebra. The text briefly describes the theory of sets, binary relations, equivalence relations, partial ordering, minimum condition, and theorems equivalent to the axiom of choice. The text gives the definition of binary algebraic operation and the concepts of groups, groupoids, and semigroups. The book examines the parallelism between the theory of groups and the theory of rings; such examinations show the

  12. Cohomology of Effect Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Roumen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We will define two ways to assign cohomology groups to effect algebras, which occur in the algebraic study of quantum logic. The first way is based on Connes' cyclic cohomology. The resulting cohomology groups are related to the state space of the effect algebra, and can be computed using variations on the Kunneth and Mayer-Vietoris sequences. The second way involves a chain complex of ordered abelian groups, and gives rise to a cohomological characterization of state extensions on effect algebras. This has applications to no-go theorems in quantum foundations, such as Bell's theorem.

  13. Algebraic extensions of fields

    CERN Document Server

    McCarthy, Paul J

    1991-01-01

    ""...clear, unsophisticated and direct..."" - MathThis textbook is intended to prepare graduate students for the further study of fields, especially algebraic number theory and class field theory. It presumes some familiarity with topology and a solid background in abstract algebra. Chapter 1 contains the basic results concerning algebraic extensions. In addition to separable and inseparable extensions and normal extensions, there are sections on finite fields, algebraically closed fields, primitive elements, and norms and traces. Chapter 2 is devoted to Galois theory. Besides the fundamenta

  14. On coalgebras over algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Balan, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    We extend Barr's well-known characterization of the final coalgebra of a $Set$-endofunctor as the completion of its initial algebra to the Eilenberg-Moore category of algebras for a $Set$-monad $\\mathbf{M}$ for functors arising as liftings. As an application we introduce the notion of commuting pair of endofunctors with respect to the monad $\\mathbf{M}$ and show that under reasonable assumptions, the final coalgebra of one of the endofunctors involved can be obtained as the free algebra generated by the initial algebra of the other endofunctor.

  15. Fundamentals of Hopf algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Underwood, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    This text aims to provide graduate students with a self-contained introduction to topics that are at the forefront of modern algebra, namely, coalgebras, bialgebras, and Hopf algebras.  The last chapter (Chapter 4) discusses several applications of Hopf algebras, some of which are further developed in the author’s 2011 publication, An Introduction to Hopf Algebras.  The book may be used as the main text or as a supplementary text for a graduate algebra course.  Prerequisites for this text include standard material on groups, rings, modules, algebraic extension fields, finite fields, and linearly recursive sequences. The book consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 introduces algebras and coalgebras over a field K; Chapter 2 treats bialgebras; Chapter 3 discusses Hopf algebras and Chapter 4 consists of three applications of Hopf algebras. Each chapter begins with a short overview and ends with a collection of exercises which are designed to review and reinforce the material. Exercises range from straightforw...

  16. Boolean algebra essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Boolean Algebra includes set theory, sentential calculus, fundamental ideas of Boolean algebras, lattices, rings and Boolean algebras, the structure of a Boolean algebra, and Boolean

  17. Relations Between BZMVdM-Algebra and Other Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高淑萍; 邓方安; 刘三阳

    2003-01-01

    Some properties of BZMVdM-algebra are proved, and a new operator is introduced. It is shown that the substructure of BZMVdM-algebra can produce a quasi-lattice implication algebra. The relations between BZMVdM-algebra and other algebras are discussed in detail. A pseudo-distance function is defined in linear BZMVdM-algebra, and its properties are derived.

  18. Differential Hopf algebra structures on the universal enveloping algebra ofa Lie algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijligenberg, N.W. van den; Martini, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss a method to construct a De Rham complex (differential algebra) of Poincar'e-Birkhoff-Witt-type on the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra $g$. We determine the cases in which this gives rise to a differential Hopf algebra that naturally extends the Hopf algebra structure of $U(g

  19. Differential Hopf algebra structures on the universal enveloping algebra ofa Lie algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.W. van den Hijligenberg; R. Martini

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe discuss a method to construct a De Rham complex (differential algebra) of Poincar'e-Birkhoff-Witt-type on the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra $g$. We determine the cases in which this gives rise to a differential Hopf algebra that naturally extends the Hopf algebra

  20. Differential Hopf algebra structures on the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hijligenberg, N.W.; van den Hijligenberg, N.W.; Martini, Ruud

    1995-01-01

    We discuss a method to construct a De Rham complex (differential algebra) of Poincar'e-Birkhoff-Witt-type on the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra $g$. We determine the cases in which this gives rise to a differential Hopf algebra that naturally extends the Hopf algebra structure of

  1. The Virasoro vertex algebra and factorization algebras on Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian

    2017-08-01

    This paper focuses on the connection of holomorphic two-dimensional factorization algebras and vertex algebras which has been made precise in the forthcoming book of Costello-Gwilliam. We provide a construction of the Virasoro vertex algebra starting from a local Lie algebra on the complex plane. Moreover, we discuss an extension of this factorization algebra to a factorization algebra on the category of Riemann surfaces. The factorization homology of this factorization algebra is computed as the correlation functions. We provide an example of how the Virasoro factorization algebra implements conformal symmetry of the beta-gamma system using the method of effective BV quantization.

  2. Fields and Forms on -Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cătălin Ciupală

    2005-02-01

    In this paper we introduce non-commutative fields and forms on a new kind of non-commutative algebras: -algebras. We also define the Frölicher–Nijenhuis bracket in the non-commutative geometry on -algebras.

  3. Language Approaches to Beginning Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Jack W.

    1990-01-01

    Ideas which apply language concepts to the study of algebra are presented. Discussed are algebraic notation, vocabulary, vocalization, and written assignments. The careful use of algebraic language in mathematics classes is emphasized. (CW)

  4. Uniform Exponential Growth in Algebras /

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, Christopher Alan

    2013-01-01

    We consider uniform exponential growth in algebras. We give conditions for the uniform exponential growth of descending-filtered algebras and prove that an N-graded algebra has uniform exponential growth if it has exponential growth. We use this to prove that Golod- Shafarevich algebras and group algebras of Golod- Shafarevich groups have uniform exponential growth. We prove that the twisted Laurent extension of a free commutative polynomial algebra with respect to an endomorphism with some e...

  5. Status Report - Cane Fiberboard Properties And Degradation Rates For Storage Of The 9975 Shipping Package In KAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-22

    Thermal, mechanical and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard samples following accelerated aging for up to approximately 10 years. The aging environments have included elevated temperature < 250 ºF (the maximum allowed service temperature for fiberboard in 9975 packages) and elevated humidity. The results from this testing have been analyzed, and aging models fit to the data. Correlations relating several properties (thermal conductivity, energy absorption, weight, dimensions and density) to their rate of change in potential storage environments have been developed. Combined with an estimate of the actual conditions the fiberboard experiences in KAC, these models allow development of service life predictions.

  6. Status Report - Softwood Fiberboard Properties And Degradation Rates For Storage Of The 9975 Shipping Package In KAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-22

    Thermal, mechanical and physical properties have been measured on softwood fiberboard samples following accelerated aging for up to approximately 7 years. The aging environments have included elevated temperature < 250 ºF (the maximum allowed service temperature for fiberboard in 9975 packages) and elevated humidity. The results from this testing have been analyzed, and preliminary aging models fit to the data. Correlations relating several properties (thermal conductivity, energy absorption, weight, dimensions and density) to their rate of change in potential storage environments have been developed. Combined with acceptance criteria and an estimate of the actual conditions the fiberboard experiences in KAC, these models allow development of service life predictions.

  7. Automorphism groups of some algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK; Hong; Goo; LEE; Jeongsig; CHOI; Seul; Hee; NAM; Ki-Bong

    2009-01-01

    The automorphism groups of algebras are found in many papers. Using auto-invariance, we find the automorphism groups of the Laurent extension of the polynomial ring and the quantum n-plane (respectively, twisting polynomial ring) in this work. As an application of the results of this work, we can find the automorphism group of a twisting algebra. We define a generalized Weyl algebra and show that the generalized Weyl algebra is simple. We also find the automorphism group of a generalized Weyl algebra. We show that the generalized Weyl algebra Am,m+n is the universal enveloping algebra of the generalized Witt algebra W(m,m + n).

  8. Automorphism groups of some algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARK Hong Goo; LEE Jeongsig; CHOI Seul Hee; CHEN XueQing; NAM Ki-Bong

    2009-01-01

    The automorphism groups of algebras are found in many papers. Using auto-invariance, we find the automorphism groups of the Laurent extension of the polynomial ring and the quantum n-plane (respectively, twisting polynomial ring) in this work. As an application of the results of this work, we can find the automorphism group of a twisting algebra. We define a generalized Weyl algebra and show that the generalized Weyl algebra is simple. We also find the automorphism group of a generalized Weyl algebra. We show that the generalized Weyl algebra Am,m+n is the universal enveloping algebra of the generalized Witt algebra W(m, m+n).

  9. Ready, Set, Algebra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Alissa Beth

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Education (CDE) has long asserted that success Algebra I by Grade 8 is the goal for all California public school students. In fact, the state's accountability system penalizes schools that do not require all of their students to take the Algebra I end-of-course examination by Grade 8 (CDE, 2009). In this dissertation,…

  10. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  11. Derived equivalence of algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜先能

    1997-01-01

    The derived equivalence and stable equivalence of algebras RmA and RmB are studied It is proved, using the tilting complex, that RmA and RmB are derived-equivalent whenever algebras A and B are derived-equivalent

  12. Who Takes College Algebra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriott, Scott R.; Dunbar, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The common understanding within the mathematics community is that the role of the college algebra course is to prepare students for calculus. Though exceptions are emerging, the curriculum of most college algebra courses and the content of most textbooks on the market both reflect that assumption. This article calls that assumption into question…

  13. Linear-Algebra Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  14. Ready, Set, Algebra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Alissa Beth

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Education (CDE) has long asserted that success Algebra I by Grade 8 is the goal for all California public school students. In fact, the state's accountability system penalizes schools that do not require all of their students to take the Algebra I end-of-course examination by Grade 8 (CDE, 2009). In this dissertation,…

  15. Ready, Set, Algebra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Alissa Beth

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Education (CDE) has long asserted that success Algebra I by Grade 8 is the goal for all California public school students. In fact, the state's accountability system penalizes schools that do not require all of their students to take the Algebra I end-of-course examination by Grade 8 (CDE, 2009). In this…

  16. Coloured Hopf algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Quesne, C

    1997-01-01

    Quite recently, a ``coloured'' extension of the Yang-Baxter equation has appeared in the literature and various solutions of it have been proposed. In the present contribution, we introduce a generalization of Hopf algebras, to be referred to as coloured Hopf algebras, wherein the comultiplication, counit, and antipode maps are labelled by some colour parameters. The latter may take values in any finite, countably infinite, or uncountably infinite set. A straightforward extension of the quasitriangularity property involves a coloured universal ${\\cal R}$-matrix, satisfying the coloured Yang-Baxter equation. We show how coloured Hopf algebras can be constructed from standard ones by using an algebra isomorphism group, called colour group. Finally, we present two examples of coloured quantum universal enveloping algebras.

  17. Fundamentals of algebraic topology

    CERN Document Server

    Weintraub, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    This rapid and concise presentation of the essential ideas and results of algebraic topology follows the axiomatic foundations pioneered by Eilenberg and Steenrod. The approach of the book is pragmatic: while most proofs are given, those that are particularly long or technical are omitted, and results are stated in a form that emphasizes practical use over maximal generality. Moreover, to better reveal the logical structure of the subject, the separate roles of algebra and topology are illuminated. Assuming a background in point-set topology, Fundamentals of Algebraic Topology covers the canon of a first-year graduate course in algebraic topology: the fundamental group and covering spaces, homology and cohomology, CW complexes and manifolds, and a short introduction to homotopy theory. Readers wishing to deepen their knowledge of algebraic topology beyond the fundamentals are guided by a short but carefully annotated bibliography.

  18. Elements of mathematics algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Bourbaki, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    This is a softcover reprint of the English translation of 1990 of the revised and expanded version of Bourbaki's, Algèbre, Chapters 4 to 7 (1981). This completes Algebra, 1 to 3, by establishing the theories of commutative fields and modules over a principal ideal domain. Chapter 4 deals with polynomials, rational fractions and power series. A section on symmetric tensors and polynomial mappings between modules, and a final one on symmetric functions, have been added. Chapter 5 was entirely rewritten. After the basic theory of extensions (prime fields, algebraic, algebraically closed, radical extension), separable algebraic extensions are investigated, giving way to a section on Galois theory. Galois theory is in turn applied to finite fields and abelian extensions. The chapter then proceeds to the study of general non-algebraic extensions which cannot usually be found in textbooks: p-bases, transcendental extensions, separability criterions, regular extensions. Chapter 6 treats ordered groups and fields and...

  19. Introduction to noncommutative algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Brešar, Matej

    2014-01-01

    Providing an elementary introduction to noncommutative rings and algebras, this textbook begins with the classical theory of finite dimensional algebras. Only after this, modules, vector spaces over division rings, and tensor products are introduced and studied. This is followed by Jacobson's structure theory of rings. The final chapters treat free algebras, polynomial identities, and rings of quotients. Many of the results are not presented in their full generality. Rather, the emphasis is on clarity of exposition and simplicity of the proofs, with several being different from those in other texts on the subject. Prerequisites are kept to a minimum, and new concepts are introduced gradually and are carefully motivated. Introduction to Noncommutative Algebra is therefore accessible to a wide mathematical audience. It is, however, primarily intended for beginning graduate and advanced undergraduate students encountering noncommutative algebra for the first time.

  20. Two-point spin-1/2-spin-1/2 sl(2,bfC) conformal Kac-Moody blocks on the torus and their monodromies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyrnakis, J.M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Mathematics

    1995-10-02

    Two issues of the SU(2) Wess-Zumino-Witten model are examined here, namely the computation of the untwisted conformal Kac-Moody blocks on the torus and their monodromy representations. Using the free field representation developed by Bernard and Felder, an integral representation of the twisted two point spin-1/2-spin-1/2 conformal Kac-Moody blocks on the torus is computed. From this, an integral representation of the untwisted blocks is computed after careful removal of infinities. Finally, the untwisted blocks are used to get a representation of the Braid Group on the torus on two strings, in terms of quantum group q-numbers. (orig.).

  1. Interval algebra: an effective means of scheduling surveillance radar networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, RW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval Algebra provides an effective means to schedule surveillance radar networks, as it is a temporal ordering constraint language. Thus it provides a solution to a part of resource management, which is included in the revised Data Fusion...

  2. The Planar Algebra of a Semisimple and Cosemisimple Hopf Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijay Kodiyalam; V S Sunder

    2006-11-01

    To a semisimple and cosemisimple Hopf algebra over an algebraically closed field, we associate a planar algebra defined by generators and relations and show that it is a connected, irreducible, spherical, non-degenerate planar algebra with non-zero modulus and of depth two. This association is shown to yield a bijection between (the isomorphism classes, on both sides, of) such objects.

  3. Graded Lie Algebra Generating of Parastatistical Algebraic Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Si-Cong; YANG Wei-Min; LI Ping

    2001-01-01

    A new kind of graded Lie algebra (We call it Z2,2 graded Lie algebra) is introduced as a framework for formulating parasupersymmetric theories. By choosing suitable Bose subspace of the Z2,2 graded Lie algebra and using relevant generalized Jacobi identities, we generate the whole algebraic structure of parastatistics.

  4. Algebraic and analytic Dirac induction for graded affine Hecke algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciubotaru, D.; Opdam, E.M.; Trapa, P.E.

    2014-01-01

    We define the algebraic Dirac induction map IndD for graded affine Hecke algebras. The map IndD is a Hecke algebra analog of the explicit realization of the Baum-Connes assembly map in the K-theory of the reduced C∗-algebra of a real reductive group using Dirac operators. The definition of IndD is

  5. An introduction to algebraic geometry and algebraic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Geck, Meinolf

    2003-01-01

    An accessible text introducing algebraic geometries and algebraic groups at advanced undergraduate and early graduate level, this book develops the language of algebraic geometry from scratch and uses it to set up the theory of affine algebraic groups from first principles.Building on the background material from algebraic geometry and algebraic groups, the text provides an introduction to more advanced and specialised material. An example is the representation theory of finite groups of Lie type.The text covers the conjugacy of Borel subgroups and maximal tori, the theory of algebraic groups

  6. Leibniz algebras associated with representations of filiform Lie algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayupov, Sh. A.; Camacho, L. M.; Khudoyberdiyev, A. Kh.; Omirov, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we investigate Leibniz algebras whose quotient Lie algebra is a naturally graded filiform Lie algebra nn,1. We introduce a Fock module for the algebra nn,1 and provide classification of Leibniz algebras L whose corresponding Lie algebra L / I is the algebra nn,1 with condition that the ideal I is a Fock nn,1-module, where I is the ideal generated by squares of elements from L. We also consider Leibniz algebras with corresponding Lie algebra nn,1 and such that the action I ×nn,1 → I gives rise to a minimal faithful representation of nn,1. The classification up to isomorphism of such Leibniz algebras is given for the case of n = 4.

  7. Linear algebraic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Springer, T A

    1998-01-01

    "[The first] ten chapters...are an efficient, accessible, and self-contained introduction to affine algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. The author includes exercises and the book is certainly usable by graduate students as a text or for self-study...the author [has a] student-friendly style… [The following] seven chapters... would also be a good introduction to rationality issues for algebraic groups. A number of results from the literature…appear for the first time in a text." –Mathematical Reviews (Review of the Second Edition) "This book is a completely new version of the first edition. The aim of the old book was to present the theory of linear algebraic groups over an algebraically closed field. Reading that book, many people entered the research field of linear algebraic groups. The present book has a wider scope. Its aim is to treat the theory of linear algebraic groups over arbitrary fields. Again, the author keeps the treatment of prerequisites self-contained. The material of t...

  8. On Linear Algebra Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan AYDIN

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Linear algebra is a basic course followed in mathematics, science, and engineering university departments.Generally, this course is taken in either the first or second year but there have been difficulties in teachingand learning. This type of active algebra has resulted in an increase in research by mathematics educationresearchers. But there is insufficient information on this subject in Turkish and therefore it has not beengiven any educational status. This paper aims to give a general overview of this subject in teaching andlearning. These education studies can be considered quadruple: a the history of linear algebra, b formalismobstacles of linear algebra and cognitive flexibility to improve teaching and learning, c the relation betweenlinear algebra and geometry, d using technology in the teaching and learning linear algebra.Mathematicseducation researchers cannot provide an absolute solution to overcome the teaching and learning difficultiesof linear algebra. Epistemological analyses and experimental teaching have shown the learning difficulties.Given these results, further advice and assistance can be offered locally.

  9. On Genetic and Evolution Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaralleh, Izzat

    2017-03-01

    The genetic and evolution algebras generally are non-associative algebra. The concept of evolution and genetic algebras were introduced to answer the question what non-Mendelian genetics offers to mathematics. This paper we review some results of evolution and genetic algebras.

  10. Classification of Noncommutative Domain Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Noncommutative domain algebras are noncommutative analogues of the algebras of holomorphic functions on domains of $\\C^n$ defined by holomorphic polynomials, and they generalize the noncommutative Hardy algebras. We present here a complete classification of these algebras based upon techniques inspired by multivariate complex analysis, and more specifically the classification of domains in hermitian spaces up to biholomorphic equivalence.

  11. Network algebra for synchronous dataflow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.; Ștefánescu, G.

    2013-01-01

    We develop an algebraic theory of synchronous dataflow networks. First, a basic algebraic theory of networks, called BNA (Basic Network Algebra), is introduced. This theory captures the basic algebraic properties of networks. For synchronous dataflow networks, it is subsequently extended with

  12. On dibaric and evolution algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ladra, M; Rozikov, U A

    2011-01-01

    We find conditions on ideals of an algebra under which the algebra is dibaric. Dibaric algebras have not non-zero homomorphisms to the set of the real numbers. We introduce a concept of bq-homomorphism (which is given by two linear maps $f, g$ of the algebra to the set of the real numbers) and show that an algebra is dibaric if and only if it admits a non-zero bq-homomorphism. Using the pair $(f,g)$ we define conservative algebras and establish criteria for a dibaric algebra to be conservative. Moreover, the notions of a Bernstein algebra and an algebra induced by a linear operator are introduced and relations between these algebras are studied. For dibaric algebras we describe a dibaric algebra homomorphism and study their properties by bq-homomorphisms of the dibaric algebras. We apply the results to the (dibaric) evolution algebra of a bisexual population. For this dibaric algebra we describe all possible bq-homomorphisms and find conditions under which the algebra of a bisexual population is induced by a ...

  13. Process algebra for Hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by extending a combination of the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg [Process Algebra with Timing, Springer, Chap. 4, 2002] and the process algebra with propositional signals from Baeten and Bergstra [Theoretical Computer

  14. Process algebra for hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by extending a combination of the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg (Process Algebra with Timing, Springer,Berlin, 2002, Chapter 4), and the process algebra with propositional signals from Baeten and Bergstra(Theoret. Com

  15. Brauer algebras of type B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.M.; Liu, S.

    2015-01-01

    For each n ≥ 1, we define an algebra having many properties that one might expect to hold for a Brauer algebra of type Bn. It is defined by means of a presentation by generators and relations. We show that this algebra is a subalgebra of the Brauer algebra of type Dn+1 and point out a cellular struc

  16. Matrices and linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans

    1989-01-01

    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  17. Quantitative Algebraic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash; Plotkin, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantitative analogue of equational reasoning which we call quantitative algebra. We define an equality relation indexed by rationals: a =ε b which we think of as saying that “a is approximately equal to b up to an error of ε”. We have 4 interesting examples where we have a quantitative...... equational theory whose free algebras correspond to well known structures. In each case we have finitary and continuous versions. The four cases are: Hausdorff metrics from quantitive semilattices; pWasserstein metrics (hence also the Kantorovich metric) from barycentric algebras and also from pointed...

  18. Algebraic spaces and stacks

    CERN Document Server

    Olsson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of algebraic spaces and stacks intended for graduate students and researchers familiar with algebraic geometry at the level of a first-year graduate course. The first several chapters are devoted to background material including chapters on Grothendieck topologies, descent, and fibered categories. Following this, the theory of algebraic spaces and stacks is developed. The last three chapters discuss more advanced topics including the Keel-Mori theorem on the existence of coarse moduli spaces, gerbes and Brauer groups, and various moduli stacks of curv

  19. Bundles of Banach algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Kitchen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We study bundles of Banach algebras π:A→X, where each fiber Ax=π−1({x} is a Banach algebra and X is a compact Hausdorff space. In the case where all fibers are commutative, we investigate how the Gelfand representation of the section space algebra Γ(π relates to the Gelfand representation of the fibers. In the general case, we investigate how adjoining an identity to the bundle π:A→X relates to the standard adjunction of identities to the fibers.

  20. Symplectic algebraic dynamics algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the algebraic dynamics solution of ordinary differential equations andintegration of  ,the symplectic algebraic dynamics algorithm sn is designed,which preserves the local symplectic geometric structure of a Hamiltonian systemand possesses the same precision of the na ve algebraic dynamics algorithm n.Computer experiments for the 4th order algorithms are made for five test modelsand the numerical results are compared with the conventional symplectic geometric algorithm,indicating that sn has higher precision,the algorithm-inducedphase shift of the conventional symplectic geometric algorithm can be reduced,and the dynamical fidelity can be improved by one order of magnitude.

  1. Introduction to quantum Lie algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Delius, G W

    1996-01-01

    Quantum Lie algebras are generalizations of Lie algebras whose structure constants are power series in h. They are derived from the quantized enveloping algebras \\uqg. The quantum Lie bracket satisfies a generalization of antisymmetry. Representations of quantum Lie algebras are defined in terms of a generalized commutator. In this paper the recent general results about quantum Lie algebras are introduced with the help of the explicit example of (sl_2)_h.

  2. On isomorphisms of integral table algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Yun(樊恽); SUN; Daying(孙大英)

    2002-01-01

    For integral table algebras with integral table basis T, we can consider integral R-algebra RT over a subring R of the ring of the algebraic integers. It is proved that an R-algebra isomorphism between two integral table algebras must be an integral table algebra isomorphism if it is compatible with the so-called normalizings of the integral table algebras.

  3. Differential Hopf algebra structures on the Universal Enveloping Algebra of a Lie Algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hijligenberg, N.W.; van den Hijligenberg, N.; Martini, Ruud

    1995-01-01

    We discuss a method to construct a De Rham complex (differential algebra) of Poincaré–Birkhoff–Witt type on the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra g. We determine the cases in which this gives rise to a differential Hopf algebra that naturally extends the Hopf algebrastructure of U(g).

  4. Linear algebra done right

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    This best-selling textbook for a second course in linear algebra is aimed at undergrad math majors and graduate students. The novel approach taken here banishes determinants to the end of the book. The text focuses on the central goal of linear algebra: understanding the structure of linear operators on finite-dimensional vector spaces. The author has taken unusual care to motivate concepts and to simplify proofs. A variety of interesting exercises in each chapter helps students understand and manipulate the objects of linear algebra. The third edition contains major improvements and revisions throughout the book. More than 300 new exercises have been added since the previous edition. Many new examples have been added to illustrate the key ideas of linear algebra. New topics covered in the book include product spaces, quotient spaces, and dual spaces. Beautiful new formatting creates pages with an unusually pleasant appearance in both print and electronic versions. No prerequisites are assumed other than the ...

  5. Weyl n-Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markarian, Nikita

    2017-03-01

    We introduce Weyl n-algebras and show how their factorization complex may be used to define invariants of manifolds. In the appendix, we heuristically explain why these invariants must be perturbative Chern-Simons invariants.

  6. Introduction to algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    This Second Edition of a classic algebra text includes updated and comprehensive introductory chapters,. new material on axiom of Choice, p-groups and local rings, discussion of theory and applications, and over 300 exercises. It is an ideal introductory text for all Year 1 and 2 undergraduate students in mathematics. - ;Developed to meet the needs of modern students, this Second Edition of the classic algebra text by Peter Cameron covers all the abstract algebra an undergraduate student is likely to need. Starting with an introductory overview of numbers, sets and functions, matrices, polynomials, and modular arithmetic, the text then introduces the most important algebraic structures: groups, rings and fields, and their properties. This is followed by coverage of vector spaces and modules with. applications to abelian groups and canonical forms before returning to the construction of the number systems, including the existence of transcendental numbers. The final chapters take the reader further into the th...

  7. Parametrizing Algebraic Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmermeyer, Franz

    2011-01-01

    We present the technique of parametrization of plane algebraic curves from a number theorist's point of view and present Kapferer's simple and beautiful (but little known) proof that nonsingular curves of degree > 2 cannot be parametrized by rational functions.

  8. The Algebra of -relations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijay Kodiyalam; R Srinivasan; V S Sunder

    2000-08-01

    In this paper, we study a tower $\\{A^G_n(d):n≥ 1\\}$ of finite-dimensional algebras; here, represents an arbitrary finite group, denotes a complex parameter, and the algebra $A^G_n(d)$ has a basis indexed by `-stable equivalence relations' on a set where acts freely and has 2 orbits. We show that the algebra $A^G_n(d)$ is semi-simple for all but a finite set of values of , and determine the representation theory (or, equivalently, the decomposition into simple summands) of this algebra in the `generic case'. Finally we determine the Bratteli diagram of the tower $\\{A^G_n(d): n≥ 1\\}$ (in the generic case).

  9. 两类广义Feynman-Kac半群强连续性的探讨%Topics on Strong Continuity of Two Generalized Feynman-Kac Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁青

    2015-01-01

    研究两类广义Feynman-Kac半群的强连续性问题,这些半群是由一些特定的函数和狄氏过程产生的。得到了广义Feynman-Kac半群强连续,不强连续以及能量测度不在Kato类中的充分条件;构造了一个带跳狄氏型相应的广义Feynman-Kac半群强连续的实例。%In this paper the strongly continuous character of two classes of generalized Feynman-Kac semigroups is stud⁃ied. These semigroups are produced by some special functions and Dirichlet processes. We obtain the sufficient condition for some particular Feynman-Kac semigroups to be strongly continuous or not. We also obtain the sufficient condition for the energy measures of the functions which produce strongly continuous generalizd Feynman-Kac semigroups to be not in the Kato class. We construct a generalized Feynman-Kac semigroup related with a Dirichlet form with jump that is strongly con⁃tinuous.

  10. Counting the number of indecomposable representations and a q-analogue of the Weyl-Kac denominator identity of type _n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OBUL; Abdukadir

    2008-01-01

    By using Frobenius maps and F-stable representations,we count the number of isomor- phism classes of indecomposable representations with the fixed dimension vector of a species of type _n over a finite field,first,and then,as an application,give a q-analogue of the Weyl-Kac denominator identity of type _n.

  11. Elementary linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Andrilli, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Elementary Linear Algebra develops and explains in careful detail the computational techniques and fundamental theoretical results central to a first course in linear algebra. This highly acclaimed text focuses on developing the abstract thinking essential for further mathematical study. The authors give early, intensive attention to the skills necessary to make students comfortable with mathematical proofs. The text builds a gradual and smooth transition from computational results to general theory of abstract vector spaces. It also provides flexbile coverage of practical applications, expl

  12. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  13. Noncommutative algebra and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    De Concini, Corrado; Vavilov, Nikolai 0

    2005-01-01

    Finite Galois Stable Subgroups of Gln. Derived Categories for Nodal Rings and Projective Configurations. Crowns in Profinite Groups and Applications. The Galois Structure of Ambiguous Ideals in Cyclic Extensions of Degree 8. An Introduction to Noncommutative Deformations of Modules. Symmetric Functions, Noncommutative Symmetric Functions and Quasisymmetric Functions II. Quotient Grothendieck Representations. On the Strong Rigidity of Solvable Lie Algebras. The Role of Bergman in Invesigating Identities in Matrix Algebras with Symplectic Involution. The Triangular Structure of Ladder Functors.

  14. Beginning algebra a textworkbook

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1985-01-01

    Beginning Algebra: A Text/Workbook, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in algebra. The publication first elaborates on the basics, linear equations and inequalities, and graphing and linear systems. Discussions focus on solving linear systems by graphing, elimination method, graphing ordered pairs and straight lines, linear and compound inequalities, addition and subtraction of real numbers, and properties of real numbers. The text then examines exponents and polynomials, factoring, and rational expressions. Topics include multiplication and division

  15. Intermediate algebra a textworkbook

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra: A Text/Workbook, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in intermediate algebra. The publication first takes a look at basic properties and definitions, first-degree equations and inequalities, and exponents and polynomials. Discussions focus on properties of exponents, polynomials, sums, and differences, multiplication of polynomials, inequalities involving absolute value, word problems, first-degree inequalities, real numbers, opposites, reciprocals, and absolute value, and addition and subtraction of real numbers. The text then ex

  16. Generalized braided Hopf algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhong-jian; FANG Xiao-li

    2009-01-01

    The concept of (f, σ)-pair (B, H)is introduced, where B and H are Hopf algebras. A braided tensor category which is a tensor subcategory of the category HM of left H-comodules through an (f, σ)-pair is constructed. In particularly, a Yang-Baxter equation is got. A Hopf algebra is constructed as well in the Yetter-Drinfel'd category HHYD by twisting the multiplication of B.

  17. Summing Boolean Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Antonio AIZPURU; Antonio GUTI(E)RREZ-D(A)VILA

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we will study some families and subalgebras ( ) of ( )(N) that let us characterize the unconditional convergence of series through the weak convergence of subseries ∑i∈A xi, A ∈ ( ).As a consequence, we obtain a new version of the Orlicz-Pettis theorem, for Banach spaces. We also study some relationships between algebraic properties of Boolean algebras and topological properties of the corresponding Stone spaces.

  18. Introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, W Keith

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ". . . an expository masterpiece of the highest didactic value that has gained additional attractivity through the various improvements . . ."-Zentralblatt MATH The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Abstract Algebra continues to provide an accessible approach to the basic structures of abstract algebra: groups, rings, and fields. The book's unique presentation helps readers advance to abstract theory by presenting concrete examples of induction, number theory, integers modulo n, and permutations before the abstract structures are defined. Readers can immediately be

  19. The Boolean algebra of Galois algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianyong Xue

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Let B be a Galois algebra with Galois group G, Jg={b∈B|bx=g(xb for all x∈B} for each g∈G, and BJg=Beg for a central idempotent eg, Ba the Boolean algebra generated by {0,eg|g∈G}, e a nonzero element in Ba, and He={g∈G|eeg=e}. Then, a monomial e is characterized, and the Galois extension Be, generated by e with Galois group He, is investigated.

  20. Differential Hopf algebra structures on the universal enveloping algebra of a lie algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Hijligenberg, van den, N.W.; Martini, R.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss a method to construct a De Rham complex (differential algebra) of Poincar'e-Birkhoff-Witt-type on the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra $g$. We determine the cases in which this gives rise to a differential Hopf algebra that naturally extends the Hopf algebra structure of $U(g)$. The construction of such differential structures is interpreted in terms of colour Lie superalgebras.

  1. Topological ∗-algebras with *-enveloping Algebras II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S J Bhatt

    2001-02-01

    Universal *-algebras *() exist for certain topological ∗-algebras called algebras with a *-enveloping algebra. A Frechet ∗-algebra has a *-enveloping algebra if and only if every operator representation of maps into bounded operators. This is proved by showing that every unbounded operator representation , continuous in the uniform topology, of a topological ∗-algebra , which is an inverse limit of Banach ∗-algebras, is a direct sum of bounded operator representations, thereby factoring through the enveloping pro-* algebra () of . Given a *-dynamical system (, , ), any topological ∗-algebra containing (, ) as a dense ∗-subalgebra and contained in the crossed product *-algebra *(, , ) satisfies ()=*(, , ). If $G = \\mathbb{R}$, if is an -invariant dense Frechet ∗-subalgebra of such that () = , and if the action on is -tempered, smooth and by continuous ∗-automorphisms: then the smooth Schwartz crossed product $S(\\mathbb{R}, B, )$ satisfies $E(S(\\mathbb{R}, B, )) = C^*(\\mathbb{R}, A, )$. When is a Lie group, the ∞-elements ∞(), the analytic elements () as well as the entire analytic elements () carry natural topologies making them algebras with a *-enveloping algebra. Given a non-unital *-algebra , an inductive system of ideals is constructed satisfying $A = C^*-\\mathrm{ind} \\lim I_$; and the locally convex inductive limit $\\mathrm{ind}\\lim I_$ is an -convex algebra with the *-enveloping algebra and containing the Pedersen ideal of . Given generators with weakly Banach admissible relations , we construct universal topological ∗-algebra (, ) and show that it has a *-enveloping algebra if and only if (, ) is *-admissible.

  2. L-o cto-algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Hui-hui; Wang Zhi-chun

    2016-01-01

    L-octo-algebra with 8 operations as the Lie algebraic analogue of octo-algebra such that the sum of 8 operations is a Lie algebra is discussed. Any octo-algebra is an L-octo-algebra. The relationships among L-octo-algebras, L-quadri-algebras, L-dendriform algebras, pre-Lie algebras and Lie algebras are given. The close relationships between L-octo-algebras and some interesting structures like Rota-Baxter operators, classical Yang-Baxter equations and some bilinear forms satisfying certain conditions are given also.

  3. Universal Algebra Applied to Hom-Associative Algebras, and More

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Lars; Makhlouf, Abdenacer; Silvestrov, Sergei D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the universal algebra theory of hom-algebras. This kind of algebra involves a linear map which twists the usual identities. We focus on hom-associative algebras and hom-Lie algebras for which we review the main results. We discuss the envelopment problem, operads, and the Diamond Lemma; the usual tools have to be adapted to this new situation. Moreover we study Hilbert series for the hom-associative operad and free algebra, and describe them up to total...

  4. Axis Problem of Rough 3-Valued Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhua Dai; Weidong Chen; Yunhe Pan

    2006-01-01

    The collection of all the rough sets of an approximation space has been given several algebraic interpretations, including Stone algebras, regular double Stone algebras, semi-simple Nelson algebras, pre-rough algebras and 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras. A 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a Stone algebra, a regular double Stone algebra, a semi-simple Nelson algebra, a pre-rough algebra. Thus, we call the algebra constructed by the collection of rough sets of an approximation space a rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra. In this paper,the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, which are a special kind of 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebras, are studied. Whether the rough 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is a axled 3-valued Lukasiewicz algebra is examined.

  5. Hecke algebras with unequal parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Lusztig, G

    2003-01-01

    Hecke algebras arise in representation theory as endomorphism algebras of induced representations. One of the most important classes of Hecke algebras is related to representations of reductive algebraic groups over p-adic or finite fields. In 1979, in the simplest (equal parameter) case of such Hecke algebras, Kazhdan and Lusztig discovered a particular basis (the KL-basis) in a Hecke algebra, which is very important in studying relations between representation theory and geometry of the corresponding flag varieties. It turned out that the elements of the KL-basis also possess very interesting combinatorial properties. In the present book, the author extends the theory of the KL-basis to a more general class of Hecke algebras, the so-called algebras with unequal parameters. In particular, he formulates conjectures describing the properties of Hecke algebras with unequal parameters and presents examples verifying these conjectures in particular cases. Written in the author's precise style, the book gives rese...

  6. On the number of connected components of random algebraic hypersurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyodorov, Yan V.; Lerario, Antonio; Lundberg, Erik

    2015-09-01

    We study the expectation of the number of components b0(X) of a random algebraic hypersurface X defined by the zero set in projective space RPn of a random homogeneous polynomial f of degree d. Specifically, we consider invariant ensembles, that is Gaussian ensembles of polynomials that are invariant under an orthogonal change of variables. Fixing n, under some rescaling assumptions on the family of ensembles (as d → ∞), we prove that Eb0(X) has the same order of growth as [ Eb0(X ∩ RP1) ] n. This relates the average number of components of X to the classical problem of M. Kac (1943) on the number of zeros of the random univariate polynomial f|RP1. The proof requires an upper bound for Eb0(X), which we obtain by counting extrema using Random Matrix Theory methods from Fyodorov (2013), and it also requires a lower bound, which we obtain by a modification of the barrier method from Lerario and Lundberg (2015) and Nazarov and Sodin (2009). We also provide quantitative upper bounds on implied constants; for the real Fubini-Study model these estimates provide super-exponential decay (as n → ∞) of the leading coefficient (in d) of Eb0(X) .

  7. Stochastic foundations of undulatory transport phenomena: generalized Poisson-Kac processes—part II Irreversibility, norms and entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giona, Massimiliano; Brasiello, Antonio; Crescitelli, Silvestro

    2017-08-01

    In this second part, we analyze the dissipation properties of generalized Poisson-Kac (GPK) processes, considering the decay of suitable L 2-norms and the definition of entropy functions. In both cases, consistent energy dissipation and entropy functions depend on the whole system of primitive statistical variables, the partial probability density functions \\{ p_α({x}, t) \\}α=1N , while the corresponding energy dissipation and entropy functions based on the overall probability density p({x}, t) do not satisfy monotonicity requirements as a function of time. These results provide new insights on the theory of Markov operators associated with irreversible stochastic dynamics. Examples from chaotic advection (standard map coupled to stochastic GPK processes) illustrate this phenomenon. Some complementary physical issues are also addressed: the ergodicity breaking in the presence of attractive potentials, and the use of GPK perturbations to mollify stochastic field equations.

  8. Density-dependent analysis of nonequilibrium paths improves free energy estimates II. A Feynman-Kac formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, David D L; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan

    2011-01-21

    The nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems have paved the way for estimating equilibrium thermodynamic properties, such as free energy differences, using trajectories from driven nonequilibrium processes. While many statistical estimators may be derived from these identities, some are more efficient than others. It has recently been suggested that trajectories sampled using a particular time-dependent protocol for perturbing the Hamiltonian may be analyzed with another one. Choosing an analysis protocol based on the nonequilibrium density was empirically demonstrated to reduce the variance and bias of free energy estimates. Here, we present an alternate mathematical formalism for protocol postprocessing based on the Feynmac-Kac theorem. The estimator that results from this formalism is demonstrated on a few low-dimensional model systems. It is found to have reduced bias compared to both the standard form of Jarzynski's equality and the previous protocol postprocessing formalism.

  9. Goldstein-Kac telegraph processes with random speeds: Path probabilities, likelihoods, and reported Lévy flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Aaron; Liepe, Juliane; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-04-01

    The Goldstein-Kac telegraph process describes the one-dimensional motion of particles with constant speed undergoing random changes in direction. Despite its resemblance to numerous real-world phenomena, the singular nature of the resultant spatial distribution of each particle precludes the possibility of any a posteriori empirical validation of this random-walk model from data. Here we show that by simply allowing for random speeds, the ballistic terms are regularized and that the diffusion component can be well-approximated via the unscented transform. The result is a computationally efficient yet robust evaluation of the full particle path probabilities and, hence, the parameter likelihoods of this generalized telegraph process. We demonstrate how a population diffusing under such a model can lead to non-Gaussian asymptotic spatial distributions, thereby mimicking the behavior of an ensemble of Lévy walkers.

  10. On Affine Fusion and the Phase Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Walton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A brief review is given of the integrable realization of affine fusion discovered recently by Korff and Stroppel. They showed that the affine fusion of the su(n Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW conformal field theories appears in a simple integrable system known as the phase model. The Yang-Baxter equation leads to the construction of commuting operators as Schur polynomials, with noncommuting hopping operators as arguments. The algebraic Bethe ansatz diagonalizes them, revealing a connection to the modular S matrix and fusion of the su(n WZNW model. The noncommutative Schur polynomials play roles similar to those of the primary field operators in the corresponding WZNW model. In particular, their 3-point functions are the su(n fusion multiplicities. We show here how the new phase model realization of affine fusion makes obvious the existence of threshold levels, and how it accommodates higher-genus fusion.

  11. Simple algebras of Weyl type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Over a field F of arbitrary characteristic, we define the associative and the Lie algebras of Weyl type on the same vector space A[D]=A[D] from any pair of a commutative associative algebra A with an identity element and the polynomial algebra [D] of a commutative derivation subalgebra D of A. We prove that A[D], as a Lie algebra (modulo its center) or as an associative algebra, is simple if and only if A is D-simple and A[D] acts faithfully on A. Thus we obtain a lot of simple algebras.

  12. Simple Algebras of Invariant Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaorong Shen; J.D.H. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Comtrans algebras were introduced in as algebras with two trilinear operators, a commutator [x, y, z] and a translator , which satisfy certain identities. Previously known simple comtrans algebras arise from rectangular matrices, simple Lie algebras, spaces equipped with a bilinear form having trivial radical, spaces of hermitian operators over a field with a minimum polynomial x2+1. This paper is about generalizing the hermitian case to the so-called invariant case. The main result of this paper shows that the vector space of n-dimensional invariant operators furnishes some comtrans algebra structures, which are simple provided that certain Jordan and Lie algebras are simple.

  13. Algebra II workbook for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    To succeed in Algebra II, start practicing now Algebra II builds on your Algebra I skills to prepare you for trigonometry, calculus, and a of myriad STEM topics. Working through practice problems helps students better ingest and retain lesson content, creating a solid foundation to build on for future success. Algebra II Workbook For Dummies, 2nd Edition helps you learn Algebra II by doing Algebra II. Author and math professor Mary Jane Sterling walks you through the entire course, showing you how to approach and solve the problems you encounter in class. You'll begin by refreshing your Algebr

  14. C*-algebras by example

    CERN Document Server

    Davidson, Kenneth R

    1996-01-01

    The subject of C*-algebras received a dramatic revitalization in the 1970s by the introduction of topological methods through the work of Brown, Douglas, and Fillmore on extensions of C*-algebras and Elliott's use of K-theory to provide a useful classification of AF algebras. These results were the beginning of a marvelous new set of tools for analyzing concrete C*-algebras. This book is an introductory graduate level text which presents the basics of the subject through a detailed analysis of several important classes of C*-algebras. The development of operator algebras in the last twenty yea

  15. Interactions Between Representation Ttheory, Algebraic Topology and Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Pitsch, Wolfgang; Zarzuela, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This book includes 33 expanded abstracts of selected talks given at the two workshops "Homological Bonds Between Commutative Algebra and Representation Theory" and "Brave New Algebra: Opening Perspectives," and the conference "Opening Perspectives in Algebra, Representations, and Topology," held at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona between January and June 2015. These activities were part of the one-semester intensive research program "Interactions Between Representation Theory, Algebraic Topology and Commutative Algebra (IRTATCA)." Most of the abstracts present preliminary versions of not-yet published results and cover a large number of topics (including commutative and non commutative algebra, algebraic topology, singularity theory, triangulated categories, representation theory) overlapping with homological methods. This comprehensive book is a valuable resource for the community of researchers interested in homological algebra in a broad sense, and those curious to learn the latest dev...

  16. Quantum cluster algebra structures on quantum nilpotent algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Goodearl, K R

    2017-01-01

    All algebras in a very large, axiomatically defined class of quantum nilpotent algebras are proved to possess quantum cluster algebra structures under mild conditions. Furthermore, it is shown that these quantum cluster algebras always equal the corresponding upper quantum cluster algebras. Previous approaches to these problems for the construction of (quantum) cluster algebra structures on (quantized) coordinate rings arising in Lie theory were done on a case by case basis relying on the combinatorics of each concrete family. The results of the paper have a broad range of applications to these problems, including the construction of quantum cluster algebra structures on quantum unipotent groups and quantum double Bruhat cells (the Berenstein-Zelevinsky conjecture), and treat these problems from a unified perspective. All such applications also establish equality between the constructed quantum cluster algebras and their upper counterparts.

  17. Common and Distinct Components in Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilde, Age K.; Mage, Ingrid; Naes, Tormod;

    2016-01-01

    and understanding their relative merits. This paper provides a unifying framework for this subfield of data fusion by using rigorous arguments from linear algebra. The most frequently used methods for distinguishing common and distinct components are explained in this framework and some practical examples are given...

  18. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    suggesting that fusion partners may specifically select each other and that heterogeneity between the partners seems to play a role. Therefore, we set out to directly test the hypothesis that fusion factors have a heterogenic involvement at different stages of nuclearity. Therefore, we have analyzed...... on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through......Investigations addressing the molecular keys of osteoclast fusion are primarily based on end-point analyses. No matter if investigations are performed in vivo or in vitro the impact of a given factor is predominantly analyzed by counting the number of multi-nucleated cells, the number of nuclei per...

  19. Abstract Algebra for Algebra Teaching: Influencing School Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential for aspects of abstract algebra to be influential for the teaching of school algebra (and early algebra). Using national standards for analysis, four primary areas common in school mathematics--and their progression across elementary, middle, and secondary mathematics--where teaching may be transformed by…

  20. Algebraic orders on $K_{0}$ and approximately finite operator algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Power, S C

    1993-01-01

    This is a revised and corrected version of a preprint circulated in 1990 in which various non-self-adjoint limit algebras are classified. The principal invariant is the scaled $K_0$ group together with the algebraic order on the scale induced by partial isometries in the algebra.

  1. Approximate Preservers on Banach Algebras and C*-Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burgos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to give approximate versions of Hua’s theorem and other related results for Banach algebras and C*-algebras. We also study linear maps approximately preserving the conorm between unital C*-algebras.

  2. Abstract Algebra for Algebra Teaching: Influencing School Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential for aspects of abstract algebra to be influential for the teaching of school algebra (and early algebra). Using national standards for analysis, four primary areas common in school mathematics--and their progression across elementary, middle, and secondary mathematics--where teaching may be transformed by…

  3. On some properties of SU(3 fusion coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Coquereaux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Three aspects of the SU(3 fusion coefficients are revisited: the generating polynomials of fusion coefficients are written explicitly; some curious identities generalizing the classical Freudenthal–de Vries formula are derived; and the properties of the fusion coefficients under conjugation of one of the factors, previously analyzed in the classical case, are extended to the affine algebra suˆ(3 at finite level.

  4. Derived Algebraic Geometry II: Noncommutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Lurie, Jacob

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present an infinity-categorical version of the theory of monoidal categories. We show that the infinity category of spectra admits an essentially unique monoidal structure (such that the tensor product preserves colimits in each variable), and thereby recover the classical smash-product operation on spectra. We develop a general theory of algebras in a monoidal infinity category, which we use to (re)prove some basic results in the theory of associative ring spectra. We also develop an infinity-categorical theory of monads, and prove a version of the Barr-Beck theorem.

  5. Nearly projective Boolean algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Heindorf, Lutz; Shapiro, Leonid B

    1994-01-01

    The book is a fairly complete and up-to-date survey of projectivity and its generalizations in the class of Boolean algebras. Although algebra adds its own methods and questions, many of the results presented were first proved by topologists in the more general setting of (not necessarily zero-dimensional) compact spaces. An appendix demonstrates the application of advanced set-theoretic methods to the field. The intended readers are Boolean and universal algebraists. The book will also be useful for general topologists wanting to learn about kappa-metrizable spaces and related classes. The text is practically self-contained but assumes experience with the basic concepts and techniques of Boolean algebras.

  6. Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J

    2004-04-09

    Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.

  7. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Frazer

    2014-01-01

    The technical difficulties of algebraic number theory often make this subject appear difficult to beginners. This undergraduate textbook provides a welcome solution to these problems as it provides an approachable and thorough introduction to the topic. Algebraic Number Theory takes the reader from unique factorisation in the integers through to the modern-day number field sieve. The first few chapters consider the importance of arithmetic in fields larger than the rational numbers. Whilst some results generalise well, the unique factorisation of the integers in these more general number fields often fail. Algebraic number theory aims to overcome this problem. Most examples are taken from quadratic fields, for which calculations are easy to perform. The middle section considers more general theory and results for number fields, and the book concludes with some topics which are more likely to be suitable for advanced students, namely, the analytic class number formula and the number field sieve. This is the fi...

  8. Resonant algebras and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Durka, R

    2016-01-01

    We explore the $S$-expansion framework to analyze freedom in closing the multiplication tables for the abelian semigroups. Including possibility of the zero element in the resonant decomposition and relating the Lorentz generator with the semigroup identity element leads to the wide class of the expanded Lie algebras introducing interesting modifications to the gauge gravity theories. Among the results we find not only all the Maxwell algebras of type $\\mathfrak{B}_m$, $\\mathfrak{C}_m$, and recently introduced $\\mathfrak{D}_m$, but we also produce new examples. We discuss some prospects concerning further enlarging the algebras and provide all necessary constituents for constructing the gravity actions based on the obtained results.

  9. Basic linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Basic Linear Algebra is a text for first year students leading from concrete examples to abstract theorems, via tutorial-type exercises. More exercises (of the kind a student may expect in examination papers) are grouped at the end of each section. The book covers the most important basics of any first course on linear algebra, explaining the algebra of matrices with applications to analytic geometry, systems of linear equations, difference equations and complex numbers. Linear equations are treated via Hermite normal forms which provides a successful and concrete explanation of the notion of linear independence. Another important highlight is the connection between linear mappings and matrices leading to the change of basis theorem which opens the door to the notion of similarity. This new and revised edition features additional exercises and coverage of Cramer's rule (omitted from the first edition). However, it is the new, extra chapter on computer assistance that will be of particular interest to readers:...

  10. Problems in abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Wadsworth, A R

    2017-01-01

    This is a book of problems in abstract algebra for strong undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It can be used as a supplement to a course or for self-study. The book provides more variety and more challenging problems than are found in most algebra textbooks. It is intended for students wanting to enrich their learning of mathematics by tackling problems that take some thought and effort to solve. The book contains problems on groups (including the Sylow Theorems, solvable groups, presentation of groups by generators and relations, and structure and duality for finite abelian groups); rings (including basic ideal theory and factorization in integral domains and Gauss's Theorem); linear algebra (emphasizing linear transformations, including canonical forms); and fields (including Galois theory). Hints to many problems are also included.

  11. Complex algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kollár, János

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures presented at the third Regional Geometry Institute at Park City in 1993. The lectures provide an introduction to the subject, complex algebraic geometry, making the book suitable as a text for second- and third-year graduate students. The book deals with topics in algebraic geometry where one can reach the level of current research while starting with the basics. Topics covered include the theory of surfaces from the viewpoint of recent higher-dimensional developments, providing an excellent introduction to more advanced topics such as the minimal model program. Also included is an introduction to Hodge theory and intersection homology based on the simple topological ideas of Lefschetz and an overview of the recent interactions between algebraic geometry and theoretical physics, which involve mirror symmetry and string theory.

  12. Resonant algebras and gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durka, R.

    2017-04-01

    The S-expansion framework is analyzed in the context of a freedom in closing the multiplication tables for the abelian semigroups. Including the possibility of the zero element in the resonant decomposition, and associating the Lorentz generator with the semigroup identity element, leads to a wide class of the expanded Lie algebras introducing interesting modifications to the gauge gravity theories. Among the results, we find all the Maxwell algebras of type {{B}m} , {{C}m} , and the recently introduced {{D}m} . The additional new examples complete the resulting generalization of the bosonic enlargements for an arbitrary number of the Lorentz-like and translational-like generators. Some further prospects concerning enlarging the algebras are discussed, along with providing all the necessary constituents for constructing the gravity actions based on the obtained results.

  13. Algebraic totality, towards completeness

    CERN Document Server

    Tasson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Finiteness spaces constitute a categorical model of Linear Logic (LL) whose objects can be seen as linearly topologised spaces, (a class of topological vector spaces introduced by Lefschetz in 1942) and morphisms as continuous linear maps. First, we recall definitions of finiteness spaces and describe their basic properties deduced from the general theory of linearly topologised spaces. Then we give an interpretation of LL based on linear algebra. Second, thanks to separation properties, we can introduce an algebraic notion of totality candidate in the framework of linearly topologised spaces: a totality candidate is a closed affine subspace which does not contain 0. We show that finiteness spaces with totality candidates constitute a model of classical LL. Finally, we give a barycentric simply typed lambda-calculus, with booleans ${\\mathcal{B}}$ and a conditional operator, which can be interpreted in this model. We prove completeness at type ${\\mathcal{B}}^n\\to{\\mathcal{B}}$ for every n by an algebraic metho...

  14. Higher regulators, algebraic

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Spencer J

    2000-01-01

    This book is the long-awaited publication of the famous Irvine lectures. Delivered in 1978 at the University of California at Irvine, these lectures turned out to be an entry point to several intimately-connected new branches of arithmetic algebraic geometry, such as regulators and special values of L-functions of algebraic varieties, explicit formulas for them in terms of polylogarithms, the theory of algebraic cycles, and eventually the general theory of mixed motives which unifies and underlies all of the above (and much more). In the 20 years since, the importance of Bloch's lectures has not diminished. A lucky group of people working in the above areas had the good fortune to possess a copy of old typewritten notes of these lectures. Now everyone can have their own copy of this classic work.

  15. Algebra for Gifted Third Graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenson, Henry

    1987-01-01

    Elementary school children who are exposed to a concrete, hands-on experience in algebraic linear equations will more readily develop a positive mind-set and expectation for success in later formal, algebraic studies. (CB)

  16. Order Units in a *-Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil K Karn

    2003-02-01

    Order unit property of a positive element in a *-algebra is defined. It is proved that precisely projections satisfy this order theoretic property. This way, unital hereditary *-subalgebras of a *-algebra are characterized.

  17. Computer Program For Linear Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.

  18. Computer Program For Linear Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.

  19. Linear Mappings of Quaternion Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Kleyn, Aleks

    2011-01-01

    In the paper I considered linear and antilinear automorphisms of quaternion algebra. I proved the theorem that there is unique expansion of R-linear mapping of quaternion algebra relative to the given set of linear and antilinear automorphisms.

  20. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  1. Automorphism groups of pointed Hopf algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shilin

    2007-01-01

    The group of Hopf algebra automorphisms for a finite-dimensional semisimple cosemisimple Hopf algebra over a field k was considered by Radford and Waterhouse. In this paper, the groups of Hopf algebra automorphisms for two classes of pointed Hopf algebras are determined. Note that the Hopf algebras we consider are not semisimple Hopf algebras.

  2. Elementary algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kendig, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Designed to make learning introductory algebraic geometry as easy as possible, this text is intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students who have taken a one-year course in algebra and are familiar with complex analysis. This newly updated second edition enhances the original treatment's extensive use of concrete examples and exercises with numerous figures that have been specially redrawn in Adobe Illustrator. An introductory chapter that focuses on examples of curves is followed by a more rigorous and careful look at plane curves. Subsequent chapters explore commutative ring th

  3. Elementary matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hohn, Franz E

    2012-01-01

    This complete and coherent exposition, complemented by numerous illustrative examples, offers readers a text that can teach by itself. Fully rigorous in its treatment, it offers a mathematically sound sequencing of topics. The work starts with the most basic laws of matrix algebra and progresses to the sweep-out process for obtaining the complete solution of any given system of linear equations - homogeneous or nonhomogeneous - and the role of matrix algebra in the presentation of useful geometric ideas, techniques, and terminology.Other subjects include the complete treatment of the structur

  4. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  5. Handbook of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hogben, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    With a substantial amount of new material, the Handbook of Linear Algebra, Second Edition provides comprehensive coverage of linear algebra concepts, applications, and computational software packages in an easy-to-use format. It guides you from the very elementary aspects of the subject to the frontiers of current research. Along with revisions and updates throughout, the second edition of this bestseller includes 20 new chapters.New to the Second EditionSeparate chapters on Schur complements, additional types of canonical forms, tensors, matrix polynomials, matrix equations, special types of

  6. Algebraic Topology, Rational Homotopy

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This proceedings volume centers on new developments in rational homotopy and on their influence on algebra and algebraic topology. Most of the papers are original research papers dealing with rational homotopy and tame homotopy, cyclic homology, Moore conjectures on the exponents of the homotopy groups of a finite CW-c-complex and homology of loop spaces. Of particular interest for specialists are papers on construction of the minimal model in tame theory and computation of the Lusternik-Schnirelmann category by means articles on Moore conjectures, on tame homotopy and on the properties of Poincaré series of loop spaces.

  7. Division algebras and supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Baez, John C

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetry is deeply related to division algebras. Nonabelian Yang--Mills fields minimally coupled to massless spinors are supersymmetric if and only if the dimension of spacetime is 3, 4, 6 or 10. The same is true for the Green--Schwarz superstring. In both cases, supersymmetry relies on the vanishing of a certain trilinear expression involving a spinor field. The reason for this, in turn, is the existence of normed division algebras in dimensions 1, 2, 4 and 8: the real numbers, complex numbers, quaternions and octonions. Here we provide a self-contained account of how this works.

  8. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan

    2008-01-01

    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  9. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  10. Recollements of extension algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Qinghua(陈清华); LIN; Yanan(林亚南)

    2003-01-01

    Let A be a finite-dimensional algebra over arbitrary base field k. We prove: if the unbounded derived module category D-(Mod-A) admits symmetric recollement relative to unbounded derived module categories of two finite-dimensional k-algebras B and C:D-(Mod- B) ( ) D-(Mod- A) ( ) D-(Mod- C),then the unbounded derived module category D-(Mod - T(A)) admits symmetric recollement relative to the unbounded derived module categories of T(B) and T(C):D-(Mod - T(B)) ( ) D-(Mod - T(A)) ( ) D-(Mod - T(C)).

  11. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    2010-01-01

    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  12. Helmholtz algebraic solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J M; McDonald, G S [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Materials and Physics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Chamorro-Posada, P, E-mail: j.christian@salford.ac.u [Departamento de Teoria de la Senal y Comunicaciones e Ingenieria Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-02-26

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first exact analytical algebraic solitons of a generalized cubic-quintic Helmholtz equation. This class of governing equation plays a key role in photonics modelling, allowing a full description of the propagation and interaction of broad scalar beams. New conservation laws are presented, and the recovery of paraxial results is discussed in detail. The stability properties of the new solitons are investigated by combining semi-analytical methods and computer simulations. In particular, new general stability regimes are reported for algebraic bright solitons.

  13. Advanced linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Cooperstein, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Vector SpacesFieldsThe Space FnVector Spaces over an Arbitrary Field Subspaces of Vector SpacesSpan and IndependenceBases and Finite Dimensional Vector SpacesBases and Infinite Dimensional Vector SpacesCoordinate VectorsLinear TransformationsIntroduction to Linear TransformationsThe Range and Kernel of a Linear TransformationThe Correspondence and Isomorphism TheoremsMatrix of a Linear TransformationThe Algebra of L(V, W) and Mmn(F)Invertible Transformations and MatricesPolynomialsThe Algebra of PolynomialsRoots of PolynomialsTheory of a Single Linear OperatorInvariant Subspaces of an Operator

  14. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    Careful organization and clear, detailed proofs characterize this methodical, self-contained exposition of basic results of classical algebraic number theory from a relatively modem point of view. This volume presents most of the number-theoretic prerequisites for a study of either class field theory (as formulated by Artin and Tate) or the contemporary treatment of analytical questions (as found, for example, in Tate's thesis).Although concerned exclusively with algebraic number fields, this treatment features axiomatic formulations with a considerable range of applications. Modem abstract te

  15. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  16. Endomorphisms of graph algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Roberto; Hong, Jeong Hee; Szymanski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a systematic investigation of endomorphisms of graph C*-algebras C*(E), extending several known results on endomorphisms of the Cuntz algebras O_n. Most but not all of this study is focused on endomorphisms which permute the vertex projections and globally preserve the diagonal MASA D...... that the restriction to the diagonal MASA of an automorphism which globally preserves both D_E and the core AF-subalgebra eventually commutes with the corresponding one-sided shift. Secondly, we exhibit several properties of proper endomorphisms, investigate invertibility of localized endomorphisms both on C...

  17. Algebra & trigonometry super review

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Get all you need to know with Super Reviews! Each Super Review is packed with in-depth, student-friendly topic reviews that fully explain everything about the subject. The Algebra and Trigonometry Super Review includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, equations, linear equations and systems of linear equations, inequalities, relations and functions, quadratic equations, equations of higher order, ratios, proportions, and variations. Take the Super Review quizzes to see how much y

  18. Algebra & trigonometry I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry I includes sets and set operations, number systems and fundamental algebraic laws and operations, exponents and radicals, polynomials and rational expressions, eq

  19. Anyons and matrix product operator algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultinck, N.; Mariën, M.; Williamson, D. J.; Şahinoğlu, M. B.; Haegeman, J.; Verstraete, F.

    2017-03-01

    Quantum tensor network states and more particularly projected entangled-pair states provide a natural framework for representing ground states of gapped, topologically ordered systems. The defining feature of these representations is that topological order is a consequence of the symmetry of the underlying tensors in terms of matrix product operators. In this paper, we present a systematic study of those matrix product operators, and show how this relates entanglement properties of projected entangled-pair states to the formalism of fusion tensor categories. From the matrix product operators we construct a C∗-algebra and find that topological sectors can be identified with the central idempotents of this algebra. This allows us to construct projected entangled-pair states containing an arbitrary number of anyons. Properties such as topological spin, the S matrix, fusion and braiding relations can readily be extracted from the idempotents. As the matrix product operator symmetries are acting purely on the virtual level of the tensor network, the ensuing Wilson loops are not fattened when perturbing the system, and this opens up the possibility of simulating topological theories away from renormalization group fixed points. We illustrate the general formalism for the special cases of discrete gauge theories and string-net models.

  20. The theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Harry

    1998-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basics of algebraic number theory, this concise, well-written volume examines Gaussian primes; polynomials over a field; algebraic number fields; and algebraic integers and integral bases. After establishing a firm introductory foundation, the text explores the uses of arithmetic in algebraic number fields; the fundamental theorem of ideal theory and its consequences; ideal classes and class numbers; and the Fermat conjecture. 1975 edition. References. List of Symbols. Index.

  1. Derivations of generalized Weyl algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Yucai(苏育才)

    2003-01-01

    A class of the associative and Lie algebras A[D] = A × F[D] of Weyl type are studied, where Ais a commutative associative algebra with an identity element over a field F of characteristic zero, and F[D] isthe polynomial algebra of a finite dimensional commutative subalgebra of locally finite derivations of A suchthat A is D-simple. The derivations of these associative and Lie algebras are precisely determined.

  2. Algebraic Methods to Design Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0257 Algebraic Methods to Design Signals Krishnasany Arasu WRIGHT STATE UNIVERSITY Final Report 08/27/2015 DISTRIBUTION A...REPORT TYPE FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2012 - May 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ALGEBRAIC METHODS TO DESIGN SIGNALS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...to date on designing signals using algebraic and combinatorial methods. Mathematical tools from algebraic number theory, representation theory and

  3. Algebraic Structure of Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-22

    Scholar project report; no. 461 (2017) ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURE OF DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS by MIDN 1/C James P. Talisse United States Naval Academy Annapolis, MD...based on the structure of algebraic objects associated with it. In this project we study two algebraic objects, centralizers and topological full groups...group completely defines the system up to time reversal. We apply numerical estimates to draw conclusions about the algebraic properties of this group

  4. Optimal Algorithm for Algebraic Factoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支丽红

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents on optimized method for factoring multivariate polynomials over algebraic extension fields defined by an irreducible ascending set. The basic idea is to convert multivariate polynomials to univariate polynomials and algebraic extension fields to algebraic number fields by suitable integer substituteions.Then factorize the univariate polynomials over the algebraic number fields.Finally,construct mulativariate factors of the original polynomial by Hensel lemma and TRUEFACTOR test.Some examples with timing are included.

  5. Assessing Elementary Algebra with STACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns computer aided assessment (CAA) of mathematics in which a computer algebra system (CAS) is used to help assess students' responses to elementary algebra questions. Using a methodology of documentary analysis, we examine what is taught in elementary algebra. The STACK CAA system, http://www.stack.bham.ac.uk/, which uses the CAS…

  6. Perturbation semigroup of matrix algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, N.; Suijlekom, W.D. van

    2016-01-01

    In this article we analyze the structure of the semigroup of inner perturbations in noncommutative geometry. This perturbation semigroup is associated to a unital associative *-algebra and extends the group of unitary elements of this *-algebra. We compute the perturbation semigroup for all matrix algebras.

  7. An algebra of reversible computation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules, basic reversible processes algebra (BRPA), algebra of reversible communicating processes (ARCP), recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  8. Process Algebra and Markov Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Hermanns, H.; Brinksma, Hendrik; Hermanns, H.; Katoen, Joost P.

    This paper surveys and relates the basic concepts of process algebra and the modelling of continuous time Markov chains. It provides basic introductions to both fields, where we also study the Markov chains from an algebraic perspective, viz. that of Markov chain algebra. We then proceed to study

  9. An Algebra of Reversible Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Yong WANG

    2014-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules, basic reversible processes algebra (BRPA), algebra of reversible communicating processes (ARCP), recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  10. Denotational semantics for thread algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a denotational semantics for thread algebra (TA), an algebraic framework for the description and analysis of recent programming languages such as C# and Java [J.A. Bergstra, C.A. Middelburg, Thread algebra for strategic interleaving, Formal Aspects of Computing, in press.

  11. On Weak-BCC-Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomys, Janus; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2013-01-01

    We describe weak-BCC-algebras (also called BZ-algebras) in which the condition (x∗y)∗z = (x∗z)∗y is satisfied only in the case when elements x, y belong to the same branch. We also characterize ideals, nilradicals, and nilpotent elements of such algebras. PMID:24311983

  12. An algebra of reversible computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  13. Hochschild homology of structured algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Nathalie; Westerland, Craig Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We give a general method for constructing explicit and natural operations on the Hochschild complex of algebras over any prop with A∞-multiplication—we think of such algebras as A∞-algebras “with extra structure”. As applications, we obtain an integral version of the Costello–Kontsevich–Soibelman...

  14. Barcelona Conference on Algebraic Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellet, Manuel; Cohen, Frederick

    1992-01-01

    The papers in this collection, all fully refereed, original papers, reflect many aspects of recent significant advances in homotopy theory and group cohomology. From the Contents: A. Adem: On the geometry and cohomology of finite simple groups.- D.J. Benson: Resolutions and Poincar duality for finite groups.- C. Broto and S. Zarati: On sub-A*-algebras of H*V.- M.J. Hopkins, N.J. Kuhn, D.C. Ravenel: Morava K-theories of classifying spaces and generalized characters for finite groups.- K. Ishiguro: Classifying spaces of compact simple lie groups and p-tori.- A.T. Lundell: Concise tables of James numbers and some homotopyof classical Lie groups and associated homogeneous spaces.- J.R. Martino: Anexample of a stable splitting: the classifying space of the 4-dim unipotent group.- J.E. McClure, L. Smith: On the homotopy uniqueness of BU(2) at the prime 2.- G. Mislin: Cohomologically central elements and fusion in groups.

  15. The Maximal Graded Left Quotient Algebra of a Graded Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo ARANDA PINO; Mercedes SILES MOLINA

    2006-01-01

    We construct the maximal graded left quotient algebra of every graded algebra A without homogeneous total right zero divisors as the direct limit of graded homomorphisms (of left A-modules)from graded dense left ideals of A into a graded left quotient algebra of A. In the case of a superalgebra,and with some extra hypothesis, we prove that the component in the neutral element of the group of the maximal graded left quotient algebra coincides with the maximal left quotient algebra of the component in the neutral element of the group of the superalgebra.

  16. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  17. Observable Algebra in Field Algebra of G-spin Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋立宁

    2003-01-01

    Field algebra of G-spin models can provide the simplest examples of lattice field theory exhibiting quantum symmetry. Let D(G) be the double algebra of a finite group G and D(H), a sub-algebra of D(G) determined by subgroup H of G. This paper gives concrete generators and the structure of the observable algebra AH, which is a D(H)-invariant sub-algebra in the field algebra of G-spin models F, and shows that AH is a C*-algebra. The correspondence between H and AH is strictly monotonic. Finally, a duality between D(H) and AH is given via an irreducible vacuum C*-representation of F.

  18. On the simplicity of Lie algebras associated to Leavitt algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Gene

    2009-01-01

    For any field $K$ and integer $n\\geq 2$ we consider the Leavitt algebra $L = L_K(n)$. $L$ is an associative algebra, but we view $L$ as a Lie algebra using the bracket $[a,b]=ab-ba$ for $a,b \\in L$. We denote this Lie algebra as $L^-$, and consider its Lie subalgebra $[L^-,L^-]$. In our main result, we show that $[L^-,L^-]$ is a simple Lie algebra if and only if char$(K)$ divides $n-1$. For any positive integer $d$ we let $S = M_d(L_K(n))$ be the $d\\times d$ matrix algebra over $L_K(n)$. We give sufficient conditions for the simplicity and non-simplicity of the Lie algebra $[S^-,S^-]$.

  19. Commutative algebra with a view toward algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenbud, David

    1995-01-01

    Commutative Algebra is best understood with knowledge of the geometric ideas that have played a great role in its formation, in short, with a view towards algebraic geometry. The author presents a comprehensive view of commutative algebra, from basics, such as localization and primary decomposition, through dimension theory, differentials, homological methods, free resolutions and duality, emphasizing the origins of the ideas and their connections with other parts of mathematics. Many exercises illustrate and sharpen the theory and extended exercises give the reader an active part in complementing the material presented in the text. One novel feature is a chapter devoted to a quick but thorough treatment of Grobner basis theory and the constructive methods in commutative algebra and algebraic geometry that flow from it. Applications of the theory and even suggestions for computer algebra projects are included. This book will appeal to readers from beginners to advanced students of commutative algebra or algeb...

  20. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  1. Simple algebras of Weyl type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Yucai(

    2001-01-01

    [1] Kawamoto, N., Generalizations of Witt algebras over a field of characteristic zero, Hiroshima Math. J., 1986, 16: 417.[2] Osborn, J. M., New simple infinite-dimensional Lie algebras of characteristic 0, J. Alg., 1996, 185: 820.[3] Dokovic, D. Z., Zhao, K., Derivations, isomorphisms, and second cohomology of generalized Witt algebras, Trans. of Amer. Math. Soc., 1998, 350(2): 643.[4] Dokovic, D. Z., Zhao, K., Generalized Cartan type W Lie algebras in characteristic zero, J. Alg., 1997, 195: 170.[5] Osborn, J. M., Zhao, K., Generalized Poisson bracket and Lie algebras of type H in characteristic 0, Math. Z., 1999, 230: 107.[6] Osborn, J. M., Zhao, K., Generalized Cartan type K Lie algebras in characteristic 0, Comm. Alg., 1997, 25: 3325.[7] Zhao, K., Isomorphisms between generalized Cartan type W Lie algebras in characteristic zero, Canadian J. Math., 1998, 50: 210.[8] Passman, D. P., Simple Lie algebras of Witt type, J. Algebra, 1998, 206: 682.[9] Jordan, D. A., On the simplicity of Lie algebras of derivations of commutative algebras, J. Alg., 2000, 206: 682.[10] Xu, X., New generalized simple Lie algebras of Cartan type over a field with characteristic 0, J. Alg., 2000, 244: 23.[11] Su, Y., Xu, X., Zhang, H., Derivation-simple algebras and the structures of Lie algebras of generalized Witt type, J. Alg., 2000, 233: 642.[12] Dixmer, J., Enveloping Algebras, Amsterdam: North Holland, 1977.

  2. Algebraic Thinking through Origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, William; Colgan, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of paper folding to create a rich environment for discussing algebraic concepts. Explores the effect that changing the dimensions of two-dimensional objects has on the volume of related three-dimensional objects. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  3. Thinking Visually about Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Many introductions to algebra in high school begin with teaching students to generalise linear numerical patterns. This article argues that this approach needs to be changed so that students encounter variables in the context of modelling visual patterns so that the variables have a meaning. The article presents sample classroom activities,…

  4. Probabilistic thread algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    We add probabilistic features to basic thread algebra and its extensions with thread-service interaction and strategic interleaving. Here, threads represent the behaviours produced by instruction sequences under execution and services represent the behaviours exhibited by the components of execution

  5. Restructuring College Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Robert

    2004-01-01

    There is a call for change in College Algebra. The traditional focus on skill development is failing, resulting in withdrawal and failure rates that are excessive. In addition, too many students who are successful do not continue on to take a successive mathematics course. The Institute for Mathematics Learning at West Virginia University has been…

  6. Operation of Algebraic Fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The first step in factorizing algebraic expressions is to take out the common factors of all the terms of the expression.For example,2x~2+14x+24=2(x~2+7x+12)=2(x+3)(x+4) The three identities are also useful in factorizing some quadratic expressions:

  7. Lineaire algebra: deel 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pipekaru, T.

    1975-01-01

    Deze handleiding, geschreven in opdracht van het bestuur van de Afdeling der Algemene Wetenschappen van de T.H. te Delft, is bedoeld als collegedictaat Lineaire Algebra voor het eerste studiejaar van vrijwel alle technische afdelingen. Hopelijk wordt hiermee voorzien in een behoefte die is ontstaan

  8. Stochastic foundations of undulatory transport phenomena: generalized Poisson-Kac processes—part III extensions and applications to kinetic theory and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giona, Massimiliano; Brasiello, Antonio; Crescitelli, Silvestro

    2017-08-01

    This third part extends the theory of Generalized Poisson-Kac (GPK) processes to nonlinear stochastic models and to a continuum of states. Nonlinearity is treated in two ways: (i) as a dependence of the parameters (intensity of the stochastic velocity, transition rates) of the stochastic perturbation on the state variable, similarly to the case of nonlinear Langevin equations, and (ii) as the dependence of the stochastic microdynamic equations of motion on the statistical description of the process itself (nonlinear Fokker-Planck-Kac models). Several numerical and physical examples illustrate the theory. Gathering nonlinearity and a continuum of states, GPK theory provides a stochastic derivation of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation, furnishing a positive answer to the Kac’s program in kinetic theory. The transition from stochastic microdynamics to transport theory within the framework of the GPK paradigm is also addressed.

  9. Notes on Piecewise-Koszul Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Feng L(U); Xiao Lan YU

    2011-01-01

    The relationships between piecewise-Koszul algebras and other "Koszul-type" algebras are discussed.. The Yoneda-Ext algebra and the dual algebra of a piecewise-Koszul algebra are studied, and a sufficient condition for the dual algebra A to be piecewise-Koszul is given. Finally, by studying the trivial extension algebras of the path algebras of Dynkin quivers in bipartite orientation, we give explicit constructions for piecewise-Koszul algebras with arbitrary "period" and piecewise-Koszul algebras with arbitrary "jump-degree".

  10. On ultraproducts of operator algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Weihua

    2005-01-01

    Some basic questions on ultraproducts of C*-algebras and yon Neumann algebras, including the relation to K-theory of C*-algebras are considered. More specifically,we prove that under certain conditions, the K-groups of ultraproduct of C*-algebras are isomorphic to the ultraproduct of respective K-groups of C*-algebras. We also show that the ultraproducts of factors of type Ⅱ1 are prime, i.e. not isomorphic to any non-trivial tensor product.

  11. Ockham Algebras Arising from Monoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.S. Blyth; H.J. Silva; J.C. Varlet

    2001-01-01

    An Ockham algebra (L; f) is of boolean shape if its lattice reduct L is boolean and f is not the complementation. We investigate a natural construction of Ockham algebras of boolean shape from any given monoid. Of particular interest is the question of when such algebras are subdirectly irreducible. In settling this, we obtain what is probably the first example of a subdirectly irreducible Ockham algebra that does not belong to the generalized variety Kω. We also prove that every semigroup can be embedded in the monoid of endomorphisms of an Ockham algebra of boolean shape.

  12. Galois Connections for Flow Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipiuk, Piotr; Terepeta, Michal Tomasz; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We generalise Galois connections from complete lattices to flow algebras. Flow algebras are algebraic structures that are less restrictive than idempotent semirings in that they replace distributivity with monotonicity and dispense with the annihilation property; therefore they are closer...... to the approach taken by Monotone Frameworks and other classical analyses. We present a generic framework for static analysis based on flow algebras and program graphs. Program graphs are often used in Model Checking to model concurrent and distributed systems. The framework allows to induce new flow algebras...

  13. Quantum algebra of $N$ superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Hatcher, N; Stephany, J

    2006-01-01

    We identify the quantum algebra of position and momentum operators for a quantum system in superspace bearing an irreducible representation of the super Poinca\\'e algebra. This algebra is noncommutative for the position operators. We use the properties of superprojectors in D=4 $N$ superspace to construct explicit position and momentum operators satisfying the algebra. They act on wave functions corresponding to different supermultiplets classified by its superspin. We show that the quantum algebra associated to the massive superparticle is a particular case described by a supermultiplet of superspin 0. This result generalizes the construction for D=4, N=1 reported recently.

  14. Twisted derivations of Hopf algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Davydov, Alexei

    2012-01-01

    In the paper we introduce the notion of twisted derivation of a bialgebra. Twisted derivations appear as infinitesimal symmetries of the category of representations. More precisely they are infinitesimal versions of twisted automorphisms of bialgebras. Twisted derivations naturally form a Lie algebra (the tangent algebra of the group of twisted automorphisms). Moreover this Lie algebra fits into a crossed module (tangent to the crossed module of twisted automorphisms). Here we calculate this crossed module for universal enveloping algebras and for the Sweedler's Hopf algebra.

  15. $A\\mathcal{T}$-Algebras and Extensions of $AT$-Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hongliang Yao

    2010-04-01

    Lin and Su classified $A\\mathcal{T}$-algebras of real rank zero. This class includes all $A\\mathbb{T}$-algebras of real rank zero as well as many *-algebras which are not stably finite. An $A\\mathcal{T}$-algebra often becomes an extension of an $A\\mathbb{T}$-algebra by an -algebra. In this paper, we show that there is an essential extension of an $A\\mathbb{T}$-algebra by an -algebra which is not an $A\\mathcal{T}$-algebra. We describe a characterization of an extension of an $A\\mathbb{T}$-algebra by an -algebra if is an $A\\mathcal{T}$-algebra.

  16. Planar Para Algebras, Reflection Positivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Arthur; Liu, Zhengwei

    2017-05-01

    We define a planar para algebra, which arises naturally from combining planar algebras with the idea of ZN para symmetry in physics. A subfactor planar para algebra is a Hilbert space representation of planar tangles with parafermionic defects that are invariant under para isotopy. For each ZN, we construct a family of subfactor planar para algebras that play the role of Temperley-Lieb-Jones planar algebras. The first example in this family is the parafermion planar para algebra (PAPPA). Based on this example, we introduce parafermion Pauli matrices, quaternion relations, and braided relations for parafermion algebras, which one can use in the study of quantum information. An important ingredient in planar para algebra theory is the string Fourier transform (SFT), which we use on the matrix algebra generated by the Pauli matrices. Two different reflections play an important role in the theory of planar para algebras. One is the adjoint operator; the other is the modular conjugation in Tomita-Takesaki theory. We use the latter one to define the double algebra and to introduce reflection positivity. We give a new and geometric proof of reflection positivity by relating the two reflections through the string Fourier transform.

  17. Algebraic connectivity and graph robustness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Abdallah, Chaouki T. (University of New Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    Recent papers have used Fiedler's definition of algebraic connectivity to show that network robustness, as measured by node-connectivity and edge-connectivity, can be increased by increasing the algebraic connectivity of the network. By the definition of algebraic connectivity, the second smallest eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian is a lower bound on the node-connectivity. In this paper we show that for circular random lattice graphs and mesh graphs algebraic connectivity is a conservative lower bound, and that increases in algebraic connectivity actually correspond to a decrease in node-connectivity. This means that the networks are actually less robust with respect to node-connectivity as the algebraic connectivity increases. However, an increase in algebraic connectivity seems to correlate well with a decrease in the characteristic path length of these networks - which would result in quicker communication through the network. Applications of these results are then discussed for perimeter security.

  18. Constructive version of Boolean algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Ciraulo, Francesco; Toto, Paola

    2012-01-01

    The notion of overlap algebra introduced by G. Sambin provides a constructive version of complete Boolean algebra. Here we first show some properties concerning overlap algebras: we prove that the notion of overlap morphism corresponds classically to that of map preserving arbitrary joins; we provide a description of atomic set-based overlap algebras in the language of formal topology, thus giving a predicative characterization of discrete locales; we show that the power-collection of a set is the free overlap algebra join-generated from the set. Then, we generalize the concept of overlap algebra and overlap morphism in various ways to provide constructive versions of the category of Boolean algebras with maps preserving arbitrary existing joins.

  19. Abstract algebra structure and application

    CERN Document Server

    Finston, David R

    2014-01-01

    This text seeks to generate interest in abstract algebra by introducing each new structure and topic via a real-world application. The down-to-earth presentation is accessible to a readership with no prior knowledge of abstract algebra. Students are led to algebraic concepts and questions in a natural way through their everyday experiences. Applications include: Identification numbers and modular arithmetic (linear) error-correcting codes, including cyclic codes ruler and compass constructions cryptography symmetry of patterns in the real plane Abstract Algebra: Structure and Application is suitable as a text for a first course on abstract algebra whose main purpose is to generate interest in the subject, or as a supplementary text for more advanced courses. The material paves the way to subsequent courses that further develop the theory of abstract algebra and will appeal to students of mathematics, mathematics education, computer science, and engineering interested in applications of algebraic concepts.

  20. Hopf algebras in noncommutative geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Varilly, J C

    2001-01-01

    We give an introductory survey to the use of Hopf algebras in several problems of noncommutative geometry. The main example, the Hopf algebra of rooted trees, is a graded, connected Hopf algebra arising from a universal construction. We show its relation to the algebra of transverse differential operators introduced by Connes and Moscovici in order to compute a local index formula in cyclic cohomology, and to the several Hopf algebras defined by Connes and Kreimer to simplify the combinatorics of perturbative renormalization. We explain how characteristic classes for a Hopf module algebra can be obtained from the cyclic cohomology of the Hopf algebra which acts on it. Finally, we discuss the theory of noncommutative spherical manifolds and show how they arise as homogeneous spaces of certain compact quantum groups.

  1. Twin TQFTs and Frobenius Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Caprau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the category of singular 2-dimensional cobordisms and show that it admits a completely algebraic description as the free symmetric monoidal category on a twin Frobenius algebra, by providing a description of this category in terms of generators and relations. A twin Frobenius algebra (C,W,z,z∗ consists of a commutative Frobenius algebra C, a symmetric Frobenius algebra W, and an algebra homomorphism z:C→W with dual z∗:W→C, satisfying some extra conditions. We also introduce a generalized 2-dimensional Topological Quantum Field Theory defined on singular 2-dimensional cobordisms and show that it is equivalent to a twin Frobenius algebra in a symmetric monoidal category.

  2. On extensions of Leibniz algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimov, I. S.; Said Husain, Sh. K.; Mohammed, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is dedicated to the study extensions of Leibniz algebras using the annihilator approach. The extensions methods have been used earlier to classify certain classes of algebras. In the paper we first review and adjust theoretical background of the method for Leibniz algebras then apply it to classify four-dimensional Leibniz algebras over a field K. We obtain complete classification of four-dimensional nilpotent Leibniz algebras. The main idea of the method is to transfer the “base change” action to an action of automorphism group of the algebras of smaller dimension on cocycles constructed by the annihilator extensions. The method can be used to classify low-dimensional Leibniz algebras over other finite fields as well.

  3. Multi-Soft gluon limits and extended current algebras at null-infinity

    CERN Document Server

    McLoughlin, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    In this note we consider aspects of the current algebra interpretation of multi-soft limits of tree-level gluon scattering amplitudes in four dimensions. Building on the relation between a positive helicity gluon soft-limit and the Ward identity for a level-zero Kac-Moody current, we use the double-soft limit to define the Sugawara energy-momentum tensor and, by using the triple- and quadruple-soft limits, show that it satisfies the correct OPEs for a CFT. We study the resulting Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations and show that they hold for positive helicity gluons in MHV amplitudes. Turning to the sub-leading soft-terms we define a one-parameter family of currents whose Ward identities correspond to the universal tree-level sub-leading soft-behaviour. We compute the algebra of these currents formed with the leading currents and amongst themselves. Finally, by parameterising the ambiguity in the double-soft limit for mixed helicities, we introduce a non-trivial OPE between the holomorphic and anti-holomorphic c...

  4. Topological convolution algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Alpay, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new family of topological convolution algebras of the form $\\bigcup_{p\\in\\mathbb N} L_2(S,\\mu_p)$, where $S$ is a Borel semi-group in a locally compact group $G$, which carries an inequality of the type $\\|f*g\\|_p\\le A_{p,q}\\|f\\|_q\\|g\\|_p$ for $p > q+d$ where $d$ pre-assigned, and $A_{p,q}$ is a constant. We give a sufficient condition on the measures $\\mu_p$ for such an inequality to hold. We study the functional calculus and the spectrum of the elements of these algebras, and present two examples, one in the setting of non commutative stochastic distributions, and the other related to Dirichlet series.

  5. Structure of Chinese algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Jaszunska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the algebra K[M] of the Chinese monoid M over a field K is studied. The minimal prime ideals are described. They are determined by certain homogeneous congruences on M and they are in a one to one correspondence with diagrams of certain special type. There are finitely many such ideals. It is also shown that the prime radical B(K[M]) of K[M] coincides with the Jacobson radical and the monoid M embeds into the algebra K[M]/B(K[M]). A new representation of M as a submonoid of the direct product of finitely many copies of the bicyclic monoid and finitely many copies of the infinite cyclic monoid is derived. Consequently, M satisfies a nontrivial identity.

  6. Practical Algebraic Renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, P A; Steinhauser, M

    1999-01-01

    A practical approach is presented which allows the use of a non-invariant regularization scheme for the computation of quantum corrections in perturbative quantum field theory. The theoretical control of algebraic renormalization over non-invariant counterterms is translated into a practical computational method. We provide a detailed introduction into the handling of the Slavnov-Taylor and Ward-Takahashi identities in the Standard Model both in the conventional and the background gauge. Explicit examples for their practical derivation are presented. After a brief introduction into the Quantum Action Principle the conventional algebraic method which allows for the restoration of the functional identities is discussed. The main point of our approach is the optimization of this procedure which results in an enormous reduction of the calculational effort. The counterterms which have to be computed are universal in the sense that they are independent of the regularization scheme. The method is explicitly illustra...

  7. Stable Recursive Subhomogeneous Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Hutian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce stable recursive subhomogeneous algebras (SRSHAs), which is analogous to recursive subhomogeneous algebras (RSHAs) introduced by N. C. Phillips in the studies of free minimal integer actions on compact metric spaces. The difference between the stable version and the none stable version is that the irreducible representations of SRSHAs are infinite dimensional, but the irreducible representations of the RSHAs are finite dimensional. While RSHAs play an important role in the study of free minimal integer actions on compact metric spaces, SRSHAs play an analogous role in the study of free minimal actions by the group of the real numbers on compact metric spaces. In this paper, we show that simple inductive limits of SRSHAs with no dimension growth in which the connecting maps are injective and non-vanishing have topological stable rank one.

  8. Real algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bochnak, Jacek; Roy, Marie-Françoise

    1998-01-01

    This book is a systematic treatment of real algebraic geometry, a subject that has strong interrelation with other areas of mathematics: singularity theory, differential topology, quadratic forms, commutative algebra, model theory, complexity theory etc. The careful and clearly written account covers both basic concepts and up-to-date research topics. It may be used as text for a graduate course. The present edition is a substantially revised and expanded English version of the book "Géometrie algébrique réelle" originally published in French, in 1987, as Volume 12 of ERGEBNISSE. Since the publication of the French version the theory has made advances in several directions. Many of these are included in this English version. Thus the English book may be regarded as a completely new treatment of the subject.

  9. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990's.A code C (∩)GF(r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector's coordinates.The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum,Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs).How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem.The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS),Reed-Muller (RM),cyclic,dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes.In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions).We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  10. Testing algebraic geometric codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Property testing was initially studied from various motivations in 1990’s. A code C  GF (r)n is locally testable if there is a randomized algorithm which can distinguish with high possibility the codewords from a vector essentially far from the code by only accessing a very small (typically constant) number of the vector’s coordinates. The problem of testing codes was firstly studied by Blum, Luby and Rubinfeld and closely related to probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs). How to characterize locally testable codes is a complex and challenge problem. The local tests have been studied for Reed-Solomon (RS), Reed-Muller (RM), cyclic, dual of BCH and the trace subcode of algebraicgeometric codes. In this paper we give testers for algebraic geometric codes with linear parameters (as functions of dimensions). We also give a moderate condition under which the family of algebraic geometric codes cannot be locally testable.

  11. Operator product expansion algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Jan [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris-Palaiseau (France)

    2014-07-01

    The Operator Product Expansion (OPE) is a theoretical tool for studying the short distance behaviour of products of local quantum fields. Over the past 40 years, the OPE has not only found widespread computational application in high-energy physics, but, on a more conceptual level, it also encodes fundamental information on algebraic structures underlying quantum field theories. I review new insights into the status and properties of the OPE within Euclidean perturbation theory, addressing in particular the topics of convergence and ''factorisation'' of the expansion. Further, I present a formula for the ''deformation'' of the OPE algebra caused by a quartic interaction. This formula can be used to set up a novel iterative scheme for the perturbative computation of OPE coefficients, based solely on the zeroth order coefficients (and renormalisation conditions) as initial input.

  12. Combinatorics and commutative algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Stanley, Richard P

    1996-01-01

    Some remarkable connections between commutative algebra and combinatorics have been discovered in recent years. This book provides an overview of two of the main topics in this area. The first concerns the solutions of linear equations in nonnegative integers. Applications are given to the enumeration of integer stochastic matrices (or magic squares), the volume of polytopes, combinatorial reciprocity theorems, and related results. The second topic deals with the face ring of a simplicial complex, and includes a proof of the Upper Bound Conjecture for Spheres. An introductory chapter giving background information in algebra, combinatorics and topology broadens access to this material for non-specialists. New to this edition is a chapter surveying more recent work related to face rings, focusing on applications to f-vectors. Included in this chapter is an outline of the proof of McMullen's g-conjecture for simplicial polytopes based on toric varieties, as well as a discussion of the face rings of such special ...

  13. Algebra, Arithmetic, and Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Tschinkel, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    The two volumes of "Algebra, Arithmetic, and Geometry: In Honor of Y.I. Manin" are composed of invited expository articles and extensions detailing Manin's contributions to the subjects, and are in celebration of his 70th birthday. The well-respected and distinguished contributors include: Behrend, Berkovich, Bost, Bressler, Calaque, Carlson, Chambert-Loir, Colombo, Connes, Consani, Dabrowski, Deninger, Dolgachev, Donaldson, Ekedahl, Elsenhans, Enriques, Etingof, Fock, Friedlander, Geemen, Getzler, Goncharov, Harris, Iskovskikh, Jahnel, Kaledin, Kapranov, Katz, Kaufmann, Kollar, Kont

  14. Semisimple Metacyclic Group Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gurmeet K Bakshi; Shalini Gupta; Inder Bir S Passi

    2011-11-01

    Given a group of order $p_1p_2$, where $p_1,p_2$ are primes, and $\\mathbb{F}_q$, a finite field of order coprime to $p_1p_2$, the object of this paper is to compute a complete set of primitive central idempotents of the semisimple group algebra $\\mathbb{F}_q[G]$. As a consequence, we obtain the structure of $\\mathbb{F}_q[G]$ and its group of automorphisms.

  15. The Algebra Artist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigie, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Most people who are attracted to STEM-related fields are drawn not by a desire to take mathematics tests but to create things. The opportunity to create an algebra drawing gives students a sense of ownership and adventure that taps into the same sort of energy that leads a young person to get lost in reading a good book, building with Legos®,…

  16. Algebra of Majorana doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehoon; Wilczek, Frank

    2013-11-27

    Motivated by the problem of identifying Majorana mode operators at junctions, we analyze a basic algebraic structure leading to a doubled spectrum. For general (nonlinear) interactions the emergent mode creation operator is highly nonlinear in the original effective mode operators, and therefore also in the underlying electron creation and destruction operators. This phenomenon could open up new possibilities for controlled dynamical manipulation of the modes. We briefly compare and contrast related issues in the Pfaffian quantum Hall state.

  17. Modern algebra essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Lutfiyya, Lutfi A

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Modern Algebra includes set theory, operations, relations, basic properties of the integers, group theory, and ring theory.

  18. Lie algebraic noncommutative gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Mukherjee, Pradip; Samanta, Saurav

    2007-06-01

    We exploit the Seiberg-Witten map technique to formulate the theory of gravity defined on a Lie algebraic noncommutative space-time. Detailed expressions of the Seiberg-Witten maps for the gauge parameters, gauge potentials, and the field strengths have been worked out. Our results demonstrate that notwithstanding the introduction of more general noncommutative structure there is no first order correction, exactly as happens for a canonical (i.e. constant) noncommutativity.

  19. Redesigning linear algebra algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Many of the standard algorithms in linear algebra as implemented in FORTRAN do not achieve maximum performance on today's large-scale vector computers. The author examines the problem and constructs alternative formulations of algorithms that do not lose the clarity of the original algorithm or sacrifice the FORTRAN portable environment, but do gain the performance attainable on these supercomputers. The resulting implementation not only performs well on vector computers but also increases performance on conventional sequential computers. 13 references.

  20. Redesigning linear algebra algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongarra, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Many of the standard algorithms in linear algebra as implemented in FORTRAN do not achieve maximum performance on today's large-scale vector computers. In this paper we examine the problem and construct alternative formulations of algorithms that do not lose the clarity of the original algorithm or sacrifice the Fortran portable environment, but do gain the performance attainable on these supercomputers. The resulting implementation not only performs well on vector computers but also increases performance on conventional sequential computers.

  1. Fundamentals of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Rajani Ballav

    2008-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.

  2. Algebra & trigonometry II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Algebra & Trigonometry II includes logarithms, sequences and series, permutations, combinations and probability, vectors, matrices, determinants and systems of equations, mathematica

  3. Ext algebra of Nichols algebras of type $A_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xiaolan

    2011-01-01

    We give the full structure of the Ext algebra of a Nichols algebra of type $A_2$ by using the Hochschild-Serre spectral sequence. As an application, we show that the pointed Hopf algebras $u(\\mathcal{D}, \\lmd, \\mu)$ with Dynkin diagrams of type $A$, $D$, or $E$, except for $A_1$ and $A_1\\times A_1$ with the order $N_{J}>2$ for at least one component $J$, are wild.

  4. LOCAL AUTOMORPHISMS OF SEMISIMPLE ALGEBRAS AND GROUP ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dengyin; Guan Qi; Zhan9 Dongju

    2011-01-01

    Let F be a field of characteristic not 2,and let A be a finite-dimensional semisimple F-algebra.All local automorphisms of A are characterized when all the degrees of A are larger than 1.If F is further assumed to be an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero,K a finite group,FK the group algebra of K over F,then all local automorphisms of FK are also characterized.

  5. Stability of functional equations in Banach algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Yeol Je; Rassias, Themistocles M; Saadati, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most recent and significant results on homomorphisms and derivations in Banach algebras, quasi-Banach algebras, C*-algebras, C*-ternary algebras, non-Archimedean Banach algebras and multi-normed algebras are presented in this book. A brief introduction for functional equations and their stability is provided with historical remarks. Since the homomorphisms and derivations in Banach algebras are additive and R-linear or C-linear, the stability problems for additive functional equations and additive mappings are studied in detail. The latest results are discussed and examined in stability theory for new functional equations and functional inequalities in Banach algebras and C*-algebras, non-Archimedean Banach algebras, non-Archimedean C*-algebras, multi-Banach algebras and multi-C*-algebras. Graduate students with an understanding of operator theory, functional analysis, functional equations and analytic inequalities will find this book useful for furthering their understanding and discovering the l...

  6. Further linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S

    2002-01-01

    Most of the introductory courses on linear algebra develop the basic theory of finite­ dimensional vector spaces, and in so doing relate the notion of a linear mapping to that of a matrix. Generally speaking, such courses culminate in the diagonalisation of certain matrices and the application of this process to various situations. Such is the case, for example, in our previous SUMS volume Basic Linear Algebra. The present text is a continuation of that volume, and has the objective of introducing the reader to more advanced properties of vector spaces and linear mappings, and consequently of matrices. For readers who are not familiar with the contents of Basic Linear Algebra we provide an introductory chapter that consists of a compact summary of the prerequisites for the present volume. In order to consolidate the student's understanding we have included a large num­ ber of illustrative and worked examples, as well as many exercises that are strategi­ cally placed throughout the text. Solutions to the ex...

  7. Clifford Algebras and Their Decomposition into Conjugate Fermionic Heisenberg Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, Sultan; Gürcan, Yasemin; Khalfan, Amish; Kurt, Levent; Kato La, V.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss a construction scheme for Clifford numbers of arbitrary dimension. The scheme is based upon performing direct products of the Pauli spin and identity matrices. Conjugate fermionic algebras can then be formed by considering linear combinations of the Clifford numbers and the Hermitian conjugates of such combinations. Fermionic algebras are important in investigating systems that follow Fermi-Dirac statistics. We will further comment on the applications of Clifford algebras to Fueter analyticity, twistors, color algebras, M-theory and Leech lattice as well as unification of ancient and modern geometries through them.

  8. DERIVATIONS ON DIFFERENTIAL OPERATOR ALGEBRA AND WEYL ALGEBRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENCAOYU

    1996-01-01

    Let L be an n-dimensional nilpotent Lie algebra with a basis{x1…,xn),and every xi acts as a locally nilpotent derivation on algebra A. This paper shows that there exists a set of derivations{y1,…,yn}on U(L) such that (A#U(L))#k{y,1,…,yn] is ismorphic to the Weyl algebra An(A).The author also uses the de4rivations to obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for a finite dimesional Lie algebra to be nilpotent.

  9. On the cohomology of Leibniz conformal algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao

    2015-04-01

    We construct a new cohomology complex of Leibniz conformal algebras with coefficients in a representation instead of a module. The low-dimensional cohomology groups of this complex are computed. Meanwhile, we construct a Leibniz algebra from a Leibniz conformal algebra and prove that the category of Leibniz conformal algebras is equivalent to the category of equivalence classes of formal distribution Leibniz algebras.

  10. Assessing Algebraic Solving Ability: A Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Lim Hooi; Yew, Wun Thiam

    2012-01-01

    Algebraic solving ability had been discussed by many educators and researchers. There exists no definite definition for algebraic solving ability as it can be viewed from different perspectives. In this paper, the nature of algebraic solving ability in terms of algebraic processes that demonstrate the ability in solving algebraic problem is…

  11. Duncan F. Gregory, William Walton and the development of British algebra: 'algebraical geometry', 'geometrical algebra', abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verburgt, Lukas M

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the period of the complex history of British algebra and geometry between the publication of George Peacock's Treatise on Algebra in 1830 and William Rowan Hamilton's paper on quaternions of 1843. During these years, Duncan Farquharson Gregory and William Walton published several contributions on 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal. These contributions enabled them not only to generalize Peacock's symbolical algebra on the basis of geometrical considerations, but also to initiate the attempts to question the status of Euclidean space as the arbiter of valid geometrical interpretations. At the same time, Gregory and Walton were bound by the limits of symbolical algebra that they themselves made explicit; their work was not and could not be the 'abstract algebra' and 'abstract geometry' of figures such as Hamilton and Cayley. The central argument of the paper is that an understanding of the contributions to 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' of the second generation of 'scientific' symbolical algebraists is essential for a satisfactory explanation of the radical transition from symbolical to abstract algebra that took place in British mathematics in the 1830s-1840s.

  12. Cardinal invariants on Boolean algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Monk, J Donald

    2014-01-01

    This book is concerned with cardinal number valued functions defined for any Boolean algebra. Examples of such functions are independence, which assigns to each Boolean algebra the supremum of the cardinalities of its free subalgebras, and cellularity, which gives the supremum of cardinalities of sets of pairwise disjoint elements. Twenty-one such functions are studied in detail, and many more in passing. The questions considered are the behaviour of these functions under algebraic operations such as products, free products, ultraproducts, and their relationships to one another. Assuming familiarity with only the basics of Boolean algebras and set theory, through simple infinite combinatorics and forcing, the book reviews current knowledge about these functions, giving complete proofs for most facts. A special feature of the book is the attention given to open problems, of which 185 are formulated. Based on Cardinal Functions on Boolean Algebras (1990) and Cardinal Invariants on Boolean Algebras (1996) by the...

  13. Algebraic Quantum Mechanics and Pregeometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hiley, D J B P G D B J

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the relation between the q-number approach to quantum mechanics suggested by Dirac and the notion of "pregeometry" introduced by Wheeler. By associating the q-numbers with the elements of an algebra and regarding the primitive idempotents as "generalized points" we suggest an approach that may make it possible to dispense with an a priori given space manifold. In this approach the algebra itself would carry the symmetries of translation, rotation, etc. Our suggestion is illustrated in a preliminary way by using a particular generalized Clifford Algebra proposed originally by Weyl, which approaches the ordinary Heisenberg algebra in a suitable limit. We thus obtain a certain insight into how quantum mechanics may be regarded as a purely algebraic theory, provided that we further introduce a new set of "neighbourhood operators", which remove an important kind of arbitrariness that has thus far been present in the attempt to treat quantum mechanics solely in terms of a Heisenberg algebra.

  14. How Structure Sense for Algebraic Expressions or Equations Is Related to Structure Sense for Abstract Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotna, Jarmila; Hoch, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Many students have difficulties with basic algebraic concepts at high school and at university. In this paper two levels of algebraic structure sense are defined: for high school algebra and for university algebra. We suggest that high school algebra structure sense components are sub-components of some university algebra structure sense…

  15. NON-COMMUTATIVE POISSON ALGEBRA STRUCTURES ON LIE ALGEBRA sln(fCq) WITH NULLITY M

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie TONG; Quanqin JIN

    2013-01-01

    Non-commutative Poisson algebras are the algebras having both an associa-tive algebra structure and a Lie algebra structure together with the Leibniz law. In this paper, the non-commutative poisson algebra structures on the Lie algebras sln(fCq) are determined.

  16. Applications of algebraic grid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Smith, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques and applications of algebraic grid generation are described. The techniques are univariate interpolations and transfinite assemblies of univariate interpolations. Because algebraic grid generation is computationally efficient, the use of interactive graphics in conjunction with the techniques is advocated. A flexible approach, which works extremely well in an interactive environment, called the control point form of algebraic grid generation is described. The applications discussed are three-dimensional grids constructed about airplane and submarine configurations.

  17. Linear algebra and projective geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Reinhold

    2005-01-01

    Geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text establishes that projective geometry and linear algebra are essentially identical. The supporting evidence consists of theorems offering an algebraic demonstration of certain geometric concepts. These focus on the representation of projective geometries by linear manifolds, of projectivities by semilinear transformations, of collineations by linear transformations, and of dualities by semilinear forms. These theorems lead to a reconstruction of the geometry that constituted the discussion's starting point, within algebra

  18. COCLEFT EXTENSIONS OF HOPF ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝家贵

    2006-01-01

    Let B and H be finitely generated projective Hopf algebras over a commutative ring R,with B cocommutative and H commutative. In this paper we investigate cocleft extensions of Hopf algebras, and prove that the isomorphism classes of cocleft Hopf algebras extensions of B by H are determined uniquely by the group C(B, H) = ZC(B, H)/d(B, H) .

  19. Categorical Algebra and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    Categorical algebra and its applications contain several fundamental papers on general category theory, by the top specialists in the field, and many interesting papers on the applications of category theory in functional analysis, algebraic topology, algebraic geometry, general topology, ring theory, cohomology, differential geometry, group theory, mathematical logic and computer sciences. The volume contains 28 carefully selected and refereed papers, out of 96 talks delivered, and illustrates the usefulness of category theory today as a powerful tool of investigation in many other areas.

  20. ALGEBRAIC EXTENSION OF *-A OPERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左红亮; 左飞

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we study various properties of algebraic extension of∗-A operator. Specifically, we show that every algebraic extension of∗-A operator has SVEP and is isoloid. And if T is an algebraic extension of∗-A operator, then Weyl’s theorem holds for f (T ), where f is an analytic functions on some neighborhood of σ(T ) and not constant on each of the components of its domain.

  1. Differential Equations with Linear Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Boelkins, Matthew R; Potter, Merle C

    2009-01-01

    Linearity plays a critical role in the study of elementary differential equations; linear differential equations, especially systems thereof, demonstrate a fundamental application of linear algebra. In Differential Equations with Linear Algebra, we explore this interplay between linear algebra and differential equations and examine introductory and important ideas in each, usually through the lens of important problems that involve differential equations. Written at a sophomore level, the text is accessible to students who have completed multivariable calculus. With a systems-first approach, t

  2. Notes on noncommutative algebraic topology

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolaev, Igor

    2010-01-01

    An operator (AF-) algebra A_f is assigned to each Anosov diffeomorphism f of a manifold M. The assignment is a functor on the category of (mapping tori of) all such diffeomorphisms, which sends continuous maps between the manifolds to the stable homomorphisms of the corresponding AF-algebras. We use the functor to prove non-existence of continuous maps between the hyperbolic torus bundles, an obstruction being the so-called Galois group of algebra A_f.

  3. Algebraic geometric codes with applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao

    2007-01-01

    The theory of linear error-correcting codes from algebraic geomet-ric curves (algebraic geometric (AG) codes or geometric Goppa codes) has been well-developed since the work of Goppa and Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink in 1981-1982. In this paper we introduce to readers some recent progress in algebraic geometric codes and their applications in quantum error-correcting codes, secure multi-party computation and the construction of good binary codes.

  4. Kleene Algebra and Bytecode Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-27

    Bytecode 2005 Preliminary Version Kleene Algebra and Bytecode Verification Lucja Kot 1 Dexter Kozen 2 Department of Computer Science Cornell...first-order methods that inductively annotate program points with abstract values. In [6] we introduced a second-order approach based on Kleene algebra ...form a left-handed Kleene algebra . The dataflow labeling is not achieved by inductively labeling the program with abstract values, but rather by

  5. Algebra I Essentials For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    With its use of multiple variables, functions, and formulas algebra can be confusing and overwhelming to learn and easy to forget. Perfect for students who need to review or reference critical concepts, Algebra I Essentials For Dummies provides content focused on key topics only, with discrete explanations of critical concepts taught in a typical Algebra I course, from functions and FOILs to quadratic and linear equations. This guide is also a perfect reference for parents who need to review critical algebra concepts as they help students with homework assignments, as well as for adult learner

  6. Applications of Computer Algebra Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Moro, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    The Applications of Computer Algebra (ACA) conference covers a wide range of topics from Coding Theory to Differential Algebra to Quantam Computing, focusing on the interactions of these and other areas with the discipline of Computer Algebra. This volume provides the latest developments in the field as well as its applications in various domains, including communications, modelling, and theoretical physics. The book will appeal to researchers and professors of computer algebra, applied mathematics, and computer science, as well as to engineers and computer scientists engaged in research and development.

  7. Introduction to algebraic independence theory

    CERN Document Server

    Philippon, Patrice

    2001-01-01

    In the last five years there has been very significant progress in the development of transcendence theory. A new approach to the arithmetic properties of values of modular forms and theta-functions was found. The solution of the Mahler-Manin problem on values of modular function j(tau) and algebraic independence of numbers pi and e^(pi) are most impressive results of this breakthrough. The book presents these and other results on algebraic independence of numbers and further, a detailed exposition of methods created in last the 25 years, during which commutative algebra and algebraic geometry exerted strong catalytic influence on the development of the subject.

  8. REPETITIVE CLUSTER-TILTED ALGEBRAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shunhua; Zhang Yuehui

    2012-01-01

    Let H be a finite-dimensional hereditary algebra over an algebraically closed field k and CFm be the repetitive cluster category of H with m ≥ 1.We investigate the properties of cluster tilting objects in CFm and the structure of repetitive clustertilted algebras.Moreover,we generalize Theorem 4.2 in [12](Buan A,Marsh R,Reiten I.Cluster-tilted algebra,Trans.Amer.Math.Soc.,359(1)(2007),323-332.) to the situation of CFm,and prove that the tilting graph KCFm of CFm is connected.

  9. The Algebra of Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Manon, Christopher A

    2009-01-01

    We study and generalize the connection between the phylogenetic Hilbert functions of Buczynska and Wisniewski \\cite{BW} and the Verlinde formula, as discovered by Sturmfels and Xu in \\cite{StXu}. In order to accomplish this we introduce deformations of algebras of non-abelian theta functions for a general simple complex Lie algebra $\\mathfrak{g}$ structured on the moduli stack of stable punctured curves. We also study the relationship between these algebras and branching algebras, coming from the representation theory of the associated reductive group $G.$

  10. Planar Para Algebras, Reflection Positivity

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    We define the notion of a planar para algebra, which arises naturally from combining planar algebras with the idea of $\\Z_{N}$ para symmetry in physics. A subfactor planar para algebra is a Hilbert space representation of planar tangles with parafermionic defects, that are invariant under isotopy. For each $\\Z_{N}$, we construct a family of subfactor planar para algebras which play the role of Temperley-Lieb-Jones planar algebras. The first example in this family is the parafermion planar para algebra. Based on this example, we introduce parafermion Pauli matrices, quaternion relations, and braided relations for parafermion algebras which one can use in the study of quantum information. Two different reflections play an important role in the theory of planar para algebras. One is the adjoint operator; the other is the modular conjugation in Tomita-Takesaki theory. We use the latter one to define the double algebra and to introduce reflection positivity. We give a new and geometric proof of reflection positivi...

  11. Algebraic Theories over Nominal Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Kurz, Alexander; Velebil, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the foundations of a theory of algebraic data types with variable binding inside classical universal algebra. In the first part, a category-theoretic study of monads over the nominal sets of Gabbay and Pitts leads us to introduce new notions of finitary based monads and uniform monads. In a second part we spell out these notions in the language of universal algebra, show how to recover the logics of Gabbay-Mathijssen and Clouston-Pitts, and apply classical results from universal algebra.

  12. Congruence Kernels of Orthoimplication Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Chajda

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstracting from certain properties of the implication operation in Boolean algebras leads to so-called orthoimplication algebras. These are in a natural one-to-one correspondence with families of compatible orthomodular lattices. It is proved that congruence kernels of orthoimplication algebras are in a natural one-to-one correspondence with families of compatible p-filters on the corresponding orthomodular lattices. Finally, it is proved that the lattice of all congruence kernels of an orthoimplication algebra is relatively pseudocomplemented and a simple description of the relative pseudocomplement is given.

  13. On triangular algebras with noncommutative diagonals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We construct a triangular algebra whose diagonals form a noncommutative algebra and its lattice of invariant projections contains only two nontrivial projections. Moreover we prove that our triangular algebra is maximal.

  14. Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree

    Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry...

  15. Tilting mutation of Brauer tree algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, T

    2010-01-01

    We define tilting mutations of symmetric algebras as the endomorphism algebras of Okuyama-Rickard complexes. For Brauer tree algebras, we give an explicit description of the change of Brauer trees under mutation.

  16. Construction of complete generalized algebraic groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Dengyin

    2005-01-01

    With one exception, the holomorph of a finite dimensional abelian connectedalgebraic group is shown to be a complete generalized algebraic group. This result on algebraic group is an analogy to that on Lie algebra.

  17. On triangular algebras with noncommutative diagonals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG AiJu

    2008-01-01

    We construct a triangular algebra whose diagonals form a noncommutative algebra and its lattice of invariant projections contains only two nontrivial projections.Moreover we prove that our triangular algebra is maximal.

  18. Algebras related to posets of hyperplanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, G.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    We compare two noncommutative algebras which are related to arrangements of hyperplanes. For three special arrangements the induced approximately finite dimensional $C^*$-algebra and the graded Orlik-Solomon-algebra are investigated.

  19. Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree

    Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry...

  20. Algebra and Algebraic Thinking in School Math: 70th YB

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Algebra is no longer just for college-bound students. After a widespread push by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and teachers across the country, algebra is now a required part of most curricula. However, students' standardized test scores are not at the level they should be. NCTM's seventieth yearbook takes a look at the…

  1. Algebraic dynamics solution and algebraic dynamics algorithm of Burgers equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Algebraic dynamics solution and algebraic dynamics algorithm of nonlinear partial differential evolution equations in the functional space are applied to Burgers equation. The results indicate that the approach is effective for analytical solutions to Burgers equation, and the algorithm for numerical solutions of Burgers equation is more stable, with higher precision than other existing finite difference algo-rithms.

  2. Abstract Algebra to Secondary School Algebra: Building Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Donna; Sparks, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The authors have experience with secondary mathematics teacher candidates struggling to make connections between the theoretical abstract algebra course they take as college students and the algebra they will be teaching in secondary schools. As a mathematician and a mathematics educator, the authors collaborated to create and implement a…

  3. Lie algebras and degenerate Affine Hecke Algebras of type A

    CERN Document Server

    Arakawa, T

    1997-01-01

    We construct a family of exact functors from the BGG category of representations of the Lie algebra sl to the category of finite-dimensional representations of the degenerate (or graded) affine Hecke algebra H of GL. These functors transform Verma modules to standard modules or zero, and simple modules to simple modules or zero. Any simple H-module can be thus obtained.

  4. Abstract Algebra to Secondary School Algebra: Building Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Donna; Sparks, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The authors have experience with secondary mathematics teacher candidates struggling to make connections between the theoretical abstract algebra course they take as college students and the algebra they will be teaching in secondary schools. As a mathematician and a mathematics educator, the authors collaborated to create and implement a…

  5. Dimer models and Calabi-Yau algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Broomhead, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we study dimer models, as introduced in string theory, which give a way of writing down a class of non-commutative `superpotential' algebras. Some examples are 3-dimensional Calabi-Yau algebras, as defined by Ginzburg, and some are not. We consider two types of `consistency' condition on dimer models, and show that a `geometrically consistent' model is `algebraically consistent'. Finally we prove that the algebras obtained from algebraically consistent dimer models are 3-dimensional Calabi-Yau algebras.

  6. On Quantizing Nilpotent and Solvable Basic Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We prove an algebraic ``no-go theorem'' to the effect that a nontrivial Poisson algebra cannot be realized as an associative algebra with the commutator bracket. Using this, we show that there is an obstruction to quantizing the Poisson algebra of polynomials generated by a nilpotent basic algebra on a symplectic manifold. Finally, we explicitly construct a polynomial quantization of a symplectic manifold with a solvable basic algebra, thereby showing that the obstruction in the nilpotent cas...

  7. Semi-Hopf Algebra and Supersymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Gunara, Bobby Eka

    1999-01-01

    We define a semi-Hopf algebra which is more general than a Hopf algebra. Then we construct the supersymmetry algebra via the adjoint action on this semi-Hopf algebra. As a result we have a supersymmetry theory with quantum gauge group, i.e., quantised enveloping algebra of a simple Lie algebra. For the example, we construct the Lagrangian N=1 and N=2 supersymmetry.

  8. Lie algebraic Noncommutative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, R; Samanta, S; Banerjee, Rabin; Mukherjee, Pradip; Samanta, Saurav

    2007-01-01

    The minimal (unimodular) formulation of noncommutative general relativity, based on gauging the Poincare group, is extended to a general Lie algebra valued noncommutative structure. We exploit the Seiberg -- Witten map technique to formulate the theory as a perturbative Lagrangian theory. Detailed expressions of the Seiberg -- Witten maps for the gauge parameters, gauge potentials and the field strengths have been worked out. Our results demonstrate that notwithstanding the introduction of more general noncommutative structure there is no first order correction, exactly as happens for a canonical (i.e. constant) noncommutativity.

  9. Matlab linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Linear Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. In addition to giving an introduction to

  10. The algebraic escher

    OpenAIRE

    Senechal, Marjorie

    1988-01-01

    Les pavages monoédriques et coloriés du plan réalisé par M.C. Escher constituent un outil utile dans I'exploration de plusieurs concepts d'algèbre abstraite : les groupes, les sous-groupes, les classes, les conjugués, les orbites, et les extensions de groupe. M.C. Escher's colored monohedral tessellations of the plane are a useful tool for exploring many concepts of abstract algebra, including groups, subgroups, cosets, conjugates, orbits, and group extensions. Peer Reviewed

  11. Statecharts Via Process Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttgen, Gerald; vonderBeeck, Michael; Cleaveland, Rance

    1999-01-01

    Statecharts is a visual language for specifying the behavior of reactive systems. The Language extends finite-state machines with concepts of hierarchy, concurrency, and priority. Despite its popularity as a design notation for embedded system, precisely defining its semantics has proved extremely challenging. In this paper, a simple process algebra, called Statecharts Process Language (SPL), is presented, which is expressive enough for encoding Statecharts in a structure-preserving and semantic preserving manner. It is establish that the behavioral relation bisimulation, when applied to SPL, preserves Statecharts semantics

  12. Adaptive Algebraic Smoothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Chartier, Dr Timothy [Davidson College

    2012-01-01

    methods based on Local Sensitivity Analysis (LSA). The method can be used in the context of geometric and algebraic multigrid methods for constructing smoothers, and in the context of Krylov methods for constructing block preconditioners. It is suitable for both constant and variable coecient problems. Furthermore, the method can be applied to systems arising from both scalar and coupled system partial differential equations (PDEs), as well as linear systems that do not arise from PDEs. The simplicity of the method will allow it to be easily incorporated into existing multigrid and Krylov solvers while providing a powerful tool for adaptively constructing methods tuned to a problem.

  13. Elements of abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Allan

    1984-01-01

    This concise, readable, college-level text treats basic abstract algebra in remarkable depth and detail. An antidote to the usual surveys of structure, the book presents group theory, Galois theory, and classical ideal theory in a framework emphasizing proof of important theorems.Chapter I (Set Theory) covers the basics of sets. Chapter II (Group Theory) is a rigorous introduction to groups. It contains all the results needed for Galois theory as well as the Sylow theorems, the Jordan-Holder theorem, and a complete treatment of the simplicity of alternating groups. Chapter III (Field Theory)

  14. Light Cone Current Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    2003-01-01

    This talk follows by a few months a talk by the same authors on nearly the same subject at the Coral Gables Conference. The ideas presented here are basically the same, but with some amplification, some change of viewpoint, and a number of new questions for the future. For our own convenience, we have transcribed the Coral Gables paper, but with an added ninth section, entitled "Problems of light cone current algebra", dealing with our present views and emphasizing research topics that require study.

  15. Advanced linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Cooperstein, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Linear Algebra, Second Edition takes a gentle approach that starts with familiar concepts and then gradually builds to deeper results. Each section begins with an outline of previously introduced concepts and results necessary for mastering the new material. By reviewing what students need to know before moving forward, the text builds a solid foundation upon which to progress. The new edition of this successful text focuses on vector spaces and the maps between them that preserve their structure (linear transformations). Designed for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate stud

  16. Optical linear algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casasent, D.; Ghosh, A.

    1983-01-01

    Many of the linear algebra operations and algorithms possible on optical matrix-vector processors are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the use of direct solutions and their realization on systolic optical processors. As an example, implicit and explicit solutions to partial differential equations are considered. The matrix-decomposition required is found to be the major operation recommended for optical realization. The pipelining and flow of data and operations are noted to be key issues in the realization of any algorithm on an optical systolic array processor. A realization of the direct solution by householder qr decomposition is provided as a specific case study. 19 references.

  17. Geometric Algebra Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Corrochano, Eduardo Bayro

    2010-01-01

    This book presents contributions from a global selection of experts in the field. This useful text offers new insights and solutions for the development of theorems, algorithms and advanced methods for real-time applications across a range of disciplines. Written in an accessible style, the discussion of all applications is enhanced by the inclusion of numerous examples, figures and experimental analysis. Features: provides a thorough discussion of several tasks for image processing, pattern recognition, computer vision, robotics and computer graphics using the geometric algebra framework; int

  18. Handbook of algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, M

    2008-01-01

    Algebra, as we know it today, consists of many different ideas, concepts and results. A reasonable estimate of the number of these different items would be somewhere between 50,000 and 200,000. Many of these have been named and many more could (and perhaps should) have a name or a convenient designation. Even the nonspecialist is likely to encounter most of these, either somewhere in the literature, disguised as a definition or a theorem or to hear about them and feel the need for more information. If this happens, one should be able to find enough information in this Handbook to judge if it i

  19. (s, t, d)-bi-Koszul algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI JunRu

    2009-01-01

    The paper focuses on the 1-generated positively graded algebras with non-pure resolutions and mainly discusses a new kind of algebras called (s, t, d)-bi-Koszul algebras as the generalization of bi-Koszul algebras. An (s, t, d)-bi-Koszul algebra can be obtained from two periodic algebras with pure resolutions. The generation of the Koszul dual of an (s, t, d)-bi-Koszul algebra is discussed. Based on it, the notion of strongly (s, t, d)-bi-Koszul algebras is raised and their homological properties are further discussed.

  20. (s,t,d)-bi-Koszul algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The paper focuses on the 1-generated positively graded algebras with non-pure resolutions and mainly discusses a new kind of algebras called(s,t,d)-bi-Koszul algebras as the generalization of bi-Koszul algebras. An(s,t,d)-bi-Koszul algebra can be obtained from two periodic algebras with pure resolutions. The generation of the Koszul dual of an(s,t,d)-bi-Koszul algebra is discussed. Based on it,the notion of strongly(s,t,d)-bi-Koszul algebras is raised and their homological properties are further discussed.

  1. Deciding isomorphism of Lie algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, W.A. de

    2001-01-01

    When doing calculations with Lie algebras one of the main problems is to decide whether two given Lie algebras are isomorphic. A partial solution to this problem is obtained by calculating structural invariants. There is also a direct method available which involves the computation of Grobner bases.

  2. Six Lectures on Commutative Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, J; Miro-Roig, Rosa Maria; Zarzuela, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Interest in commutative algebra has surged over the years. In order to survey and highlight the developments in this rapidly expanding field, the Centre de Recerca Matematica in Bellaterra organized a ten-days Summer School on Commutative Algebra in 1996. This title offers a synthesis of the lectures presented at the Summer School

  3. In Defence of Geometrical Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Blasjo, V.N.E.

    2016-01-01

    The geometrical algebra hypothesis was once the received interpretation of Greek mathematics. In recent decades, however, it has become anathema to many. I give a critical review of all arguments against it and offer a consistent rebuttal case against the modern consensus. Consequently, I find that the geometrical algebra interpretation should be reinstated as a viable historical hypothesis.

  4. Quantum Heisenberg--Weyl Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros, Angel; Herranz, Francisco J.; Parashar, Preeti

    1996-01-01

    All Lie bialgebra structures on the Heisenberg--Weyl algebra $[A_+,A_-]=M$ are classified and explicitly quantized. The complete list of quantum Heisenberg--Weyl algebras so obtained includes new multiparameter deformations, most of them being of the non-coboundary type.

  5. Predicting Grades in Basic Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Elise

    1994-01-01

    Data from (n=470) students at Owens Technical College in Fall 1991 showed that high school GPA was the best predictor of grades in Basic Algebra, followed by high school rank, college GPA, ACT natural sciences, ASSET numerical skills, and ASSET elementary algebra scores. (11 references) (SW)

  6. SICs and Algebraic Number Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Marcus; Flammia, Steven; McConnell, Gary; Yard, Jon

    2017-08-01

    We give an overview of some remarkable connections between symmetric informationally complete measurements (SIC-POVMs, or SICs) and algebraic number theory, in particular, a connection with Hilbert's 12th problem. The paper is meant to be intelligible to a physicist who has no prior knowledge of either Galois theory or algebraic number theory.

  7. Structure of the Enveloping Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Č. Burdík

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The adjoint representations of several small dimensional Lie algebras  on their universal enveloping algebras  are explicitly decomposed. It is shown that commutants of raising operators are generated as polynomials in several basic elements. The explicit form of these elements is given and the general method for obtaining  these elements is described. 

  8. The Algebra of Complex Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number…

  9. Toeplitz Algebras on Dirichlet Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yan-hua; WANG Xiao-feng

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, some properties of Toeplitz algebras on Dirichlet spaces for several complex variables are discussed; in particular, the automorphism group of the Toeplitz C* -algebra, (C1), generated by Toeplitz operators with C1-symbols is discussed. In addition, the first cohomology group of (C1) is computed.

  10. On Homomorphism of Valuation Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN XUE-CHONG; LI YONG-MING

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, firstly, a necessary condition and a sufficient condition for an isomorphism between two semiring-inducod valuation algebras to exist are presented respectively. Then a general valuation homomorphism based on different domains is defined, and the corresponding homomorphism theorem of valuation algebra is proved.

  11. What's Wrong with College Algebra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2008-01-01

    Most college algebra courses are offered in the spirit of preparing the students to move on toward calculus. In reality, only a vanishingly small fraction of the million students a year who take these courses ever get to calculus. This article builds a strong case for the need to change the focus in college algebra to one that better meets the…

  12. Templates for Linear Algebra Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Z.; Day, D.; Demmel, J.; Dongarra, J.; Gu, M.; Ruhe, A.; Vorst, H.A. van der

    2001-01-01

    The increasing availability of advanced-architecture computers is having a very signicant eect on all spheres of scientic computation, including algorithm research and software development in numerical linear algebra. Linear algebra {in particular, the solution of linear systems of equations and eig

  13. Online Algebraic Tools for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Many free online tools exist to complement algebraic instruction at the middle school level. This article presents findings that analyzed the features of algebraic tools to support learning. The findings can help teachers select appropriate tools to facilitate specific topics. (Contains 1 table and 4 figures.)

  14. Smarandache hyper BCC-algebra

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ahadpanah; Borumand Saeid, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we define the Smarandache hyper BCC-algebra, and Smarandache hyper BCC-ideals of type 1, 2, 3 and 4. We state and prove some theorems in Smarandache hyper BCC -algebras, and then we determine the relationships between these hyper ideals.

  15. Linear Algebra and Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allali, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)

  16. Graded contractions of Virasoro algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Kostyakov, I V; Kuratov, V V

    2001-01-01

    We describe graded contractions of Virasoro algebra. The highest weight representations of Virasoro algebra are constructed. The reducibility of representations is analysed. In contrast to standart representations the contracted ones are reducible except some special cases. Moreover we find an exotic module with null-plane on fifth level.

  17. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  18. Spinal Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results in predictable healing. Autograft is currently the “gold standard” source of bone for a fusion. The ... pump. With this technique, the patient presses a button that delivers a predetermined amount of narcotic pain ...

  19. Algebraic zip data

    CERN Document Server

    Pink, Richard; Ziegler, Paul

    2010-01-01

    An algebraic zip datum is a tuple $\\CZ := (G,P,Q,\\phi)$ consisting of a reductive group $G$ together with parabolic subgroups $P$ and $Q$ and an isogeny $\\phi\\colon P/R_uP\\to Q/R_uQ$. We study the action of the group $E := \\{(p,q)\\in P{\\times}Q | \\phi(\\pi_{P}(p)) =\\pi_Q(q)\\}$ on $G$ given by $((p,q),g)\\mapsto pgq^{-1}$. We define certain smooth $E$-invariant subvarieties of $G$, show that they define a stratification of $G$. We determine their dimensions and their closures and give a description of the stabilizers of the $E$-action on $G$. We also generalize all results to non-connected groups. We show that for special choices of $\\CZ$ the algebraic quotient stack $[E \\backslash G]$ is isomorphic to $[G \\backslash Z]$ or to $[G \\backslash Z']$, where $Z$ is a $G$-variety studied by Lusztig and He in the theory of character sheaves on spherical compactifications of $G$ and where $Z'$ has been defined by Moonen and the second author in their classification of $F$-zips. In these cases the $E$-invariant subvariet...

  20. Basic algebraic geometry, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Shafarevich, Igor Rostislavovich

    1994-01-01

    Shafarevich Basic Algebraic Geometry 2 The second edition of Shafarevich's introduction to algebraic geometry is in two volumes. The second volume covers schemes and complex manifolds, generalisations in two different directions of the affine and projective varieties that form the material of the first volume. Two notable additions in this second edition are the section on moduli spaces and representable functors, motivated by a discussion of the Hilbert scheme, and the section on Kähler geometry. The book ends with a historical sketch discussing the origins of algebraic geometry. From the Zentralblatt review of this volume: "... one can only respectfully repeat what has been said about the first part of the book (...): a great textbook, written by one of the leading algebraic geometers and teachers himself, has been reworked and updated. As a result the author's standard textbook on algebraic geometry has become even more important and valuable. Students, teachers, and active researchers using methods of al...