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Sample records for kabuli chickpea electronic

  1. Comparative analysis of kabuli chickpea transcriptome with desi and wild chickpea provides a rich resource for development of functional markers.

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    Gaurav Agarwal

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important crop legume plant with high nutritional value. The transcriptomes of desi and wild chickpea have already been sequenced. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of kabuli chickpea, C. arietinum (genotype ICCV2, having higher commercial value, using GS-FLX Roche 454 and Illumina technologies. The assemblies of both Roche 454 and Illumina datasets were optimized using various assembly programs and parameters. The final optimized hybrid assembly generated 43,389 transcripts with an average length of 1065 bp and N50 length of 1653 bp representing 46.2 Mb of kabuli chickpea transcriptome. We identified a total of 5409 simple sequence repeats (SSRs in these transcript sequences. Among these, at least 130 and 493 SSRs were polymorphic with desi (ICC4958 and wild (PI489777 chickpea, respectively. In addition, a total of 1986 and 37,954 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were predicted in kabuli/desi and kabuli/wild genotypes, respectively. The SNP frequency was 0.043 SNP per kb for kabuli/desi and 0.821 SNP per kb for kabuli/wild, reflecting very low genetic diversity in chickpea. Further, SSRs and SNPs present in tissue-specific and transcription factor encoding transcripts have been identified. The experimental validation of a selected set of polymorphic SSRs and SNPs exhibited high intra-specific polymorphism potential between desi and kabuli chickpea, suggesting their utility in large-scale genotyping applications. The kabuli chickpea gene index assembled, and SSRs and SNPs identified in this study will serve as useful genomic resource for genetic improvement of chickpea.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Kabuli Chickpea Transcriptome with Desi and Wild Chickpea Provides a Rich Resource for Development of Functional Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Pushp; Singh, Vikash K.; Saxena, Maneesha S.; Parida, Swarup K.; Garg, Rohini; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Jain, Mukesh

    2012-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important crop legume plant with high nutritional value. The transcriptomes of desi and wild chickpea have already been sequenced. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of kabuli chickpea, C. arietinum (genotype ICCV2), having higher commercial value, using GS-FLX Roche 454 and Illumina technologies. The assemblies of both Roche 454 and Illumina datasets were optimized using various assembly programs and parameters. The final optimized hybrid assembly generated 43,389 transcripts with an average length of 1065 bp and N50 length of 1653 bp representing 46.2 Mb of kabuli chickpea transcriptome. We identified a total of 5409 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in these transcript sequences. Among these, at least 130 and 493 SSRs were polymorphic with desi (ICC4958) and wild (PI489777) chickpea, respectively. In addition, a total of 1986 and 37,954 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were predicted in kabuli/desi and kabuli/wild genotypes, respectively. The SNP frequency was 0.043 SNP per kb for kabuli/desi and 0.821 SNP per kb for kabuli/wild, reflecting very low genetic diversity in chickpea. Further, SSRs and SNPs present in tissue-specific and transcription factor encoding transcripts have been identified. The experimental validation of a selected set of polymorphic SSRs and SNPs exhibited high intra-specific polymorphism potential between desi and kabuli chickpea, suggesting their utility in large-scale genotyping applications. The kabuli chickpea gene index assembled, and SSRs and SNPs identified in this study will serve as useful genomic resource for genetic improvement of chickpea. PMID:23300670

  3. Multiple post-domestication origins of kabuli chickpea through allelic variation in a diversification-associated transcription factor.

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    Varma Penmetsa, R; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Bergmann, Emily M; Vance, Lisa; Castro, Brenna; Kassa, Mulualem T; Sarma, Birinchi K; Datta, Subhojit; Farmer, Andrew D; Baek, Jong-Min; Coyne, Clarice J; Varshney, Rajeev K; von Wettberg, Eric J B; Cook, Douglas R

    2016-09-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is among the founder crops domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. One of two major forms of chickpea, the so-called kabuli type, has white flowers and light-colored seed coats, properties not known to exist in the wild progenitor. The origin of the kabuli form has been enigmatic. We genotyped a collection of wild and cultivated chickpea genotypes with 538 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and examined patterns of molecular diversity relative to geographical sources and market types. In addition, we examined sequence and expression variation in candidate anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes. A reduction in genetic diversity and extensive genetic admixture distinguish cultivated chickpea from its wild progenitor species. Among germplasm, the kabuli form is polyphyletic. We identified a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor at chickpea's B locus that conditions flower and seed colors, orthologous to Mendel's A gene of garden pea, whose loss of function is associated invariantly with the kabuli type of chickpea. From the polyphyletic distribution of the kabuli form in germplasm, an absence of nested variation within the bHLH gene and invariant association of loss of function of bHLH among the kabuli type, we conclude that the kabuli form arose multiple times during the phase of phenotypic diversification after initial domestication of cultivated chickpea.

  4. Nutritional evaluation of kabuli and desi type chickpeas (cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... Key words: Chickpea, gas production, metabolizable energy, nutritive value, sheep. ... microbial nitrogen supply, amount of short chain fatty acids, carbon ..... Nutritional evaluation of chickpea wastes for ruminants using.

  5. Differential response of kabuli and desi chickpea genotypes toward inoculation with PGPR in different soils

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    Imran, Asma; Mirza, Muhammad S.; Shah, Tariq M.; Malik, Kauser A.; Hafeez, Fauzia Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan is among top three chickpea producing countries but the crop is usually grown on marginal lands without irrigation and fertilizer application which significantly hampers its yield. Soil fertility and inoculation with beneficial rhizobacteria play a key role in nodulation and yield of legumes. Four kabuli and six desi chickpea genotypes were, therefore, evaluated for inoculation response with IAA-producing Ochrobactrum ciceri Ca-34T and nitrogen fixing Mesorhizobium ciceri TAL-1148 in single and co-inoculation in two soils. The soil type 1 was previously unplanted marginal soil having low organic matter, P and N contents compared to soil type 2 which was a fertile routinely legume-cultivated soil. The effect of soil fertility status was pronounced and fertile soil on average, produced 31% more nodules, 62% more biomass and 111% grain yield than marginal soil. Inoculation either with O. ciceri alone or its co-inoculation with M. ciceri produced on average higher nodules (42%), biomass (31%), grains yield (64%) and harvest index (72%) in both chickpea genotypes over non-inoculated controls in both soils. Soil 1 showed maximum relative effectiveness of Ca-34T inoculation for kabuli genotypes while soil 2 showed for desi genotypes except B8/02. Desi genotype B8/02 in soil type 1 and Pb-2008 in soil type 2 showed significant yield increase as compared to respective un-inoculated controls. Across bacterial inoculation treatments, grain yield was positively correlated to growth and yield contributing parameters (r = 0.294* to 0.838*** for desi and r = 0.388* to 0.857** for kabuli). PCA and CAT-PCA analyses clearly showed a site-specific response of genotype x bacterial inoculation. Furthermore, the inoculated bacterial strains were able to persist in the rhizosphere showing colonization on root and within nodules. Present study shows that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation should be integrated with national chickpea breading program in

  6. Combining ability studies for drought tolerance attributes in kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

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    N. Jagadish and V. Jayalakshmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was taken up with six kabuli chickpea genotypes and their 15 F1 hybrids (excluding reciprocals during rabi 2012 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Nandyal, Andhra Prasesh, India to elucidate information on nature of gene action and to identify promising chickpea genotypes for drought tolerance attributes and seed yield. The results of analysis of variance for combining ability revealed predominance of non-additive gene effects for drought tolerant attributes like SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR, specific leaf area (cm2 g-1, relative water content (%, root length (cm and root weight (g/plant. Superior parental genotypes with significant and desirable combing ability were KAK 2 for specific leaf area and root length; Vihar for relative water content and seed yield per plant; MNK 1 for SCMR, specific leaf area, root length and root weight; Phule G 05107 for SCMR and root weight; ICCV 95333 for specific leaf area ; NBeG 72 for specific leaf area and seed yield per plant which can be utilized in breeding programmes for improving drought tolerance in chickpea. Promising F1s with desirable sca effects (Vihar x KAK 2 for yield and rooting traits; MNK 1 x Phule G 05107 and MNK 1 x NBeG 72 for SLA; KAK 2 x Phule G 05107 and KAK 2 x NBeG 72 for SCMR were identified which can be exploited through suitable breeding methodology for recovering superior segregants with enhanced drought tolerance coupled with high yield.

  7. Technical note: Equilibrium moisture content of kabuli chickpea, black sesame, and white sesame seeds

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    Sesame and chickpeas are important crops for Ethiopia as both are major exports providing small farmers and the country much revenue. There is a lack of information on fundamental equilibrium moisture content (EMC) relationships for these products which would help facilitate better monitoring and st...

  8. Multiple post-domestication origins of kabuli chickpea through allelic variation in a diversification-associated transcription factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietieum) is a widely cultivated food legume and one of the Neolitic founder crops domesticated in the Fertile Crescent. Cultivated chickpea is classified into two types, a ‘desi’ type with smaller and darker seed coats, and a light-colored large-seeded ‘kabuli’ type, with the two t...

  9. Multi-locus molecular phylogeny and allelic variation in a transcription factor gene suggest the multiple independent origins of kabuli chickpea

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    To examine the patterns of molecular diversity in wild crop relatives and the cultivated gene pool of chickpea we genotyped a set of 98 wild annual and 224 cultivated accessions with a 768 feature assay that monitored SNPs in low-copy orthologous loci. Analyses of the resulting multi-locus genotypin...

  10. Registration of 'Nash' Chickpea

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    The kabuli chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) cultivar ‘Nash’ was released by the USDA-ARS in 2013 based on both its high yield and large seed size compared to the popular commercial chickpea cultivars ‘Sierra’ and ‘Sawyer’. Nash is an F5 derived line from the cross HB-19/CA9783142 and was evaluated in...

  11. A Hedonic Price Analysis of Quality Characteristics of Chickpea in India

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    Agbola, Frank W.; Kelley, Timothy G.; Bent, Martin J.M.; Rao, Partha P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines consumer attitudes to quality characteristics of chickpea in India. A linear hedonic price functional form was estimated using price and quality data of 52 kabuli chickpea and 128 desi-type chickpea samples obtained from major chickpea markets in India. Empirical results indicate that physical quality characteristics and purity standards are important factors influencing consumption decisions in the Indian chickpea market. The chemical quality characteristics have been fou...

  12. Electron spin resonance study of γ-irradiated Anatolian chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

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    Ayda, Canan; Engin, B. I. R. O. L.; Polat, Mustafa; Aydin, Talat

    In this study, an electron spin resonance (ESR) investigation on γ-irradiated chickpea cultivated in Turkey is reported in detail. ESR spectra of unirradiated (control) chickpea were composed of an equally spaced sextet originating from the presence of Mn2+ ions and a single weak resonance signal both centered at gD2.0054±0.0006. Although irradiation was found to have no effect on the Mn2+ signals, it caused a noteworthy increase in free radical signal intensity of chickpea in the studied dose range of (0.1-4.5 kGy). In addition, the ESR spectrum of irradiated chickpea recorded at low scan range (10 mT) showed that there were more than one radical species, having different spectral features, contributing to the central resonance signal. From this point of view, we focussed on the free radical signal in the present study. The area under the ESR absorption curve which is related to the free radical concentration was determined from the experimental spectra recorded throughout the study, and its variation with microwave power, radiation dose, storage time and temperature was investigated in detail. Free radical concentration was observed to decay very fast within the first 15 days after the irradiation cessation and little thereafter. At the end of the storage period (60 days), the free radical concentration is still higher than that of the control (unirradiated) sample. The decay of free radical concentration at room and high temperatures were described well by the sum of three second-order decay functions representing three different radical species (A, B and C). The activation energies of these radicals, evaluated by Arrhenius analysis, are in the order EC>EB>EA. Simulation calculations have shown that three radical species (A, B and C) of different spectral parameters were found to best explain the experimental values.

  13. Draft genome sequence of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) provides a resource for trait improvement.

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    Varshney, Rajeev K; Song, Chi; Saxena, Rachit K; Azam, Sarwar; Yu, Sheng; Sharpe, Andrew G; Cannon, Steven; Baek, Jongmin; Rosen, Benjamin D; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Millan, Teresa; Zhang, Xudong; Ramsay, Larissa D; Iwata, Aiko; Wang, Ying; Nelson, William; Farmer, Andrew D; Gaur, Pooran M; Soderlund, Carol; Penmetsa, R Varma; Xu, Chunyan; Bharti, Arvind K; He, Weiming; Winter, Peter; Zhao, Shancen; Hane, James K; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Condie, Janet A; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Thudi, Mahendar; Gowda, C L L; Singh, Narendra P; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Gali, Krishna K; Rubio, Josefa; Nadarajan, N; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Bansal, Kailash C; Xu, Xun; Edwards, David; Zhang, Gengyun; Kahl, Guenter; Gil, Juan; Singh, Karam B; Datta, Swapan K; Jackson, Scott A; Wang, Jun; Cook, Douglas R

    2013-03-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is the second most widely grown legume crop after soybean, accounting for a substantial proportion of human dietary nitrogen intake and playing a crucial role in food security in developing countries. We report the ∼738-Mb draft whole genome shotgun sequence of CDC Frontier, a kabuli chickpea variety, which contains an estimated 28,269 genes. Resequencing and analysis of 90 cultivated and wild genotypes from ten countries identifies targets of both breeding-associated genetic sweeps and breeding-associated balancing selection. Candidate genes for disease resistance and agronomic traits are highlighted, including traits that distinguish the two main market classes of cultivated chickpea--desi and kabuli. These data comprise a resource for chickpea improvement through molecular breeding and provide insights into both genome diversity and domestication.

  14. Chickpea damping-off due to metalaxyl-resistant Pythium: An emerging disease in the Palouse

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    Legumes and large-seeded (Kabuli-type) chickpeas are highly vulnerable to Pythium damping-off when planted in cold, wet soil in the spring, due to their thin seed coat and copious seed exudates during germination. For decades, the preferred and only available seed treatment for reliable control of d...

  15. Differences between easy- and difficult-to-mill chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes. Part I: broad chemical composition.

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    Wood, Jennifer A; Knights, Edmund J; Campbell, Grant M; Choct, Mingan

    2014-05-01

    Ease of milling is an important quality trait for chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) and involves two separate processes: removal of the seed coat and splitting of cotyledons. Four chickpea genotypes (two desi types, one kabuli type and one interspecific hybrid with 'wild' C. echinospermum parentage) of differing ease of milling were examined to identify associated seed composition differences in the seed coat, cotyledons and their junctions (abaxial and adaxial). Several components in different fractions were associated with ease of milling chickpea seeds: primarily soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (including pectins) and protein at the seed coat and cotyledon junctions, and the lignin content of the seed coat. This study shows that the chemical composition of chickpea does vary with seed type (desi and kabuli) and within desi genotypes in ways that are consistent with physical explanations of how seed structure and properties relate to milling behaviour. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Differential Sensitivity of Macrocarpa and Microcarpa Types of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to Water Stress: Association of Contrasting Stress Response with Oxidative Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harsh Nayyar; Smita Singh; Satwinder Kaur; Sanjeev Kumar; Hari D. Upadhyaya

    2006-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is particularly sensitive to water stress at its reproductive phase and, under conditions of water stress, will abort flowers and pods, thus reducing yield potential. There are two types of chickpea: (i) Macrocarpa ("Kabuli"), which has large, rams head-shaped, light brown seeds; and (ii)Microcarpa ("Desi"), which has small, angular and dark-brown seeds. Relatively speaking, "Kabuli" has been reported to be more sensitive to water stress than "Desi". The underlying mechanisms associated with contrasting sensitivity to water stress at the metabolic level are not well understood. We hypothesized that one of the reasons for contrasting water stress sensitivity in the two types of chickpea may be a variation in oxidative injury. In the present study, plants of both types were water stressed at the reproductive stage for 14 d. As a result of the stress, the "Kabuli" type exhibited an 80% reduction in seed yield over control compared with a 64% reduction observed for the "Desi" type. The decrease in leaf water potential (Ψw) was faster in the "Kabuli" compared with the "Desi" type. At the end of the water stress period, Ψ was reduced to -2.9 and -3.1 MPa in the "Desi" and "Kabuli" types, respectively, without any significant difference between them. On the last day of stress, "Kabuli" experienced 20% more membrane injury than "Desi". The chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate were significantly greater in "Desi"compared with "Kabuli". The malondialdehyde and H2O2 content were markedly higher at the end of the water stress in "Kabuli" compared with "Desi", indicating greater oxidative stress in the former. Levels of anti-oxidants, such as ascorbic acid and glutathione, were significantly higher in "Desi" than "Kabuli".Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity did not differ significantly between the two types of chickpea,whereas on the 10th day, the activities of ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione

  17. Preliminary results on evaluation of chickpea, Cicer arietinum, genotypes for resistance to the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

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    Erle, F; Ceylan, F; Erdemir, T; Toker, C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The chickpea, Cicer arietinum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), seeds are vulnerable, both in the field and in storage, to attack by seed-beetles. Beetles of the genus Callosobruchus are major storage pests of chickpea crops and cause considerable economic losses. In the present study, a total of 11 chickpea genotypes including five 'kabuli' (Mexican white, Diyar, CA 2969, ILC 8617 and ACC 245) and six 'desi' chickpeas (ICC 1069, ICC 12422, ICC 14336, ICC 4957, ICC 4969 and ICC 7509) were evaluated for resistance to the pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Resistance was evaluated by measuring percent damage to seeds. Damage to seeds by C. maculatus was manifested by the round exit holes with the 'flap' of seed coat made by emerging adults. Of the 11 genotypes tested, only one (ICC 4969) exhibited a complete resistance to C. maculatus in both free-choice and no-choice tests; no seed damage was found over the test period. In general, the 'desi' chickpeas were more resistant to C. maculatus than the 'kabuli' chickpeas. Among the tested chickpea genotypes, only ICC 4969 can be used as a source of C. maculatus resistance in breeding programmes that could then be grown in organic cultivation free from pesticides.

  18. Draft genome sequence of Cicer reticulatum L., the wild progenitor of chickpea provides a resource for agronomic trait improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sonal; Nawaz, Kashif; Parween, Sabiha; Roy, Riti; Sahu, Kamlesh; Kumar Pole, Anil; Khandal, Hitaishi; Srivastava, Rishi; Kumar Parida, Swarup; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2017-02-01

    Cicer reticulatum L. is the wild progenitor of the fourth most important legume crop chickpea (C. arietinum L.). We assembled short-read sequences into 416 Mb draft genome of C. reticulatum and anchored 78% (327 Mb) of this assembly to eight linkage groups. Genome annotation predicted 25,680 protein-coding genes covering more than 90% of predicted gene space. The genome assembly shared a substantial synteny and conservation of gene orders with the genome of the model legume Medicago truncatula. Resistance gene homologs of wild and domesticated chickpeas showed high sequence homology and conserved synteny. Comparison of gene sequences and nucleotide diversity using 66 wild and domesticated chickpea accessions suggested that the desi type chickpea was genetically closer to the wild species than the kabuli type. Comparative analyses predicted gene flow between the wild and the cultivated species during domestication. Molecular diversity and population genetic structure determination using 15,096 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed an admixed domestication pattern among cultivated (desi and kabuli) and wild chickpea accessions belonging to three population groups reflecting significant influence of parentage or geographical origin for their cultivar-specific population classification. The assembly and the polymorphic sequence resources presented here would facilitate the study of chickpea domestication and targeted use of wild Cicer germplasms for agronomic trait improvement in chickpea. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  19. CTDB: An Integrated Chickpea Transcriptome Database for Functional and Applied Genomics.

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    Mohit Verma

    Full Text Available Chickpea is an important grain legume used as a rich source of protein in human diet. The narrow genetic diversity and limited availability of genomic resources are the major constraints in implementing breeding strategies and biotechnological interventions for genetic enhancement of chickpea. We developed an integrated Chickpea Transcriptome Database (CTDB, which provides the comprehensive web interface for visualization and easy retrieval of transcriptome data in chickpea. The database features many tools for similarity search, functional annotation (putative function, PFAM domain and gene ontology search and comparative gene expression analysis. The current release of CTDB (v2.0 hosts transcriptome datasets with high quality functional annotation from cultivated (desi and kabuli types and wild chickpea. A catalog of transcription factor families and their expression profiles in chickpea are available in the database. The gene expression data have been integrated to study the expression profiles of chickpea transcripts in major tissues/organs and various stages of flower development. The utilities, such as similarity search, ortholog identification and comparative gene expression have also been implemented in the database to facilitate comparative genomic studies among different legumes and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the CTDB represents a resource for the discovery of functional molecular markers (microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms between different chickpea types. We anticipate that integrated information content of this database will accelerate the functional and applied genomic research for improvement of chickpea. The CTDB web service is freely available at http://nipgr.res.in/ctdb.html.

  20. An advanced draft genome assembly of a desi type chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parween, Sabiha; Nawaz, Kashif; Roy, Riti; Pole, Anil K; Venkata Suresh, B; Misra, Gopal; Jain, Mukesh; Yadav, Gitanjali; Parida, Swarup K; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2015-08-11

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important pulse legume crop. We previously reported a draft genome assembly of the desi chickpea cultivar ICC 4958. Here we report an advanced version of the ICC 4958 genome assembly (version 2.0) generated using additional sequence data and an improved genetic map. This resulted in 2.7-fold increase in the length of the pseudomolecules and substantial reduction of sequence gaps. The genome assembly covered more than 94% of the estimated gene space and predicted the presence of 30,257 protein-coding genes including 2230 and 133 genes encoding potential transcription factors (TF) and resistance gene homologs, respectively. Gene expression analysis identified several TF and chickpea-specific genes with tissue-specific expression and displayed functional diversification of the paralogous genes. Pairwise comparison of pseudomolecules in the desi (ICC 4958) and the earlier reported kabuli (CDC Frontier) chickpea assemblies showed an extensive local collinearity with incongruity in the placement of large sequence blocks along the linkage groups, apparently due to use of different genetic maps. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based mining of intra-specific polymorphism identified more than four thousand SNPs differentiating a desi group and a kabuli group of chickpea genotypes.

  1. High density linkage mapping of genomic and transcriptomic SNPs for synteny analysis and anchoring the genome sequence of chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rashmi; Jeena, Ganga; Shah, Niraj; Gupta, Shefali; Pradhan, Seema; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Jain, Mukesh; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    This study presents genome-wide discovery of SNPs through next generation sequencing of the genome of Cicer reticulatum. Mapping of the C. reticulatum sequenced reads onto the draft genome assembly of C. arietinum (desi chickpea) resulted in identification of 842,104 genomic SNPs which were utilized along with an additional 36,446 genic SNPs identified from transcriptome sequences of the aforementioned varieties. Two new chickpea Oligo Pool All (OPAs) each having 3,072 SNPs were designed and utilized for SNP genotyping of 129 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs). Using Illumina GoldenGate Technology genotyping data of 5,041 SNPs were generated and combined with the 1,673 marker data from previously published studies, to generate a high resolution linkage map. The map comprised of 6698 markers distributed on eight linkage groups spanning 1083.93 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.16 cM. Utility of the present map was demonstrated for improving the anchoring of the earlier reported draft genome sequence of desi chickpea by ~30% and that of kabuli chickpea by 18%. The genetic map reported in this study represents the most dense linkage map of chickpea , with the potential to facilitate efficient anchoring of the draft genome sequences of desi as well as kabuli chickpea varieties. PMID:26303721

  2. Genetic variation of a global germplasm collection of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) including Italian accessions at risk of genetic erosion.

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    De Giovanni, C; Pavan, S; Taranto, F; Di Rienzo, V; Miazzi, M M; Marcotrigiano, A R; Mangini, G; Montemurro, C; Ricciardi, L; Lotti, C

    2017-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is one of the most important legumes worldwide. We addressed this study to the genetic characterization of a germplasm collection from main chickpea growing countries. Several Italian traditional landraces at risk of genetic erosion were included in the analysis. Twenty-two simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, widely used to explore genetic variation in plants, were selected and yielded 218 different alleles. Structure analysis and hierarchical clustering indicated that a model with three distinct subpopulations best fits the data. The composition of two subpopulations, named K1 and K2, broadly reflects the commercial classification of chickpea in the two types desi and kabuli, respectively. The third subpopulation (K3) is composed by both desi and kabuli genotypes. Italian accessions group both in K2 and K3. Interestingly, this study highlights genetic distance between desi genotypes cultivated in Asia and Ethiopia, which respectively represent the chickpea primary and the secondary centres of diversity. Moreover, European desi are closer to the Ethiopian gene pool. Overall, this study will be of importance for chickpea conservation genetics and breeding, which is limited by the poor characterization of germplasm collection.

  3. The Potential Use of Fermented Chickpea and Faba Bean Flour as Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Wong, Christina H M; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-03-01

    Apart from being a rich and inexpensive protein source, legumes provide essential vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Considering the nutritional benefits, legumes flour can potentially be incorporated in the development of new products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fermentation affects the protein content, in vitro protein digestibility, trypsin inhibitor activity and the functionality of proteins in faba bean, desi and kabuli chickpea. Australian grown chickpea and faba bean were selected and initially soaked, de-hulled, dried and milled into flour. This was fermented with lyophilised yoghurt cultures in a 30 °C orbital shaker for 16 h. While protein contents in fermented desi and kabuli flour were lower than their raw counterparts (p > 0.05), it was significantly higher in fermented faba bean. A significant increase (9.5%) in in vitro protein digestibility was found in fermented desi. Trypsin inhibitor activity in fermented desi, kabuli and faba bean reduced by 2.7, 1.1 and 4.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Overall, the in vitro protein digestibility in flour samples increased, while simultaneously reducing the trypsin inhibitor activity. The water absorption capacity of the fermented kabuli flour significantly increased by 11.3%. All fermented flour samples had significantly higher oil absorption capacity than their corresponding raw flour that was likely due to increased insoluble hydrophobic protein. Although, the foaming capacity in all fermented flour samples was significantly lower than their respective raw samples, only fermented desi and faba bean flour showed lower foaming stability (p > 0.05). The present study suggests that fermented legume flour could fulfill the demand for innovative products of higher nutritional value.

  4. A genome-wide SNP scan accelerates trait-regulatory genomic loci identification in chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujur, Alice; Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Das, Shouvik; Ranjan, Rajeev; Shree, Tanima; Saxena, Maneesha S.; Badoni, Saurabh; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C.L.L.; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    We identified 44844 high-quality SNPs by sequencing 92 diverse chickpea accessions belonging to a seed and pod trait-specific association panel using reference genome- and de novo-based GBS (genotyping-by-sequencing) assays. A GWAS (genome-wide association study) in an association panel of 211, including the 92 sequenced accessions, identified 22 major genomic loci showing significant association (explaining 23–47% phenotypic variation) with pod and seed number/plant and 100-seed weight. Eighteen trait-regulatory major genomic loci underlying 13 robust QTLs were validated and mapped on an intra-specific genetic linkage map by QTL mapping. A combinatorial approach of GWAS, QTL mapping and gene haplotype-specific LD mapping and transcript profiling uncovered one superior haplotype and favourable natural allelic variants in the upstream regulatory region of a CesA-type cellulose synthase (Ca_Kabuli_CesA3) gene regulating high pod and seed number/plant (explaining 47% phenotypic variation) in chickpea. The up-regulation of this superior gene haplotype correlated with increased transcript expression of Ca_Kabuli_CesA3 gene in the pollen and pod of high pod/seed number accession, resulting in higher cellulose accumulation for normal pollen and pollen tube growth. A rapid combinatorial genome-wide SNP genotyping-based approach has potential to dissect complex quantitative agronomic traits and delineate trait-regulatory genomic loci (candidate genes) for genetic enhancement in crop plants, including chickpea. PMID:26058368

  5. Development of genome-wide informative simple sequence repeat markers for molecular diversity analysis in chickpea and development of web resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWARUP KUMAR PARIDA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of informative polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR markers at a genome-wide scale is essential for efficient large-scale genotyping applications. We identified genome-wide 1835 SSRs showing polymorphism between desi and kabuli chickpea. A total of 1470 polymorphic SSR markers from diverse coding and non-coding regions of the chickpea genome were developed. These physically-mapped SSR markers exhibited robust amplification efficiency (73.9% and high intra- and inter-specific polymorphic potential (63.5%, thereby suggesting their immense use in various genomics-assisted breeding applications. The SSR markers particularly derived from intergenic and intronic sequences revealed high polymorphic potential. Using the mapped SSR markers, a wider functional molecular diversity (16-94%, mean: 68%, and parentage- and cultivar-specific admixed domestication pattern and phylogenetic relationships in a structured population of desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was evident. The intra-specific polymorphism (47.6% and functional molecular diversity (65% potential of polymorphic SSR markers developed in our study is much higher than that of previous documentations. Finally, we have developed a user-friendly web resource, Chickpea Microsatellite Database (CMsDB; http://www.nipgr.res.in/CMsDB.html, which provides public access to the data and results reported in this study. The developed informative SSR markers can serve as a resource for various genotyping applications, including genetic enhancement studies in chickpea.

  6. In vitro starch digestibility, expected glycemic index, and thermal and pasting properties of flours from pea, lentil and chickpea cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Jung; Liu, Qiang; Hoover, Ratnajothi; Warkentin, Tom D; Vandenberg, Bert

    2008-11-15

    In vitro starch digestibility, expected glycemic index (eGI), and thermal and pasting properties of flours from pea, lentil and chickpea grown in Canada under identical environmental conditions were investigated. The protein content and gelatinization transition temperatures of lentil flour were higher than those of pea and chickpea flours. Chickpea flour showed a lower amylose content (10.8-13.5%) but higher free lipid content (6.5-7.1%) and amylose-lipid complex melting enthalpy (0.7-0.8J/g). Significant differences among cultivars within the same species were observed with respect to swelling power, gelatinization properties, pasting properties and in vitro starch digestibility, especially chickpea flour from desi (Myles) and kabuli type (FLIP 97-101C and 97-Indian2-11). Lentil flour was hydrolyzed more slowly and to a lesser extent than pea and chickpea flours. The amount of slowly digestible starch (SDS) in chickpea flour was the highest among the pulse flours, but the resistant starch (RS) content was the lowest. The eGI of lentil flour was the lowest among the pulse flours.

  7. Magnetic treatment of irrigation water and snow pea and chickpea seeds enhances early growth and nutrient contents of seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Harsharn S; Maheshwari, Basant L

    2011-01-01

    The effects of magnetic treatment of irrigation water and snow pea (Pisum sativum L var. macrocarpon) and Kabuli chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) seeds on the emergence, early growth and nutrient contents of seedlings were investigated under glasshouse conditions. The treatments included (i) magnetic treatment of irrigation water (MTW), (ii) magnetic treatment of seeds (MTS), (iii) magnetic treatment of irrigation water and seeds (MTWS) and (iv) no magnetic treatment of irrigation water or seeds as control treatment. A magnetic treatment device with two permanent magnets (magnetic induction: 3.5-136 mT) was used for the above treatments. Seeds were sown in washed sand and seedlings were harvested at 20 days. The results showed that MTW led to a significant (P < 0.05) increase in emergence rate index (ERI; 42% for snow pea and 51% for chickpea), shoot dry weight (25% for snow pea and 20% for chickpea) and contents of N, K, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Zn, Fe and Mn in both seedling varieties compared to control seedlings. Likewise, there were significant increases in ERI (33% for snow peas and 37% for chickpea), shoot dry weight (11% for snow pea and 4% for chickpea) and some nutrients of snow pea and chickpea seedlings with MTS in comparison with the controls. The results of this study suggest that both MTW and MTS have the potential to improve the early seedling growth and nutrient contents of seedlings.

  8. Identification and expression analysis of candidate genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis in chickpea seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Rezaei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant carotenoids have a key role in preventing various diseases in human because of their antioxidant and provitamin A properties. Chickpea is a good source of carotenoid among legumes and its diverse germplasm and genome accessibility makes it a good model for carotenogenesis studies. The structure, location and copy numbers of genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis were retrieved from the chickpea genome. The majority of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs within these genes across five diverse chickpea cultivars was synonymous mutation. We examined the expression of the carotenogenesis genes and their association with carotenoid concentration at different seed development stages of five chickpea cultivars. Total carotenoid concentration ranged from 22 μg g-1 in yellow cotyledon kabuli to 44 μg g-1 in green cotyledon desi at 32 days post anthesis (DPA. The majority of carotenoids in chickpea seeds consists of lutein and zeaxanthin. The expression of the selected 19 genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis pathway showed common pattern across five cultivars with higher expression at 8 and/or 16 DPA then dropped considerably at 24 and 32 DPA. Almost all genes were up-regulated in CDC Jade cultivar. Correlation analysis between gene expression and carotenoid concentration showed that the genes involved in the primary step of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway including carotenoid desaturase and isomerase positively correlated with various carotenoid components in chickpea seeds. A negative correlation was found between hydroxylation activity and provitamin A concentration in the seeds. The highest provitamin A concentration including β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin were found in green cotyledon chickpea cultivars.

  9. Analysis of water absorption of bean and chickpea during soaking using Peleg model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Shafaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peleg model was used to determine the instance moisture content of three varieties of bean (Talash, Sadri and Mahali Khomein and three varieties of chickpea (Desi, small Kabuli and large Kabuli during soaking. The experiments were carried out at three different temperatures (5, 25 and 45 °C in triplicate using distilled water. The moisture content versus time curves were plotted at different experimental temperatures, for six varieties. The results indicated that water absorption increased as the temperature increased. The obtained Peleg model constants were investigated relative to temperature. Activation and free activation energy, as well as entropy and enthalpy changes for the three studied varieties of both chickpea and bean were calculated at three temperatures using Peleg model constants and regression analysis. In the case of bean, the results showed a linear decrease in the coefficients k1 and k2. Furthermore for chickpea, the coefficient of k1 decreased linearly and the effect of temperature on the coefficient k2 was partial and decreasing. Likewise, the results indicated that the seeds enthalpy enhanced significantly as soaking temperature increased from 5 to 45 °C, the raising trend in entropy and released energy was not significant, however (P < 0.05. Maximum and minimum free activation energy in soaking process were observed in chickpea variety of Chico (301.28 kJ mol−1 and bean variety of Mahali Khomein (86.77 kJ mol−1, respectively. In addition, negative values of enthalpy changes of varieties demonstrated that the changes in moisture content during soaking process were associated with exothermic and energetically favorable transformation.

  10. EcoTILLING-based association mapping efficiently delineates functionally relevant natural allelic variants of candidate genes governing agronomic traits in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak eBajaj

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The large-scale mining and high-throughput genotyping of novel gene-based allelic variants in natural mapping population are essential for association mapping to identify functionally relevant molecular tags governing useful agronomic traits in chickpea. The present study employs an alternative time-saving, non-laborious and economical pool-based EcoTILLING approach coupled with agarose gel detection assay to discover 1133 novel SNP allelic variants from diverse coding and regulatory sequence components of 1133 transcription factor (TF genes by genotyping in 192 diverse desi and kabuli chickpea accessions constituting a seed weight association panel. Integrating these SNP genotyping data with seed weight field phenotypic information of 192 structured association panel identified eight SNP alleles in the eight TF genes regulating seed weight of chickpea. The associated individual and combination of all SNPs explained 10-15 and 31% phenotypic variation for seed weight, respectively. The EcoTILLING-based large-scale allele mining and genotyping strategy implemented for association mapping is found much effective for a diploid genome crop species like chickpea with narrow genetic base and low genetic polymorphism. This optimized approach thus can be deployed for various genomics-assisted breeding applications with optimal expense of resources in domesticated chickpea. The seed weight-associated natural allelic variants and candidate TF genes delineated have potential to accelerate marker-assisted genetic improvement of chickpea.

  11. Viruses involved in chickpea stunt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Chickpea stunt is the most important virus disease of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L). This disease is characterized by leaf chlorosis or leaf reddening (depending on the chickpea cultivar), plant stunting, internode shortening, reduction in size of

  12. Bioaugmentation of Mesorhizobium cicer, Pseudomonas spp. and Piriformospora indica for Sustainable Chickpea Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansotra, Pallavi; Sharma, Poonam; Sharma, Sunita

    2015-07-01

    Chickpea establishes symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium to fulfill its nitrogen (N) requirement. Integrating chickpea rhizosphere with potential native mesorhizobia and other plant growth promoting microorganisms can contribute multiple benefits to plants. The present investigation was undertaken to study interactions among Piriformospora indica (PI) with potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) viz. Pseudomonas argentinensis (LPGPR1), Pseudomonas sp. (LPGPR2) along with national check Pseudomons sp. (LK884) and Mesorhizobium cicer (LGR33, MR) to examine the synergistic effect of consortium for improving growth, symbiotic efficiency, nutrient acquisition and yield in two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties viz. desi PBG1 and kabuli BG1053. In-vitro, seed germination with consortium MR + PI + LPGPR1 was the best compatible treatment followed by MR + PI + LK884 and MR + PI + LPGPR2. Significant improvement in the growth, symbiotic parameters and grain yield was observed with MR + PI + LPGPR1 and MR + PI + LK884 treatments. Significantly high chlorophyll and leghaemoglobin content was recorded with MR + PI + LPGPR1 (1.57 and 1.64 mg g(-1) fresh weight of leaves and 5.19 and 4.39 mg/g(-1) fresh weight of nodules) in desi PBG1 and kabuli BG1053 chickpea varieties, respectively. At 90 DAS, MR + PI + LPGPR1 treatment significantly improved nodule dry weight (ranged between 84.0 and 141.7 mg plant(-1)) as compared to MR alone treatment (ranged between 62.3 and 123.3 mg plant(-1)). Data revealed significant increase in total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content of shoot with MR + PI + LPGPR1 by 1.2 and 1.5 fold, respectively over MR alone treatment. On the basis of overall mean, MR + PI + LPGPR1 significantly improved the yield by 8.2 % over Mesorhizobium alone application. It seems from foregoing study that tripartite combination of different micro-organisms can be

  13. Identification of candidate genes for dissecting complex branch number trait in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Das, Shouvik; Kumar, Vinod; Gowda, C L L; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2016-04-01

    The present study exploited integrated genomics-assisted breeding strategy for genetic dissection of complex branch number quantitative trait in chickpea. Candidate gene-based association analysis in a branch number association panel was performed by utilizing the genotyping data of 401 SNP allelic variants mined from 27 known cloned branch number gene orthologs of chickpea. The genome-wide association study (GWAS) integrating both genome-wide GBS- (4556 SNPs) and candidate gene-based genotyping information of 4957 SNPs in a structured population of 60 sequenced desi and kabuli accessions (with 350-400 kb LD decay), detected 11 significant genomic loci (genes) associated (41% combined PVE) with branch number in chickpea. Of these, seven branch number-associated genes were further validated successfully in two inter (ICC 4958 × ICC 17160)- and intra (ICC 12299 × ICC 8261)-specific mapping populations. The axillary meristem and shoot apical meristem-specific expression, including differential up- and down-regulation (4-5 fold) of the validated seven branch number-associated genes especially in high branch number as compared to the low branch number-containing parental accessions and homozygous individuals of two aforesaid mapping populations was apparent. Collectively, this combinatorial genomic approach delineated diverse naturally occurring novel functional SNP allelic variants in seven potential known/candidate genes [PIN1 (PIN-FORMED protein 1), TB1 (teosinte branched 1), BA1/LAX1 (BARREN STALK1/LIKE AUXIN1), GRAS8 (gibberellic acid insensitive/GAI, Repressor of ga13/RGA and Scarecrow8/SCR8), ERF (ethylene-responsive element-binding factor), MAX2 (more axillary growth 2) and lipase] governing chickpea branch number. The useful information generated from this study have potential to expedite marker-assisted genetic enhancement by developing high-yielding cultivars with more number of productive (pods and seeds) branches in chickpea.

  14. A Multiple QTL-Seq Strategy Delineates Potential Genomic Loci Governing Flowering Time in Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rishi; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Kumar, Rajendra; Daware, Anurag; Basu, Udita; Shimray, Philanim W.; Tripathi, Shailesh; Bharadwaj, Chellapilla; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2017-01-01

    Identification of functionally relevant potential genomic loci using an economical, simpler and user-friendly genomics-assisted breeding strategy is vital for rapid genetic dissection of complex flowering time quantitative trait in chickpea. A high-throughput multiple QTL-seq strategy was employed in two inter (Cicer arietinum desi accession ICC 4958 × C reticulatum wild accession ICC 17160)- and intra (ICC 4958 × C. arietinum kabuli accession ICC 8261)-specific RIL mapping populations to identify the major QTL genomic regions governing flowering time in chickpea. The whole genome resequencing discovered 1635117 and 592486 SNPs exhibiting differentiation between early- and late-flowering mapping parents and bulks, constituted by pooling the homozygous individuals of extreme flowering time phenotypic trait from each of two aforesaid RIL populations. The multiple QTL-seq analysis using these mined SNPs in two RIL mapping populations narrowed-down two longer (907.1 kb and 1.99 Mb) major flowering time QTL genomic regions into the high-resolution shorter (757.7 kb and 1.39 Mb) QTL intervals on chickpea chromosome 4. This essentially identified regulatory as well as coding (non-synonymous/synonymous) novel SNP allelic variants from two efl1 (early flowering 1) and GI (GIGANTEA) genes regulating flowering time in chickpea. Interestingly, strong natural allelic diversity reduction (88–91%) of two known flowering genes especially mapped at major QTL intervals as compared to that of background genomic regions (where no flowering time QTLs were mapped; 61.8%) in cultivated vis-à-vis wild Cicer gene pools was evident inferring the significant impact of evolutionary bottlenecks on these loci during chickpea domestication. Higher association potential of coding non-synonymous and regulatory SNP alleles mined from efl1 (36–49%) and GI (33–42%) flowering genes for early and late flowering time differentiation among chickpea accessions was evident. The robustness and

  15. Marker-trait association study for protein content in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. A. Jadhav; S. J. Rayate; L. B. Mhase; M. Thudi; A. Chitikineni; P. N. Harer; A. S. Jadhav; R. K. Varshney; P. L. Kulwal

    2015-06-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important cool season food legume cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the world. The objective of the present study was to study variation for protein content in chickpea germplasm, and to find markers associated with it. A set of 187 genotypes comprising both international and exotic collections, and representing both desi and kabuli types with protein content ranging from 13.25% to 26.77% was used. Twenty-three SSR markers representing all eight linkage groups (LG) amplifying 153 loci were used for the analysis. Population structure analysis identified three subpopulations, and corresponding $Q$ values of principal components were used to take care of population structure in the analysis which was performed using general linear and mixed linear models. Marker-trait association (MTA) analysis identified nine significant associations representing four QTLs in the entire population. Subpopulation analyses identified ten significant MTAs representing five QTLs, four of which were common with that of the entire population. Two most significant QTLs linked with markers TR26.205 and CaM1068.195 were present on LG3 and LG5. Gene ontology search identified 29 candidate genes in the region of significant MTAs on LG3. The present study will be helpful in concentrating on LG3 and LG5 for identification of closely linked markers for protein content in chickpea and for their use in molecular breeding programme for nutritional quality improvement.

  16. Marker-trait association study for protein content in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, A A; Rayate, S J; Mhase, L B; Thudi, M; Chitikineni, A; Harer, P N; Jadhav, A S; Varshney, R K; Kulwal, P L

    2015-06-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important cool season food legume cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of the world. The objective of the present study was to study variation for protein content in chickpea germplasm, and to find markers associated with it. A set of 187 genotypes comprising both international and exotic collections, and representing both desi and kabuli types with protein content ranging from 13.25% to 26.77% was used. Twenty-three SSR markers representing all eight linkage groups (LG) amplifying 153 loci were used for the analysis. Population structure analysis identified three subpopulations, and corresponding Q values of principal components were used to take care of population structure in the analysis which was performed using general linear and mixed linear models. Marker-trait association (MTA) analysis identified nine significant associations representing four QTLs in the entire population. Subpopulation analyses identified ten significant MTAs representing five QTLs, four of which were common with that of the entire population. Two most significant QTLs linked with markers TR26.205 and CaM1068.195 were present on LG3 and LG5. Gene ontology search identified 29 candidate genes in the region of significant MTAs on LG3. The present study will be helpful in concentrating on LG3 and LG5 for identification of closely linked markers for protein content in chickpea and for their use in molecular breeding programme for nutritional quality improvement.

  17. Transcriptome landscape of perennial wild Cicer microphyllum uncovers functionally relevant molecular tags regulating agronomic traits in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rishi; Bajaj, Deepak; Malik, Ayushi; Singh, Mohar; Parida, Swarup K

    2016-09-29

    The RNA-sequencing followed by de-novo transcriptome assembly identified 11621 genes differentially xpressed in roots vs. shoots of a wild perennial Cicer microphyllum. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes between microphyllum and cultivated desi cv. ICC4958 detected 12772 including 3242 root- and 1639 shoot-specific microphyllum genes with 85% expression validation success rate. Transcriptional reprogramming of microphyllum root-specific genes implicates their possible role in regulating differential natural adaptive characteristics between wild and cultivated chickpea. The transcript-derived 5698 including 282 in-silico polymorphic SSR and 127038 SNP markers annotated at a genome-wide scale exhibited high amplification and polymorphic potential among cultivated (desi and kabuli) and wild accessions suggesting their utility in chickpea genomics-assisted breeding applications. The functional significance of markers was assessed based on their localization in non-synonymous coding and regulatory regions of microphyllum root-specific genes differentially expressed predominantly in ICC 4958 roots under drought stress. A high-density 490 genic SSR- and SNP markers-anchored genetic linkage map identified six major QTLs regulating drought tolerance-related traits, yield per plant and harvest-index in chickpea. The integration of high-resolution QTL mapping with comparative transcriptome profiling delineated five microphyllum root-specific genes with non-synonymous and regulatory SNPs governing drought-responsive yield traits. Multiple potential key regulators and functionally relevant molecular tags delineated can drive translational research and drought tolerance-mediated chickpea genetic enhancement.

  18. Transcriptome landscape of perennial wild Cicer microphyllum uncovers functionally relevant molecular tags regulating agronomic traits in chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rishi; Bajaj, Deepak; Malik, Ayushi; Singh, Mohar; Parida, Swarup K.

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-sequencing followed by de-novo transcriptome assembly identified 11621 genes differentially xpressed in roots vs. shoots of a wild perennial Cicer microphyllum. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes between microphyllum and cultivated desi cv. ICC4958 detected 12772 including 3242 root- and 1639 shoot-specific microphyllum genes with 85% expression validation success rate. Transcriptional reprogramming of microphyllum root-specific genes implicates their possible role in regulating differential natural adaptive characteristics between wild and cultivated chickpea. The transcript-derived 5698 including 282 in-silico polymorphic SSR and 127038 SNP markers annotated at a genome-wide scale exhibited high amplification and polymorphic potential among cultivated (desi and kabuli) and wild accessions suggesting their utility in chickpea genomics-assisted breeding applications. The functional significance of markers was assessed based on their localization in non-synonymous coding and regulatory regions of microphyllum root-specific genes differentially expressed predominantly in ICC 4958 roots under drought stress. A high-density 490 genic SSR- and SNP markers-anchored genetic linkage map identified six major QTLs regulating drought tolerance-related traits, yield per plant and harvest-index in chickpea. The integration of high-resolution QTL mapping with comparative transcriptome profiling delineated five microphyllum root-specific genes with non-synonymous and regulatory SNPs governing drought-responsive yield traits. Multiple potential key regulators and functionally relevant molecular tags delineated can drive translational research and drought tolerance-mediated chickpea genetic enhancement. PMID:27680662

  19. Genotype and growing environment interaction shows a positive correlation between substrates of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) biosynthesis and their accumulation in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangola, Manu P; Khedikar, Yogendra P; Gaur, Pooran M; Båga, Monica; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2013-05-22

    To develop genetic improvement strategies to modulate raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) concentration in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) seeds, RFO and their precursor concentrations were analyzed in 171 chickpea genotypes from diverse geographical origins. The genotypes were grown in replicated trials over two years in the field (Patancheru, India) and in the greenhouse (Saskatoon, Canada). Analysis of variance revealed a significant impact of genotype, environment, and their interaction on RFO concentration in chickpea seeds. Total RFO concentration ranged from 1.58 to 5.31 mmol/100 g and from 2.11 to 5.83 mmol/100 g in desi and kabuli genotypes, respectively. Sucrose (0.60-3.59 g/100 g) and stachyose (0.18-2.38 g/100 g) were distinguished as the major soluble sugar and RFO, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between substrate and product concentration in RFO biosynthesis. In chickpea seeds, raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose showed a moderate broad sense heritability (0.25-0.56), suggesting the use of a multilocation trials based approach in chickpea seed quality improvement programs.

  20. A high-resolution InDel (insertion-deletion markers-anchored consensus genetic map identifies major QTLs governing pod number and seed yield in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Srivastava

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development and large-scale genotyping of user-friendly informative genome/gene-derived InDel markers in natural and mapping populations is vital for accelerating genomics-assisted breeding applications of chickpea with minimal resource expenses. The present investigation employed a high-throughput whole genome NGS (next-generation sequencing resequencing strategy in low and high pod number parental accessions and homozygous individuals constituting the bulks from each of two inter-specific mapping populations [(Pusa 1103 x ILWC 46 and (Pusa 256 x ILWC 46] to develop non-erroneous InDel markers at a genome-wide scale. Comparing these high-quality genomic sequences, 82360 InDel markers with reference to kabuli genome and 13891 InDel markers exhibiting differentiation between low and high pod number parental accessions and bulks of aforementioned mapping populations were developed. These informative markers were structurally and functionally annotated in diverse coding and non-coding sequence components of genome/genes of kabuli chickpea. The functional significance of regulatory and coding (frameshift and large-effect mutations InDel markers for establishing marker-trait linkages through association/genetic mapping was apparent. The markers detected a greater amplification (97% and intra-specific polymorphic potential (58-87% among a diverse panel of cultivated desi, kabuli and wild accessions even by using a simpler cost-efficient agarose gel-based assay implicating their utility in large-scale genetic analysis especially in domesticated chickpea with narrow genetic base. Two high-density inter-specific genetic linkage maps generated using aforesaid mapping populations were integrated to construct a consensus 1479 InDel markers-anchored high-resolution (inter-marker distance: 0.66 cM genetic map for efficient molecular mapping of major QTLs governing pod number and seed yield per plant in chickpea. Utilizing these high-density genetic maps as

  1. A combinatorial approach of comprehensive QTL-based comparative genome mapping and transcript profiling identified a seed weight-regulating candidate gene in chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Khan, Yusuf; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Shree, Tanima; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C. L. L.; Singh, Sube; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Chattopdhyay, Debasis; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    High experimental validation/genotyping success rate (94–96%) and intra-specific polymorphic potential (82–96%) of 1536 SNP and 472 SSR markers showing in silico polymorphism between desi ICC 4958 and kabuli ICC 12968 chickpea was obtained in a 190 mapping population (ICC 4958 × ICC 12968) and 92 diverse desi and kabuli genotypes. A high-density 2001 marker-based intra-specific genetic linkage map comprising of eight LGs constructed is comparatively much saturated (mean map-density: 0.94 cM) in contrast to existing intra-specific genetic maps in chickpea. Fifteen robust QTLs (PVE: 8.8–25.8% with LOD: 7.0–13.8) associated with pod and seed number/plant (PN and SN) and 100 seed weight (SW) were identified and mapped on 10 major genomic regions of eight LGs. One of 126.8 kb major genomic region harbouring a strong SW-associated robust QTL (Caq'SW1.1: 169.1–171.3 cM) has been delineated by integrating high-resolution QTL mapping with comprehensive marker-based comparative genome mapping and differential expression profiling. This identified one potential regulatory SNP (G/A) in the cis-acting element of candidate ERF (ethylene responsive factor) TF (transcription factor) gene governing seed weight in chickpea. The functionally relevant molecular tags identified have potential to be utilized for marker-assisted genetic improvement of chickpea. PMID:25786576

  2. Genetic structure, diversity, and allelic richness in composite collection and reference set in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowda Cholenahalli LL

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant genetic resources (PGR are the basic raw materials for future genetic progress and an insurance against unforeseen threats to agricultural production. An extensive characterization of PGR provides an opportunity to dissect structure, mine allelic variations, and identify diverse accessions for crop improvement. The Generation Challenge Program http://www.generationcp.org conceptualized the development of "composite collections" and extraction of "reference sets" from these for more efficient tapping of global crop-related genetic resources. In this study, we report the genetic structure, diversity and allelic richness in a composite collection of chickpea using SSR markers, and formation of a reference set of 300 accessions. Results The 48 SSR markers detected 1683 alleles in 2915 accessions, of which, 935 were considered rare, 720 common and 28 most frequent. The alleles per locus ranged from 14 to 67, averaged 35, and the polymorphic information content was from 0.467 to 0.974, averaged 0.854. Marker polymorphism varied between groups of accessions in the composite collection and reference set. A number of group-specific alleles were detected: 104 in Kabuli, 297 in desi, and 69 in wild Cicer; 114 each in Mediterranean and West Asia (WA, 117 in South and South East Asia (SSEA, and 10 in African region accessions. Desi and kabuli shared 436 alleles, while wild Cicer shared 17 and 16 alleles with desi and kabuli, respectively. The accessions from SSEA and WA shared 74 alleles, while those from Mediterranean 38 and 33 alleles with WA and SSEA, respectively. Desi chickpea contained a higher proportion of rare alleles (53% than kabuli (46%, while wild Cicer accessions were devoid of rare alleles. A genotype-based reference set captured 1315 (78% of the 1683 composite collection alleles of which 463 were rare, 826 common, and 26 the most frequent alleles. The neighbour-joining tree diagram of this reference set represents

  3. Differences between easy- and difficult-to-mill chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes. Part II: protein, lipid and mineral composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jennifer A; Knights, Edmund J; Campbell, Grant M; Choct, Mingan

    2014-05-01

    Part I introduced the concept of easy- and difficult-to-mill chickpea genotypes, the broad chemical composition of their seed fractions and proposed mechanistic explanations for physical differences consistent with observed variation in milling ease. Part II continues this research by delving deeper into the amino acid, fatty acid and mineral components. No association between fatty acid composition and ease of milling was observed. However, particular amino acids and mineral elements were identified that further support roles of lectins, pectins and mineral-facilitated binding in the adhesion of chickpea seed coat and cotyledons. These differences suggest underlying mechanisms that could be exploited by breeding programmes to improve milling performance. This study shows that the content and composition of amino acids, fatty acids and minerals within different chickpea tissues vary with seed type (desi and kabuli) and within desi genotypes in ways that are consistent with physical explanations of how seed structure and properties relate to milling behaviour. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. A High-Resolution InDel (Insertion–Deletion) Markers-Anchored Consensus Genetic Map Identifies Major QTLs Governing Pod Number and Seed Yield in Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Rishi; Singh, Mohar; Bajaj, Deepak; Parida, Swarup K.

    2016-01-01

    Development and large-scale genotyping of user-friendly informative genome/gene-derived InDel markers in natural and mapping populations is vital for accelerating genomics-assisted breeding applications of chickpea with minimal resource expenses. The present investigation employed a high-throughput whole genome next-generation resequencing strategy in low and high pod number parental accessions and homozygous individuals constituting the bulks from each of two inter-specific mapping populations [(Pusa 1103 × ILWC 46) and (Pusa 256 × ILWC 46)] to develop non-erroneous InDel markers at a genome-wide scale. Comparing these high-quality genomic sequences, 82,360 InDel markers with reference to kabuli genome and 13,891 InDel markers exhibiting differentiation between low and high pod number parental accessions and bulks of aforementioned mapping populations were developed. These informative markers were structurally and functionally annotated in diverse coding and non-coding sequence components of genome/genes of kabuli chickpea. The functional significance of regulatory and coding (frameshift and large-effect mutations) InDel markers for establishing marker-trait linkages through association/genetic mapping was apparent. The markers detected a greater amplification (97%) and intra-specific polymorphic potential (58–87%) among a diverse panel of cultivated desi, kabuli, and wild accessions even by using a simpler cost-efficient agarose gel-based assay implicating their utility in large-scale genetic analysis especially in domesticated chickpea with narrow genetic base. Two high-density inter-specific genetic linkage maps generated using aforesaid mapping populations were integrated to construct a consensus 1479 InDel markers-anchored high-resolution (inter-marker distance: 0.66 cM) genetic map for efficient molecular mapping of major QTLs governing pod number and seed yield per plant in chickpea. Utilizing these high-density genetic maps as anchors, three major

  5. Genome-wide insertion–deletion (InDel) marker discovery and genotyping for genomics-assisted breeding applications in chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shouvik; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Srivastava, Rishi; Bajaj, Deepak; Gowda, C.L.L.; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    We developed 21,499 genome-wide insertion–deletion (InDel) markers (2- to 54-bp in silico fragment length polymorphism) by comparing the genomic sequences of four (desi, kabuli and wild C. reticulatum) chickpea [Cicer arietinum (L.)] accessions. InDel markers showing 2- to 6-bp fragment length polymorphism among accessions were abundant (76.8%) in the chickpea genome. The physically mapped 7,643 and 13,856 markers on eight chromosomes and unanchored scaffolds, respectively, were structurally and functionally annotated. The 4,506 coding (23% large-effect frameshift mutations) and regulatory InDel markers were identified from 3,228 genes (representing 11.7% of total 27,571 desi genes), suggesting their functional relevance for trait association/genetic mapping. High amplification (97%) and intra-specific polymorphic (60–83%) potential and wider genetic diversity (15–89%) were detected by genome-wide 6,254 InDel markers among desi, kabuli and wild accessions using even a simpler cost-effective agarose gel-based assay. This signifies added advantages of this user-friendly genetic marker system for manifold large-scale genotyping applications in laboratories with limited infrastructure and resources. Utilizing 6,254 InDel markers-based high-density (inter-marker distance: 0.212 cM) inter-specific genetic linkage map (ICC 4958 × ICC 17160) of chickpea as a reference, three major genomic regions harboring six flowering and maturity time robust QTLs (16.4–27.5% phenotypic variation explained, 8.1–11.5 logarithm of odds) were identified. Integration of genetic and physical maps at these target QTL intervals mapped on three chromosomes delineated five InDel markers-containing candidate genes tightly linked to the QTLs governing flowering and maturity time in chickpea. Taken together, our study demonstrated the practical utility of developing and high-throughput genotyping of such beneficial InDel markers at a genome-wide scale to expedite genomics

  6. Pre-sowing static magnetic field treatment for improving water and radiation use efficiency in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under soil moisture stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridha, Nilimesh; Chattaraj, Sudipta; Chakraborty, Debashis; Anand, Anjali; Aggarwal, Pramila; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2016-09-01

    Soil moisture stress during pod filling is a major constraint in production of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), a fundamentally dry land crop. We investigated effect of pre-sowing seed priming with static magnetic field (SMF) on alleviation of stress through improvement in radiation and water use efficiencies. Experiments were conducted under greenhouse and open field conditions with desi and kabuli genotypes. Seeds exposed to SMF (strength: 100 mT, exposure: 1 h) led to increase in root volume and surface area by 70% and 65%, respectively. This enabled the crop to utilize 60% higher moisture during the active growth period (78-118 days after sowing), when soil moisture became limiting. Both genotypes from treated seeds had better water utilization, biomass, and radiation use efficiencies (17%, 40%, and 26% over control). Seed pre-treatment with SMF could, therefore, be a viable option for chickpea to alleviate soil moisture stress in arid and semi-arid regions, helping in augmenting its production. It could be a viable option to improve growth and yield of chickpea under deficit soil moisture condition, as the selection and breeding program takes a decade before a tolerant variety is released. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:400-408, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Flower numbers, pod production, pollen viability, and pistil function are reduced and flower and pod abortion increased in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under terminal drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangwen; Turner, Neil C; Yan, Guijun; Li, Fengmin; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2010-01-01

    Terminal drought during the reproductive stage is a major constraint to yield of chickpea in many regions of the world. Termination of watering (WS) during podding in a small-seeded desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivar, Rupali, and a large-seeded kabuli chickpea cultivar, Almaz, induced a decrease in predawn leaf water potential (LWP), in the rate of photosynthesis, and in stomatal conductance. Compared to well-watered (WW) controls, the WS treatment reduced flower production by about two-thirds. In the WW treatment, about 15% of the flowers aborted and 42% (Rupali) and 67% (Almaz) of the pods aborted, whereas in the WS treatment 37% and 56% of the flowers aborted and 54% and 73% of the pods aborted, resulting in seed yields of 33% and 15% of the yields in WW plants in Rupali and Almaz, respectively. In vitro pollen viability and germination in Rupali decreased by 50% and 89% in the WS treatment, and pollen germination decreased by 80% in vivo when pollen from a WS plant was placed on a stigma of a WW plant. While about 37% of the germinated pollen tubes from WW plants and 22% from the WS plants reached the ovary in the WW plants, less than 3% of pollen grains reached the ovary when pollen from either WS or WW plants was placed on a stigma of a WS plant. It is concluded that, in addition to pod abortion, flower abortion is an important factor limiting yield in chickpea exposed to terminal drought and that water deficit impaired the function of the pistil/style more than the pollen.

  8. Resistance to Fusarium wilt in chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium wilt of chickpea, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc), is a destructive disease and is distributed in almost all chickpea producing regions of the world. Foc has eight physiological races designated as 0, 1A, 1B/C, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. The races are different...

  9. Flow properties of acetylated chickpea protein dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li H; Hung, Tran V

    2010-06-01

    Chickpea protein concentrate was acetylated with acetic anhydride at 5 levels. Acetylated chickpea protein (ACP) dispersions at 3 levels (6%, 45%, and 49%) were chosen for this flow property study. Effects of protein concentration, temperature, concentrations of salt addition and particularly, degree of acetylation on these properties were examined. Compared with native chickpea proteins, the ACP dispersions exhibited a strong shear thinning behavior. Within measured temperature range (15 to 55 degrees C), the apparent viscosities of native chickpea protein dispersions were temperature independent; those of ACP dispersions were thermally affected. The flow index (n), consistency coefficient (m), apparent yield stress, and apparent viscosities of ACP dispersions increased progressively up to 45% acetylation but decreased at 49% acetylation level. Conformational studies by gel filtration suggested that chickpea proteins were associated or polymerized at up to 45% acetylation but the associated subunits gradually dissociated to smaller units at higher levels (49%) of acetylation.

  10. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P ... and height and caused delay and reduction in seed emergence, quinoa was shown to be more resistant than chickpea. Dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index and crop water productivity were affected significantly (P ... and seed yield for both quinoa and chickpea while increasing salinity resulted in increase - in the case of quinoa - and decrease - in the case of chickpea - in harvest index and crop water productivity. Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity, while K+ content decreased...

  11. Phyto toxic effects of Euphorbia dracunculoides: a weed of rainfed chickpea-chickpea cropping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shance, S.; Tranveer, A.; Javaid, M. M.; Chaudhry, K. M.; Aziz, A.; Khaliq, A.; Chaudhry, M. N.; Pervez, M. A.; Awan, I. U.

    2011-07-01

    Phyto toxic effect occurs when plants release chemicals that inhibit neighbouring plants. Phyto toxic effects of aqueous extracts of different parts of Euphorbia dracunculoides L. (green spurge) at two concentrations, and its infested soil were investigated on germination and seedling growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The fruit extract at 1:20 (w/v) concentration caused maximum reduction (12%) in germination of chickpea seeds while leaf extract at 1:10 (w/v) concentration resulted in maximum mean germination time value and minimum germination index of chickpea seeds. All the traits of chickpea seedling growth including emergence were adversely affected by the aqueous extracts at both concentrations. Further, the inhibition of chickpea seedling growth was more pronounced with 1:10 (w/v) concentration whereas the lower concentration (1:20 w/v) showed stimulatory effect on shoot length, seedling vigor index and chlorophyll contents of chickpea seedlings. The leaf extract at 1:10 (w/v) concentration proved most harmful to seedling growth and chlorophyll contents (76% reduction) of chickpea. Soil beneath the E. dracunculoides plants significantly reduced emergence (23%), seedling vigor index (55%) and chlorophyll content (19%) of chickpea but a significant increase in N (6%), P (16%) and K (4%) contents of chickpea seedlings was recorded. Thus it can be concluded that E. dracunculoides contains compounds in its tissues which may cause phyto toxic effects on chickpea under field conditions. (Author) 31 refs.

  12. Kabuli和Desi品种鹰嘴豆淀粉结构及功能性质%Structure and functional properties of chickpea starches of Kabuli and Desi varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪铭; 江波; 张涛

    2008-01-01

    采用扫描电镜、高效液相色谱、X射线衍射、差示扫描量热仪、红外光谱等现代分析手段探讨了Kabuli与Desi品种鹰嘴豆淀粉的颗粒形貌与大小、分子量分布、结晶结构、热焓性质、结构特征、消化性能及血糖生成指数.研究结果表明:鹰嘴豆淀粉的颗粒表面十分光滑,多数呈鹅卵石状,少数呈圆形.分子量分布图呈单一峰且其高分子量部分占的比例大,Cc-型结晶图谱,含有伯、仲醇羟基的a-D-吡喃环等结构特征,糊化起始温度高于60℃,是一种低GI淀粉.

  13. Genetic enhancement for grain yield in chickpea – accomplishments and resetting research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Chaturvedi and N. Nadarajan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., commonly known as ‘gram’ is one of the major pulse crops of India covering 7.97 m ha areaproducing 7.06 m t of the grains and registering all time productivity of 885 kg/ha during 2008-09. This has become possible due todevelopment and popularization of high yielding varieties insulated well against various biotic and abiotic stresses for various partsof the country. Some of these high yielding are GNG 158, Vijay, DCP 92-3, Rajas, Digvijay, KWR 108, H 82-2, RSG 888, JG 315,Vijay, JG 16, ICCV 10, JG 11, KGD 1168, GNG 469, Pusa 372, KPG 59, ICCV 2, Shubhra (IPCK 2002-29, BGD 128, PusaChamatkar (BG 1053, JGK 1 and Pusa kabuli 1003 which have stable resistance against wilt. Similarly PBG 5, GNG 469, PBG 1,Pusa 413, Pusa 408, Pusa 417 and Himachal chana 1 have resistance against ascochyta blight besides high yield potential. Littleefforts have been made in vast variability present among germplasm accessions, which are available with several International andNational Institutes. Inter-mating between accessions/elite lines of same origin or inter-varietal crosses led varieties development hasresulted in narrow genetic base of existing cultivars. Little efforts have been made in exploitation of wild Cicer and exoticcollections also. Concerted and systematic efforts are required to harness the potential of this vast variability. In view of the changingclimatic and global scenario there is urgent need to reorient breeding programme so that desired level of genetic enhancement can beachieved. Genetic options for mitigating terminal soil moisture stress and high temperature, both at reproductive and vegetativestage, development of genotypes with high nutrient efficiency need care in breeding programmes. Besides, biotic and abiotic stressesnow trade has become more important. Ttherefore development varieties possessing consumers’ preferred traits like seed size inkabuli and milling quality in desi chickpea need special

  14. Wild onion (Asphodelus tenuifolius) competition in rainfed chickpea-chickpea cropping system

    OpenAIRE

    SIBTAIN,M.; Tanveer,A.; Javaid,M.M; Ali,H.H.

    2015-01-01

    Chickpea yield potential is limited by weed competition in typical chickpea growing areas of Pakistan where zero tillage crop grown on moisture conserved from rains received during the months of September and August. The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and yield characteristics of chickpea grown in coexistence with increasing densities of wild onion (Asphodelus tenuifolius). The experiment was comprised of six density levels viz. zero, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 plants m-2 of A...

  15. Effects of different drought levels and planting date on yield and yield components of three chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivars in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza goldani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of different drought levels and planting dates on yield and yield components of chickpea, an expriment was conducted during 2003 growing season in Mashhad. Two planting dates including 9 January and 18 February, four drought levels including I1=no irrigation, I2= irrigation only at planting time, I3= irrigation at planting time and before flowering I4=irrigation at planting time, before flowering and podding and three Kabuli chickpea cultivars (Jam, Karaj 12-60-31 and ILC 482 were compared in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Drought levels and planting dates affected pod and grain numbers per square meter as well as 100 grain weight significantly. Three - time irrigation (I4 had maximum grain yield. Karaj 12-60-31 cultivar had the highest grain yield and ILC 482 cultivar had the lowest. Jam cultivar was the most tolerate to water stress conditions but Karaj 12-60-31 with three - time irrigation had the most grain yield.

  16. Phylogenetic diversity of Mesorhizobium in chickpea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dong Hyun Kim; Mayank Kaashyap; Abhishek Rathore; Roma R Das; Swathi Parupalli; Hari D Upadhyaya; S Gopalakrishnan; Pooran M Gaur; Sarvjeet Singh; Jagmeet Kaur; Mohammad Yasin; Rajeev K Varshney

    2014-06-01

    Crop domestication, in general, has reduced genetic diversity in cultivated gene pool of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) as compared with wild species (C. reticulatum, C. bijugum). To explore impact of domestication on symbiosis, 10 accessions of chickpeas, including 4 accessions of C. arietinum, and 3 accessions of each of C. reticulatum and C. bijugum species, were selected and DNAs were extracted from their nodules. To distinguish chickpea symbiont, preliminary sequences analysis was attempted with 9 genes (16S rRNA, atpD, dnaJ, glnA, gyrB, nifH, nifK, nodD and recA) of which 3 genes (gyrB, nifK and nodD) were selected based on sufficient sequence diversity for further phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence diversity for 3 genes demonstrated that sequences from C. reticulatum were more diverse. Nodule occupancy by dominant symbiont also indicated that C. reticulatum (60%) could have more various symbionts than cultivated chickpea (80%). The study demonstrated that wild chickpeas (C. reticulatum) could be used for selecting more diverse symbionts in the field conditions and it implies that chickpea domestication affected symbiosis negatively in addition to reducing genetic diversity.

  17. Approaches for enhancement of N₂ fixation efficiency of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under limiting nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Maryam Nasr; Sulieman, Saad; Schulze, Joachim; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son

    2014-04-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is an important pulse crop in many countries in the world. The symbioses between chickpea and Mesorhizobia, which fix N₂ inside the root nodules, are of particular importance for chickpea's productivity. With the aim of enhancing symbiotic efficiency in chickpea, we compared the symbiotic efficiency of C-15, Ch-191 and CP-36 strains of Mesorhizobium ciceri in association with the local elite chickpea cultivar 'Bivanij' as well as studied the mechanism underlying the improvement of N₂ fixation efficiency. Our data revealed that C-15 strain manifested the most efficient N₂ fixation in comparison with Ch-191 or CP-36. This finding was supported by higher plant productivity and expression levels of the nifHDK genes in C-15 nodules. Nodule specific activity was significantly higher in C-15 combination, partially as a result of higher electron allocation to N₂ versus H⁺. Interestingly, a striking difference in nodule carbon and nitrogen composition was observed. Sucrose cleavage enzymes displayed comparatively lower activity in nodules established by either Ch-191 or CP-36. Organic acid formation, particularly that of malate, was remarkably higher in nodules induced by C-15 strain. As a result, the best symbiotic efficiency observed with C-15-induced nodules was reflected in a higher concentration of the total and several major amino metabolites, namely asparagine, glutamine, glutamate and aspartate. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that the improved efficiency in chickpea symbiotic system, established with C-15, was associated with the enhanced capacity of organic acid formation and the activities of the key enzymes connected to the nodule carbon and nitrogen metabolism. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajuria, Yash Paul; Saxena, Maneesha S; Gaur, Rashmi; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Jain, Mukesh; Parida, Swarup K; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777) of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%), experimental validation success rate (81%) and polymorphic potential (55%) of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48%) detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%). An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777) having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs) of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7-23 cM) longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped highest

  19. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Paul Khajuria

    Full Text Available The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777 of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%, experimental validation success rate (81% and polymorphic potential (55% of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48% detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%. An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777 having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7-23 cM longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped

  20. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rashmi; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Jain, Mukesh; Parida, Swarup K.; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777) of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%), experimental validation success rate (81%) and polymorphic potential (55%) of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48%) detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%). An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777) having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs) of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7–23 cM) longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped highest

  1. Physico-chemical characteristics, water absorption, soaking and cooking properties of some Sicilian populations of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Cristina; Iacoponi, Elisa; Raccuia, Salvatore A

    2004-11-01

    The physical and physico-chemical properties of several Kabuli chickpeas originating from Sicily (South Italy) were determined. Twelve genotypes in all, including two controls (ILC484, of the ICARDA genebank, and 'Calia', a traditional Italian cultivar), were analysed. A large variability among genotypes was ascertained for swelling capacity (coefficient of variation [CV] = 27.9%), swelling index (CV = 30.5%) and calcium content (CV = 39.3%). The lowest variability was observed for seed coat (CV = 8.6%) and seed weight (CV = 9.6%). Genotype statistically affected all traits, whose mean values were: seed weight, 0.340 +/- 0.03 g; seed coat, 4.47 +/- 0.38%; seed volume, 0.292 +/- 0.04 ml; seed density, 1.18 +/- 0.15 g/ml; hydration capacity, 0.361 +/- 0.09 g/seed; hydration index, 1.05 +/- 0.21; swelling capacity, 0.346 +/- 0.10 ml/seed; swelling index, 1.21 +/- 0.37; cooking texture, 2.61 +/- 0.38 kg/cm(2); and calcium, 109.6 +/- 43.11 mg/100 g dry weight. Correlation coefficients among characteristics were also estimated. The genotype '44M33' was found to be interesting having good seed weight and low seed coat incidence and calcium content, all important attributes affecting cooking quality.

  2. Inhibition of chickpea seedling copper amine oxidases by tetraethylenepentamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Talaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper amine oxidases are important enzymes, which contribute to the regulation of mono- and polyamine levels. Each monomer contains one Cu(II ion and 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine (TPQ as cofactors. They catalyze the oxidative deamination of primary amines to aldehydes with a ping-pong mechanism consisting of a transamination. The mechanism is followed by the transfer of two electrons to molecular oxygen which is reduced to hydrogen peroxide. Inhibitors are important tools in the study of catalytic properties of copper amine oxidases and they also have a wide application in physiological research. In this study, purification of the chickpea seedling amine oxidase, was done via salting out by ammonium sulfate and dialysis, followed by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. By using the Lineweaver - Burk plot, the Km and Vm of the enzyme were found to be 3.3 mM and 0.95 mmol/min/mg, respectively. In this study, the interaction of chickpea diamino oxidase with tetraethylene- pentamine was studied. Analysis of kinetic data indicated that tetraethylenepentamine (with Ki=0.1 mM inhibits the enzyme by linear mixed inhibitory effect.

  3. RHEOLOGY OF CHICKPEA PROTEIN CONCENTRATE DISPERSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Ionescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea proteins are used as ingredients in comminuted sausage products and many oriental textured foods. Rheological behaviour of chickpea protein concentrate was studied using a controlled stress rheometer. The protein dispersion prepared with phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 presented non-Newtonian shear thinning behaviour and rheological data well fitted to the Sisko, Carreau and Cross models. The viscoelastic properties of the chickpea protein suspensions were estimated by measuring the storage and loss moduli in oscillatory frequency conditions (0.1-10 Hz at 20°C. Moreover, thermally induced gelation of the chickpea proteins (16, 24 and 36% was studied at pH 7.0 and 4.5 in the temperature range 50 to 100oC and salt concentration ranging from 0 to 1 M. Gelling behaviour was quantified by means of dynamic rheological measurements. Gels formation was preceded by the decrease of storage modulus and loss moduli, coupled with the increase of the phase angle (delta. The beginning of thermal gelation was influenced by protein concentration, pH and salt level. In all studied cases, storage modulus increased rapidly in the temperature range 70-90°C. All rheological parameters measured at 90°C were significantly higher at pH 4.5 compared to pH 7.0.

  4. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreevidya, M; Gopalakrishnan, S; Kudapa, H; Varshney, R K

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20°C to 40°C, pH range of 7-11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40) but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40), hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40), indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea.

  5. Exploring plant growth-promotion actinomycetes from vermicompost and rhizosphere soil for yield enhancement in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sreevidya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize actinomycetes for their plant growth-promotion in chickpea. A total of 89 actinomycetes were screened for their antagonism against fungal pathogens of chickpea by dual culture and metabolite production assays. Four most promising actinomycetes were evaluated for their physiological and plant growth-promotion properties under in vitro and in vivo conditions. All the isolates exhibited good growth at temperatures from 20 °C to 40 °C, pH range of 7–11 and NaCl concentrations up to 8%. These were also found highly tolerant to Bavistin, slightly tolerant to Thiram and Captan (except VAI-7 and VAI-40 but susceptible to Benlate and Ridomil at field application levels and were found to produce siderophore, cellulase, lipase, protease, chitinase (except VAI-40, hydrocyanic acid (except VAI-7 and VAI-40, indole acetic acid and β-1,3-glucanase. When the four actinomycetes were evaluated for their plant growth-promotion properties under field conditions on chickpea, all exhibited increase in nodule number, shoot weight and yield. The actinomycetes treated plots enhanced total N, available P and organic C over the un-inoculated control. The scanning electron microscope studies exhibited extensive colonization by actinomycetes on the root surface of chickpea. The expression profiles for indole acetic acid, siderophore and β-1,3-glucanase genes exhibited up-regulation for all three traits and in all four isolates. The actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces but different species in the 16S rDNA analysis. It was concluded that the selected actinomycetes have good plant growth-promotion and biocontrol potentials on chickpea.

  6. Physicochemical, thermal and functional properties of gamma irradiated chickpea starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Khalid; Aggarwal, Manjeet

    2017-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10kGy) on physicochemical, functional and thermal properties of chickpea starch. Results revealed that the pasting properties showed a significant (p≤0.05) decrease in peak viscosity, final viscosity, setback viscosity, trough viscosity and pasting temperature in dose dependent manner. Swelling, solubility index, oil absorption capacity and water absorption capacity increased significantly with dose, while as syneresis decreased with dose. Gelatinization temperatures To, Tp and Tc decreased significantly with dose. X-ray diffraction showed a characteristic C type pattern of the starches and the crystallinity decreased with dose. Scanning electron microscopy revealed small oval shaped starch granules and slight surface fissures were seen in the irradiated starch treated with 5 and 10kGy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Conceptual design of a chickpea harvesting header

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Golpira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the development of stripper headers is growing owing to the excessive losses of combine harvesters and costs of manually harvesting for chickpeas. The design of a new concept can enhance the mechanized process for chickpea harvesting. A modified stripper platform was designed, in which passive fingers with V-shape slots removes the pods from the anchored plant. The floating platform was accompanied by a reel to complete the harvesting header. Black-box modeling was used to redesign the functional operators of the header followed by an investigation of the system behavior. Physical models of the platform and reel were modified to determine the crucial variables of the header arrangement during field trials. The slot width was fixed at 40 mm, finger length at 40 mm, keyhole diameter at 10 mm and entrance width at 6 mm; the batted reel at peripheral diameter of 700 mm and speed at 50 rpm. A tractor-mounted experimental harvester was built to evaluate the work quality of the stripper header. The performance of the prototype was tested with respect to losses and results confirmed the efficiency of the modified stripper header for chickpea harvesting. Furthermore, the header with a 1.4 m working width produced the spot work rates of 0.42 ha h-1.

  8. Assessment of Sesame and Chickpea Yield and Yield Components in the Replacement Series Intercropping

    OpenAIRE

    F. Pouramir; M. Nassiri Mahallati; A Koocheki; Ghorbani, R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This experiment was carried out for assessment of sesame and chickpea intercropping under climatic condition of Mashhad. The Experiment included main factor A (planting methods) whit two levels a1(row planting) and a2(mixed planting) and factor B (replacement planting pattern) consisting of five levels b1 (chickpea monoculture), b2 (75% chickpea+25% sesame), b3 (50% chickpea+50% sesame), b4 (25% chickpea+75% sesame) and b5 (sesame monoculture) and was carried out in context of spl...

  9. Two novel mastreviruses from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J E; Parry, J N; Schwinghamer, M W; Dann, E K

    2010-11-01

    Two novel mastreviruses (genus Mastrevirus; family Geminiviridae), with proposed names chickpea chlorosis virus (CpCV) and chickpea redleaf virus, are described from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) from eastern Australia. The viruses have genomes of 2,582 and 2,605 nucleotides, respectively, and share similar features and organisation with typical dicot-infecting mastreviruses. Two distinct strains of CpCV were suggested by phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, a partial mastrevirus Rep sequence from turnip weed (Rapistrum rugosum) indicated the presence of a distinct strain of Tobacco yellow dwarf virus (TYDV). In phylogenetic analyses, isolates of Bean yellow dwarf virus, Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Pakistan virus and Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Sudan virus from southern and northern Africa and south-central and western Asia clustered separately from these three viruses from Australia. An Australian, eastern Asian, or south-eastern Asian origin for the novel mastreviruses and TYDV is discussed.

  10. Purification of free arginine from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Giraldo, Isabel; Megías, Cristina; Alaiz, Manuel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Chickpea is a grain legume widely consumed in the Mediterranean region and other parts of the world. Chickpea seeds are rich in proteins but they also contain a substantial amount of free amino acids, especially arginine. Hence chickpea may represent a useful source of free amino acids for nutritional or pharmaceutical purposes. Arginine is receiving great attention in recent years because it is the substrate for the synthesis of nitric oxide, an important signaling molecule involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes in mammals. In this work we describe a simple procedure for the purification of arginine from chickpea seeds, using nanofiltration technology and an ion-exchange resin, Amberlite IR-120. Arginine was finally purified by precipitation or crystallization, yielding preparations with purities of 91% and 100%, respectively. Chickpea may represent an affordable green source of arginine, and a useful alternative to production by fermentation or protein hydrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. I. Chickpea and faba bean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Two varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba), differing in drought tolerance according to the classification of the International Center for Agronomic Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment

  12. Integration of novel SSR and gene-based SNP marker loci in the chickpea genetic map and establishment of new anchor points with Medicago truncatula genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Spurthi N.; Zhu, Hongyan; Varghese, Nicy; Datta, Subhojit; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Horres, Ralf; Jüngling, Ruth; Singh, Jagbir; Kavi Kishor, P. B.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.; Hoisington, Dave A.; Kahl, Günter; Winter, Peter; Cook, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the development and mapping of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in chickpea. The mapping population is based on an inter-specific cross between domesticated and non-domesticated genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum ICC 4958 × C. reticulatum PI 489777). This same population has been the focus of previous studies, permitting integration of new and legacy genetic markers into a single genetic map. We report a set of 311 novel SSR markers (designated ICCM—ICRISAT chickpea microsatellite), obtained from an SSR-enriched genomic library of ICC 4958. Screening of these SSR markers on a diverse panel of 48 chickpea accessions provided 147 polymorphic markers with 2–21 alleles and polymorphic information content value 0.04–0.92. Fifty-two of these markers were polymorphic between parental genotypes of the inter-specific population. We also analyzed 233 previously published (H-series) SSR markers that provided another set of 52 polymorphic markers. An additional 71 gene-based SNP markers were developed from transcript sequences that are highly conserved between chickpea and its near relative Medicago truncatula. By using these three approaches, 175 new marker loci along with 407 previously reported marker loci were integrated to yield an improved genetic map of chickpea. The integrated map contains 521 loci organized into eight linkage groups that span 2,602 cM, with an average inter-marker distance of 4.99 cM. Gene-based markers provide anchor points for comparing the genomes of Medicago and chickpea, and reveal extended synteny between these two species. The combined set of genetic markers and their integration into an improved genetic map should facilitate chickpea genetics and breeding, as well as translational studies between chickpea and Medicago. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1265-1) contains supplementary material, which is

  13. Development of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Chickpea (Cicer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    Keywords: green pea, chickpea, snack, frying, steaming, baking, microwave cooking, sensory .... characteristic of volatiles derived from cooked dhal. Assessors ... snacks could be attributed to crust formation during frying. According to Gupta.

  14. Proline improves copper tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijeta; Bhatt, Indu; Aggarwal, Anjali; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath; Munjal, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Vinay

    2010-09-01

    The present study suggests the involvement of proline in copper tolerance of four genotypes of Cicer arietinum (chickpea). Based on the data of tolerance index and lipid peroxidation, the order for copper tolerance was as follows: RSG 888 > CSG 144 > CSG 104 > RSG 44 in the selected genotypes. The basis of differential copper tolerance in chickpea genotypes was characterized by analyzing, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbated peroxidase and catalase), phytochelatins, copper uptake, and proline accumulation. Chickpea genotypes showed stimulated superoxide dismutase activity at all tested concentrations of copper, but H(2)O(2) decomposing enzymes especially; ascorbate peroxidase did not increase with 25 and 50 microM copper treatments. Catalase activity, however, increased at lower copper concentrations but failed to stimulate at 50 microM copper. Such divergence in responses of these enzymes minimizes their importance in protecting chickpea against copper stress. The sensitive genotypes showed greater enhancement of phytochelatins than that of tolerant genotypes. Hence, the possibility of phytochelatins in improving copper tolerance in the test plant is also excluded. Interestingly, the order of proline accumulation in the chickpea genotypes (RSG 888 > CSG 144 > CSG 104 > RSG 44) was exactly similar to the order of copper tolerance. Based on hyperaccumulation of proline in tolerant genotype (RSG 44) and the reduction and improvement of lipid peroxidation and tolerance index, respectively, by proline pretreatment, we conclude that hyperaccumulation of proline improves the copper tolerance in chickpea.

  15. Effect of disintegration wave grinding on fractional protein and amino acid composition of chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of fractional changes and amino acid composition of proteins in the application of chickpea disintegration wave grinding. Comparative analysis of six varieties of chickpea before and after grinding.

  16. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated chickpea and corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmeddin Yazici, A.; Bedir, Metin; Bozkurt, Halil; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2008-02-01

    A study was carried out to establish a detection method for irradiated chickpea and corn by thermoluminescence (TL) method. The leguminous were packed in polyethylene bags and then the packets were irradiated at room temperature at different doses by 60Co gamma source at 1, 4, 8 and 10 kGy. Minerals extracted from the leguminous were deposited onto a clean aluminum disc and TL intensities of the minerals were measured by TL. It was observed that the extracted samples from both leguminous exhibit good TL Intensity and the TL intensity of glow curves of them increased proportionally to irradiation doses. The TL glow curve of both irradiated leguminous presents a single broad peak below 400 °C. The TL trapping parameters glow peaks were estimated by the additive dose (AD), Tm(Ea)-Tstop and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods. The fading characteristics of glow curves were also recorded up to 6 months.

  17. Physico-chemical Properties of Starch from Kabuli and Desi Chickpea Cultivars%不同品种鹰嘴豆淀粉的理化性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪铭; 江波; 张涛; 刘坚

    2008-01-01

    本实验系统研究了不同品种鹰嘴豆淀粉的各种理化性质.结果表明,实验室碱法提取Kabuli和Desi鹰嘴豆淀粉中直链淀粉含量分别为31.8和35.2,蓝值为5.8和6.8.淀粉颗粒多呈椭圆的卵形,少数圆形,且偏光十字明显.淀粉的膨胀度和溶解度均随着温度升高而增加,淀粉碘复合物可见光吸收光谱的最大吸收波长为625nm.两种淀粉的酸解和酶解过程基本相似,Kabuli淀粉糊的透明度、冻融稳定性、凝沉性优于Desi淀粉糊,但沉降体积却小于Desi淀粉糊.

  18. Evaluation of biofertilizer in combination with organic amendments and rock phosphate enriched compost for improving productivity of chickpea and maize

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Fakhar-u-Zaman Akhtar; Moazzam Jamil; Maqshoof Ahamd; Ghulam Hassan Abbasi

    2017-01-01

    Chickpea has the potential to increase nitrogen nutrition of subsequent cereal crop in chickpea-maize cropping system. As a legume, chickpea takes much of its required nitrogen from atmosphere through symbiotic association with Rhizobium (soil bacteria), and thus least dependent on chemical N fertilizer. After harvesting, N captured in chickpea roots stays in soil for following cereal crop. Maize and chickpea are major crops of Pakistan and important dietary products people. Biofe...

  19. Germinated, toasted and cooked chickpea as ingredients for breadmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouazib, Meriem; Garzon, Raquel; Zaidi, Farid; Rosell, Cristina M

    2016-06-01

    The effect of processing (germination, toasting and cooking) of chickpea beans was investigated on the resulting flours characteristics and their potential for obtaining gluten free breads. Rheological properties of dough were recorded using Mixolab(®) and breads were analyzed for their instrumental quality, nutritional and sensory properties. Chickpea based doughs showed low consistency and their rheological behavior was defined by the starch gelatinization and gelification. The bread made with cooked chickpea flour exhibited the lowest specific volume (0.58 mL/g), brightest crumb (L* = 76.20) and the softest texture, but cooking decreased the content of carbohydrates, ash and protein, although increased the protein digestibility. The highest specific volume was obtained in bread made with toasted chickpea flour, although crumb hardness was higher. Overall, processing of chickpea beans, concretely toasting and cooking led to flours that could be used for obtaining gluten free breads with the nutritional characteristics of the legumes and acceptable sensory characteristics.

  20. The Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Chickpeas and Hummus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Wallace

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing vegetable intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Most Americans do not eat enough vegetables, and particularly legumes, each day, despite their well-established benefits for health. Traditional hummus is a nutrient-dense dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, and spices. Consumers of chickpeas and/or hummus have been shown to have higher nutrient intakes of dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, folate, magnesium, potassium, and iron as compared to non-consumers. Hummus consumers have also been shown to have higher Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005 scores. This may be, in part, due to hummus’ higher Naturally Nutrient Rich (NNR score as compared to other dips and spreads. Emerging research suggests that chickpeas and hummus may play a beneficial role in weight management and glucose and insulin regulation, as well as have a positive impact on some markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Raw or cooked chickpeas and hummus also contain dietary bioactives such as phytic acid, sterols, tannins, carotenoids, and other polyphenols such as isoflavones, whose benefits may extend beyond basic nutrition requirements of humans. With chickpeas as its primary ingredient, hummus—and especially when paired with vegetables and/or whole grains—is a nutritious way for Americans to obtain their recommended servings of legumes. This manuscript reviews the nutritional value and health benefits of chickpeas and hummus and explores how these foods may help improve the nutrient profiles of meals.

  1. The Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Chickpeas and Hummus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Taylor C.; Murray, Robert; Zelman, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing vegetable intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Most Americans do not eat enough vegetables, and particularly legumes, each day, despite their well-established benefits for health. Traditional hummus is a nutrient-dense dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, and spices. Consumers of chickpeas and/or hummus have been shown to have higher nutrient intakes of dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, folate, magnesium, potassium, and iron as compared to non-consumers. Hummus consumers have also been shown to have higher Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005) scores. This may be, in part, due to hummus’ higher Naturally Nutrient Rich (NNR) score as compared to other dips and spreads. Emerging research suggests that chickpeas and hummus may play a beneficial role in weight management and glucose and insulin regulation, as well as have a positive impact on some markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Raw or cooked chickpeas and hummus also contain dietary bioactives such as phytic acid, sterols, tannins, carotenoids, and other polyphenols such as isoflavones, whose benefits may extend beyond basic nutrition requirements of humans. With chickpeas as its primary ingredient, hummus—and especially when paired with vegetables and/or whole grains—is a nutritious way for Americans to obtain their recommended servings of legumes. This manuscript reviews the nutritional value and health benefits of chickpeas and hummus and explores how these foods may help improve the nutrient profiles of meals. PMID:27916819

  2. The Nutritional Value and Health Benefits of Chickpeas and Hummus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Taylor C; Murray, Robert; Zelman, Kathleen M

    2016-11-29

    The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing vegetable intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Most Americans do not eat enough vegetables, and particularly legumes, each day, despite their well-established benefits for health. Traditional hummus is a nutrient-dense dip or spread made from cooked, mashed chickpeas, blended with tahini, olive oil, lemon juice, and spices. Consumers of chickpeas and/or hummus have been shown to have higher nutrient intakes of dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, folate, magnesium, potassium, and iron as compared to non-consumers. Hummus consumers have also been shown to have higher Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005) scores. This may be, in part, due to hummus' higher Naturally Nutrient Rich (NNR) score as compared to other dips and spreads. Emerging research suggests that chickpeas and hummus may play a beneficial role in weight management and glucose and insulin regulation, as well as have a positive impact on some markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Raw or cooked chickpeas and hummus also contain dietary bioactives such as phytic acid, sterols, tannins, carotenoids, and other polyphenols such as isoflavones, whose benefits may extend beyond basic nutrition requirements of humans. With chickpeas as its primary ingredient, hummus-and especially when paired with vegetables and/or whole grains-is a nutritious way for Americans to obtain their recommended servings of legumes. This manuscript reviews the nutritional value and health benefits of chickpeas and hummus and explores how these foods may help improve the nutrient profiles of meals.

  3. Thermoluminescence properties of irradiated chickpea and corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necmeddin Yazici, A. [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering, Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey)], E-mail: yazici@gantep.edu.tr; Bedir, Metin; Bozkurt, Halil [University of Gaziantep, Department of Engineering, Physics, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey); Bozkurt, Hueseyin [University of Gaziantep, Department of Food Engineering, 27310 Gaziantep (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    A study was carried out to establish a detection method for irradiated chickpea and corn by thermoluminescence (TL) method. The leguminous were packed in polyethylene bags and then the packets were irradiated at room temperature at different doses by {sup 60}Co gamma source at 1, 4, 8 and 10 kGy. Minerals extracted from the leguminous were deposited onto a clean aluminum disc and TL intensities of the minerals were measured by TL. It was observed that the extracted samples from both leguminous exhibit good TL Intensity and the TL intensity of glow curves of them increased proportionally to irradiation doses. The TL glow curve of both irradiated leguminous presents a single broad peak below 400 degC. The TL trapping parameters glow peaks were estimated by the additive dose (AD), T{sub m}(E{sub a})-T{sub stop} and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods. The fading characteristics of glow curves were also recorded up to 6 months.

  4. Registration of CA0469C025C chickpea germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) germplasm CA0469C025C (Reg. No. XXX; PI XXX), was released by the USDA-ARS in 2010. CA0469C025C was released based on its improved yield and reaction to Ascochyta blight relative to the popular commercial cultivars ‘Dwelley’, ‘Sierra’, and ‘Sawyer’. CA0490C025C is deri...

  5. Isoflavone content and composition in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sprouts germinated under different conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Ren, Guixing

    2015-03-18

    The influence of different germination conditions on isoflavone contents in chickpea sprouts was investigated in this study. Chickpea sprouts were germinated under different experimental conditions, including germination in the dark (GD), in the light (GL), under ethanol stress (GE), or under salt stress (GS) in the dark. The results demonstrated that the isoflavone contents in chickpea sprouts germinated with these various conditions significantly increased (pchickpea seeds. The maximum amount of total isoflavones was obtained from chickpea sprouts in the GL group on day 8. The contents of formononetin and biochanin A in this group were 154 and 130 times higher, respectively, than in untreated seeds and 1.2 times higher than in sprouts in the GD group. Moreover, the isoflavone contents of chickpea sprouts in the GE and GS groups were also higher (pchickpeas. This finding could expand the potential for the development of chickpea sprouts as a functional food.

  6. Salt sensitivity in chickpea is determined by sodium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hammad A; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Colmer, Timothy D

    2016-09-01

    Salt sensitivity in chickpea is determined by Na(+) toxicity, whereas relatively high leaf tissue concentrations of Cl(-) were tolerated, and the osmotic component of 60-mM NaCl was not detrimental. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is sensitive to salinity. This study dissected the responses of chickpea to osmotic and ionic components (Na(+) and/or Cl(-)) of salt stress. Two genotypes with contrasting salt tolerances were exposed to osmotic treatments (-0.16 and -0.29 MPa), Na(+)-salts, Cl(-)-salts, or NaCl at 0, 30, or 60 mM for 42 days and growth, tissue ion concentrations and leaf gas-exchange were assessed. The osmotic treatments and Cl(-)-salts did not affect growth, whereas Na(+)-salts and NaCl treatments equally impaired growth in either genotype. Shoot Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations had markedly increased, whereas shoot K(+) had declined in the NaCl treatments, but both genotypes had similar shoot concentrations of each of these individual ions after 14 and 28 days of treatments. Genesis836 achieved higher net photosynthetic rate (64-84 % of control) compared with Rupali (35-56 % of control) at equivalent leaf Na(+) concentrations. We conclude that (1) salt sensitivity in chickpea is determined by Na(+) toxicity, and (2) the two contrasting genotypes appear to differ in 'tissue tolerance' of high Na(+). This study provides a basis for focus on Na(+) tolerance traits for future varietal improvement programs for salinity tolerance in chickpea.

  7. Serological and molecular detection of Bean leaf roll and Chickpea chlorotic stunt luteoviruses in chickpea from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiyusef Tara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important legume crop and widely cultivated in northwestern provinces of Iran. During a survey in the 2015 growing season a total of 170 selected chickpea plants with general yellowing symptoms including stunting and leaf bronzing were collected. Serological Elisa and tissue blot immunoassay (TIBA tests revealed the presence of Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV as the predominant viruses in the region. Some serologically positive samples of BLRV and CpCSV were selected and rechecked by RT-PCR. The results of amplified PCR products using a specific pair of primers towards the Cp gene region of the viruses were approximately 413 bp for CpCSV and 391 bp for BLRV. Results obtained from sequence comparison of BLRV (IR-F-Lor-5 isolate form two subgroups with eight other BLRV isolates from GeneBank indicating a high homology of 96% with isolates from Argentina, Germany, Tunisia, USA, Spain, and Colombia. An isolate from Norabad (Iran (IR-Nor had 98% homology with HQ840727 Libyan isolate. CpCSV sequence comparison with six other GeneBank isolates indicated 98% homology with isolates from Tunisia and Azerbaijan. The overall results of this research revealed the CpCSV and BLRV (luteoviruses associated with the yellowing disease syndrome of chickpea crops in the surveyed region.

  8. Pasta added with chickpea flour: chemical composition, In vitro starchdigestibility and predicted glycemic index

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Pasta was prepared with of durum wheat flour mixed with chickpea flour at two different levels and its chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index were assessed. Protein, ash, lipid, and dietary fiber content increased while total starch decreased with the chickpea flour level in the composite pasta, all in accordance to the composition of the legume flour. Potentially available starch decreased and resistant starch (RS) increased by adding chickpea flour ...

  9. GROWTH, INSTABILITY AND FORECASTING OF PIGEON PEA, CHICKPEA AND FIELD PEA PULSE PRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Niaz Md. Farhat; Imam, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    The study tried to find out the appropriate models using latest model selection criteria that could describe the best growth pattern of pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production. The study also tried to measure the instability, growth rates of pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production and to determine the efficient time series models, to forecast the future pigeon pea, chickpea and field pea pulse production in Bangladesh. Forecasting attempts have been made to achieve the...

  10. Chemical composition, carbohydrate digestibility, and antioxidant capacity of cooked black bean, chickpea, and lentil Mexican varieties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva-Cristobal, L; Osorio-Díaz, P; Tovar, J; Bello-Pérez, L. A

    2010-01-01

    .... The cooked seeds of three Mexican pulses (black bean, chickpea, and lentil) were evaluated regarding their chemical composition, in vitro starch digestibility, polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity...

  11. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p chickpea exhibited higher stability and resistance to mechanical mixing values than the control, while it decreased as the substitute level increases from 20 % to 30 %. The dough surface of the wheat dough and the blend with 10 % was classified as "normal", however the blend with 20 % and 30 % produced "sticky" dough surface. The presence of chickpea flour in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control.

  12. Nutritional quality and health benefits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukanti, A K; Gaur, P M; Gowda, C L L; Chibbar, R N

    2012-08-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop grown and consumed all over the world, especially in the Afro-Asian countries. It is a good source of carbohydrates and protein, and protein quality is considered to be better than other pulses. Chickpea has significant amounts of all the essential amino acids except sulphur-containing amino acids, which can be complemented by adding cereals to the daily diet. Starch is the major storage carbohydrate followed by dietary fibre, oligosaccharides and simple sugars such as glucose and sucrose. Although lipids are present in low amounts, chickpea is rich in nutritionally important unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic and oleic acids. β-Sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol are important sterols present in chickpea oil. Ca, Mg, P and, especially, K are also present in chickpea seeds. Chickpea is a good source of important vitamins such as riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, folate and the vitamin A precursor β-carotene. As with other pulses, chickpea seeds also contain anti-nutritional factors which can be reduced or eliminated by different cooking techniques. Chickpea has several potential health benefits, and, in combination with other pulses and cereals, it could have beneficial effects on some of the important human diseases such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, digestive diseases and some cancers. Overall, chickpea is an important pulse crop with a diverse array of potential nutritional and health benefits.

  13. First report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-3 on chickpea in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura OMRI BEN YOUSSEF

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea plants (cv. Béja 1 showing typical symptoms of root and collar rots were collected from the Beja area (Tunisia. Visual diagnostic, isolation and microscopic observation identified the causal organism as Rhizoctonia solani. Sequence data of the ITS rDNA region confirmed the species identity and revealed that the anastomosis group of the isolate was AG2-3. Mechanical inoculation of chickpea seedlings resulted in the typical root and collar rot, proving that this isolate is pathogenic on chickpea. This is the first report of R. solani AG2-3 causing root and collar rot of chickpea in Tunisia.

  14. The effects of lentil and chickpea flours as the breading materials on some properties of chicken meatballs during frozen storage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kılınççeker, Osman; Hepsağ, Fatma; Kurt, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    To determine the potential values of yellow lentil flour (Y) and chickpea flour (C) as breading materials the effects of yellow lentil and chickpea flours on the quality of fresh and frozen chicken meatballs were studied...

  15. Molecular identification of Fusarium spp. causing wilt of chickpea and the first report of Fusarium redolens in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food legume crop and Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris is one of the most important diseases of chickpea in Turkey. Fusarium redolens is known to cause wilt-like disease of chickpea in other countries, but has not been reported fr...

  16. Properties and stability of deep-fat fried chickpea products

    OpenAIRE

    Bozdemir, S.; Güneṣer, O.; Yılmaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop new snack foods prepared from deep frying whole chickpeas and evaluating the properties and storage stability of the new products. The most remarkable results found were: moisture content (3.48–9.19%), water activity (0.1833–0.5936), hardness (3243–4056 g), L (42.01–65.79), a* (10.56–19.24), b* (30.80–42.20), free fatty acidity (0.2195–0.3467%), pero xide value (3.167–5.25 meq O2·kg−1), total phenolic (22.34–37.34 mgGA·100g−1 chickpea), antioxidant capac...

  17. Dissecting the Root Nodule Transcriptome of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Chandra; Pradhan, Seema; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark trait of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), like other legumes, is the capability to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonia (NH3) in symbiotic association with Mesorhizobium ciceri. However, the complexity of molecular networks associated with the dynamics of nodule development in chickpea need to be analyzed in depth. Hence, in order to gain insights into the chickpea nodule development, the transcriptomes of nodules at early, middle and late stages of development were sequenced using the Roche 454 platform. This generated 490.84 Mb sequence data comprising 1,360,251 reads which were assembled into 83,405 unigenes. Transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathways analysis. Differential expression analysis revealed that a total of 3760 transcripts were differentially expressed in at least one of three stages, whereas 935, 117 and 2707 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in the early, middle and late stages of nodule development respectively. MapMan analysis revealed enrichment of metabolic pathways such as transport, protein synthesis, signaling and carbohydrate metabolism during root nodulation. Transcription factors were predicted and analyzed for their differential expression during nodule development. Putative nodule specific transcripts were identified and enriched for GO categories using BiNGO which revealed many categories to be enriched during nodule development, including transcription regulators and transporters. Further, the assembled transcriptome was also used to mine for genic SSR markers. In conclusion, this study will help in enriching the transcriptomic resources implicated in understanding of root nodulation events in chickpea.

  18. Characterising root trait variability in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yinglong; Ghanem, Michel Edmond; Siddique, Kadambot Hm

    2017-04-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important grain legume crop but its sustainable production is challenged by predicted climate changes, which are likely to increase production limitations and uncertainty in yields. Characterising the variability in root architectural traits in a core collection of chickpea germplasm will provide the basis for breeding new germplasm with suitable root traits for the efficient acquisition of soil resources and adaptation to drought and other abiotic stresses. This study used a semi-hydroponic phenotyping system for assessing root trait variability across 270 chickpea genotypes. The genotypes exhibited large variation in rooting patterns and branching manner. Thirty root-related traits were characterised, 17 of which had coefficients of variation ≥0.3 among genotypes and were selected for further examination. The Pearson correlation matrix showed a strong correlation among most of the selected traits (P≤0.05). Principal component analysis revealed three principal components with eigenvalues >1 capturing 81.5% of the total variation. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering analysis, based on root trait variation, identified three genotype homogeneous groups (rescaled distance of 15) and 16 sub-groups (rescaled distance of 5). The chickpea genotypes characterised in this study with vastly different root properties could be used for further studies in glasshouses and field trials, and for molecular marker studies, gene mapping, and modelling simulations, ultimately aimed at breeding germplasm with root traits for improved adaptation to drought and other specific environments. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT INORGANIC MOLECULES ON WILT PATHOGEN OF CHICKPEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Ranjitha Rani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is one of the most important legumes grown in Asia. Though the area under this crop is more, the average yield per hectare is low because of several biotic and abiotic factors. Among them, the wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri is most destructive seed and soil borne disease. (Haware et al., 1986 which threatens successful cultivation of chickpea and causes severe losses in chickpea growing areas. (Grewal et al.,1974b and Singh et al.,1977. Different insecticides and herbicides were tried under in vitro, the insecticides Emamectin benzoate 5% SG, Imidachloprid 75% WP, Quinalphos 25% EC, Entrust 80% WP were used in three different concentrations. Among these highest per cent growth of inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri was observed in Imidacloprid 0.3g (50.92% followed by Emamectin benzoate 0.05 mg (35.55%. The herbicides viz., Pendimethalin 30%EC, Imazathaphyr 10% SL, 2,4-D sodium salt 80%WP, Metsulfuron methyl 20% WG were used in three different concentrations, highest per cent growth of inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri was observed in Pendimethalin 0.5ml (73.33%, followed by Pendimethalin 0.4ml (65.55%.

  20. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) proteins induce allergic responses in nasobronchial allergic patients and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-04-05

    Allergy to chickpea or Garbanzo bean (Cicer arietinum) has been reported in the Indian population. Little information is found regarding allergenic events involved in the chickpea allergy; therefore, chickpea allergenicity assessment was undertaken. In vivo and ex vivo studies were carried out using BALB/c mice. Chickpea skin prick test positive patients have been used to extend this study in humans. Identification of allergens was carried out by simulated gastric fluids assay for pepsin resistant polypeptides and validated by IgE western blotting using chickpea sensitive humans and sensitized mice sera. Our data have shown the occurrence of a systemic anaphylactic reaction resulting in reduced body temperature after challenge along with significantly increased levels of IgE, IgG1, MMCP-1, CCL-2 as well as histamine. Further, increased Th1/Th2 (mixed) cytokine response was observed in spleen cell culture supernatants. Jejunum, lungs and spleen showed prominent histopathological changes specific for allergic inflammation. Immunoblotting with pooled sera of either sensitized mice or human sera recognized seven similar IgE binding polypeptides that may be responsible for chickpea induced hypersensitivity reactions. This study has addressed the allergenic manifestations associated with chickpea consumption and identifies the proteins responsible for allergenicity which may prove useful in diagnosis and management of allergenicity of legumes especially chickpea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutritional value of raw and extruded chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) for growing chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenes, A.; Viveros, A.; Centeno, C.; Arija, I.; Marzo, F.

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the inclusion of different concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1) of raw and extruded chickpeas on performance, digestive organ sizes, and protein and fat digestibilities were studied in one experiment with growing broiler chickens (0 to 21 days of age). Data were analyzed as a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement with three levels of chickpea with or without extrusion. A corn-soybean based diet was used as a positive control. Increasing chickpea content in the diet did not affect weight gain, feed consumption and feed to gain ratio. Relative pancreas and liver weights, and relative lengths of duodenum, jejunum and ceca were significantly (P<0.05) increased in response to increasing chickpea concentration in the diet. The inclusion of graded concentrations of chickpea increased (P<0.05) the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP) and apparent excreta digestibility (AED) of crude fat (CF) only in the case of the intermediate level of chickpea used (200 g kg-1). Extrusion improved weight gain and lowered relative pancreas weight (P< 0.05) respect to birds fed raw chickpea-based diets. AID of CP and AED of CF were improved (P<0.001) by extrusion. We concluded that the inclusion of up to 300 g kg-1 chickpea in chicken diets did not affect performance, and caused a negative effect on the relative weight of some digestive organs. (Author) 45 refs.

  2. Physicochemical properties and amylopectin chain profiles of cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Starches from cowpea and chickpea seeds were isolated and their properties were compared with those of commercial yellow pea starch. Amylose contents were 25.8%, 27.2%, and 31.2%, and the volume mean diameter of granules, determined in the dry state, were 15.5, 17.9, and 33.8 ¿m for cowpea, chickpea

  3. Saponins from soy and chickpea: stability during beadmaking and in vitro bioaccessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the stability of saponins during the making and simulated digestion of soy and soy-chickpea breads and the bioaccessibility of saponins in digested breads. Recovery of saponins in soy bread exceeded that in soy-chickpea breads, and recovery of type A and B saponins was great...

  4. Physicochemical properties and amylopectin chain profiles of cowpea, chickpea and yellow pea starches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Starches from cowpea and chickpea seeds were isolated and their properties were compared with those of commercial yellow pea starch. Amylose contents were 25.8%, 27.2%, and 31.2%, and the volume mean diameter of granules, determined in the dry state, were 15.5, 17.9, and 33.8 ¿m for cowpea, chickpea

  5. Genetic diversity and association mapping of iron and zinc concentrations in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diapari, Marwan; Sindhu, Anoop; Bett, Kirstin; Deokar, Amit; Warkentin, Thomas D; Tar'an, Bunyamin

    2014-08-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the world's second most important pulse crop after common bean. Chickpea has historically been an important daily staple in the diet of millions of people, especially in the developing countries. Current chickpea breeding programs have mainly been directed toward high yield, biotic and abiotic stress resilience that has increased global production, but less attention has been directed toward improving micronutrient concentrations in seeds. In an effort to develop micronutrient-dense chickpea lines, a study to examine the variability and to identify SNP alleles associated with seed iron and zinc concentrations was conducted using 94 diverse accessions of chickpea. The results indicated that there is substantial variability present in chickpea germplasm for seed iron and zinc concentrations. In the current set of germplasm, zinc is negatively correlated with grain yield across all locations and years; whereas the negative correlation between iron and grain yield was only significant at the Elrose locality. Eight SNP loci associated with iron and (or) zinc concentrations in chickpea seeds were identified. One SNP located on chromosome 1 (chr1) is associated with both iron and zinc concentrations. On chr4, three SNPs associated with zinc concentration and two SNPs for iron concentration were identified. Two additional SNP loci, one on chr6 and the other on chr7, were also found to be associated with iron and zinc concentrations, respectively. The results show potential opportunity for molecular breeding for improvement of seed iron and zinc concentrations in chickpea.

  6. Welfare impacts of improved chickpea adoption: A pathway for rural development in Ethiopia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaart, Simone; Munyua, Bernard G.; Mausch, Kai; Michler, Jeffrey D.

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the impact of improved chickpea adoption on welfare in Ethiopia using three rounds of panel data. First, we estimate the determinants of improved chickpea adoption using a double hurdle model. We apply a control function approach with correlated random effects to control for possible

  7. First report of Fusarium redolens causing Fusarium yellowing and wilt of chickpea in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea plants showing wilt symptoms in Tunisia have been attributed solely to race 0 of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) in the past. However, chickpea cultivars known to be resistant to race 0 of Foc recently also showed the wilting symptoms. To ascertain the race or species identities re...

  8. Field evaluation of fungicides for control of Ascochyta blight of chickpea, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascochyta blight of chickpea caused by the fungal pathogen Ascochyta rabiei is one of the most important foliar diseases of chickpea in the United State and elsewhere. Management of the disease is through using moderately resistant cultivars and application of fungicides. In order to evaluate foli...

  9. Genetic dissection of drought tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Thudi, Mahendar; Nayak, Spurthi N; Gaur, Pooran M; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Jaganathan, Deepa; Koppolu, Jahnavi; Bohra, Abhishek; Tripathi, Shailesh; Rathore, Abhishek; Jukanti, Aravind K; Jayalakshmi, Veera; Vemula, Anilkumar; Singh, S J; Yasin, Mohammad; Sheshshayee, M S; Viswanatha, K P

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of phenotypic data for 20 drought tolerance traits in 1-7 seasons at 1-5 locations together with genetic mapping data for two mapping populations provided 9 QTL clusters of which one present on CaLG04 has a high potential to enhance drought tolerance in chickpea improvement. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important grain legume cultivated by resource poor farmers in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Drought is one of the major constraints leading up to 50% production losses in chickpea. In order to dissect the complex nature of drought tolerance and to use genomics tools for enhancing yield of chickpea under drought conditions, two mapping populations-ICCRIL03 (ICC 4958 × ICC 1882) and ICCRIL04 (ICC 283 × ICC 8261) segregating for drought tolerance-related root traits were phenotyped for a total of 20 drought component traits in 1-7 seasons at 1-5 locations in India. Individual genetic maps comprising 241 loci and 168 loci for ICCRIL03 and ICCRIL04, respectively, and a consensus genetic map comprising 352 loci were constructed ( http://cmap.icrisat.ac.in/cmap/sm/cp/varshney/). Analysis of extensive genotypic and precise phenotypic data revealed 45 robust main-effect QTLs (M-QTLs) explaining up to 58.20% phenotypic variation and 973 epistatic QTLs (E-QTLs) explaining up to 92.19% phenotypic variation for several target traits. Nine QTL clusters containing QTLs for several drought tolerance traits have been identified that can be targeted for molecular breeding. Among these clusters, one cluster harboring 48% robust M-QTLs for 12 traits and explaining about 58.20% phenotypic variation present on CaLG04 has been referred as "QTL-hotspot". This genomic region contains seven SSR markers (ICCM0249, NCPGR127, TAA170, NCPGR21, TR11, GA24 and STMS11). Introgression of this region into elite cultivars is expected to enhance drought tolerance in chickpea.

  10. Evaluation of biofertilizer in combination with organic amendments and rock phosphate enriched compost for improving productivity of chickpea and maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fakhar-u-Zaman Akhtar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea has the potential to increase nitrogen nutrition of subsequent cereal crop in chickpea-maize cropping system. As a legume, chickpea takes much of its required nitrogen from atmosphere through symbiotic association with Rhizobium (soil bacteria, and thus least dependent on chemical N fertilizer. After harvesting, N captured in chickpea roots stays in soil for following cereal crop. Maize and chickpea are major crops of Pakistan and important dietary products people. Biofertilizers are products of living microorganisms with potential to improve productivity of crops through a number of direct and indirect mechanisms in environment friendly and sustainable manner. Therefore, a biofertilizer with specific bacterial strains for chickpea and maize, rock phosphate (RP enriched compost and biogas slurry was acquired and analyzed for various physicochemical properties in laboratory. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the biofertilizer, RP-compost and biogas slurry for improving growth and yield of chickpea. Afterwards, maize was planted in the same pots containing chickpea roots. Same treatment combinations were applied to both crops. Growth, physiology, yield and chemical parameters were recorded for chickpea and maize crops. Application of biofertilizer gave significantly better results and improved grain yield in chickpea (40% and in maize (14% crop as compared to control. The use of biofertilizer in combination with biogas slurry can be suggested as economically effective and sustainable approach for improving soil health and productivity of chickpea and maize crops.

  11. First genome analysis and molecular characterization of Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus Egyptian isolate infecting squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Inas Farouk; Taha, Omnia; El-Ashry, Abdel Nasser

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to identifying and characterizing some molecular properties of geminiviruses co-infection in squash field crop cultivated in Egypt. Squash crops observed to be heavily infected with several insect vectors, also severe chlorosis and stunting was observed. Electron microscopic analysis has revealed geminate capsid particles which indicate the infection of Geminiviruses, especially SqLCV which represent an economic problem to squash filed crop in Egypt. We have investigated possible mixed infections with different plant viruses associated with chlorotic stunt diseases and or other genus groups of geminiviruses. The main objective of this study is to investigate the recombination events, possible recombinants and variants among these genera in the same family differing in vector transmission. This is the first report of the molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and putative recombination events of the full length genome of the Chickpea Chlorotic Dwarf Mastrevirus in Egypt. And the first report of co-infection with another begomovirus infecting squash plants. A full length clone of both viruses were isolated and characterized at the molecular level. The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA-A was determined (2,572 bp) and submitted to the genbank under accession no. KF692356. The isolate from Egypt has about 97.8 % homology with the Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV) isolate from Syria DNA-A isolate FR687959, a 83.2 % homology with the Sudan isolate AM933134 and a 82.7 % homology with Pakistan isolate FR687960. To best of our knowledge this is the first report of complete genome of CpCDV that infect squash plants in Egypt and worldwide.

  12. Efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil in suppression of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in chickpea with particular emphasis to mode of antifungal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Akash; Dwivedy, Abhishek Kumar; Jha, Dhruva Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2016-05-01

    The present study reports in vivo antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil (EO) against toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain LHP(C)-D6 in chickpea food system up to 12 months of storage. In addition, the mode of antifungal action of EO was also determined to understand the mechanism of fungal growth inhibition. The in vivo study with different concentrations of M. spicata EO showed dose-dependent decrease in fungal colony count as well as aflatoxin B1 concentration. The EO caused >50% protection in inoculated sets and >70% protection in uninoculated sets of chickpea food system against A. flavus at 1.0 μL mL(-1) air concentration. However, at the same concentration, EO caused 100% inhibition to aflatoxin B1 production in both sets when analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antifungal target of EO in fumigated cells of A. flavus was found to be the plasma membrane when analyzed through electron microscopic observations and ions leakage test. The EO fumigated chickpea seeds showed 100% seed germination and seedling growth after 12 months of storage. Based on these observations, M. spicata EO can be recommended as plant-based preservative for safe protection of food commodities during storage conditions against fungal and most importantly mycotoxin contaminations.

  13. Effect of incorporation of plantain and chickpea flours on the quality characteristics of biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ritika B; Yadav, Baljeet S; Dhull, Nisha

    2012-04-01

    Blends of plantain and chickpea flours each with concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% along with of refined wheat flour were used for development of biscuits. The flours were evaluated for their chemical and functional properties. Plantain flour had highest crude fiber (3.6%) and carbohydrate content (80.8%), whereas chickpea flour had highest protein content (19.3%) and fat content (4.4%). Plantain flour showed highest water absorption (167.7%) whereas lowest oil absorption capacity (144.6). The chickpea flour showed highest foaming capacity and stability. The thickness and diameter of biscuits did not differ significantly (p chickpea flours each up to a concentration of 30%. The fracture strength of biscuits increased significantly (p chickpea flours and was highest at 40% concentration (21.1 N). The protein and crude fiber content of biscuits increased significantly (p chickpea flour and plantain flours in the blends. The sensory properties of biscuits prepared by replacing refined wheat flour up to 20% each with plantain and chickpea flour were more or less similar to those of control biscuits.

  14. Residual behaviour and risk assessment of flubendiamide on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmail; Sahoo, S K; Takkar, Reenu; Battu, R S; Singh, B; Chahil, G S

    2011-09-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the disappearance trends of flubendiamide residues on chickpea under field conditions and thereby, ensure consumer safety. Average initial deposits of flubendiamide on chickpea pods were found to be 0.68 and 1.17 mg kg(-1), respectively, following three applications of flubendiamide 480SC @ 48 and 96 g a.i. ha(-1) at 7d intervals. Half-life of flubendiamide on chickpea pods was observed to be 1.39 and 1.44 d, respectively, at single and double dosages whereas with respect to chickpea leaves, these values were found to be 0.77 and 0.86 d. Desiodo flubendiamide was not detected at 0.05 mg kg(-1) level on chickpea samples collected at different intervals. Theoretical maximum residue contribution (TMRC) for flubendiamide was calculated and found to be well below the maximum permissible intake (MPI) on chickpea pods and leaves at 0-day (1 h after spraying) for the both dosages. Thus, the application of flubendiamide at the recommended dose on chickpea presents no human health risks and is safe to the consumers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENT BEHAVIOR OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM) STARCH IN GLICLAZIDE IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Yee, Phung; Sheshala, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, there are number of researchers carrying out their research on the excipients derived from polysaccharides and some of these researches show that natural excipients are comparable and can serve as an alternative to the synthetic excipients. Hence, the objectives of this research are to characterize the naturally sourced chickpea starch powder and to study the pharmaceutical excipient behavior of chickpea starch in gliclazide immediate release (IR) tablets. In this research, the binding properties of chickpea starch were compared to that of povidone, whereas the disintegrant properties of chickpea starch were compared to those of crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate. Flow property of chickpea starch was assessed with the measurement of bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and angle of repose. Calibration curve for gliclazide in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 was developed. Gliclazide IR tablets were then produced with direct compression method. Physicochemical characteristics of the tablets, including thickness, tablet weight uniformity, hardness, disintegration time and friability were evaluated. Then, in vitro dissolution studies were performed by following United States Pharmacopeia (USP) dissolution method. The dissolution results were analyzed and compared with t30, t50, dissolution efficiency (DE). Lastly, drug-excipient compatibility studies, including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis were carried out. Fair flow property was observed in the chickpea starch powder. Furthermore, the tablets produced passed all the tests in physicochemical characteristics evaluation except hardness and disintegration test. Additionally, in vitro dissolution studies show that chickpea starch acted as a disintegrant instead of a binder in gliclazide IR tablets and its disintegrant properties were comparable to those of crospovidone, croscarmellose

  16. THE USE OF CHICKPEAS (CICER ARIETINUM IN POULTRY DIETS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. BAMPIDIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpeas can be used as a high energy and protein feed in poultry diets to support growth and egg production. In common with other grain legumes, chickpeas can also contain anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors that can impair the utilization of the nutrients by poultry. Heat treatment is an effective method to increase the amount of protein available for intestinal digestibility. This review evaluates chickpeas in regard to their nutrient composition, anti-nutritional factors content, and their impact on poultry performance. The possible reasons and implications of these results are discussed.

  17. Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Al-Hassawi, Fatima; Al-Khulaifi, Fatima; Al-Rayyes, Ghanima; Waslien, Carol; Huffman, Fatma G

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of obesity and type-2-diabetes requires dietary manipulation. It was hypothesized that wheat-legume-composite breads will reduce the spike of blood glucose and increase satiety. Four pan bread samples were prepared: White bread (WB) as standard, Whole-wheat bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfort in digestion. The breads were rated >5.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale with WB significantly higher than all other breads. No difference in area under the curve (AUC) for appetite was found, but blood glucose AUC was reduced as follows: 35%ChB 25%ChB = WWB or 35%ChB. We conclude that addition of chickpea flour at 35 % to whole wheat produces a bread that is acceptable to eat, causing no physical discomfort and lowers the glycemic response.

  18. Quantifying Response of Chickpea Emergence to Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Torabi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the response of emergence to temperature in 4 chickpea cultivars (Beauvanij, Arman, Hashem and Jam using 12 sowing dates (one per month under Gorgan environmental conditions (northern Iran in 2001-2002 and 2002-2003. A dent-like function was used to quantify the response of emergence to temperature. Using this function, the cardinal temperatures (base, lower optimum and higher optimum and biological day requirement for emergence were determined for different percentiles. Ceiling temperature was taken constantly as 39 ˚C. There was no significant difference between cultivars for cardinal temperatures of 50% population and they were estimated as 4.5, 20.2 and 29.0 ˚C, respectively. Base temperature of 3.4 and 3.0 ˚C, lower optimum of 23.8 and 20 ˚C and higher optimum of 30.3 and 30.0 ˚C were estimated for 10 and 90% populations without significant difference between cultivars. Cultivar differences for biological day requirement of emergence were not significant for 10, 50 and 90% populations. Biological day requirement was estimated as 4.4, 6.1 and 7.9 days for 10, 50 and 90% populations, respectively. Chickpea emergence could be predicted for different percentiles using estimated parameters of this study and weather data.

  19. An Update on Genetic Resistance of Chickpea to Ascochyta Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight (AB caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass. Labr. is an important and widespread disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. worldwide. The disease is particularly severe under cool and humid weather conditions. Breeding for host resistance is an efficient means to combat this disease. In this paper, attempts have been made to summarize the progress made in identifying resistance sources, genetics and breeding for resistance, and genetic variation among the pathogen population. The search for resistance to AB in chickpea germplasm, breeding lines and land races using various screening methods has been updated. Importance of the genotype × environment (GE interaction in elucidating the aggressiveness among isolates from different locations and the identification of pathotypes and stable sources of resistance have also been discussed. Current and modern breeding programs for AB resistance based on crossing resistant/multiple resistant and high-yielding cultivars, stability of the breeding lines through multi-location testing and molecular marker-assisted selection method have been discussed. Gene pyramiding and the use of resistant genes present in wild relatives can be useful methods in the future. Identification of additional sources of resistance genes, good characterization of the host–pathogen system, and identification of molecular markers linked to resistance genes are suggested as the key areas for future study.

  20. Allelic Variation within Single Podded Gene Characterized by STMS Marker in Chickpea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Ali; M.A. Haq; N. Iqbal; A. Hameed; T.M. Shah; B.M. Atta

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), is an important grain legume crop throughout the world especially in developing countries. However the average yield worldwide is considered to be lower than its potential yield (Singh et al.,1994).

  1. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea with -amylase inhibitor gene for insect resistance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ignacimuthu; S Prakash

    2006-09-01

    Chickpea is the world’s third most important pulse crop and India produces 75% of the world’s supply. Chickpea seeds are attacked by Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis which cause extensive damage. The -amylase inhibitor gene isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds was introduced into chickpea cultivar K850 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A total of 288 kanamycin resistant plants were regenerated. Only 0.3% of these were true transformants. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and Southern hybridization confirmed the presence of 4.9 kb -amylase inhibitor gene in the transformed plants. Western blot confirmed the presence of -amylase inhibitor protein. The results of bioassay study revealed a significant reduction in the survival rate of bruchid weevil C. maculatus reared on transgenic chickpea seeds. All the transgenic plants exhibited a segregation ratio of 3:1.

  2. Effect of the Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Flour Addition on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea flour is a good source of proteins, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds and it could be an ideal ingredient for improve the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. The aim of this study was to supplement wheat flour (WF with various levels of chickpea flour (CF in order to obtain bread with good nutritional and quality characteristics. Four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of chickpea flour were used. The results showed a valuable increment in bread protein and fiber content. The volume of the breads decreased as the level of chickpea flour (CF increased due the dilution of gluten content in the blend and due to the interactions among fiber components, water and gluten. Nevertheless, substitution at 10%, 20% and 30%, gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample (WFB and produces acceptable bread, in terms of weight, volume and sensorial properties.

  3. Exploring Western Ghats microbial diversity for antagonistic microorganisms against fungal phytopathogens of pepper and chickpea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B.N. RAMKUMAR; K.M. NAMPOOTHIRI; U. SHEEBA; P. JAYACHANDRAN; N.S. SREESHMA; S.M. SNEHA; K.S. Meenakumari; P. Sivaprasad

    2015-01-01

    ... capsici and Rhizoctonia solani, infecting pepper and chickpea, respectively. Bioactive samples were made by varying solvent extraction of the culture broths of the potent isolates belongs to Actinomycetes, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Trichoderma...

  4. Gluten-free spaghetti with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize: physicochemical, texture and sensory properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Berrios, Jose De J; Pan, James; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Monsalve-González, Adelmo; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical, textural and sensorial characteristics of gluten-free spaghetti elaborated with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize flours. Luminosity (L...

  5. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  6. Growth and antioxidant system under drought stress in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) as sustained by salicylic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Sarma, B. K.; Hemantaranjan, A.; Pradeep Kumar Patel; Radha Singh

    2011-01-01

    Drought is one of the major factors limiting chickpea production in arid and semi arid regions. There is meagre information available regarding genotypic variation for drought tolerance in chickpea genotypes. Present investigation was carried out to find out the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on drought tolerance in four chickpea genotypes. Reduction in relative injury was observed in plants treated with SA @1.5 mM as compared to control seedlings. Relationship between relative water conten...

  7. Effect of chickpea in association with Rhizobium to crop productivity and soil fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botir Khaitov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth, development and yield of chickpea (Cicer ariеtinum L. is strongly influenced by abiotic factors such as salinity and drought in the arid conditions. The use of efficient plant growth promoting bacteria in chickpea production is the best solution to overcome those stresses. In the present study, 10 chickpea rhizobial strains were isolated and purified from the nodules of chickpea genotype grown on middle salinated soils with different chickpea cultivation histories, 3 of them were more efficient in salt tolerance and showed higher nodulation abilities. Local chickpea genotype Uzbekistan-32 was inoculated with selected Rhizobium bacterial strains before planting them to the field condition. Inoculation of plants with strains Rhizobium sp. R4, R6 and R9 significantly increased shoot, root dry matter, and nodule number by 17, 12, and 20% above the uninoculated plants, respectively. The shoot length increased by 52%, root length by 43%, shoot dry weight by 36%, and root dry weight by 64%. Inoculation significantly increased the pod number by 28% and yield up to 55% as compared to control plant. The effective indigenous rhizobial strains isolated in this study from chickpeas on middle salinated soils of Uzbekistan have the characters of broad host range, high nodulation efficiency, efficient N fixation, great salt tolerance. Soil nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon content of the soil at the end of experiments were positive in all the treatments compare control. In this study, we are focused with consideration of the relationship between chickpea and its symbiotic nitrogen-fixing root nodule bacterial strains and how it functions to influence plant productivity and soil fertility.

  8. New Lines of Chickpea Against Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Ciceris Wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Arvayo-Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In Mexico, 70 and 20% of chickpea is produced in Sinaloa and Sonora, respectively. In Sonora wilting by Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Ciceris (FOC causes losses of up to 60%, while in other parts of the world ranged from 12-15% annually. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of new lines of chickpea obtained through breeding programs against FOC wilt. Approach: In order to evaluate the resistance of new chickpea lines: Hoga-012, Hoga-490-2 and Hoga-508, including the two most important commercial cultivars in Mexico: Blanco Sinaloa-92 and Costa-2004 and as control two cultivars: JG-62 (susceptible and WR-315 (resistant, a pathogen city test was performed with races 0 and 5 of FOC. Plants were evaluated based on leaf and root damage during 50 days, using a hedonic scale of five levels (0-4. Results: New chickpea lines as well as commercial cultivars were susceptible to races 0 and 5 of FOC. Changes (PConclusion: New lines of chickpea and commercial cultivars did not show resistance to FOC races isolated in chickpea fields of Sonora. Thus, it should be continued in the search for resistant genotypes through breeding programs to assist in controlling the disease.

  9. Hydration kinetics and physical properties of split chickpea as affected by soaking temperature and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny, Saeed; Razavi, Seyed M A; Khodaei, Diako

    2015-12-01

    In this study, some physical properties (principal dimensions, mean diameters, sphericity, area, density and electrical conductivity) of split chickpea were measured as function of soaking time (up to 360 min) and temperature (25-65 °C). Initially, the water absorption rate was high and then it showed a progressive decrease at all temperatures, whereas solid loss exhibited a power function of temperature (P chickpea soaking. No significant difference (P chickpea at temperature of 25 °C. As temperature increased from 25 to 65 °C, the K1 value decreased from 0.04620 to 0.00945 g h(-1), whereas the K2 value increased from 0.08597 to 0.11320 g(-1). Plot for K1 exhibited a slope changes around 45 °C corresponding to gelatinization temperature of split chickpeas. The effect of temperature and time on physical properties of split chickpea during soaking was monitored by regression equations. It was concluded that physical properties of split chickpea affected by its water absorption especially at higher temperatures.

  10. Effect of chickpea aqueous extracts, organic extracts, and protein concentrates on cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; del Mar Yust, María; Pedroche, Justo; Alaiz, Manuel; Millán, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Pulses should be part of a healthy diet, and it is also becoming clear that they have health-promoting effects. Nevertheless, most studies on the bioactive or health-promoting properties of pulses have been carried out using soybeans. We have studied cell growth-regulating properties, which may be responsible for anti-cancer properties, in chickpea seeds. Chickpea seeds are a staple in the traditional diet of many Mediterranean, Asian, and South and Central American countries. In addition, chickpea seeds have industrial applications since they can be used for the preparation of protein concentrates and isolates. The cell lines Caco-2 (epithelial intestinal) and J774 (macrophages) have been exposed to chickpea seed extracts and protein preparations in order to screen the different chickpea fractions for effects on cell growth. Both cell growth-promoting and cell growth-inhibiting effects were found. Most interestingly, a fraction soluble in ethanol and acetone specifically and almost completely inhibited the growth of Caco-2 cells exhibiting a cancerous phenotype. It is concluded that chickpea seeds are a source of bioactive components and deserve further study for their possible anti-cancer effect.

  11. Study on different densities of cumin and chickpea intercropping with emphasis on weed control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza abasi ali kamar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different densities of intercropping cumin and chickpea, an experiment was conducted in the farm of Agriculture College of Mashhad. This experiment was conducted as a strip design based on RCBD with four replications. Main plots included weed control treatments (I- one time control in growing season on emergence stage. II- without control and subplots included 5 different densities (I- 120 pl/m2 cumin. II- 90 pl/m2 cumin + 15 pl/m2 chickpea. III- 60 pl/m2 cumin + 30 pl/m2 chickpea. IV- 30 pl/m2 cumin + 45 pl/m2 chickpea. V- 60 pl/m2 chickpea.. The results showed a significant difference in all growth indices in all one time weed control and without weed control treatments. As the densities decreased, both crop's growth indices decreased. The decrease of chickpea yield in all densities in both weed control treatments, showed significant difference. Crop growth rate (CGR and leaf area index (LAI in cumin despite of chickea has affected positively by intercropping. Total land equivalent ratio (LER in all treatments was more than one and partial LER only in 90 pl/m2 was more than one that shows the positive effect of intercropping on cumin yield.

  12. Hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yust, María del Mar; Millán-Linares, María del Carmen; Alcaide-Hidalgo, Juan María; Millán, Francisco; Pedroche, Justo

    2012-07-01

    Some dietary proteins possess biological properties which make them potential ingredients of functional or health-promoting foods. Many of these properties are attributed to bioactive peptides that can be released by controlled hydrolysis using exogenous proteases. The aim of this work was to test the improvement of hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of chickpea protein isolate by means of hydrolysis with alcalase and flavourzyme. All hydrolysates tested exhibited better hypocholesterolaemic activity when compared with chickpea protein isolate. The highest cholesterol micellar solubility inhibition (50%) was found after 60 min of treatment with alcalase followed by 30 min of hydrolysis with flavourzyme. To test antioxidant activity of chickpea proteins three methods were used: β-carotene bleaching method, reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect since antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates may not be attributed to a single mechanism. Chickpea hydrolysates showed better antioxidant activity in all assays, especially reducing power and DPPH scavenging effect than chickpea protein isolate. The results of this study showed the good potential of chickpea protein hydrolysates as bioactive ingredients. The highest bioactive properties could be obtained by selecting the type of proteases and the hydrolysis time. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. A draft genome sequence of the pulse crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mukesh; Misra, Gopal; Patel, Ravi K; Priya, Pushp; Jhanwar, Shalu; Khan, Aamir W; Shah, Niraj; Singh, Vikas K; Garg, Rohini; Jeena, Ganga; Yadav, Manju; Kant, Chandra; Sharma, Priyanka; Yadav, Gitanjali; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2013-06-01

    Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) is the third most important food legume crop. We have generated the draft sequence of a desi-type chickpea genome using next-generation sequencing platforms, bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences and a genetic map. The 520-Mb assembly covers 70% of the predicted 740-Mb genome length, and more than 80% of the gene space. Genome analysis predicts the presence of 27,571 genes and 210 Mb as repeat elements. The gene expression analysis performed using 274 million RNA-Seq reads identified several tissue-specific and stress-responsive genes. Although segmental duplicated blocks are observed, the chickpea genome does not exhibit any indication of recent whole-genome duplication. Nucleotide diversity analysis provides an assessment of a narrow genetic base within the chickpea cultivars. We have developed a resource for genetic markers by comparing the genome sequences of one wild and three cultivated chickpea genotypes. The draft genome sequence is expected to facilitate genetic enhancement and breeding to develop improved chickpea varieties. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The investigation of competition indices in intercropping of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under nitrogen consumption

    OpenAIRE

    tayebe mashhadi; ali nazhzari maghadam; hossein sabouri

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the competition indices of intercropping wheat and chickpea under nitrogen consumption, an experiment was arranged as factorial based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications during 2009 – 2010 in Gonbad Kavous University farm. Planting patterns factor included four levels of sole cropping Wheat (W), two rows of wheat with one row of Chickpea (W2C1) one row of wheat with two rows of Chickpea (W1C2) and sole cropping Chickpea (C) and nitrogen consump...

  15. Effects of Temperature Stresses on the Resistance of Chickpea Genotypes and Aggressiveness of Didymella rabiei Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seid Ahmed Kemal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important food and rotation crop in many parts of the world. Cold (freezing and chilling temperatures and Ascochyta blight (Didymella rabiei are the major constraints in chickpea production. The effects of temperature stresses on chickpea susceptibility and pathogen aggressiveness are not well documented in the Cicer-Didymella pathosystem. Two experiments were conducted under controlled conditions using chickpea genotypes and pathogen isolates in 2011 and 2012. In Experiment 1, four isolates of D. rabiei (AR-01, AR-02, AR-03 and AR-04, six chickpea genotypes (Ghab-1, Ghab-2, Ghab-3, Ghab-4, Ghab-5 and ICC-12004 and four temperature regimes (10, 15, 20, and 25°C were studied using 10 day-old seedlings. In Experiment 2, three chickpea genotypes (Ghab-1, Ghab-2, and ICC-12004 were exposed to 5 and 10 days of chilling temperature exposure at 5°C and non-exposed seedlings were used as controls. Seedlings of the three chickpea genotypes were inoculated with the four pathogen isolates used in Experiment 1. Three disease parameters (incubation period, latent period and disease severity were measured to evaluate treatment effects. In Experiment 1, highly significant interactions between genotypes and isolates; genotypes and temperature; and isolate and temperature were observed for incubation and latent periods. Genotype x isolate and temperature x isolate interactions also significantly affected disease severity. The resistant genotype ICC-12004 showed long incubation and latent periods and low disease severity at all temperatures. The highly aggressive isolate AR-04 caused symptoms, produced pycnidia in short duration as well as high disease severity across temperature regimes, which indicated it is adapted to a wide range of temperatures. Short incubation and latent periods and high disease severity were observed on genotypes exposed to chilling temperature. Our findings showed that the significant interactions of

  16. Properties and stability of deep-fat fried chickpea products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozdemir, S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to develop new snack foods prepared from deep frying whole chickpeas and evaluating the properties and storage stability of the new products. The most remarkable results found were: moisture content (3.48–9.19%, water activity (0.1833–0.5936, hardness (3243–4056 g, L (42.01–65.79, a* (10.56–19.24, b* (30.80–42.20, free fatty acidity (0.2195–0.3467%, pero xide value (3.167–5.25 meq O2·kg−1, total phenolic (22.34–37.34 mgGA·100g−1 chickpea, antioxidant capacity (6.53–31.61 mmol Trolox·100g−1 chickpea, absorbed fat (13.46–13.92%, and caloric value (453.17–488.49 kcal·100g−1 chickpea. Hexanal, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, nonanal, benzaldehyde, p-cymene, and carvacrol were the major volatile compounds determined. The color, hardness, moisture content, water activity, free fatty acids, and peroxide value of the products were monitored for three months at room temperature. Consumer acceptance tests were conducted to reveal the changes which occurred during the storage period. All the products developed and evaluated in this study show potential in the market and industry, with the plain type being the preferred product.Los objetivos de este estudio fueron el desarrollo de nuevos aperitivos elaborados mediante fritura de garbanzos enteros y la evaluación de las propiedades y estabilidad de los nuevos productos durante el almacenamiento. Los resultados mas destacados fueron: contenido de humedad (3,48–9,19%, actividad de agua (0,1833–0,5936, dureza (3243–4056 g, L (42,01 a 65,79, a* (10.56–19,24, b* (30,80–42,20, ácidos grasos libres (0,2195–0,3467%, índice de peróxido (3,167 a 5,25 meq O2·kg −1, fenoles total (22,34–37,34 mgGA·100g−1 garbanzo, capacidad antioxidante (6.53– 31.61 mmol Trolox·100 g−1 garbanzos, grasa absorbida (13,46–13,92%, y el valor calórico (453,17 a 488,49 kcal·100 g−1 de garbanzos. Además, los componentes volátiles más importantes

  17. A major gene for time of flowering in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J; van Rheenen, H A

    2000-01-01

    A major gene for the number of days from sowing to appearance of the first flower (time of flowering) was identified in a cross between an extrashort duration chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) variety, ICCV 2, and a medium duration variety, JG 62. The F2 population was advanced through the single-seed-descent method to develop random recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Time of flowering was recorded for the parents and 66 F(6) RILs from this cross that were grown in a Vertisol field in the post-rainy season of 1996-1997. Similarly the parents, F(1) and F(10) RILs were evaluated in 1997-1998. The F(1) flowered along with JG 62. The time of flowering for the two sets of RILs showed bimodal distributions with nearly equal peaks. One peak corresponded with ICCV 2 and the other with JG 62. This suggests that a single gene controls the difference for the time of flowering between ICCV 2 and JG 62 and the allele carried by the latter parent is dominant. To our knowledge no gene has been identified for the time of flowering in chickpea. Therefore the allele carried by JG 62 is designated as Efl-1 and that by ICCV 2 as efl-1. The proposed genotype for ICCV 2 is efl-1 efl-1 and for JG 62 is Efl-1 Efl-1. The genotype efl-1 efl-1 reduces the time of flowering at ICRISAT by nearly 3 weeks. The significance of this gene for breeding for early maturity and genome mapping has been discussed.

  18. Evaluation and biochemical characterization of a distinctive pyoverdin from a pseudomonas isolated from chickpea rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Tank

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial siderophores confiscate the available ferric ions around the roots and trigger a reaction resulting in plant growth promotion. In our study, a high level of siderophore production was observed from a newly isolated Pseudomonas sp. from the rhizosphere of Chickpea plants. Under an iron depleted condition in Standard Succinic acid medium a 1000 µgmL-1 of siderophore production was achieved. Increasing the concentration of iron showed an inverse relationship between growth and siderophore production. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the purified crystals, its UV spectral analysis and High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC revealed the identity of the siderophore as similar to that of pyoverdin with distinctive characters. Electron spray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESIMS shows presence of abundance of A1 ions (419 m/z and branching of amino acids from B1-B5. This pyoverdin contains a cyclic tetra peptide but Serine and Arginine are missing. Based on our analysis and deviations from the reported structure of pyoverdin it is suggested that this pseudomonas produces distinctly characterized pyoverdin siderophore.

  19. Physicochemical and structural evaluation of alkali extracted chickpea starch as affected by γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mudasir; Haripriya, Sundaramoorthy

    2016-08-01

    In this study, starch isolated from chickpea was exposed to gamma-irradiation at 0, 4, 8 and 12kGy doses. The irradiated starches were evaluated for their physicochemical, morphological and pasting properties. The results revealed significant (p≤0.05) reduction in apparent amylose content, swelling power, turbidity, syneresis, L (lightness) value, and pasting parameters whereas solubility and b (yellowness) value increased with increase in irradiation dose. X-ray diffraction showed C-type of crystallographic pattern. Relative crystallinity (RC) of irradiated starches was different at different irradiation doses. Prominent changes were recorded in the FT-IR spectra of irradiated starch samples with respect to intensity and shifting of major bands in specific regions. Analysis of O - H and C - H stretches, bending mode of water and glycoside bonds of irradiated starches revealed marked decrease in their absorbance intensities. Scanning electron microscopy revealed cracking and clumping of starch granules at elevated doses of gamma-irradiation. Radiation doses were negatively correlated to swelling power, pasting parameters (peak viscosity, hold viscosity, final viscosity, setback viscosity and pasting temperature), turbidity, syneresis and apparent amylose content except solubility.

  20. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system. PMID:27066020

  1. Nitric oxide mitigates salt stress by regulating levels of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz eAhmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. plants. SNAP (50 μM was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl. Salt stress negatively affected growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and glutathione reductase (GR in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosynthesis of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

  2. Nitrogen fixation by U.S. and Middle Eastern chickpeas with commercial and wild Middle Eastern inocula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) are native to the Middle East (ME), and must be inoculated with symbiotic bacteria in order to fix nitrogen (N) in North American soils. Commercial inocula for chickpea contain several strains of the known N-fixing symbiont Mesorhizobium ciceri. It is not known whethe...

  3. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. responds to inoculation with Azotobacter vineladii and Burkholderia cepacia at reduced dose of nitrogen fertilizer

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    Juan Manuel Sánchez-Yáñez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. crop demands nitrogen fertilizer (NF applied in excess caused lost soil fertility and environmental pollution. An alternative for solving this problem are: to reduce and to optimize NF in chickpea using inoculants based on plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB genus. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the response of chickpea to inoculation with Azotobacter vinelandii and Burkholderia cepacia at 50% reduced dose of NF. These PGPB were inoculated chickpea under an experimental design of randomized blocks. The response variables to measure the effect of PGPB on the legume were: the percent of germination, shoot and root phenotyping: plant height, root length and biomass: fresh and dry weight of shoot and root. Experimental data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test. Results showed that a positive respond of chickpea to both PGPB on its germination as well as at seeding and flowering where chickpea had 0.82g total dry weight (TDW of this value was statistically different and significant compared to chickpea treated by NF 100% not inoculated used as relative control (RC with 0.71g TDW. This data suggests that chickpea optimized NF reduced dose by synergistic interaction of both genera PGPB in its root system. Which could to avoid in part soil lost fertility and environmental pollution for applying NF in excess.

  4. Production of fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by fermentation of chickpeas, with the evaluation of the anticoagulant and antioxidant properties of chickpeas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xuetuan; Luo, Mingfang; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Yewei; Lin, Xing; Kong, Peng; Liu, Huizhou

    2011-04-27

    To develop safe and cheap thrombolytic agents, a fibrinolytic enzyme productive strain of LSSE-62 was isolated from Chinese soybean paste. This strain was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis showed that this fibrinolytic enzyme was identical to subtilisin DJ-4. Chickpeas were used as the substrate for fibrinolytic enzyme production from B. amyloliquefaciens in solid-state fermentation. Under the optimized conditions (34 °C and 50% initial moisture content), the fibrinolytic activity of fermented chickpeas reached 39.28 fibrin degradation units (FU)/g. Additionally, the fermented chickpeas showed anticoagulant activity, and the purified anticoagulant component showed higher anticoagulant activity than heparin sodium. After fermentation, the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents increased by 222 and 71%, respectively, and then the antioxidant activities were improved significantly. This study provided a novel method for the preparation of multifunctional food of chickpeas or raw materials for the preparation of functional food additives and potential drugs.

  5. EVALUATION OF WHEAT-CHICKPEA INTERCROPS AS INFLUENCED BY NITROGEN AND WEED MANAGEMENT

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    A. Abdulahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat and chickpea are most important crops in dryland farming areas of Iran. Weeds have major impact on chickpea grain yield. This experiment was carried out to increase land use efficiency and weed suppression through intercropping in dryland agricultural research station-Sararood, Kermanshah, Iran during 2008-10. The experimental design layout was factorial split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plots contained factorial plots of N fertilization with 3 levels (N1: no fertilization, N2: 60 kg.ha-1 urea for wheat and 20 kg.ha-1 for chickpea and N3: Nitragin as a biofertilizer + 30 kg.ha-1 urea for wheat and chickpea no urea; and weed conditions with 2 levels (weed infested and weed free. The third factor as sub-plots arranged in main plots was cropping patterns with 10 levels (1: wheat Sole Crop (wh.SC, 2: chickpea Sole Crop (ch.SC, 3: wh./ch. Mixed Intercropping (wh./ch.MIC in 1:1 ratio, 4: wh./ch. MIC in 2:1 ratio, Row Intercropping (RIC 1row wh.:1row ch., 6: Strip Intercropping (SIC 5wh.1ch.5wh.2ch, 7: SIC 7wh.:2ch., 8: SIC 2wh.:7ch., 9: SIC 9wh.:4ch. and 10: SIC 4wh.:9ch.. Weed and nitrogen factors didn’t have significant effect on wheat yield and patterns number 5, 8 and 10 produced highest wheat grain yield respectively. Chickpea yield was significantly reduced by wheat when intercropped, but high Land Equivalent Ratio (LER derived. Effect of weeds on chickpea Grain Yield (GY was significant and GY in weed infested was nearly half of GY in weed free condition. LER in weed infested condition in both years was higher than weed free condition. Weed dry matter in five intercropping patterns clearly decreased as compare to chickpea sole crop. It is concluded that intercropping can be used as a method to decrease the inputs of wheat and chickpea crops, especially for nitrogen fertilizing and weed control.

  6. Survey of Plant Growth-Promoting Mechanisms in Native Portuguese Chickpea Mesorhizobium Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brígido, Clarisse; Glick, Bernard R; Oliveira, Solange

    2017-05-01

    Rhizobia may possess other plant growth-promoting mechanisms besides nitrogen fixation. These mechanisms and the tolerance to different environmental factors, such as metals, may contribute to the use of rhizobia inocula to establish a successful legume-rhizobia symbiosis. Our goal was to characterize a collection of native Portuguese chickpea Mesorhizobium isolates in terms of plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits and tolerance to different metals as well as to investigate whether these characteristics are related to the biogeography of the isolates. The occurrence of six PGP mechanisms and tolerance to five metals were evaluated in 61 chickpea Mesorhizobium isolates previously obtained from distinct provinces in Portugal and assigned to different species clusters. Chickpea microsymbionts show high diversity in terms of PGP traits as well as in their ability to tolerate different metals. All isolates synthesized indoleacetic acid, 50 isolates produced siderophores, 19 isolates solubilized phosphate, 12 isolates displayed acid phosphatase activity, and 22 exhibited cytokinin activity. Most isolates tolerated Zn or Pb but not Ni, Co, or Cu. Several associations between specific PGP mechanisms and the province of origin and species clusters of the isolates were found. Our data suggests that the isolate's tolerance to metals and ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate and to produce IAA may be responsible for the persistence and distribution of the native Portuguese chickpea Mesorhizobium species. Furthermore, this study revealed several chickpea microsymbionts with potential as PGP rhizobacteria as well as for utilization in phytoremediation strategies.

  7. 鹰嘴豆淀粉与玉米淀粉性质的比较%Comparative Study on Properties of Chickpea Starch and Corn Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾楠; 刘美艳; 赵国华

    2011-01-01

    研究了新疆产鹰嘴豆淀粉的一些基本性质,并与玉米淀粉进行比较,发现鹰嘴豆淀粉中直链淀粉质量分数为31.8%,高于玉米淀粉的直链淀粉质量分数(26.6%);通过电镜扫描发现鹰嘴豆淀粉颗粒表面光滑,形状多数为椭圆形、鹅卵石状,少数为圆形,而玉米淀粉颗粒多为圆形,呈多角状;粒度分析表明鹰嘴豆淀粉的粒径范围是6.39 ~41.80 μm,体积平均粒径是16.77 μn,而玉米淀粉粒径范围是4.02~33.35 μm,体积平均粒径是14.60 μm;鹰嘴豆淀粉持水力、溶解度优于玉米淀粉,透光率低于玉米淀粉;差示扫描量热( DSC)分析发现鹰嘴豆淀粉糊化温度为60.6 ~71.8℃,相变热焓值为7.12 J/g;玉米淀粉糊化温度为65.4~75.1℃,相变热焓值为10.61 J/g.%In this paper, some basic properties of Xinjiang chickpea starch was researched, and then compared with those of corn starch. It has been found that the mass fraction of amylose starch in chickpea starch was 31. 8% , which was higher than that (26.6% ) of the corn starch; by scanning starch granules with an electron microscopy,it was found that chickpea starch grain was smooth in surface, mainly in the form of oval and cobblestone and rarely in round,while the corn starch grain was mainly round with multiple angles. The particle size analysis showed that the particle size of chickpeas starch ranged from 6.39 to 41.80μm,and the volume average particle size was 14.60μm, while those of the corn starch were from 4.02 ~ 33.35μm and 14.60μm respectively. Besides,the water holding capacity and solubility of chickpea starch were better than those of the corn starch, of which the light transmittance was lower than that of the corn starch. The differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC) analysis showed that the gelatinization temperature of the chickpea starch was between 60. 6℃ and 71. 8 ℃,and the phase transition enthalpy value was 7. 12 J/g, while those of the corn starch was

  8. Responsiveness of cold tolerant chickpea characteristics in fall and spring planting: II. yield and yield components

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    ahmad nezami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research in Mashhad collection chickpeas (MCC has shown that there are some cold tolerant genotypes for fall planting in the highlands. To obtain more detailed information about the reaction of these genotypes to fall and spring planting, the yield and yield component responses of 33 chickpea genotypes (32 cold tolerant genotypes and one susceptible genotypes to four planting dates (28 Sep., 16 Oct., 2 Nov., and 7 Mar. were evaluated in 2000-2001 growing season. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field of college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad as a split plot design with two replications. The planting dates were imposed as main plot and chickpea genotypes as subplot. Effects of planting date and genotype on percent of plant survival (PPS after winter, number. of pod per plant, 100 seed weight, yield and Harvest Index (HI were significant (p

  9. Hydrolysis of chickpea proteins with Flavourzyme immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose gels improves functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Mar Yust, María; del Carmen Millán-Linares, María; Alcaide-Hidalgo, Juan María; Millán, Francisco; Pedroche, Justo

    2013-06-01

    Chickpea protein isolate was hydrolyzed using Flavourzyme immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose beads by multipoint covalent attachment. This Flavourzyme-glyoxyl derivative, produced after 1 h of immobilization at 4 °C followed by 5.5 h at room temperature, presented approximately 51% of the endoprotease activity of Flavourzyme but was around 700 times more stable than soluble enzyme. Chickpea protein hydrolysates ranging from 1% to 10% degree of hydrolysis were produced and their chemical composition was very close to that of protein isolate used as starting material. Solubility, oil absorption, emulsifying activity and stability, and foaming capacity and stability were determined. All protein hydrolysates showed higher solubility than intact proteins, especially at pHs near isoelectric point of native chickpea proteins. Moreover, all hydrolysates had better functional properties, except emulsifying activity, than the original protein isolate.

  10. Influence of thermal processing on IgE reactivity to lentil and chickpea proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Carmen; Cabanillas, Beatriz; Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Varela, Alejandro; Guillamón, Eva; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodriguez, Julia; Burbano, Carmen

    2009-11-01

    In the last years, legume proteins are gaining importance as food ingredients because of their nutraceutical properties. However, legumes are also considered relevant in the development of food allergies through ingestion. Peanuts and soybeans are important food allergens in Western countries, while lentil and chickpea allergy are more relevant in the Mediterranean area. Information about the effects of thermal-processing procedures at various temperatures and conditions is scarce; therefore, the effect of these procedures on legume allergenic properties is not defined so far. The SDS-PAGE and IgE-immunoblotting patterns of chickpeas and lentils were analyzed before and after boiling (up to 60 min) and autoclaving (1.2 and 2.6 atm, up to 30 min). The results indicated that some of these treatments reduce IgE binding to lentil and chickpea, the most important being harsh autoclaving. However, several extremely resistant immunoreactive proteins still remained in these legumes even after this extreme treatment.

  11. Dissipation of pendimethalin in soil and its residues in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhia, Shobha

    2012-11-01

    Disappearance of pendimethalin in the soil of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) at 0-110 days, and terminal residues in plant samples have been studied under field conditions. Pendimethalin was applied as pre-emergence herbicide at 750, 350 and 180 g a.i. ha(-1) in winter, in chickpea crop. The dissipation of pendimethalin in the chickpea field soil conditions followed first order kinetics showing a half-life of 11.23 days averaged over all doses. Low pendimethalin residues were found in plant samples. 0.025, 0.015, <0.001 μg g(-1) residues of pendimethalin were found in grains at 750, 350 and 185 g a.i. ha(-1) treatments, respectively. Much lower pendimethalin residues were found in straw viz. 0.015 to <0.001 μg g(-1) at 750, 350 and 185 g a.i. ha(-1) treatments, respectively.

  12. Identification of conserved microRNAs and their targets in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jihong; Sun, Lulu; Ding, Yi

    2013-04-01

    The microRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of non-protein coding small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in plants. Although thousands of miRNAs have been identified in many plant species, little studies have been reported about chickpea microRNAs. In this study, 28 potential miRNA candidates belonging to 20 families were identified from 16 ESTs and 12 GSSs in chickpea using a comparative genome-based computational analysis. A total of 664 miRNA targets were predicted and some of them encoded transcription factors as well as genes that function in stress response, signal transduction, methylation and a variety of other metabolic processes. These findings lay the foundation for further understanding of miRNA function in the development of chickpea.

  13. Expansion in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seed during soaking and cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Sedat; Turhan, Mahir; Köksel, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    The linear and volumetric expansion of chickpea seeds during water absorption at 20, 30, 50, 70, 85 and 100°C was studied. Length, width and thickness of chickpea seeds linearly increased with the increase in moisture content at all temperatures studied, where the greatest increase was found in length. Two different mathematical approaches were used for the determination of the expansion coefficients. The plots of the both linear and volumetric expansion coefficients versus temperature exhibited two linear lines, the first one was through 20, 30 and 50ºC and the second one was trough 70, 85 and 100ºC. The crossing point (58ºC) of these lines was very close to the gelatinisation temperature (60ºC) of chickpea starch.

  14. Nutritional composition of Chickpea (Cicerarietinum-L and value added products - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha Hirdyani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important pulse crop grown and consumed all over the world, especially in the Afro-Asian countries. It is a good source of carbohydrates and protein, and the protein quality is considered to be better than other pulses. Chickpea has significant amounts of all the essential amino acids. Starch is the major storage carbohydrate followed by dietary fibre, lipids are present in low amounts but chickpea is rich in nutritionally important unsaturated fatty acids like linoleic and oleic acid.It can be utilized to develop nutritious value added products and hence products can also be used as nutritious food for low income group in developing countries and for patients suffering with life style diseases.

  15. Germination dramatically increases isoflavonoid content and diversity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Feng, Shengbao; Liu, Yuancai; He, Guangyuan; Yioe, Yoecelyn; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2012-09-05

    The effect of germination on bioactive components in legume seeds was investigated in terms of the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents. Germination increased the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of most seeds. Particularly in chickpea seeds, the isoflavone contents increased by over 100 fold, mainly due to the increase of formononetin and biochanin A level. As a result, these two compounds were conveniently isolated from the germinated seeds in preparative scale and structurally confirmed by UV-vis, ESI-MS, and (1)H NMR spectroscopies. Isoflavonoid fingerprints analyzed by HPLC-PDA and LC-ESI-MS demonstrated that germination could significantly increase isoflavonoids diversity. Twenty-five isoflavonoids were detected and identified tentatively. These include 20 isoflavones, 2 isoflavanones, and 3 pterocarpan phytoalexins. Total isoflavonoid content of germinated chickpea was approximately 5-fold of that of germinated soybean. Our findings suggest that the germinated chickpea seeds could serve as a promising functional food rich in isoflavonoids.

  16. UHT PROCESSED CHICKPEA LIQUID MEAL: A NOVEL CONCEPT OF A CONVENIENT LIQUID FOOD

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    Robert W. Hosken

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea liquid meal (CLM is a new concept of a convenient liquid food. It is a complex colloidal system, which is composed of dehulled chickpea flour as the major ingredient and with the addition of other ingredients (protein, fat, sucrose, dried glucose syrup, maltodextrin, vitamins, minerals, etc. The product is expected to have a balanced nutritional composition; acceptable flavor, taste and thickness; homogenous and smooth texture; stable colloid; and can be stored for a long of period (commercially sterile. This paper presents an overview of the literature information on the production, nutritional quality and functional properties of the chickpea, and the technology of liquid meal, which is applicable to CLM. It also outlines possible problems that influence consumer acceptability of the product. Some preliminary results of our study are also reported.

  17. Potential impact of rising atmospheric CO2 on quality of grains in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Saurav; Chakraborty, Debashis; Sehgal, Vinay K; Pal, Madan

    2015-11-15

    Experiments were conducted in open-top chambers to assess the effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment (E-CO2) on the quality of grains in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) crop. Physical attributes of the grains was not affected, but the hydration and swelling capacities of the flour increased. Increase in carbohydrates and reduction in protein made the grains more carbonaceous (higher C:N) under E-CO2. Among other mineral nutrients, K, Ca and Zn concentrations decreased, while P, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and B concentrations did not change. The pH, bulk density and cooking time of chickpea flour remained unaffected, although the water absorption capacity of flour increased and oil absorption reduced. Results suggest that E-CO2 could affect the grain quality adversely and nutritional imbalance in grains of chickpea might occur.

  18. Advancing the STMS genomic resources for defining new locations on the intraspecific genetic linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rashmi; Sethy, Niroj K; Choudhary, Shalu; Shokeen, Bhumika; Gupta, Varsha; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2011-02-17

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an economically important cool season grain legume crop that is valued for its nutritive seeds having high protein content. However, several biotic and abiotic stresses and the low genetic variability in the chickpea genome have continuously hindered the chickpea molecular breeding programs. STMS (Sequence Tagged Microsatellite Sites) markers which are preferred for the construction of saturated linkage maps in several crop species, have also emerged as the most efficient and reliable source for detecting allelic diversity in chickpea. However, the number of STMS markers reported in chickpea is still limited and moreover exhibit low rates of both inter and intraspecific polymorphism, thereby limiting the positions of the SSR markers especially on the intraspecific linkage maps of chickpea. Hence, this study was undertaken with the aim of developing additional STMS markers and utilizing them for advancing the genetic linkage map of chickpea which would have applications in QTL identification, MAS and for de novo assembly of high throughput whole genome sequence data. A microsatellite enriched library of chickpea (enriched for (GT/CA)n and (GA/CT)n repeats) was constructed from which 387 putative microsatellite containing clones were identified. From these, 254 STMS primers were designed of which 181 were developed as functional markers. An intraspecific mapping population of chickpea, [ICCV-2 (single podded) × JG-62 (double podded)] and comprising of 126 RILs, was genotyped for mapping. Of the 522 chickpea STMS markers (including the double-podding trait, screened for parental polymorphism, 226 (43.3%) were polymorphic in the parents and were used to genotype the RILs. At a LOD score of 3.5, eight linkage groups defining the position of 138 markers were obtained that spanned 630.9 cM with an average marker density of 4.57 cM. Further, based on the common loci present between the current map and the previously published chickpea

  19. A BAC/BIBAC-based physical map of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbo Shahal

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is the third most important pulse crop worldwide. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about its genome. The availability of a genome-wide physical map allows rapid fine mapping of QTL, development of high-density genome maps, and sequencing of the entire genome. However, no such a physical map has been developed in chickpea. Results We present a genome-wide, BAC/BIBAC-based physical map of chickpea developed by fingerprint analysis. Four chickpea BAC and BIBAC libraries, two of which were constructed in this study, were used. A total of 67,584 clones were fingerprinted, and 64,211 (~11.7 × of the fingerprints validated and used in the physical map assembly. The physical map consists of 1,945 BAC/BIBAC contigs, with each containing an average of 28.3 clones and having an average physical length of 559 kb. The contigs collectively span approximately 1,088 Mb. By using the physical map, we identified the BAC/BIBAC contigs containing or closely linked to QTL4.1 for resistance to Didymella rabiei (RDR and QTL8 for days to first flower (DTF, thus further verifying the physical map and confirming its utility in fine mapping and cloning of QTL. Conclusion The physical map represents the first genome-wide, BAC/BIBAC-based physical map of chickpea. This map, along with other genomic resources previously developed in the species and the genome sequences of related species (soybean, Medicago and Lotus, will provide a foundation necessary for many areas of advanced genomics research in chickpea and other legume species. The inclusion of transformation-ready BIBACs in the map greatly facilitates its utility in functional analysis of the legume genomes.

  20. A BAC/BIBAC-based physical map of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Scheuring, Chantel F; Zhang, Meiping; Dong, Jennifer J; Zhang, Yang; Huang, James J; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Abbo, Shahal; Sherman, Amir; Shtienberg, Dani; Chen, Weidong; Muehlbauer, Fred; Zhang, Hong-Bin

    2010-09-17

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the third most important pulse crop worldwide. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about its genome. The availability of a genome-wide physical map allows rapid fine mapping of QTL, development of high-density genome maps, and sequencing of the entire genome. However, no such a physical map has been developed in chickpea. We present a genome-wide, BAC/BIBAC-based physical map of chickpea developed by fingerprint analysis. Four chickpea BAC and BIBAC libraries, two of which were constructed in this study, were used. A total of 67,584 clones were fingerprinted, and 64,211 (~11.7 x) of the fingerprints validated and used in the physical map assembly. The physical map consists of 1,945 BAC/BIBAC contigs, with each containing an average of 28.3 clones and having an average physical length of 559 kb. The contigs collectively span approximately 1,088 Mb. By using the physical map, we identified the BAC/BIBAC contigs containing or closely linked to QTL4.1 for resistance to Didymella rabiei (RDR) and QTL8 for days to first flower (DTF), thus further verifying the physical map and confirming its utility in fine mapping and cloning of QTL. The physical map represents the first genome-wide, BAC/BIBAC-based physical map of chickpea. This map, along with other genomic resources previously developed in the species and the genome sequences of related species (soybean, Medicago and Lotus), will provide a foundation necessary for many areas of advanced genomics research in chickpea and other legume species. The inclusion of transformation-ready BIBACs in the map greatly facilitates its utility in functional analysis of the legume genomes.

  1. Antihyperlipidemic activity of chickpea sprouts supplementation in ovariectomy-induced dyslipidemia in rats

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    Sagili Harini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phytoestrogens are increasingly becoming popular as alternatives for hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal condition. Objective: In this study, the antihyperlipidemic effect of chickpea (Cicer arientum sprouts was evaluated in ovariectomy-induced dyslipidemia in rat model in comparison with standard antihyperlipidemic agent atorvastatin. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 female adult Wistar rats were divided into four groups that is, Group I - Control; Group II - Ovariectomized (OVX rats; Group III - OVX + germinated chickpea sprouts (20% in diet and Group IV OVX + atorvastatin (1.2 mg/kg b.wt, p.o.. Body and organ weights, serum, and liver lipid profile were assessed at the end of 8 weeks. Results: The results indicated that ovariectomy significantly (P < 0.05 increased total cholesterol, nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs in serum and liver. The total lipid and phospholipid content in liver were also significantly (P < 0.05 increased. The weights of uterus and heart were significantly (P < 0.05 decreased. Dietary supplementation with germinated chickpea normalized the lipid profile in serum and liver. Further, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, body weight, uterine, heart, and spleen weights were significantly (P < 0.05 increased. Atorvastatin administration showed similarly normalized lipid profile, but showed no improvement on decreased uterus and heart weights. Histopathological examination revealed fatty changes in liver, uterine atrophy, and subintimal fat accumulation in aorta in OVX group. The changes were mild in chickpea group with no improvement in statin group. Conclusions: Germinated seeds of chickpea showed significant antihyperlipidemic activity, which was comparable to atorvastatin. Further, germinated chickpea improved organ weights and helped in the reversal of histopathological changes suggesting its usefulness in postmenopausal condition.

  2. Seed priming improves chilling tolerance in chickpea by modulating germination metabolism, trehalose accumulation and carbon assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Hussain, Mubshar; Nawaz, Ahmad; Lee, Dong-Jin; Alghamdi, Salem S; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-02-01

    Chilling stress is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting chickpea productivity worldwide. This study evaluated the potential role of seed priming in improving resistance to chilling stress in chickpea (cv. Punjab, 2008). The priming treatments involved soaking seeds of chickpea cultivar Punjab 2008 in either water for 8 h (on-farm priming), aerated water (hydropriming) for 18 h, or CaCl2 solution (ψs -1.25 MPa; osmopriming) for 18 h. Primed and untreated seeds were grown either at 18/15 °C (control) or 13/10 °C (chilling stress). Chilling stress suppressed the growth of chickpea while seed priming mitigated the adverse effects of chilling stress by improving stand establishment, growth, water relations, photosynthesis, α-amylase activity, sugar metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, membrane stability, and leaf accumulation of proline, nitrogen, potassium and soluble phenolics. Seed priming also improved the performance of chickpea under optimal (control) conditions. The overall order of improvement in resistance to chilling by using seed priming was osmopriming > hydropriming > on-farm priming. Osmopriming improved seedling dry weight, specific leaf area, leaf CO2 net assimilation rate, maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII, α-amylase activity, trehalose content and leaf relative water content by 10, 22, 17, 20, 73, 48 and 7%, respectively, relative to the non-primed control under chilling stress. Under optimal temperature conditions, the corresponding values were 30, 32, 16, 10, 83, 75 and 5%, respectively. Sugar metabolism, especially trehalose content, was strongly linked with stand establishment, photosynthesis, antioxidant potential (under chilling stress) and plant biomass. Overall, seed priming improved chickpea performance under both optimal temperature conditions and chilling stress through better germination metabolism and the accumulation of trehalose, which protected from oxidative damage and helped to maintain carbon

  3. EFFECT OF CHICKPEA AND PEA FLOUR ADDITION ON THE QUALITATIVE AND SENSORY PARAMETERS OF BAKERY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kuchtová

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine chemical composition and functional properties of legume flours (chickpea, pea and fine wheat flour. The effect of chickpea and pea flour incorporation at different levels (10, 20, 30 % w/w on the qualitative parameters and sensory characteristics of bakery product was also investigated. It can be concluded, that incorporation of leguminous flours led to changes of the investigated qualitative and sensory parameters, especially in samples with higher amount of leguminous flour (20 and 30 %. Results showed, that a proper alternative to standard bakery products  are products with 10 % portion of leguminous flour.doi:10.5219/185

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deokar, Amit A; Tar'an, Bunyamin

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential membrane proteins that play critical role in the transport of water and many other solutes across cell membranes. In this study, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis identified 40 AQP genes in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). A complete overview of the chickpea AQP (CaAQP) gene family is presented, including their chromosomal locations, gene structure, phylogeny, gene duplication, conserved functional motifs, gene expression, and conserved promoter motifs. To understand AQP's evolution, a comparative analysis of chickpea AQPs with AQP orthologs from soybean, Medicago, common bean, and Arabidopsis was performed. The chickpea AQP genes were found on all of the chickpea chromosomes, except chromosome 7, with a maximum of six genes on chromosome 6, and a minimum of one gene on chromosome 5. Gene duplication analysis indicated that the expansion of chickpea AQP gene family might have been due to segmental and tandem duplications. CaAQPs were grouped into four subfamilies including 15 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 13 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), eight plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), and four small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) based on sequence similarities and phylogenetic position. Gene structure analysis revealed a highly conserved exon-intron pattern within CaAQP subfamilies supporting the CaAQP family classification. Functional prediction based on conserved Ar/R selectivity filters, Froger's residues, and specificity-determining positions suggested wide differences in substrate specificity among the subfamilies of CaAQPs. Expression analysis of the AQP genes indicated that some of the genes are tissue-specific, whereas few other AQP genes showed differential expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Promoter profiling of CaAQP genes for conserved cis-acting regulatory elements revealed enrichment of cis-elements involved in circadian control, light response, defense and stress responsiveness

  5. Androgenesis in chickpea: Anther culture and expressed sequence tags derived annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panchangam, Sameera Sastry; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Gaur, Pooran M.

    2014-01-01

    Double haploid technique is not routinely used in legume breeding programs, though recent publications report haploid plants via anther culture in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The focus of this study was to develop an efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of double haploids...... with the application of multiple stress pre-treatments such as centrifugation and osmotic shock for genotypes of interest in chickpea for their direct use in breeding programs. Four genotypes, ICC 4958, WR315, ICCV 95423 and Arearti were tested for anther culture experiments. The yield was shown to be consistent...

  6. Health Risks and Benefits of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Gupta, Kriti; Sharma, Akanksha; Das, Mukul; Ansari, Irfan Ahmad; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2017-01-11

    Chickpeas (CPs) are one of the most commonly consumed legumes, especially in the Mediterranean area as well as in the Western world. Being one of the most nutritional elements of the human diet, CP toxicity and allergy have raised health concerns. CPs may contain various antinutritional compounds, including protease inhibitors, phytic acid, lectins, oligosaccharides, and some phenolic compounds that may impair the utilization of the nutrients by people. Also, high consumption rates of CPs have enhanced the allergic problems in sensitive individuals as they contain many allergens. On the other hand, beneficial health aspects of CP consumption have received attention from researchers recently. Phytic acid, lectins, sterols, saponins, dietary fibers, resistant starch, oligosaccharides, unsaturated fatty acids, amylase inhibitors, and certain bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and isoflavones have shown the capability of lowering the clinical complications associated with various human diseases. The aim of this paper is to unravel the health risks as well as health-promoting aspects of CP consumption and to try to fill the gaps that currently exist. The present review also focuses on various prevention strategies to avoid health risks of CP consumption using simple but promising ways.

  7. Miniaturized nondestructive microwave sensor for chickpea moisture measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaonkar, Mahesh P.; Karekar, R. N.; Aiyer, R. C.

    1999-07-01

    A miniaturized microstrip ring resonator (MRR) 1 in.×1 in. resonating at fro=10.27 GHz was used as a nondestructive moisture sensor for chickpea kernels (Cicer arietinum L.) for ease in loading and unloading. The change in the resonant frequency (Δfr) of the MRR is a measure of the amount of moisture in the overlaid kernel. The percentage of moisture (M) was varied from 0% (dry) to ˜50% (fully soaked) calculated on a wet weight basis. Δfr increased with M, although not linearly. Three regions were observed in the sensitivity curve. The first region extended from 0%-12%, the central region from 12%-43%, and the saturation region from 43%-50% in moisture content. In the central region the observed Δfr was 574 MHz, whereas in the first and third regions it was 44 and 55 MHz, respectively. The regions in the sensitivity curves indicate different dominant phenomena. A small scatter was observed in the first region, which increased with the increasing percent of moisture content.

  8. Affinity purification of copper chelating peptides from chickpea protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías, Cristina; Pedroche, Justo; Yust, Maria M; Girón-Calle, Julio; Alaiz, Manuel; Millan, Francisco; Vioque, Javier

    2007-05-16

    Chickpea protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase and flavourzyme were used for purification of copper chelating peptides by affinity chromatography using copper immobilized on solid supports. The chelating activity of purified peptides was indirectly measured by the inhibition of beta-carotene oxidation in the presence of copper. Two protein hydrolysates, obtained after 10 and 100 min of hydrolysis, were the most inhibitory of beta-carotene oxidation. Purified copper chelating peptides from these protein hydrolysates contained 19.7 and 35.1% histidine, respectively, in comparison to 2.7 and 2.6% in the protein hydrolysates. Chelating peptides from hydrolysate obtained after 10 min of hydrolysis were the most antioxidative being 8.3 times more antioxidative than the hydrolysate, while chelating peptides purified from protein hydrolysate obtained after 100 min were 3.1 times more antioxidative than its hydrolysate. However, the histidine content was higher in peptides derived from the 100 min hydrolysate (19.7 against 35.1% in 10 min hydrolysate), indicating that this amino acid is not the only factor involved in the antioxidative activity, and other factors such as peptide size or amino acid sequence are also determinant. This manuscript shows that affinity chromatography is a useful procedure for purification of copper chelating peptides. This method can be extended to other metals of interest in nutrition, such as calcium, iron, or zinc. Purified chelating peptides, in addition to their antioxidative properties, may also be useful in food mineral fortification for increasing the bioavailability of these metals.

  9. Transmembrane START domain proteins: in silico identification, characterization and expression analysis under stress conditions in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesh, Viswanathan; Chidambaranathan, Parameswaran; Jagannadham, Prasanth Tejkumar; Kumar, Vajinder; Jain, Pradeep K; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bhat, Shripad R; Srinivasan, R

    2016-01-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory related transfer (StART) proteins that are involved in transport of lipid molecules, play a myriad of functions in insects, mammals and plants. These proteins consist of a modular START domain of approximately 200 amino acids which binds and transfers the lipids. In the present study we have performed a genome-wide search for all START domain proteins in chickpea. The search identified 36 chickpea genes belonging to the START domain family. Through a phylogenetic tree reconstructed with Arabidopsis, rice, chickpea, and soybean START proteins, we were able to identify four transmembrane START (TM-START) proteins in chickpea. These four proteins are homologous to the highly conserved mammalian phosphatidylcholine transfer proteins. Multiple sequence alignment of all the transmembrane containing START proteins from Arabidopsis, rice, chickpea, and soybean revealed that the amino acid residues to which phosphatidylcholine binds in mammals, is also conserved in all these plant species, implying an important functional role and a very similar mode of action of all these proteins across dicots and monocots. This study characterizes a few of the not so well studied transmembrane START superfamily genes that may be involved in stress signaling. Expression analysis in various tissues showed that these genes are predominantly expressed in flowers and roots of chickpea. Three of the chickpea TM-START genes showed induced expression in response to drought, salt, wound and heat stress, suggesting their role in stress response.

  10. Characterization of chickpea germplasm conserved in the Indian National Genebank and development of a core set using qualitative and quantitative trait data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Archak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea is the third most important pulse crop as a source of dietary protein. Ever-increasing demand in Asian countries calls for breeding superior desi-type varieties, in turn necessitating the availability of characterized germplasm to breeders. The Indian National Genebank, located at the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, conserves 14,651 accessions of chickpea. The entire set was characterized in a single large-scale experiment. High variation was observed for eight quantitative and 12 qualitative agro-morphological traits. Allelic richness procedure was employed to assemble a core set comprising 1103 accessions, 70.0% of which were of Indian origin. Comparable values of total variation explained by the first three principal components in the entire collection (51.1% and the core (52.4% together with conservation of nine pairwise r values among quantitative traits in the core collection and a coincidence rate around 99.7% indicated that the chickpea core was indeed an excellent representation of the entire chickpea collection in the National Genebank. The chickpea core exhibited greater diversity than the entire collection in agro-morphological traits, as assessed by higher variance and Shannon–Weaver diversity indices, indicating that the chickpea core maximized the phenotypic diversity available in the Indian chickpea germplasm. The chickpea core, comprising mainly indigenous desi genotypes, is expected to be an excellent resource for chickpea breeders. Information on the chickpea core can be accessed at http://www.nbpgr.ernet.in/pgrportal.

  11. Evaluate the Effect of Different Intercropping Arrangements of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. and Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. on Quantity and Quality Characterastis of Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    n Zarifpour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of different intercropping arrangements of cumin and chickpea on seed yield and quality criteria of cumin an experiment was conducted in Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2010 growing season. An experiment was conducted as split plot on the basis of complete randomized block design with three replicatons. The main plot included arrangement lines at 2 level, D1 1:1 (Chikpea:Cumin and D2 1:2 (Chickpea: Cumin and subplot included different densities at 6 level, P1:(100%Cumin, P2: (50%Cumin+50%Chickpea, P3:(60%Cumin+40%Chickpea, P4: (80%Cumin+20%Chickpea, P5: (100%Cumin+20Chickpea, P6:(100%Chickpea.The results showed that between different intercropping treatments, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index in treatment D1P2: (50%Cumin+50%Chickpea was suitable. The Highest percentage of nitrogen was obtained from treatment D2P4. Was not observed any significant effect on seed essential oil. Between intercropping treatments, highest essential oil yield was obtained treatment D2P2. The highest Land Equivalent Ratio (1.23, was obtained in treatment D2P2: (50%Cumin+50%Chickpea and the lowest (0.90 in treatment D1P4: (80%Cumin+20%Chickpea intercropping.

  12. Nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) undergoing different cooking methods and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Adawy, Tarek A

    2002-01-01

    The effects of cooking treatments (boiling, autoclaving and microwave cooking) and germination on the nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of chickpeas were studied. Cooking treatments and/or germination caused significant (p Germination was less effective than cooking treatments in reducing trypsin inhibitor, hemagglutinin activity, tannins and saponins; it was more effective in reducing phytic acid, stachyose and raffinose. Cooking treatments and germination decreased the concentrations of lysine, tryptophan, total aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids. However, cooked and germinated chickpeas were still higher in lysine, isoleucine and total aromatic amino acid contents than the FAO/WHO reference. The losses in B-vitamins and minerals in chickpeas cooked by microwaving were smaller than in those cooked by boiling and autoclaving. Germination resulted in greater retention of all minerals and B-vitamins compared to cooking treatments. In vitro protein digestibility, protein efficiency ratio and essential amino acid index were improved by all treatments. The chemical score and limiting amino acid of chickpeas subjected to the various treatments varied considerably, depending on the type of treatment. Based on these results, microwave cooking appears to be the best alternative for legume preparation in households and restaurants.

  13. Controlled exogenous enzyme imbibition and activation in whole chickpea seed enzyme reactor (SER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliger, Eynav; Fischer, Lutz; Lutz-Wahl, Sabine; Saguy, I Sam

    2011-05-01

    Chickpeas are of excellent quality (protein, vitamins, minerals, unsaturated fatty acids) and very low in phytoestrogen, making them a potentially promising source for vegetarian-based infant formula (VBIF). However, their high starch and fiber concentration could hinder their utilization for infants. To overcome this natural shortcoming, a solid-state "enzymation" (SSE) process was developed in which imbibition of exogenous enzyme facilitates hydrolysis within the intact chickpea seed. The process was termed seed enzyme reactor (SER). Liquid imbibition data of dry chickpeas during soaking were fitted with the Weibull distribution model. The derived Weibull shape parameter, β, value (0.77 ± 0.11) indicated that the imbibition mechanism followed Fickian diffusion. Imbibition occurred through the coat and external layers. The process was tested using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as an exogenous marker, and involved soaking, thermal treatment, peeling, microwave partial drying, rehydration in enzyme solution, and SSE at an adjusted pH, time, and temperature. Amylases, or a combination of amylases and cellulases, resulted in significant carbohydrate hydrolysis (23% and 47% of the available starch, respectively). In addition, chickpea initial raffinose and stachyose concentration was significantly reduced (91% and 92%, respectively). The process could serve as a proof of concept, requiring additional development and optimization to become a full industrial application.

  14. Vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout ameliorated hyperglycemia and impaired memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xueqin; Zhang, Ling; Xia, Qing; Sun, Zhaofeng; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cai, Hongxin; Yang, Xiaoda; Xia, Zuoli; Tang, Yujing

    2008-10-01

    Vanadium compounds have been recognized for their hypoglycemic effects; however, potential short and long-term vanadium toxicity has slowed the acceptance for therapeutic use. In the present work, three batches of vanadium-enriched chickpea sprout (VCS) were prepared by incubating chickpea seeds in presence of 200, 100, and 50 microg/ml of sodium orthovanadate (SOV). The effects of oral administration of chickpea sprout (CS) and VCS food for 8 weeks on streptozotocin-induced (STZ) diabetic rats were investigated. Both CS and VCS food was found to ameliorate some hyperglycemic symptoms of the diabetic rats, i.e. improve lipid metabolism, decrease blood glucose level, prevent body weight loss, and reduce impairment of diabetic related spatial learning and memory. Serum insulin was substantially elevated in treated diabetic rats, which is probably one important reason for the hypoglycemic effect. Compared with CS alone, VCS100 food exhibited remarkably enhanced effectiveness in alleviating diabetes induced hyperglycemia and memory loss. Moreover, vanadium-enriched chickpeas appeared to abolish the vanadium induced toxicity associated with administration of this metal for diabetes during the 8-week study period. This study suggested further work of the vanadium speciation in CS and novel hypoglycemic mechanism for the antidiabetic activity of vanadium agents. Vanadium containing (VCS) food could be a dietary supplement for the diabetic status.

  15. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of beet western yellows virus on chickpea in Morocco.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortass, M.; Wilk, van der F.; Heuvel, van de J.F.J.M.; Goldbach, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A luteovirus isolate infecting chickpea in Morocco was experimentally transmitted by Myzus persicae to Physalis floridana, on which it produced mild symptoms. When tested in western blots against antisera to known legume luteoviruses, this isolate reacted strongly to beet western yellows virus (BWYV

  16. Inhibitory effects of chickpea and Tribulus terrestris on lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Pınar; El, Sedef Nehir

    2016-08-15

    The total saponin content and its in vitro bioaccessibilities in Tribulus terrestris and chickpea were determined by a static in vitro digestion method (COST FA1005 Action INFOGEST). Also, in vitro inhibitory effects of the chosen food samples on lipid and starch digestive enzymes were determined by evaluating the lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. The tested T. terrestris and chickpea showed inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 6967 ± 343 and 2885 ± 85.4 μg/ml, respectively) and α-amylase (IC50 343 ± 26.2 and 167 ± 6.12 μg/ml, respectively). The inhibitory activities of T. terrestris and chickpea against lipase were 15.3 ± 2.03 and 9.74 ± 1.09 μg/ml, respectively. The present study provides the first evidence that these food samples (T. terrestris, chickpea) are potent inhibitors of key enzymes in digestion of carbohydrates and lipids in vitro.

  17. Molecular Identification and Genetic Characterization of Macrophomina phaseolina Strains Causing Pathogenicity on Sunflower and Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali N. Khan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophomina phaseolina is the most devastating pathogen which causes charcoal rot and root rot diseases in various economically important crops. Three strains M. phaseolina 1156, M. phaseolina 1160, and M. phaseolina PCMC/F1 were tested for their virulence on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.. The strains showed high virulence on both hosts with a disease score of 2 on chickpea and sunflower. The strains also increased the hydrogen per oxide (H2O2 content by 1.4- to 1.6-fold in root as well as shoot of chickpea and sunflower. A significant increase in antioxidant enzymes was observed in fungal infected plants which indicated prevalence of oxidative stress during pathogen propagation. The M. phaseolina strains also produced hydrolytic enzymes such as lipase, amylase, and protease with solubilization zone of 5–43 mm, 5–45 mm, and 12–35 mm, respectively. The M. phaseolina strains were identified by 18S rRNA and analyzed for genetic diversity by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. The findings based on RAPD markers and 18S rRNA sequence analysis clearly indicate genetic variation among the strains collected from different hosts. The genetically diverse strains were found to be pathogenic to sunflower and chickpea.

  18. Molecular Identification and Genetic Characterization of Macrophomina phaseolina Strains Causing Pathogenicity on Sunflower and Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ali N; Shair, Faluk; Malik, Kamran; Hayat, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Ayub; Hafeez, Fauzia Yusuf; Hassan, Muhammad Nadeem

    2017-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina is the most devastating pathogen which causes charcoal rot and root rot diseases in various economically important crops. Three strains M. phaseolina 1156, M. phaseolina 1160, and M. phaseolina PCMC/F1 were tested for their virulence on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The strains showed high virulence on both hosts with a disease score of 2 on chickpea and sunflower. The strains also increased the hydrogen per oxide (H2O2) content by 1.4- to 1.6-fold in root as well as shoot of chickpea and sunflower. A significant increase in antioxidant enzymes was observed in fungal infected plants which indicated prevalence of oxidative stress during pathogen propagation. The M. phaseolina strains also produced hydrolytic enzymes such as lipase, amylase, and protease with solubilization zone of 5-43 mm, 5-45 mm, and 12-35 mm, respectively. The M. phaseolina strains were identified by 18S rRNA and analyzed for genetic diversity by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The findings based on RAPD markers and 18S rRNA sequence analysis clearly indicate genetic variation among the strains collected from different hosts. The genetically diverse strains were found to be pathogenic to sunflower and chickpea.

  19. Antagonistic potential of fluorescent pseudomonads and control of charcoal rot of chickpea caused by Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Kumar, Anuj; Kharwar, R N

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria especially Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates were tested against charcoal rot of chickpea both in green house as well as in field conditions. Most of the isolates reduced charcoal rot disease and promoted plant growth in green house. A marked increase in shoot and root length was observed in P. fluorescens treated plants. Among all the P. fluorescens isolates Pf4-99, was found most effective in the improvement of chickpea crop in green house as well as in field. Pf4-99 effectively promoted plant growth and produced indole acetic acid in culture medium. This isolate also inhibited the mycelial growth of the M. phaseolina under in vitro conditions and reduced the disease severity Potential isolate (Pf4-99) also significantly increased the biomass of the chickpea plants, shoot length, root length and protein content of the chickpea seeds. A part from these, the total number of seeds per plant and their weight were also enhanced. The colonization of Pf4-99 reduced the incidence of seed mycoflora by which indirectly enhanced the seed germination and vigour index of seedlings. The observations revealed that isolate Pf4-99 is quite effective to reduce the charcoal rot disease both in field and greenhouse, and also increases seed yields significantly Therefore, this isolate appears to be an efficient biocontrol agent against charcoal rot disease as well as yield increasing rhizobacterium.

  20. Determining nutrients degradation kinetics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum straw using nylon bag technique in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mirzaei-Aghsaghali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Straw a by-product from grain legume crops is produced in large quantities in Iran. Straw is constant component of ruminant diets on small holder farms; however, there is little information about its nutritive value. Accordingly experiment was conducted to determine the chemical composition and ruminal organic matter (OM and crude protein (CP degradability of chickpea straw using nylon bags (in situ technique. Replicated samples were incubated at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours in three rumen canulated Ghezel rams with 50±3 kg body weight. Dry matter (DM, CP, ether extract (EE, OM, crude fiber (CF and nitrogen free extract (NFE content of chickpea straws were 92.2, 6.1, 5.5, 92.0, 34.3 and 46.2%, respectively. The soluble fraction (a of the OM and CP of chickpea straw was 17.5 and 40.8% and potential degradability (a+b of OM and CP was 56.7 and 72.0%, respectively. Effective degradability at different passage rates (2, 5 and 8% per hours for OM was 51.0 44.9 and 40.7% and for CP were 68.4, 64.3 and 61.3%, respectively. In conclusion, based on chemical composition and degradation characteristics, chickpea straw could have moderate nutritive value for ruminants.

  1. Gelatinisation kinetics of corn and chickpea starches using DSC, RVA, and dynamic rheometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gelatinisation kinetics (non-isothermal) of corn and chickpea starches at different heating rates were calculated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid visco analyser (RVA), and oscillatory dynamic rheometry. The data obtained from the DSC thermogram and the RVA profiles were fitt...

  2. Effect of sodium selenite on isoflavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado-Félix, Daniela; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith O; Jacobo-Velázquez, Daniel A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2017-07-01

    Isoflavonoid compositions, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity and antioxidant capacity were evaluated in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) sprouts germinated after soaking with different sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) concentrations (0, 1 and 2mg/100g seeds). Chickpea seeds were germinated during four days at 24°C and the isoflavonoid profiles and concentrations evaluated by HPLC-UV daily during four days of germination. Eleven isoflavones and two pterocarpan phytoalexins forms were identified in sprouts, being malonylated formononetin glycoside, formononetin, isoformononetin glycoside and malonylated biochanin A glycoside the major compounds. Compared to untreated sprouts, total isoflavonoid, PAL activity and antioxidant capacity showed a remarkable increase of 83%, 56%, and 33%, respectively in chickpea sprouts that were treated with a high sodium selenite content (2mg/100g seeds). Results suggest that Se-enriched chickpea sprouts could represent a good source of dietary Se and as an upgraded source of isoflavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synergistic effect of Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ameliorates drought stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Mishra, Sankalp; Dixit, Vijaykant; Kumar, Manoj; Agarwal, Lalit; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) Pseudomonas putida NBRIRA and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRISN13 with ability to tolerate abiotic stress along with multiple PGP traits like ACC deaminase activity, minerals solubilisation, hormones production, biofilm formation, siderophore activity were evaluated for their synergistic effect to ameliorate drought stress in chickpea. Earlier we have reported both the strains individually for their PGP attributes and stress amelioration in host plants. The present study explains in detail the possibilities and benefits of utilizing these 2 PGPR in consortium for improving the chickpea growth under control and drought stressed condition. In vitro results clearly demonstrate that both the PGPR strains are compatible to each other and their synergistic growth enhances the PGP attributes. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of inoculation of both strains individually and consortia in drought tolerant and sensitive cultivars (BG362 and P1003). The growth parameters were observed significantly higher in consortium as compared to individual PGPR. Colonization of both PGPR in chickpea rhizosphere has been visualized by using gfp labeling. Apart from growth parameters, defense enzymes, soil enzymes and microbial diversity were significantly modulated in individually PGPR and in consortia inoculated plants. Negative effects of drought stress has been ameliorated and apparently seen by higher biomass and reversal of stress indicators in chickpea cultivars treated with PGPR individually or in consortia. Findings from the present study demonstrate that synergistic application has better potential to improve plant growth promotion under drought stress conditions.

  4. First report of dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) on chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important rotational and an emerging specialty crop in the Pacific Northwest of the United States, in California, and in the Northern Great Plains of the USA and Canada. Dodders (Cuscuta spp.) are widespread parasitic weeds on many crops worldwide. Several Cusc...

  5. Field evaluation of fungicides in controlling chickpea Ascochyta blight in Washington, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field evaluation of five fungicides of different fungicide classes showed that the fungicides can reduce disease severity and increase yield of chickpea. Alternative fungicides to traditional strobilurin fungicides were identified, and can be used to prevent development of strobilurin resistance in...

  6. Evaluation of Intego Solo (ethaboxam) for management of metalaxyl-resistant Pythium spp. in chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pythium damping-off and Pythium root rot, caused by numerous species of Pythium, can be a major limiting factor in the emergence and stand establishment of chickpea. Pythium spp. infect the germinating seed and seedling, often resulting in seed rot and subsequent damping-off in northern Idaho. Cur...

  7. The Effects of Salinity and Sodicity upon Nodulation and Nitrogen Fixation in Chickpea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, D.L.N.; Giller, K.E.; Yeo, A.R.; Flowers, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Production of grain legumes is severely reduced in salt-affected soils because their ability to form and maintain nitrogen-fixing nodules is impaired by both salinity and sodicity (alkalinity). Genotypes of chickpea, Cicer arietinum, with high nodulation capacity under stress were identified by

  8. Note on early testing of induced mutants of chickpea under rainfed and irrigated conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nerkar, Y.S.; Patil, V.D. (Marathwada Agricultural Univ., Parbhani (India))

    1981-09-01

    Gamma-ray-induced mutations involving yield and yield-contributing characters were isolated in the M/sub 3/ and M/sub 4/ generations of 'Chaffa', 'N 59' and 'No. 82-3-50' varieties of chickpea (Cicer arientinum Linn.).

  9. Gluten-free spaghetti with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize: physicochemical, texture and sensory properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical, textural and sensorial characteristics of gluten-free spaghetti elaborated with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize flours. Luminosity (L*) of the uncooked gluten-free spaghetti was not significantly different from control sampl...

  10. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of beet western yellows virus on chickpea in Morocco.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortass, M.; Wilk, van der F.; Heuvel, van de J.F.J.M.; Goldbach, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A luteovirus isolate infecting chickpea in Morocco was experimentally transmitted by Myzus persicae to Physalis floridana, on which it produced mild symptoms. When tested in western blots against antisera to known legume luteoviruses, this isolate reacted strongly to beet western yellows virus

  11. Nutritional and chemical alteration of raw, irradiated and cooked chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Andrea C. Penati; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: andrea@dtr.com.br; acpferre@cena.usp.br; arthur@cena.usp.br; Brazzaca, Solange Guidolin Canniatti [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luis de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    The work objective was analyzing the centesimal and mineral composition to verifying the alterations on the nutritional characteristics caused by the cooking process. Also were carried out analysis of the iron availability in vitro, protein digestibility in vitro and the profile of amino acids in the raw and cooked in the control and irradiated seeds (doses of 2 kGy, 4 kGy, 6 kGy, 8 kGy and 10 kGy). The results of the mineral analysis showed that only phosphorus decrease with cooking process and it decreased ash and carbohydrates available. In the control and in the doses of 4 kGy and 6 kGy the cooking has not influenced the digestibility of the protein, but the treatments that received radiation doses of 2 kGy, 8 kGy and 10 kGy were influenced. The cooked chickpea has shown better digestibility in higher doses of radiation although the treatments have shown low digestibility. The raw chickpea presented a better dialysis of iron in the control and in the doses 2 kGy and 4 kGy and the cooked chickpea presented improvement according to the increase of radiation doses. In relation to the essential amino acids, the chickpea has presented an adequate nutritional value, except for the methionine. (author)

  12. Image-Based Rapid Phenotyping Method of Chickpeas Seed Size Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The value of a chickpea crop is influenced by both total seed yield and also by the size of the harvested seed. Larger seeds are used for canning, salads, and fresh markets and have a higher value than smaller seeds, which are typically processed into hummus. The standard method for determining seed...

  13. Variation in the Agronomic and Morphological Traits of Iranian Chickpea Accessions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Reza NAGHAVI; Mohammad Reza JAHANSOUZ

    2005-01-01

    Landraces of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Iran have not been adequately characterized for their agronomic and morphological traits. Such characterization would be helpful in the development of improved cultivars, so in this study 362 chickpea accessions, collected from the major chickpea growing areas of Iran, were evaluated to determine their phenotypic diversity. High coefficients of variation (CVs)were recorded in pods/branch, seeds/pod, yield/plant, seeds/plant, pods/plant and branches/plant. Using principal component (PC) analysis, the first four PCs with eigenvalues more than 1 contributed 84.10% of the variability among accessions, whereas PC5 to PC10 were less than unity. PC1 was positively related to days to first maturity, days to 50% flowering and days to 50% maturity. The characters with the greatest weight on PC2 were seeds/plant and yield/plant, whereas PC3 was mainly related to pods/plant, seeds/pod and 100-seed weight, and PC4 was positively related to pods/branch and negatively to branches/plant. The germplasm was grouped into four clusters using cluster analysis. Each cluster had some specific characteristics of its own and the cluster I was clearly separated from clusters Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ. These accessions are an important resource for the establishment of a core collection of chickpeas in the world.

  14. Genome-based analysis of the transcriptome from mature chickpea root nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eAfonso-Grunz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF in root nodules of grain legumes such as chickpea is a highly complex process that drastically affects the gene expression patterns of both the prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic interacting cells. A successfully established symbiotic relationship requires mutual signaling mechanisms and a continuous adaptation of the metabolism of the involved cells to varying environmental conditions. Although some of these processes are well understood today many of the molecular mechanisms underlying SNF, especially in chickpea, remain unclear. Here, we reannotated our previously published transcriptome data generated by deepSuperSAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression to the recently published draft genome of chickpea to assess the root- and nodule-specific transcriptomes of the eukaryotic host cells. The identified gene expression patterns comprise up to 71 significantly differentially expressed genes and the expression of twenty of these was validated by quantitative real-time PCR with the tissues from five independent biological replicates. Many of the differentially expressed transcripts were found to encode proteins implicated in sugar metabolism, antioxidant defense as well as biotic and abiotic stress responses of the host cells, and some of them were already known to contribute to SNF in other legumes. The differentially expressed genes identified in this study represent candidates that can be used for further characterization of the complex molecular mechanisms underlying SNF in chickpea.

  15. Discovery of Putative Herbicide Resistance Genes and Its Regulatory Network in Chickpea Using Transcriptome Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir A. Iquebal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. contributes 75% of total pulse production. Being cheaper than animal protein, makes it important in dietary requirement of developing countries. Weed not only competes with chickpea resulting into drastic yield reduction but also creates problem of harboring fungi, bacterial diseases and insect pests. Chemical approach having new herbicide discovery has constraint of limited lead molecule options, statutory regulations and environmental clearance. Through genetic approach, transgenic herbicide tolerant crop has given successful result but led to serious concern over ecological safety thus non-transgenic approach like marker assisted selection is desirable. Since large variability in tolerance limit of herbicide already exists in chickpea varieties, thus the genes offering herbicide tolerance can be introgressed in variety improvement programme. Transcriptome studies can discover such associated key genes with herbicide tolerance in chickpea.Results: This is first transcriptomic studies of chickpea or even any legume crop using two herbicide susceptible and tolerant genotypes exposed to imidazoline (Imazethapyr. Approximately 90 million paired-end reads generated from four samples were processed and assembled into 30,803 contigs using reference based assembly. We report 6,310 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, of which 3,037 were regulated by 980 miRNAs, 1,528 transcription factors associated with 897 DEGs, 47 Hub proteins, 3,540 putative Simple Sequence Repeat-Functional Domain Marker (SSR-FDM, 13,778 genic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP putative markers and 1,174 Indels. Randomly selected 20 DEGs were validated using qPCR. Pathway analysis suggested that xenobiotic degradation related gene, glutathione S-transferase (GST were only up-regulated in presence of herbicide. Down-regulation of DNA replication genes and up-regulation of abscisic acid pathway genes were observed. Study further reveals

  16. Transcriptional profiling of chickpea genes differentially regulated in response to high-salinity, cold and drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Edwin CK

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated chickpea (Cicer arietinum has a narrow genetic base making it difficult for breeders to produce new elite cultivars with durable resistance to major biotic and abiotic stresses. As an alternative to genome mapping, microarrays have recently been applied in crop species to identify and assess the function of putative genes thought to be involved in plant abiotic stress and defence responses. In the present study, a cDNA microarray approach was taken in order to determine if the transcription of genes, from a set of previously identified putative stress-responsive genes from chickpea and its close relative Lathyrus sativus, were altered in chickpea by the three abiotic stresses; drought, cold and high-salinity. For this, chickpea genotypes known to be tolerant and susceptible to each abiotic stress were challenged and gene expression in the leaf, root and/or flower tissues was studied. The transcripts that were differentially expressed among stressed and unstressed plants in response to the particular stress were analysed in the context of tolerant/susceptible genotypes. Results The transcriptional change of more than two fold was observed for 109, 210 and 386 genes after drought, cold and high-salinity treatments, respectively. Among these, two, 15 and 30 genes were consensually differentially expressed (DE between tolerant and susceptible genotypes studied for drought, cold and high-salinity, respectively. The genes that were DE in tolerant and susceptible genotypes under abiotic stresses code for various functional and regulatory proteins. Significant differences in stress responses were observed within and between tolerant and susceptible genotypes highlighting the multiple gene control and complexity of abiotic stress response mechanism in chickpea. Conclusion The annotation of these genes suggests that they may have a role in abiotic stress response and are potential candidates for tolerance/susceptibility.

  17. Cold stress alters transcription in meiotic anthers of cold tolerant chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kamal Dev; Nayyar, Harsh

    2014-10-11

    Cold stress at reproductive phase in susceptible chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) leads to pollen sterility induced flower abortion. The tolerant genotypes, on the other hand, produce viable pollen and set seed under cold stress. Genomic information on pollen development in cold-tolerant chickpea under cold stress is currently unavailable. DDRT-PCR analysis was carried out to identify anther genes involved in cold tolerance in chickpea genotype ICC16349 (cold-tolerant). A total of 9205 EST bands were analyzed. Cold stress altered expression of 127 ESTs (90 up-regulated, 37 down-regulated) in anthers, more than two third (92) of which were novel with unknown protein identity and function. Remaining about one third (35) belonged to several functional categories such as pollen development, signal transduction, ion transport, transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, translation, energy and cell division. The categories with more number of transcripts were carbohydrate/triacylglycerol metabolism, signal transduction, pollen development and transport. All but two transcripts in these categories were up-regulated under cold stress. To identify time of regulation after stress and organ specificity, expression levels of 25 differentially regulated transcripts were also studied in anthers at six time points and in four organs (anthers, gynoecium, leaves and roots) at four time points. Limited number of genes were involved in regulating cold tolerance in chickpea anthers. Moreover, the cold tolerance was manifested by up-regulation of majority of the differentially expressed transcripts. The anthers appeared to employ dual cold tolerance mechanism based on their protection from cold by enhancing triacylglycerol and carbohydrate metabolism; and maintenance of normal pollen development by regulating pollen development genes. Functional characterization of about two third of the novel genes is needed to have precise understanding of the cold tolerance mechanisms in chickpea anthers.

  18. Integrated physical, genetic and genome map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Mir, Reyazul Rouf; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Thudi, Mahendar; Hu, Yuqin; Azam, Sarwar; Zhang, Yong; Jaganathan, Deepa; You, Frank M; Gao, Jinliang; Riera-Lizarazu, Oscar; Luo, Ming-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Physical map of chickpea was developed for the reference chickpea genotype (ICC 4958) using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries targeting 71,094 clones (~12× coverage). High information content fingerprinting (HICF) of these clones gave high-quality fingerprinting data for 67,483 clones, and 1,174 contigs comprising 46,112 clones and 3,256 singletons were defined. In brief, 574 Mb genome size was assembled in 1,174 contigs with an average of 0.49 Mb per contig and 3,256 singletons represent 407 Mb genome. The physical map was linked with two genetic maps with the help of 245 BAC-end sequence (BES)-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This allowed locating some of the BACs in the vicinity of some important quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for drought tolerance and reistance to Fusarium wilt and Ascochyta blight. In addition, fingerprinted contig (FPC) assembly was also integrated with the draft genome sequence of chickpea. As a result, ~965 BACs including 163 minimum tilling path (MTP) clones could be mapped on eight pseudo-molecules of chickpea forming 491 hypothetical contigs representing 54,013,992 bp (~54 Mb) of the draft genome. Comprehensive analysis of markers in abiotic and biotic stress tolerance QTL regions led to identification of 654, 306 and 23 genes in drought tolerance "QTL-hotspot" region, Ascochyta blight resistance QTL region and Fusarium wilt resistance QTL region, respectively. Integrated physical, genetic and genome map should provide a foundation for cloning and isolation of QTLs/genes for molecular dissection of traits as well as markers for molecular breeding for chickpea improvement.

  19. Adaptation of the symbiotic Mesorhizobium-chickpea relationship to phosphate deficiency relies on reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Kusano, Miyako; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Ha, Chien Van; Saito, Kazuki; Sulieman, Saad; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, L S

    2016-01-01

    .... To elucidate the mechanisms involved in nodule acclimation to low Pi availability, two Mesorhizobium-chickpea associations exhibiting differential symbiotic performances, Mesorhizobium ciceri CP-31 (McCP-31...

  20. [Supplementation of wheat flour with chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour. I. Preparation of flours and their properties for bread making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuerola, F E; Estévez, A M; Castillo, E

    1987-06-01

    The feasibility of adding chick-pea flour substituting part of wheat flour in yeast-leavened bread-making in order to increase the protein value, was studied. A 70% extraction chick-pea flour of commercial granulometry (150 mu) was prepared. Wheat flours of 74% and 78% extraction were then blended with 5%, 10% and 15% of chick-pea flour. Every flour and blend were subsequently analyzed to determine protein, ash, fiber, fat and maltose content, as well as sedimentation, farinogram and bread-making. Addition of chick-pea flour increased protein, fiber, ash and fat content in the blends, not causing a severe effect on quality, even at the 15% level of substitution. Blends showed an increase in maltose content, W value and bread specific volume. Furthermore, breads prepared were of good quality even without the use of maturing agents.

  1. The effect of sowing date and row spacing on yield and yield components on Hashem chickpea variety under rainfed condition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keyvan Shamsi

    2010-01-01

      In order to investigate the impacts of sowing date and row spacing on yield and yield components of Hashem chickpea variety, a field experiment was conducted in 2005 at farm of Dorood Faraman (Kermanshah-Iran...

  2. Phosphate solubilization and multiple plant growth promoting properties of rhizobacteria isolated from chickpea (Cicer aeritinum L.) producing areas of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Midekssa, Mulissa J.; Löscher, Carolin; Ruth A Schmitz; Assefa, Fassil

    2016-01-01

    Chickpea is one of the major legume crops widely grown in Ethiopia. The low availability of phosphorus in soil is among the stresses that constrain the production of this crop in the country. However, there are rhizobacteria capable of solubilizing insoluble forms of phosphorus in soil and make it available to the plant. Thus, this study was aimed at isolation and characterization of phosphate solubilizing bacteria from chickpea rhizosphere. Fifty phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains were...

  3. Identification of putative and potential cross-reactive chickpea (Cicer arietinum) allergens through an in silico approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anuja; Ananthanarayan, Laxmi; Raman, Karthik

    2013-12-01

    Allergy has become a key cause of morbidity worldwide. Although many legumes (plants in the Fabaceae family) are healthy foods, they may have a number of allergenic proteins. A number of allergens have been identified and characterized in Fabaceae family, such as soybean and peanut, on the basis of biochemical and molecular biological approaches. However, our understanding of the allergens from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), belonging to this family, is very limited. In this study, we aimed to identify putative and cross-reactive allergens from Chickpea (C. arietinum) by means of in silico analysis of the chickpea protein sequences and allergens sequences from Fabaceae family. We retrieved known allergen sequences in Fabaceae family from the IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Database. We performed a protein BLAST (BLASTp) on these sequences to retrieve the similar sequences from chickpea. We further analyzed the retrieved chickpea sequences using a combination of in silico tools, to assess them for their allergenicity potential. Following this, we built structure models using FUGUE: Sequence-structure homology; these models generated by the recognition tool were viewed in Swiss-PDB viewer. Through this in silico approach, we identified seven novel putative allergens from chickpea proteome sequences on the basis of similarity of sequence, structure and physicochemical properties with the known reported legume allergens. Four out of seven putative allergens may also show cross reactivity with reported allergens since potential allergens had common sequence and structural features with the reported allergens. The in silico proteomic identification of the allergen proteins in chickpea provides a basis for future research on developing hypoallergenic foods containing chickpea. Such bioinformatics approaches, combined with experimental methodology, will help delineate an efficient and comprehensive approach to assess allergenicity and pave the way for a better understanding of

  4. Genetic characterization of the acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) gene responsible for resistance to imidazolinone in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Courtney; Tar'an, Bunyamin

    2014-07-01

    A point mutation in the AHAS1 gene leading to resistance to imidazolinone in chickpea was identified. The resistance is inherited as a single gene. A KASP marker targeting the mutation was developed. Weed control in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is challenging due to poor crop competition ability and limited herbicide options. A chickpea genotype with resistance to imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides has been identified, but the genetic inheritance and the mechanism were unknown. In many plant species, resistance to IMI is caused by point mutation(s) in the acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) gene resulting in an amino acid substitution preventing herbicide attachment to the molecule. The main objective of this research was to characterize the resistance to IMI herbicides in chickpea. Two homologous AHAS genes namely AHAS1 and AHAS2 sharing 80 % amino acid sequence similarity were identified in the chickpea genome. Cluster analysis indicated independent grouping of AHAS1 and AHAS2 across legume species. A point mutation in the AHAS1 gene at C675 to T675 resulting in an amino acid substitution from Ala205 to Val205 confers the resistance to IMI in chickpea. A KASP marker targeting the point mutation was developed and effectively predicted the response to IMI herbicides in a recombinant inbred (RI) population of chickpea. The RI population was used in molecular mapping where the major locus for the reaction to IMI herbicide was mapped to chromosome 5. Segregation analysis across an F2 population and RI population demonstrated that the resistance is inherited as a single gene in a semi-dominant fashion. The simple genetic inheritance and the availability of KASP marker generated in this study would speed up development of chickpea varieties with resistance to IMI herbicides.

  5. Inactivation of baculovirus by isoflavonoids on chickpea (Cicer arietinum) leaf surfaces reduces the efficacy of nucleopolyhedrovirus against Helicoverpa armigera

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Philip C.; D'Cunha, Reju F.; Grzywacz, David

    2010-01-01

    Biological pesticides based on nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) can provide an effective and environmentally benign alternative to synthetic chemicals. On some crops, however, the efficacy and persistence of NPVs is known to be reduced by plant specific factors. The present study investigated the efficacy of Helicoverpa armigera NPV (HearNPV) for control of H. armigera larvae, and showed that chickpea reduced the infectivity of virus occlusion bodies (OBs) exposed to the leaf surface of chickpea...

  6. Genetic analysis of the role of phytoalexin detoxification in virulence of the fungus Nectria haematococca on chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, V.P.W.; Vanetten, H.D. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1992-03-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietium L.) produces the antimicrobial compounds (phytoalexins) medicarpin and maackiain in response to infection by microorganisms. Nectria haematococca mating population (MP) VI, a fungus pathogenic on chickpea, can metabolize maackiain and medicarpin to less toxic products. These reactions are thought to be detoxification mechanisms in N. haematococca MP VI and required for pathogenesis by this fungus on chickpea. In the present study, these hypotheses were tested by examining the phenotypes of progeny from crosses of the fungus that segregated for genes (Mak genes) controlling phytoalexin metabolism. Mak1 and Mak2, two genes that individually confer the ability to convert maackiain to its 1a-hydroxydienone derivative, were linked to higher tolerance of the phytoalexins and high virulence on chickpea. These results indicate that this metabolic reaction is a mechanism for increased phytoalexin tolerance in the fungus, which thereby allows a higher virulence on chickpea. Mak3, a gene conferring the ability to convert maackiain to its 6a-hydroxypterocarpan derivative, also increased tolerance to maackiain in strains which carried it; however, the contribution of Mak3 to the overall level of pathogenesis could not be evaluated because most progeny from the cross segregating for this gene were low in virulence. Thus, metabolic detoxification of phytoalexins appeared to be necessary, as demonstrated in the Mak1 and Mak2 crosses, but not sufficient by itself, as in the Mak3 cross, for high virulence of N. haematococca MP VI on chickpea.

  7. Androgenesis in chickpea: Anther culture and expressed sequence tags derived annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panchangam, Sameera Sastry; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Gaur, Pooran M.;

    2014-01-01

    Double haploid technique is not routinely used in legume breeding programs, though recent publications report haploid plants via anther culture in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The focus of this study was to develop an efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of double haploids...... with the application of multiple stress pre-treatments such as centrifugation and osmotic shock for genotypes of interest in chickpea for their direct use in breeding programs. Four genotypes, ICC 4958, WR315, ICCV 95423 and Arearti were tested for anther culture experiments. The yield was shown to be consistent...... with 3-5 nucleate microspores and 2-7 celled structures with no further growth. To gain a further insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the switch from microsporogenesis to androgenesis, bioinformatics tools were employed. The challenges on the roles of such genes were reviewed while an attempt...

  8. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) physiological, chemical and growth responses to irrigation with saline water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, Abdelaziz; Omari, Halima El; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the third most important food legume grown in the world and a favourite food crop in Morocco. Morocco is a semi-arid country with limited fresh water resources. In order to meet the food demand, increasing attention is being given to the use of non......-conventional water resources such as saline/brackish water and treated waste water for irrigation. With this in mind, an experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to investigate the effect of irrigation with saline water on a local variety of chickpea. Irrigation with water of different salinity levels...... was carried out on pot experiments. Differences in water uptake and plant growth; as well as proline, soluble sugar, and Na+ and K+ contents of the plant were quantified. The results showed a negative relationship between increasing water salinity and most of the measured plant growth parameters. Irrigation...

  9. Short communication. Response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) to soil zinc application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenciano, J. B.; Miguelez-Frade, M. M.; Marcel, V.

    2009-07-01

    The response of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) to Zn nutrition was studied in pot experiments under natural conditions using four acid soils of northwest Spain during 2007 and 2008. Five concentrations of Zn (0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg Zn pot{sup -}1) were added to the pots as Zn chelate. Chickpea responded to the soil Zn applications and there were highly significant differences between soils. At maturity plants fertilized with Zn had greater total dry matter production mainly due to increments in pods weight. The lowest yield (2.65 g plant{sup -}1) was obtained from 0 mg Zn pot{sup -}1, while the highest yield (3.52 g plant{sup -}1) was recorded at 4 mg Zn pot{sup -}1. The increased yields in Zn applied plants was the result of increased number of pods per plant. Furthermore, this yield component was closely correlated with the seed yield. (Author) 22 refs.

  10. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF DEFATTED CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM, L. FLOUR AS INFLUENCED BY THERMOPLASTIC EXTRUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Claret Fernandes de Aguiar VALIM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Defatted chickpea (Cicer arietinum, L flour was submitted to thermoplastic extrusion at three feed moisture levels (13%, 18% and 27%. The functional properties of raw and extruded flours were investigated. The nitrogen solubility index of raw chickpea flour was minimum at pH 4.0 but increased at both lower and higher pHs. Extrusion reduced nitrogen solubility drastically for all feed moisture levels. Water and oil absorption capacity were significantly (p O < 05 increased after extrusion treatment. Foam stability could be improved by extrusion and was positively influenced by alkaline pH. It was also verified that extrusion cooking increased significantly (p O < 05 the emulsifying capacity of the extruded flour with 13% moisture level in water.

  11. Diets supplemented with chickpea or its main oligosaccharide component raffinose modify faecal microbial composition in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, W M U; Hill, J E; Zello, G A; Tyler, R T; Dahl, W J; Van Kessel, A G

    2010-06-01

    The effects of diets supplemented with either chickpea or its main oligosaccharide raffinose on the composition of the faecal microbial community were examined in 12 healthy adults (18-65 years) in a randomised crossover intervention study. Subjects consumed their usual diet supplemented with soups and desserts that were unfortified, or fortified with either 200 g/d of canned chickpeas or 5 g/d of raffinose for 3 week periods. Changes in faecal bacterial populations of subjects were examined using 16S rRNA-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) and clone libraries generated from the diet pools. Classification of the clone libraries and T-RFLP analysis revealed that Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, reported to be an efficient butyrate producer and a highly metabolically active bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota, was more abundant in the raffinose diet and the chickpea diet compared to the control diet. However, no significant difference was observed in the faecal total short chain fatty acid concentration or in the levels of the components (butyrate, acetate and propionate) with the chickpea diet or the raffinose diet compared to the control diet. Bifidobacterium species were detected by T-RFLP in all three diet groups and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis showed a marginal increase in 16S rRNA gene copies of Bifidobacterium with the raffinose diet compared to control (P>0.05). The number of individuals showing TRFs for the Clostridium histolyticum - Clostridum lituseburense groups, which include pathogenic bacteria species and putrefactive bacteria, were lower in the chickpea diet compared to the other two treatments. Diet appeared to affect colonisation by a high ammonia-producing bacterial isolate which was detected in 83%, 92% and 42% of individuals in the control, raffinose and chickpea groups, respectively. Our results indicate that chickpea and raffinose have the potential to modulate the intestinal microbial

  12. Genome-wide discovery and differential regulation of conserved and novel microRNAs in chickpea via deep sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mukesh; Chevala, VVS Narayana; Garg, Rohini

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential components of complex gene regulatory networks that orchestrate plant development. Although several genomic resources have been developed for the legume crop chickpea, miRNAs have not been discovered until now. For genome-wide discovery of miRNAs in chickpea (Cicer arietinum), we sequenced the small RNA content from seven major tissues/organs employing Illumina technology. About 154 million reads were generated, which represented more than 20 million distinct small RNA sequences. We identified a total of 440 conserved miRNAs in chickpea based on sequence similarity with known miRNAs in other plants. In addition, 178 novel miRNAs were identified using a miRDeep pipeline with plant-specific scoring. Some of the conserved and novel miRNAs with significant sequence similarity were grouped into families. The chickpea miRNAs targeted a wide range of mRNAs involved in diverse cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation (transcription factors), protein modification and turnover, signal transduction, and metabolism. Our analysis revealed several miRNAs with differential spatial expression. Many of the chickpea miRNAs were expressed in a tissue-specific manner. The conserved and differential expression of members of the same miRNA family in different tissues was also observed. Some of the same family members were predicted to target different chickpea mRNAs, which suggested the specificity and complexity of miRNA-mediated developmental regulation. This study, for the first time, reveals a comprehensive set of conserved and novel miRNAs along with their expression patterns and putative targets in chickpea, and provides a framework for understanding regulation of developmental processes in legumes. PMID:25151616

  13. High-throughput SNP discovery and genotyping for constructing a saturated linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rashmi; Azam, Sarwar; Jeena, Ganga; Khan, Aamir Waseem; Choudhary, Shalu; Jain, Mukesh; Yadav, Gitanjali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2012-10-01

    The present study reports the large-scale discovery of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in chickpea, identified mainly through the next generation sequencing of two genotypes, i.e. Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and its wild progenitor C. reticulatum PI489777, parents of an inter-specific reference mapping population of chickpea. Development and validation of a high-throughput SNP genotyping assay based on Illumina's GoldenGate Genotyping Technology and its application in building a high-resolution genetic linkage map of chickpea is described for the first time. In this study, 1022 SNPs were identified, of which 768 high-confidence SNPs were selected for designing the custom Oligo Pool All (CpOPA-I) for genotyping. Of these, 697 SNPs could be successfully used for genotyping, demonstrating a high success rate of 90.75%. Genotyping data of the 697 SNPs were compiled along with those of 368 co-dominant markers mapped in an earlier study, and a saturated genetic linkage map of chickpea was constructed. One thousand and sixty-three markers were mapped onto eight linkage groups spanning 1808.7 cM (centiMorgans) with an average inter-marker distance of 1.70 cM, thereby representing one of the most advanced maps of chickpea. The map was used for the synteny analysis of chickpea, which revealed a higher degree of synteny with the phylogenetically close Medicago than with soybean. The first set of validated SNPs and map resources developed in this study will not only facilitate QTL mapping, genome-wide association analysis and comparative mapping in legumes but also help anchor scaffolds arising out of the whole-genome sequencing of chickpea.

  14. Comprehensive transcriptome assembly of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using sanger and next generation sequencing platforms: development and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudapa, Himabindu; Azam, Sarwar; Sharpe, Andrew G; Taran, Bunyamin; Li, Rong; Deonovic, Benjamin; Cameron, Connor; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Steven B; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of chickpea has been developed using 134.95 million Illumina single-end reads, 7.12 million single-end FLX/454 reads and 139,214 Sanger expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from >17 genotypes. This hybrid transcriptome assembly, referred to as Cicer arietinumTranscriptome Assembly version 2 (CaTA v2, available at http://data.comparative-legumes.org/transcriptomes/cicar/lista_cicar-201201), comprising 46,369 transcript assembly contigs (TACs) has an N50 length of 1,726 bp and a maximum contig size of 15,644 bp. Putative functions were determined for 32,869 (70.8%) of the TACs and gene ontology assignments were determined for 21,471 (46.3%). The new transcriptome assembly was compared with the previously available chickpea transcriptome assemblies as well as to the chickpea genome. Comparative analysis of CaTA v2 against transcriptomes of three legumes - Medicago, soybean and common bean, resulted in 27,771 TACs common to all three legumes indicating strong conservation of genes across legumes. CaTA v2 was also used for identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and intron spanning regions (ISRs) for developing molecular markers. ISRs were identified by aligning TACs to the Medicago genome, and their putative mapping positions at chromosomal level were identified using transcript map of chickpea. Primer pairs were designed for 4,990 ISRs, each representing a single contig for which predicted positions are inferred and distributed across eight linkage groups. A subset of randomly selected ISRs representing all eight chickpea linkage groups were validated on five chickpea genotypes and showed 20% polymorphism with average polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.27. In summary, the hybrid transcriptome assembly developed and novel markers identified can be used for a variety of applications such as gene discovery, marker-trait association, diversity analysis etc., to advance genetics research and breeding applications in

  15. Biological Control of Chickpea Collar Rot by Co-inoculation of Antagonistic Bacteria and Compatible Rhizobia

    OpenAIRE

    Hameeda, B.; Harini, G.; Rupela, O. P.; Kumar Rao, J. V. D. K.; Reddy, Gopal

    2010-01-01

    Two hundred and seven bacteria were isolated from composts and macrofauna and screened for plant growth promoting and antagonistic traits. Seven of the 207 isolates showed antagonistic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii in plate culture. Inhibition of S. rolfsii by the bacterial isolates ranged between 61 and 84%. Two of the seven isolates were Bacillus sp. and rest belonged to Pseudomonas sp. Two isolates, Pseudomonas sp. CDB 35 and Pseudomonas sp. BWB 21 was compatible with chickpea Rhizob...

  16. Changes in photosynthetic carbon metabolism in senescent leaves of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekhar V. Murumkar; Prakash D Chavan

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic processes in mature and senescent leaves of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) have been compared. With age, leaf photosynthetic pigments viz. chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, and rate of 14°C fixation were considerably affected. Analysis of δ13C, and short term photosynthetic products showed no major change in the path of photosynthetic carbon fixation. Study of long term photosynthetic 14C assimilation revealed that in old senescent leaves, 14C incorporation into orga...

  17. JAZ repressors: Possible Involvement in Nutrients Deficiency Response in Rice and Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonates (JA are well-known phytohormones which play important roles in plant development and defence against pathogens. Jasmonate ZIM domain (JAZ proteins are plant-specific proteins and act as transcriptional repressors of JA-responsive genes. JA regulates both biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants; however, its role in nutrient deficiency responses is very elusive. Although, JA is well-known for root growth inhibition, little is known about behaviour of JAZ genes in response to nutrient deficiencies, under which root architectural alteration is an important adaptation. Using protein sequence homology and a conserved-domains approach, here we identify ten novel JAZ genes from the recently sequenced Chickpea genome, which is one of the most nutrient efficient crops. Both rice and chickpea JAZ genes express in tissue- and stimuli-specific manners. Many of which are preferentially expressed in root. Our analysis further showed differential expression of JAZ genes under macro (NPK and micronutrients (Zn, Fe deficiency in rice and chickpea roots. While both rice and chickpea JAZ genes showed a certain level of specificity towards type of nutrient deficiency, generally majority of them showed induction under K deficiency. Generally, JAZ genes showed an induction at early stages of stress and expression declined at later stages of macro-nutrient deficiency. Our results suggest that JAZ genes might play a role in early nutrient deficiency response both in monocot and dicot roots, and information generated here can be further used for understanding the possible roles of JA in root architectural alterations for nutrient deficiency adaptations

  18. Nutritional Profile and Carbohydrate Characterization of Spray-Dried Lentil, Pea and Chickpea Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Tosh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although many consumers know that pulses are nutritious, long preparation times are frequently a barrier to consumption of lentils, dried peas and chickpeas. Therefore, a product has been developed which can be used as an ingredient in a wide variety of dishes without presoaking or precooking. Dried green peas, chickpeas or lentils were soaked, cooked, homogenized and spray-dried. Proximate analyses were conducted on the pulse powders and compared to an instant mashed potato product. Because the health benefits of pulses may be due in part to their carbohydrate content, a detailed carbohydrate analysis was carried out on the pulse powders. Pulse powders were higher in protein and total dietary fibre and lower in starch than potato flakes. After processing, the pulse powders maintained appreciable amounts of resistant starch (4.4%–5.2%. Total dietary fibre was higher in chickpeas and peas (26.2% and 27.1% respectively than lentils (21.9%, whereas lentils had the highest protein content (22.7%. Pulse carbohydrates were rich in glucose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acids. Stachyose, a fermentable fibre, was the most abundant oligosaccharide, making up 1.5%–2.4% of the dried pulse powders. Spray-drying of cooked, homogenized pulses produces an easy to use ingredient with strong nutritional profile.

  19. Expression profiling of chickpea genes differentially regulated during a resistance response to Ascochyta rabiei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coram, Tristan E; Pang, Edwin C K

    2006-11-01

    Using microarray technology and a set of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) unigenes, grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and lentil (Lens culinaris Med.) resistance gene analogues, the ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) L.) resistance response was studied in four chickpea genotypes, including resistant, moderately resistant, susceptible and wild relative (Cicer echinospermum L.) genotypes. The experimental system minimized environmental effects and was conducted in reference design, in which samples from mock-inoculated controls acted as reference against post-inoculation samples. Robust data quality was achieved through the use of three biological replicates (including a dye swap), the inclusion of negative controls and strict selection criteria for differentially expressed genes, including a fold change cut-off determined by self-self hybridizations, Student's t-test and multiple testing correction (P resistant and A. rabiei-susceptible genotypes revealed potential gene 'signatures' predictive of effective A. rabiei resistance. These genes included several pathogenesis-related proteins, SNAKIN2 antimicrobial peptide, proline-rich protein, disease resistance response protein DRRG49-C, environmental stress-inducible protein, leucine-zipper protein, polymorphic antigen membrane protein, Ca-binding protein and several unknown proteins. The potential involvement of these genes and their pathways of induction are discussed. This study represents the first large-scale gene expression profiling in chickpea, and future work will focus on the functional validation of the genes of interest.

  20. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis: a case related to chickpea ingestion and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chet G; Mace, Sean R

    2007-12-15

    : Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is recognized as a distinct category of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA) but is very likely underdiagnosed. This report describes a 41-year-old Indian woman who experienced two separate episodes of anaphylaxis while dancing after she had eaten chickpea-containing foods. The chickpea, a small legume, is a staple ingredient in culinary traditions from around the world, especially in India, the Middle East, and North Africa. Chickpea-containing dishes are also becoming more widespread in the Western world with the growing popularity of South Asian, Middle Eastern, and African cuisines. It is important to consider FDEIA in cases of unexplained anaphylaxis as reactions can occur several hours after ingesting the culprit food(s). Furthermore, no reaction occurs if a sensitized individual eats the culprit food(s) without exercising afterward; therefore, triggering foods can easily be overlooked. Current ideas on the pathophysiology, predisposing factors, workup, and treatment of FDEIA are also summarized here.

  1. Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis: A Case Related to Chickpea Ingestion and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Chet G

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA is recognized as a distinct category of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA but is very likely underdiagnosed. This report describes a 41-year-old Indian woman who experienced two separate episodes of anaphylaxis while dancing after she had eaten chickpea-containing foods. The chickpea, a small legume, is a staple ingredient in culinary traditions from around the world, especially in India, the Middle East, and North Africa. Chickpea-containing dishes are also becoming more widespread in the Western world with the growing popularity of South Asian, Middle Eastern, and African cuisines. It is important to consider FDEIA in cases of unexplained anaphylaxis as reactions can occur several hours after ingesting the culprit food(s. Furthermore, no reaction occurs if a sensitized individual eats the culprit food(s without exercising afterward; therefore, triggering foods can easily be overlooked. Current ideas on the pathophysiology, predisposing factors, workup, and treatment of FDEIA are also summarized here.

  2. Development of molecular map and identification of QTLs linked to Fusarium wilt resistance in chickpea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavankumar Jingade; R. L. Ravikumar

    2015-12-01

    A number of genetic maps for Fusarium wilt resistance in chickpea have been reported in earlier studies, however QTLs identified for Fusarium wilt resistance were unstable. Hence, the present study aims to map novel molecular markers and to identify QTLs for Fusarium wilt resistance in chickpea. An intraspecific linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) was constructed using F10–F11 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between K850 and WR315 segregating for H2 locus. A set of 31 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers obtained by screening 300 SSRs and were used for genotyping. The linkage map had four linkage groups and coverage of 690 cM with a marker density of 5.72 cM. The RILs were screened for their wilt reaction across two seasons in wilt sick plot at International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India. Five major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected in both seasons for late wilting (60 days after sowing). A stable QTL (GSSR 18-TC14801) for wilt resistance was identified in both the seasons, and the QTL explained a variance of 69.80 and 60.80% in 2007 and 2008 rabi respectively.

  3. Synergistic effect of chickpea plants and Mesorhizobium as a natural system for chromium phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Pilar A; Talano, Melina A; Paisio, Cintia E; Agostini, Elizabeth; González, Paola S

    2017-09-01

    The presence of chromium in soils not only affects the physiological processes of plants but also the microbial rhizosphere composition and metabolic activities of microorganisms. Hence, the inoculation of plants with Cr(VI)-tolerant rhizospheric microorganisms as an alternative to reduce Cr phytotoxicity was studied. In this work, chickpea germination was reduced by Cr(VI) concentrations of 150 and 250 mg/L (6 and 33%, respectively); however lower Cr(VI) concentrations negatively affected the biomass. On the other hand, its symbiont, Mesorhizobium ciceri, was able to grow and remove different Cr(VI) concentrations (5-20 mg/L). The inoculation of chickpea plants with this strain exposed to Cr(VI) showed a significantly enhanced plant growth. In addition, inoculated plants accumulated higher Cr concentration in roots than those noninoculated. It is important to note that Cr was not translocated to shoots independently of inoculation. These results suggest that Mesorhizobium's capability to remove Cr(VI) could be exploited for bioremediation. Moreover, chickpea plants would represent a natural system for phytoremediation or phytostabilization of Cr in situ that could be improved with M. ciceri inoculation. This strategy would be considered as a phytoremediation tool with great economic and ecological relevance.

  4. Study on Effect of Supplementary Irrigation on Rainfed Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nav Raj Acharya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea is one of the important winter legumes in Nepal. It is grown after rice or maize either as sole or mixed crop. In Nepal, chickpea is mostly grown as rainfed crop on residual soil moisture or sometimes under irrigation. Lack of irrigation results drought and heat stress which affects crop growth and development. Irrigation at proper time is one of the most important factors for achieving higher crop yield. The experiment regarding use of supplementary irrigation time on chickpea was carried out at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Khajura, Banke, Nepal during the winter season of the year 2011 and 2012. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Seven different time intervals of irrigation was applied in the experiment for both years. Treatments differed significantly in terms of grain yield but showed non -significant difference in days to flowering and maturity over the years. The combined analysis of the experiments showed that the highest grain yield (2318 kg/ha was produced when irrigation was supplied at vegetative stage followed by irrigation supplied at flowering stage (2298 kg/ha and pod fill stage (2104 kg/ha respectively.

  5. Influence of dehydration process in Castellano chickpea: changes in bioactive carbohydrates and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Benítez, Vanesa; Mollá, Esperanza; Esteban, Rosa M; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2011-11-01

    Changes in bioactive carbohydrates, functional, and microstructural characteristics that occurred in chickpea under soaking, cooking, and industrial dehydration processing were evaluated. Raw chickpea exhibited important levels of raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs), resistant starch (RS) and total dietary fibre (TDF), being insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) the main fraction (94%). The dehydration process increased RFOs (43%), RS (47%) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) (59%) levels significantly. In addition, a noticeable increase in both fibre fractions was observed, being higher in soluble fibre in (SDF) (59%). The minimum nitrogen solubility of raw flours was at pH 4, and a high degree of protein insolubilization (80%) was observed in dehydrated flours. The raw and processed flours exhibited low oil-holding capacities (1.10 mg/ml), and did not show any change by thermal processing, whereas water-holding capacities rose to 5.50 mg/ml of sample. Cooking and industrial dehydration process reduced emulsifying activity and foaming capacity of chickpea flour. The microstructural observations were consistent with the chemical results. Thus, the significant occurrence of these bioactive carbohydrate compounds along with the interesting functional properties of the dehydrated flours could be considered useful as functional ingredients for food formulation.

  6. Assembling a puzzle of dispersed retrotransposable sequences in the genome of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staginnus, C; Desel, C; Schmidt, T; Kahl, G

    2010-12-01

    Several repetitive elements are known to be present in the genome of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) including satellite DNA and En/Spm transposons as well as two dispersed, highly repetitive elements, CaRep1 and CaRep2. PCR was used to prove that CaRep1, CaRep2, and previously isolated CaRep3 of C. arietinum represent different segments of a highly repetitive Ty3-gypsy-like retrotransposon (Metaviridae) designated CaRep that makes up large parts of the intercalary heterochromatin. The full sequence of this element including the LTRs and untranslated internal regions was isolated by selective amplification. The restriction pattern of CaRep was different within the annual species of the genus Cicer, suggesting its rearrangement during the evolution of the genus during the last 100 000 years. In addition to CaRep, another LTR and a non-LTR retrotransposon family were isolated, and their restriction patterns and physical localization in the chickpea genome were characterized. The LINE-like element CaLin is only of comparatively low abundance and reveals a considerable heterogeneity. The Ty1-copia-like element (Pseudoviridae) CaTy is located in the distal parts of the intercalary heterochromatin and adjacent euchromatic regions, but it is absent from the centromeric regions. These results together with earlier findings allow to depict the distribution of retroelements on chickpea chromosomes, which extensively resembles the retroelement landscape of the genome of the model legume Medicago truncatula Gaertn.

  7. Selenium accumulation and speciation in biofortified chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblaciones, Maria J; Rodrigo, Sara; Santamaria, Oscar; Chen, Yi; McGrath, Steve P

    2014-04-01

    Millions of people have Se-deficient diets and Se-biofortified crops could prevent such deficiency. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of chickpea for use in Se fertilization programs in order to increase available Se. Two foliar Se fertilizers (sodium selenate and sodium selenite) at four rates (0, 10, 20, 40 g ha(-1)) were tested in the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 growing seasons in a field experiment conducted under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. Sodium selenate was much more effectively taken by plants than sodium selenite, and there was a strong and linear relationship between total Se content and Se rate for both. For each gram of Se fertilizer, applied either as sodium selenate or sodium selenite, the increases of total Se concentration in grain were 126 and 87, and 25 and 19 µg Se kg(-1) dry weight, in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012, respectively. Se was found to be incorporated into chickpea grains mainly (>70%) as selenomethionine. Se-enriched chickpeas would be a good candidate for inclusion in biofortification programs under semiarid Mediterranean conditions and for promotion as a 'functional food'. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Pattern of Water Use and Seed Yield under Terminal Drought in Chickpea Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Pang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought, particularly terminal drought, reduces the yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.. Terminal drought tolerance and water use patterns were evaluated under controlled conditions in 10 genotypes of desi chickpea. Withholding water from early podding reduced vegetative growth, reproductive growth, seed yield, and water use efficiency for seed yield in all genotypes. The genotype Neelam, which produced the highest seed yield when water was withheld, used the least water when well-watered; however, its aboveground biomass at maturity did not differ significantly from six of the nine other genotypes. Indeed, the water-stressed Neelam had the lowest daily transpiration rate during the early stages of water stress and the highest during the later stages, thereby maintaining the highest soil water content in the first 16 days after water was withheld, which enabled higher pod production, lower pod abortion, and better seed filling. Genotypes differed in the threshold value of the fraction of transpirable soil water when flowering and seed set ceased in the water-stress treatment. We conclude that a conservative water use strategy benefits seed yield of chickpea exposed to water shortage during early podding.

  9. Dynamics of Colonization and Expression of Pathogenicity Related Genes in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri during Chickpea Vascular Wilt Disease Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upasani, Medha L.; Gurjar, Gayatri S.; Gupta, Vidya S.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (Foc) is a constant threat to chickpea productivity in several parts of the world. Understanding the molecular basis of chickpea-Foc interaction is necessary to improve chickpea resistance to Foc and thereby the productivity of chickpea. We transformed Foc race 2 using green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene and used it to characterize pathogen progression and colonization in wilt-susceptible (JG62) and wilt-resistant (Digvijay) chickpea cultivars using confocal microscopy. We also employed quantitative PCR (qPCR) to estimate the pathogen load and progression across various tissues of both the chickpea cultivars during the course of the disease. Additionally, the expression of several candidate pathogen virulence genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), which showed their characteristic expression in wilt-susceptible and resistant chickpea cultivars. Our results suggest that the pathogen colonizes the susceptible cultivar defeating its defense; however, albeit its entry in the resistant plant, further proliferation is severely restricted providing an evidence of efficient defense mechanism in the resistant chickpea cultivar. PMID:27227745

  10. Chickpeas and hummus are associated with better nutrient intake, diet quality, and levels of some cardiovascular risk factors: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiologic studies assessing chickpea/hummus consumption and the association with nutrient intake, diet quality, and health biomarkers are lacking. The association between chickpea/hummus consumption and nutrient intake, dietary quality, and health biomarkers was examined in adults using data fro...

  11. Compatible Rhizosphere-Competent Microbial Consortium Adds Value to the Nutritional Quality in Edible Parts of Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sudheer K; Singh, Surendra; Singh, Harikesh B; Sarma, Birinchi K

    2017-08-02

    Chickpea is used as a high-energy and protein source in diets of humans and livestock. Moreover, chickpea straw can be used as alternative of forage in ruminant diets. The present study evaluates the effect of beneficial microbial inoculation on enhancing the nutritional values in edible parts of chickpea. Two rhizosphere-competent compatible microbes (Pseudomonas fluorescens OKC and Trichoderma asperellum T42) were selected and applied to seeds either individually or in consortium before sowing. Chickpea seeds treated with the microbes showed enhanced plant growth [88.93% shoot length at 60 days after sowing (DAS)] and biomass accumulation (21.37% at 120 DAS). Notably, the uptake of mineral nutrients, viz., N (90.27, 91.45, and 142.64%), P (14.13, 58.73, and 56.84%), K (20.5, 9.23, and 35.98%), Na (91.98, 101.66, and 36.46%), Ca (16.61, 29.46, and 16%), and organic carbon (28.54, 17.09, and 18.54%), was found in the seed, foliage, and pericarp of the chickpea plants, respectively. Additionally, nutritional quality, viz., total phenolic (59.7, 2.8, and 17.25%), protein (9.78, 18.53, and 7.68%), carbohydrate content (26.22, 30.21, and 26.63%), total flavonoid content (3.11, 9.15, and 7.81%), and reducing power (112.98, 75.42, and 111.75%), was also found in the seed, foliage, and pericarp of the chickpea plants. Most importantly, the microbial-consortium-treated plants showed the maximum increase of nutrient accumulation and enhancement in nutritional quality in all edible parts of chickpea. Nutritional partitioning in different edible parts of chickpea was also evident in the microbial treatments compared to their uninoculated ones. The results thus clearly demonstrated microbe-mediated enhancement in the dietary value of the edible parts of chickpea because seeds are consumed by humans, whereas pericarp and foliage (straw) are used as an alternative of forage and roughage in ruminant diets.

  12. Trichoderma inoculation augments grain amino acids and mineral nutrients by modulating arsenic speciation and accumulation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Pratibha; Singh, Poonam C; Mishra, Aradhana; Tripathi, Rudra D; Nautiyal, Chandra S

    2015-07-01

    Trichoderma reesei is an industrially important fungi which also imparts stress tolerance and plant growth promotion in various crops. Arsenic (As) contamination of field soils is one of the challenging problems in agriculture, posing potential threats for both human health and the environment. Plants in association with microbes are a liable method to improve metal tolerance and enhance crop productivity. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), is an important grain legume providing cheap source of protein in semi-arid regions including As affected areas. In this study we report the role of T. reesei NBRI 0716 (NBRI 0716) in supporting chickpea growth and improving soil quality in As simulated conditions. NBRI 0716 modulated the As speciation and its availability to improve grain yield and quality (amino acids and mineral content) in chickpea (C. arietinum L.) plants grown in As spiked soil (100 mg As kg(-1) soil). Arsenic accumulation and speciation results indicate that arsenate [As(V)] was the dominant species in chickpea seeds and rhizosphere soil. The Trichoderma reduced total grain inorganic As (Asi) by 66% and enhanced dimethylarsonic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsinic acid (MMA) content of seed and rhizosphere soil. The results indicate a probable role of NBRI 0716 in As methylation as the possible mechanism for maneuvering As stress in chickpea. Analysis of functional diversity using carbon source utilization (Biolog) showed significant difference in diversity and evenness indices among the soil microbial rhizosphere communities. Microbial diversity loss caused by As were prevented in the presence of Trichoderma NBRI 0716.

  13. Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) between drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes of chickpea under terminal drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important grain-legume crop that is mainly grown in rainfed areas, where terminal drought is a major constraint to its productivity. We generated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) by suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) to identify differentially expressed genes in drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes in chickpea. Results EST libraries were generated by SSH from root and shoot tissues of IC4958 (drought tolerant) and ICC 1882 (drought resistant) exposed to terminal drought conditions by the dry down method. SSH libraries were also constructed by using 2 sets of bulks prepared from the RNA of root tissues from selected recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (10 each) for the extreme high and low root biomass phenotype. A total of 3062 unigenes (638 contigs and 2424 singletons), 51.4% of which were novel in chickpea, were derived by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 5949 ESTs. Only 2185 (71%) unigenes showed significant BLASTX similarity (chickpea for the first time. This study not only serves as resource for marker discovery, but can provide a better insight into the selection of candidate genes (both up- and downregulated) associated with drought tolerance. These results can be used to identify suitable targets for manipulating the drought-tolerance trait in chickpea. PMID:21513527

  14. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Genotyping for Breeding and Genetics Applications in Chickpea and Pigeonpea using the BeadXpress Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Roorkiwal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are ideal molecular markers due to their higher abundance. Although several types of genotyping platforms for assaying large number of SNPs are available, in cases such as marker-assisted selection, where few markers are required for genotyping a set of potential lines, high-throughput SNP genotyping platforms (e.g., iScan or Infinium may not be cost effective. In this scenario, GoldenGate assays based on VeraCode technology using Illumina BeadXpress seems to be the most cost-effective platform. The objective of this study was to develop cost-effective SNP genotyping platforms in chickpea ( L. and pigeonpea ( L.. Two sets of SNPs, one each for chickpea (96 SNPs and pigeonpea (48 SNPs, were developed and tested by genotyping 288 diverse genotypes from respective reference sets. The SNPs selected for the oligo pool assays had high transferability to crop wild relative species. The mean polymorphism information content value of assayed SNP markers was 0.31 and 0.32 in chickpea and pigeonpea, respectively. No unique pattern was observed in the chickpea reference set whereas two major groups were observed in the case of the pigeonpea reference set. The Illumina BeadXpress platform assays developed for chickpea and pigeonpea are highly informative and cost effective for undertaking genetic studies in these legume species.

  15. Effect of Rhizobium Isolates on Isoflavonoid Levels in Chickpea Plants Infected with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arfaoui

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present studies was to determine the effect of two biocontrol agents, belonging to the genus Rhizobium, PchDMS and Pch43, on the accumulation of soluble phenolic compounds, and particularly constitutive isoflavonoids, in chickpea roots infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc, the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of chickpea. Pretreatment of roots with the bacterial isolates before challenge with Foc significantly increased levels of soluble phenolic compounds in both the susceptible ILC482 and the moderately resistant INRAT87/ 1 chickpea cultivars. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed the isoflavones biochanin A and formononetin in the chickpea roots, in both the free and the glycosidically bound forms. Bacterization of the roots with Rhizobium isolates before challenge with Foc increased levels of these isoflavones in plant roots. The antifungal activity of crude phenolics extracted from the chickpea roots was tested in vitro on PDA amended with various concentrations of these extracts and inoculated with Foc. Crude phenolics significantly reduced fungal growth and caused considerable morphological changes in the mycelium, including marked cellular disorganization.

  16. Rhizosphere competent Pantoea agglomerans enhances maize (Zea mays) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) growth, without altering the rhizosphere functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Aradhana; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Tripathi, Manisha; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2011-10-01

    Plant growth promoting Pantoea agglomerans NBRISRM (NBRISRM) was able to produce 60.4 μg/ml indole acetic acid and solubilize 77.5 μg/ml tri-calcium phosphate under in vitro conditions. Addition of 2% NaCl (w/v) in the media induced the IAA production and phosphate solubilization by 11% and 7%, respectively. For evaluating the plant growth promotory effect of NBRISRM inoculation a micro plot trial was conducted using maize and chickpea as host plants. The results revealed significant increase in all growth parameters tested in NBRISRM inoculated maize and chickpea plants, which were further confirmed by higher macronutrients (N, P and K) accumulation as compared to un-inoculated controls. Throughout the growing season of maize and chickpea, rhizosphere population of NBRISRM were in the range 10(7)-10(8) CFU/g soil and competing with 10(7)-10(9) CFU/g soil with heterogeneous bacterial population. Functional richness, diversity, and evenness were found significantly higher in maize rhizosphere as compared to chickpea, whereas NBRISRM inoculation were not able to change it, in both crops as compared to their un-inoculated control. To the best of our knowledge this is first report where we demonstrated the effect of P. agglomerans strain for improving maize and chickpea growth without altering the functional diversity.

  17. The salt-responsive transcriptome of chickpea roots and nodules via deepSuperSAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The combination of high-throughput transcript profiling and next-generation sequencing technologies is a prerequisite for genome-wide comprehensive transcriptome analysis. Our recent innovation of deepSuperSAGE is based on an advanced SuperSAGE protocol and its combination with massively parallel pyrosequencing on Roche's 454 sequencing platform. As a demonstration of the power of this combination, we have chosen the salt stress transcriptomes of roots and nodules of the third most important legume crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). While our report is more technology-oriented, it nevertheless addresses a major world-wide problem for crops generally: high salinity. Together with low temperatures and water stress, high salinity is responsible for crop losses of millions of tons of various legume (and other) crops. Continuously deteriorating environmental conditions will combine with salinity stress to further compromise crop yields. As a good example for such stress-exposed crop plants, we started to characterize salt stress responses of chickpeas on the transcriptome level. Results We used deepSuperSAGE to detect early global transcriptome changes in salt-stressed chickpea. The salt stress responses of 86,919 transcripts representing 17,918 unique 26 bp deepSuperSAGE tags (UniTags) from roots of the salt-tolerant variety INRAT-93 two hours after treatment with 25 mM NaCl were characterized. Additionally, the expression of 57,281 transcripts representing 13,115 UniTags was monitored in nodules of the same plants. From a total of 144,200 analyzed 26 bp tags in roots and nodules together, 21,401 unique transcripts were identified. Of these, only 363 and 106 specific transcripts, respectively, were commonly up- or down-regulated (>3.0-fold) under salt stress in both organs, witnessing a differential organ-specific response to stress. Profiting from recent pioneer works on massive cDNA sequencing in chickpea, more than 9,400 UniTags were able to be linked to

  18. Analysis of gene expression in response to water deficit of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. varieties differing in drought tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay Debasis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea (C. arietinum L. ranks third in food legume crop production in the world. However, drought poses a serious threat to chickpea production, and development of drought-resistant varieties is a necessity. Unfortunately, cultivated chickpea has a high morphological but narrow genetic diversity, and understanding the genetic processes of this plant is hindered by the fact that the chickpea genome has not yet been sequenced and its EST resources are limited. In this study, two chickpea varieties having contrasting levels of drought-tolerance were analyzed for differences in transcript profiling during drought stress treatment by withdrawal of irrigation at different time points. Transcript profiles of ESTs derived from subtractive cDNA libraries constructed with RNA from whole seedlings of both varieties were analyzed at different stages of stress treatment. Results A series of comparisons of transcript abundance between two varieties at different time points were made. 319 unique ESTs available from different libraries were categorized into eleven clusters according to their comparative expression profiles. Expression analysis revealed that 70% of the ESTs were more than two fold abundant in the tolerant cultivar at any point of the stress treatment of which expression of 33% ESTs were more than two fold high even under the control condition. 53 ESTs that displayed very high fold relative expression in the tolerant variety were screened for further analysis. These ESTs were clustered in four groups according to their expression patterns. Conclusions Annotation of the highly expressed ESTs in the tolerant cultivar predicted that most of them encoded proteins involved in cellular organization, protein metabolism, signal transduction, and transcription. Results from this study may help in targeting useful genes for improving drought tolerance in chickpea.

  19. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and regeneration of insect-resistant transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Sanyal, Indraneel; Amla, D V

    2011-09-01

    To develop an efficient genetic transformation system of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), callus derived from mature embryonic axes of variety P-362 was transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring p35SGUS-INT plasmid containing the uidA gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) and the nptII gene for kanamycin selection. Various factors affecting transformation efficiency were optimized; as Agrobacterium suspension at OD(600) 0.3 with 48 h of co-cultivation period at 20°C was found optimal for transforming 10-day-old MEA-derived callus. Inclusion of 200 μM acetosyringone, sonication for 4 s with vacuum infiltration for 6 min improved the number of GUS foci per responding explant from 1.0 to 38.6, as determined by histochemical GUS assay. For introducing the insect-resistant trait into chickpea, binary vector pRD400-cry1Ac was also transformed under optimized conditions and 18 T(0) transgenic plants were generated, representing 3.6% transformation frequency. T(0) transgenic plants reflected Mendelian inheritance pattern of transgene segregation in T(1) progeny. PCR, RT-PCR, and Southern hybridization analysis of T(0) and T(1) transgenic plants confirmed stable integration of transgenes into the chickpea genome. The expression level of Bt-Cry protein in T(0) and T(1) transgenic chickpea plants was achieved maximum up to 116 ng mg(-1) of soluble protein, which efficiently causes 100% mortality to second instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera as analyzed by an insect mortality bioassay. Our results demonstrate an efficient and rapid transformation system of chickpea for producing non-chimeric transgenic plants with high frequency. These findings will certainly accelerate the development of chickpea plants with novel traits.

  20. Inactivation of baculovirus by isoflavonoids on chickpea (Cicer arietinum) leaf surfaces reduces the efficacy of nucleopolyhedrovirus against Helicoverpa armigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Philip C; D'Cunha, Reju F; Grzywacz, David

    2010-02-01

    Biological pesticides based on nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) can provide an effective and environmentally benign alternative to synthetic chemicals. On some crops, however, the efficacy and persistence of NPVs is known to be reduced by plant specific factors. The present study investigated the efficacy of Helicoverpa armigera NPV (HearNPV) for control of H. armigera larvae, and showed that chickpea reduced the infectivity of virus occlusion bodies (OBs) exposed to the leaf surface of chickpea for at least 1 h. The degree of inactivation was greater on chickpea than that previously reported on cotton, and the mode of action is different from that of cotton. The effect was observed for larvae that consumed OBs on chickpea leaves, but it also occurred when OBs were removed after exposure to plants and inoculated onto artificial diet, indicating that inhibition was leaf surface-related and permanent. Despite their profuse exudation from trichomes on chickpea leaves and their low pH, organic acids-primarily oxalic and malic acid-caused no inhibition. When HearNPV was incubated with biochanin A and sissotrin, however, two minor constituents of chickpea leaf extracts, OB activity was reduced significantly. These two isoflavonoids increased in concentration by up to 3 times within 1 h of spraying the virus suspension onto the plants and also when spraying only the carrier, indicating induction was in response to spraying and not a specific response to the HearNPV. Although inactivation by the isoflavonoids did not account completely for the level of effect recorded on whole plants, this work constitutes evidence for a novel mechanism of NPV inactivation in legumes. Expanding the use of biological pesticides on legume crops will be dependent upon the development of suitable formulations for OBs to overcome plant secondary chemical effects.

  1. The Effects of Plant Density on the Yield and Yield Components of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Van

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted in the experimental area of Yüzüncü Yıl University Agricultural Faculty in 1994-1995. The trial was carried out in a randomized block desing with four replications. In this study, three chickpea lines and three plant densities (28, 42 and 56 seed/m2) were examined for their effects on yield components. According to the results over 2 years, the effects of plant density were significant on the yields and yield components in chickpea. The highest grain yield per unit a...

  2. The element contents in chickpeas grown under organic and conventional farming regimes using WDXRF analysis for human nutrition and health

    OpenAIRE

    AKBABA, Uğur; TÜRKEZ, Yusuf ŞAHİN and Hasan

    2012-01-01

    A comparative study on elemental composition of various chickpea (Cicer arientînum L) samples was conducted by using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). 22 elements, Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, P, S, Sr, Zn, Br, Cl, K, Mg, Na, Ba, Rb, Si, Au, Cr, La and Sn, were determined in chickpea samples (n = 10) grown under organic and conventional farming regimes. Results obtained from each group were analyzed statistically using the SPSS statistic program. It was observed that the ...

  3. A comprehensive resource of drought- and salinity- responsive ESTs for gene discovery and marker development in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Hiremath, Pavana J; Lekha, Pazhamala; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Balaji, Jayashree; Deokar, Amit A; Vadez, Vincent; Xiao, Yongli; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Gaur, Pooran M; Siddique, Kadambot Hm; Town, Christopher D; Hoisington, David A

    2009-11-15

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), an important grain legume crop of the world is seriously challenged by terminal drought and salinity stresses. However, very limited number of molecular markers and candidate genes are available for undertaking molecular breeding in chickpea to tackle these stresses. This study reports generation and analysis of comprehensive resource of drought- and salinity-responsive expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and gene-based markers. A total of 20,162 (18,435 high quality) drought- and salinity- responsive ESTs were generated from ten different root tissue cDNA libraries of chickpea. Sequence editing, clustering and assembly analysis resulted in 6,404 unigenes (1,590 contigs and 4,814 singletons). Functional annotation of unigenes based on BLASTX analysis showed that 46.3% (2,965) had significant similarity (chickpea. Of 2,965 (46.3%) significant unigenes, only 2,071 (32.3%) unigenes could be functionally categorised according to Gene Ontology (GO) descriptions. A total of 2,029 sequences containing 3,728 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified and 177 new EST-SSR markers were developed. Experimental validation of a set of 77 SSR markers on 24 genotypes revealed 230 alleles with an average of 4.6 alleles per marker and average polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.43. Besides SSR markers, 21,405 high confidence single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 742 contigs (with > or = 5 ESTs) were also identified. Recognition sites for restriction enzymes were identified for 7,884 SNPs in 240 contigs. Hierarchical clustering of 105 selected contigs provided clues about stress- responsive candidate genes and their expression profile showed predominance in specific stress-challenged libraries. Generated set of chickpea ESTs serves as a resource of high quality transcripts for gene discovery and development of functional markers associated with abiotic stress tolerance that will be helpful to facilitate chickpea breeding. Mapping of

  4. Studies on the development of infant foods from plant protein sources. Part II. Effect of processing conditions on the chemical and nutritive properties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleque, A; Elías, L G; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

    1985-09-01

    In order to improve the taste, flavor and nutritional quality of chickpea (Cicer arietinum), various processing conditions were studied. The decorticated samples were processed under various conditions, either by presoaking or non-soaking in water or sodium carbonate solution. The proteins were also isolated from water or carbonate-presoaked chickpea and subjected to various processing. Carbonate-presoaked samples gave slightly lower protein and ash values. No major changes in other constituents were observed. Subjective analysis of the intensity of characteristic chickpea flavor in processed samples was carried out, indicating some improvement in the carbonate-presoaked samples. Carbonate-treated samples exhibited a lighter color. The carbonate presoaking procedure had no adverse effect on the availability of lysine and nitrogen solubility index (NSI), as compared to the water-presoaking procedure. The time required to inactivate trypsin inhibitors in carbonate-presoaked chickpea at boiling temperature, was half that required in the case of water-presoaked ones. Under the conditions used in treating chickpea with sodium carbonate, no beneficial effect was observed in reducing the tannin content. No significant differences were observed in net protein ratio (NPR) among the various processed chickpea samples, even though in some cases isolated protein gave significantly lower NPR values. Digestibility values were higher for isolated protein than for whole chickpea samples.

  5. Gene Discovery and Tissue-Specific Transcriptome Analysis in Chickpea with Massively Parallel Pyrosequencing and Web Resource Development1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rohini; Patel, Ravi K.; Jhanwar, Shalu; Priya, Pushp; Bhattacharjee, Annapurna; Yadav, Gitanjali; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Jain, Mukesh

    2011-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is an important food legume crop but lags in the availability of genomic resources. In this study, we have generated about 2 million high-quality sequences of average length of 372 bp using pyrosequencing technology. The optimization of de novo assembly clearly indicated that hybrid assembly of long-read and short-read primary assemblies gave better results. The hybrid assembly generated a set of 34,760 transcripts with an average length of 1,020 bp representing about 4.8% (35.5 Mb) of the total chickpea genome. We identified more than 4,000 simple sequence repeats, which can be developed as functional molecular markers in chickpea. Putative function and Gene Ontology terms were assigned to at least 73.2% and 71.0% of chickpea transcripts, respectively. We have also identified several chickpea transcripts that showed tissue-specific expression and validated the results using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Based on sequence comparison with other species within the plant kingdom, we identified two sets of lineage-specific genes, including those conserved in the Fabaceae family (legume specific) and those lacking significant similarity with any non chickpea species (chickpea specific). Finally, we have developed a Web resource, Chickpea Transcriptome Database, which provides public access to the data and results reported in this study. The strategy for optimization of de novo assembly presented here may further facilitate the transcriptome sequencing and characterization in other organisms. Most importantly, the data and results reported in this study will help to accelerate research in various areas of genomics and implementing breeding programs in chickpea. PMID:21653784

  6. Aluminum stress inhibits root growth and alters physiological and metabolic responses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Shuvasish; Sharma, Parul

    2014-12-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) roots were treated with aluminum (Al3+) in calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution (pH 4.7) and growth responses along with physiological and metabolic changes were investigated. Al3+ treatment for 7d resulted in a dose dependent decline of seed germination and inhibition of root growth. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) decline in fresh and dry biomass were observed after 7d of Al3+ stress.The root growth (length) was inhibited after 24 and 48 h of stress imposition. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with respect to control in Al3+ treated roots. The hematoxylin and Evans blue assay indicated significant (p ≤ 0.05) accumulation of Al3+ in the roots and loss of plasma membrane integrity respectively. The time-course evaluation of lipid peroxidation showed increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) after 12, 24 and 48 h of stress imposition. Al3+ treatment did not alter the MDA levels after 2 or 4 h of stress, however, a minor increase was observed after 6 and 10 h of treatment. The proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the perchloric acid extracts showed variation in the abundance of metabolites and suggested a major metabolic shift in chickpea root during Al3+ stress. The key differences that were observed include changes in energy metabolites. Accumulation of phenolic compounds suggested its possible role in Al3+ exclusion in roots during stress. The results suggested that Al3+ alters growth pattern in chickpea and induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that causes physiological and metabolic changes.

  7. Arsenic tolerant Trichoderma sp. reduces arsenic induced stress in chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Pratibha; Singh, Poonam C; Mishra, Aradhana; Srivastava, Suchi; Chauhan, Reshu; Awasthi, Surabhi; Mishra, Seema; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tripathi, Preeti; Kalra, Alok; Tripathi, Rudra D; Nautiyal, Chandra S

    2017-04-01

    Toxic metalloids including arsenic (As) can neither be eliminated nor destroyed from environment; however, they can be converted from toxic to less/non-toxic forms. The form of As species and their concentration determines its toxicity in plants. Therefore, the microbe mediated biotransformation of As is crucial for its plant uptake and toxicity. In the present study the role of As tolerant Trichoderma in modulating As toxicity in chickpea plants was explored. Chickpea plants grown in arsenate spiked soil under green house conditions were inoculated with two plant growth promoting Trichoderma strains, M-35 (As tolerant) and PPLF-28 (As sensitive). Total As concentration in chickpea tissue was comparable in both the Trichoderma treatments, however, differences in levels of organic and inorganic As (iAs) species were observed. The shift in iAs to organic As species ratio in tolerant Trichoderma treatment correlated with enhanced plant growth and nutrient content. Arsenic stress amelioration in tolerant Trichoderma treatment was also evident through rhizospheric microbial community and anatomical studies of the stem morphology. Down regulation of abiotic stress responsive genes (MIPS, PGIP, CGG) in tolerant Trichoderma + As treatment as compared to As alone and sensitive Trichoderma + As treatment also revealed that tolerant strain enhanced the plant's potential to cope with As stress as compared to sensitive one. Considering the bioremediation and plant growth promotion potential, the tolerant Trichoderma may appear promising for its utilization in As affected fields for enhancing agricultural productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of ESTs from chickpea roots and their use in diversity analysis of the Cicer genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshwar K

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea is a major crop in many drier regions of the world where it is an important protein-rich food and an increasingly valuable traded commodity. The wild annual Cicer species are known to possess unique sources of resistance to pests and diseases, and tolerance to environmental stresses. However, there has been limited utilization of these wild species by chickpea breeding programs due to interspecific crossing barriers and deleterious linkage drag. Molecular genetic diversity analysis may help predict which accessions are most likely to produce fertile progeny when crossed with chickpea cultivars. While, trait-markers may provide an effective tool for breaking linkage drag. Although SSR markers are the assay of choice for marker-assisted selection of specific traits in conventional breeding populations, they may not provide reliable estimates of interspecific diversity, and may lose selective power in backcross programs based on interspecific introgressions. Thus, we have pursued the development of gene-based markers to resolve these problems and to provide candidate gene markers for QTL mapping of important agronomic traits. Results An EST library was constructed after subtractive suppressive hybridization (SSH of root tissue from two very closely related chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum. A total of 106 EST-based markers were designed from 477 sequences with functional annotations and these were tested on C. arietinum. Forty-four EST markers were polymorphic when screened across nine Cicer species (including the cultigen. Parsimony and PCoA analysis of the resultant EST-marker dataset indicated that most accessions cluster in accordance with the previously defined classification of primary (C. arietinum, C. echinospermum and C. reticulatum, secondary (C. pinnatifidum, C. bijugum and C. judaicum, and tertiary (C. yamashitae, C. chrossanicum and C. cuneatum gene-pools. A large proportion of EST alleles (45% were only

  9. Changes in photosynthetic carbon metabolism in senescent leaves of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar V. Murumkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic processes in mature and senescent leaves of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. have been compared. With age, leaf photosynthetic pigments viz. chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids, and rate of 14°C fixation were considerably affected. Analysis of δ13C, and short term photosynthetic products showed no major change in the path of photosynthetic carbon fixation. Study of long term photosynthetic 14C assimilation revealed that in old senescent leaves, 14C incorporation into organic acid and sugar fractions was enhanced.

  10. Purification and characterization of a poly(A)-binding protein from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) epicotyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyath, V; Balasubrahmanyam, A; Kapoor, H C

    2000-04-01

    A poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) with mol wt 72,000 has been purified from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) epicotyls by ammonium sulfate fractionation, Cibacron blue F3-GA and poly(A) agarose chromatography. The binding properties and the specificity of binding show that the purified protein is an analogue of PABPs in other eukaryotes. This PABP is highly susceptible to proteolysis and upon degradation forms a polypeptide fragment of mol wt 21,000 which has an independent poly(A) binding activity.

  11. Heat and mass transfer analysis of convective drying of chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the modelling and simulation of the dehydration of chickpea in a complex drying system process, using COMSOL Multiphysics Program. A model, based on mass and energy balances, was developed for the simulation of unsteady convective drying with air (3.0 m/s and 60 °C). The program predicted an 8 hours-dehydration time, with an effective moisture diffusivity of 3.1 *10- 10 which was experimentally obtained. The empirical model that best represented the process was the exponential one.

  12. Fusarium oxysporum mediates systems metabolic reprogramming of chickpea roots as revealed by a combination of proteomics and metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Yashwant; Zhang, Limin; Panigrahi, Priyabrata; Dholakia, Bhushan B; Dewangan, Veena; Chavan, Sachin G; Kunjir, Shrikant M; Wu, Xiangyu; Li, Ning; Rajmohanan, Pattuparambil R; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Giri, Ashok P; Tang, Huiru; Gupta, Vidya S

    2016-07-01

    Molecular changes elicited by plants in response to fungal attack and how this affects plant-pathogen interaction, including susceptibility or resistance, remain elusive. We studied the dynamics in root metabolism during compatible and incompatible interactions between chickpea and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (Foc), using quantitative label-free proteomics and NMR-based metabolomics. Results demonstrated differential expression of proteins and metabolites upon Foc inoculations in the resistant plants compared with the susceptible ones. Additionally, expression analysis of candidate genes supported the proteomic and metabolic variations in the chickpea roots upon Foc inoculation. In particular, we found that the resistant plants revealed significant increase in the carbon and nitrogen metabolism; generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lignification and phytoalexins. The levels of some of the pathogenesis-related proteins were significantly higher upon Foc inoculation in the resistant plant. Interestingly, results also exhibited the crucial role of altered Yang cycle, which contributed in different methylation reactions and unfolded protein response in the chickpea roots against Foc. Overall, the observed modulations in the metabolic flux as outcome of several orchestrated molecular events are determinant of plant's role in chickpea-Foc interactions. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Quantitative and microscopic assessment of compatible and incompatible interactions between chickpea cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Daniel; Landa, Blanca B; Kang, Seogchan; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Navas-Cortés, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized 'JG-62' xylem vessels of root and stem but in 'WR-315', it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms.

  14. Growth and antioxidant system under drought stress in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. as sustained by salicylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Sarma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major factors limiting chickpea production in arid and semi arid regions. There is meagre information available regarding genotypic variation for drought tolerance in chickpea genotypes. Present investigation was carried out to find out the influence of salicylic acid (SA on drought tolerance in four chickpea genotypes. Reduction in relative injury was observed in plants treated with SA @1.5 mM as compared to control seedlings. Relationship between relative water content (RWC, membrane permeability (MP, ascorbic acid (AsA, proline, lipid peroxidation (LPO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX was determined in order to find out whether these parameters can be used as selection criteria for drought tolerance in this crop. Results indicate wide variation in tolerance to drought stress amongst chickpea cultivars at both the critical stages i.e. pre- and post-anthesis. On the basis of growth and antioxidant activity better genotypes Tyson and ICC-4958 appear to be adapted to drought stress tolerance. Early drought stress (pre-anthesis drought was found to be more damaging than the late drought stress (post- anthesis drought.

  15. Cicer L., a monograph of the genus, with special reference to the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), its ecology and cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    1972-01-01

    1. The history of the chickpea or gram, Cicer arietinum L., has been described from Homer's time and the earliest finds, 5450 B.C. in Hacilar, Turkey, up to the present day. The crop was first domesticated in Asia Minor and was introduced in India either from Central Asia or Asia Minor, the two mai

  16. Novel fermented chickpea milk with enhanced level of γ-aminobutyric acid and neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, novel fermented chickpea milk with high γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA content and potential neuroprotective activity was developed. Fermentation starter that can produce GABA was selected from 377 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Chinese fermented foods. Among the screened strains, strain M-6 showed the highest GABA-producing capacity in De Man–Rogosa and Sharp (MRS broth and chickpea milk. M-6 was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on Gram staining, API carbohydrate fermentation pattern testing, and 16s rDNA sequencing. The complete gene encoding glutamate decarboxylase was cloned to confirm the presence of the gene in L. plantarum M-6. The fermentation condition was optimized by response surface methodology. Results demonstrated that L. plantarum M-6 produced the highest GABA content of 537.23 mg/L. The optimal condition included an inoculum concentration of 7%, presence of 0.2% (m/v monosodium glutamate and 55 µ M pyridoxal-5-phosphate, incubation temperature of 39 °C and fermentation time of 48 h . GABA-enriched chickpea milk exerted protective effects on PC12 cells against MnCl2 -induced injury. GABA-enriched chickpea milk improved cell viability and markedly attenuated the release of lactate dehydrogenase compared with the impaired cells.

  17. Consumer perceptions, descriptive profile, and mechanical properties of a novel product with chickpea flour: Effect of ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, María José; Tárrega, Amparo; Fuentes, Raúl; Canet, Wenceslao; Álvarez, María Dolores

    2016-09-01

    Increasingly popular in the West is hummus, a spread that is made with pureed chickpeas and other healthful ingredients. The changes in texture measurements and sensory properties in a novel chickpea flour-based product occurring when water is partially replaced by common ingredients of hummus were investigated. Eleven chickpea gels containing different amounts of minced garlic, lemon juice, curry powder, and inulin were prepared and compared with two control gels. These ingredients were chosen to make the product tastier, appealing, and similar to hummus. Instrumental texture tests were carried out: uniaxial compression, stress relaxation, and texture profile analysis. Quantitative descriptive analysis was used to describe differences in sensory properties perceived by a trained panel, whereas repertory grid method combined with free choice profile was used to determine differences perceived by untrained consumers. Gels with higher curry powder content presented lower force to breakdown, whereas increasing inulin content led to gels with higher hardness. Principal component analysis was applied to instrumental parameters and quantitative descriptive analysis data, whereas generalized Procrustes analysis was applied to free choice profile data. This newly developed chickpea gel may make a nutrition claim with respect to protein ("high in protein," or at least a "source of protein").

  18. Technological properties, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of pigmented chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiras-Palazuelos, Mar J; Ochoa-Lugo, Mirna I; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; López-Valenzuela, José A; Mora-Rochín, Saraid; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Garzón-Tiznado, José A; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc

    2013-02-01

    Chickpeas are rich sources of highly nutritious protein and dietary fibre; the health benefits of consuming legumes such as antioxidant activity (AoxA) could be effective for the expansion of their food uses. The technological properties and antioxidant potential of five pigmented chickpea cultivars were evaluated. Protein content of the grains varied from 24.9 to 27.4 g/100 g sample (dw). The cooking time (CT) of the whole grains ranged from 90.5 to 218.5 min; the lowest CT corresponded to Black ICC3761 cultivar. The total phenolic content (TPC) and AoxA [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value] varied from 1.23 to 1.51 mg GAE/g sample (dw) and from 5011 to 5756 μmol TE/100 g sample (dw), respectively; Red ICC13124 showed the highest ORAC value. The differences in technological properties and AoxA among cultivars could be used in chickpea breeding programmes. Chickpea cultivars could contribute significantly to the management and/or prevention of degenerative diseases associated with free radical damage.

  19. Ecological genetic divergence of the fungal pathogen Didymella rabiei on sympatric wild and domesticated Cicer spp. (Chickpea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Omer; Peever, Tobin L; Chilvers, Martin I; Ozkilinc, Hilal; Can, Canan; Abbo, Shahal; Shtienberg, Dani; Sherman, Amir

    2010-01-01

    For millennia, chickpea (Cicer arietinum) has been grown in the Levant sympatrically with wild Cicer species. Chickpea is traditionally spring-sown, while its wild relatives germinate in the autumn and develop in the winter. It has been hypothesized that the human-directed shift of domesticated chickpea to summer production was an attempt to escape the devastating Ascochyta disease caused by Didymella rabiei. We estimated genetic divergence between D. rabiei isolates sampled from wild Cicer judaicum and domesticated C. arietinum and the potential role of temperature adaptation in this divergence. Neutral genetic markers showed strong differentiation between pathogen samples from the two hosts. Isolates from domesticated chickpea demonstrated increased adaptation to higher temperatures when grown in vitro compared with isolates from the wild host. The distribution of temperature responses among progeny from crosses of isolates from C. judaicum with isolates from C. arietinum was continuous, suggesting polygenic control of this trait. In vivo inoculations of host plants indicated that pathogenic fitness of the native isolates was higher than that of their hybrid progeny. The results indicate that there is a potential for adaptation to higher temperatures; however, the chances for formation of hybrids which are capable of parasitizing both hosts over a broad temperature range are low. We hypothesize that this pathogenic fitness cost is due to breakdown of coadapted gene complexes controlling pathogenic fitness on each host and may be responsible for maintenance of genetic differentiation between the pathogen demes.

  20. Cicer L., a monograph of the genus, with special reference to the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), its ecology and cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    1972-01-01

    1. The history of the chickpea or gram, Cicer arietinum L., has been described from Homer's time and the earliest finds, 5450 B.C. in Hacilar, Turkey, up to the present day. The crop was first domesticated in Asia Minor and was introduced in India

  1. Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) for assessing genetic diversity and marker-trait associations in chickpea (Cicer arietinum l.) germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilization of crop diversity held in genebanks is dependent on knowledge of useful traits including those identified genotypically. Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and relationship among a sample of 263 chickpea landrace germplasm ...

  2. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  3. Vernalization response of domesticated× wild chickpea progeny is subject to strong genotype by environment interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernalization insensitivity is a key feature of domesticated chickpea and its genetic basis is not well understood. We studied vernalization response among hybrid progeny derived from two domesticated x wild crosses. The wild parents are vernalization sensitive, late flowering genotypes while both d...

  4. Improved Phytophthora resistance in commercial chickpea (Cicer arietinum) varieties negatively impacts symbiotic gene signalling and symbiotic potential in some varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plett, Jonathan M; Plett, Krista L; Bithell, Sean L; Mitchell, Chris; Moore, Kevin; Powell, Jeff R; Anderson, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Breeding disease-resistant varieties is one of the most effective and economical means to combat soilborne diseases in pulse crops. Commonalities between pathogenic and mutualistic microbe colonization strategies, however, raises the concern that reduced susceptibility to pathogens may simultaneously reduce colonization by beneficial microbes. We investigate here the degree of overlap in the transcriptional response of the Phytophthora medicaginis susceptible chickpea variety 'Sonali' to the early colonization stages of either Phytophthora, rhizobial bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. From a total of 6476 genes differentially expressed in Sonali roots during colonization by any of the microbes tested, 10.2% were regulated in a similar manner regardless of whether it was the pathogenic oomycete or a mutualistic microbe colonizing the roots. Of these genes, 49.7% were oppositely regulated under the same conditions in the moderately Phytophthora resistant chickpea variety 'PBA HatTrick'. Chickpea varieties with improved resistance to Phytophthora also displayed lower colonization by rhizobial bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi leading to an increased reliance on N and P from soil. Together, our results suggest that marker-based breeding in crops such as chickpea should be further investigated such that plant disease resistance can be tailored to a specific pathogen without affecting mutualistic plant:microbe interactions.

  5. Effect of canning on color, protein and phenolic profile of grains from kidney bean, field pea and chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Naincy; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Thakur, Sheetal

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of canning on color, protein and phenolic profile of grains of kidney bean, field pea and chickpea varieties/accession. Color of grains of different pulses was enhanced after canning. Grains L* (lightness) decreased while a* (redness to yellowness) and b* (greenness to blueness) increased after canning in all the pulses. Protein profiling of grains of different pulses after canning revealed that kidney bean and chickpea, respectively, had the least and the most thermally susceptible polypeptides. Kidney bean and chickpea showed higher Percentage washed drained weight (PWDW) than field pea. Pulse with more grain hardness and PWDW showed higher degree of grain splitting during canning. Grain splitting was also higher in dark colored accessions/varieties as compared to the light colored. Ferulic acid was the most predominant compound present in raw grains of different pulses. Raw kidney bean grains showed higher accumulation of catechin, chlorogenic, protocatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid than those of chickpea and field pea. Canning caused reduction in all the phenolic compounds except gallic acid and most prominent effect of canning on protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic and ferulic acid was observed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Quantitative and Microscopic Assessment of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions between Chickpea Cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Daniel; Landa, Blanca B.; Kang, Seogchan; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M.; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. Methodology We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Findings The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized ‘JG-62’ xylem vessels of root and stem but in ‘WR-315’, it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. Conclusions The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms. PMID:23613839

  7. Development of a phosphomannose isomerase-based Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Gunvant; Deokar, Amit; Jain, P K; Thengane, R J; Srinivasan, R

    2009-11-01

    To develop an alternative genetic transformation system that is not dependent on an antibiotic selection strategy, the phosphomannose isomerase gene (pmi) system was evaluated for producing transgenic plants of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). A shoot morphogenesis protocol based on the thidiazuron (TDZ)-induced shoot morphogenesis system was combined with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the pmi gene and selection of transgenic plants on mannose. Embryo axis explants of chickpea cv. C-235 were grown on a TDZ-supplemented medium for shoot proliferation. Embryo axis explants from which the first and second flush of shoots were removed were transformed using Agrobacterium carrying the pmi gene, and emerging shoots were allowed to regenerate on a zeatin-supplemented medium with an initial selection pressure of 20 g l(-1) mannose. Rooting was induced in the selected shoots on an indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-supplemented medium with a selection pressure of 15 g l(-1) mannose. PCR with marker gene-specific primers and chlorophenol red (CPR) assay of the shoots indicated that shoots had been transformed. RT-PCR and Southern analysis of selected regenerated plants further confirmed integration of the transgene into the chickpea genome. These positive results suggest that the pmi/mannose selection system can be used to produce transgenic plants of chickpea that are free from antibiotic resistance marker genes.

  8. Comprehensive transcriptome assembly of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. using sanger and next generation sequencing platforms: development and applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himabindu Kudapa

    Full Text Available A comprehensive transcriptome assembly of chickpea has been developed using 134.95 million Illumina single-end reads, 7.12 million single-end FLX/454 reads and 139,214 Sanger expressed sequence tags (ESTs from >17 genotypes. This hybrid transcriptome assembly, referred to as Cicer arietinumTranscriptome Assembly version 2 (CaTA v2, available at http://data.comparative-legumes.org/transcriptomes/cicar/lista_cicar-201201, comprising 46,369 transcript assembly contigs (TACs has an N50 length of 1,726 bp and a maximum contig size of 15,644 bp. Putative functions were determined for 32,869 (70.8% of the TACs and gene ontology assignments were determined for 21,471 (46.3%. The new transcriptome assembly was compared with the previously available chickpea transcriptome assemblies as well as to the chickpea genome. Comparative analysis of CaTA v2 against transcriptomes of three legumes - Medicago, soybean and common bean, resulted in 27,771 TACs common to all three legumes indicating strong conservation of genes across legumes. CaTA v2 was also used for identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs and intron spanning regions (ISRs for developing molecular markers. ISRs were identified by aligning TACs to the Medicago genome, and their putative mapping positions at chromosomal level were identified using transcript map of chickpea. Primer pairs were designed for 4,990 ISRs, each representing a single contig for which predicted positions are inferred and distributed across eight linkage groups. A subset of randomly selected ISRs representing all eight chickpea linkage groups were validated on five chickpea genotypes and showed 20% polymorphism with average polymorphic information content (PIC of 0.27. In summary, the hybrid transcriptome assembly developed and novel markers identified can be used for a variety of applications such as gene discovery, marker-trait association, diversity analysis etc., to advance genetics research and breeding

  9. Accumulation of heavy metals by chickpea grown in fly Ash treated soil: effect on antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra; Singh, Jay Shankar [Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (Central) University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (India); Kumar, Akhilesh; Tewari, D.D. [Department of Botany, Maharani Lal Kunwari Post Graduate College, Balrampur, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2010-12-15

    Chickpea grown in fly ash (FA) treated soil (25, 50, and 100% FA) was used to evaluate the effect of FA on antioxidants, metal concentration (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Cd), photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a (chl-a), chlorophyll b (chl-b), total chlorophyll (total chl), and carotenoids), growth and yield performance. All antioxidants in roots, shoots and leaves of chickpea increase with increasing FA doses to combat FA stress. The activities of antioxidants were more in the root tissues to cope with stress induced in the plants as compared to shoot and leaf. Concentration of metals was found maximum in roots than the shoots and seeds. The highest concentration of Fe and lowest level of Cd were recorded in all treatments of FA for different parts of the plant. The treated crop showed reduced level of chlorophyll but enhanced level of carotenoids and protein. However, root length, number of nodules and biomass in 25 and 50% FA treatments did not differ significantly in comparison to respective control plants. These results suggest that heavy metals of FA causes oxidative stress in this crop and the antioxidant enzymes could help a pivotal role against oxidative injury. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Response of vetch, lentil, chickpea and red pea to pre- or post-emergence applied herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Vasilakoglou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Broad-leaved weeds constitute a serious problem in the production of winter legumes, but few selective herbicides controlling these weeds have been registered in Europe. Four field experiments were conducted in 2009/10 and repeated in 2010/11 in Greece to study the response of common vetch (Vicia sativa L., lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and red pea (Lathyrus cicera L. to several rates of the herbicides pendimethalin, S-metolachlor, S-metolachlor plus terbuthylazine and flumioxazin applied pre-emergence, as well as imazamox applied post-emergence. Phytotoxicity, crop height, total weight and seed yield were evaluated during the experiments. The results of this study suggest that common vetch, lentil, chickpea and red pea differed in their responses to the herbicides tested. Pendimethalin at 1.30 kg ha-1, S-metolachlor at 0.96 kg ha-1 and flumioxazine at 0.11 kg ha-1 used as pre-emergence applied herbicides provided the least phytotoxicity to legumes. Pendimethalin at 1.98 kg ha-1 and both rates of S-metolachlor plus terbuthylazine provided the greatest common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. control. Imazamox at 0.03 to 0.04 kg ha-1 could also be used as early post-emergence applied herbicide in common vetch and red pea without any significant detrimental effect.

  11. Assessment the effects of different tillage methods on chickpea yield and some yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah KASAP

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of different soil tillage methods on crop yield and some yield components in chickpea cultivation. For this reason, experimental trials were performed in Çayköy and Güzelpınar in Tokat-Kazova during 2008, 2009 and 2010. In this trials Gökçe cultivar of chickpea was used. Six different soil tillage methods were applied which were, mouldboard plough tillage in fall + cultivator in the spring + tooth harrow (Method A, mouldboard plough tillage in spring + cultivator + tooth harrow (Method B, rotary tiller in the spring (Method C, chisel in the spring + disc harrow and slider (Method D, strip tillage with router rotary hoe (Method E and direct seeding (Method F. Trials were set up in completely randomized block design with three replications. The results indicated that the highest average plant and seed yield per square meter was obtained with method A (470.74 g and 260.63 g and followed by method B (459.43 g and 254.18 g and method D (447.82 g and 247.23 g. In terms of factors evaluated; A, B and D methods were superior compared to the other methods.

  12. Activity of the Recommended and Optimized Rates of Pyridate on Chickpea - Mesorhizobium mediterraneum Symbiosis

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    Mehdi PARSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop-rhizobium symbiosis can be influenced by leaching of herbicides which is unavoidable after their application. Due to an adjuvant which might help to develop the low-use-rate of herbicide, an experiment was carried out to compare the impact of the recommended rate (1200 g active ingredient ha-1 and the optimized rate (282.15 g active ingredient ha-1 of pyridate on the biological properties of eight chickpea cultivars inoculated with Mesorhizobium mediterraneum, grown in pots. Based on the required rate of herbicide to give 95% control of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. value, the efficacy of pyridate improved up to 3.87-fold by adding methylated rapeseed oil to spray solution. The ‘Desi’ cultivar had significantly higher nodulation than ‘Kabuli’ cultivar. In general, toxicity of the recommended rate was higher than the optimized rate. With the exception of root dry weight, all of the measured parameters were significantly affected by the recommended rate of pyridate in varying degrees. The symbiotic properties of chickpea cultivars were affected more than 10% at the recommended dose. The reduced nodulation ranged from 29% to 73% among cultivars exposed to pyridate at the recommended dose. The ‘Desi’ cultivar was more sensitive than the ‘Kabuli’ to the recommended rate of pyridate. We may conclude that effective low-use-rate of pyridate via applying of activator adjuvants should be noted.

  13. Characterisation of phosphate solubilising bacteria in sandy loam soil under chickpea cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Machiavelli; Tejo Prakash, N

    2012-06-01

    With the aim to explore the possible role of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) in phosphorus (P) cycling in agricultural soils, we isolated PSB inhabiting naturally in the sandy loam soils under chickpea cropping of Patiala (Punjab State). A total of 31 bacterial isolates showing solubilizing activities were isolated on Pikovskaya agar plates. The potent phosphate solubilizers were selected for further characterization. These isolates were shown to belong to the genera Pseudomonas and Serratia by partial sequencing analysis of their respective 16S rDNA genes. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting was done for tracking the survival of introduced populations of the PSB during mass inoculation of these strains under chickpea plots. The results showed positive correlation (r(2) = 0.853) among soil phosphatase activity and phosphate solubilizers population, which was also positively correlated (r(2) = 0.730) to available phosphorus. Identification and characterization of soil PSB for the effective plant growth-promotion broadens the spectrum of phosphate solubilizers available for field application.

  14. Genotypic alteration and competitive nodulation of Mesorhizobium muleiense against exotic chickpea rhizobia in alkaline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun Jie; Yu, Tao; Lou, Kai; Mao, Pei Hong; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Feng; Chen, Wen Xin

    2014-10-01

    Mesorhizobium muleiense, Mesorhizobium mediterraneum and Mesorhizobium ciceri are chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) rhizobia that share a high similarity of the symbiotic genes nodC and nifH, but they have different geographic distributions. M. muleiense has been isolated and found only in alkaline soils of Xinjiang, China, whereas the other two strains have been found in the Mediterranean and India. To investigate the species stability of M. muleiense during natural evolution and its capability of competitive nodulation against the other two exotic species, re-sampling of nodules in the field and competition experiments between the three species were conducted. The results showed that the predominant microsymbiont associated with chickpea grown in Xinjiang was still M. muleiense, but the predominant genotypes of M. muleiense had changed significantly during the four years since a previous survey. The data also showed that M. mediterraneum and M. ciceri were more competitive than the residential strain of M. muleiense CCBAU 83963(T) in sterilized vermiculite or soils from Xinjiang. However, in non-sterilized soils, M. muleiense was the predominant nodule occupier. These results indicated that natural or adapting evolution of M. muleiense was occurring in fields subjected to changing environmental factors. In addition, the biogeography and symbiotic associations of rhizobia with their host legumes were also influenced by biological factors in the soil, such as indigenous rhizobia and other organisms.

  15. The estrogenic activity of isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L sprouts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HaiRong, Ma; HuaBo, Wei; Zhen, Chen; Yi, Yang; ZhengHua, Wang; Madina, Habasi; Xu, Cao; Akber, Aisa Haji

    2013-08-01

    Isoflavones have drawn attention due to their potential therapeutic use. Isoflavones are the important chemical components of the seeds and sprouts of chickpea and higher isoflavones in sprouts than in seeds. However, there have been no previous reports of the estrogenic activity of isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L sprouts (ICS) in vitro. In this study, which incorporated several in vitro bioassays methods, we systematically evaluated the estrogenic properties of ICS. MTT assay showed that ICS at the low concentration ranges (10(-3)-1 mg/L) promoted MCF-7 cell growth, while at high concentrations, (>1 mg/L) inhibited cell proliferation, indicating ICS worked at a diphasic mechanism. Flow cytometric analysis further calculated the proliferation rate of ICS at low concentration (1 mg/L). ERα/Luc trans-activation assay and then semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that ICS at low concentrations induced ERα-mediated luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells and promoted the ER downstream target gene pS2 and PR trans-activation. These effects were inhibited by ICI 182,780, a special antagonist of ER, indicating that an ER-mediating pathway was involved. Alkaline phosphatase (AP) expression in Ishikawa cells showed that ICS at low concentrations stimulated AP expression. Our current study is the first to demonstrate that ICS has significant estrogenic activity in vitro. ICS may be useful as a supplement to hormone replacement therapy and in dietary supplements.

  16. Starch, functional properties, and microstructural characteristics in chickpea and lentil as affected by thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Esteban, Rosa M; Benítez, Vanesa; Mollá, Esperanza; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2009-11-25

    Changes in starch, functional, and microstructural characteristics that occurred in chickpea and lentil under soaking, cooking, and industrial dehydration processing were evaluated. Available starch in raw legumes represented 57-64%, and resistant starch (RS) is a significant component. As a result of cooking, available starch contents of soaked chickpea and lentil were significantly increased (21 and 12%, respectively) and RS decreased (65 and 49%, respectively) compared to raw flours. A similar trend was exhibited by dehydration, being more relevant in lentil (73% of RS decrease). The minimum nitrogen solubility of raw flours was at pH 3, and a high degree of protein insolubilization (80%) was observed in dehydrated flours. The raw legume flours exhibited low oil-holding capacities, 0.95-1.10 mL/g, and did not show any change by thermal processing, whereas water-holding capacities rose to 4.80-4.90 mL/g of sample. Emulsifying activity and foam capacity exhibited reductions as a result of cooking and industrial dehydration processing. The microstructural observations were consistent with the chemical results. Thus, the obtained cooked and dehydrated legume flours could be considered as functional ingredients for food formulation.

  17. A Fibrinolytic Enzyme Produced by Bacillus subtilis Using Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. as Substrate

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    Ping Xiao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Fibrinolytic Enzyme (BSFE was isolated from fermented chickpeas using Bacillus subtilis. BSFE was purified with ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The fibrin (ogen olytic activity of BSFE was investigated by means of fibrinolysis plate and hydrolysis of fibrinogen. Through these steps, the purity of the enzyme increased with 74.60-fold with 6.88% recovery activity. The molecular weight of the BSFE was estimated to be 30 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH, optimum temperature, pH stability and thermal stability of BSFE were measured, respectively as 8.0, 55°C, 6.0-8.0 and less than 45°C. The activity was inhibited by serine protease inhibitor PMSF as well as metalloprotease inhibitor EDTA, indicating that the BSFE is a serine metalloprotease. In fibrin plate assay, BSFE showed more stronger fibrinolytic activity than that of nattokinase and it specifically hydrolyzed Aα and Bβ chains followed by γ chain of fibrinogen. Therefore, this study provided a method and it for the preparation of multifunctional food of chickpeas which has strong fibrinolytic activity.

  18. Phosphoproteomic dynamics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) reveals shared and distinct components of dehydration response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subba, Pratigya; Barua, Pragya; Kumar, Rajiv; Datta, Asis; Soni, Kamlesh Kumar; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2013-11-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a ubiquitous regulatory mechanism that plays critical roles in transducing stress signals to bring about coordinated intracellular responses. To gain better understanding of dehydration response in plants, we have developed a differential phosphoproteome in a food legume, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Three-week-old chickpea seedlings were subjected to progressive dehydration by withdrawing water, and the changes in the phosphorylation status of a large repertoire of proteins were monitored. The proteins were resolved by 2-DE and stained with phosphospecific fluorescent Pro-Q Diamond dye. Mass spectrometric analysis led to the identification of 91 putative phosphoproteins, presumably involved in a variety of functions including cell defense and rescue, photosynthesis and photorespiration, molecular chaperones, and ion transport, among others. Multiple sites of phosphorylation were predicted on several key elements, which include both the regulatory as well as the functional proteins. A critical survey of the phosphorylome revealed a DREPP (developmentally regulated plasma membrane protein) plasma membrane polypeptide family protein, henceforth designated CaDREPP1. The transcripts of CaDREPP1 were found to be differentially regulated under dehydration stress, further corroborating the proteomic results. This work provides new insights into the possible phosphorylation events triggered by the conditions of progressive water-deficit in plants.

  19. Thermoluminescence studies of calcite extracted from natural sand used in making roasted chickpea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toktamiş, Hüseyin, E-mail: toktamis@gantep.edu.tr; Toktamiş, Dilek; Necmeddin Yazici, A.

    2014-09-15

    In this study, thermoluminescence (TL) properties of the calcite extracted from natural sand which is used in making roasted chickpeas were investigated. And also the effects of different thermal treatments on thermoluminescence glow curve were observed. Two distinct TL peaks were observed at ∼130 °C and ∼230 °C. The annealing of sample, especially at 900 °C, causes a huge enhancement in sensitization of TL. Linearity in dose response is observed for the values up to 0.6 kGy and above 0.6 kGy linearity is not preserved and dose response becomes sublinear. The best reproducibility is obtained when the samples are annealed between 400°C and 600 °C. - Highlights: • The natural sand sample used in making roasted chickpea shows thermoluminescence properties. • Annealing at 900 °C for about 15 min gives best TL output. • A good sensitization of about 70 factor was observed in annealed samples when they were compared with no annealed samples. • At doses lower than 0.6 kGy, dose response is linear and sublinear at doses higher than 0.6 kGy. • The best reproducibility is obtained when the samples are annealed between 400 °C and 600 °C.

  20. Natural Allelic Diversity, Genetic Structure and Linkage Disequilibrium Pattern in Wild Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujur, Alice; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Mohar; Bansal, Kailash C.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of natural allelic diversity and understanding the genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) pattern in wild germplasm accessions by large-scale genotyping of informative microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers is requisite to facilitate chickpea genetic improvement. Large-scale validation and high-throughput genotyping of genome-wide physically mapped 478 genic and genomic microsatellite markers and 380 transcription factor gene-derived SNP markers using gel-based assay, fluorescent dye-labelled automated fragment analyser and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass array have been performed. Outcome revealed their high genotyping success rate (97.5%) and existence of a high level of natural allelic diversity among 94 wild and cultivated Cicer accessions. High intra- and inter-specific polymorphic potential and wider molecular diversity (11–94%) along with a broader genetic base (13–78%) specifically in the functional genic regions of wild accessions was assayed by mapped markers. It suggested their utility in monitoring introgression and transferring target trait-specific genomic (gene) regions from wild to cultivated gene pool for the genetic enhancement. Distinct species/gene pool-wise differentiation, admixed domestication pattern, and differential genome-wide recombination and LD estimates/decay observed in a six structured population of wild and cultivated accessions using mapped markers further signifies their usefulness in chickpea genetics, genomics and breeding. PMID:25222488

  1. GENETIC VARIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF FUSARIUM WILT PATHOGEN RACES AFFECTING CHICKPEA USING MOLECULAR MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhuma Datta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in Chickpea wilt pathogen has been characterized using 14 isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (foc collected from major pulse growing regions of India. Out of 247 bands produced by 24 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD primers in Foc isolates, 210 (85% were polymorphic. A maximum of 14 amplicons were generated by primer OPF 05 whereas minimum 7 amplicons were generated by primer K7. A total of 24 alleles were produced by twelve simple sequence repeat (SSR primers with an average of two alleles per marker in foc isolates. The maximum number of 4 alleles was obtained with primer SSR 12. SSR amplicon size ranged from 100 to 400 bp. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA cluster analysis based on RAPD and SSR profiles grouped the fourteen foc isolates into four major clusters. The universal Inter Transcribed Spacer (ITS primer pair amplified 630 bp bands in all fourteen foc isolates while significant length polymorphism was obtained only when analysed by restriction digestion with EcoRI and MspI enzymes. The cluster analysis of ITS-RFLP grouped all 14 Foc isolates into three major clusters. The cluster analysis using RAPD, SSR and ITS-RFLP markers show the grouping of Fusarium isolates strictly according to their cultural characteristics and degree of pathogenicity and not the geographical origin. This information will be helpful for pathologists and plant breeders to design effective resistance breeding programs in chickpea taking into account the diversity in wilt pathogen.

  2. βIII-Gal is involved in galactan reduction during phloem element differentiation in chickpea stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Ignacio; Hernández-Nistal, Josefina; Albornos, Lucía; Labrador, Emilia; Dopico, Berta

    2013-06-01

    βIII-Gal, a member of the chickpea β-galactosidase family, is the enzyme responsible for the cell wall autolytic process. This enzyme, whose activity increases during epicotyl growth, displays significant hydrolytic activity against cell wall pectins, and its natural substrate has been determined as an arabinogalactan from the pectic fraction of the cell wall. In the present work, the localization of βIII-Gal in different seedling and plant organs was analyzed by using specific anti-βIII-Gal antibodies. Our results revealed that besides its possible role in cell wall loosening and in early events during primary xylem and phloem fiber differentiation βIII-Gal acts on the development of sieve elements. Localization of the enzyme in this tissue, both in epicotyls and radicles from seedlings and in the different stem internodes, is consistent with the reduction in galactan during the maturation of phloem elements, as can be observed with LM5 antibodies. Thus, βIII-Gal could act on its natural substrate, the neutral side chains of rhamnogalacturonan I, contributing to cell wall reinforcement allowing phloem elements to differentiate, and conferring the necessary strengthening of the cell wall to fulfill its function. This work completes the immunolocation studies of all known chickpea β-galactosidases. Taken together, our results reflect the broad range of developmental processes covered by different members of this protein family, and confirm their crucial role in cell wall remodeling during tissue differentiation.

  3. Impact of five insecticides on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. nodulation, yield and nitrogen fixing rhizospheric bacteria

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    H. Khan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of five insecticides i.e. Lorsban (40% EC, Decis (25% EC, Pyrifos (40% EC, Karate (25% EC, and Ripcord (10% EC on the survival of rhizosphere N2-fixing microorganisms, nodulation, pod damage (by pod borer, and grain yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. crop. The study revealed that Pyrifos suppressed nodulation in chickpea and specific rhizobial counts in the crop rhizosphere, indicating that this insecticide was harmful to rhizobial population in rhizosphere. All the other tested insecticides were safe as they did not affect nodulation of the crop and the specific rhizobial counts in the rhizosphere. The results also revealed that all the tested insecticides except Lorsban (40% EC suppressed Azotobacter population in the rhizospheric soil indicating that Lorsban was harmless to Azotobacter while all other tested insecticides were harmful to the survival of this important nitrogen fixing bacterium. Pyrifos proved to be the most effective insecticide in controlling the pod borer damage and also in increasing the grain yield significantly as compared to other tested insecticides.

  4. Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs between drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes of chickpea under terminal drought stress

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    Raju N L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important grain-legume crop that is mainly grown in rainfed areas, where terminal drought is a major constraint to its productivity. We generated expressed sequence tags (ESTs by suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH to identify differentially expressed genes in drought-tolerant and -susceptible genotypes in chickpea. Results EST libraries were generated by SSH from root and shoot tissues of IC4958 (drought tolerant and ICC 1882 (drought resistant exposed to terminal drought conditions by the dry down method. SSH libraries were also constructed by using 2 sets of bulks prepared from the RNA of root tissues from selected recombinant inbred lines (RILs (10 each for the extreme high and low root biomass phenotype. A total of 3062 unigenes (638 contigs and 2424 singletons, 51.4% of which were novel in chickpea, were derived by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 5949 ESTs. Only 2185 (71% unigenes showed significant BLASTX similarity ( Conclusion Our study compares not only genes that are up- and down-regulated in a drought-tolerant genotype under terminal drought stress and a drought susceptible genotype but also between the bulks of the selected RILs exhibiting extreme phenotypes. More than 50% of the genes identified have been shown to be associated with drought stress in chickpea for the first time. This study not only serves as resource for marker discovery, but can provide a better insight into the selection of candidate genes (both up- and downregulated associated with drought tolerance. These results can be used to identify suitable targets for manipulating the drought-tolerance trait in chickpea.

  5. The Detection and Characterization of QoI-Resistant Didymella rabiei Causing Ascochyta Blight of Chickpea in Montana

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    Ayodeji S. Owati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ascochyta blight (AB of pulse crops (chickpea, field pea, and lentils causes yield loss in Montana, where 1.2 million acres was planted to pulses in 2016. Pyraclostrobin and azoxystrobin, quinone outside inhibitor (QoI fungicides, have been the choice of farmers for the management of AB in pulses. However, a G143A mutation in the cytochrome b gene has been reported to confer resistance to QoI fungicides. A total of 990 isolates of AB-causing fungi were isolated and screened for QoI resistance. Out of these, 10% were isolated from chickpea, 81% were isolated from field peas, and 9% isolated from lentil. These were from a survey of grower’s fields and seed lots (chickpea = 17, field pea = 131, and lentil = 21 from 23 counties in Montana sent to the Regional Pulse Crop Diagnostic Laboratory, Bozeman, MT, United States for testing. Fungicide-resistant Didymella rabiei isolates were found in one chickpea seed lot each sent from Daniels, McCone and Valley Counties, MT, from seed produced in 2015 and 2016. Multiple alignment analysis of amino acid sequences showed a missense mutation that replaced the codon for amino acid 143 from GGT to GCT, introducing an amino acid change from glycine to alanine (G143A, which is reported to be associated with QoI resistance. Under greenhouse conditions, disease severity was significantly higher on pyraclostrobin-treated chickpea plants inoculated with QoI-resistant isolates of D. rabiei than sensitive isolates (p-value = 0.001. This indicates that where resistant isolates are located, fungicide failures may be observed in the field. D. rabiei-specific polymerase chain reaction primer sets and hydrolysis probes were developed to efficiently discriminate QoI- sensitive and - resistant isolates.

  6. In planta and soil quantification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and evaluation of Fusarium wilt resistance in chickpea with a newly developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Fernández, Daniel; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Landa, Blanca B

    2011-02-01

    Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris can be managed by risk assessment and use of resistant cultivars. A reliable method for the detection and quantification of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in soil and chickpea tissues would contribute much to implementation of those disease management strategies. In this study, we developed a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) protocol that allows quantifying F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris DNA down to 1 pg in soil, as well as in the plant root and stem. Use of the q-PCR protocol allowed quantifying as low as 45 colony forming units of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris per gram of dry soil from a field plot infested with several races of the pathogen. Moreover, the q-PCR protocol clearly differentiated susceptible from resistant chickpea reactions to the pathogen at 15 days after sowing in artificially infested soil, as well as the degree of virulence between two F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. Also, the protocol detected early asymptomatic root infections and distinguished significant differences in the level of resistance of 12 chickpea cultivars that grew in that same field plot infested with several races of the pathogen. Use of this protocol for fast, reliable, and cost-effective quantification of F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris in asymptomatic chickpea tissues at early stages of the infection process can be of great value for chickpea breeders and for epidemiological studies in growth chambers, greenhouses and field-scale plots.

  7. Solid-state bioconversion of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) by Rhizopus oligosporus to improve total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Magaña, Luis Martin; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith Oliva; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Ayala-Rodríguez, Ana Edith; Valdez-Ortiz, Angel; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of time during solid state bioconversion (SSB) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (AoxA), and inhibitory properties against α-amylase and α-glucosidase of chickpea. Chickpea cotyledons were inoculated with a suspension of Rhizopus oligosporus and incubated at 35 °C for 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96 and 108 h. The best time to produce bioprocessed chickpea (added with seed coats) flour with the highest AoxA was 108 h. SSB substantially increased TPC and AoxA of chickpea extracts in 2.78 and 1.80-1.94 times, respectively. At 36 and 96 h of fermentation, the SSB process improved in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition (AI and GI indexes) activities of chickpea extracts in 83 and 370%, respectively. SSB is a good strategy to enhance health-linked functionality of chickpea, due to improved TPC, AoxA and content of strong natural inhibitors of enzymes associated with diabetes.

  8. Nuclear phosphoproteome of developing chickpea seedlings (Cicer arietinum L.) and protein-kinase interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Kumar, Amit; Subba, Pratigya; Gayali, Saurabh; Barua, Pragya; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2014-06-13

    Nucleus, the control centre of eukaryotic cell, houses most of the genetic machineries required for gene expression and their regulation. Post translational modifications of proteins, particularly phosphorylation control a wide variety of cellular processes but its functional connectivity, in plants, is still elusive. This study profiled the nuclear phosphoproteome of a grain legume, chickpea, to gain better understanding of such event. Intact nuclei were isolated from 3-week-old seedlings using two independent methods, and nuclear proteins were resolved by 2-DE. In a separate set of experiments, phosphoproteins were enriched using IMAC method and resolved by 1-DE. The separated proteins were stained with phosphospecific Pro-Q Diamond stain. Proteomic analyses led to the identification of 107 putative phosphoproteins, of which 86 were non-redundant. Multiple sites of phosphorylation were predicted on several key elements, which included both regulatory and functional proteins. The analysis revealed an array of phosphoproteins, presumably involved in a variety of cellular functions, viz., protein folding (24%), signalling and gene regulation (22%), DNA replication, repair and modification (16%), and metabolism (13%), among others. These results represent the first nucleus-specific phosphoproteome map of a non-model legume, which would provide insights into the possible function of protein phosphorylation in plants. Chickpea is grown over 10 million hectares of land worldwide, and global production hovers around 8.5 million metric tons annually. Despite its nutritional merits, it is often referred to as 'orphan' legume and has remained outside the realm of large-scale functional genomics studies. While current chickpea genome initiative has primarily focused on sequence information and functional annotation, proteomics analyses are limited. It is thus important to study the proteome of the cell organelle particularly the nucleus, which harbors most of the genetic

  9. Development and use of genic molecular markers (GMMs) for construction of a transcript map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujaria, Neha; Kumar, Ashish; Dauthal, Preeti; Dubey, Anuja; Hiremath, Pavana; Bhanu Prakash, A; Farmer, Andrew; Bhide, Mangla; Shah, Trushar; Gaur, Pooran M; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Cook, Douglas R; May, Greg D; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2011-05-01

    A transcript map has been constructed by the development and integration of genic molecular markers (GMMs) including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), genic microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR) and intron spanning region (ISR)-based markers, on an inter-specific mapping population of chickpea, the third food legume crop of the world and the first food legume crop of India. For SNP discovery through allele re-sequencing, primer pairs were designed for 688 genes/expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of chickpea and 657 genes/ESTs of closely related species of chickpea. High-quality sequence data obtained for 220 candidate genic regions on 2-20 genotypes representing 9 Cicer species provided 1,893 SNPs with an average frequency of 1/35.83 bp and 0.34 PIC (polymorphism information content) value. On an average 2.9 haplotypes were present in 220 candidate genic regions with an average haplotype diversity of 0.6326. SNP2CAPS analysis of 220 sequence alignments, as mentioned above, provided a total of 192 CAPS candidates. Experimental analysis of these 192 CAPS candidates together with 87 CAPS candidates identified earlier through in silico mining of ESTs provided scorable amplification in 173 (62.01%) cases of which predicted assays were validated in 143 (82.66%) cases (CGMM). Alignments of chickpea unigenes with Medicago truncatula genome were used to develop 121 intron spanning region (CISR) markers of which 87 yielded scorable products. In addition, optimization of 77 EST-derived SSR (ICCeM) markers provided 51 scorable markers. Screening of easily assayable 281 markers including 143 CGMMs, 87 CISRs and 51 ICCeMs on 5 parental genotypes of three mapping populations identified 104 polymorphic markers including 90 markers on the inter-specific mapping population. Sixty-two of these GMMs together with 218 earlier published markers (including 64 GMM loci) and 20 other unpublished markers could be integrated into this genetic map. A genetic map developed here

  10. Identification and Characterization of Wilt and Salt Stress-Responsive MicroRNAs in Chickpea through High-Throughput Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deokar, Amit Atmaram; Bhardwaj, Ankur R.; Agarwal, Manu; Katiyar-Agarwal, Surekha; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Jain, Pradeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is the second most widely grown legume worldwide and is the most important pulse crop in the Indian subcontinent. Chickpea productivity is adversely affected by a large number of biotic and abiotic stresses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in the regulation of plant responses to several biotic and abiotic stresses. This study is the first attempt to identify chickpea miRNAs that are associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. The wilt infection that is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris is one of the major diseases severely affecting chickpea yields. Of late, increasing soil salinization has become a major problem in realizing these potential yields. Three chickpea libraries using fungal-infected, salt-treated and untreated seedlings were constructed and sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology. A total of 12,135,571 unique reads were obtained. In addition to 122 conserved miRNAs belonging to 25 different families, 59 novel miRNAs along with their star sequences were identified. Four legume-specific miRNAs, including miR5213, miR5232, miR2111 and miR2118, were found in all of the libraries. Poly(A)-based qRT-PCR (Quantitative real-time PCR) was used to validate eleven conserved and five novel miRNAs. miR530 was highly up regulated in response to fungal infection, which targets genes encoding zinc knuckle- and microtubule-associated proteins. Many miRNAs responded in a similar fashion under both biotic and abiotic stresses, indicating the existence of cross talk between the pathways that are involved in regulating these stresses. The potential target genes for the conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted based on sequence homologies. miR166 targets a HD-ZIPIII transcription factor and was validated by 5′ RLM-RACE. This study has identified several conserved and novel miRNAs in the chickpea that are associated with gene regulation following exposure to wilt and salt stress. PMID:25295754

  11. EDTA enhanced phytoremediation of copper contaminated soils using chickpea (Cicer aeritinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Murty S; Vu, Van Tu

    2013-09-01

    The goal of this research was to determine whether or not chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), commonly known as Garbanzo beans, is a hyper accumulator for copper (Cu) in contaminated soils amended with EDTA. Statistical analysis (2 tailed Pearson Correlation) revealed significant correlations between: Translocation index and stem biomass (r = 0.859**; p < 0.01); Tolerance index and stem biomass (r = 0.762**; p < 0.01); and bioconcentration factor of stem/soil and soil Cu concentration (r = -0.545*; p < 0.05). Therefore, C. arietinum seems to be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly hyperaccumulator for Cu at 100 ppm Cu and 10 mM EDTA.

  12. Exploring Western Ghats microbial diversity for antagonistic microorganisms against fungal phytopathogens of pepper and chickpea

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    B.N. RAMKUMAR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Newly isolated microbial cultures from Western Ghat soil samples of Kerala region in India were screened for antagonistic activity by well diffusion and dual culture plating against Phytophthora capsici and Rhizoctonia solani, infecting pepper and chickpea, respectively. Bioactive samples were made by varying solvent extraction of the culture broths of the potent isolates belongs to Actinomycetes, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Trichoderma. The efficacy of the isolates to produce other potent antifungal metabolites such as cell wall degrading enzymes, HCN and volatile compounds were also checked. Treatment with antagonistic isolates in vivo under greenhouse conditions revealed significant reduction of the disease intensity of foot rot disease of black pepper and collar rot of chick pea.

  13. Purification and characterization of α-galactosidase from white chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neelesh; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2012-03-28

    Glycosylated α-galactosidase (melibiase) has been purified from white chickpea ( Cicer arietinum ) to 340-fold with a specific activity of 61 units/mg. Cicer α-galactosidase showed a M(r) of 45 kDa on SDS-PAGE and by MALDI-TOF. The optimum pH and temperature with pNPGal were 4.5 and 50 °C, respectively. The K(m) for hydrolysis of pNPGal was 0.70 mM. Besides hydrolyzing the pNPGal, Cicer α-galactosidase also hydrolyzed natural substrates such as melibiose, raffinose, and stachyose very effectively; hence, it can be exploited commercially for improving the nutritional value of soy milk. Galactose was found to be a competitive inhibitor. The property of this enzyme to cleave the terminal galactose residues can be utilized for converting the group B erythrocytes to group O erythrocytes.

  14. Traditional Turkish Fermented Cereal Based Products: Tarhana, Boza and Chickpea Bread

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    Hasan Tangüler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fermented products are one of the important foodstuffs in many countries of the world. People have gradually recognized the nutritional, functional and therapeutic value of these products and this has made them even more popular. Today, almost all consumers have a significant portion of their nutritional requirements fulfilled through these products. Scientific and technological knowledge is quite well developed for some fermented products such as wine, beer, cheese, and bread. These products are produced universally. However, scientific knowledge for some traditional foods produced locally in Turkey is still poor and not thorough. Numerous traditional, cereal-based fermented foods are produced in Turkey. The aim of this paper is to provide knowledge regarding the characterization, raw materials used for production, production methods, fermentation conditions and microorganisms which are effective in the fermentation of traditional foods. The study will focus on Boza, Tarhana, and Chickpea bread which are foods widely produced in Turkey.

  15. Changes in the inorganic status and enzyme activities in senescent leaves of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.

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    Chandrashekkhar V. Murumkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the level of some inorganic constituents and the activities of some important enzyme systems in senescent leaves of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. have been studied. In senescent leaves, a marked decline in the potassium and phosphorus contents was evident which was accompanied by the accumulation of calcium, silicon, chloride and manganese. Leaf senescence was accompanied by a great increase in hydrolytic processes, as revealed by the increase in the activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, ATPase, inorganic pyrophosphatase and 3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase. The activities of nitrogen metabolism enzymes, namely nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase and alanine aminotransferase, and of photorespiratory enzymes -- phosphoglycolate phosphatase, glycolate oxidase and catalase, were lower in senescent leaves. Leaf senescence was further associated with an increase in the activities of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase, a considerable depression in pyruvate kinase activity, and a slight elevation in aldolase activity.

  16. Rhizobium pusense sp. nov., isolated from the rhizosphere of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Digvijay; Schumann, Peter; Das, Subrata K

    2011-11-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated NRCPB10(T), was isolated from rhizosphere soil of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Pusa, New Delhi, India. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain NRCPB10(T) showed highest similarity (98.9 %) to that of Rhizobium radiobacter NCPPB 2437(T), followed by Rhizobium larrymoorei AF3-10(T) (97.7 %) and Rhizobium rubi IFO 13261(T) (97.4 %). Phylogenetic analysis of strain NRCPB10(T) based on the housekeeping genes recA and atpD confirmed its position as distinct from recognized Rhizobium species. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain NRCPB10(T) and R. radiobacter ICMP 5785(T), R. larrymoorei LMG 21410(T) and R. rubi ICMP 6428(T) were 51.0, 32.6 and 27.3 %, respectively. Cellular fatty acids of strain NRCPB10(T) were C(18 : 1)ω7c (58.9 %), C(16 : 0) (15.5 %), C(19 : 0) cyclo ω8c (11.5 %), iso-C(16 : 1) (5.8 %), C(16 : 0) 3-OH (4.5 %), C(16 : 1)ω7c (2.1 %) and C(18 : 0) (1.3 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain NRCPB10(T) was 59.0 mol%. Strain NRCPB10(T) did not nodulate chickpea plants or induce tumours in tobacco plants. Phenotypic and physiological properties along with SDS-PAGE of whole-cell soluble proteins differentiated strain NRCPB10(T) from its closest phylogenetic neighbours. On the basis of data from the present polyphasic taxonomic study, strain NRCPB10(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium pusense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NRCPB10(T) ( = LMG 25623(T) = JCM 16209(T) = NCIMB 14639(T)).

  17. Characterization of red-near infrared transition for wheat and chickpea using 3 nm bandwidth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.

    2001-01-01

    Enhancement of space based capabilities to discriminate different crops and different varieties of a particular crop needs measurement of (i) the shift in red edge and (ii) the slope of the sudden rise of reflectance in 680 - 760 nm spectral region as a function of Days After Sowing (DAS). To develop the knowledge base for catering to the analysis of future space-based hyperspectral measurements, ground based measurements in 3 nm bandwidth in visible - near Infrared region together with corresponding Leaf Area Index (LAI) observations were taken over the Crop Growth Cycle (CGC) of Wheat and Chickpea. The red edge for wheat crop was at 679 nm for 25 DAS and reached the upper limit i.e., 693.7 nm at 84 DAS and thereafter shifted backward to 679 nm at 108 DAS. There was no change in red edge value of 684.9 nm during 40 to 49 DAS and of 687.8 nm during 55 to 71 DAS. The slope of Red to NIR transition for wheat varied from 0.457 to peak value of 0.784 during 25 to 71 DAS and thereafter decreased to 0.073 at 108 DAS. The peak of Red to Near Infrared (NIR) transition slope and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) occurred at the same time i.e., 71 DAS. However, the upper most value of red edge shift occurred at 84 DAS. Paper discusses the above aspects including role of mid point of Red to NIR transition, interrelationships among the Red-NIR transition Slope, Red Edge, LAI and RVI for wheat and chickpea.

  18. Endophytic Bacteria Improve Plant Growth, Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and Induce Suppression of Root Rot Caused by Fusarium solani under Salt Stress

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    Dilfuza Egamberdieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity causes disturbance in symbiotic performance of plants, and increases susceptibility of plants to soil-borne pathogens. Endophytic bacteria are an essential determinant of cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The aim of this study was to isolate non–rhizobial endophytic bacteria from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., and to assess their ability to improve plant growth and symbiotic performance, and to control root rot in chickpea under saline soil conditions. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from internal root tissues of chickpea grown in salinated soil were isolated. Four bacterial isolates, namely Bacillus cereus NUU1, Achromobacter xylosoxidans NUU2, Bacillus thuringiensis NUU3, and Bacillus subtilis NUU4 colonizing root tissue demonstrated plant beneficial traits and/or antagonistic activity against F. solani and thus were characterized in more detail. The strain B. subtilis NUU4 proved significant plant growth promotion capabilities, improved symbiotic performance of host plant with rhizobia, and promoted yield under saline soil as compared to untreated control plants under field conditions. A combined inoculation of chickpea with M. ciceri IC53 and B. subtilis NUU4 decreased H2O2 concentrations and increased proline contents compared to the un-inoculated plants indicating an alleviation of adverse effects of salt stress. Furthermore, the bacterial isolate was capable to reduce the infection rate of root rot in chickpea caused by F. solani. This is the first report of F. solani causing root rot of chickpea in a salinated soil of Uzbekistan. Our findings demonstrated that the endophytic B. subtilis strain NUU4 provides high potentials as a stimulator for plant growth and as biological control agent of chickpea root rot under saline soil conditions. These multiple relationships could provide promising practical approaches to increase the productivity of legumes under salt stress.

  19. Whole genome re-sequencing reveals genome-wide variations among parental lines of 16 mapping populations in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thudi, Mahendar; Khan, Aamir W; Kumar, Vinay; Gaur, Pooran M; Katta, Krishnamohan; Garg, Vanika; Roorkiwal, Manish; Samineni, Srinivasan; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-01-27

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important grain legume cultivated by resource poor farmers in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. In order to harness the untapped genetic potential available for chickpea improvement, we re-sequenced 35 chickpea genotypes representing parental lines of 16 mapping populations segregating for abiotic (drought, heat, salinity), biotic stresses (Fusarium wilt, Ascochyta blight, Botrytis grey mould, Helicoverpa armigera) and nutritionally important (protein content) traits using whole genome re-sequencing approach. A total of 192.19 Gb data, generated on 35 genotypes of chickpea, comprising 973.13 million reads, with an average sequencing depth of ~10 X for each line. On an average 92.18 % reads from each genotype were aligned to the chickpea reference genome with 82.17 % coverage. A total of 2,058,566 unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 292,588 Indels were detected while comparing with the reference chickpea genome. Highest number of SNPs were identified on the Ca4 pseudomolecule. In addition, copy number variations (CNVs) such as gene deletions and duplications were identified across the chickpea parental genotypes, which were minimum in PI 489777 (1 gene deletion) and maximum in JG 74 (1,497). A total of 164,856 line specific variations (144,888 SNPs and 19,968 Indels) with the highest percentage were identified in coding regions in ICC 1496 (21 %) followed by ICCV 97105 (12 %). Of 539 miscellaneous variations, 339, 138 and 62 were inter-chromosomal variations (CTX), intra-chromosomal variations (ITX) and inversions (INV) respectively. Genome-wide SNPs, Indels, CNVs, PAVs, and miscellaneous variations identified in different mapping populations are a valuable resource in genetic research and helpful in locating genes/genomic segments responsible for economically important traits. Further, the genome-wide variations identified in the present study can be used for developing high density SNP arrays for

  20. Purification and characterization of a 29 kDa poly(A)-binding protein from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) epicotyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriyath, V; Balasubrahmanyam, A; Kapoor, H C

    2001-08-01

    A poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) with mol wt 29,000 has been purified from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) epicotyl by ammonium sulfate fractionation and Cibacron blue F3-GA chromatography, making a complex with poly(A) and elution of PABP-poly(A) complex at 45 degrees C from oligo d(T)-cellulose. The elution pattern and binding properties show that the purified protein is different from the PABP (mol. wt 72,000) reported earlier from our laboratory.

  1. Variability in the distribution of phenolic compounds in milled fractions of chickpea and horse gram: evaluation of their antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreerama, Yadahally N; Sashikala, Vadakkoot B; Pratape, Vishwas M

    2010-07-28

    Seed coat, cotyledon and embryonic axe fractions of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum L.) were evaluated for their phenolic composition in relation to antioxidant activities. Compositional analysis of phenolics by HPLC revealed a wide variation in the distribution of flavonols, isoflavones, phenolic acids and anthocyanins among these legume fractions. Although cotyledon fractions of both the legumes were rich in phenolic acids, the concentrations of flavonols such as quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin were significantly (p chickpea, it was present exclusively in the embryonic axe fraction of horse gram at levels greater than daidzein. Furthermore, cyanidin, petunidin, and delphinidin were detected in seed coat and embryonic axe fractions but not in cotyledons. In addition to these three anthocyanins, malvidin was found only in the horse gram seed coat fraction. Seed coat fractions having higher total phenolic indexes were found to be the most active 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers (IC(50) 13.1 to 18.6 microg/mL) followed by embryonic axe and cotyledon fractions (IC(50) 15.4 to 34.2 microg/mL). Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) scavenging capacities of cotyledons, embryonic axe and seed coats were 12.3, 34.1 and 78.6% for chickpea and 15.1, 56.8 and 92.6% for horse gram, respectively. The multiple antioxidant activity of horse gram and chickpea fractions was evident, as they also possessed reducing power and ferrous ion-chelating potency. These results contributed to the understanding of the relationships between major phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of legumes and provided useful information for effective utilization of legume-milled fractions as functional food ingredients for promoting health.

  2. Salicylic acid is a modulator of catalase isozymes in chickpea plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri.

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    Gayatridevi, S; Jayalakshmi, S K; Sreeramulu, K

    2012-03-01

    The relationship between salicylic acid level catalases isoforms chickpea cv. ICCV-10 infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri was investigated. Pathogen-treated chickpea plants showed high levels of SA compared with the control. Two isoforms of catalases in shoot extract (CAT-IS and CAT-IIS) and single isoform in root extract (CAT-R) were detected in chickpea. CAT-IS and CAT-R activities were inhibited in respective extracts treated with pathogen whereas, CAT-IIS activity was not inhibited. These isoforms were purified and their kinetic properties studied in the presence or absence of SA. The molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE of CAT-IS, CAT-IIS and CAT-R was found to be 97, 40 and 66 kDa respectively. Kinetic studies indicated that Km and V(max) of CAT-IS were 0.2 mM and 300 U/mg, 0.53 mM and 180 U/mg for CAT-IIS and 0.25 mM and 280 U/mg for CAT-R, respectively. CAT-IS and CAT-R were found to be more sensitive to SA and 50% of their activities were inhibited at 6 and 4 μM respectively, whereas CAT-IIS was insensitive to SA up to 100 μM. Quenching of the intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of purified catalases were used to quantitate SA binding; the estimated K(d) value for CAT-IS, CAT-IIS and CAT-R found to be 2.3 μM, 3.1 mM and 2.8 μM respectively. SA is a modulator of catalase isozymes activity, supports its role in establishment of SAR in chickpea plants infected with the pathogen.

  3. Growth and Nitrogen Fixation in Silicon and/or Potassium Fed Chickpeas Grown under Drought and Well Watered Conditions

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    Fawaz Kurdali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon (Si and/or potassium (K on plant growth, nitrogen uptake and N2-fixation in water stressed (FC1 and well watered (FC2 chickpea plants using 15N and 13C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si50, Si100 and Si200 and one fertilizer rate of K were used. For most of the growth parameters, it was found that Si either alone or in combination with K was more effective to alleviate water stress than K alone. Increasing soil water level from FC1 to FC2 often had a positive impact on values of almost all studied parameters. The Si100K+ (FC1 and Si50K+ (FC2 treatments gave high enough amounts of N2-fixation, higher dry matter production and greater nitrogen yield. The percent increments of total N2-fixed in the above mentioned treatments were 51 and 47% over their controls, respectively. On the other hand, increasing leave’s dry matter in response to the solely added Si (Si50K- and Si100K- is associated with lower Δ13C under both watering regimes. This may indicate that Si fertilization had a beneficial effect on water use efficiency (WUE. Hence, Δ13C could be an adequate indicator of WUE in response to the exogenous supply of silicon to chickpea plants. Our results highlight that Si is not only involved in amelioration of growth and in maintaining of water status but it can be also considered an important element for the symbiotic performance of chickpea plants. It can be concluded that the synergistic effect of silicon and potassium fertilization with adequate irrigation improves growth and nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants.

  4. Identification of Upregulated Genes under Cold Stress in Cold-Tolerant Chickpea Using the cDNA-AFLP Approach

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    Dinari, Ali; Niazi, Ali; Afsharifar, Ali Reza; Ramezani, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature injury is one of the most significant causes of crop damage worldwide. Cold acclimatization processes improve the freezing tolerance of plants. To identify genes of potential importance for acclimatzation to the cold and to elucidate the pathways that regulate this process, global transcriptome expression of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L), a species of legume, was analyzed using the cDNA-AFLP technique. In total, we generated 4800 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) using cDNA-AFLP in conjunction with 256 primer combinations. We only considered those cDNA fragments that seemed to be up-regulated during cold acclimatization. Of these, 102 TDFs with differential expression patterns were excised from gels and re-amplified by PCR. Fifty-four fragments were then cloned and sequenced. BLAST search of the GenBank non-redundant (nr) sequence database demonstrated that 77 percent of the TDFs belonged to known sequences with putative functions related to metabolism (31), transport (10), signal transduction pathways (15) and transcription factors (21). The last group of expressed transcripts showed homology to genes of unknown function (22). To further analyze and validate our cDNA-AFLP experiments, the expression of 9 TDFs during cold acclimatzatiion was confirmed using real time RT-PCR. The results of this research show that cDNA-AFLP is a powerful technique for investigating the expression pattern of chickpea genes under low-temperature stress. Moreover, our findings will help both to elucidate the molecular basis of low-temperature effects on the chickpea genome and to identify those genes that could increase the cold tolerance of the chickpea plant. PMID:23341906

  5. Physiological variability and in vitro antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea causing botrytis gray mold of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

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    Hosen, M. I.; Ahmed, A. U.; Islam, M. R.

    2010-07-01

    Physiological variability was studied in 10 isolates of Botrytis cinerea causing botrytis gray mold of chickpea, collected from diverse agro climatic areas in Bangladesh. The optimum temperature and pH for the best mycelial radial growth of B. cinerea were 20 degree centigrade and 4.5, respectively. The mycelial radial growth increased with the temperature up to 20 degree centigrade thereafter it decreased gradually up to 30 degree centigrade and no growth was observed at 35 degree centigrade. Chickpea dextrose agar (CDA) medium supported the highest mycelial radial growth (79.17 mm). The quickest (in 5 days) sclerotia initiation was recorded on chickpea destrose agar and lentil dextrose agar (LDA) culture media while the highest number of spores (2.5104 mL{sup -}1) were recorded on LDA medium. The antagonist Trichoderma harzianum was found to be a good bio-control agent against B. cinerea. Among the seven fungicides Bavistin 50 WP (Carbendazim), CP-Zim 50 WP (Carbendazim), Sunphanate 70 WP (Thiophanate methyl) and Rovral 50 WP (Iprodione) were the most effective to inhibit the mycelial radial growth of B. cinerea at 500 mg L{sup -}1 concentration. (Author) 13 refs.

  6. Morphological Variability and Races of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris Associated with Chickpea (Cicer arietinum Crops

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    Rosa M. Arvayo-Ortiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mexico is the third largest producer and exporter of chickpea (Cicer arietinum, with the states of Sinaloa and Sonora accounting for 70 and 20% of Mexicos production, respectively. The most damaging disease affecting this species is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Ciceris (FOC, which causes losses of up to 60% in Sonora. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize the phenotype and genetics of FOC collected from affected chickpea plants in northwestern Mexico and to identify the abiotic factors that allow it to develop. Approach: Sampling focused on affected plants from 12 crops in Sonora and Sinaloa. Based on 355 isolated strains, using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR 161 were positive for FOC. Results: Of the 161 strains, 91 were identified as races previously recorded for the Americas: Yellowing (R0 (41%, R1B/C (15% and wilting (R5 (14% and R6 (28% reflecting the symptoms observed in the areas sampled. The other 70 isolates could be nonpathogenic, or could be races yet to be recorded for the Americas. Conclusion: Morphological variability in FOC was high in the main chickpea producing regions in northwestern Mexico and was not a function of the physical and chemical properties of the soil, nor of the geographic location of the cropfields. This is the first report of races of FOC in Mexico.

  7. Allele diversity for abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in chickpea reference set using gene based SNP markers

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    Manish eRoorkiwal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea is an important food legume crop for the semi-arid regions, however, its productivity is adversely affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Identification of candidate genes associated with abiotic stress response will help breeding efforts aiming to enhance its productivity. With this objective, 10 abiotic stress responsive candidate genes were selected on the basis of prior knowledge of this complex trait. These 10 genes were subjected to allele specific sequencing across a chickpea reference set comprising 300 genotypes including 211 accessions of chickpea mini core collection. A total of 1.3 Mbp sequence data were generated. Multiple sequence alignment revealed 79 SNPs and 41 indels in nine genes while the CAP2 gene was found to be conserved across all the genotypes. Among ten candidate genes, the maximum number of SNPs (34 was observed in abscisic acid stress and ripening (ASR gene including 22 transitions, 11 transversions and one tri-allelic SNP. Nucleotide diversity varied from 0.0004 to 0.0029 while PIC values ranged from 0.01 (AKIN gene to 0.43 (CAP2 promoter. Haplotype analysis revealed that alleles were represented by more than two haplotype blocks, except alleles of the CAP2 and sucrose synthase (SuSy gene, where only one haplotype was identified. These genes can be used for association analysis and if validated, may be useful for enhancing abiotic stress, including drought tolerance, through molecular breeding.

  8. Galactinol synthase enzyme activity influences raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) accumulation in developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangola, Manu P; Jaiswal, Sarita; Kannan, Udhaya; Gaur, Pooran M; Båga, Monica; Chibbar, Ravindra N

    2016-05-01

    To understand raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) metabolism in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds, RFO accumulation and corresponding biosynthetic enzymes activities were determined during seed development of chickpea genotypes with contrasting RFO concentrations. RFO concentration in mature seeds was found as a facilitator rather than a regulating step of seed germination. In mature seeds, raffinose concentrations ranged from 0.38 to 0.68 and 0.75 to 0.99 g/100 g, whereas stachyose concentrations varied from 0.79 to 1.26 and 1.70 to 1.87 g/100 g indicating significant differences between low and high RFO genotypes, respectively. Chickpea genotypes with high RFO concentration accumulated higher concentrations of myo-inositol and sucrose during early seed developmental stages suggesting that initial substrate concentrations may influence RFO concentration in mature seeds. High RFO genotypes showed about two to three-fold higher activity for all RFO biosynthetic enzymes compared to those with low RFO concentrations. RFO biosynthetic enzymes activities correspond with accumulation of individual RFO during seed development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trichoderma inoculation ameliorates arsenic induced phytotoxic changes in gene expression and stem anatomy of chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Pratibha; Singh, Poonam C; Mishra, Aradhana; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Mishra, Sandhya; Tripathi, Rudra D; Nautiyal, Chandra S

    2013-03-01

    Arsenic, a carcinogenic metalloid severely affects plant growth in contaminated areas. Present study shows role of Trichoderma reesei NBRI 0716 (NBRI 0716) in ameliorating arsenic (As) stress on chickpea under greenhouse conditions. Arsenic stress adversely affected seed germination (25%), chlorophyll content (44%) and almost eliminated nodule formation that were significantly restored on NBRI 0716 inoculation. It also restored stem anomalies like reduced trichome turgidity and density, deformation in collenchymatous and sclerenchymatous cells induced by As stress. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR of stress responsive genes showed differential expression of genes involved in synthesis of cell wall degrading enzymes, dormancy termination and abiotic stress. Upregulation of drought responsive genes (DRE, EREBP, T6PS, MIPS, and PGIP), enhanced proline content and shrunken cortex cells in the presence of As suggests that it creates water deficiency in plants and these responses were modulated by NBRI 0716 which provides a protective role. NBRI0716 mediated production of As reductase enzyme in chickpea and thus contributed in As metabolism. The study suggests a multifarious role of NBRI0716 in mediating stress tolerance in chickpea towards As. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of combined formulations of fungicides with different modes of action in controlling botrytis gray mold disease in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M H; Hossain, M Ashraf; Kashem, M A; Kumar, Shiv; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis gray mold (BGM) caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur) in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010). Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%)], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%), and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%)], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%); Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%); and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%)]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1-9 scale) and the highest increase (38%) of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance.

  11. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis gray mold (BGM caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010. Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%, and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%; Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%; and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale and the highest increase (38% of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance.

  12. The role of abscisic acid and low temperature in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cold tolerance. II. Effects on plasma membrane structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakht, Jehan; Bano, Asghari; Dominy, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The frost hardiness of many plants such as chickpea can be increased by exposure to low non-freezing temperatures and/or the application of abscisic acid (ABA), a process known as frost acclimation. Experiments were conducted to study the response over a 14 d period of enriched plasma membrane fractions isolated from chickpea plants exposed to low temperature and sprayed with exogenous ABA. Measurement of the temperatures inducing 50% foliar cell death (LT50), and subsequent statistical analysis suggest that, like many plants, exposure to low temperatures (5/-2 degrees C; day/night) induces a significant level (P chickpea when compared with control plants (20/7 degrees C; day/night). Spraying plants with exogenous ABA also increased frost tolerance (P chickpea plants to low temperatures increased the DBI by 15% at day 4 and 19% at day 14 when compared with untreated control plants. Application of ABA alone did not increase the DBI by more than 6% at any time; the effects of both treatments applied together was more than additive, inducing a DBI increase of 27% at day 14 when compared with controls. There was a good correlation (P properties of the plasma membrane other than fluidity are involved in frost acclimation in chickpea.

  13. Genome-wide conserved non-coding microsatellite (CNMS) marker-based integrative genetical genomics for quantitative dissection of seed weight in chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak; Saxena, Maneesha S.; Kujur, Alice; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Tripathi, Shailesh; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Gowda, C. L. L.; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic footprinting identified 666 genome-wide paralogous and orthologous CNMS (conserved non-coding microsatellite) markers from 5′-untranslated and regulatory regions (URRs) of 603 protein-coding chickpea genes. The (CT)n and (GA)n CNMS carrying CTRMCAMV35S and GAGA8BKN3 regulatory elements, respectively, are abundant in the chickpea genome. The mapped genic CNMS markers with robust amplification efficiencies (94.7%) detected higher intraspecific polymorphic potential (37.6%) among genotypes, implying their immense utility in chickpea breeding and genetic analyses. Seventeen differentially expressed CNMS marker-associated genes showing strong preferential and seed tissue/developmental stage-specific expression in contrasting genotypes were selected to narrow down the gene targets underlying seed weight quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/eQTLs (expression QTLs) through integrative genetical genomics. The integration of transcript profiling with seed weight QTL/eQTL mapping, molecular haplotyping, and association analyses identified potential molecular tags (GAGA8BKN3 and RAV1AAT regulatory elements and alleles/haplotypes) in the LOB-domain-containing protein- and KANADI protein-encoding transcription factor genes controlling the cis-regulated expression for seed weight in the chickpea. This emphasizes the potential of CNMS marker-based integrative genetical genomics for the quantitative genetic dissection of complex seed weight in chickpea. PMID:25504138

  14. Two key genomic regions harbour QTLs for salinity tolerance in ICCV 2 × JG 11 derived chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) recombinant inbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpavalli, Raju; Krishnamurthy, Laxmanan; Thudi, Mahendar; Gaur, Pooran M; Rao, Mandali V; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Colmer, Timothy D; Turner, Neil C; Varshney, Rajeev K; Vadez, Vincent

    2015-05-22

    Although chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), an important food legume crop, is sensitive to salinity, considerable variation for salinity tolerance exists in the germplasm. To improve any existing cultivar, it is important to understand the genetic and physiological mechanisms underlying this tolerance. In the present study, 188 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross ICCV 2 × JG 11 were used to assess yield and related traits in a soil with 0 mM NaCl (control) and 80 mM NaCl (salinity) over two consecutive years. Salinity significantly (P chickpea genetic maps showed that these regions conferred salinity tolerance across two other populations and the markers can be deployed for enhancing salinity tolerance in chickpea. Based on the gene ontology annotation, forty eight putative candidate genes responsive to salinity stress were found on CaLG05 (31 genes) and CaLG07 (17 genes) in a distance of 11.1 Mb and 8.2 Mb on chickpea reference genome. Most of the genes were known to be involved in achieving osmoregulation under stress conditions. Identification of putative candidate genes further strengthens the idea of using CaLG05 and CaLG07 genomic regions for marker assisted breeding (MAB). Further fine mapping of these key genomic regions may lead to novel gene identification for salinity stress tolerance in chickpea.

  15. High acid invertase activity for a prolonged period in developing seeds/podwall of wild chickpea is detrimental to seed filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harinderjeet; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Kaur, Narinder; Sandhu, Jeet Singh

    2012-10-01

    In the present study factors responsible for low seed biomass in wild Cicer species has been investigated. Cicer judaicum and chickpea cultivar PBG-1 were investigated to compare activities of some enzymes involved in carbon metabolism in podwall and seeds during crop development. Seed filling duration in wild species was about 15 days shorter than that of cultivated varieties due to rapid loss of moisture content and hence resulted in earlier maturity and reduced seed biomass. Longer seed filling duration appeared to be an important factor responsible for greater biomass of chickpea seeds. Because of absence of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase from 25-35 days after flowering and low sucrose synthase activities, the podwall of C. judaicum is not in a position to contribute significantly to the sink filling capacity of seeds. High acid invertase, low sucrose synthase activities during seed storage phase cause detrimental effect on seed filling and resulting in highly reduced sink strength and productivity of wild species. Successful transfer of stress tolerance from wild Cicer species to chickpea cultivars need to prevent the transfer of these observed unfavourable biochemical factors so that the productivity of chickpea crop remains unaffected during utilization of wild Cicer species in chickpea improvement.

  16. Co-inoculation with Mesorhizobium ciceri and Azotobacter chroococcum for improving growth, nodulation and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

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    M.A. Qureshi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia have the exceptional ability to form nodules on roots or stems of leguminous plants. Free living diazotrophs promote the rhizobial efficiency by altering root architecture providing more niches for nodulation and thus enhance the N2-fixing ability of legumes. Field experiment was conducted to assess the co-inoculation potential of symbiotic i.e. Mesorhizobium ciceri and non-symbiotic diazotrophs i.e. Azotobacter chroococcum on the yield of chickpea. Chickpea seeds (cv. Bittle-98 were inoculated with peat-based inocula and sown following randomized complete block design with three replications. Two levels of nitrogen i.e. 30 (recommended and 15 kg ha-1 were applied as urea while P was applied at 60 kg ha-1 to all the treatments as single super phosphate. Results revealed that introduction of A. chroococcum had positive impact on chickpea with and without rhizobial inoculation and the effect was more prominent when applied in combination as compared to non-inoculated control at low nitrogen level. It was observed that inoculation with M. ciceri or A. chroococcum produced significant increase in biomass and grain yield but the response was more pronounced with co-inoculation i.e. 3456 and 1772 kg ha-1, respectively, as compared to control (2903 and 1489 kg ha-1, respectively at 15 kg N ha-1. Higher nodule number plant-1 and nodular mass was observed with co-inoculation (42 and 0.252 g plant-1. Percent N and P content in chickpea plant were higher in the co-inoculated treatments (1.683 and 0.283% than that of their respective controls. Similar trend was observed in grains except the rhizobial inoculation alone which produced higher N content (3.62% than coinoculation (3.59%. Percent N and available P in soil were also higher in the inoculated treatments. The results imply that co-inoculation with Mesorhizobium and Azotobacter could be a useful approach for improving growth, nodulation and yield of chickpea by reducing dependence on chemical

  17. Assessment of the estrogenic activities of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) sprout isoflavone extract in ovariectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-rong MA; Jie WANG; Hong-xue QI; Yan-hua GAO; Li-juan PANG; Yi YANG; Zhen-hua WANG

    2013-01-01

    Aim:Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) is a traditional Uighur herb.In this study we investigated the estrogenic activities of the isoflavones extracted from chickpea sprouts (ICS) in ovariectomized rats.Methods:Ten-week-old virgin Sprague-Dawley female rats were ovariectomized (OVX).The rats were administered via intragastric gavage 3 different doses of ICS (20,50,or 100 mg·kg-1.d-1) for 5 weeks.Their uterine weight and serum levels of 17β-estradiol (E2),follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured.The epithelial height,number of glands in the uterus,and number of osteoclasts in the femur were histologically quantified,and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was assessed immunohistochemically.Bone structural parameters,including bone mineral density (BMD),bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV),trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were measured using Micro-CT scanning.Results:Treatments of OVX rats with ICS (50 or 100 mg·kg-1.d-1) produced significant estrogenic effects on the uteruses,including the increases in uterine weight,epithelial height and gland number,as well as in the expression of the cell proliferation marker PCNA.The treatments changed the secretory profile of ovarian hormones and pituitary gonadotropins:serum E2 level was significantly increased,while serum LH and FSH levels were decreased compared with the vehicle-treated OVX rats.Furthermore,the treatments significantly attenuated the bone loss,increased BMD,BV/TV and Tb.Th and decreased Tb.Sp and the number of osteoclasts.Treatment of OVX rats with the positive control drug E2 (0.25 mg·kg-1.d-1) produced similar,but more prominent effects.Conclusion:ICS exhibits moderate estrogenic activities as compared to E2 in ovariectomized rats,suggesting the potential use of ICS for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis caused by estrogen deficiency.

  18. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the CaNAC family members in chickpea during development, dehydration and ABA treatments.

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    Chien Van Ha

    Full Text Available The plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs play important roles in regulation of diverse biological processes, including development, growth, cell division and responses to environmental stimuli. In this study, we identified the members of the NAC TF family of chickpea (Cicer arietinum and assess their expression profiles during plant development and under dehydration and abscisic acid (ABA treatments in a systematic manner. Seventy-one CaNAC genes were detected from the chickpea genome, including 8 membrane-bound members of which many might be involved in dehydration responses as judged from published literature. Phylogenetic analysis of the chickpea and well-known stress-related Arabidopsis and rice NACs enabled us to predict several putative stress-related CaNACs. By exploring available transcriptome data, we provided a comprehensive expression atlas of CaNACs in various tissues at different developmental stages. With the highest interest in dehydration responses, we examined the expression of the predicted stress-related and membrane-bound CaNACs in roots and leaves of chickpea seedlings, subjected to well-watered (control, dehydration and ABA treatments, using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. Nine-teen of the 23 CaNACs examined were found to be dehydration-responsive in chickpea roots and/or leaves in either ABA-dependent or -independent pathway. Our results have provided a solid foundation for selection of promising tissue-specific and/or dehydration-responsive CaNAC candidates for detailed in planta functional analyses, leading to development of transgenic chickpea varieties with improved productivity under drought.

  19. Sensory and Physicochemical Studies of Thermally Micronized Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and Green Lentil (Lens culinaris) Flours as Binders in Low-Fat Beef Burgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati-Ievari, Shiva; Ryland, Donna; Edel, Andrea; Nicholson, Tiffany; Suh, Miyoung; Aliani, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Pulses are known to be nutritious foods but are susceptible to oxidation due to the reaction of lipoxygenase (LOX) with linolenic and linoleic acids which can lead to off flavors caused by the formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Infrared micronization at 130 and 150 °C was investigated as a heat treatment to determine its effect on LOX activity and VOCs of chickpea and green lentil flour. The pulse flours were added to low-fat beef burgers at 6% and measured for consumer acceptability and physicochemical properties. Micronization at 130 °C significantly decreased LOX activity for both flours. The lentil flour micronized at 150 °C showed a further significant decrease in LOX activity similar to that of the chickpea flour at 150 °C. The lowering of VOCs was accomplished more successfully with micronization at 130 °C for chickpea flour while micronization at 150 °C for the green lentil flour was more effective. Micronization minimally affected the characteristic fatty acid content in each flour but significantly increased omega-3 and n-6 fatty acids at 150 °C in burgers with lentil and chickpea flours, respectively. Burgers with green lentil flour micronized at 130 and 150 °C, and chickpea flour micronized at 150 °C were positively associated with acceptability. Micronization did not affect the shear force and cooking losses of the burgers made with both flours. Formulation of low-fat beef burgers containing 6% micronized gluten-free binder made from lentil and chickpea flour is possible based on favorable results for physicochemical properties and consumer acceptability.

  20. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the CaNAC Family Members in Chickpea during Development, Dehydration and ABA Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chien Van; Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Watanabe, Yasuko; Tran, Uyen Thi; Sulieman, Saad; Mochida, Keiichi; Van Nguyen, Dong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2014-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in regulation of diverse biological processes, including development, growth, cell division and responses to environmental stimuli. In this study, we identified the members of the NAC TF family of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and assess their expression profiles during plant development and under dehydration and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments in a systematic manner. Seventy-one CaNAC genes were detected from the chickpea genome, including 8 membrane-bound members of which many might be involved in dehydration responses as judged from published literature. Phylogenetic analysis of the chickpea and well-known stress-related Arabidopsis and rice NACs enabled us to predict several putative stress-related CaNACs. By exploring available transcriptome data, we provided a comprehensive expression atlas of CaNACs in various tissues at different developmental stages. With the highest interest in dehydration responses, we examined the expression of the predicted stress-related and membrane-bound CaNACs in roots and leaves of chickpea seedlings, subjected to well-watered (control), dehydration and ABA treatments, using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Nine-teen of the 23 CaNACs examined were found to be dehydration-responsive in chickpea roots and/or leaves in either ABA-dependent or -independent pathway. Our results have provided a solid foundation for selection of promising tissue-specific and/or dehydration-responsive CaNAC candidates for detailed in planta functional analyses, leading to development of transgenic chickpea varieties with improved productivity under drought. PMID:25479253

  1. Mechanisms of physiological adjustment of N2 fixation in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) during early stages of water deficit: single or multi-factor controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Sulieman, Saad; Schulze, Joachim; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2014-09-01

    Drought negatively impacts symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea), thereby limiting yield potential. Understanding how drought affects chickpea nodulation will enable the development of strategies to biotechnologically engineer chickpea varieties with enhanced SNF under drought conditions. By analyzing carbon and nitrogen metabolism, we studied the mechanisms of physiological adjustment of nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants nodulated with Mesorhizobium ciceri during both drought stress and subsequent recovery. The nitrogenase activity, levels of several key carbon (in nodules) and nitrogen (in both nodules and leaves) metabolites and antioxidant compounds, as well as the activity of related nodule enzymes were examined in M. ciceri-inoculated chickpea plants under early drought stress and subsequent recovery. Results indicated that drought reduced nitrogenase activity, and that this was associated with a reduced expression of the nifK gene. Furthermore, drought stress promoted an accumulation of amino acids, mainly asparagine in nodules (but not in leaves), and caused a cell redox imbalance in nodules. An accumulation of organic acids, especially malate, in nodules, which coincided with the decline of nodulated root respiration, was also observed under drought stress. Taken together, our findings indicate that reduced nitrogenase activity occurring at early stages of drought stress involves, at least, the inhibition of respiration, nitrogen accumulation and an imbalance in cell redox status in nodules. The results of this study demonstrate the potential that the genetic engineering-based improvement of SNF efficiency could be applied to reduce the impact of drought on the productivity of chickpea, and perhaps other legume crops. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The chickpea genomic web resource: visualization and analysis of the desi-type Cicer arietinum nuclear genome for comparative exploration of legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Gopal; Priya, Piyush; Bandhiwal, Nitesh; Bareja, Neha; Jain, Mukesh; Bhatia, Sabhyata; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Yadav, Gitanjali

    2014-12-18

    Availability of the draft nuclear genome sequences of small-seeded desi-type legume crop Cicer arietinum has provided an opportunity for investigating unique chickpea genomic features and evaluation of their biological significance. The increasing number of legume genome sequences also presents a challenge for developing reliable and information-driven bioinformatics applications suitable for comparative exploration of this important class of crop plants. The Chickpea Genomic Web Resource (CGWR) is an implementation of a suite of web-based applications dedicated to chickpea genome visualization and comparative analysis, based on next generation sequencing and assembly of Cicer arietinum desi-type genotype ICC4958. CGWR has been designed and configured for mapping, scanning and browsing the significant chickpea genomic features in view of the important existing and potential roles played by the various legume genome projects in mutant mapping and cloning. It also enables comparative informatics of ICC4958 DNA sequence analysis with other wild and cultivated genotypes of chickpea, various other leguminous species as well as several non-leguminous model plants, to enable investigations into evolutionary processes that shape legume genomes. CGWR is an online database offering a comprehensive visual and functional genomic analysis of the chickpea genome, along with customized maps and gene-clustering options. It is also the only plant based web resource supporting display and analysis of nucleosome positioning patterns in the genome. The usefulness of CGWR has been demonstrated with discoveries of biological significance made using this server. The CGWR is compatible with all available operating systems and browsers, and is available freely under the open source license at http://www.nipgr.res.in/CGWR/home.php.

  3. Large-scale development of cost-effective SNP marker assays for diversity assessment and genetic mapping in chickpea and comparative mapping in legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Pavana J; Kumar, Ashish; Penmetsa, Ramachandra Varma; Farmer, Andrew; Schlueter, Jessica A; Chamarthi, Siva K; Whaley, Adam M; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Gaur, Pooran M; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B; Shah, Trushar M; Cook, Douglas R; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2012-01-01

    A set of 2486 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compiled in chickpea using four approaches, namely (i) Solexa/Illumina sequencing (1409), (ii) amplicon sequencing of tentative orthologous genes (TOGs) (604), (iii) mining of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (286) and (iv) sequencing of candidate genes (187). Conversion of these SNPs to the cost-effective and flexible throughput Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar) assays generated successful assays for 2005 SNPs. These marker assays have been designated as Chickpea KASPar Assay Markers (CKAMs). Screening of 70 genotypes including 58 diverse chickpea accessions and 12 BC3F2 lines showed 1341 CKAMs as being polymorphic. Genetic analysis of these data clustered chickpea accessions based on geographical origin. Genotyping data generated for 671 CKAMs on the reference mapping population (Cicer arietinum ICC 4958 × Cicer reticulatum PI 489777) were compiled with 317 unpublished TOG-SNPs and 396 published markers for developing the genetic map. As a result, a second-generation genetic map comprising 1328 marker loci including novel 625 CKAMs, 314 TOG-SNPs and 389 published marker loci with an average inter-marker distance of 0.59 cM was constructed. Detailed analyses of 1064 mapped loci of this second-generation chickpea genetic map showed a higher degree of synteny with genome of Medicago truncatula, followed by Glycine max, Lotus japonicus and least with Vigna unguiculata. Development of these cost-effective CKAMs for SNP genotyping will be useful not only for genetics research and breeding applications in chickpea, but also for utilizing genome information from other sequenced or model legumes. PMID:22703242

  4. Screening for Pseudomonas and Bacillus antagonistic rhizobacteria strains for the biocontrol of Fusarium wilt of chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannane Abed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the ability of several isolates belonging to Rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas and Bacillus collected from several chickpea growing areas in Algeria, to control the mycelium growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris. Interesting isolates were characterized for their morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical activities as potential bio-control agent. Fungal inhibition tests were performed using plate assay and each isolate were tested for the production of protease, cyanide hydrogen, indole acetic acid, antifungal volatile and extracellular compound. According to API 50 CH, we are able to identify six Bacillus species (B. subtilis, B. circulans, B. lentus, B. aneurinilyticus, B. firmus, B. licheniformis; and with API 20NE test we have identified three Pseudomonas species (P. aeruginosa, P. luteola, P. fluorescens. The ability of bacterial isolates was varied in production of Protease, Gelatinase, Amylase, Cellulase, Acid Indole acetic, Lipase, Catalase and Cyanid Hydrogen. This is traduced in different rate of inhibition growth due to various extracellular compounds, where B61 (Bacillus aneurinilyticus and P39 (Pseudomonas luteola and P70 (Pseudomonas fluorescens were the most efficient with 77 and 55.5% respectively, while B39 (Bacillus firmus and P41 (Pseudomonas luteola were the most efficient by volatile compounds with 70.5 and 77.5% respectively. Our results indicate that these bacteria isolates can be used in the biocontrol of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris.

  5. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Isoflavone Derivatives from Chickpea as Potent Anti-Diabetic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengshou Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A set of novel isoflavone derivatives from chickpea were synthesized. The structures of derivatives were identified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, carbon-13 (13C-NMR and mass spectrometry (MS spectral analyses. Their anti-diabetic activities were evaluated using an insulin-resistant (IR HepG2 cell model. Additionally, the structure-activity relationships of these derivatives were briefly discussed. Compounds 1c, 2h, 3b, and 5 and genistein exhibited significant glucose consumption-enhancing effects in IR-HepG2 cells. In addition, the combinations of genistein, 2h, and 3b (combination 6 and of 3b, genistein, and 1c (combination 10 exhibited better anti-diabetic activity than the individual compounds. At the same dosage, there was no difference in effect between the combination 10 and the positive control (p > 0.05. Aditionally, we found the differences between the combination 10 and combination 6 for the protective effect of HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells under high glucose concentration. The protective effects of combination 10 was stronger than combination 6, which suggested that combination 10 may have a better hypoglycemic activity in future studies. This study provides useful clues for the further design and discovery of anti-diabetic agents.

  6. Evaluation of Extraction and Degradation Methods to Obtain Chickpeasaponin B1 from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kun; Gao, Hua; Wang, Rong-Rong; Liu, Yang; Hou, Yu-Xue; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-21

    The objective of this research is to implement extraction and degradation methods for the obtainment of 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-galactopyranosyl] soyasapogenol B (chickpeasaponin B1) from chickpea. The effects of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) processing parameters-such as ethanol concentration, solvent/solid ratio, extraction temperature, microwave irradiation power, and irradiation time-were evaluated. Using 1g of material with 8 mL of 70% aqueous ethanol and an extraction time of 10 min at 70 °C under irradiation power 400W provided optimal extraction conditions. Compared with the conventional extraction techniques, including heat reflux extraction (HRE), Soxhlet extraction (SE), and ultrasonic extraction (UE), MAE produced higher extraction efficiency under a lower extraction time. DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) saponin can be degraded to structurally stable saponin B by the loss of its DDMP group. The influence of pH and the concentration of potassium hydroxide on transformation efficiency of the target compound was investigated. A solution of 0.25 M potassium hydroxide in 75% aqueous ethanol was suitable for converting the corresponding DDMP saponins of chickpeasaponin B1. The implementation by the combining MAE technique and alkaline hydrolysis method for preparing chickpeasaponin B1 provides a convenient technology for future applications.

  7. Purification and Properties of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase from Immature Pods of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, H R; Singh, R

    1986-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) was purified to homogeneity with about 29% recovery from immature pods of chickpea using ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography, and gel filtration through Sephadex G-200. The purified enzyme with molecular weight of about 200,000 daltons was a tetramer of four identical subunits and exhibited maximum activity at pH 8.1. Mg(2+) ions were specifically required for the enzyme activity. The enzyme showed typical hyperbolic kinetics with phosphoenolpyruvate with a K(m) of 0.74 millimolar, whereas sigmoidal response was observed with increasing concentrations of HCO(3) (-) with S(0.5) value as 7.6 millimolar. The enzyme was activated by inorganic phosphate and phosphate esters like glucose-6-phosphate, alpha-glycerophosphate, 3-phosphoglyceric acid, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, and inhibited by nucleotide triphosphates, organic acids, and divalent cations Ca(2+) and Mn(2+). Oxaloacetate and malate inhibited the enzyme noncompetitively. Glucose-6-phosphate reversed the inhibitory effects of oxaloacetate and malate.

  8. Infant food from quality protein maize and chickpea: optimization for preparing and nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Valdez, C; Milán-Carrillo, J; Cárdenas-Valenzuela, O G; Mora-Escobedo, R; Bello-Pérez, L A; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2005-06-01

    The present study had two objectives: to determine the best combination of nixtamalized maize flour (NMF) from quality protein maize and extruded chickpea flour (ECF) for producing an infant food, and to evaluate the nutritional properties of the optimized NMF/ECF mixture and the infant food. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the best combination of NMF/ECF; the experimental design (Lattice simplex) generated 11 assays. Mixtures from each assay were evaluated for true protein and available lysine. Each one of 11 mixtures was used for preparing 11 infant foods that were sensory evaluated for acceptability. A common optimum value for the three response variables was obtained utilizing the desirability method. The best combination of NMF/ECF for producing an infant food was NMF = 26.7%/ECF = 73.3%; this optimized mixture had a global desirability of 0.87; it contained 19.72% dry matter (DM) proteins, 6.10% (DM) lipids, 71.45% (DM) carbohydrates, and 2.83% (DM) minerals; its essential amino acids profile covered the amino acids requirements for children 10-12 years old. The infant food prepared from optimized mixture had an in vitro protein digestibility of 87.9%, and a calculated protein efficiency ratio of 1.86. Infant food could be used to support the growth of infants in developing countries.

  9. Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from chickpea flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemical characteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (water holding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity: OHC, foaming, and emulsion properties) and ACE activities were also investigated using well-established procedures. The FT-IR spectra obtained for the CPWSP revealed two significant peaks, at about 3500 and 500 cm(-1), which corresponded to the carbohydrate region and were characteristic of polysaccharides. All spectra showed the presence of a broad absorption between 1500 and 670 cm(-1), which could be attributed to CH, CO, and OH bands in the polysaccharides. CPWSP had an XRD pattern that was typical for a semi-crystalline polymer with a major crystalline reflection at 19.6 °C. They also displayed important techno-functional properties (SWC, WSI, WHC, and OHC) that can be modulated according to temperature. The CPWSP were also noted to display good anti-hypertensive activities. Overall, the results indicate that CPWSP have attractive chemical, biological, and functional properties that make them potential promising candidates for application as alternative additives in various food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical preparations.

  10. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis on conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokni Ghribi, Abir; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Sila, Assaâd; Blecker, Christophe; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Bougatef, Ali; Besbes, Souhail

    2015-11-15

    The impact of enzymatic hydrolysis by Alcalase on the conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) was investigated. The physicochemical, interfacial tension and surface characteristics of CPI and their hydrolysates (CPH) according to the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were also determined. These parameters were then related to the changes in the emulsification activity (EAI) and stability (ESI). The enzymatic hydrolysis was found to improve protein recovery and solubility, leading to a reduction in the molecular weight bands with a concomitant increase in the intensity and appearance of protein bands having apparent molecular mass below 20 kDa. The interfacial tension decreased from ∼ 66.5 mN m(-1) for CPI to ∼ 59.1 m Nm(-1) for CPH. A similar trend was observed for the surface charge which declined from -27.55 mV to -16.4 mV for the CPI and CPH, respectively. These changes were found to have a detrimental effect on the EAI and ESI values.

  11. Colloidal Nanomolybdenum Influence upon the Antioxidative Reaction of Chickpea Plants ( Cicer arietinum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Nataliya; Batsmanova, Ludmila; Kosyk, Oksana; Smirnov, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Mariia; Honchar, Liubov; Okanenko, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    The use of colloidal solutions of metals as micronutrients enhances plant resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions and ensures high yields of food crops. The purpose of the study was a comparative evaluation of presowing treatment with nanomolybdenum and microbiological preparation impact upon the development of adaptive responses in chickpea plants. Oxidative processes did not develop in all variants of the experiment but in variants treated with microbial preparation, and joint action of microbial and nanopreparations even declined, as evidenced by the reduction of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in photosynthetic tissues by 15 %. The activity of superoxide dismutase increased (by 15 %) in variant "nanomolybdenum" and joint action "microbial + nanomolybdenum," but it decreased by 20 % in variants with microbial preparation treatment. The same dependence was observed in changes of catalase activity. Antioxidant status factor, which takes into account the ratio of antioxidant to pro-oxidant, was the highest in variants with joint action of microbial preparation and nanomolybdenum (0.7), the lowest in variants with microbial treatment only (0.1). Thus, the results show that the action of nanoparticles of molybdenum activated antioxidant enzymes and decreased oxidative processes, thus promoting adaptation of plants.

  12. Evaluation of Extraction and Degradation Methods to Obtain Chickpeasaponin B1 from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to implement extraction and degradation methods for the obtainment of 3-O-[α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-d-galactopyranosyl] soyasapogenol B (chickpeasaponin B1 from chickpea. The effects of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE processing parameters—such as ethanol concentration, solvent/solid ratio, extraction temperature, microwave irradiation power, and irradiation time—were evaluated. Using 1g of material with 8 mL of 70% aqueous ethanol and an extraction time of 10 min at 70 °C under irradiation power 400W provided optimal extraction conditions. Compared with the conventional extraction techniques, including heat reflux extraction (HRE, Soxhlet extraction (SE, and ultrasonic extraction (UE, MAE produced higher extraction efficiency under a lower extraction time. DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one saponin can be degraded to structurally stable saponin B by the loss of its DDMP group. The influence of pH and the concentration of potassium hydroxide on transformation efficiency of the target compound was investigated. A solution of 0.25 M potassium hydroxide in 75% aqueous ethanol was suitable for converting the corresponding DDMP saponins of chickpeasaponin B1. The implementation by the combining MAE technique and alkaline hydrolysis method for preparing chickpeasaponin B1 provides a convenient technology for future applications.

  13. Phytic acid and raffinose series oligosaccharides metabolism in developing chickpea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhawar, Vikramjit Kaur; Kaur, Narinder; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Phytic acid and raffinose series oligosaccharides (RFOs) have anti-nutritional properties where phytic acid chelates minerals and reduces their bioavailability to humans and other animals, and RFOs cause flatulence. Both phytic acid and RFOs cannot be digested by monogastric animals and are released as pollutant-wastes. Efforts are being made to reduce the contents of these factors without affecting the viability of seeds. This will require a thorough understanding of their metabolism in different crops. Biosynthetic pathways of both metabolites though are interlinked but not well described. This study was made on metabolism of these two contents in developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L cv GL 769) seeds. In this study, deposition of RFOs was found to occur before deposition of phytic acid. A decline in inorganic phosphorus and increase in phospholipid phosphorus and phytic acid was observed in seeds during development. Acid phosphatase was the major phosphatase in seed as well as podwall and its activity was highest at early stage of development, thereafter it decreased. Partitioning of (14) C label from (14) C-glucose and (14) C-sucrose into RFOs and phytic acid was studied in seeds in presence of inositol, galactose and iositol and galactose, which favored the view that galactinol synthase is not the key enzyme in RFOs synthesis.

  14. IAA-producing rhizobacteria from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) induce changes in root architecture and increase root biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro-Coronado, Rosario Alicia; Quiroz-Figueroa, Francisco Roberto; García-Pérez, Luz María; Ramírez-Chávez, Enrique; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio Eduardo

    2014-10-01

    Rhizobacteria promote and have beneficial effects on plant growth, making them useful to agriculture. Nevertheless, the rhizosphere of the chickpea plant has not been extensively examined. The aim of the present study was to select indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing rhizobacteria from the rhizosphere of chickpea plants for their potential use as biofertilizers. After obtaining a collection of 864 bacterial isolates, we performed a screen using the Salkowski reaction for the presence of auxin compounds (such as IAA) in bacterial Luria-Bertani supernatant (BLBS). Our results demonstrate that the Salkowski reaction has a greater specificity for detecting IAA than other tested auxins. Ten bacterial isolates displaying a wide range of auxin accumulation were selected, producing IAA levels of 5 to 90 μmol/L (according to the Salkowski reaction). Bacterial isolates were identified on the basis of 16S rDNA partial sequences: 9 isolates belonged to Enterobacter, and 1 isolate was classified as Serratia. The effect of BLBS on root morphology was evaluated in Arabidopsis thaliana. IAA production by rhizobacteria was confirmed by means of a DR5::GFP construct that is responsive to IAA, and also by HPLC-GC/MS. Finally, we observed that IAA secreted by rhizobacteria (i) modified the root architecture of A. thaliana, (ii) caused an increase in chickpea root biomass, and (iii) activated the green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene driven by the DR5 promoter. These findings provide evidence that these novel bacterial isolates may be considered as putative plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria modifying root architecture and increasing root biomass.

  15. Role of indole-3-butyric acid or/and putrescine in improving productivity of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, A A; Gharib, F A; Abouziena, H F; Dawood, Mona G

    2013-12-15

    The response of chickpea (Cicer arientinum L. cv. Giza 3) to treatment with two plant growth regulators putrescine (Put) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 25, 50 and 100 mg L(-1) applied either alone or in combinations was studied. Spraying of Put and IBA either individually or in combination significantly increased the plant height, number and dry weight of branches, leaves and pods/plant and leaf area/plant at the two growth stages. Total photosynthetic pigments in fresh leaves were significantly promoted as a result of application of Put or IBA. Generally, application of Put and/or IBA at 100 mg L(-1) produced the highest numbers of pods which resulted in substantially the highest seed yield. Put and IBA increased the seed yield by 21.3 and 19.2%, respectively, while the combination of Put at 100 mgL(-1) and IBA at 50 mgL(-1) increased it by 27.4%. Greatest increases in straw and biological yield/fed (38.3 and 30.4%, respectively) were noted with the combination treatment of IBA 100 mg L(-1) plus Put at 100 mg L(-1). Put and IBA significantly increased the nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, total soluble sugars and total free amino acids in chickpea seeds over control, but the effects were less marked than those of their combination. This response was greater following treatment with IBA than with Put. It could be conclude that spraying Put or/and IBA on chickpea plants have promotion effects on the seeds yield criteria which have promising potential as sources of low-cost protein and minerals for possible use as food/feed supplements.

  16. Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Fertilization Effects on Some Physiological and Agronomical Traits of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. in Irrigated Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Namvar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilization on some physiological and agronomical traits of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. ILC 482, investigated at the Experimental Farm of the Agriculture Faculty, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili. The trial was laid out in spilt plot design based on randomized complete block with four replications. Experimental factors were mineral nitrogen fertilizer at four levels (0, 50, 75 and 100 kg urea/ha in the main plots, and two levels of inoculation with Rhizobium bacteria (with and without inoculation as sub plots. N application and Rh. inoculation showed positive effects on physiological and agronomical traits of chickpea. The highest value of leaf RWC recorded in 50 kg urea/ha that was statistically in par with 75 kg urea/ha application while, usage of 75 kg urea/ha showed the maximum stem RWC. The maximum CMS obtained form application of 75 kg urea/ha. Chlorophyll content, leaf area index and grains protein content showed their maximum values in the highest level of nitrogen usage (100 kg urea/ha. Moreover, inoculated plants had the highest magnitudes of all physiological traits. In the case of agronomical traits, the highest values of plant height, number of primary and secondary branches, number of pods per plant, number of grains per plant, grain and biological yield were obtained from the highest level of nitrogen fertilizer (100 kg urea/ha and Rh. inoculation. Application of 75 kg urea/ha was statistically in par with 100 kg urea/ha in all of these traits. The results pointed out that some N fertilization (i.e. between 50 and 75 kg urea/ha as starter can be beneficial to improve growth, development, physiological traits and total yield of inoculated chickpea.

  17. Impact of vetch cover crop on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demelash, Nigus; Klik, Andreas; Holzmann, Hubert; Ziadat, Feras; Strohmeier, Stefan; Bayu, Wondimu; Zucca, Claudio; Abera, Atikilt

    2016-04-01

    Cover crops improve the sustainability and quality of both natural system and agro ecosystem. In Gumara-Maksegnit watershed which is located in Lake Tana basin, farmers usually use fallow during the rainy season for the preceding chickpea production system. The fallowing period can lead to soil erosion and nutrient losses. A field experiment was conducted during growing seasons 2014 and 2015 to evaluate the effect of cover crops on runoff, soil loss, soil chemical properties and yield of chickpea in North Gondar, Ethiopia. The plot experiment contained four treatments arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications: 1) Control plot (Farmers' practice: fallowing- without cover crop), 2) Chickpea planted with Di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilizer with 46 k ha-1 P2O5 and 23 k ha-1 nitrogen after harvesting vetch cover crop, 3) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop incorporated with the soil as green manure without fertilizer, 4) Chick pea planted with vetch cover crop and incorporated with the soil as green manure and with 23 k ha-1 P2O5 and 12.5 k ha-1 nitrogen. Each plot with an area of 36 m² was equipped with a runoff monitoring system. Vetch (Vicia sativa L.) was planted as cover crop at the onset of the rain in June and used as green manure. The results of the experiment showed statistically significant (P 0.05) on average plant height, average number of branches and hundred seed weight. Similarly, the results indicated that cover crop has a clear impact on runoff volume and sediment loss. Plots with vetch cover crop reduce the average runoff by 65% and the average soil loss decreased from 15.7 in the bare land plot to 8.6 t ha-1 with plots covered by vetch. In general, this result reveales that the cover crops, especially vetch, can be used to improve chickpea grain yield in addition to reduce soil erosion in the watershed.

  18. PATHOGENICITY TESTS AND EVALUATION OF EFFICACY OF FUNGICIDES AGAINST RHIZOCTONIA BATATICOLA, THE CAUSAL AGENT OF DRY ROOT ROT OF CHICKPEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Amrutha Veena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The pathogen was identified based on its mycelial and sclerotial characters and pathogenicity test was proved by soil inoculation method. Efficacy of two non systemic fungicides (copper oxychloride and captan, two systemic fungicides (hexaconazole and tebuconazole and one antifungal antibiotic validamycin each at different concentrations were tested against Rhizoctonia bataticola, incitant of dry root rot of chickpea under in vitro conditions. The fungicides copper oxychloride, captan, hexaconazole and tebuconazole were found to be highly effective (100% in inhibiting the mycelial growth of the highly virulent pathogen at all the concentrations tested.

  19. Effect of Tillage in Day or Night and Application of Reduced Dosage of Imazethapyr and Trifluralin on Weed Control, Yield and Yield Components of Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abbasian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This Experiment was arranged as a strip-plot on the base of a completely randomized block design with three replications to study the effect of tillage (whether in day or night or in day by light-proof cover and application of reduced dosage of imazethapyr and trifluralin on weed control, yield and yield components of chickpea. Main plots consisted of tillage methods and subplots consisted of trifluralin (at doses of 480, 960 and 1440 g ai /ha and imazethapyr (at doses of 50, 100 and 150 g ai /ha, plus weed free and weedy checks. Results showed weed biomass in day tillage, night tillage and in light-proof cover tillage were respectively 86, 127 and 148 g m-2. Therefore tillage at night or by light-proof cover in day time showed not enough efficiency in weed control. Weed biomass increased when application dose of herbicides decreased. Chickpea grain yield showed significant differences when different doses of herbicides applied. The minimum and the maximum seed yield were obtained respectively in weed free (by 208 g m-2 and weedy checks (by 123 g m-2. Reduced dosage of imazethapyr and trifluralin could control weeds good enough by no significant decrease in chickpea yield. Efficacy of imazethapyr to control weeds grown in chickpea was significantly better than that of trifluralin

  20. Rapid and sensitive diagnoses of dry root rot pathogen of chickpea (Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler) using loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raju; Tarafdar, Avijit; Sharma, Mamta

    2017-02-20

    Dry root rot (DRR) caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler, is an emerging disease in chickpea. The disease is often mistaken with other root rots like Fusarium wilt, collar rot and black root rot in chickpea. Therefore, its timely and specific detection is important. Current detection protocols are either based on mycological methods or on protocols involving DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we report the rapid and specific detection of R. bataticola using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting fungal specific 5.8S rDNA sequence for visual detection of R. bataticola. The reaction was optimized at 63 °C for 75 min using minimum 10 fg of DNA. After adding SYBR Green I in LAMP products, the amplification was found to be highly specific in all the 94 isolates of R. bataticola collected from diverse geographical regions as well as DRR infected plants and sick soil. No reaction was found in other pathogenic fungi infecting chickpea (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium solani) and pigeonpea (Fusarium udum and Phytophthora cajani). The standardised LAMP assay with its simplicity, rapidity and specificity is very useful for the visual detection of this emerging disease in chickpea.

  1. Characterization of differently sized granule fractions of yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of reagent type on the properties of acetylated starches was studied for yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate. Samples modified with vinyl acetate showed higher swelling volume and peak viscosity than those acetylated with

  2. 鹰嘴豆营养保健价值及其应用%Nutrients and Health Function of Chickpea and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯婷

    2011-01-01

    通过分析鹰嘴豆的营养成分,对其营养功能及保健作用进行了评价,并对鹰嘴豆的研究与开发进行了展望.%Nutrients of chickpea was analyzed, its health function was evaluated, and its study and development were prospected.

  3. Changes in the levels of phytochelatins and related metal-binding peptides in chickpea seedlings exposed to arsenic and different heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dharmendra K; Tohoyama, Hiroshi; Joho, Masanori; Inouhe, Masahiro

    2004-06-01

    Phytochelatin-related peptides were analyzed in chickpea plants exposed to six different heavy-metal ions. Cadmium and arsenic stimulated phytochelatin and homophytochelatin synthesis in roots but other metals did not. These metals, however, caused an overall increase in the precursors, glutathione, homoglutathione and cysteine. These changes may be different biochemical indexes for heavy-metal contamination.

  4. Characterization of differently sized granule fractions of yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of reagent type on the properties of acetylated starches was studied for yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate. Samples modified with vinyl acetate showed higher swelling volume and peak viscosity than those acetylated with ace

  5. Detection of a new QTL/gene for growth habit in chickpea CaLG1 using wide and narrow crosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recombinant inbred line population (RIP-9) derived from an interspecific cross (ILC72 × Cr5-10) was evaluated for growth habit during two years (2003 and 2004). This RIP was used to develop a pair of near isogenic lines (NILs) for erect vs prostrate growth habit in chickpea. Molecular characteriza...

  6. Effect of drought stress and subsequent recovery on protein, carbohydrate contents, catalase and peroxidase activities in three chickpea (Cicer arietinum) cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafakheri, A.; Siosemardeh, A.; Bahramnejad, B.; Struik, P.C.; Sohrabi, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of drought stress and subsequent recovery on protein, carbohydrate content, catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POX) activities in three varieties of chickpea (drought

  7. Simulated herbivory in chickpea causes rapid changes in defense pathways and hormonal transcription networks of JA/ethylene/GA/auxin within minutes of wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Saurabh Prakash; Srivastava, Shruti; Goel, Ridhi; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Priya; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P

    2017-03-16

    Chickpea (C. arietinum L.) is an important pulse crop in Asian and African countries that suffers significant yield losses due to attacks by insects like H. armigera. To obtain insights into early responses of chickpea to insect attack, a transcriptomic analysis of chickpea leaves just 20 minutes after simulated herbivory was performed, using oral secretions of H. armigera coupled with mechanical wounding. Expression profiles revealed differential regulation of 8.4% of the total leaf transcriptome with 1334 genes up-regulated and 501 down-regulated upon wounding at log2-fold change (|FC| ≤ -1 and ≥1) and FDR value ≤ 0.05. In silico analysis showed the activation of defenses through up-regulation of genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, pathogenesis, oxidases and CYTP450 besides differential regulation of kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors of the WRKY, MYB, ERFs, bZIP families. A substantial change in the regulation of hormonal networks was observed with up-regulation of JA and ethylene pathways and suppression of growth associated hormone pathways like GA and auxin within 20 minutes of wounding. Secondary qPCR comparison of selected genes showed that oral secretions often increased differential expression relative to mechanical damage alone. The studies provide new insights into early wound responses in chickpea.

  8. Increased protein content of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria under water deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Carvalho, Patrícia; Marques, Guilhermina; Ferreira, Luís; Nunes, Mafalda; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Carvalho, Maria F; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2017-10-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a widely cropped pulse and an important source of proteins for humans. In Mediterranean regions it is predicted that drought will reduce soil moisture and become a major issue in agricultural practice. Nitrogen (N)-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the potential to improve plant growth and drought tolerance. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of N-fixing bacteria and AM fungi on the growth, grain yield and protein content of chickpea under water deficit. Plants inoculated with Mesorhizobium mediterraneum or Rhizophagus irregularis without water deficit and inoculated with M. mediterraneum under moderate water deficit had significant increases in biomass. Inoculation with microbial symbionts brought no benefits to chickpea under severe water deficit. However, under moderate water deficit grain crude protein was increased by 13%, 17% and 22% in plants inoculated with M. mediterraneum, R. irregularis and M. mediterraneum + R. irregularis, respectively. Inoculation with N-fixing bacteria and AM fungi has the potential to benefit agricultural production of chickpea under water deficit conditions and to contribute to increased grain protein content. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Prebiotic Function of Alpha-Galactooligosaccharides from Chickpea Seeds%鹰嘴豆α-低聚半乳糖的肠道益生功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺晋艳; 张芸; 李伟; 孙怡; 曾晓雄

    2011-01-01

    Crude chickpea extract was obtained from chickpea seeds by extraction with 50% ethanol aqueous solution by shaking and purified by medium-pressure activated carbon-diatomite column chromatography to obtain chickpea α-galactooligosacchardies(α-GOS) with different purities.The prebiotic function of α-GOS was evaluated by anaerobic fermentation method in vitro against human fecal bacteria and fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH).The results demonstrated that α-GOS in chickpea was an efficient proliferation factor to beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp.and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus spp.,and an inhibitory factor to harmful bacteria such as Bacteroides prevotella group and Clostridium histolyticum group.During the anaerobic fermentation in vitro,the bacterial composition was affected by the addition of chickpea α-GOS.However,total bacterial number had no difference.In addition,the sample with the highest content of α-GOS(90%) showed the highest prebiotic index(PI,2.00).The PI of samples containingα-GOS at the content of 70%—80% and 80%—90% and crude chickpea extract were 1.39,1.73 and 0.89,respectively,while the PI of the control sample without saccharide addition was-0.29.Therefore,α-GOS in chickpea had an excellent prebiotic function.%以鹰嘴豆为材料,通过提取与活性炭-硅藻土柱层析分离纯化,制备鹰嘴豆粗提物和不同纯化程度的鹰嘴豆α-低聚半乳糖(α-GOS)样品。采用体外厌氧粪样混合培养与荧光原位杂交技术,评价鹰嘴豆α-GOS的益生功能。结果表明:鹰嘴豆α-GOS对肠道有益菌(双歧杆菌、乳酸菌)有较好的增殖作用,而对有害菌(拟杆菌、梭状菌)的生长有一定的抑制作用;鹰嘴豆α-GOS只是改变了肠道内菌体的组成,而对总体菌群的数量基本没有影响;α-GOS含量高于90%的鹰嘴豆α-GOS样品的益生指数(PI)最高(2.00),α-GOS含量为70

  10. Integrated Management of Damping-off, Root and/or Stem Rot Diseases of Chickpea and Efficacy of the Suggested Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Eleven fungal isolates were isolated from naturally infected chickpea roots collected from different locations in New Valley Governorate (Egypt. The isolated fungi were purified and identified as Rhizoctonia solani (5 isolates, Fusarium solani (4 isolates and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (2 isolates. The isolated fungi proved their pathogenicity on cv. Giza 3. Response of chickpea cvs. Giza 1, Giza 2, Giza 3, Giza 4, Giza 88, Giza 195, Giza 531 to infection by the tested fungi was significantly varied. Giza 1 was the most resistant one followed by Giza 531, while the other tested cvs. were highly susceptible. Seven biocontrol agents, namely Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium, B. cereus, Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. isolated from chickpea rhizosphere, were tested for their antagonistic action against the tested pathogens. B. subtilis isolate BSM1, B. megaterium isolate TVM5, T. viride isolate TVM2 and T. harzianum isolate THM4 were the most antagonistic ones to the tested fungi in vitro, while the other isolates were moderate or weak antagonists. The most antagonistic isolates as well as the commercial biocide Rhizo-N were applied as seed treatment for controlling damping-off, root and/or stem rot diseases caused by the tested fungi under greenhouse conditions. The obtained data showed that all tested antagonistic isolates were able to cause significant reduction of damping-off, root and/or stem rot diseases in chickpea plants. T. viride (isolate TVM2 and B. megaterium (isolate BMM5 proved to be the most effective isolates for controlling the diseases. Under field condition, the obtained data indicated that all the tested antagonistic isolates significantly reduced damping-off, root and/or stem rot. T. viride (isolate TVM2 and B. megaterium (isolate BMM5 recorded the highest reduction of damping-off, root and/or stem rot in all sowing dates. Sowing of treated seeds with bioagents in first of November gave the

  11. Toxicity to cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis of a trypsin inhibitor from chickpea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de P G Gomes, Angélica; Dias, Simoni C; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Francislete R; Furtado, José R; Monnerat, Rose G; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Franco, Octávio L

    2005-02-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important agricultural commodity, which is attacked by several pests such as the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. Adult A. grandis feed on fruits and leaf petioles, reducing drastically the crop production. The predominance of boll weevil digestive serine proteinases has motivated inhibitor screenings in order to discover new ones with the capability to reduce the digestion process. The present study describes a novel proteinase inhibitor from chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) and its effects against A. grandis. This inhibitor, named CaTI, was purified by using affinity Red-Sepharose Cl-6B chromatography, followed by reversed-phase HPLC (Vydac C18-TP). SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analyses, showed a unique monomeric protein with a mass of 12,877 Da. Purified CaTI showed significant inhibitory activity against larval cotton boll weevil serine proteinases (78%) and against bovine pancreatic trypsin (73%), when analyzed by fluorimetric assays. Although the molecular mass of CaTI corresponded to alpha-amylase/trypsin bifunctional inhibitors masses, no inhibitory activity against insect and mammalian alpha-amylases was observed. In order to observe CaTI in vivo effects, an inhibitor rich fraction was added to an artificial diet at different concentrations. At 1.5% (w/w), CaTI caused severe development delay, several deformities and a mortality rate of approximately 45%. These results suggested that CaTI could be useful in the production of transgenic cotton plants with enhanced resistance toward cotton boll weevil.

  12. Nutritional properties of quality protein maize and chickpea extruded based weaning food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milán-Carrillo, J; Valdéz-Alarcón, C; Gutiérrez-Dorado, R; Cárdenas-Valenzuela, O G; Mora-Escobedo, R; Garzón-Tiznado, J A; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2007-03-01

    Malnutrition is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in most of the developing countries. To minimize the adversities of malnutrition, low-cost infant supplementary foods have been developed and are being supplied to the needy through state-sponsored nutrition intervention programmers. The present study had two objectives: to determine the best combination of nixtamalized extruded quality protein maize (NEMF) and extruded chickpea (ECF) flours for producing a weaning food, and to evaluate the nutritional properties of the optimized NEMF/ECF mixture and the weaning food. The NEMF and ECF were produced applying combinations of extrusion temperature/screw speed of 79.4 degrees C/73.5 rpm, and 150.5 degrees C/190.5 rpm, respectively. Response surface methodology was applied to determine the optimum combination NEMF/ECF; the experimental design generated 11 assays. Mixtures from each assay were evaluated for true protein (TP) and available lysine (AL). Each one of 11 mixtures were used for preparing 11 weaning foods which were sensory evaluated for acceptability (A). The best combination of NEMF/ECF for producing a weaning food was NEMF = 21.2%/ ECF = 78.8 %. This mixture had a global desirability (D) of 0.93; it contained 20.07% proteins (DM), 5.70% lipids (DM), and 71.14% carbohydrates (DM); its essential amino acids (EAA) profile satisfactorily covered the EAA requirements for children 2-5 years old, except for Trp. The weaning food prepared with the optimized mixture had high protein quality and digestibility and could be used to support the growth of infants.

  13. Genetic Analysis of Podding and Pod Characteristics in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Karami

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Five genotypes of chickpea as a half diallel crossed with each other, in 2008, 5 parents and 10 progenies were planted as randomized complete block design and some traits including days to podding, basal pod height, number of pods per plant, number of double seed pods per plant, number of single seed pods per plant, number of empty pods per plant, seeds per plant and seed yield per plant were evaluated. According to diallel variance analysis, for the traits the basal pod height and number of empty pods per plant, only additive genetic effects was significant. For number of double seed pods per plant only non-additive genetic effects were significant and for other traits, both of additive and non-additive genetic effects were significant. The degree of dominance average for the basal pod height was lower than one and for other traits was more than one. Narrow sense heritability exception of basal pod height (0.47 that relatively high, in the other traits was low, which shows the inheritance of these traits is quantitative and complex. Therefore, probably of successful selection these traits in early generations are low. Direction of dominance were negative for days to podding, number of double seed pods per plant, seed number and seed yield per plant that indicating amplifier effects of dominant genes for these traits, while the positive direction of dominance for basal pod height, number of pod, number of single seed pods per plant and number of empty pods per plant illustrates the effect of reducing dominant genes.

  14. Gluten-free snacks using plantain-chickpea and maize blend: chemical composition, starch digestibility, and predicted glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7 to 13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The snack with the highest unripe plantain flour showed higher slowly digestible starch (11.6 and 13.4 g/100 g) than its counterpart with the highest chickpea flour level (6 g/100 g). The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to that chili-flavored commercial snack. It was possible to develop gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber content and low predicted glycemic index with the blend of the 3 flours, and these gluten-free snacks may also be useful as an alternative to reduce excess weight and obesity problems in the general population and celiac community.

  15. Preparation of the Sugar Free Chickpea Yoghurt%无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅樱花

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to prepare the sugar free chickpea yoghurt.The results showed that the product of sugar free chickpea yoghurt was good in color,smell and flavor under the conditions of the inoculation size dose 7%,the fermentation time 10 h at 42 ℃ and the addition 0.05% aspartame.%以鹰嘴豆、复原乳为主要原料,将保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌作为发酵剂,按质量分数为7%进行接种,在发酵时间为10 h、发酵温度为42℃的条件下,添加不同水平的甜味剂进行无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶发酵研究。结果表明:阿斯巴甜在甜味和口感上较柔和,适合作为无糖鹰嘴豆酸奶的甜味剂使用,按质量分数0.05%水平进行添加得到的酸奶口感及风味较好。

  16. Potential of recycling gamma-irradiated sewage sludge for use as a fertilizer: a study on chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, G A; Sachidanand, S; Modi, V V

    1989-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiated sludge on the growth and yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in pot cultures have been studied. Compared to plants grown only in soil, root length, fresh weight and dry weight of plants grown in soil supplemented with unirradiated sludge were found to be significantly reduced. This inhibition in growth was found to be nullified when plants were grown in soil supplemented with gamma-irradiated sludge, suggesting that gamma radiation induced inactivation of toxic substance(s) in sludge. The protein content of plants grown in soil supplemented with irradiated sludge was also found to be significantly increased compared to those grown with unirradiated or no sludge, after 45 days. There was no significant effect of gamma irradiated sludge on shoot length, total soluble sugars, starch content and yield of chickpea plants. The results obtained suggest that the sludge tested, and obtained from the digester of a conventional domestic sewage treatment plant, is inhibitory to several growth parameters. Gamma irradiation of sewage resulted in removal of this inhibition. This suggests a possibility of beneficial and safe recycling of gamma-irradiated sludge for agricultural uses.

  17. Activity of the Recommended and Optimized Rates of Pyridate on Chickpea - Mesorhizobium mediterraneum Symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi PARSA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crop-rhizobium symbiosis can be influenced by leaching of herbicides which is unavoidable after their application. Due to an adjuvant which might help to develop the low-use-rate of herbicide, an experiment was carried out to compare the impact of the recommended rate (1200 g active ingredient ha-1 and the optimized rate (282.15 g active ingredient ha-1 of pyridate on the biological properties of eight chickpea cultivars inoculated with Mesorhizobium mediterraneum, grown in pots. Based on the required rate of herbicide to give 95% control of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L. value, the efficacy of pyridate improved up to 3.87-fold by adding methylated rapeseed oil to spray solution. The ‘Desi’ cultivar had significantly higher nodulation than ‘Kabuli’ cultivar. In general, toxicity of the recommended rate was higher than the optimized rate. With the exception of root dry weight, all of the measured parameters were significantly affected by the recommended rate of pyridate in varying degrees. The symbiotic properties of chickpea cultivars were affected more than 10% at the recommended dose. The reduced nodulation ranged from 29% to 73% among cultivars exposed to pyridate at the recommended dose. The ‘Desi’ cultivar was more sensitive than the ‘Kabuli’ to the recommended rate of pyridate. We may conclude that effective low-use-rate of pyridate via applying of activator adjuvants should be noted.

  18. Effect of Rhizobium and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterial Inoculants on Symbiotic Traits, Nodule Leghemoglobin, and Yield of Chickpea Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Tagore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was carried out during the rabi season of 2004-05 to find out the effect of Rhizobium and phosphate solubilizing bacterial (PSB inoculants on symbiotic traits, nodule leghemoglobin, and yield of five elite genotypes of chickpea. Among the chickpea genotypes, IG-593 performed better in respect of symbiotic parameters including nodule number, nodule fresh weight, nodule dry weight, shoot dry weight, yield attributes and yield. Leghemoglobin content (2.55 mg g−1 of fresh nodule was also higher under IG-593. Among microbial inoculants, the Rhizobium + PSB was found most effective in terms of nodule number (27.66 nodules plant−1, nodule fresh weight (144.90 mg plant−1, nodule dry weight (74.30 mg plant−1, shoot dry weight (11.76 g plant−1, and leghemoglobin content (2.29 mg g−1 of fresh nodule and also showed its positive effect in enhancing all the yield attributing parameters, grain and straw yields.

  19. Change in morphological properties of root and aerial parts of chickpea under drought stress, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Morad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi (Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices and Mesorhizobium Ciceri bacteria at three soil moisture levels [28% (field capacity, FC, 15% (-5 bar suction and 9% (-10 bar tension by weight] on morphological properties of root and aerial parts of chickpea, a greenhouse factorial experiment, arranged as a complete randomized design, was conducted in a sterilized soil. Results showed that moisture treatment had significance effect on number of pods, number of seeds, fresh and dry weight of root and aerial parts, plant height and root length and volume. Application of Mesorhizobium was effective on number of nodes, number of pods, number of seeds, fresh and dry weight of root and aerial parts, plant height, root length and volume. Glomus mosseae had significant effect on plant height. Interaction of moisture and AM fungi was significant on fresh and dry weight of root and aerial parts. Interaction effect of Mesorhizobium and soil moisture was only significant on number of nodes. In general, the highest fresh and dry weight of aerial parts (44.6 and 10.53 grams, respectively was obtained by inoculation of chickpea by rhizobium bacteria and Glomus mosseae at FC moisture level, and AM fungi Glomus mosseae was more efficient compared to Glomus intraradices in both drought stress and without stress conditions.

  20. Enhancement of plant growth and yields in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) through novel cyanobacterial and biofilmed inoculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidyarani, Ngangom; Prasanna, Radha; Babu, Santosh; Hossain, Firoz; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The use of Rhizobium inoculants in chickpea is well established; however, meagre efforts have been directed towards the use of other microbial supplements for improving nutrient uptake and yields. A set of novel cyanobacterial and biofilmed inoculants were evaluated in chickpea under field conditions. A significant two-fold enhancement in leghaemoglobin content of nodules and plant biomass was recorded with Anabaena laxa treatment. The inoculants - Anabaena laxa and Anabaena - Rhizobium biofilmed formulation proved to be the top-ranking treatments. Soil chlorophyll, nitrogen-fixation and available N possessed high positive direct effects on grain yield through positive - correlations and - high direct effects and also had high positive indirect effects through other component traits. The cumulative effect of improved plant growth and nutrient uptake exhibited a positive correlation with microbiological activity, especially nitrogen fixation, soil chlorophyll and soil available nitrogen. This may account for the significantly higher yield parameters in the A. laxa treatment, which recorded 50% higher grain yield (1724kgha(-1)) as compared to control (847kgha(-1)). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Prioritization of candidate genes in "QTL-hotspot" region for drought tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sandip M; Jaganathan, Deepa; Ruperao, Pradeep; Chen, Charles; Punna, Ramu; Kudapa, Himabindu; Thudi, Mahendar; Roorkiwal, Manish; Katta, Mohan A V S K; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Garg, Vanika; Kishor, P B Kavi; Gaur, Pooran M; Nguyen, Henry T; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David; Sutton, Tim; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2015-10-19

    A combination of two approaches, namely QTL analysis and gene enrichment analysis were used to identify candidate genes in the "QTL-hotspot" region for drought tolerance present on the Ca4 pseudomolecule in chickpea. In the first approach, a high-density bin map was developed using 53,223 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of ICC 4958 (drought tolerant) and ICC 1882 (drought sensitive) cross. QTL analysis using recombination bins as markers along with the phenotyping data for 17 drought tolerance related traits obtained over 1-5 seasons and 1-5 locations split the "QTL-hotspot" region into two subregions namely "QTL-hotspot_a" (15 genes) and "QTL-hotspot_b" (11 genes). In the second approach, gene enrichment analysis using significant marker trait associations based on SNPs from the Ca4 pseudomolecule with the above mentioned phenotyping data, and the candidate genes from the refined "QTL-hotspot" region showed enrichment for 23 genes. Twelve genes were found common in both approaches. Functional validation using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated four promising candidate genes having functional implications on the effect of "QTL-hotspot" for drought tolerance in chickpea.

  2. Salt sensitivity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): ions in reproductive tissues and yield components in contrasting genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotula, Lukasz; Khan, Hammad A; Quealy, John; Turner, Neil C; Vadez, Vincent; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Clode, Peta L; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-08-01

    The reproductive phase in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is affected by salinity, but little is known about the underlying cause. We investigated whether high concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the reproductive structures influence reproductive processes. Chickpea genotypes contrasting in tolerance were subjected to 0, 35 or 50 mm NaCl applied to soil in pots. Flower production and abortion, pod number, percentage of empty pods, seed number and size were evaluated. The concentrations of Na(+) , K(+) and Cl(-) were measured in various plant tissues and, using X-ray microanalysis, in specific cells of developing reproductive structures. Genotypic variation in reproductive success measured as seed yield in saline conditions was associated with better maintenance of flower production and higher numbers of filled pods (and thus seed number), whereas seed size decreased in all genotypes. Despite the variation in reproductive success, the accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the early reproductive tissues of developing pods did not differ between a tolerant (Genesis836) and a sensitive (Rupali) genotype. Similarly, salinity tolerance was not associated with the accumulation of salt ions in leaves at the time of reproduction or in seeds at maturity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Comparison of antioxidant enzyme activities and DNA damage in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes exposed to vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Muhammad; Mushtaq, Muhammad Adnan; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Yousaf, Balal; Ashraf, Muhammad; Shuanglian, Xiong; Rizwan, Muhammad; Mehmood, Sajid; Tu, Shuxin

    2016-10-01

    The present study was done to elucidate the effects of vanadium (V) on photosynthetic pigments, membrane damage, antioxidant enzymes, protein, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity in the following chickpea genotypes: C-44 (tolerant) and Balkasar (sensitive). Changes in these parameters were strikingly dependent on levels of V, at 60 and 120 mg V L(-1) induced DNA damage in Balkasar only, while photosynthetic pigments and protein were decreased from 15 to 120 mg V L(-1) and membrane was also damaged. It was shown that photosynthetic pigments and protein production declined from 15 to 120 mg V L(-1) and the membrane was also damaged, while DNA damage was not observed at any level of V stress in C-44. Moreover, the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) were increased in both genotypes of chickpea against V stress; however, more activities were observed in C-44 than Balkasar. The results suggest that DNA damage in sensitive genotypes can be triggered due to exposure of higher vanadium.

  4. Ageing mechanisms in chickpea seeds: Relationship of sugar hydrolysis and lipid peroxidation with Amadori and Millard reactions

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    mahdi shaaban

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was performed in order to study on ageing mechanisms of chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L. in natural storage and accelerated ageing conditions in seed laboratory of Gorgan Agricultural Science and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran at 2015. Experiment was in completely randomized design arrangement with four replications. Treatments were 2 and 4 years natural storage and 1-5 days of accelerated ageing with control treatment. The results showed that with increasing of natural storage and accelerated ageing duration, germination percentage was decreased. Increasing of ageing duration decreased soluble sugars, non-reducing sugars and soluble proteins but lipid peroxidation, reducing sugars, protein carbonylation and Amadori and Millard reaction were increased. In natural storage condition lipid peroxidation was more than sugar hydrolysis but in accelerated ageing condition sugar hydrolysis was more than lipid peroxidation. These results show that the main reason of Amadori and Millard reaction in chickpea seeds in natural storage condition is lipid peroxidation and in accelerated ageing condition is sugar hydrolysis. Also, the results showed that Amadori reaction in natural storage condition was more than Amadori reaction and in accelerated ageing condition Millard reaction was more than Amadori reaction. The results of the present study showed that sever Millard reaction after Amadori reaction induced higher damage on seed and results to more decrease of seed viability and reduce of seed germination percentage in accelerated ageing than natural storage.

  5. Exposure of seeds to static magnetic field enhances germination and early growth characteristics in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisth, Ananta; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2008-10-01

    Seeds of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) were exposed in batches to static magnetic fields of strength from 0 to 250 mT in steps of 50 mT for 1-4 h in steps of 1 h for all fields. Results showed that magnetic field application enhanced seed performance in terms of laboratory germination, speed of germination, seedling length and seedling dry weight significantly compared to unexposed control. However, the response varied with field strength and duration of exposure without any particular trend. Among the various combinations of field strength and duration, 50 mT for 2 h, 100 mT for 1 h and 150 mT for 2 h exposures gave best results. Exposure of seeds to these three magnetic fields improved seed coat membrane integrity as it reduced the electrical conductivity of seed leachate. In soil, seeds exposed to these three treatments produced significantly increased seedling dry weights of 1-month-old plants. The root characteristics of the plants showed dramatic increase in root length, root surface area and root volume. The improved functional root parameters suggest that magnetically treated chickpea seeds may perform better under rainfed (un-irrigated) conditions where there is a restrictive soil moisture regime.

  6. Using deficit irrigation with treated wastewater to improve crop water productivity of sweet corn, chickpea, faba bean and quinoa

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    Abdelaziz HIRICH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments were conducted in the south of Morocco (IAV-CHA, Agadir during two seasons 2010 and 2011 in order to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation with treated wastewater on several crops (quinoa, sweet corn, faba bean and chickpeas. During the first season (2010 three crops were tested, quinoa, chickpeas and sweet corn applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments during all crop stages alternating 100% of full irrigation as non-stress condition and 50% of full irrigation as water deficit condition applied during vegetative growth, flowering and grain filling stage. For all crops, the highest water productivity and yield were obtained when deficit irrigation was applied during the vegetative growth stage. During the second season (2011 two cultivars of quinoa, faba bean and sweet corn have been cultivated applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments (rainfed, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full irrigation only during the vegetative growth stage, while in the rest of crop cycle full irrigation was provided except for rainfed treatment. For quinoa and faba bean, treatment receiving 50% of full irrigation during vegetative growth stage recorded the highest yield and water productivity, while for sweet corn applying 75% of full irrigation was the optimal treatment in terms of yield and water productivity.

  7. Effects of exogenously applied salicylic acid and putrescine alone and in combination with rhizobacteria on the phytoremediation of heavy metals and chickpea growth in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naeem; Bano, Asghari

    2017-09-21

    The present attempt was made to study the role of exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) and putrescine (Put) on the phytoremediation of heavy metal and on the growth parameters of chickpea grown in sandy soil. The SA and Put were applied alone as well as in combination with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The PGPRs, isolated from the rhizosphere of chickpea were characterized on the basis of colony morphology and biochemical traits through gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests, and identified by 16S-rRNA gene sequencing as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus megaterium. The chickpea seeds were soaked in 24 h fresh cultures of isolates for 2-3 h prior to sowing. The growth regulators (PGRs), SA and Put (300 mg/L), were applied to the seedlings as foliar spray at 3-leaf stage. The result revealed that plants treated with SA and Put alone or in combination with PGPRs, significantly enhanced the accumulation of heavy metals in plant shoot. PGPR induces Ni accumulation in sensitive variety and Pb in both the varieties, the PGR in combination augment the bioremediation effects of PGPR and both sensitive and tolerant variety showed significant accumulation of Ni, Cd and Pb. SA was more effective in accumulating Ni and Cd whereas, significant accumulation of Pb was recorded in Put. PGPRs, further augmented the PGRs induced accumulation of heavy metals and macronutrients in chickpea shoot and in rhizosphere. SA increased the proline content of tolerant variety while decreasing the lipid peroxidation and proline content of the sensitive variety but decreased the stimulating effect of PGPR in proline production. Interactive effects of PGPR and PGRs is recommended for inducing phytoremediation in chickpea plants under drought stress.

  8. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from wheat (Triticum aestivum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), green gram (Vigna radiata), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum) as influenced by domestic food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hithamani, Gavirangappa; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2014-11-19

    Cereals (wheat and sorghum) and legumes (green gram and chickpea) commonly consumed in Asia and Africa were evaluated for polyphenolic content. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols from these grains as influenced by domestic processing was also estimated. Total polyphenol content of wheat and sorghum was 1.20 and 1.12 mg/g respectively, which was increased by 49% and 20% respectively, on roasting. In contrast, a significant reduction of the same was observed in both the cereals after pressure-cooking, open-pan boiling, and microwave heating. Total flavonoids, which was 0.89 mg/g in native sorghum, reduced drastically after processing. Tannin content of both the cereals significantly increased on sprouting as well as roasting. Total polyphenol content reduced by 31% on sprouting but increased to 24% on roasting in green gram. Pressure-cooking (53%), open-pan boiling (64%), and microwave heating (>2-fold increase) significantly increased total polyphenol content in chickpea, while drastic reduction was observed in the total flavonoid content. Bioaccessible total polyphenols from these grains were in the following order: green gram > chickpea > wheat > sorghum. Domestic processing of these grains had minimal/no effect on the bioaccessible total flavonoid content. Not all the phenolic compounds present in them were bioaccessible. Concentration of bioaccessible phenolic compounds increased especially on sprouting and roasting of these grains, except chickpea, where sprouting significantly reduced the same (476 to 264 μg/g). Microwave heating significantly enhanced the concentration of bioaccessible polyphenols especially from chickpea. Thus, sprouting and roasting provided more bioaccessible polyphenols from the cereals and legumes studied.

  9. The CarERF genes in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and the identification of CarERF116 as abiotic stress responsive transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deokar, Amit A; Kondawar, Vishwajith; Kohli, Deshika; Aslam, Mohammad; Jain, Pradeep K; Karuppayil, S Mohan; Varshney, Rajeev K; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy

    2015-01-01

    The AP2/ERF family is one of the largest transcription factor gene families that are involved in various plant processes, especially in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Complete genome sequences of one of the world's most important pulse crops chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), has provided an important opportunity to identify and characterize genome-wide ERF genes. In this study, we identified 120 putative ERF genes from chickpea. The genomic organization of the chickpea ERF genes suggested that the gene family might have been expanded through the segmental duplications. The 120 member ERF family was classified into eleven distinct groups (I-X and VI-L). Transcriptional factor CarERF116, which is differentially expressed between drought tolerant and susceptible chickpea cultivar under terminal drought stress has been identified and functionally characterized. The CarERF116 encodes a putative protein of 241 amino acids and classified into group IX of ERF family. An in vitro CarERF116 protein-DNA binding assay demonstrated that CarERF116 protein specifically interacts with GCC box. We demonstrate that CarERF116 is capable of transactivation activity of and show that the functional transcriptional domain lies at the C-terminal region of the CarERF116. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CarERF116, significant up-regulation of several stress related genes were observed. These plants also exhibit resistance to osmotic stress and reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination. Based on these findings, we conclude that CarERF116 is an abiotic stress responsive gene, which plays an important role in stress tolerance. In addition, the present study leads to genome-wide identification and evolutionary analyses of chickpea ERF gene family, which will facilitate further research on this important group of genes and provides valuable resources for comparative genomics among the grain legumes.

  10. The relationship of hyper-spectral vegetation indices with leaf area index (LAI) over the growth cycle of wheat and chickpea at 3 nm spectral resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T. S.

    2006-01-01

    Hyperspectral ratio and normalized difference vegetation indices were computed from the 3 nm bandwidth ground-based spectral data taken in 400-950 nm wave length region over the crop growth cycle (CGC) of wheat and chickpea. Synthesized broad band Landsat TM-RVI, TM-NDVI and TM-SAVI were also computed using this narrow bandwidth spectral observations. Regression analysis was carried out for these indices with leaf area index (LAI) for wheat and chickpea over CGC and the r2 values were found poor in 0.2-0.53 range for wheat and in 0.41-0.82 range for chickpea. Significant relationship with LAI were found for wheat ( r2 in 0.86-0.97 range) when growth and decline phases were analyzed independently. Here, r2 values for chickpea were less than that for wheat. The high difference in rate of change of slope for hRVI is a good discriminator for high ET (wheat) and low ET (chickpea) crops. To find out the potential hyperspectral ratios and normalized difference indices that could provide strong relationship with LAI, a correlation-based analysis was carried out for LAI with all the possible combinations of ratios and normalized difference indices in 400-950 nm region (at 3 nm spectral interval) independently for growth and decline phases of LAI and found that in addition to traditional near-IR and red pairs, the pairs within near-IR, near-IR and visible extending to near-IR were also significantly related to LAI.

  11. The Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea Rhizobia Can Be Improved by Additional Copies of the clpB Chaperone Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paço, Ana; Brígido, Clarisse; Alexandre, Ana; Mateos, Pedro F; Oliveira, Solange

    2016-01-01

    The ClpB chaperone is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. Moreover, recent studies suggest that this protein has also a role in the chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. In order to improve both stress tolerance and symbiotic performance of a chickpea microsymbiont, the Mesorhizobium mediterraneum UPM-Ca36T strain was genetically transformed with pPHU231 containing an extra-copy of the clpB gene. To investigate if the clpB-transformed strain displays an improved stress tolerance, bacterial growth was evaluated under heat and acid stress conditions. In addition, the effect of the extra-copies of the clpB gene in the symbiotic performance was evaluated using plant growth assays (hydroponic and pot trials). The clpB-transformed strain is more tolerant to heat shock than the strain transformed with pPHU231, supporting the involvement of ClpB in rhizobia heat shock tolerance. Both plant growth assays showed that ClpB has an important role in chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. The nodulation kinetics analysis showed a higher rate of nodule appearance with the clpB-transformed strain. This strain also induced a greater number of nodules and, more notably, its symbiotic effectiveness increased ~60% at pH5 and 83% at pH7, compared to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, a higher frequency of root hair curling was also observed in plants inoculated with the clpB-transformed strain, compared to the wild-type strain. The superior root hair curling induction, nodulation ability and symbiotic effectiveness of the clpB-transformed strain may be explained by an increased expression of symbiosis genes. Indeed, higher transcript levels of the nodulation genes nodA and nodC (~3 folds) were detected in the clpB-transformed strain. The improvement of rhizobia by addition of extra-copies of the clpB gene may be a promising strategy to obtain strains with enhanced stress tolerance and symbiotic effectiveness, thus contributing to their success as crop inoculants, particularly under

  12. An Integrated Genomic Approach for Rapid Delineation of Candidate Genes Regulating Agro-Morphological Traits in Chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Maneesha S.; Bajaj, Deepak; Das, Shouvik; Kujur, Alice; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Mohar; Bansal, Kailash C.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2014-01-01

    The identification and fine mapping of robust quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/genes governing important agro-morphological traits in chickpea still lacks systematic efforts at a genome-wide scale involving wild Cicer accessions. In this context, an 834 simple sequence repeat and single-nucleotide polymorphism marker-based high-density genetic linkage map between cultivated and wild parental accessions (Cicer arietinum desi cv. ICC 4958 and Cicer reticulatum wild cv. ICC 17160) was constructed. This inter-specific genetic map comprising eight linkage groups spanned a map length of 949.4 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 1.14 cM. Eleven novel major genomic regions harbouring 15 robust QTLs (15.6–39.8% R2 at 4.2–15.7 logarithm of odds) associated with four agro-morphological traits (100-seed weight, pod and branch number/plant and plant hairiness) were identified and mapped on chickpea chromosomes. Most of these QTLs showed positive additive gene effects with effective allelic contribution from ICC 4958, particularly for increasing seed weight (SW) and pod and branch number. One robust SW-influencing major QTL region (qSW4.2) has been narrowed down by combining QTL mapping with high-resolution QTL region-specific association analysis, differential expression profiling and gene haplotype-based association/LD mapping. This enabled to delineate a strong SW-regulating ABI3VP1 transcription factor (TF) gene at trait-specific QTL interval and consequently identified favourable natural allelic variants and superior high seed weight-specific haplotypes in the upstream regulatory region of this gene showing increased transcript expression during seed development. The genes (TFs) harbouring diverse trait-regulating QTLs, once validated and fine-mapped by our developed rapid integrated genomic approach and through gene/QTL map-based cloning, can be utilized as potential candidates for marker-assisted genetic enhancement of chickpea. PMID:25335477

  13. Evaluation of chickpea genotypes for resistance to Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei disease in the dry highlands of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. KIMURTO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum is an edible legume grown widely for its nutritious seed, which is rich in protein, minerals, vitamins and dietary fibre. It’s a new crop in Kenya whose potential has not been utilized fully due to abiotic and biotic stresses that limit its productivity. The crop is affected mainly by Ascochyta blight (AB which is widespread in cool dry highlands causing up to 100% yield loss. The objective of this study was to evalu- ate the resistance of selected chickpea genotypes to AB in dry highlands of Kenya. The study was done in 2 sites (Egerton University-Njoro and Agricultural Training centre-ATC-Koibatek for one season during long rains of 2010/2011 growing season. Thirty six genotypes from reference sets and mini-core samples introduced from ICR- SAT were evaluated. There were significant (P<0.001 differences in AB responses and grain yield performance in test genotypes in both sites. AB was more severe at Egerton-Njoro (mean score 5.7 than ATC-Koibatek (mean score 4.25, with subsequent low grain yield. Genotypes ICC7052, ICC4463, ICC4363, ICC2884, ICC7150, ICC15294 and ICC11627 had both highest grain yield in decreasing order (mean range 1790-1053 Kg ha-1 and best resist- ance to AB. Further evaluation is needed in other multi-locations and their use in breeding program determined especially because of their undesirable black seed color. Commercial varieties (LDT068, LDT065, Chania desi 1, and Saina K1 were all susceptible to AB, but with grain yield >1200 Kg ha-1. The findings of the study showed that chickpea should be sown during the short rains (summer in the dry highlands of Kenya when conditions are drier and warmer and less favorable for AB infection. However yield could be increased by shifting the sowing date from dry season to long rain (winter thus avoiding terminal drought if AB resistant cultivars with acceptable agronomic traits could be identified.

  14. Field evaluation of cutter and feeder mechanism of chickpea harvester for lentil harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kamgar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The main producers of lentil are Canada, India, Nepal and China, respectively and Iran is the ninth producer in the world. The hand pulling is the usual method of lentil harvesting. Use of conventional combine because of short leg varieties, wide combine head in dry land and grain losses by cutter bar vibrations is impossible. So a mechanism should be designed to harvest the lentil plants with minimum damage. This mechanism should be evaluated under different tests of crop and machines such as forward speed (FS, grain moisture content (GMC, different varieties and other parameters. Some researchers studied the effects of GMC (Andrews and et al., 1993; Huitink, 2005; Adisa, 2009; Abdi and Jalali, 2013 and FS on grain losses (Geng et al., 1984; Swapan et al., 2001; Mostafavand and Kamgar, 2014; Hunt, 1995. Field tests were conducted at three levels of FS 1.5, 3 and 4.5 km.h-1; three levels of cutting height (CH 4, 8 and 13 cm and two levels of GMC, 8 and 14% on two varieties of lentils including Flip and Shiraz with three replications. Materials and Methods The feeder and cutter mechanism for chickpea harvesting that was the base design of device which is notched wheel and counter shear, was used. The other components of device were dividers, slat and chain feeders, belt and pulleys, chassis, elevator conveyor and storage. Two split plot design based on a randomized complete design was used to determine the effects of above treatments on lentil losses. Results and Discussion The ANOVA results indicated that the all studied factors; FS of feeder and cutter mechanism, CH and GMC had significant effect on losses of Shiraz variety (P0.05. The ranges of losses of Flip variety at 8% GMC were 8.6 to 10% for FS of 1.5 km.h-1, 9.1 to 10.4% for FS of 3 km.h-1and 10.4 to 11.4% for FS of 4.5 km h-1. These ranges at 14% GMC were 7.9 to 8.9% for FS of 1.5 km.h-1, 8.4 to 9.2% for FS of 3 km.h-1and 8.5 to 10% for FS of 4.5 km h-1. The ranges of

  15. Agro-productive evaluation of 11 chickpea varieties (Cicer arietinum, L. in a oxisol soil in the municipality Las Tunas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ruz Reyes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment, in order to evaluate the performance of 11 chickpea (Cicer arietinum, L. cultivated varieties was carried out in the La Estrella farm, Cooperative of Credit and Service “Eduardo Pérez Sánchez”, Las Tunas municipaliaty during december 2010 to march 2011. The cultivars evaluate were N-5 HA, NAC-6, NAC-24, NAC-29, NAC-30 NAC-31, NAC-37, J-96, Mocorito-88, L-25 and JP-94, (local genotype as control. A random block design with four replicates was employed for evaluating physiological and field indicators. The dry plant mass, number pots and grain by plant, and weight of 100 grains of Mocorito-88 cultivar were larger.

  16. Yield Responses of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L. to Intercropping with Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and Bean (Phaseoluse vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koocheki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of intercropping on yield of black cumin in intercropping with chickpea and bean, an experiment was conducted in a complete randomized block design with four replications. Crops were planted as pure stands and intercrops in three arrangements: A alternating rows of a field crop and a medicinal plant, B two rows of field crops and one row of medicinal plant, C alternating double rows of field crops and medicinal plants. Results showed that land equivalent ratio was more than 1 in all treatment indicating seed yield of the plants were higher in pure stands compared to intercrops but the advantages of the intercropping compared to sole cropping. Black cumin performed best in alternating rows of a field crop and a medicinal plant and alternating double rows of field crops and medicinal plants treatments and the highest partial land equivalent ratio was also related to black seed in these treatments.

  17. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  18. Twin screw extrusion of kodo millet-chickpea blend: process parameter optimization, physico-chemical and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, R; Mishra, H N; Srivastav, P P

    2014-11-01

    Kodo millet-chickpea flour blend (70:30) was explored for development of directly expanded snack by twin-screw extrusion. Effect of process parameters like temperature (80-150 °C), screw speed (250-300 rpm) and feeder speed (15-30 rpm) on physical properties (expansion ratio, bulk density, hardness, crispiness) of extrudates were investigated and optimized using response surface methodology. Desirable crispy extrudates were obtained at higher screw speed 293 rpm, lower feeder speed 19 rpm, and medium to high temperature of 123 °C. Effect of extreme and intermediate process conditions on functional, proximate quality and colour of the extrudates were also evaluated.

  19. Agronomic importance of first development of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under semi-arid conditions: II. Seed imbibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukan, H; Bayraktar, N; Oksel, A; Gursoy, M; Kocak, N

    2012-02-15

    Due to the slowness growth and weakness of the first developments of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), it could not combated with weeds and easily caught up by Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta rabiei (Pass) Labr.) disease. Additionally, due to biotic and abiotic stress factors, esp. at the late sowing, important seed yield losses could be happened. To be able to avoid from them is only possible to accelerate of its first development as possible as. So, one of the best solutions to is to use chemical compounds such as Humic Acid (HA) known soil regulator under the semi-arid conditions. With this aim this research was performed in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications under semi-arid field conditions during (2008/2009) and (2009/2010) in Turkiye. Two cultivars (V1 = Gokce and V2 = Ispanyol) and four seed imbibition methods (A0 = 0, A1 = Tap Water, A2 = 1/2 Tap Water + 1/2 Humic acid (HA), A3 = Full HA, as w/w) and seven yield components Plant Height (PH), Number of Branches per Plant (NBP), Number of Pods per Plant (NPP), First Pod Height (NFP), Number of Seeds per Pod (NSP), Seed Weight per Plant (SWP) and 100-Seed weight (HSW) were investigated. The PH and FPH were affected the A0, the NBP, NPP and NSP were affected the A2 and the SWP and HSW were given the varied but not clear responses according to varieties for all the parameters in A1. The A0 and A1 were encouraged the germination and top soil of the plant but, the A2 to A3 were encouraged root system's development. It was concluded that the A2 is a promising method which makes the maximum and positive effect to the first development of the chickpea agronomy under the semi-arid conditions.

  20. Genome-wide identification and structure-function studies of proteases and protease inhibitors in Cicer arietinum (chickpea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ranu; Suresh, C G

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are a family of enzymes present in almost all living organisms. In plants they are involved in many biological processes requiring stress response in situations such as water deficiency, pathogen attack, maintaining protein content of the cell, programmed cell death, senescence, reproduction and many more. Similarly, protease inhibitors (PIs) are involved in various important functions like suppression of invasion by pathogenic nematodes, inhibition of spores-germination and mycelium growth of Alternaria alternata and response to wounding and fungal attack. As much as we know, no genome-wide study of proteases together with proteinaceous PIs is reported in any of the sequenced genomes till now. Phylogenetic studies and domain analysis of proteases were carried out to understand the molecular evolution as well as gene and protein features. Structural analysis was carried out to explore the binding mode and affinity of PIs for cognate proteases and prolyl oligopeptidase protease with inhibitor ligand. In the study reported here, a significant number of proteases and PIs were identified in chickpea genome. The gene expression profiles of proteases and PIs in five different plant tissues revealed a differential expression pattern in more than one plant tissue. Molecular dynamics studies revealed the formation of stable complex owing to increased number of protein-ligand and inter and intramolecular protein-protein hydrogen bonds. The genome-wide identification, characterization, evolutionary understanding, gene expression, and structural analysis of proteases and PIs provide a framework for future analysis when defining their roles in stress response and developing a more stress tolerant variety of chickpea. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Growth analysis of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Análise de crescimento do grão-de-bico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S.S. Nogueira

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment to study the growing pattern of a chickpea variety, IAC-Marrocos, was carried out at the Monte Alegre Experimental Station, SP, during 1987 and 1988. The dry matter production of all parts of the plant, as well the leaf area index, were weekly evaluated. Exponential quadratic models of regression were adjusted to total dry matter, leaf dry matter and leaf area index, and a linear model to dry matter of grain. Based on the growth analysis it was concluded that the chickpea is a rustic eatable plant that can be recommended as an alternative winter crop for similar climatic conditions as those of the experiment.Com a finalidade de avaliar o padrão de crescimento do grão-de-bico, variedade IAC-Marrocos, realizou-se um experimento na Estação Experimental de Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, nos anos agrícolas de 1987 e 1988. Semanalmente eram feitas coletas de plantas e após a separação das partes, eram obtidos os pesos secos, bem como o índice de área foliar. Esses dados foram analisados com modelos de regressão linear e exponencial ajustados para as matérias secas de grão, de folha e total e para os índices de área foliar e de crescimento. Baseando-se na análise de crescimento conclui-se que o grão-de-bico é uma planta que pode ser recomendada como alternativa para a cultura de inverno em condições climáticas semelhantes às do presente estudo.

  2. Isoflavones extracted from chickpea Cicer arietinum L. sprouts induce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Ma, Hai-Rong; Gao, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Xue; Habasi, Madina; Hu, Rui; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2015-02-01

    Isoflavones are important chemical components of the seeds and sprouts of chickpeas. We systematically investigated the effects of isoflavones extracted from chickpea sprouts (ICS) on the human breast cancer cell lines SKBr3 and Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7). 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays showed that ICS (10-60 µg/mL) significantly inhibited the proliferation of both cell lines in a time-dependent and dose-dependent fashion. Wright-Giemsa staining as well as annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide (Annexin V/PI) staining showed that ICS significantly increased cytoclasis and apoptotic body formation. Quantitative Annexin V/PI assays further showed that the number of apoptotic cells increased in a dose-dependent manner following ICS treatment. Semiquantitative reverse transcription PCR showed that ICS increased the expression of the apoptosis-promoting gene Bcl-2-associated X protein and decreased the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2. Western blot analysis showed that treatment of SKBr3 and MCF-7 cells with ICS increased the expression of caspase 7, caspase 9, P53, and P21 in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry assays using the fluorescent probe 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide showed a dose-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential following ICS treatment. Treatment using ICS also induced a dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species production. This is the first study to demonstrate that ICS may be a chemopreventive or therapeutic agent against breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Primary metabolism of chickpea is the initial target of wound inducing early sensed Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri race I.

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    Sumanti Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biotrophic interaction between host and pathogen induces generation of reactive oxygen species that leads to programmed cell death of the host tissue specifically encompassing the site of infection conferring resistance to the host. However, in the present study, biotrophic relationship between Fusarium oxysporum and chickpea provided some novel insights into the classical concepts of defense signaling and disease perception where ROS (reactive oxygen species generation followed by hypersensitive responses determined the magnitude of susceptibility or resistant potentiality of the host. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Microscopic observations detected wound mediated in planta pathogenic establishment and its gradual progression within the host vascular tissue. cDNA-AFLP showed differential expression of many defense responsive elements. Real time expression profiling also validated the early recognition of the wound inducing pathogen by the host. The interplay between fungus and host activated changes in primary metabolism, which generated defense signals in the form of sugar molecules for combating pathogenic encounter. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study showed the limitations of hypersensitive response mediated resistance, especially when foreign encounters involved the food production as well as the translocation machinery of the host. It was also predicted from the obtained results that hypersensitivity and active species generation failed to impart host defense in compatible interaction between chickpea and Fusarium. On the contrary, the defense related gene(s played a critical role in conferring natural resistance to the resistant host. Thus, this study suggests that natural selection is the decisive factor for selecting and segregating out the suitable type of defense mechanism to be undertaken by the host without disturbing its normal metabolism, which could deviate from the known classical defense mechanisms.

  4. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum steep liquor as a leavening agent: Effect on dough rheology and sensory properties of bread

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    Saad Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dough fermentation is one of the oldest process in food technologies. It has been recently intensively studied for its impact on the sensory, structural, nutritional and shelf life properties of leavened baked products. The goals of this work were to investigate chickpea steep liquor (CSL as a dough-leavening agent and to study the effect of CSL on the dough rheology and sensory properties of leavened bread. CSL was prepared by submerging chickpea seeds in boiled distilled water (1:2, w/v for 24 h at 37оC, and then obtained liquor was filtered and freeze-dried to obtain CSL. The addition of CSL to wheat flour (WF brought changes in the dough mixing behavior as measured by the farinograph. An increase in the farinograph water absorption of WF dough was observed when 4.5% CSL and 1.5% yeast was added, while arrival time was not affected. Addition of CSL to the dough at a content of 4.5, 9.0 and 13.5 g CSL/300 g WF caused an increase in dough stability. The CSL addition also increased mechanical tolerance index, dough weakening and mixing time. Dough development time for all blends was higher than the control (1.2-1.5 min, while between the CSL samples no significant difference was observed. The loaf weight slightly increased from 146.2 g for control to 152.2 g for CSL fermented bread, whereas the loaf volume and specific volume of CSL-fermented bread were lower than the control. The combination of yeast and CSL increased the acceptability of bread with the increasing level of both leavening agents’. The results show that CSL could be used as an alternative to yeast for syngas fermentation. On the other hand, CLS is rich in nutrients and lower in cost compared to yeast.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF RECIPE COMPONENTS ON QUALITY PARAMETERS OF AERATED DOUGH AND WHOLEGRAIN BREAD FROM CHICKPEA SEEDS

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    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the effect of using table salt, apple juice and citric acid on quality parameters of aerated dough and bread prepared by mechanical leavening. The wholegrain flour from chickpea seeds has been used to prepare dough. The amount of salt is in the range from 1 to 3 %, apple juice from 5 to 25%, citric acid 0.05 to 0.2 % over the weight of the flour. The working mechanism of recipe components on the process of foaming while kneading of the semi-finished products of chickpea flour has been identified. The increase of their amount leads to increase of active acidity of the test and brings the protein pH to isoelectric point. Thus increasing the foaming capacity of the albuminous substances while kneading the semis. It has been founded that the maximum foaming capacity of the semis is achieved at pH 5.5. At the same time a decrease in the bulk density of the dough and the increase in specific volume of the baked product. In this case, the samples are characterized by lower bulk density (0.32 g / cm3 , and maximum specific volume of finished product (365 cm3 / 100 g. The reasonable amount of components in the bread recipe: table salt 1.5 %, apple juice 5.0 %, citric acid 0.1 % over weight of flour has been recommended. The data obtained form the basis for the development of technology of aerated bread "Atreus" with higher nutritional and biological value. The degree of satisfaction of adult daily need of 100 g of the product is, %: protein 17, dietary fiber 39, magnesium 21, phosphorus 28, iron 30, potassium, thiamine and riboflavin 18. The product is recommended for mass consumption in order to enrich dietary intake with protein, dietary fiber. minerals and vitamins.

  6. Garbanzo diet lowers cholesterol in hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol-lowering potential of diets with 22% protein from Chickpea (Cicer arietinum, European variety of Garbanzo, Kabuli Chana), Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum, Asian variety of Garbanzo, Desi Chana, smaller in size, yellow to black color), lentils, soy protein isolate, hydrolyzed salmon protein...

  7. Electrophoretic Analysis on the Enzyme Hydrolysis of Chickpea Protein%鹰嘴豆分离蛋白酶解过程的电泳分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      对国产碱性蛋白酶降解鹰嘴豆分离蛋白的酶解过程及酶解产物的水解度和电泳结果进行了分析研究.结果表明,国产蛋白酶可有效降解鹰嘴豆分离蛋白为小分子蛋白肽;使用碱性蛋白酶、木瓜蛋白酶、菠萝蛋白酶顺序酶解鹰嘴豆分离蛋白3 h 时的水解度可达到35.42%以上,此时绝大多数鹰嘴豆分离蛋白被降解为小分子肽.实验结果为鹰嘴豆蛋白的开发利用与鹰嘴豆的精深加工提供了科学依据.%In this paper,we determined the degree of hydrolysis(DH) of the chickpea protein with three proteolytic enzymes of alcalase,papain and bromelain(domestic)at different times,and analysed the electrophoretic pattern of the hydrolytic products. The result shows that after treated with the proteases for three hours,the chickpea proteins were mostly hydrolysed into oligopeptides,and the DH value(35.42%)of chickpea protein hydrolyzing by the three proteases above-mentioned under each optimum conditions respectively in order was much higher than that of the DH of chickpea protein hydrolyzing by the three proteases simultaneously.

  8. Investigation of genes encoding calcineurin B-like protein family in legumes and their expression analyses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Meena

    Full Text Available Calcium ion (Ca2+ is a ubiquitous second messenger that transmits various internal and external signals including stresses and, therefore, is important for plants' response process. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs are one of the plant calcium sensors, which sense and convey the changes in cytosolic Ca2+-concentration for response process. A search in four leguminous plant (soybean, Medicago truncatula, common bean and chickpea genomes identified 9 to 15 genes in each species that encode CBL proteins. Sequence analyses of CBL peptides and coding sequences (CDS suggested that there are nine original CBL genes in these legumes and some of them were multiplied during whole genome or local gene duplication. Coding sequences of chickpea CBL genes (CaCBL were cloned from their cDNAs and sequenced, and their annotations in the genome assemblies were corrected accordingly. Analyses of protein sequences and gene structures of CBL family in plant kingdom indicated its diverse origin but showed a remarkable conservation in overall protein structure with appearance of complex gene structure in the course of evolution. Expression of CaCBL genes in different tissues and in response to different stress and hormone treatment were studied. Most of the CaCBL genes exhibited high expression in flowers. Expression profile of CaCBL genes in response to different abiotic stresses and hormones related to development and stresses (ABA, auxin, cytokinin, SA and JA at different time intervals suggests their diverse roles in development and plant defence in addition to abiotic stress tolerance. These data not only contribute to a better understanding of the complex regulation of chickpea CBL gene family, but also provide valuable information for further research in chickpea functional genomics.

  9. Investigation of genes encoding calcineurin B-like protein family in legumes and their expression analyses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Mukesh Kumar; Ghawana, Sanjay; Sardar, Atish; Dwivedi, Vikas; Khandal, Hitaishi; Roy, Riti; Chattopadhyay, Debasis

    2015-01-01

    Calcium ion (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous second messenger that transmits various internal and external signals including stresses and, therefore, is important for plants' response process. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) are one of the plant calcium sensors, which sense and convey the changes in cytosolic Ca2+-concentration for response process. A search in four leguminous plant (soybean, Medicago truncatula, common bean and chickpea) genomes identified 9 to 15 genes in each species that encode CBL proteins. Sequence analyses of CBL peptides and coding sequences (CDS) suggested that there are nine original CBL genes in these legumes and some of them were multiplied during whole genome or local gene duplication. Coding sequences of chickpea CBL genes (CaCBL) were cloned from their cDNAs and sequenced, and their annotations in the genome assemblies were corrected accordingly. Analyses of protein sequences and gene structures of CBL family in plant kingdom indicated its diverse origin but showed a remarkable conservation in overall protein structure with appearance of complex gene structure in the course of evolution. Expression of CaCBL genes in different tissues and in response to different stress and hormone treatment were studied. Most of the CaCBL genes exhibited high expression in flowers. Expression profile of CaCBL genes in response to different abiotic stresses and hormones related to development and stresses (ABA, auxin, cytokinin, SA and JA) at different time intervals suggests their diverse roles in development and plant defence in addition to abiotic stress tolerance. These data not only contribute to a better understanding of the complex regulation of chickpea CBL gene family, but also provide valuable information for further research in chickpea functional genomics.

  10. Large-scale transcriptome analysis in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), an orphan legume crop of the semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Pavana J; Farmer, Andrew; Cannon, Steven B; Woodward, Jimmy; Kudapa, Himabindu; Tuteja, Reetu; Kumar, Ashish; Bhanuprakash, Amindala; Mulaosmanovic, Benjamin; Gujaria, Neha; Krishnamurthy, Laxmanan; Gaur, Pooran M; Kavikishor, Polavarapu B; Shah, Trushar; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Lohse, Marc; Xiao, Yongli; Town, Christopher D; Cook, Douglas R; May, Gregory D; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2011-10-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important legume crop in the semi-arid regions of Asia and Africa. Gains in crop productivity have been low however, particularly because of biotic and abiotic stresses. To help enhance crop productivity using molecular breeding techniques, next generation sequencing technologies such as Roche/454 and Illumina/Solexa were used to determine the sequence of most gene transcripts and to identify drought-responsive genes and gene-based molecular markers. A total of 103,215 tentative unique sequences (TUSs) have been produced from 435,018 Roche/454 reads and 21,491 Sanger expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Putative functions were determined for 49,437 (47.8%) of the TUSs, and gene ontology assignments were determined for 20,634 (41.7%) of the TUSs. Comparison of the chickpea TUSs with the Medicago truncatula genome assembly (Mt 3.5.1 build) resulted in 42,141 aligned TUSs with putative gene structures (including 39,281 predicted intron/splice junctions). Alignment of ∼37 million Illumina/Solexa tags generated from drought-challenged root tissues of two chickpea genotypes against the TUSs identified 44,639 differentially expressed TUSs. The TUSs were also used to identify a diverse set of markers, including 728 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 495 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 387 conserved orthologous sequence (COS) markers, and 2088 intron-spanning region (ISR) markers. This resource will be useful for basic and applied research for genome analysis and crop improvement in chickpea. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  11. Genome-wide dissection of AP2/ERF and HSP90 gene families in five legumes and expression profiles in chickpea and pigeonpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Gaurav; Garg, Vanika; Kudapa, Himabindu; Doddamani, Dadakhalandar; Pazhamala, Lekha T; Khan, Aamir W; Thudi, Mahendar; Lee, Suk-Ha; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-07-01

    APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) and heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) are two significant classes of transcription factor and molecular chaperone proteins which are known to be implicated under abiotic and biotic stresses. Comprehensive survey identified a total of 147 AP2/ERF genes in chickpea, 176 in pigeonpea, 131 in Medicago, 179 in common bean and 140 in Lotus, whereas the number of HSP90 genes ranged from 5 to 7 in five legumes. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses distinguished AP2, ERF, DREB, RAV and soloist proteins, while HSP90 proteins segregated on the basis of their cellular localization. Deeper insights into the gene structure allowed ERF proteins to be classified into AP2s based on DNA-binding domains, intron arrangements and phylogenetic grouping. RNA-seq and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses in heat-stressed chickpea as well as Fusarium wilt (FW)- and sterility mosaic disease (SMD)-stressed pigeonpea provided insights into the modus operandi of AP2/ERF and HSP90 genes. This study identified potential candidate genes in response to heat stress in chickpea while for FW and SMD stresses in pigeonpea. For instance, two DREB genes (Ca_02170 and Ca_16631) and three HSP90 genes (Ca_23016, Ca_09743 and Ca_25602) in chickpea can be targeted as potential candidate genes. Similarly, in pigeonpea, a HSP90 gene, C.cajan_27949, was highly responsive to SMD in the resistant genotype ICPL 20096, can be recommended for further functional validation. Also, two DREB genes, C.cajan_41905 and C.cajan_41951, were identified as leads for further investigation in response to FW stress in pigeonpea.

  12. Marker-Assisted Backcrossing to Introgress Resistance to Fusarium Wilt Race 1 and Ascochyta Blight in C 214, an Elite Cultivar of Chickpea

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    R. K. Varshney

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt (FW and Ascochyta blight (AB are two major constraints to chickpea (Cicer arietinum production,Fusarium wilt (FW and Ascochyta blight (AB are two major constraints to chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. production. Therefore, two parallel marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC programs by targeting foc1 locus and two quantitative trait loci (QTL regions, ABQTL-I and ABQTL-II, were undertaken to introgress resistance to FW and AB, respectively, in C 214, an elite cultivar of chickpea. In the case of FW, foreground selection (FGS was conducted with six markers (TR19, TA194, TAA60, GA16, TA110, and TS82 linked to foc1 in the cross C 214 × WR 315 (FW-resistant. On the other hand, eight markers (TA194, TR58, TS82, GA16, SCY17, TA130, TA2, and GAA47 linked with ABQTL-I and ABQTL-II were used in the case of AB by deploying C 214 × ILC 3279 (AB-resistant cross. Background selection (BGS in both crosses was employed with evenly distributed 40 (C 214 × WR 315 to 43 (C 214 × ILC 3279 SSR markers in the chickpea genome to select plant(s with higher recurrent parent genome (RPG recovery. By using three backcrosses and three rounds of selfing, 22 BC3F4 lines were generated for C 214 × WR 315 cross and 14 MABC lines for C 214 × ILC 3279 cross. Phenotyping of these lines has identified three resistant lines (with 92.7–95.2% RPG to race 1 of FW, and seven resistant lines (with 81.7–85.40% RPG to AB that may be tested for yield and other agronomic traits under multilocation trials for possible release and cultivation.

  13. Exciting journey of 10 years from genomes to fields and markets: Some success stories of genomics-assisted breeding in chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    Legume crops such as chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, mostly grown in marginal environments, are the major source of nutrition and protein to the human population in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. These crops, however, have a low productivity, mainly due to their exposure to several biotic and abiotic stresses in the marginal environments. Until 2005, these crops had limited genomics resources and molecular breeding was very challenging. During the last decade (2005-2015), ICRISAT led demand-driven innovations in genome science and translated the massive genome information in breeding. For instance, large-scale genomic resources including draft genome assemblies, comprehensive genetic and physical maps, thousands of SSR markers, millions of SNPs, several high-throughput as well as low cost marker genotyping platforms have been developed in these crops. After mapping several breeding related traits, several success stories of translational genomics have become available in these legumes. These include development of superior lines with enhanced drought tolerance in chickpea, enhanced and pyramided resistance to Fusarium wilt and Ascochyta blight in chickpea, enhanced resistance to leaf rust in groundnut, improved oil quality in groundnut and utilization of markers for assessing purity of hybrids/parental lines in pigeonpea. Some of these stories together with future prospects have been discussed.

  14. Assessment of resistance to the attack of bean beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius in chickpea genotypes on the basis of various parameters during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sarwar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., is an important pulse food. During storage this commodity is severely attacked bybean beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius resulting losses in quantity and nutritional quality. Research studies onrelative resistance of 12 chickpea genotypes to the attack of C. maculatus during storage were carried out. The genotypesmost tolerant to bruchids comprised CH-52/02 and B-8/03, whereas, the most susceptible reactions were apparent inCH-86/02 and CC-117/00. The moderate pest incidence was observed in CH-28/02, CH-4/02, CH-32/02, CH-31/02, CH-9/02,CM-772/03, B-8/02 and CM-628/03 genotypes. The tolerant genotypes exhibited hard and wrinkled seed coat, dark browncolour and small size grain. These characteristics demonstrated a significant harmful effect to pest appearance and graindamage. The vulnerable genotypes had soft and smooth seed coat, white seed colour and bigger grain size that causedvulnerability to C. maculatus. Based on the present investigation, chickpea genotypes CH-52/02 and B-8/03 deserve specialconsideration and may be recommended for relatively longer storage to achieve the goal of long term and sustainable pestmanagement strategies.

  15. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri race 1 induced redox state alterations are coupled to downstream defense signaling in root tissues of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sumanti; Bhar, Anirban; Chatterjee, Moniya; Das, Sampa

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are known to play pivotal roles in pathogen perception, recognition and downstream defense signaling. But, how these redox alarms coordinate in planta into a defensive network is still intangible. Present study illustrates the role of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp ciceri Race1 (Foc1) induced redox responsive transcripts in regulating downstream defense signaling in chickpea. Confocal microscopic studies highlighted pathogen invasion and colonization accompanied by tissue damage and deposition of callose degraded products at the xylem vessels of infected roots of chickpea plants. Such depositions led to the clogging of xylem vessels in compatible hosts while the resistant plants were devoid of such obstructions. Lipid peroxidation assays also indicated fungal induced membrane injury. Cell shrinkage and gradual nuclear adpression appeared as interesting features marking fungal ingress. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction exhibited differential expression patterns of redox regulators, cellular transporters and transcription factors during Foc1 progression. Network analysis showed redox regulators, cellular transporters and transcription factors to coordinate into a well orchestrated defensive network with sugars acting as internal signal modulators. Respiratory burst oxidase homologue, cationic peroxidase, vacuolar sorting receptor, polyol transporter, sucrose synthase, and zinc finger domain containing transcription factor appeared as key molecular candidates controlling important hubs of the defense network. Functional characterization of these hub controllers may prove to be promising in understanding chickpea-Foc1 interaction and developing the case study as a model for looking into the complexities of wilt diseases of other important crop legumes.

  16. Gene expression and yeast two-hybrid studies of transcription factors mediating drought stress response in root tissues of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami eRamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress has been one of the serious constraints affecting chickpea productivity to a great extent. Genomic assisted breeding in chickpea has been effective in providing a yield advantage of up to 24 %, thus having a potential to accelerate breeding precisely and efficiently. In order to do so, understanding the molecular mechanisms for drought tolerance and identification of candidate genes are crucial. Transcription factors (TFs have important roles in the regulation of plant stress related genes. In this context, quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR was used to study the differential gene expression of selected TFs, identified from large-scale gene expression analysis, in contrasting drought responsive genotypes. Root tissues of ICC 4958 (tolerant, ICC 1882 (sensitive, JG 11 (elite and JG 11+ (introgression line were used for the study. Subsequently, a candidate single repeat MYB gene (1R-MYB that was remarkably induced in the drought tolerant genotypes under drought stress was cloned and subjected to Y2H analysis by screening a root cDNA library. The protein-protein interaction study identified three interacting peptides, a galactinol-sucrose galactosyltransferase 2, a CBL (Calcineurin B-like-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 25 and an ABA responsive 17-like, which were confirmed by the co-transformation of candidate plasmids in yeast. These findings provide preliminary insights into the ability of 1R-MYB TF to co-regulate drought tolerance mechanism in chickpea roots.

  17. Effects of salinity and ozone, individually and in combination, on the growth and ion contents of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welfare, Karen; Yeo, A.R.; Flowers, T.J

    2002-12-01

    Plants exposed to ozone, under high salinity conditions, further decline in growth. - The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ozone and salinity, singly and in combination, on the growth and ion contents of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties. Chickpea plants were grown in non-saline and saline conditions, with and without a repeated exposure to ozone. Salinity at a concentration of 30 mM NaCl caused a substantial reduction in plant height, number of leaves and the dry weights of the leaves, stems and roots. Biomass allocation to the leaves increased, predominantly at the expense of the roots. Ozone at a concentration of 85 nmol mol{sup -1} for 6 h per day for 25 days reduced plant height and dry weights but had no effect on leaf number. The results show substantial effects of salinity and ozone on chickpea growth and ion concentrations. When ozonated plants are grown in the presence of salinity, further reductions in growth occur.

  18. High-density linkage map construction and mapping of seed trait QTLs in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Subodh; Gupta, Shefali; Bandhiwal, Nitesh; Kumar, Tapan; Bharadwaj, Chellapilla; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-12-03

    This study reports the use of Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) for large-scale SNP discovery and simultaneous genotyping of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of an intra-specific mapping population of chickpea contrasting for seed traits. A total of 119,672 raw SNPs were discovered, which after stringent filtering revealed 3,977 high quality SNPs of which 39.5% were present in genic regions. Comparative analysis using physically mapped marker loci revealed a higher degree of synteny with Medicago in comparison to soybean. The SNP genotyping data was utilized to construct one of the most saturated intra-specific genetic linkage maps of chickpea having 3,363 mapped positions including 3,228 SNPs on 8 linkage groups spanning 1006.98 cM at an average inter marker distance of 0.33 cM. The map was utilized to identify 20 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed traits accounting for phenotypic variations ranging from 9.97% to 29.71%. Analysis of the genomic sequence corresponding to five robust QTLs led to the identification of 684 putative candidate genes whose expression profiling revealed that 101 genes exhibited seed specific expression. The integrated approach utilizing the identified QTLs along with the available genome and transcriptome could serve as a platform for candidate gene identification for molecular breeding of chickpea.

  19. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri race 1 induced redox state alterations are coupled to downstream defense signaling in root tissues of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanti Gupta

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species are known to play pivotal roles in pathogen perception, recognition and downstream defense signaling. But, how these redox alarms coordinate in planta into a defensive network is still intangible. Present study illustrates the role of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp ciceri Race1 (Foc1 induced redox responsive transcripts in regulating downstream defense signaling in chickpea. Confocal microscopic studies highlighted pathogen invasion and colonization accompanied by tissue damage and deposition of callose degraded products at the xylem vessels of infected roots of chickpea plants. Such depositions led to the clogging of xylem vessels in compatible hosts while the resistant plants were devoid of such obstructions. Lipid peroxidation assays also indicated fungal induced membrane injury. Cell shrinkage and gradual nuclear adpression appeared as interesting features marking fungal ingress. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction exhibited differential expression patterns of redox regulators, cellular transporters and transcription factors during Foc1 progression. Network analysis showed redox regulators, cellular transporters and transcription factors to coordinate into a well orchestrated defensive network with sugars acting as internal signal modulators. Respiratory burst oxidase homologue, cationic peroxidase, vacuolar sorting receptor, polyol transporter, sucrose synthase, and zinc finger domain containing transcription factor appeared as key molecular candidates controlling important hubs of the defense network. Functional characterization of these hub controllers may prove to be promising in understanding chickpea-Foc1 interaction and developing the case study as a model for looking into the complexities of wilt diseases of other important crop legumes.

  20. Resistance of αAI-1 transgenic chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) dry grains to bruchid beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthi, Christoph; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Higgins, Thomas J V; Romeis, Jörg

    2013-08-01

    Dry grain legume seeds possessing αAI-1, an α-amylase inhibitor from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), under the control of a cotyledon-specific promoter have been shown to be highly resistant to several important bruchid pest species. One transgenic chickpea and four cowpea lines expressing αAI-1, their respective controls, as well as nine conventional chickpea cultivars were assessed for their resistance to the bruchids Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), Callosobruchus chinensis L. and Callosobruchus maculatus F. All transgenic lines were highly resistant to both Callosobruchus species. A. obtectus, known to be tolerant to αAI-1, was able to develop in all transgenic lines. While the cotyledons of all non-transgenic cultivars were highly susceptible to all bruchids, C. chinensis and C. maculatus larvae suffered from significantly increased mortality rates inside transgenic seeds. The main factor responsible for the partial resistance in the non-transgenic cultivars was deduced to reside in the seed coat. The αAI-1 present in seeds of transgenic chickpea and cowpea lines significantly increases their resistance to two important bruchid pest species (C. chinensis and C. maculatus) essentially to immunity. To control αAI-1 tolerant bruchid species such as A. obtectus and to avoid the development of resistance to αAI-1, varieties carrying this transgene should be protected with additional control measures.

  1. Expression of a Chimeric Gene Encoding Insecticidal Crystal Protein Cry1Aabc of Bacillus thuringiensis in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Confers Resistance to Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Das

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Domain swapping and generation of chimeric insecticidal crystal protein is an emerging area of insect pest management. The lepidopteran insect pest, gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera H. wreaks havoc to chickpea crop affecting production. Lepidopteran insects were reported to be controlled by Bt (cryI genes. We designed a plant codon optimized chimeric Bt gene (cry1Aabc using three domains from three different cry1A genes (domains I, II, and III from cry1Aa, cry1Ab, and cry1Ac, respectively and expressed it under the control of a constitutive promoter in chickpea (cv. DCP92-3 to assess its effect on gram pod borer. A total of six transgenic chickpea shoots were established by grafting into mature fertile plants. The in vitro regenerated (organogenetic shoots were selected based on antibiotic kanamycin monosulfate (100 mg/L with transformation efficiency of 0.076%. Three transgenic events were extensively studied based on gene expression pattern and insect mortality across generations. Protein expression in pod walls, immature seeds and leaves (pre- and post-flowering were estimated and expression in pre-flowering stage was found higher than that of post-flowering. Analysis for the stable integration, expression and insect mortality (detached leaf and whole plant bioassay led to identification of efficacious transgenic chickpea lines. The chimeric cry1Aabc expressed in chickpea is effective against gram pod borer and generated events can be utilized in transgenic breeding program.

  2. Expression of a Chimeric Gene Encoding Insecticidal Crystal Protein Cry1Aabc of Bacillus thuringiensis in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Confers Resistance to Gram Pod Borer (Helicoverpa armigera Hubner.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Alok; Datta, Subhojit; Thakur, Shallu; Shukla, Alok; Ansari, Jamal; Sujayanand, G K; Chaturvedi, Sushil K; Kumar, P A; Singh, N P

    2017-01-01

    Domain swapping and generation of chimeric insecticidal crystal protein is an emerging area of insect pest management. The lepidopteran insect pest, gram pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera H.) wreaks havoc to chickpea crop affecting production. Lepidopteran insects were reported to be controlled by Bt (cryI) genes. We designed a plant codon optimized chimeric Bt gene (cry1Aabc) using three domains from three different cry1A genes (domains I, II, and III from cry1Aa, cry1Ab, and cry1Ac, respectively) and expressed it under the control of a constitutive promoter in chickpea (cv. DCP92-3) to assess its effect on gram pod borer. A total of six transgenic chickpea shoots were established by grafting into mature fertile plants. The in vitro regenerated (organogenetic) shoots were selected based on antibiotic kanamycin monosulfate (100 mg/L) with transformation efficiency of 0.076%. Three transgenic events were extensively studied based on gene expression pattern and insect mortality across generations. Protein expression in pod walls, immature seeds and leaves (pre- and post-flowering) were estimated and expression in pre-flowering stage was found higher than that of post-flowering. Analysis for the stable integration, expression and insect mortality (detached leaf and whole plant bioassay) led to identification of efficacious transgenic chickpea lines. The chimeric cry1Aabc expressed in chickpea is effective against gram pod borer and generated events can be utilized in transgenic breeding program.

  3. Development of micronutrients rich homemade extruded food products with the incorporation of processed foxtail millet, wheat and chickpea

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    L Gautam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food based approaches are recognized as an essential part of an urgently needed more comprehensive strategy for improving nutrition by increasing the availability and consumption to combat iron and other micronutrient deficiencies. Aims & Objective: The specific objective of the study was utilization of Foxtail millet (Setariaitalica along with other flour for production of micronutrients rich ready-to-eat snack products using homemade extrusion cooking. Material and methods: Methods Composite flour were prepared using processed Foxtail millet flour (FMF and other processed flours namely; wheat flour (WF, and chick pea flour (CPF. Nutritional properties of the blends were analyzed by using standard procedure. Two homemade extruded products namely; namkeensev, seviyan were prepared with four treatments T0, T1, T2, & T3. The commonly consumed recipes were developed by incorporating 50%, 75% and 100% of best result malted composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF. Results: The organoleptic qualities of these extruded samples were analyzed by panelists on a 9 point hedonic scale. The result indicate that the processed composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF based products were significantly accepted at the level of p<0.05 50% incorporation followed by 75% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The present study conclude that, processed composite flour (Foxtail millet; wheat; chickpea in the ratios of (50:50 could be used to produce nutritive quality of homemade extrudates with acceptable sensory properties as they deliver vehicles for malnourished children.

  4. New strains of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus discovered on diseased papaya and tomato plants in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Alassane; Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Hoareau, Murielle; Claverie, Sohini; Traoré, Edgar Valentin; Barro, Nicolas; Traoré, Oumar; Varsani, Arvind; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2017-02-22

    This is the first description of full genome sequences of chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV; genus Mastrevirus; family Geminiviridae) identified in papaya and tomato plants sampled in Burkina Faso. The CpCDV full genome sequences from papaya and tomato share the highest pairwise sequence identity (84% and 93.5%) with Sudanese isolates of the CpCDV-K and CpCDV-M strains, respectively. Based on the strain demarcation threshold (>94% identity) for mastreviruses, we propose two new strains, CpCDV-Q and CpCDV-R, identified in papaya and tomato, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the sequences belong to a distinct clade of the highly diverse population of CpCDVs. Evidence of inter-strain recombination provided more support for the important role of recombination in CpCDV evolution. The discovery of CpCDV on papaya, a previously unsuspected host, raises many questions about the natural and potential host range of this dicot-infecting mastrevirus species that is reported to be emerging worldwide.

  5. Microcapsule production employing chickpea or lentil protein isolates and maltodextrin: physicochemical properties and oxidative protection of encapsulated flaxseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Asli Can; Nickerson, Michael; Low, Nicholas H

    2013-08-15

    Flaxseed oil was microencapsulated, employing a wall material matrix of either chickpea (CPI) or lentil protein isolate (LPI) and maltodextrin, followed by freeze-drying. Effects of oil concentration (5.3-21.0%), protein source (CPI vs. LPI) and maltodextrin type (DE 9 and 18) and concentration (25.0-40.7%), on both the physicochemical characteristics and microstructure of the microcapsules, were investigated. It was found that an increase in emulsion oil concentration resulted in a concomitant increase in oil droplet diameter and microcapsule surface oil content, and a decrease in oil encapsulation efficiency. Optimum flaxseed oil encapsulation efficiency (∼83.5%), minimum surface oil content (∼2.8%) and acceptable mean droplet diameter (3.0 μm) were afforded with 35.5% maltodextrin-DE 9 and 10.5% oil. Microcapsules, formed by employing these experimental conditions, showed a protective effect against oxidation versus free oil over a storage period of 25 d at room temperature.

  6. Quality of Low Fat Chicken Nuggets: Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement and Added Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Hull Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arun K; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, B D

    2012-02-01

    While attempting to develop low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets, the effect of partial (40%) common salt substitution and incorporation of chickpea hull flour (CHF) at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% (Treatments) in pre-standardized low fat chicken nuggets (Control) were observed. Common salt replacement with salt substitute blend led to a significant decrease in pH, emulsion stability, moisture, ash, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values while incorporation of CHF in low salt, low fat products resulted in decreased emulsion stability, cooking yield, moisture, protein, ash, color values, however dietary fibre and textural properties were increased (p<0.01). Lipid profile revealed a decrease in total cholesterol and glycolipid contents with the incorporation of CHF (p<0.01). All the sensory attributes except appearance and flavor, remained unaffected with salt replacement, while addition of CHF resulted in lower sensory scores (p<0.01). Among low salt, low fat chicken nuggets with CHF, incorporation CHF at 5% level was found optimum having sensory ratings close to very good. Thus most acceptable low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets could be developed by a salt replacement blend and addition of 5% CHF.

  7. Determination of nutritional and bioactive properties of peptides in enzymatic pea, chickpea, and mung bean protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, Rotimi E

    2008-01-01

    Within the primary structure of many pea and mung bean proteins are peptide sequences that can potentially be used in the formulation of therapeutic products for the treatment and prevention of human diseases. However, these peptide sequences need protease treatments before they can be released free of the parent proteins. Unlike chemical hydrolysis, enzymatic treatment enables more efficient tailoring of peptide products without formation of toxic by-products or destruction of amino acids. This review provides information on current methods that have been used to convert inactive pea and mung bean proteins into bioactive peptides. It focuses on 3 main bioactive properties, such as inhibitions of (1) angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity; (2) calmodulin (CaM)-dependent enzymes; and (3) copper-chelating activity. ACE is an established marker for hypertension, high levels of some CaM-dependent enzymes are risk factors for various human diseases including cancer and Alzheimer's disease, and high vascular copper concentrations may potentiate atherosclerosis. Also reviewed are the production and evaluation of activity of hypoallergenic peptides that may offer protection against anaphylactic reactions. The 3 main proteins discussed are chickpea, mung bean, and field pea.

  8. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and other plant-derived protease inhibitor concentrates inhibit breast and prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Pamela J; Owusu-Apenten, Richard; McCann, Mark J; Gill, Chris I; Rowland, Ian R

    2012-01-01

    The soybean-derived protease inhibitor, Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), is currently showing great promise as a novel cancer chemopreventive agent. In contrast to the wealth of research conducted on this compound, the anticancer effects of protease inhibitors isolated from other leguminous sources have received limited attention. In the current study, 7 protease inhibitor concentrates (PICs) were isolated from various leguminous sources (including soybean) and characterized. The effects of PICs on the proliferation of breast and prostate cancer cells were investigated in vitro. Chickpea PIC significantly inhibited the viability of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and PC-3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells at all concentrations tested (25-400 μg/ml). In addition, kidney bean (200, 400 μg/ml), soybean (50, 100 μg/ml), and mungbean (100, 200 μg/ml) PICs inhibited LNCaP cell viability. These findings suggest that leguminous PICs may possess similar anticancer properties to that of soybean BBI and deserve further study as possible chemopreventive agents.

  9. Study of phenological and morphological characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cold tolerant genotypes in fall planting

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    samane najib niya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate phenological and morphological characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cold tolerant genotypes, a field trial carried out on 2004-2005 at the experimental field of College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. In this study 152 cold tolerant accessions with 4 checks (Karaj12-60-31, ILC482, ILC3279 and FLIP84-48C were evaluated in the Augmented preliminarily design in fall planting (9 October. There were considerable variations among genotypes with each other and with checks about phonological stages (days from sowing to emergence, emergence to flowering and flowering to ripening and morphological characteristics (plant height, number of branches and their length per plant. The differences in all cases were significant (p≤0.05. Vegetative growth period was more than 165 days in 84% of accessions and reproductive growth period was more than 29 days in 87% of them. The height of plant in 86% of accessions was more than 30cm, and total branch length per plant was more than 300cm in 82% of accessions. According to the results and regarding to the remarkable yield of some accessions, there is a suitable possibility for selecting genotypes with suitable agronomical characteristics in order to continue cold tolerance trials in replicated experiments.

  10. Effects of Pressure, Temperature, Treatment Time, and Storage on Rheological, Textural, and Structural Properties of Heat-Induced Chickpea Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Fuentes, Raúl; Canet, Wenceslao

    2015-01-01

    Pressure-induced gelatinization of chickpea flour (CF) was studied in combination with subsequent temperature-induced gelatinization. CF slurries (with 1:5 flour-to-water ratio) and CF in powder form were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), temperature (T), and treatment time (t) at three levels (200, 400, 600 MPa; 10, 25, 50 °C; 5, 15, 25 min). In order to investigate the effect of storage (S), half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were immediately analyzed for changes in oscillatory rheological properties under isothermal heating at 75 °C for 15 min followed by cooling to 25 °C. The other half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were refrigerated (at 4 °C) for one week and subsequently analyzed for changes in oscillatory properties under the same heating conditions as the unrefrigerated samples. HHP-treated CF in powder form was analyzed for changes in textural properties of heat-induced CF gels under isothermal heating at 90 °C for 5 min and subsequent cooling to 25 °C. Structural changes during gelatinization were investigated using microscopy. Pressure had a more significant effect on rheological and textural properties, followed by T and treatment t (in that order). Gel aging in HHP-treated CF slurries during storage was supported by rheological measurements. PMID:28231191

  11. Effects of Pressure, Temperature, Treatment Time, and Storage on Rheological, Textural, and Structural Properties of Heat-Induced Chickpea Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Alvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pressure-induced gelatinization of chickpea flour (CF was studied in combination with subsequent temperature-induced gelatinization. CF slurries (with 1:5 flour-to-water ratio and CF in powder form were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, temperature (T, and treatment time (t at three levels (200, 400, 600 MPa; 10, 25, 50 °C; 5, 15, 25 min. In order to investigate the effect of storage (S, half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were immediately analyzed for changes in oscillatory rheological properties under isothermal heating at 75 °C for 15 min followed by cooling to 25 °C. The other half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were refrigerated (at 4 °C for one week and subsequently analyzed for changes in oscillatory properties under the same heating conditions as the unrefrigerated samples. HHP-treated CF in powder form was analyzed for changes in textural properties of heat-induced CF gels under isothermal heating at 90 °C for 5 min and subsequent cooling to 25 °C. Structural changes during gelatinization were investigated using microscopy. Pressure had a more significant effect on rheological and textural properties, followed by T and treatment t (in that order. Gel aging in HHP-treated CF slurries during storage was supported by rheological measurements.

  12. Rheometric Non-Isothermal Gelatinization Kinetics of Chickpea Flour-Based Gluten-Free Muffin Batters with Added Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Cuesta, Francisco Javier; Herranz, Beatriz; Canet, Wenceslao

    2017-01-01

    An attempt was made to analyze the elastic modulus (G′) of chickpea flour (CF)-based muffin batters made with CF alone and with added biopolymers (whey protein (WP), xanthan gum (XG), inulin (INL), and their blends) in order to evaluate their suitability to be a wheat flour (WF) substitute in muffins, and to model the heat-induced gelatinization of batters under non-isothermal heating condition from 25 °C to 90 °C. A rheological approach is proposed to determine the kinetic parameters (reaction order (n), frequency factor (k0), and activation energy (Ea)) using linearly-increasing temperature. Zero-order reaction kinetics adequately described batter gelatinization process, therefore assuming a constant rate independent of the initial G′ value. The change of the derivative of G′ with respect to time (dG′/dt) versus temperature is described by one exponential function with activation energies ranging from 118 to 180 kJ·mol−1. Control wheat gluten batter, with higher and lower starch and protein contents, respectively, than CF-based batters, exhibited the highest Ea value. Formulation of CF-based gluten-free batters with starch and protein contents closer to the levels of WF-based batter could be a strategy to decrease differences in kinetic parameters of muffin batters and, therefore, in technological characteristics of baked muffins. PMID:28231082

  13. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with an insecticidal protein gene: optimisation of different factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indurker, Shivani; Misra, Hari S; Eapen, Susan

    2010-07-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in chickpea was developed using strain LBA4404 carrying nptII, uidA and cryIAc genes and transformants selected on Murashige and Skoog's basal medium supplemented with benzyladenine, kinetin and kanamycin. Integration of transgenes was demonstrated using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot hybridization of T0 plants. The expression of CryIAc delta endotoxin and GUS enzyme was shown by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and histochemical assay respectively. The transgenic plants (T0) showed more tolerance to infection by Helicoverpa armigera compared to control plants. Various factors such as explant source, cultivar type, different preculture treatment period of explants, co-cultivation period, acetosyringone supplementation, Agrobacterium harboring different plasmids, vacuum infiltration and sonication treatment were tested to study the influence on transformation frequency. The results indicated that use of epicotyl as explant, cultivar ICCC37, Agrobacterium harboring plasmid pHS102 as vector, preculture of explant for 48 h, co-cultivation period of 2 days at 25°C and vacuum infiltration for 15 min produced the best transformation results. Sonication treatment of explants with Agrobacteria for 80 s was found to increase the frequency of transformation.

  14. Genome-wide high-throughput SNP discovery and genotyping for understanding natural (functional) allelic diversity and domestication patterns in wild chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Mohar; Bansal, Kailash C.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    We identified 82489 high-quality genome-wide SNPs from 93 wild and cultivated Cicer accessions through integrated reference genome- and de novo-based GBS assays. High intra- and inter-specific polymorphic potential (66–85%) and broader natural allelic diversity (6–64%) detected by genome-wide SNPs among accessions signify their efficacy for monitoring introgression and transferring target trait-regulating genomic (gene) regions/allelic variants from wild to cultivated Cicer gene pools for genetic improvement. The population-specific assignment of wild Cicer accessions pertaining to the primary gene pool are more influenced by geographical origin/phenotypic characteristics than species/gene-pools of origination. The functional significance of allelic variants (non-synonymous and regulatory SNPs) scanned from transcription factors and stress-responsive genes in differentiating wild accessions (with potential known sources of yield-contributing and stress tolerance traits) from cultivated desi and kabuli accessions, fine-mapping/map-based cloning of QTLs and determination of LD patterns across wild and cultivated gene-pools are suitably elucidated. The correlation between phenotypic (agromorphological traits) and molecular diversity-based admixed domestication patterns within six structured populations of wild and cultivated accessions via genome-wide SNPs was apparent. This suggests utility of whole genome SNPs as a potential resource for identifying naturally selected trait-regulating genomic targets/functional allelic variants adaptive to diverse agroclimatic regions for genetic enhancement of cultivated gene-pools. PMID:26208313

  15. Genetic dissection of drought and heat tolerance in chickpea through genome-wide and candidate gene-based association mapping approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendar Thudi

    Full Text Available To understand the genetic basis of tolerance to drought and heat stresses in chickpea, a comprehensive association mapping approach has been undertaken. Phenotypic data were generated on the reference set (300 accessions, including 211 mini-core collection accessions for drought tolerance related root traits, heat tolerance, yield and yield component traits from 1-7 seasons and 1-3 locations in India (Patancheru, Kanpur, Bangalore and three locations in Africa (Nairobi, Egerton in Kenya and Debre Zeit in Ethiopia. Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers equally distributed across chickpea genome were used to determine population structure and three sub-populations were identified using admixture model in STRUCTURE. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD estimated using the squared-allele frequency correlations (r2; when r2<0.20 was found to decay rapidly with the genetic distance of 5 cM. For establishing marker-trait associations (MTAs, both genome-wide and candidate gene-sequencing based association mapping approaches were conducted using 1,872 markers (1,072 DArTs, 651 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], 113 gene-based SNPs and 36 simple sequence repeats [SSRs] and phenotyping data mentioned above employing mixed linear model (MLM analysis with optimum compression with P3D method and kinship matrix. As a result, 312 significant MTAs were identified and a maximum number of MTAs (70 was identified for 100-seed weight. A total of 18 SNPs from 5 genes (ERECTA, 11 SNPs; ASR, 4 SNPs; DREB, 1 SNP; CAP2 promoter, 1 SNP and AMDH, 1SNP were significantly associated with different traits. This study provides significant MTAs for drought and heat tolerance in chickpea that can be used, after validation, in molecular breeding for developing superior varieties with enhanced drought and heat tolerance.

  16. Purfication and properties of a specific isoflavone 7-O-glucoside-6''-malonate malonyestrase from roots of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, W; Köster, J; Barz, W

    1986-08-01

    Protein extracts from roots of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants contained high esterase activity hydrolyzing malonate hemiesters of isoflavone 7-O-glucosides. Using 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (biochanin A) 7-O-glucoside-6"-malonate as a substrate, a specific malonylesterase was purified about 700-fold to near homogeneity. The purified enzyme possesses an extremely low enzyme activity with synthetic esterase substrates. Various putative nonspecific esterases, as tested with alpha-naphthylacetate, were removed during enzyme purification. The malonylesterase demonstrated a very high molecular mass in gel chromatography and in sedimentation analyses with sucrose gradients (greater than or equal to 2 X 10(6)). Analytical sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis pointed to a single subunit of 32,000. The catalyzed reaction showed a pH optimum at 7.5 and a temperature optimum between 30 and 35 degrees C. The apparent Km for biochanin A 7-O-glucoside-6"-malonate was (4.2 +/- 1.2) X 10(-4) M. The malonylesterase was insensitive to the esterase inhibitors eserine and neostigmine (10(-3) M) as well as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, paraoxon, and diisopropylfluorophosphate (10(-4) M). On the other hand enzyme activity was totally inhibited by Hg2+ ions (10(-5) M) and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (10(-4) M), whereas iodoacetamide (10(-6)-10(-4) M) inhibited only partially. Di- and tricarboxylic acids strongly stimulated enzyme activity at 10(-2) M. These properties indicate that the malonylesterase from chickpea roots greatly differs from other known esterases. The possible biological function of the specific malonylesterase is discussed in relation to isoflavone conjugate metabolism in chickpea.

  17. WRKY domain-encoding genes of a crop legume chickpea (Cicer arietinum): comparative analysis with Medicago truncatula WRKY family and characterization of group-III gene(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kamal; Srivastava, Vikas; Purayannur, Savithri; Kaladhar, V Chandra; Cheruvu, Purnima Jaiswal; Verma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The WRKY genes have been identified as important transcriptional modulators predominantly during the environmental stresses, but they also play critical role at various stages of plant life cycle. We report the identification of WRKY domain (WD)-encoding genes from galegoid clade legumes chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula). In total, 78 and 98 WD-encoding genes were found in chickpea and barrel medic, respectively. Comparative analysis suggests the presence of both conserved and unique WRKYs, and expansion of WRKY family in M. truncatula primarily by tandem duplication. Exclusively found in galegoid legumes, CaWRKY16 and its orthologues encode for a novel protein having a transmembrane and partial Exo70 domains flanking a group-III WD. Genomic region of galegoids, having CaWRKY16, is more dynamic when compared with millettioids. In onion cells, fused CaWRKY16-EYFP showed punctate fluorescent signals in cytoplasm. The chickpea WRKY group-III genes were further characterized for their transcript level modulation during pathogenic stress and treatments of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) by real-time PCR. Differential regulation of genes was observed during Ascochyta rabiei infection and SA treatment. Characterization of A. rabiei and SA inducible gene CaWRKY50 showed that it localizes to plant nucleus, binds to W-box, and have a C-terminal transactivation domain. Overexpression of CaWRKY50 in tobacco plants resulted in early flowering and senescence. The in-depth comparative account presented here for two legume WRKY genes will be of great utility in hastening functional characterization of crop legume WRKYs and will also help in characterization of Exo70Js. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  18. Improvement in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) by the inhibition of polyphenolics released during wounding of cotyledonary node explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Reena; Mehrotra, Meenakshi; Singh, Aditya K; Niranjan, Abhishek; Singh, Rani; Sanyal, Indraneel; Lehri, Alok; Pande, Veena; Amla, D V

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) has been performed using cotyledonary node explants (CNs), which release phenolics upon excision that are detrimental to the viability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and result in low transformation frequency. Twelve low molecular weight phenolic compounds and salicylic acid were identified in the exudates released upon excision during the preparation of cotyledonary nodes by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Zone inhibition assays performed with the explant exudates released at periodic intervals after excision showed the inhibition of A. tumefaciens. Agroinoculation of freshly excised cotyledonary nodes of chickpea showed 98-99 % inhibition of colony forming units (cfu). Osmium tetraoxide fixation of excised tissues showed enhanced accumulation of phenolics in the sub-epidermal regions causing enzymatic browning, affecting the viability and performance of A. tumefaciens for T-DNA delivery. The periodic analysis of exudates released from excised CNs showed enhanced levels of gallic acid (0.2945 ± 0.014 μg/g), chlorogenic acid (0.0978 ± 0.0046 μg/g), and quercetin (0.0971 ± 0.0046 μg/g) fresh weight, which were detrimental to A. tumefaciens. Quantitative assays and the elution profile showed the maximum leaching of phenolics, flavonoids, and salicylic acid immediately after the excision of explants and continued till 4 to 8 h post-excision. Pre-treatment of excised explants with inhibitors of polyphenol oxidase like L-cysteine, DTT, and sodium thiosulfate before co-cultivation showed the recovery of A. tumefaciens cfu, decreased the accumulation of phenolics, and improved transformation frequency. Our results show the hypersensitive response of excision stress for the expression of defense response-related genes and synthesis of metabolites in grain legume chickpea against pathogen infestation including Agrobacterium.

  19. Analysis of root proteome unravels differential molecular responses during compatible and incompatible interaction between chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri Race1 (Foc1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Moniya; Gupta, Sumanti; Bhar, Anirban; Chakraborti, Dipankar; Basu, Debabrata; Das, Sampa

    2014-11-03

    Vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri Race 1 (Foc1) is a serious disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) accounting for approximately 10-15% annual crop loss. The fungus invades the plant via roots, colonizes the xylem vessels and prevents the upward translocation of water and nutrients, finally resulting in wilting of the entire plant. Although comparative transcriptomic profiling have highlighted some important signaling molecules, but proteomic studies involving chickpea-Foc1 are limited. The present study focuses on comparative root proteomics of susceptible (JG62) and resistant (WR315) chickpea genotypes infected with Foc1, to understand the mechanistic basis of susceptibility and/or resistance. The differential and unique proteins of both genotypes were identified at 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h post Foc1 inoculation. 2D PAGE analyses followed by MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS identified 100 differentially (>1.5 fold<, p<0.05) or uniquely expressed proteins. These proteins were further categorized into 10 functional classes and grouped into GO (gene ontology) categories. Network analyses of identified proteins revealed intra and inter relationship of these proteins with their neighbors as well as their association with different defense signaling pathways. qRT-PCR analyses were performed to correlate the mRNA and protein levels of some proteins of representative classes. The differential and unique proteins identified indicate their involvement in early defense signaling of the host. Comparative analyses of expression profiles of obtained proteins suggest that albeit some common components participate in early defense signaling in both susceptible and resistant genotypes, but their roles and regulation differ in case of compatible and/or incompatible interactions. Thus, functional characterization of identified PR proteins (PR1, BGL2, TLP), Trypsin protease inhibitor, ABA responsive protein, cysteine protease, protein disulphide isomerase, ripening

  20. Spatial and functional correlation between diamine-oxidase and peroxidase activities and their dependence upon de-etiolation and wounding in chick-pea stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, R; Manes, F; Federico, R

    1990-08-01

    The activities of diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were determined along the stems of light-grown Cicer arietinum L. (chick-pea) seedlings. Enzyme activities were evaluated in the soluble, lightly bound (salt extraction) and tightly bound (Driselase digestion) wall fractions, and in residual fractions obtained from the different internodes. Apparent tissue distributions of both enzymes and lignin depositions were visualised by means of histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. A close relationship was found between DAO and POD activities in the soluble and wall fractions along the stem. The biochemical activities of both enzymes decreased from the base to the apex of the stem in parallel with the distribution pattern of lignifying tissues in this organ. A similar activity gradient was found for each enzyme along the epidermis of the whole organ. Moreover, deetiolation elicited a rise in the activities of both enzymes in this tissue. Wounding chick-pea stems induced parallel increases in DAO and POD activities in the soluble and wall fractions. In-situ histochemical detection of both enzymes demonstrated the parallel occurrence of the DAO/POD system and lignosuberised depositions in the cell walls adjacent to the wound site. The patterns of POD isoforms resulting from the wound-healing process were determined by means of starch-gel electrophoresis. In addition to changes in relative intensity of enzyme bands in soluble and wall fractions, a new POD isoform, possibly related to the wounding response, appeared in the soluble fraction. This isoform was shown to be lightly bound to cell walls as it could be detected in the extracellular fluids obtained from wound-healed seedlings. On the basis of the above-mentioned results, a strict spatial and functional correlation can be inferred between DAO and POD in chick-pea, and probably in other Leguminosae species, in accordance with previous evidence indicating an integrated role

  1. Interaction between seed size and NaCl on germination and early seedling growth of some Turkish cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muharrem KAYA; Gamze KAYA; Mehmet Demir KAYA; Mehmet ATAK; Sevil SAGLAM; Khalid Mahmood KHAWAR; Cemalettin Yasar CIFTCI

    2008-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume crop of Turkey and is largely grown for human consumption on low moisture or salt-affected soils.The objective of the study was to find the effects of NaCl stress at electrical conductivities of 4.5,8.6,12.7 and 16.3 dS/m and seed sizes (7,8 and 9 mm) on germination and early seedling growth of three popular chickpea cultivars (AKN-97,Gokce and Uzunlu-99).Mean frequency of germination,germination time,germination index,root length,shoot length and seedling fresh weight showed seed size-dependent responses of cultivars to salt stress.In general,small seeds germinated and grew more rapidly compared to medium and large seeds of the same cultivars against all levels of salt stress,with the best results in cultivar Uzunlu-99.No effect of NaCl treatments was observed on frequency of germination; however,a drastic decrease in early seedling growth was recorded at increased NaCl concentrations.Regression analysis results showed a significantly positive rela-tionship (P<0.01) between seed size and mean germination time,whereas a significantly negative relationship was recorded between seed size and germination index,root length,shoot length.Moreover,linear regression values apparently confirmed that increased seed size in each cultivar affected decreased germination index,root and shoot lengths with enhanced mean germination time.Thus,it was concluded that the use of small seeds could considerably reduce the production costs of chickpea in salt-affected soils.

  2. 鹰嘴豆分离蛋白的酶解工艺研究%Study on the Enzyme Hydrolysis of Chickpea Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓飞; 李锋; 周伏忠; 孙玉飞; 陈国参

    2013-01-01

    To increase the DH of chickpea protein, and provide the basis for industrialization of the enzymatic production of chickpea producing oligopeptides, the optimal condition for alcalase hydrolysis of chickpea protein was studied. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) was determined according to the pH-state method. Through a single-factor test and an orthogonal designed experiment, the alcalase hydrolysis of chickpea protein was systematically studied. Then, the three proteases of alcalase,papain and bromelain commonly hydrolyzing chickpea protein was carried out to increase the DH of chickpea protein. The results showed that the obtained optimum hydrolysis with alcalase condition was pH 8.5, temperature (T) 55℃, concentration of substrate [S] 2%, and ratio of enzyme and substate ([E]/[S]) 2%. Under this condition, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) was 27.86%. Under each optimum conditions of the three proteases respectively (The obtained optimum hydrolysis condition of alcalase was pH 8.5, temperature (T) 55℃, concentration of substrate [S] 2%, and ratio of enzyme and substate ([E]/[S]) 2%. The obtained optimum hydrolysis condition of papain and bromelain was pH 7.2, temperature (T) 55℃, concentration of substrate [S] 2%, and ratio of enzyme and substate ([E]/[S]) 2%), the chickpea protein hydrolyzing by the alcalase, papain and bromelain in turn was carried out, and the DH could reach 34.64%. The DH of chickpea protein hydrolyzing by the three proteases above-mentioned under each optimum condition respectively in turn was much higher than that of the DH of chickpea protein hydrolyzing by the three proteases simultaneously. Furthermore, the yield of oligopeptides was significantly improved.%研究鹰嘴豆分离蛋白的酶解工艺,提高鹰嘴豆蛋白水解度,为鹰嘴豆酶解生产短肽的产业化提供依据。用pH-state法计算蛋白水解度,首先通过单因素试验和正交试验,得出碱性蛋白酶水解鹰嘴豆蛋白的最佳反应条件,

  3. Development of DArT markers and assessment of diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, wilt pathogen of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mamta; Nagavardhini, Avuthu; Thudi, Mahendar; Ghosh, Raju; Pande, Suresh; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2014-06-10

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt of chickpea is highly variable and frequent recurrence of virulent forms have affected chickpea production and exhausted valuable genetic resources. The severity and yield losses of Fusarium wilt differ from place to place owing to existence of physiological races among isolates. Diversity study of fungal population associated with a disease plays a major role in understanding and devising better disease control strategies. The advantages of using molecular markers to understand the distribution of genetic diversity in Foc populations is well understood. The recent development of Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) offers new possibilities to study the diversity in pathogen population. In this study, we developed DArT markers for Foc population, analysed the genetic diversity existing within and among Foc isolates, compared the genotypic and phenotypic diversity and infer the race scenario of Foc in India. We report the successful development of DArT markers for Foc and their utility in genotyping of Foc collections representing five chickpea growing agro-ecological zones of India. The DArT arrays revealed a total 1,813 polymorphic markers with an average genotyping call rate of 91.16% and a scoring reproducibility of 100%. Cluster analysis, principal coordinate analysis and population structure indicated that the different isolates of Foc were partially classified based on geographical source. Diversity in Foc population was compared with the phenotypic variability and it was found that DArT markers were able to group the isolates consistent with its virulence group. A number of race-specific unique and rare alleles were also detected. The present study generated significant information in terms of pathogenic and genetic diversity of Foc which could be used further for development and deployment of region-specific resistant cultivars of chickpea. The DArT markers were proved to be a powerful

  4. cDNA-AFLP analysis of transcripts induced in chickpea plants by TiO2 nanoparticles during cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Saeed; Maali-Amiri, Reza; Mohammadi, Rahmat; Kazemi-Shahandashti, Seyyedeh-Sanam

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) on cold tolerance (CT) development in two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes (Sel96Th11439, cold tolerant, and ILC533, cold susceptible) by using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) technique during the first and sixth days of cold stress (CS) at 4 °C. Selective amplification by primer combinations generated 4200 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) while 100 of them (2.62%) were differentially expressed. During CS, 60 differentially expressed TDFs of TiO2 NPs-treated plants were cloned and 10 of them produced successfully readable sequences. These data represented different groups of genes involved in metabolism pathways, cellular defense, cell connections and signaling, transcriptional regulation and chromatin architecture. Two out of 10 TDFs were unknown genes with uncharacterized functions or sequences without homology to known ones. The network-based analysis showed a gene-gene relationship in response to CS. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) confirmed differential expression of identified genes (six out of 10 TDFs) with potential functions in CT and showed similar patterns with cDNA-AFLP results. An increase in transcription level of these TDFs, particularly on the first day of CS, was crucial for developing CT through decreasing electrolyte leakage index (ELI) content in tolerant plants compared to susceptible ones, as well as in TiO2 NPs-treated plants compared to control ones. It could also indicate probable role of TiO2 NPs against CS-induced oxidative stress. Therefore, a new application of TiO2 NPs in CT development is suggested for preventing or controlling the damages in field conditions and increasing crop productivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. From chickpeas to oil. The keys to fifteen years of hispanic-mexican economic relations (1977-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Forcada

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to analyse the evolution of economic relations between Spain and Mexico from the reestablishment of diplomatic relations taking into account both the keys to this evolution and its changes. The authors highlight three distinct periods : a boom between 1977 and 1981 ; a relapse between 1982 and 1986 and a recovery between 1987 and 1992. This division into periods takes note of an initial spectacular increase in which bilateral exchanges were multiplied up to 33 times. A five year period in which oil replaced chickpeas as the main product bought in Mexico (up to four-fifths of the total volume and in which Spanish exports multiplied themselves ten times over. Already from this first phase, the commercial balance was clearly in favour of Mexico, a fact more striking during the second period, during which Spanish imports fell up to 50% but whileher exports were reduced by two-thirds. The key was the fall in the price of oil. The continuity of Spanish oil buying in Mexico however precipitated the recovery of the third period which coincided with the signing of the General Friendship and Cooperation Agreement between both countries. In 1992 Spain regained second place as a customer of Mexico behind the United States while the joint political policies coincide in pointing out that these are two reciprocal pathways to both the EC and US markets. The authors however, sustain that the global evolution of economic blocks does not favour this vision bearing in mind that the composition of and leadership in trade between such blocks will be governed, basically, by the strategies deployed by transnational companies.

  6. Differentially expressed galactinol synthase(s) in chickpea are implicated in seed vigor and longevity by limiting the age induced ROS accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Prafull; Saxena, Saurabh Chandra; Petla, Bhanu Prakash; Kamble, Nitin Uttam; Kaur, Harmeet; Verma, Pooja; Rao, Venkateswara; Ghosh, Shraboni; Majee, Manoj

    2016-10-11

    Galactinol synthase (GolS) catalyzes the first and rate limiting step of Raffinose Family Oligosaccharide (RFO) biosynthetic pathway, which is a highly specialized metabolic event in plants. Increased accumulation of galactinol and RFOs in seeds have been reported in few plant species, however their precise role in seed vigor and longevity remain elusive. In present study, we have shown that galactinol synthase activity as well as galactinol and raffinose content progressively increase as seed development proceeds and become highly abundant in pod and mature dry seeds, which gradually decline as seed germination progresses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Furthermore, artificial aging also stimulates galactinol synthase activity and consequent galactinol and raffinose accumulation in seed. Molecular analysis revealed that GolS in chickpea are encoded by two divergent genes (CaGolS1 and CaGolS2) which potentially encode five CaGolS isoforms through alternative splicing. Biochemical analysis showed that only two isoforms (CaGolS1 and CaGolS2) are biochemically active with similar yet distinct biochemical properties. CaGolS1 and CaGolS2 are differentially regulated in different organs, during seed development and germination however exhibit similar subcellular localization. Furthermore, seed-specific overexpression of CaGolS1 and CaGolS2 in Arabidopsis results improved seed vigor and longevity through limiting the age induced excess ROS and consequent lipid peroxidation.

  7. Protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase1 (CaPIMT1) from chickpea mitigates oxidative stress-induced growth inhibition of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pooja; Singh, Ajeet; Kaur, Harmeet; Majee, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    PROTEIN L-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) repairs deleterious L-isoaspartyl residues synthesized spontaneously in proteins due to aging or stressful environments and is widespread in living organisms including plants. Even though PIMT activity has been detected from various plant sources, detailed studies are limited to a few species. Our present study on a chickpea (Cicer arietinum) PIMT reveals that apart from seed, PIMT activity is present in other organs and noticeably enhanced during stressful conditions. Using degenerate oligonucleotides and RACE strategy, a full length cDNA (CaPIMT1) was cloned and sequenced. The cDNA is 920 bp in length and contains only one open reading frame of 690 bp encoding 229 amino acids. Genomic structure reveals that the CaPIMT1 gene spans about 2,050 bp in length and contains four exons and three introns. By quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we demonstrate that the transcript of CaPIMT1 is distributed across the organs with maximum levels in seed and is also enhanced under various environmental stress conditions. Purified bacterially expressed protein is further characterized for its catalytic properties. The activity is found to be elevated towards high temperature and pH conditions. Escherichia coli expressing CaPIMT1 show greater tolerance to oxidative stress than E. coli without CaPIMT1. Taken together, our results suggest that PIMT from chickpea shows a distinct pattern of expression and may have a specific role in stress adaptation apart from seed.

  8. Interactive effects of phosphorus and Pseudomonas putida on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) growth, nutrient uptake, antioxidant enzymes and organic acids exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israr, Dania; Mustafa, Ghulam; Khan, Khalid Saifullah; Shahzad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Niaz; Masood, Sajid

    2016-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability in alkaline soils of arid and semi-arid regions is a major constraint for decreased crop productivity. Use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may enhance plant growth through the increased plant antioxidation activity. Additionally, PGPR may increase nutrient uptake by plants as a result of induced root exudation and rhizosphere acidification. The current study was aimed to investigate combined effects of P and Pesudomonas putida (PGPR) on chickpea growth with reference to antioxidative enzymatic activity and root exudation mediated plant nutrient uptake, particularly P. Half of the seeds were soaked in PGPR solution, whereas others in sterile water and latter sown in soils. Plants were harvested 8 weeks after onset of experiment and analyzed for leaf nutrient contents, antioxidant enzymes activities and organic acids concentrations. Without PGPR, P application (+P) increased various plant growth attributes, plant uptake of P and Ca, soil pH, citric acid and oxalic acid concentrations, whereas decreased the leaf POD enzymatic activity as compared to the P-deficiency. PGPR supply both under -P and +P improved the plant growth, plant uptake of N, P, and K, antioxidative activity of SOD and POD enzymes and concentrations of organic acids, whereas reduced the rhizosphere soil pH. Growth enhancement by PGPR supply was related to higher plant antioxidation activity as well as nutrient uptake of chickpea including P as a result of root exudation mediated rhizosphere acidification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences between easy- and difficult-to-mill chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes. Part III: free sugar and non-starch polysaccharide composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jennifer A; Knights, Edmund J; Campbell, Grant M; Choct, Mingan

    2014-05-01

    Parts I and II of this series of papers identified several associations between the ease of milling and the chemical compositions of different chickpea seed fractions. Non-starch polysaccharides were implicated; hence, this study examines the free sugars and sugar residues. Difficult milling is associated with: (1) lower glucose and xylose residues (less cellulose and xyloglucans) and more arabinose, rhamnose and uronic acid in the seed coat, suggesting a more flexible seed coat that resists cracking and decortication; (2) a higher content of soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharide fractions in the cotyledon periphery, supporting a pectic polysaccharide mechanism comprising arabinogalacturonan, homogalacturonan, rhamnogalalcturonan, and glucuronan backbone structures; (3) higher glucose and mannose residues in the cotyledon periphery, supporting a lectin-mediated mechanism of adhesion; and (4) higher arabinose and glucose residues in the cotyledon periphery, supporting a mechanism involving arabinogalactan-proteins. This series has shown that the chemical composition of chickpea does vary in ways that are consistent with physical explanations of how seed structure and properties relate to milling behaviour. Seed coat strength and flexibility, pectic polysaccharide binding, lectins and arabinogalactan-proteins have been implicated. Increased understanding in these mechanisms will allow breeding programmes to optimise milling performance in new cultivars. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Genome-wide identification and tissue-specific expression analysis of UDP-glycosyltransferases genes confirm their abundance in Cicer arietinum (Chickpea) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ranu; Rawat, Vimal; Suresh, C G

    2014-01-01

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (EC 2.4.1.x; UGTs) are enzymes coded by an important gene family of higher plants. They are involved in the modification of secondary metabolites, phytohormones, and xenobiotics by transfer of sugar moieties from an activated nucleotide molecule to a wide range of acceptors. This modification regulates various functions like detoxification of xenobiotics, hormone homeostasis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Here, we describe the identification of 96 UGT genes in Cicer arietinum (CaUGT) and report their tissue-specific differential expression based on publically available RNA-seq and expressed sequence tag data. This analysis has established medium to high expression of 84 CaUGTs and low expression of 12 CaUGTs. We identified several closely related orthologs of CaUGTs in other genomes and compared their exon-intron arrangement. An attempt was made to assign functional specificity to chickpea UGTs by comparing substrate binding sites with experimentally determined specificity. These findings will assist in precise selection of candidate genes for various applications and understanding functional genomics of chickpea.

  11. Molecular mapping and characterization of genes governing time to flowering, seed weight, and plant height in an intraspecific genetic linkage map of chickpea (Cicer arietinum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalabadi, Javad Ghorbani; Saidi, Abbas; Karami, Ezzat; Kharkesh, Mehrab; Talebi, Reza

    2013-06-01

    Drought is the major constraint to chickpea productivity worldwide. Utilizing early flowering genotypes and larger seed size have been suggested as strategies for breeding in drought zones. Therefore, this study aimed to identify potential markers linked to days-to-flowering, 100-seed weight, and plant height in a chickpea intraspecific F(2:3) population derived from the cross ILC3279 × ICCV2. A closely linked marker (TA117) on linkage group LG3 was identified for the days-to-flowering trait, explaining 33% of the variation. In relation to plant height, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) was located in LG3, close to the Ts5 marker, that explained 29% of phenotypic variation. A QTL for 100-seed weight located in LG4, close to TA176, explained 51% of variation. The identification of a locus linked both to high 100-seed weight and days-to-flowering may account for the correlation observed between these traits in this and other breeding attempts.

  12. Conjoint effect of oil-seed cakes and Pseudomonas fluorescens on the growth of chickpea in relation to the management of plant-parasitic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil application of organics has been explored as an alternative means of organic management of plant-parasitic nematodes. Efficiency of different oil-seed cakes of neem (Azadirachta indica, castor (Ricinus communis, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, linseed (Linum usitatissimum, sunflower (Helianthus annuus and soybean (Glycine max were evaluated in field conditions with association of Pseudomonas fluorescens in relation to growth parameters of chickpea and population of plant-parasitic nematodes. Their efficacious nature was highly effective in reducing the population of these dominant soil nematodes. Significant improvement was observed in plant-growth parameters such as plant weight, percent pollen fertility, pod numbers, root-nodulation and chlorophyll content of chickpea, seemed to be due to reduction in disease incidence and might be due to growth promoting substances secreted by P. fluorescens. The multiplication rate of nematodes was less in the presence of P. fluorescens as compared to its absence. Most effective combination of P. fluorescens was observed with neem cake.

  13. QTL-seq for rapid identification of candidate genes for 100-seed weight and root/total plant dry weight ratio under rainfed conditions in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vikas K; Khan, Aamir W; Jaganathan, Deepa; Thudi, Mahendar; Roorkiwal, Manish; Takagi, Hiroki; Garg, Vanika; Kumar, Vinay; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Gaur, Pooran M; Sutton, Tim; Terauchi, Ryohei; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-11-01

    Terminal drought is a major constraint to chickpea productivity. Two component traits responsible for reduction in yield under drought stress include reduction in seeds size and root length/root density. QTL-seq approach, therefore, was used to identify candidate genomic regions for 100-seed weight (100SDW) and total dry root weight to total plant dry weight ratio (RTR) under rainfed conditions. Genomewide SNP profiling of extreme phenotypic bulks from the ICC 4958 × ICC 1882 population identified two significant genomic regions, one on CaLG01 (1.08 Mb) and another on CaLG04 (2.7 Mb) linkage groups for 100SDW. Similarly, one significant genomic region on CaLG04 (1.10 Mb) was identified for RTR. Comprehensive analysis revealed four and five putative candidate genes associated with 100SDW and RTR, respectively. Subsequently, two genes (Ca_04364 and Ca_04607) for 100SDW and one gene (Ca_04586) for RTR were validated using CAPS/dCAPS markers. Identified candidate genomic regions and genes may be useful for molecular breeding for chickpea improvement. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Preparation of mayonnaise from extracted plant protein isolates of chickpea, broad bean and lupin flour: chemical, physiochemical, nutritional and therapeutic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Ereifej, Khalil; Gammoh, Sana; Kubow, Stan; Tawalbeh, Deia

    2017-05-01

    This investigation was aimed to study the molecular, physico-chemical, and biofunctional health properties of mayonnaise prepared using proteins isolated from broad bean, lupin and chickpea flour. Proteins were isolated from chickpea (CPPI), broad bean (BBPI) and lupin (LPPI) flour and assessed for molecular, physico-chemical, biofunctional, and protein yield. The highest water holding capacity, foaming stability, emulsion stability as well as protein yield and protein content of 44.0, 70.8, 37.5, 81.2, and 36.4, respectively were observed for BBPI. Mayonnaise prepared from the isolated plant proteins was evaluated for chemical composition, molecular properties of the protein subunits, and potential nutraceutical properties. Preparation of mayonnaise using BBPI or a mixture of either BBPI and CPPI or BBPI and LPPI showed superior values for lightness and lowered values for redness. Mayonnaise prepared from either BBPI or the BBPI and CPPI mixture showed the best antioxidant, antihypertensive and antidiabetic properties. The present study results indicated that the use of the BBPI and CPPI mixture can be a novel technological approach for the development of a mayonnaise with improved health promoting properties.

  15. A new set of ESTs from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) embryo reveals two novel F-box genes, CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM, with potential roles in seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shefali; Garg, Vanika; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    Considering the economic importance of chickpea (C. arietinum L.) seeds, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying seed development for which a cDNA library was constructed from 6 day old chickpea embryos. A total of 8,186 ESTs were obtained from which 4,048 high quality ESTs were assembled into 1,480 unigenes that majorly encoded genes involved in various metabolic and regulatory pathways. Of these, 95 ESTs were found to be involved in ubiquitination related protein degradation pathways and 12 ESTs coded specifically for putative F-box proteins. Differential transcript accumulation of these putative F-box genes was observed in chickpea tissues as evidenced by quantitative real-time PCR. Further, to explore the role of F-box proteins in chickpea seed development, two F-box genes were selected for molecular characterization. These were named as CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM depending on their C-terminal domains, PP2 and LysM, respectively. Their highly conserved structures led us to predict their target substrates. Subcellular localization experiment revealed that CarF-box_PP2 was localized in the cytoplasm and CarF-box_LysM was localized in the nucleus. We demonstrated their physical interactions with SKP1 protein, which validated that they function as F-box proteins in the formation of SCF complexes. Sequence analysis of their promoter regions revealed certain seed specific cis-acting elements that may be regulating their preferential transcript accumulation in the seed. Overall, the study helped in expanding the EST database of chickpea, which was further used to identify two novel F-box genes having a potential role in seed development.

  16. Coverage-based consensus calling (CbCC) of short sequence reads and comparison of CbCC results to identify SNPs in chickpea (Cicer arietinum; Fabaceae), a crop species without a reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Sarwar; Thakur, Vivek; Ruperao, Pradeep; Shah, Trushar; Balaji, Jayashree; Amindala, BhanuPrakash; Farmer, Andrew D; Studholme, David J; May, Gregory D; Edwards, David; Jones, Jonathan D G; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2012-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are frequently used for resequencing and mining of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by comparison to a reference genome. In crop species such as chickpea (Cicer arietinum) that lack a reference genome sequence, NGS-based SNP discovery is a challenge. Therefore, unlike probability-based statistical approaches for consensus calling and by comparison with a reference sequence, a coverage-based consensus calling (CbCC) approach was applied and two genotypes were compared for SNP identification. A CbCC approach is used in this study with four commonly used short read alignment tools (Maq, Bowtie, Novoalign, and SOAP2) and 15.7 and 22.1 million Illumina reads for chickpea genotypes ICC4958 and ICC1882, together with the chickpea trancriptome assembly (CaTA). A nonredundant set of 4543 SNPs was identified between two chickpea genotypes. Experimental validation of 224 randomly selected SNPs showed superiority of Maq among individual tools, as 50.0% of SNPs predicted by Maq were true SNPs. For combinations of two tools, greatest accuracy (55.7%) was reported for Maq and Bowtie, with a combination of Bowtie, Maq, and Novoalign identifying 61.5% true SNPs. SNP prediction accuracy generally increased with increasing reads depth. This study provides a benchmark comparison of tools as well as read depths for four commonly used tools for NGS SNP discovery in a crop species without a reference genome sequence. In addition, a large number of SNPs have been identified in chickpea that would be useful for molecular breeding.

  17. A new set of ESTs from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. embryo reveals two novel F-box genes, CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM, with potential roles in seed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Gupta

    Full Text Available Considering the economic importance of chickpea (C. arietinum L. seeds, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying seed development for which a cDNA library was constructed from 6 day old chickpea embryos. A total of 8,186 ESTs were obtained from which 4,048 high quality ESTs were assembled into 1,480 unigenes that majorly encoded genes involved in various metabolic and regulatory pathways. Of these, 95 ESTs were found to be involved in ubiquitination related protein degradation pathways and 12 ESTs coded specifically for putative F-box proteins. Differential transcript accumulation of these putative F-box genes was observed in chickpea tissues as evidenced by quantitative real-time PCR. Further, to explore the role of F-box proteins in chickpea seed development, two F-box genes were selected for molecular characterization. These were named as CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM depending on their C-terminal domains, PP2 and LysM, respectively. Their highly conserved structures led us to predict their target substrates. Subcellular localization experiment revealed that CarF-box_PP2 was localized in the cytoplasm and CarF-box_LysM was localized in the nucleus. We demonstrated their physical interactions with SKP1 protein, which validated that they function as F-box proteins in the formation of SCF complexes. Sequence analysis of their promoter regions revealed certain seed specific cis-acting elements that may be regulating their preferential transcript accumulation in the seed. Overall, the study helped in expanding the EST database of chickpea, which was further used to identify two novel F-box genes having a potential role in seed development.

  18. Molecular, serological and biological variation among chickpea chlorotic stunt virus isolates from five countries of North Africa and West Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, A D; Menzel, W; Varrelmann, M; Vetten, H Josef

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV), a proposed new member of the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae), has been reported only from Ethiopia. In attempts to determine the geographical distribution and variability of CpCSV, a pair of degenerate primers derived from conserved domains of the luteovirus coat protein (CP) gene was used for RT-PCR analysis of various legume samples originating from five countries and containing unidentified luteoviruses. Sequencing of the amplicons provided evidence for the occurrence of CpCSV also in Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, and Syria. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP nucleotide sequences of 18 samples from the five countries revealed the existence of two geographic groups of CpCSV isolates differing in CP sequences by 8-10%. Group I included isolates from Ethiopia and Sudan, while group II comprised those from Egypt, Morocco and Syria. For distinguishing these two groups, a simple RFLP test using HindIII and/or PvuII for cleavage of CP-gene-derived PCR products was developed. In ELISA and immunoelectron microscopy, however, isolates from these two groups could not be distinguished with rabbit antisera raised against a group-I isolate from Ethiopia (CpCSV-Eth) and a group-II isolate from Syria (CpCSV-Sy). Since none of the ten monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that had been produced earlier against CpCSV-Eth reacted with group-II isolates, further MAbs were produced. Of the seven MAbs raised against CpCSV-Sy, two reacted only with CpCSV-Sy and two others with both CpCSV-Sy and -Eth. This indicated that there are group I- and II-specific and common (species-specific) epitopes on the CpCSV CP and that the corresponding MAbs are suitable for specific detection and discrimination of CpCSV isolates. Moreover, CpCSV-Sy (group II) caused more severe stunting and yellowing in faba bean than CpCSV-Eth (group I). In conclusion, our data indicate the existence of a geographically associated variation in the molecular, serological and presumably

  19. Evaluating the Magnetic Field effects on Growth and Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum under Mashhad Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Mahmoudi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Effect of magnetic fields is now the subject of an increasingly large research effort because it is known to induce biochemical changes in plant species. In physic science, it is well established that by passing water through a magnetic device, the water can be influenced. On the other hand, the literature review in physical science in different country indicated also that magnetized water induced a change in water physicochemical properties such as conductivity, surface tension, viscosity, vaporization rate, and pH. The magnetic properties of the cells determine their capability in order to absorb and transfer the magnetic energy to other types of energy, transferring these energies within the plant. Therefore, this technology was used in different countries which all reported the successful use of magnets in treating water for irrigation use. Magnetic fields on seeds lead to better germination rate and plant growth than chemical fertilizers. Magnetic fields have been to apply a stimulus effect on growth and germination and on crop yield. Materials and Methods In order to study the effect of magnetic field on growth and total dry matter of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L., an strip plot experiment based on randomized complete block design was conducted at the Agronomy Research Field of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad ( Lat 36˚15' N, Long 59˚28' E; 985 m Altitude during 2013-2014. The first treatment was the exposure of seed to magnetic field in three levels (normal, 100 and 150 mT magnetic field with 120 minutes durations.The magnetic field exert by a device consists of two magnets and the two opposite poles of two magnets that attract each other. Moreover, the intensity of magnetic field changed by adjusting the distance between the poles. It was measured by using a micrometer Tesla meter Leybold- Heraeus51652. The second treatment consisted of water irrigation types as two levels (normal water and magnetized water with 650 m

  20. Differential methods of inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria induce synthesis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and phenolic compounds differentially in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, S A; Sarma, B K; Singh, D P; Annapurna, K; Singh, U P

    2006-01-01

    Foliar spray and micro-injection of plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial species, viz. Pseudomonas fluorescens and P. aeruginosa on chickpea induced synthesis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) when tested against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Induction of PAL was also associated with increased synthesis of phenolic compounds such as tannic, gallic, caffeic, chlorogenic and cinnamic acids. Treatment with P. fluorescens was found to be more effective in inducing phenolic compounds as compared to P. aeruginosa. However, persistence of PAL activity was observed more with P. aeruginosa. Although both the inoculation methods were effective, foliar application was found to be superior to micro-injection in terms of rapid PAL activity leading to the synthesis of phenolic compounds.

  1. Assessment of Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Mineral Nutrients in Response to NaCl Stress and its Amelioration Through Glutathione in Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Vinay; Kumar, Dinesh; Agrawal, Veena

    2016-01-01

    Salinity stress has been reckoned as one of the major threat towards crop productivity as it causes significant decline in the yield. The impact of NaCl stress (0, 1, 10, 50, 100 and 200 mg L(-1)) as well as glutathione (10 mg L(-1)) either alone or in combination has been evaluated on the induction of multiple shoots, antioxidant enzymes' activity, lipid peroxidation, relative permeability, concentration of nutrients, photosynthetic pigments, protein and proline content of nodal segments of chickpea after 14 days of culture. The antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were found to be increased under salt stress as well as glutathione-supplemented medium. A significant decrease in the concentrations of chlorophylls a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid was observed under salt stress. Concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, carbon, magnesium and sulphur showed an initial increase up to 10 mg L(-1) NaCl, but a decline was seen at higher NaCl levels. Proline content and malondialdehyde concentration were found to be increased under salt stress. Three isoforms of SOD, one of CAT and four of GPX were expressed during native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis. However, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the stressed nodal explants revealed the over-expression of several polypeptide bands related to NaCl stress. These findings for the first time suggest that glutathione (GSH) helps in ameliorating NaCl stress in nodal explants of chickpea by manipulating various biochemical and physiological responses of plants.

  2. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Time-Independent and Time-Dependent Rheological Characterization of Dispersions with Varying Contents of Chickpea Flour and Gum Arabic Employing the Multiple Loop Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J, Shanthilal; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2016-08-01

    The chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour dispersions as the model system with different contents of flour (37% to 43%) and gum arabic (0% to 5%) were subjected to multiple loop experiments for simultaneous determination of the time-independent and time-dependent rheological characteristics. The Herschel-Bulkley model was suitable (0.993 ≤ r ≤ 0.999) to relate the time-independent characteristics linking shear stress and shear rate data for the individual upward and downward curves. The yield stress, consistency index, and apparent viscosity increased with the increasing flour and/or gum contents while flow behavior index (n) decreased. The yield stress generally decreased with the number of loops but n increased. In the individual loop tests, the n values for the decreasing shear stress/shear rate curves were always higher than corresponding increasing curves meaning a shift toward Newtonian characteristics. The time-independent properties (yield stress, apparent viscosity, consistency index, and n), the time-dependent characteristics like the area of the loop, and liquid characteristics like pourability and the nonoral sensory attributes (viscosity, spreadability, and tackiness) were individually predicted by artificial neural networks wherein the root mean square errors were between 3.6% and 17.2%. The sensory assessment indicated that the desirable parameters for a free-flowing and easily pourable spherical chickpea batter droplets occurred when the average pourability and spreadability values were 6.9 and 5.9, respectively. The normalized indices for these 2 parameters indicated that the batter having 40% flour and 2% gum contents was most suitable exhibiting a deviation of only 10% from the ideal sensory scores; these values were 40% and 0% to 3%, and 43% and 0%, respectively exhibiting up to 20% deviation.

  4. Heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of two calcium-dependent protein kinase isoforms CaCPK1 and CaCPK2 from chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam Prakash, S R; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2006-11-01

    In plants, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) constitute a unique family of enzymes consisting of a protein kinase catalytic domain fused to carboxy-terminal autoregulatory and calmodulin-like domains. We isolated two cDNAs encoding calcium-dependent protein kinase isoforms (CaCPK1 and CaCPK2) from chickpea. Both isoforms were expressed as fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. Biochemical analyses have identified CaCPK1 and CaCPK2 as Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases since both enzymes phosphorylated themselves and histone III-S as substrate only in the presence of Ca(2+). The kinase activity of the recombinant enzymes was calmodulin independent and sensitive to CaM antagonists W7 [N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulphonamide] and calmidazoilum. Phosphoamino acid analysis revealed that the isoforms transferred the gamma-phosphate of ATP only to serine residues of histone III-S and their autophosphorylation occurred on serine and threonine residues. These two isoforms showed considerable variations with respect to their biochemical and kinetic properties including Ca(2+) sensitivities. The recombinant CaCPK1 has a pH and temperature optimum of pH 6.8-8.6 and 35-42 degrees C, respectively, whereas CaCPK2 has a pH and temperature optimum of pH 7.2-9 and 35-42 degrees C, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that CaCPK1 and CaCPK2 are functional serine/threonine kinases and may play different roles in Ca(2+)-mediated signaling in chickpea plants.

  5. End-product quality characteristics and consumer response of chickpea flour-based gluten-free muffins containing corn starch and egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Herranz, Beatriz; Jiménez, María José; Canet, Wenceslao

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this work was to study changes in technological characteristics and sensory properties of gluten-free muffins when using chickpea flour (CF) alone and/or with partial CF replacement by corn starch (CS). The effect of partial whole egg replacement by egg white (EW) was also investigated. Four different CF:CS ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75) were used in formulations with and without incorporated EW, and compared with wheat flour (WF) muffins (0:0). Muffins prepared from CF alone had lower hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience than control ones. However, reducing protein content by CS addition significantly increased texture profile analysis parameters of muffin crumb. Muffins prepared with 25:75 ratio had a structure with springiness similar to muffins made with WF but were too hard. Reducing whole egg content by partial replacement with EW also significantly increased muffin hardness. Flash profile performed by consumers showed a clear discrimination of muffins according to CF:CS ratio. Muffins containing both CF and CS at 50:50 ratio had the same high overall acceptability and purchase intention as gluten ones. Gluten-free CF-based muffins of satisfactory quality can be manufactured by CS incorporation, either with or without EW. By decreasing and increasing protein and starch contents of chickpea flour (CF) by incorporation of corn starch (CS), muffins formulated from a combination of CF and CS at different CF:CS ratios, either with or without partial replacement of whole egg with egg white, result in high-quality muffins with similar technological and sensory characteristics to those of their gluten counterparts. Sensory overall acceptability and purchase intention of muffins made with a 50:50 ratio did not differ significantly from those of the controls. These findings will benefit celiac population, while promoting the value and utilization of pulses through muffins. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Repeat length variation in the 5'UTR of myo-inositol monophosphatase gene is related to phytic acid content and contributes to drought tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi-Saha, Archana; Reddy, Kandali S

    2015-09-01

    Myo-inositol metabolism plays a significant role in plant growth and development, and is also used as a precursor for many important metabolites, such as ascorbate, pinitol, and phytate. Phytate (inositol hexakisphosphate) is the major storage pool for phosphate in the seeds. It is utilized during seed germination and growth of the developing embryo. In addition, it is implicated in protection against oxidative stress. In the present study, a panel of chickpea accessions was used for an association analysis. Association analysis accounting for population structure and relative kinship identified alleles of a simple sequence repeat marker, NCPGR90, that are associated with both phytic acid content and drought tolerance. These alleles varied with respect to the dinucleotide CT repeats present within the marker. NCPGR90 located to the 5'UTR of chickpea myo-inositol monophosphatase gene (CaIMP) and showed transcript length variation in drought-tolerant and drought-susceptible accessions. CaIMP from a drought-tolerant accession with a smaller repeat was almost 2-fold upregulated as compared to a susceptible accession having a longer repeat, even under control non-stressed conditions. This study suggests an evolution of simple sequence repeat length variation in CaIMP, which might be regulating phytic acid levels to confer drought tolerance in natural populations of chickpea.

  7. Determination of the protein quality of cooked Canadian pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Nosworthy, Matthew G.; Neufeld, Jason; Frohlich, Peter; Young, Gina; Malcolmson, Linda; House, James D

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A study to determine the protein digestibility?corrected amino acid score and protein efficiency ratio of nine different cooked Canadian pulse classes was conducted in support of the establishment of protein quality claims in Canada and the United States. Split green and yellow pea, whole green lentil, split red lentil, Kabuli chickpea, navy bean, pinto bean, light red kidney bean, and black bean were investigated. Protein digestibility?corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and the pro...

  8. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  9. sequences in Chickpea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milena

    Genetic diversity analysis in terms of Shannon's index and Nei's gene diversity for resistant, ... results among groups and among cultivars were 10 and 90%, respectively, while the estimated gene ... in many areas (Knights and Siddique, 2002).

  10. The relationship of Hyper-spectral Vegetation Indices with LAI over the growth cycle of Wheat and Chickpea at 3nm spectral resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R.; Vijayan, D.; Prasad, T.

    Using 3 nm observations over wheat and chickpea, hyperspectral indices, hNDVI= [(R 774-R677)/(R774+R677)], hRVI=R7 7 4/R 677 and TM bandwidths based NDVI, RVI and SAVI were computed. Pigment specific ratios (PSR) with reflectance at 800 nm (R800) as numerator were computed for Chlorophyll-a (PSR a= R800 /R 680 ) , Chlorophyll-b (PSR b = R800 /R 635) and Chlorophyll- Carotenoid (PSRc= R800 /R 470 ) . Structure intensive pigment indices (SIPI) given by SIPIa=(R 800 -R 445)/(R 800 -R6 8 0) and SIPIb =[(R 800 -R445)/(R 680 -R4 4 5)] were computed. Acceptable confidence level (r2 in 0.90-0.96 and 0.86-0.91 for all the above mentioned ratios and normalized difference indices, respectively) in correlation of these indices with LAI for wheat was observed when LAI for growth and decline phases were regressed separately; for ratio and normalized indices for chickpea, the r2 (for relationship with LAI) was in 0.85-0.97 range for growth phase and in 0.64-0.85 range for decline phase. In case of chickp ea, the leaves becoming yellow do not fall or undergo change in interaction cross-section to incident light; thus, LAI does not change though spectral indices will change. The r2 for the correlations of LAI for wheat, with TMRVI, PSR a, PSR b , PSRc were in 0.92-0.96 range; with TM NDVI and TM SAVI r 2 were in 0.90-0.91 range and with SIPIa and SIPIb r2 were in 0.67-0.78 range. Correlations were also computed for LAI with all possible ratio indices as well as normalized indices using 3 nm bandwidths dat a sets in 368 to 950 nm region. The correlation coefficients of LAI, for wheat, with ratios of 729-950 nm spectral region to 564-693 nm spectral region were in 0.95-0.99 range for growth phase (of LAI) and in 0.96-0.968 range during declining phase (of LAI) while for chickpea the correlations were in 0.86-0.90 range for growth phase (of LAI) and 0.91-0.96 range during declining phase (of LAI) for the ratios of 711-798 nm spectral region to 673 - 685 nm (growth phase)/693-708 nm

  11. Novel SSR markers from BAC-end sequences, DArT arrays and a comprehensive genetic map with 1,291 marker loci for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendar Thudi

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is the third most important cool season food legume, cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The goal of this study was to develop novel molecular markers such as microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-end sequences (BESs and diversity arrays technology (DArT markers, and to construct a high-density genetic map based on recombinant inbred line (RIL population ICC 4958 (C. arietinum×PI 489777 (C. reticulatum. A BAC-library comprising 55,680 clones was constructed and 46,270 BESs were generated. Mining of these BESs provided 6,845 SSRs, and primer pairs were designed for 1,344 SSRs. In parallel, DArT arrays with ca. 15,000 clones were developed, and 5,397 clones were found polymorphic among 94 genotypes tested. Screening of newly developed BES-SSR markers and DArT arrays on the parental genotypes of the RIL mapping population showed polymorphism with 253 BES-SSR markers and 675 DArT markers. Segregation data obtained for these polymorphic markers and 494 markers data compiled from published reports or collaborators were used for constructing the genetic map. As a result, a comprehensive genetic map comprising 1,291 markers on eight linkage groups (LGs spanning a total of 845.56 cM distance was developed (http://cmap.icrisat.ac.in/cmap/sm/cp/thudi/. The number of markers per linkage group ranged from 68 (LG 8 to 218 (LG 3 with an average inter-marker distance of 0.65 cM. While the developed resource of molecular markers will be useful for genetic diversity, genetic mapping and molecular breeding applications, the comprehensive genetic map with integrated BES-SSR markers will facilitate its anchoring to the physical map (under construction to accelerate map-based cloning of genes in chickpea and comparative genome evolution studies in legumes.

  12. Optimization of an Efficient Protein Extraction Protocol Compatible with Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry from Recalcitrant Phenolic Rich Roots of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moniya Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry are undoubtedly two essential tools popularly used in proteomic analyses. Utilization of these techniques however largely depends on efficient and optimized sample preparation, regarded as one of the most crucial steps for recovering maximum amount of reliable information. The present study highlights the optimization of an effective and efficient protocol, capable of extraction of root proteins from recalcitrant phenolic rich tissues of chickpea. The widely applicable TCA-acetone and phenol-based methods have been comparatively evaluated, amongst which the latter appeared to be better suited for the sample. The phenol extraction-based method further complemented with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS and pulsatory treatments proved to be the most suitable method represented by greatest spot number, good resolution, and spot intensities. All the randomly selected spots showed successful identification when subjected to further downstream MALDI-TOF and MS/MS analyses. Hence, the information obtained collectively proposes the present protein extraction protocol to be an effective one that could be applicable for recalcitrant leguminous root samples.

  13. Optimization of an Efficient Protein Extraction Protocol Compatible with Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry from Recalcitrant Phenolic Rich Roots of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Moniya; Gupta, Sumanti; Bhar, Anirban; Das, Sampa

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry are undoubtedly two essential tools popularly used in proteomic analyses. Utilization of these techniques however largely depends on efficient and optimized sample preparation, regarded as one of the most crucial steps for recovering maximum amount of reliable information. The present study highlights the optimization of an effective and efficient protocol, capable of extraction of root proteins from recalcitrant phenolic rich tissues of chickpea. The widely applicable TCA-acetone and phenol-based methods have been comparatively evaluated, amongst which the latter appeared to be better suited for the sample. The phenol extraction-based method further complemented with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and pulsatory treatments proved to be the most suitable method represented by greatest spot number, good resolution, and spot intensities. All the randomly selected spots showed successful identification when subjected to further downstream MALDI-TOF and MS/MS analyses. Hence, the information obtained collectively proposes the present protein extraction protocol to be an effective one that could be applicable for recalcitrant leguminous root samples.

  14. The Effects of Cold Stress at Germination and Seedling Stages on Antioxidant Enzymes and Some Physiological Aspects of Chickpea (Cicer arientinum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wanaei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of cold stress on antioxidant enzymes and physiological characteristics in chickpea, two separate experiments were conducted at germination and seedling stages. Each experiment with six temperature levels (T1(control=15C°, T2=5C°, T3=0C°, T4=-5C°, T5=-10C° and T6=-15C° and three varieties (V1=Pirouz V2=ILC482 V3=Bivaniej was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications at controlled condition in crop physiological laboratory of Kurdistan university at 2009. The results showed that cold treatment increased Catalase and Peroxdase activity, cell membrane injury and H2O2 concentration significantly. The temperature -5C° treatment had the most influence on physiological traits. Based on germination stage trial, ILC482 was known as resistance cultivar and Pirouz showed highest sensitivity to cold treatments. There were positive and significant correlation between H2O2 concentration with Catalase (r = 0.98** and Peroxidase (r = 0.89** at germination stage. Peroxidase activity was about tenfold more of the Catalase activity. In general, the results showed that cold stress increased reactive oxygen species; these product lead to oxidative damages to cell membrane.

  15. Investigation the Effects of Different Doses Organic Fertilizers and Phosphate Solubilizing Bacterias on Yield and Nutrient Contents in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferit SÖNMEZ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (N2; Bacillus megaterium M-3, TV-6I; Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, TV-34A; Hafnia Alve, TV-69E; Acetobacter pasteurianus and TV-83F; Bacillus cereus and organic fertilizer (0, 10 and 20 ton / ha on the seed yield and nutrient content of chickpea under field conditions in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria used in this study were determined by the separate investigation conducted in chamber room by using ten phosphate solubilizing bacteria and organic fertilizer (control, %5,%10. The tiral were laid out with a factorial design in randomized complete block with three replications. In this study, plant height, primary branches, secondary branches and number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, grain yield and biological yield and nutrient content of stem and seed were determined. According to the results of the study bacteria applications increased significantly biological and seed yield. Bacteria applications without organic fertilizer increased nutrient contents of seed and steed except cupper content. In case of inoculation with organic fertilizer provided more increases in biological and seed yields. The highest seed yield were obtained from application of 20 ton/ha + N2 (Bacillus megaterium M-3 with 1020 kg/ha and 1793 kg/ha in 2010 and 2011 years, respectively. Bacteria without organic fertilizer application were more active in terms of phosphorus uptake in both years. 

  16. Fast-Track Introgression of “QTL-hotspot” for Root Traits and Other Drought Tolerance Traits in JG 11, an Elite and Leading Variety of Chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev K. Varshney

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A “” containing quantitative trait loci (QTL for several root and drought tolerance traits was transferred through marker-assisted backcrossing into JG 11, a leading variety of chickpea ( L. in India from the donor parent ICC 4958. Foreground selection with up to three simple sequence repeat markers, namely TAA170, ICCM0249, and STMS11, and background selection with up to 10 amplified fragment length polymorphism primer combinations was undertaken. After undertaking three backcrosses with foreground and background selection and selfing, 29 BCF plants homozygous for two markers (ICCM0249 and TAA170 were selected and referred as introgression lines (ILs. Root trait phenotyping of these ILs showed higher rooting depth (RDp (average 115.21 ± 2.24 cm in all 29 ILs, better root length density (RLD (average 0.41 ± 0.02 cm cm in 26 ILs, and higher root dry weight (RDW (average 1.25 ± 0.08 g per cylinder as compared to the recurrent parent, JG 11 (111.70 cm for RDp, 0.39 cm cm for RLD, and 1.10 g per cylinder for RDW, as well as the donor parent, ICC 4958 (114.20 cm for RDp, 0.45 cm cm for RLD, and 1.25 g per cylinder for RDW. These ILs, developed in 3 yr, after multilocation field trials may be released as improved variety with enhanced drought tolerance.

  17. Membrane-associated proteomics of chickpea identifies Sad1/UNC-84 protein (CaSUN1), a novel component of dehydration signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Dinesh Kumar; Mishra, Poonam; Subba, Pratigya; Rathi, Divya; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2014-02-01

    Dehydration affects almost all the physiological processes including those that result in the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which in turn elicits a highly conserved signaling, the unfolded protein response (UPR). We investigated the dehydration-responsive membrane-associated proteome of a legume, chickpea, by 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry. A total of 184 protein spots were significantly altered over a dehydration treatment of 120 h. Among the differentially expressed proteins, a non-canonical SUN domain protein, designated CaSUN1 (Cicer arietinum Sad1/UNC-84), was identified. CaSUN1 localized to the nuclear membrane and ER, besides small vacuolar vesicles. The transcripts were downregulated by both abiotic and biotic stresses, but not by abscisic acid treatment. Overexpression of CaSUN1 conferred stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. Furthermore, functional complementation of the yeast mutant, slp1, could rescue its growth defects. We propose that the function of CaSUN1 in stress response might be regulated via UPR signaling.

  18. In vitro versus in vivo protein digestibility techniques for calculating PDCAAS (protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score) applied to chickpea fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Olga Luisa; Neves, Valdir Augusto; da Silva Júnior, Sinézio Inácio

    2016-11-01

    Seven different in vitro methods to determine the protein digestibility for chickpea proteins were considered and also the application of these methodologies for calculating PDCAAS (protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score), seeking their correlations with the in vivo methodology. In vitro digestibility of raw and heated samples were determined using pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, considering soluble nitrogen via Kjeldahl (ppKJ) and hydrolysed peptide linkages using trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid and o-phthaldialdehyde. In vitro digestibility was also determined using trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase (3-Enz) or trypsin, chymotrypsin, peptidase and pronase solution (4-Enz). None of the correlations between in vitro and in vivo digestibilities were significant (at pvitro and in vivo results. PDCAAS-ppKJ, PDCAAS-3-Enz and PDCAAS-4-Enz presented the highest correlations with in vivo method, r=0.9316, 0.9442 and 0.9649 (pvitro methods for calculating PDCAAS may be promising and deserves more discussions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rheometric Non-Isothermal Gelatinization Kinetics of Chickpea Flour-Based Gluten-Free Muffin Batters with Added Biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Cuesta, Francisco Javier; Herranz, Beatriz; Canet, Wenceslao

    2017-01-02

    An attempt was made to analyze the elastic modulus (G0) of chickpea flour (CF)-based muffin batters made with CF alone and with added biopolymers (whey protein (WP), xanthan gum (XG), inulin (INL), and their blends) in order to evaluate their suitability to be a wheat flour (WF) substitute in muffins, and to model the heat-induced gelatinization of batters under non-isothermal heating condition from 25 ◦C to 90 ◦C. A rheological approach is proposed to determine the kinetic parameters (reaction order (n), frequency factor (k0), and activation energy (Ea)) using linearly-increasing temperature. Zero-order reaction kinetics adequately described batter gelatinization process, therefore assuming a constant rate independent of the initial G0 value. The change of the derivative of G0 with respect to time (dG0/dt) versus temperature is described by one exponential function with activation energies ranging from 118 to 180 kJ·mol-1. Control wheat gluten batter, with higher and lower starch and protein contents, respectively, than CF-based batters, exhibited the highest Ea value. Formulation of CF-based gluten-free batters with starch and protein contents closer to the levels of WF-based batter could be a strategy to decrease differences in kinetic parameters of muffin batters and, therefore, in technological characteristics of baked muffins.

  20. Rheometric Non-Isothermal Gelatinization Kinetics of Chickpea Flour-Based Gluten-Free Muffin Batters with Added Biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Alvarez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to analyze the elastic modulus (G0 of chickpea flour (CF-based muffin batters made with CF alone and with added biopolymers (whey protein (WP, xanthan gum (XG, inulin (INL, and their blends in order to evaluate their suitability to be a wheat flour (WF substitute in muffins, and to model the heat-induced gelatinization of batters under non-isothermal heating condition from 25 ◦C to 90 ◦C. A rheological approach is proposed to determine the kinetic parameters (reaction order (n, frequency factor (k0, and activation energy (Ea using linearly-increasing temperature. Zero-order reaction kinetics adequately described batter gelatinization process, therefore assuming a constant rate independent of the initial G0 value. The change of the derivative of G0 with respect to time (dG0/dt versus temperature is described by one exponential function with activation energies ranging from 118 to 180 kJ·mol−1. Control wheat gluten batter, with higher and lower starch and protein contents, respectively, than CF-based batters, exhibited the highest Ea value. Formulation of CF-based gluten-free batters with starch and protein contents closer to the levels of WF-based batter could be a strategy to decrease differences in kinetic parameters of muffin batters and, therefore, in technological characteristics of baked muffins.

  1. Phenotypic plasticity and its genetic regulation for yield, nitrogen fixation and δ13C in chickpea crops under varying water regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadras, Victor O; Lake, Lachlan; Li, Yongle; Farquharson, Elizabeth A; Sutton, Tim

    2016-07-01

    We measured yield components, nitrogen fixation, soil nitrogen uptake and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in a collection of chickpea genotypes grown in environments where water availability was the main source of yield variation. We aimed to quantify the phenotypic plasticity of these traits using variance ratios, and to explore their genetic basis using FST genome scan. Fifty-five genes in three genomic regions were found to be under selection for plasticity of yield; 54 genes in four genomic regions for the plasticity of seeds per m(2); 48 genes in four genomic regions for the plasticity of δ(13)C; 54 genes in two genomic regions for plasticity of flowering time; 48 genes in five genomic regions for plasticity of nitrogen fixation and 49 genes in three genomic regions for plasticity of nitrogen uptake from soil. Plasticity of yield was related to plasticity of nitrogen uptake from soil, and unrelated to plasticity of nitrogen fixation, highlighting the need for closer attention to nitrogen uptake in legumes. Whereas the theoretical link between δ(13)C and transpiration efficiency is strong, the actual link with yield is erratic due to trade-offs and scaling issues. Genes associated with plasticity of δ(13)C were identified that may help to untangle the δ(13)C-yield relationship. Combining a plasticity perspective to deal with complex G×E interactions with FST genome scan may help understand and improve both crop adaptation to stress and yield potential.

  2. The effect of solanapyrone a produced by Ascochyta rabiei on seed germination and the elongation of radicles and hypocotyls of chickpea (Cicer areitinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerroug, M M; Bouznad, Z; Larous, L; Strange, R N

    2004-01-01

    Three Algerian isolates of A. rabiei (72, Mat 1.2 and 9216) were grown on Czapek Dox medium supplemented with cations and incubated for 14 days. After incubation, the mycelium of the fungus was removed by filtration through four layers of muslin cloth and spores were removed from the filtrate by centrifugation at 10,000 g for 20 min. Solanapyrone A was partially purified by liquid phase extraction into ethyl acetate and, after removal of the ethyl acetate, the toxin samples were dissolved in methanol and quantified by analytical High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Solanapyrone A was identified by superimposition of its UV spectrum, obtained from the diode array detector of the HPLC, on the spectrum of an authentic sample. The action of solanapyrone A solution on seed germination and elongation of radicles and hypocotyls was tested using a concentration of 18.2 microg/ml and a two-fold dilution series of this solution in distilled water. The three Isolates, 72, Mat1.2 and 9216 produced solanapyrone A at concentrations of 37.2, 14.2 and 11.09 microg/ml, respectively. When probit % inhibition of seed germination was plotted against log2 of solanapyrone A concentration, there was a linear relationship and the EC50 concentration was determined as 7.2 microg/ml. Similarly, when radicle and hypocotyl elongation was plotted against log2 of solanapyrone A concentration, both gave linear relationships and the EC50 concentrations were determined as 5.37 and 6.02 microg/ml, respectively. It was concluded that solanapyrone A has a considerable inhibition of chickpea. However radicles and hypocotyls were susceptible than seed germination.

  3. Maize grain concentrations and above-ground shoot acquisition of micronutrients as affected by intercropping with turnip, faba bean, chickpea, and soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiyong; Zhao, Jianhua; Sun, Jianhao; Xue, Yanfang; Eagling, Tristan; Bao, Xingguo; Zhang, Fusuo; Li, Long

    2013-09-01

    Most research on micronutrients in maize has focused on maize grown as a monocrop. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of intercropping on the concentrations of micronutrients in maize grain and their acquisition via the shoot. We conducted field experiments to investigate the effects of intercropping with turnip (Brassica campestris L.), faba bean (Vicia faba L.), chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) on the iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the grain and their acquisition via the above-ground shoots of maize (Zea mays L.). Compared with monocropped maize grain, the grain of maize intercropped with legumes showed lower concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn and lower values of their corresponding harvest indexes. The micronutrient concentrations and harvest indexes in grain of maize intercropped with turnip were the same as those in monocropped maize grain. Intercropping stimulated the above-ground maize shoot acquisition of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn, when averaged over different phosphorus (P) application rates. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effects of intercropping on micronutrient concentrations in maize grain and on micronutrients acquisition via maize shoots (straw+grain). The maize grain Fe and Cu concentrations, but not Mn and Zn concentrations, were negatively correlated with maize grain yields. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in maize grain were positively correlated with their corresponding harvest indexes. The decreased Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn concentrations in grain of maize intercropped with legumes were attributed to reduced translocation of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn from vegetative tissues to grains. This may also be related to the delayed senescence of maize plants intercropped with legumes. We conclude that turnip/maize intercropping is beneficial to obtain high maize grain yield without decreased concentrations of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in the grain. Further research is

  4. PROTEIN L-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE2 is differentially expressed in chickpea and enhances seed vigor and longevity by reducing abnormal isoaspartyl accumulation predominantly in seed nuclear proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pooja; Kaur, Harmeet; Petla, Bhanu Prakash; Rao, Venkateswara; Saxena, Saurabh C; Majee, Manoj

    2013-03-01

    PROTEIN l-ISOASPARTYL METHYLTRANSFERASE (PIMT) is a widely distributed protein-repairing enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of abnormal l-isoaspartyl residues in spontaneously damaged proteins to normal aspartyl residues. This enzyme is encoded by two divergent genes (PIMT1 and PIMT2) in plants, unlike many other organisms. While the biological role of PIMT1 has been elucidated, the role and significance of the PIMT2 gene in plants is not well defined. Here, we isolated the PIMT2 gene (CaPIMT2) from chickpea (Cicer arietinum), which exhibits a significant increase in isoaspartyl residues in seed proteins coupled with reduced germination vigor under artificial aging conditions. The CaPIMT2 gene is found to be highly divergent and encodes two possible isoforms (CaPIMT2 and CaPIMT2') differing by two amino acids in the region I catalytic domain through alternative splicing. Unlike CaPIMT1, both isoforms possess a unique 56-amino acid amino terminus and exhibit similar yet distinct enzymatic properties. Expression analysis revealed that CaPIMT2 is differentially regulated by stresses and abscisic acid. Confocal visualization of stably expressed green fluorescent protein-fused PIMT proteins and cell fractionation-immunoblot analysis revealed that apart from the plasma membrane, both CaPIMT2 isoforms localize predominantly in the nucleus, while CaPIMT1 localizes in the cytosol. Remarkably, CaPIMT2 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing abnormal isoaspartyl residues predominantly in nuclear proteins upon seed-specific expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), while CaPIMT1 enhances seed vigor and longevity by repairing such abnormal proteins mainly in the cytosolic fraction. Together, our data suggest that CaPIMT2 has most likely evolved through gene duplication, followed by subfunctionalization to specialize in repairing the nuclear proteome.

  5. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  7. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  8. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  10. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  11. Kaitsevägi valmistub saatma Kabuli lisajõude / Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildam, Toomas, 1961-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti kaitsevägi peab ülejärgmiseks aastaks välja õpetama kaks viieliikmelist demineerimisrühma ja aasta hiljem veel 23-mehelise rühma. Probleemidest Afganistani-missiooniga. Vt. samas intervjuud kaitsejõudude peastaabi teavitusülema Peeter Taliga: Tali: Kabul annab kogemuse

  12. Physicochemical Properties Comparison of Oil in Chickpea and Its Industrial Waste%鹰嘴豆及其工业下脚料油脂理化特性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴元; 孙凤华

    2015-01-01

    Taking chickpea and its industrial waste as objects, physicochemical properties of their oils (saponification val-ue, acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, vitamin E (VE) content, fatty acid composition, oxidation stability and freeze stability) were compared. Results showed that:saponification value of chickpea and industrial waste oil were 89.67 mg/g and 91.52 mg/g, iodine value were 145.2 g/100g and 140.9 g/100g, acid value were 1.56 mg/g and 2.14 mg/g, peroxide values were0.56 mmol/kg and 0.72 mmol/kg, content of VEwere 0.122%and 0.097%. Main fatty acids compositions of two oils were oleic acid and linoleic acid.Compared with chickpeas, polyunsaturated fatty acid relative content of its industrial waste oil was low. Induction period of two kinds of oxidation stability of oil were 5.44 h and 5.81 h. Freezing test results showed that two kinds of fat frozen time met national standard. Comprehensive comparison of various indicators, chickpea industrial waste could be developed as a new oil source.%以鹰嘴豆及其工业下脚料为对象,进行了二者油脂理化特性(皂化值、酸值、过氧化值、碘值、维生素E (VE)含量、脂肪酸组成、氧化稳定性和冷冻稳定性)的比较研究。结果表明:鹰嘴豆油及其工业下脚料油脂的皂化值分别为89.67和91.52mg/g,碘值分别为145.2和140.9g/100g,酸值分别为1.56和2.14(KOH)/(mg/g),过氧化值分别为0.56和0.72mmol/kg, VE含量分别为0.122%和0.097%。两种油脂的脂肪酸主要成分均为油酸和亚油酸,与鹰嘴豆相比,其工业下脚料油脂的多不饱和脂肪酸相对含量较低。两种油脂氧化稳定性的诱导期分别为5.44和5.81h。冷冻试验结果表明:两种油脂的冷冻时间均符合国标要求。综合比较各个指标,鹰嘴豆工业下脚料可以作为一种新型油料来源进行开发。

  13. Correlation between differential drought tolerability of two contrasting drought-responsive chickpea cultivars and differential expression of a subset of CaNAC genes under normal and dehydration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kien Huu; Ha, Chien Van; Watanabe, Yasuko; Tran, Uyen Thi; Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Nguyen, Dong Van; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2015-01-01

    Drought causes detrimental effect to growth and productivity of many plants, including crops. NAC transcription factors have been reported to play important role in drought tolerance. In this study, we assessed the expression profiles of 19 dehydration-responsive CaNAC genes in roots and leaves of two contrasting drought-responsive chickpea varieties treated with water (control) and dehydration to examine the correlation between the differential expression levels of the CaNAC genes and the differential drought tolerability of these two cultivars. Results of real-time quantitative PCR indicated a positive relationship between the number of dehydration-inducible and -repressible CaNAC genes and drought tolerability. The higher drought-tolerant capacity of ILC482 cultivar vs. Hashem cultivar might be, at least partly, attributed to the higher number of dehydration-inducible and lower number of dehydration-repressible CaNAC genes identified in both root and leaf tissues of ILC482 than in those of Hashem. In addition, our comparative expression analysis of the selected CaNAC genes in roots and leaves of ILC482 and Hashem cultivars revealed different dehydration-responsive expression patterns, indicating that CaNAC gene expression is tissue- and genotype-specific. Furthermore, the analysis suggested that the enhanced drought tolerance of ILC482 vs. Hashem might be associated with five genes, namely CaNAC02, 04, 05, 16, and 24. CaNAC16 could be a potential candidate gene, contributing to the better drought tolerance of ILC482 vs. Hashem as a positive regulator. Conversely, CaNAC02 could be a potential negative regulator, contributing to the differential drought tolerability of these two cultivars. Thus, our results have also provided a solid foundation for selection of promising tissue-specific and/or dehydration-responsive CaNAC candidates for detailed in planta functional analyses, leading to development of transgenic chickpea varieties with improved productivity under

  14. Correlation between differential drought tolerability of two contrasting drought-responsive chickpea cultivars and differential expression of a subset of CaNAC genes under normal and dehydration conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kien Huu Nguyen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought causes detrimental effect to growth and productivity of many plants, including crops. NAC transcription factors (TFs have been reported to play important role in drought tolerance. In this study, we assessed the expression profiles of 19 dehydration-responsive CaNAC genes in roots and leaves of two contrasting drought-responsive chickpea varieties treated with water (control and dehydration to examine the correlation between the differential expression levels of the CaNACs and the differential drought tolerability of these two cultivars. Results of real-time quantitative PCR indicated a positive relationship between the number of dehydration-inducible and -repressible CaNAC genes and drought tolerability. The higher drought-tolerant capacity of ICL482 cultivar vs. Hashem cultivar might be, at least partly,