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Sample records for kablanketi dry bean

  1. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  2. Large-area dry bean yield prediction modeling in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the importance of dry bean in Mexico, crop yield predictions before harvest are valuable for authorities of the agricultural sector, in order to define support for producers. The aim of this study was to develop an empirical model to estimate the yield of dry bean at the regional level prior t...

  3. Efficacy of vegetable oils against dry bean beetles Acanthoscelides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) is a major pest of stored dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other legumes world wide. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum) oils against A. obtectus on stored dry beans under laboratory conditions.

  4. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  5. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation.

  6. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.

  7. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Food and Drug Administration or other public health organizations of the United States as being... area to the extent feasible. We may obtain prices from any buyer of our choice. If we obtain prices... additional costs required to deliver the dry beans to those buyers. Discounts used to establish the net price...

  8. MODELLING OF THIN LAYER DRYING KINETICS OF COCOA BEANS DURING ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. HII

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Drying experiments were conducted using air-ventilated oven and sun dryer to simulate the artificial and natural drying processes of cocoa beans. The drying data were fitted with several published thin layer drying models. A new model was introduced which is a combination of the Page and two-term drying model. Selection of the best model was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2, reduced chi-square (2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the experimental and predicted values. The results showed that the new model was found best described the artificial and natural drying kinetics of cocoa under the conditions tested.

  9. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry bean powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four bean varieties. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size = 0.5 mm)...

  10. A field survey on coffee beans drying methods of Indonesian small holder farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, Parulian; Setyawan, Eko Y.; Gultom, Tumiur; Napitupulu, Farel H.; Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Drying agricultural product is a post-harvest process that consumes significant energy. It can affect the quality of the product. This paper deals with literature review and field survey of drying methods of coffee beans of Indonesia farmers. The objective is to supply the necessary information on developing continuous solar drier. The results show that intermittent characteristic of sun drying results in a better quality of coffee beans in comparison with constant convective drying. In order to use energy efficiently, the drying process should be divided into several stages. In the first stage when the moist content is high, higher drying air temperature is more effective. After this step, where the moist content is low, lower drying air temperature is better. The field survey of drying coffee beans in Sumatera Utara province reveals that the used drying process is very traditional. It can be divided into two modes and depend on the coffee beans type. The Arabica coffee is firstly fermented and dried to moisture content of 80% using sun drying method, then followed by Green House model of drying up to moisture content about 12%. The latter typically spends 3 days of drying time. On the other hand, The Robusta coffee is dried by exposing to the sun directly without any treatment. After the coffee beans dried follow by peeled process. These findings can be considered to develop a continuous solar drying that suitable for coffee beans drying.

  11. Mechanical weed control on small-size dry bean and its response to cross-flaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martelloni, L.; Frasconi, C.; Fontanelli, M.; Raffaelli, M.; Peruzzi, A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can be a profitable crop for farmers; however controlling weeds effectively without a decrease in yield remains a problem. An example where mechanical weed control is difficult to conduct is dry bean ‘Toscanello’, which is a small sized high-income niche product growing low to the ground. Concerning intra-row weed control, also flame weeding could be an opportunity but the dry bean heat tolerance needs to be studied. The aims of this research were to study the weed control efficacy of a spring-tine harrow and an inter-row cultivator in this bean variety, and to test the tolerance of dry bean cultivated under weed-free conditions to cross-flaming applied with different liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) doses. Flame weeding was applied at BBCH 13 and BBCH 14 bean growth stages by pairs of burners producing direct double flame acting into the intra-row space, with bean plants placed in the middle. The results suggest that the spring-tine harrow used two times at BBCH 13 and 14, respectively, lead to a yield similar to that of the weedy control. The inter-row cultivator could be an opportunity for small-sized dry bean crops producers, enabling them to obtain a similar yield compared to the hand-weeded control. Concerning the bean tolerance to cross-flaming the results showed that bean flamed at BBCH 13 stage had little tolerance to cross-flaming. Bean flamed at BBCH 14 stage was tolerant until an LPG dose of 39 kg/ha, giving yield responses similar to those observed in the non-flamed control. (Author)

  12. A modified laboratory canning protocol for quality evaluation of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Parthiba; Slinkard, Alfred; Tyler, Robert; Vandenberg, Albert

    2000-05-01

    The effects of calcium (Ca 2+ ) level in the soak water, blanch water and brine, blanching temperature, and total seed solids on dry bean canning quality were investigated to optimise a laboratory canning protocol. A linear increase in the Ca 2+ level of soak water, blanch water and brine resulted in a linear decrease in hydration coefficient and percent washed drained weight but a linear increase in texture. Low Ca 2+ level (10 mg kg -1 ) reduced the hydration time for dry bean seed from 14 to 1 h. Blanching temperatures of 50, 70 and 88 °C had non-significant effects on canning quality traits. Blanching for 30 min at 70 °C for black bean or at 88 °C for navy bean and pinto bean resulted in percent washed drained weight ≥ 60, as required by the Canada Agricultural Products Standards Act. Seed solids levels of 95-97 g per 300 × 407 (14 fl oz) can were sufficient to attain a percent washed drained weight of 60. It was confirmed that the thermal processing conditions (115.6 °C retort temperature, 45 min) used in this study were sufficient to achieve commercial sterility. The optimised lab protocol for evaluation of the canning quality of dry bean breeding lines is as follows. Seed containing 95 g of solids for pinto bean, 96 g for navy bean and 97 g for black bean is soaked in water for 30 min at 20 °C and blanched for 30 min at 70 °C for black bean and 88 °C for navy bean and pinto bean in water containing 10 mg kg -1 of Ca 2+ . The seed is then transferred to a 300 × 407 can, filled with brine containing 10 mg kg -1 of Ca 2+ , 1.3% (w/v) of NaCl and 1.6% (w/v) of sugar. The can is then sealed, processed in steam at 115.6 °C for 45 min and cooled at 20 °C for 20 min. Cans are stored for at least 2 weeks prior to quality evaluation of the canned product. Canning of dry bean seed according to this protocol results in precise estimation of canning quality traits, particularly percent

  13. Genetic Variability of Macrophomina phaseolina Isolates from Dry Beans in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Serkan Yeşil; Kubilay Kurtuluş Baştaş

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal rot is a soil and seed borne, economically important fungal disease on dry bean in Turkey. Twenty bean isolates of M. phaseolina collected from different locations in Turkey during 2008 and 2012 years were studied for genetic variability using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay, chlorate sensitivity on medium supplemented with 120mM of potassium, phenotype of colony, and pathogenicity. Isolates were identified as M. phaseolina based on morhological features and PCR assays ...

  14. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

    2010-10-13

    Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.

  15. Characterisation of bacterial brown spot pathogen from dry bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) causes bacterial brown spot (BBS) of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with yield losses of up to 55% in South Africa. Pss has a wide host range and for many of these, the pathogen has been biochemically and genetically characterised. However, few studies have been conducted on ...

  16. Foodborne botulinum type E intoxication associated with dried bean curd: first case report in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lung-Shiang; Wang, Yi-Mei; Lin, Chin-Hsien

    2011-06-01

    Botulism type E intoxication is a rare condition among human botulism. We aim to describe a first case of botulism type E intoxication in Taiwan. We report a 36-year-old young man with foodborne botulism type E associated with commercially vacuum packaged dried bean curd. He developed bilateral ptosis, diplopia and dysphagia 4 days after taking the dried bean curd. Electrophysiologic findings demonstrated waxing responses to 3 Hz repetitive nerve stimulation and decreased compound muscle action potentials on peripheral nerve conduction study. A bioassay for botulism in mice demonstrated that the patient had botulism caused by type E botulinum toxin. Antibodeis to C. botulinum type E were identified from his serum, confirming the diagnosis. This is the first known case of foodborne type E botulism in Taiwan. The potential source of this foodborne botulism should consider contaminated food made of soy beans.

  17. Shape and size of jatropha beans (Jatropha curcas L. during drying at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Cambuy Siqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to study the physical properties of the jatropha beans over the drying under six air conditions, based on measurements of roundness, sphericity, volume, superficial area, projected area and surface/volume ratio. Jatropha beans with moisture content around 0.61 (decimal d.b. were subjected to thin-layer drying in oven with forced-air circulation under six temperature conditions (36, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 °C and relative humidity of 31.7; 19.6; 9.4; 4.8; 2.6 and 1.5% respectively, until reaching the moisture content of 0.11 ± 0.006 (decimal d. b.. The results showed that the necessary time for jatropha beans to reach the moisture content of 0.11 ± 0.006 (decimal d.b. were 1.5; 2.25; 3.0; 4.75; 6.75 and 12.0 h for the drying temperatures of 105, 90, 75, 60, 45 and 36 °C, respectively; and the reduction in the moisture content as well as the drying conditions promoted changes in the shape and reduced the size of the jatropha beans.

  18. Preservation of Yangzhou flavor of dried bean cured products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yunsheng; Lu Maolin; Dong Jie; Guo Dongfen; Chen Xiulan; Cao Hong

    2008-01-01

    White dried tofu as raw materials of Yangzhou dishes bean curd shreds, its shelf life was shorter for the traditional craft-making. This paper through improved its production technology and products for vacuum packaging with radiation durability, the shelf life at 4 degree C for 3 months was achieved. This technology may also apply to other related products. (authors)

  19. “Eat dry beans, split peas, lentils and soya regularly”: A food-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eat dry beans, split peas, lentils and soya regularly”: A food-based dietary guideline. ... Legumes are rich and economical sources of good-quality protein, slow-release carbohydrates, dietary fibre (non-starch polysaccharides), various vitamins and minerals and non-nutritive components which may have several beneficial ...

  20. Biogenic amine profile in unripe Arabica coffee beans processed according to dry and wet methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Eduardo C; Pereira, Rosemary G F A; Borém, Flávio M; Mendes, Eulália; de Lima, Renato R; Fernandes, José O; Casal, Susana

    2012-04-25

    Immature coffee fruit processing contributes to a high amount of defective beans, which determines a significant amount of low-quality coffee sold in the Brazilian internal market. Unripe bean processing was tested, taking the levels of bioactive amines as criteria for evaluating the extent of fermentation and establishing the differences between processing methods. The beans were processed by the dry method after being mechanically depulped immediately after harvest or after a 12 h resting period in a dry pile or immersed in water. Seven bioactive amines were quantified: putrescine, spermine, spermidine, serotonin, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine, with global amounts ranging from 71.8 to 80.3 mg/kg. The levels of spermine and spermidine were lower in the unripe depulped coffee than in the natural coffee. The specific conditions of dry and wet processing also influenced cadaverine levels, and histamine was reduced in unripe depulped coffee. A resting period of 12 h does not induce significant alteration on the beans and can be improved if performed in water. These results confirm that peeling immature coffee can decrease fermentation processes while providing more uniform drying, thus reducing the number of defects and potentially increasing beverage quality.

  1. Study on effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Farah Dina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans. Two type of desiccants were tested, molecular sieve 13× (Na86 [(AlO286·(SiO2106]·264H2O as an adsorbent type and CaCl2 as an absorbent type. The results revealed that during sunshine hours, the maximum temperature within the drying chamber varied from 40 °C to 54 °C. In average, it was 9–12 °C higher than ambient temperature. These temperatures are very suitable for drying cocoa beans. During off-sunshine hours, humidity of air inside the drying chamber was lower than ambient because of the desiccant thermal storage. Drying times for intermittent directs sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorbent were 55 h, 41 h, and 30 h, respectively. Specific energy consumptions for direct sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorber were 60.4 MJ/kg moist, 18.94 MJ/kg moist, and 13.29 MJ/kg moist, respectively. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that a solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage makes drying using solar energy more effective in term of drying time and specific energy consumption.

  2. Weed Interference Effects on Leaves, Internode and Harvest Index of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of appropriate weed management strategies and efficient use of herbicides relies upon understanding weed-crop interactions. A field study was carried out to assess the effect of weed interference on leaves, internode and harvest index of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. The experiment was established under a randomized complete block design with two types of weed interference treatments: plots with weeds and plots without weeds at different time intervals (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after crop emergence. The sigmoid Boltzmann model was used to quantify the crop traits as influenced by weed interference. Prolonged delays in weed removal reduced gradually the number of leaves of the crop. Weed interference decreased dry weight of leaves as well, so that the lowest value of it (33.49 g plant-1 was observed in full season during weed-infested treatment. Infestation of weeds affected the length of the crop internodes. While the weed interference duration increased, the length of the internodes decreased. Harvest index was also sensitive to weed competition. As the crop was kept weed-infested from the emergence for increasing periods of time, harvest index decreased to a value of 28.01%. A significant negative correlation between total biomass of weeds and dry bean traits (number of leaves, leaves dry weight, internode length and harvest index was observed. Therefore, weeds are able to adversely affect dry bean growth through constraining environmental resources and impairing leaves as the photosynthetic areas.

  3. Dry heat and radiation combination effects on Aspergillus flavus Link. infecting cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.; Meier, H.; Odamtten, G.T.

    1981-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of heat and radiation combination treatments on the control of microbial spoilage of cocoa beans caused by toxigenic Aspergillus flavus Link. The heat and radiation sources were from dry air oven heat and 60 Co gammacell 220 irradiator, respectively. The radiation doses used were either 0, 50, 100, 150 or 200 krad, with combined heat temperatures of 30, 60 or 90 0 C. At each temperature level three different exposure time intervals of either 15 min, 30 min or 60 min respectively, were used. Two reversible sequential heat/radiation combination effects were evaluated. The first sequence involved cocoa beans inoculated with A. flavus spores exposed first to dry heat at pre-determined temperature heat exposure time, followed by radiation treatment, then retention of samples in a constant humidity environmental chamber set at 80% for daily observation up to forty days post-treatment. The second sequence involved exposure of the inoculated beans first to radiation, then to heat before retention under fixed RH for observation. From their results, the authors arrive at four conclusions: first, that there is a critical radiation/heat combination range (200, 150 and 100 krad/90 0 C for 15 min) that significantly decontaminates (less than 5% mouldiness) A. flavus infected cocoa beans even under high relative humidity (80% RH) environment; second, that a temperature level of 90 0 C combined with 200, 150 or 100 krad maximizes such effect but the heat exposure time is a major factor; third, that low heat temperature ranges of 30 or 60 0 C, combined with low radiation dosages of 150 krad or below, enhance the rate of A. flavus spoilage effects of cocoa beans; and, lastly, that the sequence of exposure of the inoculated cocoa beans to heat/radiation combination influenced the spore germination; exposure to heat before radiation would sensitize the spores (200 krad/90 0 C) but results in an increased radioresistance. (author)

  4. Attempts to induce mutants resistant or tolerant to golden mosaic virus in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Ando, A.; Costa, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    The golden mosaic of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that is present in the tropical parts of the American continent has become a major hindrance for the cultivation of this food legume of great importance to many Latin America countries. Good control measures are not known and bean germ plasm resistant or tolerant to this virus disease is not yet available. Attempts to induce bean mutants with this desirable characteristic were made using gamma radiation and chemical mutagen. Some M 2 plants from one progeny of the cultivar Carioca treated with 0.48% ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS), 6 hours of treatment at 20 0 C, showed milder symptoms than the control progenies, and at the same time they showed a tendency to recover. This mutant is being tested under field conditions and used in crosses with other bean types that show a certain degree of tolerance, aiming at adding the favourable characters of both parents. Seeds of the hybrids, as well as those of the parent types, are also being further submitted to mutagenic treatments in order to obtain still better mutants that will be satisfactory for direct or indirect control of bean golden mosaic. (author)

  5. Effect of different drying techniques on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile of robusta coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjiang; Hu, Rongsuo; Chu, Zhong; Zhao, Jianping; Tan, Lehe

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different drying techniques, namely, room-temperature drying (RTD), solar drying (SD), heat-pump drying (HPD), hot-air drying (HAD), and freeze drying (FD), on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and the volatile compound profile of robusta coffee beans. The data showed that FD was an effective method to preserve fat, organic acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, HAD was ideal for retaining polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids. Sixty-two volatile compounds were identified in the differently dried coffee beans, representing 90% of the volatile compounds. HPD of the coffee beans produced the largest number of volatiles, whereas FD resulted in the highest volatile content. A principal component analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the HPD, SD, and RTD methods whereas the FD and HAD methods were significantly different. Overall, the results provide a basis for potential application to other similar thermal sensitive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and variability in nutritional value of varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans and peas for chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with day-old broiler type chicks to study the effect of a cobalt-60 source of gamma irradiation and autoclaving on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The variability in nutritional value of varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans and peas was also studied. Total protein (N x 6.25) was not changed appreciably by gamma irradiation (21 Mrad cobalt-60) and autoclaving but solubility in water was decreased. In vitro enzymic digestibility of irradiated bean protein was increased by pepsin alone and with a mixture of trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase. The nutritional value of all varieties of beans, based on chick growth, was significantly improved by gamma irradiation. The irradiated treatment of beans increased nitrogen retention by chicks and decreased uric acid nitrogen excretion in relation to nitrogen intake

  7. Dimensioning, construction and commissioning of a coffee beans drying system with use of solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Vindas, Allan Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    A system of low-cost solar drying of coffee beans is dimensioned, built and commissioned by using solar collectors based on recycled aluminum cans. The information is collected from literature about the drying of coffee, types of drying and the various types of solar dryers.The coffee beans drying system is conceptualized and sized based on a solar collector constructed of aluminum cans as solar radiation absorbing material. The grain drying system is then built in coffee benefit CoopeTarrazu to all provided by the company and help materials and labor facilities. A guide to implementation of solar drying technology with general information is tailored to implement, select, build and maintain a solar grain dryer in Central America. The launch of the drying system was made by checking the proper functioning of the system and measurement instruments variables selected to calculate the efficiency of the system. The drying system is tested with a load of 45 kg of coffee bean, using a flow of air through natural convection to operate the system with the exclusive use of renewable energy. The grain is drying from a humidity of 50% (b.n), up to a humidity between 11% and 13% (b.n), which is the range generally used for the safe storage of grain. Facts of solar radiation, temperature, air velocity, relative humidity and grain humidity were taken to determine the behavior of the sized system. The maximum thermal efficiency achieved by the solar collector is determined constructed of 18%, with an air flow of 0.013 kg/s and a solar radiation 1138 W/m 2 . The average drying efficiency during experimentation was 17.8%, which is among the range of efficiencies for the type of drying equipment. Best thermal efficiencies were obtained from the solar collector built that the commercial solar collector compared. Controlling the flow of air into the equipment is recommended in order to improve the thermal efficiency and drying equipment, using blowers, fans or induced draft chimney

  8. Effects of gamma radiation and irradiated bean seeds on the dry bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Brzostek, G.

    1988-01-01

    Low dosages of gamma radiation affected the development of immature stages of the bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say. Radiosensitivity of the bean weevils decreased during their development, and adults seemed to be the most resistant stage for gamma radiation. There were no significant differences in mortality of immature stages of the pest during their development in beans treated with gamma radiation at dosages up to 1.06 kGy. Moreover, the females showed no ovipositional preference for untreated or irradiated beans

  9. Heat and mass transfer through a thick bed of cocoa beans during drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nganhou, J. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, B P 8390, ENSP Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2004-07-01

    This article relates to the establishment of macroscopic equations of thick and fixed hygroscopical porous medium allowing an analysis of couply phenomena of heat and mass transfers in drying operation. The drying is done through forced convection by imposing a circulation of hot air across the layer. The authors then make their study particular to the case of thick layer of cocoa beans grown in the region of Yaounde in cameroon. A study realized on a prototype constructed and tested in the laboratory enables the validation of the proposed model. (orig.)

  10. Polyphenol-Rich Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are plant metabolites with potent anti-oxidant properties, which help to reduce the effects of oxidative stress-induced dreaded diseases. The evidence demonstrated that dietary polyphenols are of emerging increasing scientific interest due to their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases in humans. Possible health beneficial effects of polyphenols are based on the human consumption and their bioavailability. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a greater source of polyphenolic compounds with numerous health promoting properties. Polyphenol-rich dry common beans have potential effects on human health, and possess anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Based on the studies, the current comprehensive review aims to provide up-to-date information on the nutritional compositions and health-promoting effect of polyphenol-rich common beans, which help to explore their therapeutic values for future clinical studies. Investigation of common beans and their impacts on human health were obtained from various library databases and electronic searches (Science Direct PubMed, and Google Scholar). PMID:29113066

  11. Use of the solar and eolic energy in the drying of bean seed at rural level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grajales Avila, W.; Racines Sanchez, L.E.

    1985-01-01

    The drying is a camera through which is made pass air heated in a solar collector, by means of a rotational fan impelled by the wind. The dryer is wooden and the zinc consists of five levels where the trays are deposited that contain the product. In the end of the chimney placed above the drying camera this the fan that is a rotor of corrugate fins; when rotating under the action of the wind it extracts air of the ventilation chimney; in the periods that the wind doesn't blow the drying it happens for natural convention. In the collector the badge absorbent is zinc colored corrugate of black; the mark is wooden, isolated in its inferior part with icopor and the cover a sheet of plastic. To evaluate the dryer they were carried out four drying rehearsals with seed of bean variety Calima. One observes that the bean drying with this dryer type is feasible even with cloudy or partially cloudy sky. The drying was satisfactory with the two loads of 200 and 400 kg. With the flow of air through the trays and for the load of 210 kg with flow around them; being the drying uniform for this it finishes. The quality of the seeds was not affected in the drying coke superior temperatures they were presented to 43-centigrade degrees. The dryer can adapt to individual necessities and conditions you specify of operation. It is recommended to carry out rehearsals for other agricultural products that allow knowing the capacity and functionality from the dryer to property level

  12. Influence of Fermentation and Drying Materials on the Contamination of Cocoa Beans by Ochratoxin A

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    Sébastien Djédjé Dano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin produced mainly by species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Contamination of food with OTA is a major consumer health hazard. In Cote D’Ivoire, preventing OTA contamination has been the subject of extensive study. The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermentation and drying materials on the OTA content in cocoa. For each test, 7000 intact cocoa pods were collected, split open to remove the beans, fermented using 1 of 3 different materials, sun-dried on 1 of 3 different platform types and stored for 30 days. A total of 22 samples were collected at each stage of post-harvesting operations. The OTA content in the extracted samples was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. OTA was detected in beans at all stages of post-harvesting operations at varying levels: pod-opening (0.025 ± 0.02 mg/kg, fermentation (0.275 ± 0.2 mg/kg, drying (0.569 ± 0.015 mg/kg, and storage (0.558 ± 0.04 mg/kg. No significant relationships between the detected OTA level and the materials used in the fermentation and drying of cocoa were observed.

  13. Genetic Variability of Macrophomina phaseolina Isolates from Dry Beans in Turkey

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    Serkan Yeşil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal rot is a soil and seed borne, economically important fungal disease on dry bean in Turkey. Twenty bean isolates of M. phaseolina collected from different locations in Turkey during 2008 and 2012 years were studied for genetic variability using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD assay, chlorate sensitivity on medium supplemented with 120mM of potassium, phenotype of colony, and pathogenicity. Isolates were identified as M. phaseolina based on morhological features and PCR assays using species-specific primers (MPKF1and MPKR1. Isolates of M. phaseolina were analysed for their aggressiveness on the susceptible bean cv. Akman 98, by soil inoculation method. Isolates exhibiting a dense chlorate phenotype were chlorate-resistant, while those possessing feathery and restricted chlorate phenotypes were chlorate-sensitive. More than half of the isolates (55% were resistant to chlorate and produced dense phenotype, while 35% isolates showed feathery and two isolates (10% showed restricted growth. DNA from 20 isolates was subjected to genetic diversity analysis by the RAPD method using 14 randomly chosen 10-base random primers, and low genetic diversity (33.3% was observed among the tested isolates.

  14. Climate change impacts on maize and dry bean yields of smallholder farmers in Honduras

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    MENDOZA, Carlos O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rotation maize and dry bean provides the main food supply of smallholder farmers in Honduras. Crop model assessment of climate change impacts (2070–2099 compared to a 1961–1990 baseline on a maize–dry bean rotation for several sites across a range of climatic zones and elevations in Honduras. Low productivity systems, together with an uncertain future climate, pose a high level of risk for food security. The cropping systems simulation dynamic model CropSyst was calibrated and validated upon field trail site at Zamorano, then run with baseline and future climate scenarios based upon general circulation models (GCM and the ClimGen synthetic daily weather generator. Results indicate large uncertainty in crop production from various GCM simulations and future emissions scenarios, but generally reduced yields at low elevations by 0 % to 22 % in suitable areas for crop production and increased yield at the cooler, on the hillsides, where farming needs to reduce soil erosion with conservation techniques. Further studies are needed to investigate strategies to reduce impacts and to explore adaptation tactics.

  15. Performance of Northwest Washington Heirloom Dry Bean Varieties in Organic Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Miles

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This two-year study compared nine northwest Washington dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. heirloom (H varieties with 11 standard (S commercial varieties in matching market classes using organic, non-irrigated production practices. Heirloom and standard varieties differed in days to harvest (DTH (110 DTH and 113 DTH, respectively, while both days to harvest (113 DTH and 110 DTH and yield (2268 kg∙ha−1 and 1625 kg∙ha−1 were greater in 2013 than in 2014. Varieties with the shortest DTH both years were “Bale” (H, “Coco” (H, “Decker” (H, “Ireland Creek Annie” (H and S, “Kring” (H and “Rockwell” (H. Varieties that had the highest yield both years were “Eclipse” (S, “Lariat” (S and “Youngquist Brown” (H. Only “Eclipse” (S had the shortest cooking time both years, while “Rockwell” (H, “Silver Cloud” (S and “Soldier” (S had short cooking times in 2013, and “Orca” (S and “Youngquist Brown” (H had short cooking time in 2014. Varieties with the highest protein content both years were “Calypso” (S, “Coco” (S and “Silver Cloud” (S. Further research should investigate yield of early maturing standard varieties, with a focus on color-patterned beans that are attractive for local markets.

  16. The use of ionising radiation from 60CO gamma source in controlling mouldiness in dried cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appiah, Victoria

    2001-01-01

    Mouldiness in stored cocoa beans in Ghana and the production of aflatoxin have been studied. Based on actual weight of discarded beans, mouldy beans have been estimated to constitute 0.13 % and 0.00002 % of marketable beans at the farmers' level and the buying agents' depots respectively in the Tafo District. This is contrasted with an estimated value of 0.16 % obtained in a questionnaire type study involving farmers. Estimated mouldy beans at the Tema port was 0.69 % per year (based on the cut test) representing a financial loss of $1,688,637.19 per year at $989/T should the mouldy beans be discarded. Fifty-eight (58) internally- and externally- borne fungal species were isolated from dried cocoa beans. Of these, forty-eight (48) were internally- borne and ten (10) were superficial. Twenty-nine (29) of the internally occurring fungi have been recorded for the first time on cocoa beans in Ghana. Twenty-six (26) of the fungi isolated belong to Aspergillus group. They included A. parasiticus and A. flavus, which can produce aflatoxins. Five (5) belong to Penicillium, eight (8) to Fusarium and nineteen (19) to other species. Ionising radiation effectively controlled fungi associated with mouldiness in cocoa beans in a dose - dependent manner. A radiation dose of 6 kGy completely inactivated the moulds. A. flavus and A. tamarii were the most radiation - resistant moulds encountered. The moisture content of the beans before, during and after irradiation influenced the effect of radiation. The relative humidity during storage and the type of packaging also influenced the radiation effect. Conidia of A. flavus subjected to moist heat at temperatures 20 0 C to 60 0 C for 2.5, 5 and 10 min respectively were not significantly affected by heating up to 50 0 C. Heating an aqueous conidial suspension at 60 0 C for at least 2.5 min reduced the number of fungal colonies by at least 5 log cycles when the suspension was assayed on agar plate media. Heating at 59 0 C for 10 min

  17. Phenotypic diversity for seed mineral concentration in North American dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm of Middle American ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds are a major protein, carbohydrate, and mineral source for human diets in multiple regions of the world. Seed mineral biofortification is an going objective to improve this important food source. The objective of this research was to assess the seed mineral co...

  18. Organochlorine pesticide residues in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.O. Oyekunle

    Full Text Available Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs were determined in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa produce stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Cocoa beans samples were sun dried to a constant weight, pulverized and soxhlet extracted with dichloromethane to obtain the OCPs. Qualitative identification and quantitative evaluation of the extracted OCPs after clean-up on silica gel were accomplished with the aid of a Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD. Levels of OCPs in cocoa beans from Ondo had a mean range of ND (p, p’-DDE to 82.17 ± 54.53 ng/g (p, p’-DDT were higher than the OCPs levels in cocoa beans from Ile-Ife with a mean range of 0.37 ± 0.63 ng/g (Endrin to 57.76 ± 81.48 ng/g (p, p’-DDT. The higher levels of OCPs detected in the cocoa beans from Ondo could be an indication of higher volume of OCPs application by cocoa farmers in Ondo and its environs since cocoa plantations were more concentrated than Ile-Ife environs. Levels of OCPs determined in the cocoa beans were within the Maximum Residue Limit (MRLs for OCPs set by the World Health Organization/Food and Agricultural Organization. The study established the presence of OCPs in an important crop of Nigeria. Hence, there is the need to keep monitoring ecotoxicological chemical substances in agricultural food products of Nigeria so as to take steps that ensure health safety of end users. Keywords: Pesticides, Organochlorine, Cocoa beans, Ondo, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

  19. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal stimulant affect dry matter and nutrient accumulation in bean and soybean plants

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    Fabrício Henrique Moreira Salgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of biological resources in agriculture may allow less dependence and better use of finite resources. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native to the Brazilian Savannah associated with the application of mycorrhizal stimulant (7-hydroxy, 4'-methoxy-isoflavone, in the early growth of common bean and soybean. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design, with a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of five arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species, joint inoculation (junction of all species in equal proportions and native fungi (without inoculation, in the presence and absence of stimulant. The following traits were evaluated: shoot dry matter, root dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, nodules dry matter and accumulation of calcium, zinc and phosphorus in the shoot dry matter. The increase provided by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the use of stimulant reached over 200 % in bean and over 80 % in soybean plants. The fungi Acaulospora scrobiculata, Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora margarita and Rhizophagus clarus, for bean, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Dentiscutata heterogama, Rhizophagus clarus and the joint inoculation, for soybean, increased the dry matter and nutrients accumulation.

  1. 'Fagiolo a Formella', an Italian lima bean ecotype: biochemical and nutritional characterisation of dry and processed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, Angela R; Sparvoli, Francesca; Zaccardelli, Massimo

    2012-08-30

    An ecotype of the lima bean, named 'fagiolo a Formella', which, to the best of our knowledge, is the only example of an Italian lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) ecotype, is cultivated in the Campania region of southern Italy. Physical, nutritional and processing traits of dry seeds were evaluated for two consecutive growing seasons (2009 and 2010). The canning quality was also investigated, but only for the harvest of 2010. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of total seed proteins allowed the attribution of 'fagiolo a Formella' to the Mesoamerican gene pool and Sieva morphotype. Seeds have a trapezoid shape, white coat and 100-seed weight greater than 42 g. Yield, protein, trypsin inhibitor and phytic acid values were found comparable with those reported for lima bean varieties cultivated in sub-tropical areas. Moreover, we found that this ecotype is devoid of lectin. The good adaptation to growing environment is indicated by the fact that 'fagiolo a Formella' seed quality is comparable to that of lima beans grown in America. Overall the canning quality was found satisfactory and canning significantly destroys the main anti-nutritional compounds present in dry seeds. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. New strategy for evaluating grain cooking quality of progenies in dry bean breeding programs

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    Bruna Line Carvalho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The methodology available for evaluating the cooking quality of dry beans is impractical for assessing a large number of progenies. The aims of this study were to propose a new strategy for evaluating cooking quality of grains and to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters using a selection index. A total of 256 progenies of the 13thcycle of a recurrent selection program were evaluated at three locations for yield, grain type, and cooked grains. Samples of grains from each progeny were placing in a cooker and the percentage of cooked grains was assessed. The new strategy for evaluating cooking quality was efficient because it allowed a nine-fold increase in the number of progenies evaluated per unit time in comparison to available methods. The absence of association between grain yield and percentage of cooked grains or grain type indicated that it is possible to select high yielding lines with excellent grain aspect and good cooking properties using a selection index.

  3. Dry Bean Morpho-Physiological Responses to Gradual Weed Biomass Accumulation

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    Hossein GHAMARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Field study was carried out in 2011 in west of Iran to assess responses of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. morpho-physiological traits to gradual weed biomass accumulation. The treatments consisted of two different periods of weed interference, which weeds either infested the plots or removed for an increasing duration of time (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 days after crop emergence. Relative dominance and relative importance of weed species fluctuated over the crop cycle. As the duration of weed interference was increased, a declining trend of crop growth rate (CGR was observed. When weeds were allowed to compete with crop throughout the crop cycle, maximum value of CGR was decreased from 25.57 g m-2 days in full season weed free treatment to 16.78 g m-2 days in full season weed infested treatment. Effect of treatments on leaf area index (LAI was significant. Weed removal increased LAI but it could not significantly affect this trait, at the early of growing season. Weed interference caused a significant reduction on number of branches. The minimum number of branches was registered in full season weed infested treatment (2.58 branches per plant, while the maximum one was observed in the full season weed free treatment (4.25 branches per plant. Weed competition severely reduced crop yield. At 10 and 20 days after crop emergence, weed infestation could not significantly affect the yield. A negative relationship between weeds’ dry matter accumulation and LAI as well as number of branches was observed which signify the vulnerability of these morpho-physiological traits to weed competition.

  4. Multi-Residue studies of pesticides in fermented dried cocoa beans and selected cocoa products produced in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frimpong, S. K

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa is a major cash crop and contributes significantly to Ghana's economy. Majority of this contribution is as a result of foreign earnings in foreign trade partnership. Cocoa products are consumed locally aside it generating foreign income for the country. Pesticide residues above allowable limits in cocoa beans have potential detrimental effects on human health, depending on the frequency of exposure and/or the potency or toxicity of the pesticide. Pesticide residues on cocoa also attract trade sanctions from international trading partners. The approved pesticides, which are used to control pests in the growing cocoa in Ghana, are: Diazinon, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Acetamiprid, Imidicloprid and Pyrethrums; nevertheless some unapproved pesticides on cocoa such as Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyrifos, Endosulfan, Fenitrotion, Fenvalerate, Permethrin and others find their way for use on cocoa in Ghana. The main objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticide residues in fermented dried cocoa beans produced and ready for export in Ghana, using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. It also seeks to provide the baseline information on contamination levels of pesticide residues in semi-finished and selected finished fermented dried cocoa beans products. Fermented dried cocoa beans were sampled at random in the two main COCOBOD warehouses located in Tema and Takoradi. Semi-finished and finished cocoa products were obtained from processing industries in Tema. Two extraction methods were used. The second extraction method was as by the QuEChERS method for vegetable oils which was used for the cocoa butter samples only, after being liquefied in water bath at 40 degrees celsius. The investigated pesticides consisted of fifteen organochlorine pesticides, thirteen organophosphorous pesticides and nine synthetic pyrethroids pesticides. Percentage recoveries ranged from 70-110 percent, with instrumental detection limits of 0.3ug/kg, 0.15ug/g and 0.15ug/g for

  5. PRESENCE OF BCMV AND BCMNV IN FIVE DRY BEAN-PRODUCING STATES IN MEXICO.

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    Daniel Lepe-Soltero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to assess the frequency of BCMV and BCMNV in five of the main dry bean producing states in Mexico during the spring-summer 2009 and fall-winter growing seasons 2009-2010. States included in the survey were Nayarit, Sinaloa and Sonora in the pacific west coast, Veracruz in the gulf coast and Guanajuato in central Mexico. A total of 338 samples were collected and analyzed by RT-PCR with specific primers for each viral species. Forty-four samples (13% gave positive reaction for BCMV, 70 (21% for BCMNV and 30 (9% were positive for both viral species, 164 (48% were negative for both viruses and 30 (9% could not be defined as of yet. As for cultivars, Azufrado Higuera (Nueva Granada race grown at Sinaloa showed the highest frequency (33% of BCMV, whereas Negro Jamapa (Mesoamerica race from Nayarit displayed highest frequency (50% of BCMNV. In these two states the percentage of positive samples for either viral species was 80%. In addition, in cultivar Negro Jamapa mixed infections of both viruses were detected. Results point out a high risk of viral infection with seed movement across states, particularly since both viral species are seed transmitted and in the states at the pacific west coast, large seed lots are produced during the fall-winter season. Key words: BCMV, BCMNV, bean plants viruses RESUMEN Se llevó a cabo un muestreo en campo para estimar la frecuencia de la ocurrencia de BCMV y BCMNV en cinco estados productores de frijol en México durante los periodos de cultivo primavera-verano y otoño-invierno en el 2009 y 2009/2010. Los estados incluidos en el estudio fueron Nayarit, Sinaloa y Sonora en la costa del pacifico, Veracruz en la costa del golfo y Guanajuato en el centro de México. Se colectó un total de 338 muestras que se analizaron por RT-PCR con iniciadores específicos para cada una de las dos especies virales. Cuarenta y cuatro muestras (13% resultaron positivas para el BCMV, 70 (20% para el

  6. Influence of insecticidal plant materials used during storage on sensory attributes and instrumental hardness of dry edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, F V; Serugendo, A; Breene, W M; Sriharan, S

    1995-07-01

    Three plant products with known insecticidal properties, a dry extract of flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium (Trevir.) Vis. produced in Rwanda, an ethanol extract of seeds of neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, and crushed leaves of Tetradenia riparia Hochst Codd, a traditional Rwandan medicine, were mixed with beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., for storage protection. These plant-protected beans were compared with "off the shelf' beans that were being sold to consumers by the Rwandan National Agricultural Products Marketing Organization (OPROVIA). A trained sensory panel determined that beans treated with neem and C. cinerariaefolium were as acceptable after 8 months storage as those being sold throughout Rwanda by the marketing organization. Beans marketed by this organization were all treated with the standard insecticide application in Rwanda, 0.01% weight/weight pirimiphos methyl in a powder formulation. Instrumental hardness (% hard-to-cook/mean gram force) after 20 months of storage was acceptable for beans stored with neem or with C. cinerariaefolium or with the conventional government application of pirimiphos methyl. Use of either neem or C. cinerariaefolium for storage protection should not affect consumer acceptance of dry beans.

  7. Potential worldwide distribution of Fusarium dry root rot in common beans based on the optimal environment for disease occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Renan; Sales, Lilian Patrícia; Yoshida, Fernanda; Silva-Abud, Lidianne Lemes; Lobo, Murillo

    2017-01-01

    Root rots are a constraint for staple food crops and a long-lasting food security problem worldwide. In common beans, yield losses originating from root damage are frequently attributed to dry root rot, a disease caused by the Fusarium solani species complex. The aim of this study was to model the current potential distribution of common bean dry root rot on a global scale and to project changes based on future expectations of climate change. Our approach used a spatial proxy of the field disease occurrence, instead of solely the pathogen distribution. We modeled the pathogen environmental requirements in locations where in-situ inoculum density seems ideal for disease manifestation. A dataset of 2,311 soil samples from commercial farms assessed from 2002 to 2015 allowed us to evaluate the environmental conditions associated with the pathogen's optimum inoculum density for disease occurrence, using a lower threshold as a spatial proxy. We encompassed not only the optimal conditions for disease occurrence but also the optimal pathogen's density required for host infection. An intermediate inoculum density of the pathogen was the best disease proxy, suggesting density-dependent mechanisms on host infection. We found a strong convergence on the environmental requirements of both the host and the disease development in tropical areas, mostly in Brazil, Central America, and African countries. Precipitation and temperature variables were important for explaining the disease occurrence (from 17.63% to 43.84%). Climate change will probably move the disease toward cooler regions, which in Brazil are more representative of small-scale farming, although an overall shrink in total area (from 48% to 49% in 2050 and 26% to 41% in 2070) was also predicted. Understanding pathogen distribution and disease risks in an evolutionary context will therefore support breeding for resistance programs and strategies for dry root rot management in common beans.

  8. Potential worldwide distribution of Fusarium dry root rot in common beans based on the optimal environment for disease occurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Macedo

    Full Text Available Root rots are a constraint for staple food crops and a long-lasting food security problem worldwide. In common beans, yield losses originating from root damage are frequently attributed to dry root rot, a disease caused by the Fusarium solani species complex. The aim of this study was to model the current potential distribution of common bean dry root rot on a global scale and to project changes based on future expectations of climate change. Our approach used a spatial proxy of the field disease occurrence, instead of solely the pathogen distribution. We modeled the pathogen environmental requirements in locations where in-situ inoculum density seems ideal for disease manifestation. A dataset of 2,311 soil samples from commercial farms assessed from 2002 to 2015 allowed us to evaluate the environmental conditions associated with the pathogen's optimum inoculum density for disease occurrence, using a lower threshold as a spatial proxy. We encompassed not only the optimal conditions for disease occurrence but also the optimal pathogen's density required for host infection. An intermediate inoculum density of the pathogen was the best disease proxy, suggesting density-dependent mechanisms on host infection. We found a strong convergence on the environmental requirements of both the host and the disease development in tropical areas, mostly in Brazil, Central America, and African countries. Precipitation and temperature variables were important for explaining the disease occurrence (from 17.63% to 43.84%. Climate change will probably move the disease toward cooler regions, which in Brazil are more representative of small-scale farming, although an overall shrink in total area (from 48% to 49% in 2050 and 26% to 41% in 2070 was also predicted. Understanding pathogen distribution and disease risks in an evolutionary context will therefore support breeding for resistance programs and strategies for dry root rot management in common beans.

  9. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers. PMID:21917164

  10. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Krake, Susann H; Bergmeier, Stephen C; Payne, Mark J; Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A

    2011-09-14

    This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers.

  11. Impact of soils and cropping systems on composition of mineral elements of dry cacao beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    In view of its high economic value, cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) researchers are seeking technological innovations that increase production and improve the quality of cacao beans. The objective of this study was to characterize the mineral (P, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ba) composition of caca...

  12. Genetic Architecture of Flooding Tolerance in the Dry Bean Middle-American Diversity Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is a devastating abiotic stress that endangers crop production in the twenty-first century. Because of the severe susceptibility of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to flooding, an understanding of the genetic architecture and physiological responses of this crop will set the stage for further improvement. However, challenging phenotyping methods hinder a large-scale genetic study of flooding tolerance in common bean and other economically important crops. A greenhouse phenotyping protocol was developed to evaluate the flooding conditions at early stages. The Middle-American diversity panel (n = 272 of common bean was developed to capture most of the diversity exits in North American germplasm. This panel was evaluated for seven traits under both flooded and non-flooded conditions at two early developmental stages. A subset of contrasting genotypes was further evaluated in the field to assess the relationship between greenhouse and field data under flooding condition. A genome-wide association study using ~150 K SNPs was performed to discover genomic regions associated with multiple physiological responses. The results indicate a significant strong correlation (r > 0.77 between greenhouse and field data, highlighting the reliability of greenhouse phenotyping method. Black and small red beans were the least affected by excess water at germination stage. At the seedling stage, pinto and great northern genotypes were the most tolerant. Root weight reduction due to flooding was greatest in pink and small red cultivars. Flooding reduced the chlorophyll content to the greatest extent in the navy bean cultivars compared with other market classes. Races of Durango/Jalisco and Mesoamerica were separated by both genotypic and phenotypic data indicating the potential effect of eco-geographical variations. Furthermore, several loci were identified that potentially represent the antagonistic pleiotropy. The GWAS analysis revealed peaks at Pv08

  13. grain size and heat source effect on the drying profile of cocoa bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    for SME and also sun dependent, oven drying though secure is expensive ... drying models as reported by Sahay and Singh [7] have been ..... Mathlab software depicts zero residue for each .... functional performance, product quality, and.

  14. Effect of dry mycelium of Penicillium chrysogenum fertilizer on soil microbial community composition, enzyme activities and snap bean growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Liu, Huiling; Cai, Chen; Thabit, Mohamed; Wang, Pu; Li, Guomin; Duan, Ziheng

    2016-10-01

    The dry mycelium fertilizer (DMF) was produced from penicillin fermentation fungi mycelium (PFFM) following an acid-heating pretreatment to degrade the residual penicillin. In this study, it was applied into soil as fertilizer to investigate its effects on soil properties, phytotoxicity, microbial community composition, enzyme activities, and growth of snap bean in greenhouse. As the results show, pH, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium, and organic matter of soil with DMF treatments were generally higher than CON treatment. In addition, the applied DMF did not cause heavy metal and residual drug pollution of the modified soil. The lowest GI values (<0.3) were recorded at DMF8 (36 kg DMF/plat) on the first days after applying the fertilizer, indicating that severe phytotoxicity appeared in the DMF8-modified soil. Results of microbial population and enzyme activities illustrated that DMF was rapidly decomposed and the decomposition process significantly affected microbial growth and enzyme activities. The DMF-modified soil phytotoxicity decreased at the late fertilization time. DMF1 was considered as the optimum amount of DMF dose based on principal component analysis scores. Plant height and plant yield of snap bean were remarkably enhanced with the optimum DMF dose.

  15. Influence of Excipients and Spray Drying on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Nutraceutical Capsules Containing Phytochemicals from Black Bean Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Rempel, Curtis; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-12-03

    Black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a rich source of flavonoids and saponins with proven health benefits. Spray dried black bean extract powders were used in different formulations for the production of nutraceutical capsules with reduced batch-to-batch weight variability. Factorial designs were used to find an adequate maltodextrin-extract ratio for the spray-drying process to produce black bean extract powders. Several flowability properties were used to determine composite flow index of produced powders. Powder containing 6% maltodextrin had the highest yield (78.6%) and the best recovery of flavonoids and saponins (>56% and >73%, respectively). The new complexes formed by the interaction of black bean powder with maltodextrin, microcrystalline cellulose 50 and starch exhibited not only bigger particles, but also a rougher structure than using only maltodextrin and starch as excipients. A drying process prior to capsule production improved powder flowability, increasing capsule weight and reducing variability. The formulation containing 25.0% of maltodextrin, 24.1% of microcrystalline cellulose 50, 50% of starch and 0.9% of magnesium stearate produced capsules with less than 2.5% weight variability. The spray drying technique is a feasible technique to produce good flow extract powders containing valuable phytochemicals and low cost excipients to reduce the end-product variability.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M. E-mail: Monique_Lacroix@iaf.uquebec.ca

    2000-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly (P{<=}0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. (author)

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly (P≤0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp. (author)

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and on the functional properties of proteins in dry red kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogbevi, M. K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2000-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation was found to affect the physicochemical properties of dry red kidney beans. The highest dose used (8 kGy) significantly ( P⩽0.05) modified the extent of deamidation, the number of sulfhydryl groups, as well as the solubility and the hydrophobicity of the protein. Deamidation, protein solubility and hydrophobicity all increased with the irradiation dose while the number of sulfhydryl groups was reduced by the treatment. Furthermore, irradiation also affected the outgrowth of natural filamentous fungi contaminants present on the dry beans. A dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the number of filamentous fungi by 2 log cycles immediately after treatment. However, the highest dose used (3 kGy) did not eliminate the filamentous fungi completely. Moreover, the filamentous fungi population was a lot less diversified on the irradiated samples. Species of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. were more abundant on the unirradiated beans while the beans irradiated at 3 kGy contained were predominantly infected by species of Rhizopus sp. , Cladosporium sp. and Alternaria sp.

  19. Natural selection and family X location interaction in the common (dry bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Pirola

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection takes place while advancing generations of segregant populations of self pollinating species by the population (bulk method. There is evidence that it maintains the individuals with greater grain yield. The question arises whether natural selection preserves the individuals which are more adapted only to the environment where the generation advance occurred, that is, if it contributes to increasing the genotype x environment interaction in the family assessment. This study was carried out to check this hypothesis in the common bean plant using families derived from a segregating population from a cross between the Carioca MG x ESAL 686 cultivars. The segregating populations increase in homozygosity was obtained by the population (bulk method until the F14 generation, in three distinct locations in Minas Gerais state: Lavras, Lambari and Patos de Minas. Forty-seven F14:15 families were randomly taken from the population in each location and later multiplied to obtain F14:16 families. These families were jointly assessed with three controls using a triple 12 x 12 lattice design in the three locations of generation advance in the wet season of 1998/1999. All the estimated parameters showed that while advancing segregant populations by the population (bulk method, natural selection acted to preserve the individuals which are more adapted to the environment in which they were advanced.

  20. Prediction of canned black bean texture (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from intact dry seeds using visible/near infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Fernando A; Cichy, Karen A; Sprague, Christy; Goffnett, Amanda; Lu, Renfu; Kelly, James D

    2018-01-01

    Texture is a major quality parameter for the acceptability of canned whole beans. Prior knowledge of this quality trait before processing would be useful to guide variety development by bean breeders and optimize handling protocols by processors. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the predictive power of visible and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (visible/NIRS, 400-2498 nm) and hyperspectral imaging (HYPERS, 400-1000 nm) techniques for predicting texture of canned black beans from intact dry seeds. Black beans were grown in Michigan (USA) over three field seasons. The samples exhibited phenotypic variability for canned bean texture due to genetic variability and processing practice. Spectral preprocessing methods (i.e. smoothing, first and second derivatives, continuous wavelet transform, and two-band ratios), coupled with a feature selection method, were tested for optimizing the prediction accuracy in both techniques based on partial least squares regression (PLSR) models. Visible/NIRS and HYPERS were effective in predicting texture of canned beans using intact dry seeds, as indicated by their correlation coefficients for prediction (R pred ) and standard errors of prediction (SEP). Visible/NIRS was superior (R pred = 0.546-0.923, SEP = 7.5-1.9 kg 100 g -1 ) to HYPERS (R pred = 0.401-0.883, SEP = 7.6-2.4 kg 100 g -1 ), which is likely due to the wider wavelength range collected in visible/NIRS. However, a significant improvement was reached in both techniques when the two-band ratios preprocessing method was applied to the data, reducing SEP by at least 10.4% and 16.2% for visible/NIRS and HYPERS, respectively. Moreover, results from using the combination of the three-season data sets based on the two-band ratios showed that visible/NIRS (R pred = 0.886, SEP = 4.0 kg 100 g -1 ) and HYPERS (R pred = 0.844, SEP = 4.6 kg 100 g -1 ) models were consistently successful in predicting texture over a wide range of measurements. Visible

  1. Linhagem isogênica no feijoeiro para resistência ao fungo da antracnose An isogenic dry bean line for resistance to the anthracnose fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sidney Pompeu

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available An isogenic dry bean line (Phaseolus vulgaris was developed using Rosinha 1454-10 as recurrent parent susceptible to Colletotrichum lindemuthiamun and Cornell 49-242 as the donor one. Ten backcrosses to the recurrent parent were made. Seedlings in the F1 generation of each backcross and in the F2 and F3 of the 10th backcross were inoculated using a spore suspension containing about 10(5 spores/ml, through a De Vilbiss atomizer, under greenhouse or laboratory conditions. The isogenic lines Rosinha 1454-10 and Rosinha 1454-10 Are Are will be used to estimate the losses of dry bean yield due to the anthracnose agent.

  2. Enrichment of pasta with faba bean does not impact glycemic or insulin response but can enhance satiety feeling and digestive comfort when dried at very high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Molinari, Nicolas; Cassan, Denis; Sutra, Thibault; Avignon, Antoine; Micard, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    Enrichment of durum wheat pasta with legume flour enhances their protein and essential amino acid content, especially lysine content. However, despite its nutritional potential, the addition of a legume alters the rheological properties of pasta. High temperature drying of pasta reduces this negative effect by strengthening its protein network. The aim of our study was to determine if these changes in the pasta structure alter its in vitro carbohydrate digestibility, in vivo glycemic, insulin and satiety responses. We also investigated if high temperature drying of pasta can reduce the well-known digestive discomfort associated with the consumption of legume grains. Fifteen healthy volunteers consumed three test meals: durum wheat pasta dried at a low temperature (control), and pasta enriched with 35% faba bean dried at a low and at a very high temperature. When enriched with 35% legume flour, pasta maintained its nutritionally valuable low glycemic and insulin index, despite its weaker protein network. Drying 35% faba bean pasta at a high temperature strengthened its protein network, and decreased its in vitro carbohydrate digestion with no further decrease in its in vivo glycemic or insulin index. Drying pasta at a very high temperature reduced digestive discomfort and enhanced self-reported satiety, and was not associated with a modification of energy intake in the following meal.

  3. Numerical characterisation of one-step and three-step solar air heating collectors used for cocoa bean solar drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbegoso, Elder Mendoza; Saavedra, Rafael; Marcelo, Daniel; La Madrid, Raúl

    2017-12-01

    In the northern coastal and jungle areas of Peru, cocoa beans are dried using artisan methods, such as direct exposure to sunlight. This traditional process is time intensive, leading to a reduction in productivity and, therefore, delays in delivery times. The present study was intended to numerically characterise the thermal behaviour of three configurations of solar air heating collectors in order to determine which demonstrated the best thermal performance under several controlled operating conditions. For this purpose, a computational fluid dynamics model was developed to describe the simultaneous convective and radiative heat transfer phenomena under several operation conditions. The constructed computational fluid dynamics model was firstly validated through comparison with the data measurements of a one-step solar air heating collector. We then simulated two further three-step solar air heating collectors in order to identify which demonstrated the best thermal performance in terms of outlet air temperature and thermal efficiency. The numerical results show that under the same solar irradiation area of exposition and operating conditions, the three-step solar air heating collector with the collector plate mounted between the second and third channels was 67% more thermally efficient compared to the one-step solar air heating collector. This is because the air exposition with the surface of the collector plate for the three-step solar air heating collector former device was twice than the one-step solar air heating collector. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Polania

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT, Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW, canopy biomass and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index and pod harvest index in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE. The main objectives were: (i to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593 and BFS 67 were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into

  5. Genetic Analysis of Flooding Tolerance in an Andean Diversity Panel of Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change models predict temporal and spatial shifts in precipitation resulting in more frequent incidents of flooding, particularly in regions with poor soil drainage. In these flooding conditions, crop losses are inevitable due to exposure of plants to hypoxia and the spread of root rot diseases. Improving the tolerance of bean cultivars to flooding is crucial to minimize crop losses. In this experiment, we evaluated the phenotypic responses of 277 genotypes from the Andean Diversity Panel to flooding at germination and seedling stages. A randomized complete block design, with a split plot arrangement, was employed for phenotyping germination rate, total weight, shoot weight, root weight, hypocotyl length, SPAD index, adventitious root rate, and survival score. A subset of genotypes (n = 20 were further evaluated under field conditions to assess correlations between field and greenhouse data and to identify the most tolerant genotypes. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed using ~203 K SNP markers to understand the genetic architecture of flooding tolerance in this panel. Survival scores between field and greenhouse data were significantly correlated (r = 0.55, P = 0.01. Subsequently, a subset of the most tolerant and susceptible genotypes were evaluated under pathogenic Pythium spp. pressure. This experiment revealed a potential link between flooding tolerance and Pythium spp. resistance. Several tolerant genotypes were identified that could be used as donor parents in breeding pipelines, especially ADP-429 and ADP-604. Based on the population structure analysis, a subpopulation consisting of 20 genotypes from the Middle American gene pool was detected that also possessed the highest root weight, hypocotyl length, and adventitious root development under flooding conditions. Genomic regions associated with flooding tolerance were identified including a region on Pv08/3.2 Mb, which is associated with germination rate and

  6. Healthy food trends - beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a side dish at breakfast, lunch, or dinner. Mash them up for dips and spreads. Use bean flour to bake them. To reduce the gas caused by eating beans: Always soak dried beans. If you do not eat a lot of beans, gradually add them to ...

  7. Catu, Aeté-3, Aroana 80, Moruna 80, Carioca 80 e Aysó: novos cultivares de feijoeiro Catu, Aeté-3, Aroana 80, Moruna 80, Carioca 80 and Aysó, new dry bean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sidney Pompeu

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin, morphological characteristics of plant, pod, seed, and seed coat colors of the new dry hean (Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars Catu, Aeté-3, Aroana 80, Moruna 80, Carioca 80 and Aysó, as well as their reaction to the anthracnose, common mosaic and rust pathogens, are described. Due to their high yield capacity and adaptation 'Catu' and 'Aeté-3' were pointed out for cultivation in the all growing dry bean areas in the State of São Paulo. 'Aroana 80', 'Moruna 80', 'Carioca 80' and 'Aysó' were released to the growers of Campinas region, although they can be grown in other dry bean producing areas due to their disease reaction.

  8. The effect of extrusion and drying on roller techniques concerning the rheological characteristics of rice-, corn-, sweet potato-, bean- and cassava root- and leaf- based composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Aristizábal Galvis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoting food security in Latin-America and the Caribbean is directly related to agricultural products. The region faces a food crisis which has reduced large population groups’ access to food. This work contributes to the study of obtaining precooked composite flour made from biofortified crops using protein, vitamin A and/or minerals. This study evaluated the effect of precooked flour’s composition and precooking on its solubility in water, water absorption capacity, consistency and viscosity; such flour was obtained by extrusion and drying on rollers. The composite flours were obtained from cassava roots, sweet potato tubers, corn, rice and bean grains and cassava leaves. Four composite flours were formulated taking four- to six-year-old children’s daily nutrient requirements (protein, iron, zinc and beta-carotenes as a basis. The extruder was operated at 90ºC, 300 rpm screw rotation speed, 17.64 g/min feed flow, with 30% moisture mixture. The dryer rollers were operated at 4 rpm roller rotation speed, 90ºC surface temperature and 1 mm separation between rollers. It was determined that flour dried on rollers led to more complete cooking and modified starch granule structure than precooking by extrusion, thereby producing flour having greater solubility in water, less water absorption, higher consistency and smaller viscosity, comparable to that of pattern flour.

  9. Table 5 Mineral content of ashed bean samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Mamiro

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... vegetables; dry bean grains are used in various food preparations, and both are used as relish or side dishes together ... Eastern Africa and Latin America. Zinc content of beans is one of the ... Kidney bean leaves and fresh bean grains, which are prepared as relish and consumed by a number of families in ...

  10. Simultaneous Detection of Both RNA and DNA Viruses Infecting Dry Bean and Occurrence of Mixed Infections by BGYMV, BCMV and BCMNV in the Central-West Region of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Chiquito-Almanza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay was developed to simultaneously detect bean common mosaic virus (BCMV, bean common mosaic necrotic virus (BCMNV, and bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV from common bean leaves dried with silica gel using a single total nucleic acid extraction cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB method. A mixture of five specific primers was used to amplify three distinct fragments corresponding to 272 bp from the AC1 gene of BGYMV as well as 469 bp and 746 bp from the CP gene of BCMV and BCMNV, respectively. The three viruses were detected in a single plant or in a bulk of five plants. The multiplex RT-PCR was successfully applied to detect these three viruses from 187 field samples collected from 23 municipalities from the states of Guanajuato, Nayarit and Jalisco, Mexico. Rates of single infections were 14/187 (7.5%, 41/187 (21.9%, and 35/187 (18.7%, for BGYMV, BCMV, and BCMNV, respectively; 29/187 (15.5% samples were co-infected with two of these viruses and 10/187 (5.3% with the three viruses. This multiplex RT-PCR assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method for detecting these viruses in the common bean and can be used for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological studies.

  11. Industrial processing of canned beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderleia Schoeninger

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Beans are popular as a protein-filled legume of high nutritional value, being one of the most planted species in the world. However, recent years have seen a decrease in the consumption of beans, owing to the time necessary to cook it domestically. Thus, it is being replaced in people’s diets by other foods. An alternative preparation that supplies modern consumers’ demands is industrially processed beans. This article aimed to provide a literature review on the processing of canned beans. Few recent studies have been performed in Brazil on this subject, as most studies have focused instead on the technological quality of dry bean grains processing. In this article industrial processing concepts and features, production unit operations, and canned beans quality standards will be discussed. These efforts are expected to contribute to the Brazilian beans production chain, and consequently to increase consumption of canned beans and the demand for industrial processing of beans in both the domestic market and future product exports.

  12. Cocoa Bean (Theobroma cacao L.Drying Kinetics Cinética del Secado de Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndukwu MacManus Chinenye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. is widely produced in West Africa and South America and is a great economic tree crop, with so many industrial uses. In this work, the experimental drying kinetics of foreign species was investigated, and the experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions, using heated batch drier at 55, 70 and 81 ºC. The moisture ratio data obtained from change of moisture content with the drying time was fit to two thin layer drying model with good results. A faster drying process was observed at a higher drying temperature resulting in higher drying rates which is advantageous when evaluating costs. Fick’s second law of diffusion was used to predict effective diffusivity using experimental data assuming that the variation of diffusivity with temperature can be expressed by an Arrhenius type function, and the values of diffusivity obtained ranged from 6.137 x 10-10 to 2.1855 x 10-9 m2 s-1 for the temperature used. The Arrhenius constant (D is predicted at 8.64 x 10-4 m2 s-1 while the activation energy was predicted at 39.94 kJ mol-1.El cacao (Theobroma cacao L. es ampliamente producido en el Oeste de África y Sudamérica y es un cultivo de gran importancia económica, con muchos usos industriales. En este trabajo se investigó la cinética del secado experimental de especies foráneas, y se realizaron experimentos bajo condiciones isotérmicas, usando un secador discontinuo en caliente a 55, 70 y 81 °C. Los datos de relación de humedad obtenidos desde el cambio de contenido de humedad con el tiempo de secado se ajustaron a un modelo de secado de dos capas delgadas con buenos resultados. Se observó un proceso de secado más rápido a una temperatura de secado mayor resultando en mayores tasas de secado, lo que es ventajoso al evaluar costos. La segunda ley de difusión de Fick se usó para predecir difusividad efectiva usando datos experimentales, asumiendo que la variación de difusividad con la temperatura puede ser

  13. RESPOSTA DO FEIJOEIRO A DOSES DE BORO EM CULTIVO DE INVERNO E DE PRIMAVERA DRY BEAN RESPONSE TO DOSES OF BORON IN WINTER AND SPRING PLANTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HIPÓLITO ASSUNÇÃO ANTONIO MASCARENHAS

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento em vasos foi instalado em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de estudar a resposta do feijoeiro à aplicação de boro (B em solo com baixa disponibilidade desse nutriente. Os tratamentos consistiram na aplicação de doses correspondentes a 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 kg.ha-1 de B, na forma de bórax. Dois ensaios foram desenvolvidos, sendo o primeiro no inverno (junho a julho e o outro na primavera (setembro a outubro. No ensaio do inverno, foi observada a deficiência de B, apenas na testemunha, fato comprovado pela análise de tecidos. Nos demais tratamentos não apareceram sintomas de deficiência e os teores do elemento na parte aérea das plantas foram considerados adequados. No ensaio de primavera, não foi observada deficiência visual de B, mesmo na testemunha. Em ambos os ensaios, aplicações superiores a 2 kg.ha-1 de B proporcionaram teores muito elevados do elemento nas plantas (138 a 710 mg.kg-1. Os dados sugerem que a deficiência é mais relevante no inverno e que o excesso é prejudicial, em qualquer época, ocasionando toxicidade.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of boron in dry bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. grown in pots. The treatments consisted of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 kg.ha-1 of boron in the form of borax. Two identical experiments were carried out during the winter (June/July and the spring (September/October seasons. In the winter experiment, the boron deficiency symptoms were shown only by the control plants. In those conditions, the high concentrations of Ca and Mg and the low temperatures affected the boron absorption of the plants. The application of 1 kg.ha-1 of boron was sufficient to reduce the visible symptoms of B deficiency, and increased the dry weight of the shoots. At the rate of the 2 kg.ha-1 B or above there was excess of boron in the dry matter of the shoots. In the spring experiment there was no deficiency symptoms in the plants and the boron concentration was adequate

  14. Effects of industrial canning on the proximate composition, bioactive compounds contents and nutritional profile of two Spanish common dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Cuadrado, Carmen; Burbano, Carmen; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cabellos, Blanca; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the changes produced by canning in the proximate composition and in the bioactive constituents of two "ready to eat" Spanish beans. The foremost difference in the raw beans corresponded to the lectin: a higher content was found in raw Curruquilla beans (16.50 mg 100 mg(-1)) compared with raw Almonga beans (0.6 mg 100 mg(-1)). In general, industrial canning significantly increased the protein (>7%) and dietary fibre (>5%) contents of both beans varieties. However, the minerals, total α-galactosides and inositol phosphates contents were reduced (>25%) in both canned seeds. The trypsin inhibitors content was almost abolished by canning, and no lectins were found in either of the canned samples. Canned Curruquilla showed a decrease (38%) of their antioxidant activity. These "ready to eat" beans exhibited adequate nutritive profiles according to the USDA dietary recommendations. Furthermore, they had bioactive components content that are suitable for establishing a healthy lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions Qualidade de sementes de feijão adzuki (Vigna angularis submetidas a diversas condições de secagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.Objetivou-se no presente trabalho analisar o processo de secagem do feijão adzuki (Vigna angularis, bem como avaliar a qualidade das sementes, submetidas à secagem em diversas condições de ar. Foram utilizados grãos de feijão adzuki (Vigna angularis, colhidos com teor de água de 1,14 (decimal base seca e secos até o teor de 0,11 (decimal base seca. A secagem do feijão adzuki foi realizada em secador experimental mantido nas temperaturas controladas de 30, 40, 50, 60 e 70 ºC e umidades relativas de 52,0; 28,0; 19,1; 13,1 e 6,8%, respectivamente. Para analisar a qualidade fisiológica e tecnológica das sementes realizou-se o teste de germinação, Índice de Velocidade de Germinação (IVG, condutividade elétrica e absorção de água, respectivamente. Nas condições em que foi desenvolvido o presente trabalho,conclui-se que o tempo de secagem do feijão adzuki diminui para as temperaturas mais elevadas do ar de 60 e 70 ºC e afetam as qualidades fisiológica e tecnológica das sementes. Assim, para

  16. MedlinePlus: Quinoa Black Bean Salad

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/quinoablackbeansalad.html Quinoa Black Bean Salad To use the sharing features ... a side dish. Ingredients 1/2 cup dry quinoa 1 and 1/2 cups water 1 and ...

  17. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  18. Propriedades físicas e químicas de feijão comum preto, cultivar Iapar 44, após envelhecimento acelerado Physical and chemical properties of aged dry black common beans, Iapar 44 cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horaci Jaqueline Silva de Souza Ribeiro

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Feijão armazenado por período longo em temperatura e umidade relativa elevadas torna-se endurecido e resistente ao cozimento devido ao desenvolvimento do defeito "difícil de cozinhar". Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar algumas propriedades físicas e químicas de feijão comum preto (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivar Iapar 44, envelhecido. O envelhecimento do feijão foi acelerado a 41ºC e 75% de UR, por 30 e 60 dias, e feijão novo mantido a 5ºC e 60% de UR foi considerado controle. Foram avaliados o tempo de cozimento, por meio do equipamento de Mattson adaptado; a composição química e o pH dos grãos; a solubilidade em água e o perfil eletroforético das proteínas. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de comparação de médias de Tukey (pBeans stored for long periods at high temperature and humidity become hardened and resistant to cook. This happens due to the development of the hard-to-cook defect. The objective of this work was evaluate some physical and chemical properties of the aged dry black common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Iapar 44 cultivar. The aging of beans was accelerated at 41ºC and 75% RH, for 30 e 60 days; and new beans, kept at 5ºC and 60% RH was used as the control. The cooking time, determined by a Mattson-type cooker; the chemical composition and the pH of the grains; the water solubility and protein eletrophorectic profile were evaluated. The results were submitted to analyses of variance and mean comparison Tukey test (p<0.05. It was observed that the two storage periods, caused: increased time of cooking; decreased percentage of humidity, increased percentage of ash and maintained the percentages of protein, lipids and carbohydrates; decreased pH and decreased solubility and changed the protein eletrophorectic profile. These results are in accordance with the literature, which demonstrated that during aging of beans at high temperature and humidity there is acid formation

  19. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  20. Resposta de arroz de terras altas, feijão, milho e soja à saturação por base em solo de cerrado Response of upland rice, dry bean, corn and soybean to base saturation in cerrado soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nand K. Fageria

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento de campo, quatro anos consecutivos (1995/96 a 1998/99 para avaliar a resposta das culturas de arroz de terras altas, feijão, milho e soja à saturação por base em Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro distrófico (LEd (Oxissolo cultivados em sistema de sucessão. Os valores de saturação por base criados pela aplicação de calcário, foram: 40, 44, 51, 53, 56 e 66%. Ocorreu aumento significativo na produção de grãos de feijão, milho e soja com a saturação por base; entretanto, a produção de arroz não foi influenciada significativamente pelos tratamentos. Mas, com base de equação de regressão, as saturações por base adequadas para a produção dos três, foram estabelecidas em 53, 60 e 63% respectivamente, e, para a cultura de arroz, o nível adequado de saturação por base encontrado foi de 40%. A acumulação de nutrientes na parte aérea e nos grãos foi influenciada significativamente pelos tratamentos e pela idade da planta nas quatro culturas estudadas. Os níveis adequados das propriedades químicas do solo, como pH, teor de Ca, teor de Mg, relações Ca/Mg, Ca/K, Mg/K, saturações por Ca, Mg e K, foram estabelecidos para as culturas de arroz, feijão, milho e soja, cultivados em solo de cerrado.A field experiments was conducted during four consecutive years (1995/96 to 1998/99 to evaluate responses of upland rice, dry bean, corn, and soybean grown in sequence to base saturation on a Dark Red Latosol (Oxisol. Mean base saturation levels determined after harvest of each crop were: 40, 44, 51, 53, 56, and 66%. Grain yield of dry bean, corn, and soybean were significantly affected with base saturation. Upland rice yield, however, was not influenced with base saturation treatments. Based on the quadratic response, optimum base saturation for maximum grain yield of dry bean was 53%, for corn 60% and for soybean 63%. For upland rice the base saturation under no lime treatment was 40%, which is considered

  1. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-05-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans.

  2. Pinto Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. as a Functional Food: Implications on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Schlegel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most foods are considered functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life, but dietary systems that are capable of preventing or remediating a stressed or diseased state are classified as functional foods. Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. contain high levels of chemically diverse components (phenols, resistance starch, vitamins, fructooligosaccharides that have shown to protect against such conditions as oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and many types of cancer, thereby positioning this legume as an excellent functional food. Moreover, the United States has a rich dry bean history and is currently a top producer of dry beans in the world with pinto beans accounting for the vast majority. Despite these attributes, dry bean consumption in the US remains relatively low. Therefore, the objective of this manuscript is to review dry beans as an important US agricultural crop and as functional food for the present age with an emphasis on pinto beans.

  3. Desenvolvimento da cultura do feijoeiro submetida a dois sistemas de manejo de irrigação e de cultivo = Growth of dry bean crop submitted to two water management and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Pavani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A cultura do feijoeiro apresenta elevada importância no contexto agrícola nacional. Além de ser uma cultura que atende às características da agricultura familiar, também é cultivada em áreas extensivas com alta tecnologia. Pesquisas relacionadas ao desenvolvimento do feijoeiro frente às variantes edafoclimáticas regionais vêm assumindo papel de destaque, principalmentepor se tratar de uma planta sensível tanto ao déficit quanto ao excesso hídrico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a cultura do feijoeiro de ‘inverno’ submetida a dois métodos de manejo deirrigação, em pivô central, um via solo por meio de tensiômetros, outro via clima por meio do tanque Classe ‘A’, em dois sistemas de plantio, convencional e direto, no primeiro ano. Foram avaliados o índice de área foliar (IAF, massa seca total (MS de plantas e a variação do potencial mátrico de água no solo. Concluiu-se que os manejos de irrigação e os sistemas de plantio não resultaram em diferenças no IAF e nem no acúmulo de matéria seca total ao longo do ciclo da cultura; o manejo da irrigação por tensiometria acarretou maior variação no potencial mátrico de água no solo do que o método via clima por meio do tanque Classe ‘A’.The dry bean has great importance to Brazilian agriculture. In addition to being a crop that meets the characteristics of family agriculture, it is also cultivated in extensive areas using high technology. Research related to the behavior and development ofthe bean crop in relation to regional soil and climatic variants have assumed a prominent role, especially because it is a plant that is sensitive both to the lack and excess of water in the soil. The objective of this research was to compare two methods of management ofcenter pivot irrigation: a soil sensor (tensiometry and b simplified climatological water balance – Class A pan; in conventional and no-tillage systems of soil cultivate (first year, onthe irrigated

  4. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  5. Contração volumétrica e forma dos frutos de mamona durante a secagem = Shape and shrinkage of the castor bean fruit during the drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Duarte Goneli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da variação do teor de água na contração volumétrica, dimensões características e forma dos frutos de mamona durante a secagem. Foram utilizados frutos colhidos com teor de água de 2,50 (b.s., secos à temperatura de 40ºC até o teor final de 0,11 (b.s.. O tamanho dos frutos foi determinadopor meio da variação do volume e a forma foi analisada pela esfericidade e circularidade. A contração volumétrica dos frutos foi determinada pela relação entre o volume em cada teor de água e o volume inicial. Com base nos resultados, concluiu-se que a forma dos frutos de mamona é influenciada pela redução do teor de água, promovendo redução da esfericidade e circularidade. As dimensões características (comprimento, largura e espessura e o diâmetrogeométrico médio dos frutos sofrem redução de suas magnitudes com a redução do teor de água. A redução do teor de água influencia a contração volumétrica unitária e da massa dos frutos de mamona, provocando redução de seus valores em 46,0 e 63,0%, respectivamente.O modelo polinomial, dentre aqueles testados, foi o que melhor representou o fenômeno da contração volumétrica da massa e unitária dos frutos de mamona.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of moisture content on castor bean fruit shrinkage, dimensional characteristics and shape during drying. Castor bean fruits were harvested with 2.50 (d.b. moisture content and dried at 40°C up to final moisturecontent of 0.11 (d.b.. The size of the fruits was determined according to the shrinkage rate and the shape analyzed through the sphericity and circularity method. Castor fruit shrinkage was determined by the ratio between its volume with respective moisture content and its initial volume. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the shape castor bean fruits is influenced by reduction in moisture content promoting the sphericity and

  6. Comportamento de linhagens e cultivares de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. no Vale do Paraíba, SP Behavior of dry bean lines and cultivars in the Paraíba Valley, S. Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Pompeu

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de determinar cultivares mais adequados para plantio nas condições do Vale do Paraíba, no Estado de São Paulo, foram instalados experimentos de competição de linhagens e cultivares em três locais no município de Pindamonhangaba. Durante o período de 1973 a 1976, notou-se a ocorrência de granizo em 1974, prejudicando um dos ensaios, e de geada em 1975, a qual destruiu dois dos três ensaios plantados. Entre as moléstias que ocorrem no feijoeiro, observaram-se a antracnose e a ferrugem. As melhores produções médias foram obtidas pelas linhagens H38C1727 (Mulatinho, H38C1723 (Bico-de-ouro, H40C1722 (Chumbinho e H40C1725 (Preto, e pelos cultivares piratã-2 e piratã-1, com 2.475, 2.308, 2.218, 2.195, 2.177 e 2.164 kg/ha respectivamente. Os cultivares carioca (Diversos e rosinha G-2 (Rosinha tiveram produções de 2.094 e 1.677 kg/ha. Levando-se em consideração a alta capacidade produtiva demonstrada nesses experimentos e em outras regiões do Estado, bem como a disponibilidade de sementes, os cultivares aroana (H40C1722, moruna (H40C1725, piratã-1 e carioca podem ser indicados para plantio em larga escala na região do Vale do Paraíba.With the objective of indicating the best dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars for the Paraíba Valley, S. Paulo State, trials were planted in three localities in the country of Pindamonhangaba, from 1973 to 1976. From 1973 to 1976 were observed the occurrence of hail in 1974 causing damage in one of the trials, and frost in 1975 that destroyed two of the three experiments planted. Among the pathogens of dry beans, it was noticed the presence of those causing the anthracnose and rust diseases. The best mean yields were observed for H38C1727, H38C1723, H40C1722, H40C1725, 'Piratã-2', and 'Piratã-1' with 2,475, 2,308, 2,218, 2,195, 2,178 and 2,164 kg/ha, respectively. The cultivars Moruna (H4001725, Aroana (H40C1722, Piratã-1 and Carioca can be pointed out for cultivation in

  7. Registration of ‘Long’s Peak’ Pinto Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to harvest dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have changed dramatically in the past 20 years to accommodate direct harvest systems that eliminate the need to undercut and windrow the crop before it can be threshed. Direct harvest systems cut the bean plant with a sickle bar on the comb...

  8. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... ... (physical and mechanical) properties, white kidney beans, moisture content, thousand grain mass, static coefficient of friction. INTRODUCTION. White kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a culti- vated plant grown for fresh and dry consumption and a common raw material in the canned food industry.

  9. Secagem de café cereja descascado por ar quente e microondas Drying pulped coffee cherry beans by means of hot air ond microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Cunha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a viabilidade de produzir café cereja descascado seco pela aplicação de microondas para assistir a secagem convencional a ar quente, a fim de reduzir o tempo de processo, com o aumento do rendimento industrial e da qualidade do produto perante os métodos tradicionais de secagem. Dois ciclos de secagem foram testados: a processo em secador rotativo convencional a ar quente, com umidade do produto reduzida de 45-50 a 11-13% b.u.; b processo subdividido em uma primeira etapa de pré-secagem convencional a ar quente de 45-50 a 30% b.u., seguida de etapa de secagem final por ar quente e microondas, com redução de 30 a 11-13% b.u. de umidade do produto. O tempo global do primeiro para o segundo ciclo de secagem foi reduzido de 15 a 37,5 para pouco mais de 10 horas, respectivamente. A qualidade sensorial do produto foi avaliada pela "prova da xícara", complementada por análises de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, com resultados satisfatórios. Um estudo preliminar dos aspectos econômicos envolvidos na ampliação de escala para uma linha industrial de processamento de café com a inclusão de um sistema a microondas foi também delineado.This research concerns a process development study focussing the application of microwaves to pulped coffee cherries production, in order to reduce the drying time and increase the industrial yield and product quality when compared to conventional drying processes. Two drying cycles were tested: a a hot air drying process using a conventional batch rotary dryer from 45-50 to 11-13% w.b. product moisture; b a two stage process, whereby the product was pre dried with hot air from 45-50 to 30% w.b., followed by a final microwave and hot air drying stage, to reduce product moisture from 30 to 11-13% w.b. The overall drying time was reduced from 15 to 37.5 hours to about 10 hours, respectively. The sensory quality of the product was evaluated by the "cup test", complemented

  10. Acceptability and characterization of extruded pinto, navy and black beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney W; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Mendis, Mihiri; Heck, Taylor; Ogunyemi, Samuel

    2015-08-30

    Consumption of dry beans has been relatively flat over the last decade. Creating new bean products may increase the consumption of beans and allow more consumers to obtain the health benefits of beans. In this study, pinto, navy and black beans were milled and the resulting flours extruded into puffs. Unflavored extruded puffs were evaluated by untrained panelists using a hedonic scale for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The compositions of raw flours and extrudates were characterized. Sensory results indicated that all beans met or exceeded the minimum requirement for acceptability. Overall acceptability of navy and pinto beans was not significantly different, while acceptability of black bean puffs was significantly lower. Total protein (198-217 g kg(-1)) in extrudates was significantly different among the three beans. Total starch ranged from 398 to 406 g kg(-1) and was not significantly different. Resistant starch, total extractable lipid and raffinose contents were significantly reduced by extrusion. Extrusion did not affect crude fiber and phytic acid contents. The minimal effects on protein and fiber contents, the significant reduction in raffinose content and the acceptability of the unflavored extruded puffs support using various bean flours as ingredients in extruded puffed products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Registration of ‘Alpena' navy bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Alpena’ navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, midseason cultivar with uniform dry down and excellent canning quality. Alpena was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F3 generation ...

  12. The Dry Plant Extract of Common Bean Seed (Phaseoli Vulgari Pericarpium does not Have an Affect on Postprandial Glycemia in Healthy Human Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Cerović

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to assess the effects and safety of a dry Phaseoli vulgari pericarpium (PVP extract on postprandial glycemia in healthy participants. A randomized crossover experiment where participants received either PVP extract or placebo. Chemical compounds in dry extract were assessed by established methods. Eighteen healthy participants (9 male and 9 female aged 29+/-4,8 years, body mass index (BMI 23+/-3,7 kg/m(2 were recruited among students and staff at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade. All participants were able to follow the study protocol without difficulty. The participants received either PVP extract or placebo 30 minutes before a 50g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. The protocol followed the guidelines for the OGTT with blood samples drawn at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. This study demonstrated that there was no significantly effect of the PVP extract on incremental blood glucose (IBG and their areas under the curve (AUC neither male nor female participants. However, IBG together with AUC changes were significantly lower in male compared with female participants in treated and untreated groups. The presence of chrome, soluble fiber, vitamin C, protein, glucose and lectins were also quantified. The applied amount of PVP extract was unable to produce the postprandial hypoglycemia. We assumed that amounts of chrome, soluble fiber, vitamin C which have beneficial effects on diabetes treatment were sufficient to produce hypoglycemia.

  13. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination by

  14. Simulated radiation disinfestation of infested cocoa beans in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.

    1979-01-01

    Four major insect pests persistently affect the cocoa industry in Ghana, the world's leading exporter of cocoa, despite the conventional methods of chemical control in practice. The Ghana Atomic Energy Commission currently is investigating the possible use of radiation for the control of both insect attack and microbial spoilage of cocoa beans in storage. Radiation response studies of the four major insect pests that significantly affect the quality of dried cocoa beans in storage have been evaluated. Results herein reported were based on simulated bulk infestation radiation disinfestation of dried cocoa under field and laboratory conditions at ambient temperature (25 to 32 0 C). The comparative efficiency of locally available packaging materials best suited for bagging of the dried cocoa beans at and after irradiation have been assessed concurrently. The author concludes by identifying and discussing possible factors that could affect the technology of radiation disinfestation of cocoa beans under the Ghanaian context. (author)

  15. Influence of double cropping on growth and yield of dry beans with colored plastic mulches Influencia del doble cultivo en el crecimiento y rendimiento de frijol con cubierta plástica de colores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ibarra-Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous studies of the use of plastic mulches in vegetable production, but there is little documentation of their use with dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in single and double cropping. The objective of this study was to grow dry beans over two consecutive growing seasons using the same plastic mulch of different colors and examine the influence of soil temperature on growth and yield. The experiment was conducted in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico, in the spring and summer of 2008. The treatments included four colored plastic mulches: white-on-black, black, silver-on-black, aluminum-on-black, and bare soil as a control. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates. The percentage of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR reflected from the plastic tended to be highest with the white-on-black mulch and lowest with the black mulch. Mean soil temperature under the plastic mulch decreased with the increasing percentage of reflected PAR. Mean soil temperature exhibited a relationship of 98% and 99% to yield in the first and second growing season, respectively. Photosynthetically active radiation had a relationship of 98% and 86% to yield in the first and second growing season, respectively. The effect of the colored plastic mulch on yield was significant (p Existen numerosos estudios sobre el uso de cubierta plástica en la producción de hortalizas, sin embargo está muy poco documentado el cultivo simple o doble de frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. El objetivo de este estudio fue cultivar frijol en dos estaciones de crecimiento consecutivas usando la misma cubierta plástica de diferentes colores y examinar la influencia de la temperatura del suelo en el crecimiento y rendimiento de frijol. El estudio fue conducido en Saltillo, Coahuila, México, en la primavera y verano de 2008. Se usaron cuatro colores de acolchado plástico: blanco-sobre-negro, negro, plata-sobre-negro, aluminio-sobre-negro, y control de

  16. Salt tolerance analysis of chickpea, faba bean and durum wheat varieties. I. Chickpea and faba bean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Oweis, T.

    2005-01-01

    Two varieties of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba), differing in drought tolerance according to the classification of the International Center for Agronomic Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA), were irrigated with waters of three different salinity levels in a lysimeter experiment

  17. Physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarharum, W. B.; Yuwono, S. S.; Pangestu, N. B. S. W.; Nadhiroh, H.

    2018-03-01

    Demand on high quality coffee for consumption is continually increasing not only in the consuming countries (importers) but also in the producing countries (exporters). Coffee quality could be affected by several factors from farm to cup including the post-harvest processing methods. This research aimed to investigate the influence of different post-harvest processing methods on physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans. The two factors being evaluated were three different post-harvest processing methods to produce green coffee beans (natural/dry, semi-washed and fully-washed processing) under sun drying. Physical quality evaluation was based on The Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-2907-2008) while sensory quality was evaluated by five expert judges. The result shows that less defects observed in wet processed coffee as compared to the dry processing. The mechanical drying was also proven to yield a higher quality green coffee beans and minimise losses.

  18. Quality and market chain of Aceh Cocoa Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan; Sulaiman, I.; Ikhsan, CN; Faizun, N.

    2018-05-01

    After long-lasting conflict and tsunami on December 26, 2004, some international donors/NGOs supported Aceh on cocoa development. Aceh cocoa sector has experienced tremendous growth in Indonesia. This study aims to investigate quality and market chain of Aceh cocoa beans. The survey was conducted in Pidie District. A number of 21 farmers and 1 exporter were interviewed; the beans from farmer’s warehouses were analyzed and compared to Indonesia National Standard (INS). The result showed that the beans were generally produced from 6 Sub-Districts: Keumala, Titeue, Glumpang Tiga, Padang Tiji, and Tangse. They were not fermented; most were exported to the USA. Based on bean count, quality was mainly included in I/A and II/B. The main quality problem was high moisture content. Presumably, the beans were bought by wholesalers with lower price although not been sufficiently dried. Other quality parameters were good: no moldy bean and contaminant, very low insect damage/hollow-/germinated beans, and tiny broken beans (quality I)

  19. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  20. Performance of Rotary Cutter Type Breaking Machine for Breakingand Deshelling Cocoa Roasted Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrisno Widyotomo; Sri Mulato; Edi Suharyanto

    2005-01-01

    Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type...

  1. Efeitos dos herbicidas glyphosate e paraquat, aplicados ao solo, sobre a emergência de feijão e soja e de algumas espécies daninhas Effects of the herbicides glyphosate and paraquat, applied to the soil, on the emergence of dry beans and soybeans and some weed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Dias

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Em trabalho conduzido a campo na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, Guaíba, RS em 1979/80, usaram-se os herbicidas glyphosate, paraquat e sua combinação, objetivando determinar os efe itos de doses e de épocas de aplicação destes herbicidas em plântulas de feijão e de soja e sobre nutrientes do solo. Pelos resultados obtidos para emergência e peso de maté ria seca da parte aé re a de soja , não houve di ferenças para os tratamentos testados. Também não ocorreram diferenças significativas à população in ic ia l de feijão e sobre os elementos de solo analisados (Ca, Mg e K. Com relação ao peso de matéria seca da parte aérea do feijão, verificou-se que houve interação entre herbicida e doses usadas, tendo glyphosate isolado e glyphosate mais paraquat aplicados seqüencialmente nas doses máximas causado redução significativa naquele parâmetro. Com relação ao paraquat, não foram detectadas diferenças significativas entre as doses testadas.A field xeperiment was conducted during the 1979/80 growing season at the Agronomic Experimental Station of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, in Guaíba, RS, Brazil, in order to evaluate the efects of rates and times of appl ication of the herbicides glyphosate, paraqu at, and the ir combin at ion, on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and soybeans (Glvcine max (L. Merrill, and on some soil nutrierts. The results indicated no significant differences among the soybeans treatments tested fo r plant population and shoot dry weight. Also no sta ti sti cal diffe re nces occurred fo r dry beans plant population and for soil nutrients analysed (Ca, Mg, and K. For dry beans shoot dry weight, there was an interaction of herbicides and rates, where glyphosate sprayed alone and glyphosate plus paraquat applied at the maxima ra te s te sted caused significant decreases on that variable. For paraquat utilized alone, no significant effects were detected among the rates applied.

  2. The cocoa bean fermentation process: from ecosystem analysis to starter culture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, L; Weckx, S

    2016-07-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is still a spontaneous curing process to facilitate drying of nongerminating cocoa beans by pulp removal as well as to stimulate colour and flavour development of fermented dry cocoa beans. As it is carried out on farm, cocoa bean fermentation is subjected to various agricultural and operational practices and hence fermented dry cocoa beans of variable quality are obtained. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out with care for approximate four days are characterized by a succession of particular microbial activities of three groups of micro-organisms, namely yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), which results in well-fermented fully brown cocoa beans. This has been shown through a plethora of studies, often using a multiphasic experimental approach. Selected strains of several of the prevailing microbial species have been tested in appropriate cocoa pulp simulation media to unravel their functional roles and interactions as well as in small plastic vessels containing fresh cocoa pulp-bean mass to evaluate their capacity to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Various starter cultures have been proposed for successful fermentation, encompassing both cocoa-derived and cocoa nonspecific strains of (hybrid) yeasts, LAB and AAB, some of which have been implemented on farms successfully. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Phytochemical analysis of Tephrosia vogelii (fish poison bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was carried out to determine the chemical constituents of Tephrosia vogelii (Fish poison bean), in order to test the extracts of the plant for use as fish tranquilizer. Fresh samples of T. vogelii were collected separately, air-dried for 21 days and oven-dried at 60o C for 3-4 hours to constant weight. The dried samples ...

  5. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincee, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

    2000-01-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macacar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macacar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macacar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties

  6. QTL analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in a black bean RIL population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) acquires nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) but it has a low efficiency to fix nitrogen. The objective of this study is to map the genes controlling nitrogen fixation in common bean. A mapping population consisting of 122 recomb...

  7. Ensaio de adubação da soja e do feijoeiro em solo do arenito botucatu, com vegetação de cerrado Fertilizer experiments with soybeans and dry beans in «arentto botucatu» soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudar o efeito de doses crescentes de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio sôbre a produção da soja em solo derivado do arenito Botucatu, com vegetação de campo cerrado, foram instalados, em 1961-62, dois ensaios fatoriais em áreas vizinhas, uma das quais recebeu calcário dolomítico. Nos canteiros do último ensaio, semeou-se feijão em 1962-63, para verificar o efeito residual dos adubos aplicados na soja. As respostas ao nitrogênio e ao potássio, bem como as interações, não foram significativas. O efeito do fósforo, porém, foi significativo e linear, tanto na cultura da soja como na do feijão. Conquanto grande nas duas áreas, êsse efeito foi muito maior naquela que recebeu prévia calagem. Comparando os resultados dos dois ensaios, verificou-se que o efeito do calcário só se tornou grande na presença do fósforo. Na área com calcário a produção de soja, em média dos tratamentos que receberam 120 kg/ha de P2O5, atingiu cêrca de 1.800 kg/ha, equiparando-se às obtidas, no Estado de São Paulo, em terras consideradas férteis.In this paper are reported the results of two factorial experiments on poor soil derived from the Botucatu sandstone, to study the effects of three levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium on the yields of soybeans. The experiments were located in neighboring areas, one of which was previously limed with dolomitic lime. The plots of the latter were sown with dry beans in the following year, to study the residual effect of the fertilizers applied to the soybeans. The responses to nitrogen and potassium, as well as the interactions, were insignificant. The effect of phosphorus, however, was significant and linear with both crops. Although high in the two areas, this effect was much higher in the limed one. Comparing the results of the two experiments, it was concluded that the response to lime was negligible in absence of phosphorus but increased considerably in its presence. On the limed

  8. Toxicity of neem oil to Bemisia tabaci biotype B nymphs reared on dry bean Toxicidade de óleo de nim para ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B criadas em feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Valle Pinheiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the most susceptible nymphal stage of Bemisia tabaci biotype B to neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. oil applied to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a screenhouse. A solution of commercial oil (Dalneem extracted from neem seeds was sprayed directly on each nymphal instar at 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% concentrations for lethal concentration (LC determination, and at 0, 0.5 and 1% concentrations for lethal time (LT determination. The number of living and dead nymphs was recorded five days after spraying for LC determination, and daily during six days for LT determination. The LC50 estimated for fourth instar nymphs occurred at 0.56% concentration. For all instars, LC50 and LC95 were estimated at 0.32 and 2.78% concentrations, respectively. The estimated values of LT50 at 1% concentration were 2.46, 4.45, 3.02 and 6.98 days for the first to fourth instars, respectively. The LT50 occurred at five days for 0.5% and at four days for 1% concentration in all instars. A mortality rate of over 80% was observed on the 6th day for the first to third instars at 1% concentration. The first three nymphal stages were more susceptible to neem oil when compared to the fourth nymphal stage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o estágio ninfal de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B mais suscetível ao óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. aplicado em feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L., em casa telada. Foram avaliados o tempo letal (TL e concentração letal (CL do óleo comercial de sementes de nim Dalneem. Para CL, concentrações de 0, 0,1, 0,25, 0,5, 1 e 2% do produto foram pulverizadas diretamente sobre as ninfas em cada ínstar. Para TL, o produto foi avaliado a 0, 0,5 e 1% de óleo de nim em cada ínstar. Ninfas vivas e mortas foram contadas cinco dias após a pulverização para CL e diariamente para TL durante seis dias. Para o quarto ínstar, a CL50 foi de 0,56% de óleo de nim. Considerando todos os ínstares, CL

  9. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  10. Crop physiological analysis of seed quality variation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muasya, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Physiological maturity, harvest maturity, earliness, common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., morphological markers, variation, moisture content, dry weight, viability, vigour, electrical conductivity, tetrazolium, seed lot, seed

  11. Influence of the environment in 40K concentration in Brazilian common beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingote, R.M.; Nogueira, R.A.; Edison Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of beans constitutes an important dietary habit in many Latin American, Asian and African countries. Carioca beans and the black type stand out among the many consumed common beans in Brazil. 40 K was used as a natural radiotracer to evaluate the influence of the season growing and the bean type in the potassium content into grain. The activity concentrations of 40 K and 137 Cs were evaluated on samples of beans by γ-ray spectrometry. 137 Cs was less than 1.3 Bq kg -1 . The highest potassium content in the grain were observed in the dry and winter seasons. The black beans showed higher potassium content than the carioca type. The potassium levels were compared with that of beans grown and consumed in other regions of the world. A method to estimate the bean consumption rates in Brazil independently of the location of the meal is proposed. The ingestion of common beans was estimated in 14.6 kg year -1 per person. The two regions with the highest consumption are the Southeast (19.2 kg year -1 ) and the Middle West (18.7 kg year -1 ), whose account for about 60 % of the intake of common beans is related to consumption out home. (author)

  12. Bean grain hysteresis with induced mechanical damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of mechanical damage on the hysteresis of beans with induced mechanical damage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity. Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. harvested manually with 35% water content (w.b. were used. Part of this product was subjected to induced mechanical damage by Stein Breakage Tester and controlled drying (damaged and control sample, for sorption processes. The sorption isotherms of water were analyzed for different temperature conditions: 20, 30, 40 and 50 oC; and relative humidity: 0.3; 0.4; 0.5; 0.7 and 0.9 (decimal. Equilibrium moisture content data were correlated with six mathematical models, and the Modified Oswin model was the one that best fitted to the experimental data. According to the above mentioned isotherms, it was possible to observe the phenomenon of hysteresis of damaged and control samples, and this phenomenon was more pronounced in control ones.

  13. Incidence and distribution of filamentous fungi during fermentation, drying and storage of coffee (Coffea arabica L. beans Incidência e distribuição de fungos filamentosos durante a fermentação, secagem e armazenamento de frutos e grãos de café (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferreira Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to isolate and characterize filamentous fungi present in different stages of harvest, fermentation, drying and storage of coffee beans processed by natural method. The cherries were hand-picked and then placed on a cement drying platform where they remained until reached 11% of humidity. Microbial counts were found in all samples during fermentation and drying of the coffee beans. Counts of fungi in the coffee cherries collected from the tree (time 0 were around 1.5 x 10³ CFU/g. This number increased slowly during the fermentation and drying reaching values of 2 x 10(5 CFU/g within 22 days of processing. Two hundred and sixty three isolates of filamentous fungi were identified. The distribution of species during fermentation and drying was very varied while there was a predominance of Aspergillus species during storage period. The genera found were Pestalotia (4, Paecelomyces (4, Cladosporium (26, Fusarium (34, Penicillium (81 and Aspergillus (112 and comprised 38 different species.O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar e caracterizar fungos filamentosos presentes em diferentes estágios de beneficiamento de café processado pelo método natural, incluindo: colheita, fermentação, secagem e armazenamento. O café cereja foi colhido manualmente e então colocado em uma plataforma de cimento, onde permaneceu até atingir 11% de umidade. A contagem microbiana foi realizada em todas as amostras durante a fermentação e secagem do café. A população de fungos filamentosos no café cereja ainda nos pés (tempo 0 foi em torno de 1,5 x 10³ UFC/g. Este número aumentou vagarosamente durante a fermentação e secagem, alcançando valores de 2 x 10(5 UFC/g em 22 dias do processamento. Duzentos e sessenta e três isolados de fungos filamentosos foram identificados. A distribuição das espécies durante fermentação e secagem foi bastante variada, mas no armazenamento dos grãos ocorreu o predomínio de espécies de

  14. Toxicity Assessment of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Widely Consumed by Tunisian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ismail, Hanen; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed at assessing the content and the functional properties of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in different varieties of beans widely consumed in Tunisia through soaking, cooking, autoclaving, germination, and their combinations. This study was carried out on three varieties of white beans grown in different localities of Tunisia, namely Twila, Coco, and Beldia, as well as on imported and local canned beans. All bean samples underwent biochemical and immunological evaluation by employing several techniques such as indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), hemagglutinating assay, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biochemical and immunological analyses indicated that raw dry beans contained a considerable amount of proteins and PHAs. ELISA demonstrated that soaking, either in plain water or in alkaline solution, caused an increase in the concentration of PHA. A slight increase of PHA was produced equally by germination during 4 days in all bean varieties. Cooking or autoclaving of presoaked beans resulted in a complete disappearance of PHA. ELISA test also proved that both imported and local canned beans contained fingerprints of PHA. Hemagglutination assays showed that not only cooked and autoclaved presoaked beans lacked the ability to agglutinate red blood cells but also autoclaved unsoaked beans did. In agar gel immunodiffusion using rabbit anti-PHA serum, raw, soaked, cooked unsoaked, and sprouted beans gave precipitin arc reactions, indicating that PHA existed in immunoreactive form in the tested seeds. SDS-PAGE electrophoretograms showed protein isolates of Twila and Beldia beans to have different profiles through soaking, cooking, and autoclaving processes. This work revealed that the combination of soaking and cooking/autoclaving was the best way in reducing PHA content and its activity in all bean varieties when compared with germination.

  15. Sharing Beans with Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  16. Influência da fermentação e secagem de amêndoas de cacau no teor de compostos fenólicos e na aceitação sensorial Influence of cocoa beans fermentation and drying on the polyphenol content and sensory acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Efraim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Devido à importância das etapas de fermentação e secagem das sementes de cacau para as características sensoriais dos produtos finais obtidos, bem como para os teores de compostos fenólicos presentes, objetivou-se avaliar a influência do tempo de fermentação e do tipo de secagem de sementes de cacaueiro nos teores de compostos fenólicos, bem como nas características físicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais dos produtos obtidos. Os tempos de fermentação avaliados foram 3 e 7 dias e a secagem foi realizada naturalmente (ao sol e artificialmente (estufa com circulação de ar a 35 °C. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais, flavan-3-óis e procianidinas foram quantificados durante a fermentação e ao término da secagem. Constatou-se que grande parte dos compostos fenólicos foi perdida durante a fermentação, sendo que as amêndoas fermentadas por 3 dias apresentaram teores maiores dos compostos fenólicos avaliados. Contudo, observou-se nessa condição uma significativa perda na qualidade sensorial. A secagem natural das amêndoas fermentadas permitiu maior retenção de polifenóis e também melhores resultados sensoriais em relação à secagem artificial. A avaliação sensorial realizada com uma bebida formulada com o liquor obtido dos diferentes tratamentos demonstrou que a amostra fermentada durante 7 dias apresentou as melhores notas sensoriais, sendo que o produto seco naturalmente foi o mais bem avaliado em relação aos demais.Due to the importance of the fermentation and drying stages in the sensory characteristics and in the phenolic content of cocoa products, the present study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the fermentation period and the type of drying of cocoa seeds, on the phenolic compounds content, as well as on the physical, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics of the products. The periods of fermentation were 3 and 7 days and the fermented beans were dried naturally (sun drying and

  17. Culinary alternatives for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): sensory characteristics of immature seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero del Castillo, Roser; Ferreira, Juan José; Pérez-Vega, Elena; Almirall, Antoni; Casañas, Francesc

    2010-08-15

    Immature bean seeds feature in several dishes in southern Europe; however, they are not used in all traditional areas of dry beans cultivation. To determine whether differences in the use of immature seeds are due to cultural reasons or intrinsic properties of the seeds, the prestigious varieties of beans cultivated in three areas of Spain with different traditions regarding the use of immature seeds in bean dishes were studied. We found differences in the culinary and sensory traits between beans harvested when mature and those harvested when immature in the three areas. However, the degree and direction of these differences varied according to the area. Moreover, the different varieties tested within each area responded differently. The sum of the genetic, environmental and interaction effects results in complex alternatives to the mature beans; the gastronomic tradition has taken advantage of only some of these alternatives. A lack of traditional dishes using immature beans does not mean that the local beans harvested when immature lack suitable sensory traits. Specific trials in each area of cultivation can reveal alternative textures and bean flavour intensities in immature seeds. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Chemical, Physicochemical, Nutritional, Microbiological, Sensory and Rehydration Characteristics of Instant Whole Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, José Armando; Ibarra-Zavala, Silvia Jazmin; Ramírez-Salas, Silvia Patricia; Rosas-Ulloa, Petra; Ramírez-Ramírez, José Carmen; Ulloa-Rangel, Blanca Estela

    2015-03-01

    Instant whole beans obtained by drying at 25 °C were evaluated for their chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics. The proximal composition of instant whole beans was typical of this kind of food, whereas a w and L* , a* and b* values were 0.639, 98.55, -0.28 and -1.52, respectively. In instant whole beans, 75% of the essential amino acids had a value greater or equal to the reference standard for adult humans; the protein quality in terms of chemical score was 95%. Microbiological counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, moulds, yeasts and total coliforms of rehydrated instant whole beans were 0.99) to the experimental data for drying of cooked beans and rehydration of instant whole beans, respectively. In the light of the chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics of instant whole beans found in this study, drying at 25 °C is recommended for the production of such food.

  19. Effect of sunflower climbing bean intercroping system on insect pest incidence and crop productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuey, R.K.; Koros, I.; Wanyonyi, W.

    2001-01-01

    Intercropping of sunflower and climping beans were evaluated for pest incidence and yield advantages during the main season of 2000/2001 at KARI-NPBRC, Njoro. Three sunflower varieties, Fedha, Record, PAN-7553 and three climbing beans varieties, Puebla, Omukingi and Flora were laid out in a complete randomised block design with four replications. Sunflower was spaced at 75 x 30 cm while the climbing beans were spaced at 50 x 37.5 cm. Assessment of pest damage on various treatments commenced 17 days after planting. Results showed that low plant germination was mainly a result of dry weather and taht cutworm damage was insignificant. There was a sunflower x climbing bean variety interaction, which regulated the aphid infestation of the climbing beans. Sunflower variety PAN-7553 recorded significantly (P<0.01) more pecked heads than the other two varieties. (author)

  20. Gamma radiosensitivity of a common bean cultivar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaco, W.; Martinez, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary experiment was conducted to evaluate the radiosensitivity of common bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.), cultivar to gamma rays from a 60 Co source. Sets of seeds (60 seed/sample) irradiated with 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy, were compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction, determined at 15 days after emergence (DAE), and also through seedling survival, root length, and dry matter production of leaves, shoots and roots. Seedling height was significantly reduced for the treatments with 150 and 250 Gy, in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height was between 150 and 200 Gy. Survival rates corresponding to these doses, were, respectively, 85% and 60%. Root length and dry matter of leaves, shoots and roots, were inversely related to the doses. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  1. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanaku, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2009-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination...... by black Aspergilli. No Fusarium species known to produce fumonisin were detected, but black Aspergilli had high incidences on both Arabica and Robusta Thai coffee beans. Liquid chromatography (LC) with high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) detection showed that 67% of Aspergillus niger isolates from...... coffee beans were capable of producing fumonisins B2 (FB2) and B4 when grown on Czapek Yeast Agar with 5% NaCl. Small amounts (1-9.7 ng g-1) of FB2 were detected in seven of 12 selected coffee samples after ion-exchange purification and LC-MS/MS detection. Two samples also contained FB4...

  2. Simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa from fava bean, green peas and green beans by high performance liquid gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran S M, Mohseni; B, Golshani

    2013-06-01

    According to many studies, sprouted fava beans are a rich source of levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) the precursor of dopamine, and they are now being investigated for use in the management of Parkinson's disease. The addition of Carbidopa (C-dopa) can reduce the daily use of the L-dopa dosage requirements and it can also reduce the side effects which are associated with the L-dopa administration. The present research was conducted to find the levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) and Carbidopa (C-dopa) in fava beans, green peas and green beans by High Performance Gas Chromatography (HPLC). Carbidopa (C-dopa) is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. As a substitution therapy, it used in combination to treat Parkinson's disease. We obtained L-dopa and C-dopa from fava beans which were in the fresh and dry sprouted form, whose concentrations were 1.4,1.5 and 2.6,2.4 mg/ml respectively. The maximal stimulation of the L-DOPA content was seen on day 8 for the fava beans, which was 100% higher than that of the control level. The results of this study indicate that faba beans are a good source of natural L-dopa and C-dopa. The quantification of this capacity according to the stage and the plant part could be suitable for applications in the food industry and in plant medicine. The consumption of fava beans can increase the levels of L-dopa and C-dopa in the blood, with a marked improvement in the motor performance of the patients with parkinson disease, without any side effects.

  3. Faba bean in cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen Jensen, Erik; Peoples, Mark B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The grain legume (pulse) faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is grown world-wide as a protein source for food and feed. At the same time faba bean offers ecosystem services such as renewable inputs of nitrogen (N) into crops and soil via biological N2 fixation, and a diversification of cropping systems. Even...... though the global average grain yield has almost doubled during the past 50 years the total area sown to faba beans has declined by 56% over the same period. The season-to-season fluctuations in grain yield of faba bean and the progressive replacement of traditional farming systems, which utilized...... legumes to provide N to maintain soil N fertility, with industrialized, largely cereal-based systems that are heavily reliant upon fossil fuels (=N fertilizers, heavy mechanization) are some of the explanations for this decline in importance. Past studies of faba bean in cropping systems have tended...

  4. Irradiated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F 0 animals and growth and development of the F 1 offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment. (orig.)

  5. Effect of arcelin protein on the biology of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman 1833, in dry beans Efeito da proteína arcelina na biologia de Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman 1833, em feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Rabelo Barbosa

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Arcelin is a seed protein found in wild beans (Phaseolus vulgaris which gives resistance to Mexican bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman 1833 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Studies were carried out with the objective of estimating the effect of four alleles of protein arcelin (Arc1, Arc2, Arc3 and Arc4 on the biology of Z. subfasciatus. The experiment was carried out in laboratory at Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, Brazil, under non controlled conditions. The highest levels of antibiosis to Z. subfasciatus were observed in Arc1, with reduction in the number of eggs, number of emerged adults, adults longevity. In the line Arc2 only reduction in the number of emerged adults was observed. The lines Arc3 and Arc4 showed low efficiency on the reduction of progeny of Z. subfasciatus and effects in the longevity and egg-adult cycle were not detected. Insect sexual ratio was not altered by the presence of Arc1, Arc2, Arc3 and Arc4 in the seeds.A arcelina é uma proteína encontrada em feijões silvestres (Phaseolus vulgaris e que confere resistência ao caruncho-do-feijão, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman 1833 (Coleoptera: Bruchidae. Estudos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de conhecer o efeito de quatro alelos da proteína arcelina (Arc1, Arc2, Arc3 e Arc4, na biologia de Z. subfasciatus. O experimento foi conduzido no laboratório da Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Arroz e Feijão, no município de Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO, em condições não controladas. O mais alto nível de antibiose a Z. subfasciatus foi constatado na linhagem portadora do alelo Arc1, observando-se redução do número de ovos produzidos, redução do número de adultos emergidos, redução da longevidade de adultos. Na linhagem Arc2 constatou-se redução apenas no número de adultos emergidos. As linhagens Arc3 e Arc4 apresentaram baixa eficiência na redução da progênie de Z. subfasciatus, não observando

  6. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  7. THE OCCURRENCE OF INSECTS AND MOULDS IN STORED COCOA BEANS AT SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY S. DHARMAPUTRA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on postharvest handling and technology processing of cocoa beans at farmer, trader and exporter levels in South Sulawesi were conducted together with investigations on moisture content, pest infestation (insect and mould and quality characteris tics in terms of reducing sugar, free amino acid and free fatty acid content. Surveys were conducted during dry (July 1997 and wet seasons (February 1998 in three regencies (Pinrang, Polewali-Mamasa and Luwu and Ujung Pandang, South Sulawesi province. Interviews were carried out during surveys in the dry season. Number of respondents from farmers, trailers and exporters was 38, 15 and 5, respectively. In each season, number of samples taken from farmers, traders and exporters was 9, 21 and 15, respectively. In general, farmers, traders and exporters did not carry out postharvest handling and technology processing properly. Moisture content of cocoa beans collected from farmers, traders and exporters were higher than the tolerabl e limit recommended by SNI (7.5%. Moisture content of cocoa beans collected during the wet season was higher than in the dry season. Insects were found on cocoa beans collected from traders and exporters. Species composition and the presence of each insect species were varied among the two seasons, but the predominant species was Tribolium castaneum. At trader level the percentage of insect-damaged beans during the wet season was higher than that during the dry season, while at exporter le vel it was lower. During the two seasons the percentage of mouldy beans at farmer level was lower than the tolerable limit recommended by SNI (4%, while those from some samples at trader and exporter levels were higher than 4%, but based on the direct plating method, all of the samples at trader and exporter levels were mouldy. Species composition and the percentage of beans infected by each mould species at farmer, trader and exporter levels during the two seasons were va ried. The

  8. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  9. African yam bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... seeds of this crop have been determined (Okigbo, 1973; ... 62%, K2O per unit weight of muriate of potash (Beegle, 1990). ... determined. Plant dry weight was determined after drying to constant weight at 70°C. Yield parameters namely: length and number of reproductive branches, length of pod, days to 50 ...

  10. Performance of Disk Mill Type Mechanical Grinder for Size Reducing Process of Robusta Roasted Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulato

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of improtant steps in secondary coffee processing that influence on final product quality such as consistency and uniformity is milling process. Usually, Indonesian smallholder used "lumpang" for milling coffee roasted beans to coffee powder product which caused the final product not uniformed and consistent, and low productivity. Milling process of coffee roasted beans can be done by disk mill type mechanical grinder which is used by smallholder for milling several cereals. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute have developed disk mill type grinding machine for milling coffee roasted beans. Objective of this research is to find performance of disk mill type grinding machine for size reducing process of Robusta roasted beans from several size dried beans and roasting level treatments. Robusta dried beans which are taken from dry processing method have 13—14% moisture content (wet basis, 680—685 kg/m3 density, and classified in 3 sizes level. The result showed that the disk mill type of grinding machine could be used for milling Robusta roasted beans. Machine hascapacity 31—54 kg/h on 5,310—5,610 rpm axle rotation and depend on roasting level. Other technical parameters were 91—98% process efficientcy, 19—31 ml/ kg fuel consumption, 0.3—1% slips, 50—55% particles had diameter less than 230 mesh and 38—44% particles had diameter bigger than 100 mesh, 32—38% lightness was increased, 0.6—12.6% density was decreased, and solubility of coffee powder between 28—30%. Cost milling process per kilogram of Robusta roasted beans which light roast on capacity 30 kg/hour was Rp362.9. Key words : Coffee roasted, Robusta, disk mill, mechanical grinder, size reduction.

  11. Relationship between fermentation index and other biochemical changes evaluated during the fermentation of Mexican cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cortes, Teresa; Salgado-Cervantes, Marco Antonio; García-Alamilla, Pedro; García-Alvarado, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Jimenes, Guadalupe del C; Hidalgo-Morales, Madeleine; Robles-Olvera, Víctor

    2013-08-15

    During traditional cocoa processing, the end of fermentation is empirically determined by the workers; consequently, a high variability on the quality of fermented cocoa beans is observed. Some physicochemical properties (such as fermentation index) have been used to measure the degree of fermentation and changes in quality, but only after the fermentation process has concluded, using dried cocoa beans. This would suggest that it is necessary to establish a relationship between the chemical changes inside the cocoa bean and the fermentation conditions during the fermentation in order to standardize the process. Cocoa beans were traditionally fermented inside wooden boxes, sampled every 24 h and analyzed to evaluate fermentation changes in complete bean, cotyledon and dried beans. The value of the fermentation index suggested as the minimal adequate (≥1) was observed at 72 h in all bean parts analyzed. At this time, values of pH, spectral absorption, total protein hydrolysis and vicilin-class globulins of fermented beans suggested that they were well fermented. Since no difference was found between the types of samples, the pH value could be used as a first indicator of the end of the fermentation and confirmed by evaluation of the fermentation index using undried samples, during the process. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Locomotion of Mexican jumping beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Daniel M; K Lal, Ishan; Leamy, Michael J; Hu, David L

    2012-01-01

    The Mexican jumping bean, Laspeyresia saltitans, consists of a hollow seed housing a moth larva. Heating by the sun induces movements by the larva which appear as rolls, jumps and flips by the bean. In this combined experimental, numerical and robotic study, we investigate this unique means of rolling locomotion. Time-lapse videography is used to record bean trajectories across a series of terrain types, including one-dimensional channels and planar surfaces of varying inclination. We find that the shell encumbers the larva's locomotion, decreasing its speed on flat surfaces by threefold. We also observe that the two-dimensional search algorithm of the bean resembles the run-and-tumble search of bacteria. We test this search algorithm using both an agent-based simulation and a wheeled Scribbler robot. The algorithm succeeds in propelling the robot away from regions of high temperature and may have application in biomimetic micro-scale navigation systems. (paper)

  13. africa bean research alliance (pabra)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    (NARS), public and private sector actors along the varied bean product value chains, and technology end-users. This model .... centralised information and decision-processing is inefficient ... technologies to farmers, as illustrated by the case.

  14. NetBeans GUI Builder

    OpenAIRE

    Pusiankova, Tatsiana

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at making readers familiar with the powerful tool NetBeans IDE GUI Builder and helping them make their first steps to creation of their own graphical user interface in the Java programming language. The work includes theoretical description of NetBeans IDE GUI Builder, its most important characteristics and peculiarities and also a set of practical instructions that will help readers in creation of their first GUI. The readers will be introduced to the environment of this tool ...

  15. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)—effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g−1 fresh weight (535–620 μg 100 g−1 dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g−1 DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion. PMID:25650294

  16. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)-effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (535-620 μg 100 g(-1) dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g(-1) DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion.

  17. The bean rhizosphere Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 strongly reduces Fusarium culmorum growth and infectiveness of plant roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddoudi, I.; Sendi, Y.; Batnini, M.; Romdhane, S.B.; Mhadhbi, H.; Mrabet, M.

    2017-07-01

    A faba bean rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate RZ9 was used for studying its antifungal activity and protecting effects of faba bean and common bean against the root pathogen Fusarium culmorum strain MZB47. The dual culture tests showed that RZ9 inhibits MZB47 in vitro growth by 56%. When mixing RZ9 cell suspension with MZB47 macroconidia at equal proportion, the macroconidia viability was reduced with 70%. Pathogenicity tests conducted in sterile conditions showed that MZB47 caused an intense root rotting in faba bean ‘Aquadulce’ plantlets and a slight level in common bean ‘Coco blanc’. This was associated to significant decreases in plant growth only in ‘Aquadulce’, reducing shoot dry weight (DW) by 82% and root DW by 70%. In soil samples, MZB47 caused severe root rotting and induced significant decreases in shoot DW (up to 51%) and root DW (up to 60%) for both beans. It was associated to a decrease in nodule number by 73% and 52% for faba bean and common bean, respectively. Biocontrol assays revealed that the inoculation of RZ9 to MZB47-treated plantlets enhanced shoot DWs (25% and 110%) and root DWs (29% and 67%), in faba bean and common bean, respectively. Moreover, root rotting levels decreased and nodule number increased in treated compared to untreated plantlets. Collected data highlighted the disease severity of F. culmorum and demonstrated the potential of using RZ9 in controlling Fusaria root diseases in beans. Thereby, the current study represents the first report on the biocontrol effectiveness of P. aeruginosa against F. culmorum in beans.

  18. The bean rhizosphere Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 strongly reduces Fusarium culmorum growth and infectiveness of plant roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Haddoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A faba bean rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate RZ9 was used for studying its antifungal activity and protecting effects of faba bean and common bean against the root pathogen Fusarium culmorum strain MZB47. The dual culture tests showed that RZ9 inhibits MZB47 in vitro growth by 56%. When mixing RZ9 cell suspension with MZB47 macroconidia at equal proportion, the macroconidia viability was reduced with 70%. Pathogenicity tests conducted in sterile conditions showed that MZB47 caused an intense root rotting in faba bean ‘Aquadulce’ plantlets and a slight level in common bean ‘Coco blanc’. This was associated to significant decreases in plant growth only in ‘Aquadulce’, reducing shoot dry weight (DW by 82% and root DW by 70%. In soil samples, MZB47 caused severe root rotting and induced significant decreases in shoot DW (up to 51% and root DW (up to 60% for both beans. It was associated to a decrease in nodule number by 73% and 52% for faba bean and common bean, respectively. Biocontrol assays revealed that the inoculation of RZ9 to MZB47-treated plantlets enhanced shoot DWs (25% and 110% and root DWs (29% and 67%, in faba bean and common bean, respectively. Moreover, root rotting levels decreased and nodule number increased in treated compared to untreated plantlets. Collected data highlighted the disease severity of F. culmorum and demonstrated the potential of using RZ9 in controlling Fusaria root diseases in beans. Thereby, the current study represents the first report on the biocontrol effectiveness of P. aeruginosa against F. culmorum in beans.

  19. Influence of relative humidity on radiosensitivity of Aspergillus flavus Link. infecting cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.; Odamtten, G.T.; Appiah, V.

    1981-01-01

    The first part of this paper deals with the moisture sorption isotherms of dried cocoa beans under different relative humidities of 55, 65, 75, 85 or 95%. The second part evaluates the effects of relative humidity (RH), initial moisture content (m.c.) of cocoa beans, and different radiation exposure doses (0, 250, 350, 450, 500 or 550 krad) on Aspergillus flavus spore inoculated cocoa beans kept in fixed RH environmental chamber of 75 or 85% RH post-irradiation for forty days. The results discussed suggest that the m.c. of beans increased from an initial level of 6.4% to 7, 7.8 and 8.9% at 55, 65, and 75% respectively, after a storage period of 6-8 days. However, beans stored under 85% or 95% RH continued to absorb moisture from their respective environments indefinitely during the 64-day storage period. Furthermore, the ambient relative humidity to which the beans are subjected before or after irradiation significantly affect the radiosensitivity of toxigenic A. flavus; the differences in such radiosensitivity are influenced by either the available moisture or the initial m.c. of the beans to the inoculum. The authors conclude from their study that high environmental RH increased the radio-resistance of A. flavus spores making it difficult to establish a radiation decontamination level of practical value under a tropical environment with high ambient relative humidity. (author)

  20. COMPETITIVE ABILITY OF BEAN CULTIVARS WITH HAIRY BEGGARTICKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO GALON

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Weed interference is a factor that limits the productivity of beans and, among these, hairy beggarticks is one of the main species competing with the crop for environmental resources. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the competitive ability of black bean cultivars (BRS Campeiro, IPR Uirapuru, SCS204 Predileto and BRS Supremo in the presence of a biotype of hairy beggarticks. The experimental design is a completely randomized block with four replications. Treatments were arranged in a replacement series, consisting of a proportion of the crop and the hairy beggarticks: 100:0; 75:25; 50:50: 24:75, and 0:100, which corresponds to 40:0, 30:10, 20:20, 10:30, and 0:40 plant pots1. We accomplished competitive analysis through diagrams applied to the replacement series, as well as using relative competitive indices. The leaf area and shoot dry mass were evaluated at 40 days after emergence of the species. There was competition between bean cultivars and hairy beggarticks for the same environmental resources, causing negative interference in the growth of the species, independent of the proportion of plants. Bean cultivars had a lower relative loss by reducing the morphological variables of the hairy beggarticks, thereby demonstrating superiority in its competitive ability in relation to the weed. Interspecific competition is less damaging than intraspecific competition for both species.

  1. Antimicrobial effects of ionizing radiation on artificially and naturally contaminated cacao beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restaino, L.; Myron, J.J.J.; Lenovich, L.M.; Bills, S.; Tscherneff, K.

    1984-01-01

    With an initial microbial level of ca. 10 7 microorganisms per g of Ivory Coast cacao beans, 5 kGy of gamma radiation from a Co 60 source under an atmosphere of air reduced the microflora per g by 2.49 and 3.03 logs at temperatures of 35 and 50 0 C, respectively. Bahia cacao beans were artificially contaminated with dried spores of Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium citrinum, giving initial fungal levels of 1.9 x 10 4 and 1.4 x 10 3 spores per g of whole Bahia cacao beans, respectively. The average D 10 values for A. flavus and P. citrinum spores on Bahia cacao beans were 0.66 and 0.88 kGy, respectively. 12 references

  2. 76 FR 16700 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry... French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States while continuing to...

  3. Effects of Intercropping (Canola-Faba Bean on Density and Diversity of Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hossain GHARINEH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the biological effect and interference of crop and weed in canola-faba bean intercropping in comparison with mono culture, an experiment was conducted in randomize completely blocks design with three replication at Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources, University. In this experiment treatments were different compositions of canola (Brassica napus L. var. haylo and faba bean (local cultivar. Plant densities (0, 20 and 40 plants per m2 for canola and four levels include (0, 20, 40 and 60 plants per m2 for faba bean in accordance with additive form mixed culture system respectively. Weed dry weight was affected by culture system and different levels of plant densities in mixed culture and there were significant difference 1%. Lowest weed dry weight was obtained in 20-60 and 40-60 plants m-2 canola-bean intercropping. In the intercropping parts only two species was observed while in the sole culture more than three species were exist. Results showed that with increasing in bean diversity, weed dry weight declines. According to our results, it is possible to control weed effectively by using intercropping system, but more studied is required. Diversity of weeds had been clearly affected. Results showed that only Beta and Malva species were existed in intercropping comparing to sole cultures that Brassica, Beta, Rumex and Malva were existed.

  4. Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Sandra da Silva; Colaco, Waldeciro

    2002-01-01

    An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a 60 Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

  5. Characteristics of water absorption of beans

    OpenAIRE

    上中, 登紀子; 森, 孝夫; 豊沢, 功; Tokiko, Uenaka; Takao, Mori; Isao, Toyosawa

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of water absorption of soybean, azuki bean and kidney beans (cv. Toramame and Taishokintoki) were investigated. The way of water absorption of soybean was different from that of other beans, because soybeans absorbed water from whole surface of seed coat immediately after the immersion. Azuki beans absorbed extremely slowly water from only strophiole, and then the water absorption in other tissue was induced by a certain amount of water absorption playing a role of trigger. Th...

  6. Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbofung, C M; Rigby, N; Waldron, K

    1999-01-01

    Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used.

  7. NetBeans IDE 8 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, David

    2014-01-01

    If you're a Java developer of any level using NetBeans and want to learn how to get the most out of NetBeans, then this book is for you. Learning how to utilize NetBeans will provide a firm foundation for your Java application development.

  8. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Qu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05. Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05. The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  9. Environmental Growing Conditions in Five Production Systems Induce Stress Response and Affect Chemical Composition of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niether, Wiebke; Smit, Inga; Armengot, Laura; Schneider, Monika; Gerold, Gerhard; Pawelzik, Elke

    2017-11-29

    Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide a less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured the element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans derived from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons. Concentrations of N, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn were higher in beans produced in agroforestry systems with high stem density and leaf area index. In the dry season, the N, Fe, and Cu concentration of the beans increased. The total phenolic content increased with proceeding of the dry season while other abiotic stress indicators like spermine decreased, implying an effect of the water availability on the chemical composition of the beans. Agroforestry systems did not buffer the variability of stress indicators over the seasons compared to monocultures. The effect of environmental growing conditions on bean chemical composition was not strong but can contribute to variations in cocoa bean quality.

  10. Effects of electron beam radiation on trait mutation in azuki bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry seeds of azuki bean (Vigna angularisi), Jingnong 6 and Hebei 801 varieties were irradiated by electron beam of 100, 300, 600, 700 and 900 Gy, respectively. Mutations of leaf shape and color, seed size and shape, trailing, more branching, dwarfing, early or late flowering time and high yield were created in M2 and M3 ...

  11. Effect of Cement–Locust Bean Waste Ash Blend on the Gradation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OPC) and up to 8% locust bean waste ash (LBWA) by dry weight of soil to investigate its effect on the gradation and plasticity characteristics of the modified soil. Test results generally show that the gradation and plasticity characteristics of the ...

  12. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRIBAL BEAN (Canavalia virosa AND ITS ALTERNATIVE TOFU AND TEMPEH FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek F. Djaafar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing price of soybean becomes a serious problem for producers of traditional foods such as tempeh and tofu. These traditional foods are important protein sources for many Indonesian people. Tribal bean (Canavalia virosa could be used as a substitution of soybean for tempeh and tofu processing. This study aimed to determine physico-chemical characteristics of tribal bean and its products such as tofu and tempeh. Tribal bean old pods were peeled manually in the Postharvest and Agricultural Machinery Laboratory of the Yogyakarta AIAT. The peeled seeds were dried until 10% water content and their epidermis were removed mechanically by using an abrasive peeler to produce yellowish clean peeled beans. The beans were analyzed physically and chemically using the standard prosedure. Since the tribal bean seeds contained high HCN, to minimize HCN content the beans were presoaked for 48 hours in water. The beans were then mixed with soybean at a ratio of 50:50 or 25:75 and processed for making tempeh and tofu using traditional method. Physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of the tribal bean tempe and tofu were analysed, involving organoleptic test with hedonic method, texture, as well as water, ash, protein and crude fiber contents. The results showed that tribal bean contained protein (37.30%, essential amino acids, minerals and fiber (3.1%, and a toxic substance HCN. Presoaking the beans in water for 48 hours significantly reduced HCN content by 98.51%, from 1334 ppm. Tofu made of a mixture of tribal bean and soybean at a ratio of 25:75 plus 2% rice vinegar as a coagulant has a white color and normal flavor appearances, and was accepted by panelists. The tribal bean tempeh contained 78.1% water, 1.21% ash, 8.14% protein, 3.1% crude fiber, and 44 ppm HCN. Tempeh made of a mixture of tribal bean and soybean at ratios of 50:50 and 25:75 showed good characters (flavor, taste, color, and texture and panelist acceptance, as well as nutrition

  13. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Water Absorption of Adzuki Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Shigeaki; Shigematsu, Toru; Karo, Mineko; Hayashi, Mayumi; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on dried soybean, adzuki bean, and kintoki kidney bean, which are low-moisture-content cellular biological materials, was investigated from the viewpoint of water absorption. The samples were vacuum-packed with distilled water and pressurized at 200 MPa and 25 °C for 10 min. After the HHP treatment, time courses of the moisture contents of the samples were measured, and the dimensionless moisture contents were estimated. Water absorption in the case of soybean could be fitted well by a simple water diffusion model. High pressures were found to have negligible effects on water absorption into the cotyledon of soybean and kintoki kidney bean. A non-linear least square method based on the Weibull equation was applied for the adzuki beans, and the effective water diffusion coefficient was found to increase significantly from 8.6 × 10−13 to 6.7 × 10−10 m2/s after HHP treatment. Approximately 30% of the testa of the adzuki bean was damaged upon HHP treatment, which was comparable to the surface area of the testa in the partially peeled adzuki bean sample. Thus, HHP was confirmed to promote mass transfer to the cotyledon of legumes with a tight testa. PMID:28231195

  14. Drought tolerance in wild plant populations: the case of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés J Cortés

    Full Text Available Reliable estimations of drought tolerance in wild plant populations have proved to be challenging and more accessible alternatives are desirable. With that in mind, an ecological diversity study was conducted based on the geographical origin of 104 wild common bean accessions to estimate drought tolerance in their natural habitats. Our wild population sample covered a range of mesic to very dry habitats from Mexico to Argentina. Two potential evapotranspiration models that considered the effects of temperature and radiation were coupled with the precipitation regimes of the last fifty years for each collection site based on geographical information system analysis. We found that wild accessions were distributed among different precipitation regimes following a latitudinal gradient and that habitat ecological diversity of the collection sites was associated with natural sub-populations. We also detected a broader geographic distribution of wild beans across ecologies compared to cultivated common beans in a reference collection of 297 cultivars. Habitat drought stress index based on the Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration model was equivalent to the Hamon estimator. Both ecological drought stress indexes would be useful together with population structure for the genealogical analysis of gene families in common bean, for genome-wide genetic-environmental associations, and for postulating the evolutionary history and diversification processes that have occurred for the species. Finally, we propose that wild common bean should be taken into account to exploit variation for drought tolerance in cultivated common bean which is generally considered susceptible as a crop to drought stress.

  15. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Water Absorption of Adzuki Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeaki Ueno

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP treatment on dried soybean, adzuki bean, and kintoki kidney bean, which are low-moisture-content cellular biological materials, was investigated from the viewpoint of water absorption. The samples were vacuum-packed with distilled water and pressurized at 200 MPa and 25 °C for 10 min. After the HHP treatment, time courses of the moisture contents of the samples were measured, and the dimensionless moisture contents were estimated. Water absorption in the case of soybean could be fitted well by a simple water diffusion model. High pressures were found to have negligible effects on water absorption into the cotyledon of soybean and kintoki kidney bean. A non-linear least square method based on the Weibull equation was applied for the adzuki beans, and the effective water diffusion coefficient was found to increase significantly from 8.6 × 10−13 to 6.7 × 10−10 m2/s after HHP treatment. Approximately 30% of the testa of the adzuki bean was damaged upon HHP treatment, which was comparable to the surface area of the testa in the partially peeled adzuki bean sample. Thus, HHP was confirmed to promote mass transfer to the cotyledon of legumes with a tight testa.

  16. Interaction between beans and objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction between the X-ray beans and objects are studied, with the modification in the intensity. The kilovolt, the bundle filtration, the structure and composition of the patient and the quantity of scattered radiation are also described, as the main parameters for the contrast and for the dose of the patient. (C.G.C.) [pt

  17. Angus McBean - Portraits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepper, T.

    2007-01-01

    Angus McBean (1904-90) was one of the most extraordinary British photographers of the twentieth century. In a career that spanned the start of the Second World War through the birth of the 'Swinging Sixties' to the 1980s, he became the most prominent theatre photographer of his generation and, along

  18. Produção de matéria seca e trocas gasosas em cultivares de mamoneira sob níveis de irrigação Dry mass production and gas exchanges in castor bean cultivars under different irrigation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cley A. S. de Freitas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de cinco níveis de irrigação por gotejamento, em três cultivares de mamoneira (IAC Guarani, Mirante 10 e BRS Paraguaçu mediante a quantificação da produção de matéria seca pelas diferentes partes da planta (limbo foliar, caule e pecíolo e a mensuração das trocas gasosas (fotossíntese, condutância estomática e transpiração. O experimento foi conduzido no campo, na Fazenda Experimental Vale do Curu, Pentecoste, CE, sob delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, em esquema fatorial 5 x 3 e com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram cinco lâminas de irrigação (25, 50, 75, 100 e 125% da evaporação do tanque Classe "A" e três cultivares. Os diferentes níveis de irrigação influenciaram as variáveis: massa seca do pecíolo, condutância estomática e fotossíntese; os valores máximos para essas variáveis foram obtidos com o nível de irrigação correspondente a 125% da evaporação no tanque Classe A. Houve uma resposta diferenciada na produção de biomassa e nas trocas gasosas entre as três cultivares avaliadas em todas as variáveis estudadas, exceto na massa seca do pecíolo.This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of five levels of drip irrigation in three castor bean cultivars (IAC Guarani, Mirante 10 and BRS Paraguaçu by measuring the dry mass production by the different plant parts (leaf blade, petiole and plant stem as well as by measuring the gas exchange processes (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration. The experiment was conducted in the field, at the Fazenda Experimental, Vale do Curu, Pentecoste, Ceará (Br. The experiment was conducted in a randomized blocks in a 5x3 factorial scheme, in split plots with three repetitions. The treatments were five irrigation levels (25, 50, 75, 100 and 125% of the class "A" pan evaporation (CAE applied to the three cultivars. The different irrigation levels

  19. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  20. Custo de energia elétrica em cultura do feijoeiro irrigado por pivô central, afetado pelo manejo da irrigação e sistemas de cultivo Cost of electric energy in irrigated dry bean for center pivot affected by the irrigation management and tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. P. Turco

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o consumo e o custo de energia elétrica em cultura do feijoeiro irrigado por pivô central, cultivar IAC-Carioca, submetida a dois manejos de irrigação: TENS - tensiometria; TCA - balanço hídrico-climatológico, baseado no tanque "Classe A"; e dois sistemas de cultivo em Latossolo Vermelho: PD - plantio direto; PC - plantio convencional, no ano de 2002. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida na Área Demonstrativa e Experimental de Irrigação - ADEI da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal - SP. O consumo de energia elétrica do sistema de irrigação foi monitorado, e seu custo, analisado para dois grupos tarifários: A e B, sendo os preços do kWh dos sistemas tarifários de energia elétrica obtidos na CPFL (Companhia Paulista de Força e Luz. Os tratamentos em que o manejo da irrigação foi realizado pelo método do tanque "Classe A", ocasionaram os maiores consumos e custos de energia elétrica, em relação aos tratamentos em que o manejo foi realizado por tensiometria; entre os sistemas de plantio, não foram observadas diferenças. A tarifa Horo-Sazonal (verde e/ou azul, com desconto, foi a melhor opção para os quatro tratamentos.The objective of this work was to analyze the consumption and cost of electric energy in dry bean crop, IAC-Carioca, irrigated by center pivot, submitted to two irrigation managements: tensiometry and climatoligical water balance with Class A pan, under conventional and no-tillage systems, growed in Oxisol, in the year of 2002. The research was developed at the Demonstrative and Experimental Area of Irrigation - ADEI, of FCAV/UNESP, Campus of Jaboticabal - SP, Brazil. The irrigation system electric energy consumption was monitored for two tariff groups: A and B. The prices of kWh of the tariff systems of electric energy had been gotten in the CPFL (São Paulo Company of Force and Light. The treatments where the irrigation management was carried through the method of the Class A

  1. characterisation of bacterial brown spot pathogen from dry bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Biolog GN Microplates were used to assess carbon substrate utilisation. The SyrB gene was .... Positive reaction was observed as granular ... nutrient broth as positive control (Ignjatov et al.,. 2007). ..... nucleation-active Pseudomonas syringae.

  2. EFFICACY OF VEGETABLE OILS AGAINST DRY BEAN BEETLES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    highest dose (9 ml kg-1) with castor oil and cottonseed oil, respectively. The lowest LC50 value of ... restrictions on use of insecticides, awareness of environmental pollution, the .... more plant materials such as neem oil for use in insect pest ...

  3. Characterisation of bacterial brown spot pathogen from dry bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 4 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Susceptibility of South African dry bean cultivars to bacterial diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 4 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in rice bean (Vigna umbellata using an SSR-enriched library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixia Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice bean (Vigna umbellata Thunb., a warm-season annual legume, is grown in Asia mainly for dried grain or fodder and plays an important role in human and animal nutrition because the grains are rich in protein and some essential fatty acids and minerals. With the aim of expediting the genetic improvement of rice bean, we initiated a project to develop genomic resources and tools for molecular breeding in this little-known but important crop. Here we report the construction of an SSR-enriched genomic library from DNA extracted from pooled young leaf tissues of 22 rice bean genotypes and developing SSR markers. In 433,562 reads generated by a Roche 454 GS-FLX sequencer, we identified 261,458 SSRs, of which 48.8% were of compound form. Dinucleotide repeats were predominant with an absolute proportion of 81.6%, followed by trinucleotides (17.8%. Other types together accounted for 0.6%. The motif AC/GT accounted for 77.7% of the total, followed by AAG/CTT (14.3%, and all others accounted for 12.0%. Among the flanking sequences, 2928 matched putative genes or gene models in the protein database of Arabidopsis thaliana, corresponding with 608 non-redundant Gene Ontology terms. Of these sequences, 11.2% were involved in cellular components, 24.2% were involved molecular functions, and 64.6% were associated with biological processes. Based on homolog analysis, 1595 flanking sequences were similar to mung bean and 500 to common bean genomic sequences. Comparative mapping was conducted using 350 sequences homologous to both mung bean and common bean sequences. Finally, a set of primer pairs were designed, and a validation test showed that 58 of 220 new primers can be used in rice bean and 53 can be transferred to mung bean. However, only 11 were polymorphic when tested on 32 rice bean varieties. We propose that this study lays the groundwork for developing novel SSR markers and will enhance the mapping of qualitative and quantitative traits and marker

  6. Fertilization management in bean crop under organic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Barradas Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the food production systems tend to include the sustainable management of soil and water. One of the main obstacles to the organic cultivation of common bean is the fertilization management. This study aimed to evaluate doses of organic fertilizer containing slaughterhouse residues (1.0 t ha-1, 1.5 t ha-1, 2.0 t ha-1 and 2.5 t ha-1. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a 4x2x2 factorial scheme, with 16 treatments and 4 replications. Plant dry weight; foliar diagnose; initial and final plant population; number of pods per plant, grains per plant and grains per pod; 1000-grain weight; and grain yield were evaluated. It was concluded that the methods and time of organic fertilizer application do not affect the production components and yield in common bean. The dose of 2.5 t ha-1 of organic fertilizer provided the highest common bean yield in 2012, but it did not express its maximum production capacity.

  7. Multielemental fingerprinting as a tool for authentication of organic wheat, barley, faba bean, and potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kristian Holst; Schjørring, Jan Kofod; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2011-01-01

    The multielemental composition of organic and conventional winter wheat, spring barley, faba bean, and potato was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma−optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and −mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crops were cultivated in two years at three geographically...... different field locations, each accommodating one conventional and two organic cropping systems. The conventional system produced the highest harvest yields for all crops except the nitrogen-fixing faba bean, whereas the dry matter content of each crop was similar across systems. No systematic differences...

  8. Study on proteins of bean plants originating from gamma-treated seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsonev, D.; Chalykova, M.

    1975-01-01

    Dry seeds of bean variety Stella were radiated with gamma rays using 60 C as a source of radiation. The dose applied was 30 kR at an intensity 9.6 R/s. Irradiation caused disturbances at synthesis and properties of proteins of bean plants originating from gamma treated seeds. Some protein components showed changes in relative content and electrophoretic mobility. New more mobile protein components appeared. Protein complex of overground parts were more radioresistant than protein complex of the roots. (M.Ts.)

  9. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  10. Coffee beans as a natural test food for the evaluation of the masticatory efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, G; Senger, B

    2001-04-01

    A lot of test foods have been used during this century to evaluate the masticatory ability of human subjects. Nevertheless, none has been universally admitted. If the test food by itself is of importance, attention should also be paid to its behaviour during the chewing test procedure. Therefore, we analysed step by step coffee beans through the processing of the chewing test and a dry sieving The development of a compression test and a computer simulation have shown that groups of 11 coffee beans give satisfactory results and deserve to be used in mastication studies.

  11. Adubação verde, calagem e adubação mineral do feijoeiro em solo com vegetação de «cerrado» Response of dry beans to fertilizer treatments on a «cerrado» soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 1961-62 instalou-se, em Campinas, uma experiência de adubação para estudar o efeito de vários tratamentos sôbre a produção do feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. em solo arenoso, com vegetação de cerrado. Grupos de parcelas receberam, ou não, 4 t/ha de calcário e 100 kg/ha de P2O5 como superfosfato simples ou fosforita de Olinda, e nelas foi semeado, ou não, Dolichos lablabe L., para ser usado como adubo verde. Em 1962-63, enquanto metade de cada parcela ficou sem nova adubação (série A, a outra (série B recebeu 30-100-50 kg/ha de N-P2O5-K2O nas formas de sulfato de amônio, superfosfato e cloreto de potássio. Em 1964-65 a série B só foi adubada com N. Em 1962-63 e 1964-65 semeou-se feijão; em 1963-64 o campo experimental ficou em pousio. O efeito da adubação verde sôbre a produção de feijão foi de apenas + 13%, na presença de NPK. e negativo, na ausência dessa adubação. A resposta média à calagem alcançou +41%, em 1962-63, e +34%, em 1964-65. A presença da adubação mineral favoreceu consideràvelmente a resposta ao corretivo. Em média dos dois anos e dos dois fosfatos, o efeito residual do fósforo, verificado na série A, corresponden a +123%. No primeiro ano, o superfosfato se mostrou superior à fosforita; no último, porém, foi inferior. A calagem beneficiou a atuação do superfosfato, mas prejudicou a da fosforita. Embora as adubações de 1961-62 tenham reduzido apreciàvelmente a necessidade de novas aplicações, o efeito médio das readubações de 1962-63 e 1964-65 atingiu +194% . Enquanto a produção média anual dos canteiros que ficaram sempre sem adubo e sem calcário foi de tão sòmente 174 kg/ha, a dos que receberam conjuntamente todos os fatôres estudados atingiu 910 kg/ha, equiparando-se à que se obtém em boas terras «de cultura».An experiment was conducted at Campinas, State of São Paulo, to study the effect of lime, green manure and mineral fertilizers on the yield of dry beans

  12. Effects of inclusion level on nutrient digestibility and energy content of wheat middlings and soya bean meal for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Piao, Xiangshu; Liu, Ling; Li, Defa

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of inclusion level of wheat middlings and soya bean meal on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and chemical components of these ingredients in growing pigs. Furthermore, the effects of the inclusion level on their contents of digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) were also determined by the difference method. In Experiment 1, six diets were fed to 36 growing pigs according to a completely randomised design. The basal diet was a corn-soya bean meal diet while the other five diets contained 9.6%, 19.2%, 28.8%, 38.4% or 48.0% of wheat middlings added at the expense of corn and soya bean meal. The measured digestibility of energy and most nutrients of wheat middlings increased (p soya bean meal (22.2% and 33.6%). The content of DE in soya bean meal did not differ at 22.2% and 33.6% inclusion levels (16.2 and 16.3 MJ/kg DM, respectively), but the digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter and carbohydrates was increased at a higher inclusion level (p soya bean meal and wheat middlings was affected by their dietary inclusion levels. For soya bean meal, the estimated energy contents was independent of its inclusion level, but not for wheat middlings. Therefore, the inclusion level of wheat middlings has to be considered for estimating their energy value.

  13. Western bean cutworm survival and the development of economic injury levels and economic thresholds in field corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Moraes, S; Hunt, T E; Wright, R J; Hein, G L; Blankenship, E E

    2013-06-01

    Western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a native pest of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). Historically, the western bean cutworm was distributed in the western United States, but since 1999 eastward expansion has been observed. In corn, economic impact is caused by larval ear feeding. Information on western bean cutworm biology, ecology, and economic impact is relatively limited, and the development of economic injury levels (EILs) and economic thresholds (ETs) is required for more effective management. Studies during 2008-2011, across three ecoregions of Nebraska, sought to characterize western bean cutworm survival and development of EILs and ETs. Calculations of EILs and ETs incorporated the dynamics of corn price, management cost, and pest survival. The results from the current study demonstrated low larval survival of this species (1.51-12.82%). The mean yield loss from one western bean cutworm larva per plant was 945.52 kg/ha (15.08 bu/acre), based on 74,100 plants per ha. Economic thresholds are expressed as a percentage of plants with at least one egg mass. This study is the first study that explicitly incorporates variable management costs and crop values into western bean cutworm EIL calculations, and larval survival into ET calculations.

  14. Breeding for culinary and nutritional quality of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in intercropping systems with maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodino A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is widely intercropped with maize (Zea mays L. in the North of Spain. Breeding beans for multiple cropping systems is important for the development of a productive and sustainable agriculture, and is mainly oriented to minimize intercrop competition and to stabilize complementarity with maize. Most agricultural research on intercropping to date has focused on the agronomic and overall yield effects of the different species, but characters related with socio-economic and food quality aspects are also important. The effect of intercropping beans with maize on food seed quality traits was studied for thirty-five bush bean varieties under different environments in Galicia (Northwestern Spain. Parameters determining Asturian (Northern Spain white bean commercial and culinary quality have also been evaluated in fifteen accessions. There are significant differences between varieties in the selected cropping systems (sole crop, intercrop with field maize and intercrop with sweet maize for dry and soaked seed weight, coat proportion, crude protein, crude fat and moisture. Different white bean accessions have been chosen according to their culinary quality. Under these environmental conditions it appears that intercropping systems with sweet maize give higher returns than sole cropping system. It is also suggested that the culinary and nutritional quality potential of some white bean accessions could be the base material in a breeding programme the objectives of which are to develop varieties giving seeds with high food quality.

  15. BEAN CULTURE IN CHERNOZEM ZONE OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Balashova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beans (Vicia faba L. is the one of the ancient crops which have been cultivated and used for food. The historical note about bean utilization in ancient world and in Russia, and the information aboutcenters of origin, food value of seeds are presented in this review. Botanical characteristics of three bean varieties of VNIISSOK breeding are described.

  16. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  17. THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACTS FROM WINTER SAVORY ON BLACK BEAN APHID MORTALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts prepared from fresh and dry matter of winter savory (Satureja montana L. on mortality of wingless females and larvae of black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scop.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Dry extracts were prepared at concentration of 2%, 5% and 10%, while the fresh plant at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Stomach poisoning of extracts was determined by soaking broad bean leaves in the respective solutions, and then determining mortality of wingless female and larvae feeding on leaves thus prepared at 12 hour intervals. The results of the experiment showed that the extract prepared from dry matter at the highest concentration (10%, as well as the extracts from fresh matter at concentration of 20% and 30% contributed to an increase in mortality of wingless female of black bean aphid. Meanwhile, extracts prepared from both dry and fresh matter at two highest concentrations caused an increase in mortality of larvae of this pest. Furthermore, with increasing concentrations of analysed extracts prepared from both fresh and dry matter of winter savory, their negative effect on wingless females and larvae usually increase.

  18. Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Pearl Millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and Red Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tavassoli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Center of Zabol University during 2007 cropping season. The experiment was split plot, based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main factors consisted of unfertilized (control (F1, recommended fertilizer (F2, recommended manure (F3, half of recommended manure + half of recommended fertilizer (F4 and sub factors were cropping of millet (I1, 75% millet + 25% bean (I2, 50% millet + 50% bean(I3, 25% millet + 75% bean (I4 and sole crop of bean (I5. Results showed that were for these tow species the highest grain and dry matter yield and harvest index (HI obtained from half of recommended manure + half of recommended fertilizer treatment. However, fertilizer treatments did not have significant effect on 1000-seeds weight. Highest land equivalence ratio (LER for grain and dry matter yield was achieved from half of recommended manure + half of recommended fertilizer treatment. The highest crude protein (CP, P and K content in each of the forage crops obtained from recommended fertilizer treatment. Interrace culture different ratios treatments, for millet the highest grain and dry matter yield and P and K content achieved from sole cropping. While highest harvest index (HI, 1000-seeds weight and CP content in millet forage obtained from their intercroppings. Highest bean values for all traits in achieved from its sole cropping. Furthermore, highest LER for dry matter and grain obtained from 25% millet + 75% bean treatment.

  19. Sensory evaluation of black beans submitted to gamma radiation from Cobalt-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Neila Camargo de; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; Arthur, Valter

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the sensory aspects of black beans submitted to gamma radiation from 60 Co. The study involved eight panelists, between 17 to 23 years old, who were selected and trained for the descriptive analysis of appearance, aroma, flavor and texture. The panelists analyzed alterations of appearance, aroma, flavor and texture of non-irradiated and irradiated black beans with doses 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10kGy. The results were analyzed by test F, ANOVA and the Tukey test (5%), with the use of computers and the sensory analysis software Compusense Five and SAS. The results showed that irradiated samples decreased the bitter flavor, accentuated color and brightness and samples non-irradiated dry texture. The radiation treatment is a good method for conservation of black beans in doses evaluated in this study.(author)

  20. Improving Malaysian cocoa quality through the use of dehumidified air under mild drying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, Ching L; Law, Chung L; Cloke, Michael; Sharif, Suzannah

    2011-01-30

    Various studies have been conducted in the past to improve the quality of Malaysian cocoa beans. However, the processing methods still remain crude and lack technological advancement. In terms of drying, no previous study has attempted to apply advanced drying technology to improve bean quality. This paper presents the first attempt to improve the quality of cocoa beans through heat pump drying using constant air (28.6 and 40.4 °C) and stepwise (step-up 30.7-43.6-56.9 °C and step-down 54.9-43.9 °C) drying profiles. Comparison was made against hot air drying at 55.9 °C. Product quality assessment showed significant improvement in the quality of Malaysian cocoa beans. Quality was found to be better in terms of lower acidity (higher pH) and higher degree of browning (cut test) for cocoa beans dried using the step-up profile. All heat pump-dried samples showed flavour quality comparable to that of Ghanaian and better than that of Malaysian and Indonesian commercial samples. Step-up-dried samples showed the best flavour profile with high level of cocoa flavour, low in sourness and not excessive in bitterness and astringency. Dried cocoa samples from the step-up drying profile showed the best overall quality as compared with commercial samples from Malaysia, Indonesia and Ghana. The improvement of Malaysian cocoa bean quality is thus achievable through heat pump drying. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Comparison of Cocoa Beans from China, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenglin Gu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey on five kinds of cocoa beans from new cocoa planting countries was conducted to analyze each kind’s basic quality. The average bean weight and butter content of Hainan cocoa beans were the lowest, at less than 1.1 g, and 39.24% to 43.44%, respectively. Cocoa beans from Indonesia where shown to be about 8.0% and 9.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content, respectively, than that of Papua New Guinea and about 20.0% and 25.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content than Chinese dried beans, respectively. The average total polyphenolic content ranged from 81.22 mg/10 g to 301.01 mg/10 g. The Hainan 2011 sample had the highest total polyphenolic content, followed by the unfermented sample from Indonesia and the Papua New Guinea sample. The polyphenolic levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were 123.61 mg/10 g and lower than the other three samples, but the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total polyphenolic content of 81.22 mg/10 g. The average total amino acid content ranged from 11.58 g/100 g to 18.17 g/100 g. The total amino acid content was the highest in the Indonesian unfermented sample, followed by the Hainan 2011 sample and the Papua New Guinea sample. The levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were lower; the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total amino acid content.

  2. Morphological and genetic characterisation of some lima bean (phaseolus lunatus l.) cultivars and their nodulating rhizobia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kole, E.T.M.

    2014-07-01

    Three major investigations were carried out to assess the morphological traits and nodulation potential of thirteen lima bean cultivars as well as the genetic diversity of rhizobia nodulating these lima bean cultivars. Thirteen lima bean cultivars obtained from the CSIR-PGGRI and various market centres in Ghana were used. The experiment was conducted in pots filled with natural topsoil and arranged in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates at the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute (BNARI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). The study aimed at obtaining some relevant information on the morphological traits of the lima bean to be improved upon, to evaluate their nodulation tendencies and determine similarities and differences of their nodulating rhizobia. Significant differences were obtained in quantitative characters (leaflet length, leaflet width, pod length, pod width, seed length, seed width, seed weight per 10 seeds and days to 50% emergence), contributing to divergence among the lima bean cultivars. Qualitative traits, however, were mostly similar, with few exceptions such as the flower wing colour, growth habit, leaf shape, main stem pigmentation, pod beak shape, seed secondary colour and seed pattern colour showing divergence among the lima bean cultivars. Two major clusters were joined at the similarity distance of 0.69. Majority of the lima bean cultivars were identified to be of the same morphotype with exception in cultivars M4 and A2. There were no significant differences in mean nodule number, mean effective and non-effective nodule counts. The lima bean cultivar GH 17I4 showed superior performance with respect to nodule number counts, effective nodules, fresh shoot weight and fresh root weight. Additionally lima bean cultivars, M5 and A2 indicated superior radiation use efficiency with total shoot dry matter of 731kg/ha and 704kg/ha respectively. A positive and high correlation existed between

  3. Molybdenum distribution and sensitivity in tomatoes, sunflowers and beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht-Buchholz, C

    1973-01-01

    The influence of increasing levels of molybdenum on the growth, molybdenum uptake and distribution in individual plant organs was investigated in tomatoes, beans and sunflowers in a 9 day trial. With tomatoes, which showed marked damage with high molybdenum levels, the molybdenum content of dry matter was highest in the leaf and lowest in the stem. On the other hand, beans, insensitive towards the high molybdenum level, dry matter molybdenum content was appreciably higher in the stem than in the leaf. It is supposed that in plant species, insensitive to high molybdenum levels, molybdenum is held less firmly in this tissue and can attain damaging levels in the cytoplasm of the youngest leaf tissue cells. It is supposed, on the basis of the reactions which were carried out with expressed root juice and on the basis of the yellow coloration attainable in vitro in the tissue caused by the addition of molybdate solution, that the yellow coloration appearing in the cells and plant organs of various plant species, here tomatoes and sunflowers, with high molybdenum levels is due to a reaction between molybdenum and polyvalent phenols in cellsap.

  4. Agronomic performance of velvet bean at different spatial arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Aijanio Gomes de Brito; Goncalves Junior, Murilo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Costa, Janaina Ribeiro; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different plant spatial arrangements on agronomic performance of velvet-bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis). The experiment was performed with eight treatments, distributed in a randomized complete block design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments were velvet bean sowing at two spacings between furrows (0.5 and 1.0 m) and four plant densities (2, 4, 8 and 16 plants m -1 ). Determinations were made for the soil covering and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rates, and for the dry matter yield and N accumulation in the plant shoots. Total soil cover was accomplished at 50 days after sowing at 16 plants m -1 density and 0.5 m spacing between furrows. The combination of 16 plants m -1 1density with the 1.0 m spacing between furrows provided the greatest dry matter yield and accumulated most N in the plant shoots. Irrespective of the plant spatial arrangement, the estimation of BNF in this species shows that about 70% N present in the shoot is derived from the atmosphere. (author)

  5. The Effect of Cocoa Beans Fermentation on Processed Chocolate In West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon David H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research studies of fermentation effects on processed chocolate have been made. The purpose of this study was to see the effect of different levels of fermentation of cocoa preparations (pasta, fats and powder to the chemical quality and flavor. Harvested Cocoa beans will be treated fermentation. The treatment used was the time of fermentation namely: (A Non fermentation, (B Imperfect fermentation (4 days and (C Perfect fermentation (5 days. The parameters observed was: (a chemical quality namely water content, fat content, pH, (b organoleptic tests namely color, aroma, taste bitter (bitterness, texture. The results showed that fermentation of cocoa beans have real impact on levels of fat, water content and pH. Panelists gave the highest rankings for quality of organoleptic attributes of pasta, fat and chocolate powder from perfectly fermented beans. Processing of cocoa beans into refined products had levels of depreciation for each stage. 100 kg dried cocoa beans could produce 79.0 kilograms of chocolate paste, 48.7 kg of cocoa powder, and 26.5 kg of fat. Fermentation for 5 days is the best solution to improve the quality of processed chocolate.

  6. Common Beans and Their Non-Digestible Fraction: Cancer Inhibitory Activity—An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Campos-Vega

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The US Department of Agriculture’s MyPyramid guidelines introduced a near doubling of the dietary recommendations for vegetables including dry beans—an important food staple in many traditional diets that can improve public health and nutrition. Populations with high legume (peas, beans, lentils consumption have a low risk of cancer and chronic degenerative diseases. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. are known as a rich, reliable source of non-digested compounds like fiber, phenolics, peptides and phytochemicals that are associated with health benefits. Emerging evidence indicates that common bean consumption is associated with reduced cancer risk in human populations, inhibiting carcinogenesis in animal models and inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in cell cultures. Fiber may reduce the risk of premature death from all causes, whereas the whole non-digestible fraction from common beans exhibits anti-proliferative activity and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo colon cancer. The mechanisms responsible for this apparently protective role may include gene-nutrient interactions and modulation of proteins’ expression. This review investigates the potential health benefits and bioactivity of beans on tumor inhibition, highlighting studies involving functional compounds, mainly non-digestible fractions that modulate genes and proteins, thereby, unraveling their preventive role against the development of cancer.

  7. A Quantitative Method to Screen Common Bean Plants for Resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strausbaugh, C A; Myers, J R; Forster, R L; McClean, P E

    2003-11-01

    ABSTRACT A quantitative method to screen common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants for resistance to Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is described. Four parameters were assessed in developing the quantitative method: symptoms associated with systemic virus movement, plant vigor, virus titer, and plant dry weight. Based on these parameters, two rating systems (V and VV rating) were established. Plants from 21 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a Sierra (susceptible) x Olathe (partially resistant) cross inoculated with the BCMNV-NL-3 K strain were used to evaluate this quantitative approach. In all, 11 RILs exhibited very susceptible reactions and 10 RILs expressed partially resistant reactions, thus fitting a 1:1 susceptible/partially resistant ratio (chi(2) = 0.048, P = 0.827) and suggesting that the response is mediated by a single gene. Using the classical qualitative approach based only on symptom expression, the RILs were difficult to separate into phenotypic groups because of a continuum of responses. By plotting mean percent reduction in either V (based on visual symptoms) or VV (based on visual symptoms and vigor) rating versus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) absorbance values, RILs could be separated clearly into different phenotypic groups. The utility of this quantitative approach also was evaluated on plants from 12 cultivars or pure lines inoculated with one of three strains of BCMNV. Using the mean VV rating and ELISA absorbance values, significant differences were established not only in cultivar and pure line comparisons but also in virus strain comparisons. This quantitative system should be particularly useful for the evaluation of the independent action of bc genes, the discovery of new genes associated with partial resistance, and assessing virulence of virus strains.

  8. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  9. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi...... with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The overall percentage of fungal contamination in coffee was 98% and reduced to 60% after surface disinfection. There were remarkable ecological differences in the composition of ochratoxigenic species present in these two regions. Arabica coffee bean samples from...... the North had an average of 78% incidence of colonization with Aspergillus of section Circumdati with Aspergillus westerdijkiae and A. melleus as the predominant species. Aspergillus spp. of section Nigri were found in 75% of the samples whereas A. ochraceus was not detected. Robusta coffee beans from...

  10. Weed management strategies for castor bean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Guerreiro Fontoura Costa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean crops are agriculturally relevant due to the quality and versatility of their oil, both for the chemical industry and for biodiesel production. Proper weed management is important for both the cultivation and the yield of castor bean crops; therefore, the intention of the present work is to review pertinent information regarding weed management, including the studies regarding weed interference periods, chemical controls for use in different crop production systems and herbicide selectivity, for castor bean crops. Weed science research for castor bean crops is scarce. One of the main weed management challenges for castor bean crops is the absence of herbicides registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (MALFS. Research for viable herbicides for weed control in castor bean crops should be directed by research and/or rural extension institutions, associations and farmers cooperatives, as well as by manufactures, for the registration of these selective herbicides, which would be primarily used to control eudicotyledons in castor bean crops. New studies involving the integration of weed control methods in castor bean also may increase the efficiency of weed management, for both small farmers using traditional crop methods in the Brazilian Northeast region, as well as for areas with the potential for large scale production, using conservation tillage systems, such as the no-tillage crop production system.

  11. Estimates of genetic parameters of late seed-coat darkening of carioca type dry beans Estimativas de parâmetros genéticos do caráter escurecimento tardio dos grãos de feijão carioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Cristina Andrade de Araújo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to facilitate commercialization of cultivars of carioca type dry beans, the grains must have the lightest possible cream color and this phenotype must be persistent (late seed-coat darkening. There are reports of genetic variability for this trait. The objectives of this study were to obtain information regarding genetic control of the trait, with emphasis on the estimate of heritability and if it varies according to days after harvest, to verify the effect of locations and/or crop season on seed-coat darkening of the grains and to estimate the genetic and phenotypic correlations of the trait with cooking time, tannin content and grain yield. F2:3 and F2:4 progenies derived from crossing of the cultivar BRSMG Madrepérola (late seed-coat darkening and the line RP-2 (early seed-coat darkening were used. It is concluded that seed-coat darkening is influenced by the environment, crop season or locations; nevertheless, the interaction progenies x environments and progenies x locations is predominantly simple, not expressively changing classification of the progenies. Although the heritability of the darkening scores tends to increase with the storage time of the grain, the interaction progenies x time periods of assessment was not observed. Grains with late seed-coat darkening present a lower tannin content and require less cooking time. The genetic correlation between a dark seed-coat and grain yield was practically null.Para facilitar a comercialização das cultivares de feijão carioca, estas devem possuir cor creme dos grãos o mais claro possível e esse fenótipo deve ser persistente (escurecimento tardio. Há relatos de variabilidade genética para esse caráter. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram obter informações sobre o controle genético do caráter, com ênfase na estimativa da herdabilidade e se ela varia com os dias após a colheita, verificar o efeito de locais e/ou safras sobre o escurecimento dos grãos e estimar as

  12. INFLUÊNCIA DA DENSIDADE DE INÓCULO DE Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli NA SEVERIDADE DA PODRIDÃO RADICULAR SECA DO FEIJOEIRO EFFECT OF Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli INOCULUM DENSITY ON DRY ROOT ROT SEVERITY IN THE COMMON BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesimária Ribeiro Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram testadas quatro densidades de inóculo de Fusarium solani, em gramas por litro de solo (1,0; 2,0; 4,0 e 8,0 e um tratamento testemunha, em solo tipo Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, cultivado e não cultivado, com o objetivo de determinar a densidade mínima de inóculo no solo necessária para a ocorrência de podridão radicular seca do feijoeiro. Como variáveis respostas foram avaliadas: número de microorganismos totais do solo, número de propágulos de F. solani, atividade microbiológica total do solo e severidade da doença em plântulas. Os resultados indicaram que a densidade de inóculo do fungo variou com o tipo de solo. Para um solo não cultivado a densidade necessária para causar a doença esteve acima de 5.127 propágulos por grama de solo, enquanto para o solo cultivado a densidade de inóculo para causar doença foi de 3.701 propágulos por grama de solo. Os índices de doença em plântulas cultivadas sob o solo cultivado foram duas vezes superiores ao índice de doença de plântulas sob o solo não cultivado. A atividade microbiológica total nos solos, determinada pela desidrogenase de fluorescina diacetato, não se correlacionou com a população dos microorganismos, indicando que a simples presença desses não implica em que estejam ativos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Solo supressivo; solo conducivo; Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Four densities of Fusarium solani inoculum (1, 2, 4 and 8 g/L of soil were tested for determining the minimum inoculum density for the occurrence of bean dry root rot, in two soil types. The response variables evaluated were the total number of microorganisms in the soil, the number of F. solani f. sp. phaseoli propagules, total soil microbial activity and seedling disease severity

  13. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of two Syrian crops; wheat (Triticum durum desf. var. Horani) and broad beans field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydoun, S.A.; Mohammed, A.

    1998-01-01

    Wheat and broad beans were exposed, under field conditions, to a daily UVB of 20 % above the ambient UVB. The plant height, tiller number, number of flowers, spikletes, dry weight and leaf area in both species showed positive responses to UVB treatment. At harvest, the seeds weight of broad beans was virtually equal in exposed and unexposed plants. In wheat, seeds yield increased significantly by 15 %. In conclusion, broad beans can be considered as a tolerant cultivar to enhanced UVB, while wheat is more tolerant. (Author)

  14. Effects of enhanced UVB on growth and yield of two Syrian crops, wheat (Triticum durum desf. var. horani) and broad beans (Vicia Faba L.) under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.; Baydoun, S.A.

    1997-04-01

    Wheat and broad beans were exposed, under field conditions, to a daily UVB of 20 % above the ambient UVB. The plant height, tiller number, number of flowers, spikletes, dry weight and leaf area in both species showed positive responses to UVB treatment. At harvest, the seeds weight of broad beans was virtually equal in exposed and unexposed plants. In wheat, seeds yield increased significantly by 15 %. In conclusion, broad beans can be considered as a tolerant cultivar to enhanced UVB, while wheat is more tolerant. (Author). 17 Tabs. 36 Refs

  15. The effect of different crop plant densities on radiation absorption and use efficiency by corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. intercropped canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rostami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to determinate the effects of plant densities in intercropped corn (Zea mays L. and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. on radiation absorption and use efficiency, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2007-2008. This experiment was conducted in low input system. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments were included bean intercropping with corn in normal density of bean plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess bean C (B+10%, C (B+20%, C (B+30%, increasing in density bean intercropping with corn in normal density of corn plus 10%, 20% and 30% excess corn B (C+10%, B (C+20%, B (C+30% and sole crops of corn (C and bean (B. Results indicated that leaf area index, radiation absorption, total dry matter and radiation use efficiency of corn increased in all intercropped treatments compared to sole cropping, but it reversed for bean. It seems that complementary and facilitative effects of intercropping were more for corn. Range of corn and bean radiation use efficiency was from 1.92 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping and 0.72 g.MJ-1 {in (C+30% (B+30%} to 2.30 g.MJ-1 {in C (B+30%} and 1.45 g.MJ-1 (in sole cropping, respectively.

  16. Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao beans with manual and semi-mechanized transfer, between fermentation boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro. P. Peláez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate variation in the physical and chemical properties of fermented cocoa beans with cocoa beans transfer between wooden fermentation boxes manually (M and semi-mechanized (SM way. Mass temperature, moisture, pH, and total acidity of the cotyledon and pulp; the total polyphenol, anthocyanin, reducing sugar, theobromine, and caffeine content in fresh, fermented, and dried beans; and percentage of fermented beans and time required to move beans during fermentation were determined. The cocoa used grew in the Pachiza district of the San Martin region of Peru. Cocoa sampling was each 0, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h of fermentation. The cocoa mass temperature was highest with both removal systems after 96 h of fermentation. M cotyledon and pulp samples had the highest moisture content and titratable acidity, while cotyledon and pulp pH with both systems were statistically equal. In contrast, fermented beans had a higher polyphenol, anthocyanin, reducing sugar, theobromine, and caffeine content with SM. SM produced the greatest amount of fermentation (91.67% and required the shortest amount of time to move beans (78.56 min. In conclusion, the system of fermentation of cocoa beans with SM was faster and produced fermented grains with high chemical quality.

  17. Enterprise JavaBeans 31

    CERN Document Server

    Rubinger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Learn how to code, package, deploy, and test functional Enterprise JavaBeans with the latest edition of this bestselling guide. Written by the developers of JBoss EJB 3.1, this book not only brings you up to speed on each component type and container service in this implementation, it also provides a workbook with several hands-on examples to help you gain immediate experience with these components. With version 3.1, EJB's server-side component model for building distributed business applications is simpler than ever. But it's still a complex technology that requires study and lots of practi

  18. 76 FR 68057 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya.... SUMMARY: We are amending the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry, both...

  19. Effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment evaluated effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological characteristics and nutritive value of burgundy bean (Macroptilium bracteatum) at the screen house of Department of Agronomy, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. The treatments were 3 stages of growth repeated 3 times in a completely ...

  20. Heritability, combining ability and inheritance of storage root dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Storage root dry matter content (RDM) is central to the improvement of consumer and industrial attributes of root crops. Yam bean (Pachyrhizus species) is a legume root crop newly introduced in Uganda, but its adoption may be constrained by low RDM. The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude of ...

  1. Interaction Effects of Planting Date and Weed Competition on Yield and Yield Components of Three white Bean Cultivars in Semirom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yadavi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable planting and weed competition are the most important factors that greatly reduce the yield of bean. In order to study the effect of planting date on yield and yield components of three white bean cultivars in weed infest and weed free condition a factorial experiment with randomized complete block design and three replications was carried out at Semirom in 2009. The treatments were planting date (May10, May 25 and June 9 and white bean cultivars (Shekofa, Pak and Daneshkade and two levels of weed infestation (weedy and weed free. Results showed that planting date, weed competition and cultivars had significant effects on yield and yield components of white bean. The 30-day delay in planting date reduced the number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and biological yield of white bean cultivars, 22.5, 18, 20.1 and 22.5 percent respectively. Also weed competition, reduced the number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and biological yield respectively by 13.5, 5.7 and 27.1 percent. Result of planting date and weed competition interaction effects indicated that the weed competition decreased grain yield (53% in third planting date more than others and delay in planting date was companion with increasing weed density and dry weight in flowering stage of bean. Also Shekofa cultivar had highest grain yield (3379 kg/ha at the first planting date and weed free condition.

  2. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE RESISTANCE OF SOME BULGARIAN COMMON BEAN GENOTYPES TOWARDS BEAN WEEVIL (ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dimitrova Apostolova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The most effective, environmentally sound and safety way to fight pests with biological means is the use of resistant varieties to them. In the present study were indicated the reactions of 30 Bulgarian common bean genotypes to the most economically important enemy – bean weevil (Acanthoscelidis obtectus Say. For this purpose, the following indicators were traced – seed damages and young adult insects, which largely characterized the response of different common bean genotypes to that biological pest enemy. The results of this investigation present a sensitive response to the sustainability of different genotypes to the bean weevil. The Bulgarian common bean varieties Plovdiv 11M, Abritus, Crystal and Bulgari can be used in breeding programs as donors of resistance to the bean weevil.

  3. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance, Carcass Production, and Meat Quality of Sumba Ongole Bulls Fed Ration Containing Velvet Bean (Mucuna pruriens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yantika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study performance, carcass production, meat quality, and economic feasibility of male Sumba Ongole cattle fed ration supplemented with velvet bean (M. pruriens. The research was designed in a completely randomized block design using 16 cattle with average body weight of 488+37.08 kg. The treatments were: T0= 15% straw + 85% concentrate; T1= T0 + 12% of velvet bean flour supplement; T2= T0 + 16% of velvet bean tempeh supplement; and T3= T0 + 200 mg/head/d of ractopamine hydrocloride. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance with orthogonal contrast. The observed variables included feed consumption, average daily body weight gain (ADG, feed efficiency (FE, income over feed cost (IOFC, hot carcass weight (HCW, carcass percentage, subcutaneous fat thickness, meat pH, tenderness, cooking loss, and water holding capacity (WHC. The result revealed that the addition of 12% velvet bean flour into the rations increased dry matter consumption (P<0.05, but did not affect ADG, FE, IOFC, carcass production, and meat quality. The addition of 12% velvet bean flour produced the lowest cooking loss (P<0.05. The addition of 16% velvet bean tempeh into the rations significantly increased (P<0.05 dry matter consumption, however reduced (P<0.05 ADG, FE, and IOFC compared to control treatment. It is concluded that velvet bean flour at the level of 12% can be used as an alternative feed supplement in the ration of Sumba Ongole cattle and can replace the use of synthetic ß-agonist.

  5. Evaluation of sowing patterns and weed control on mung bean (Vigna radiate L. Wilczek - black cumin (Nigella sativa L. intercropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz Rezvani Moghadam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study different arrangements and weed controls effects on mung bean (Vigna radiate L. Wilczek – black cumin (Nigella sativa L. intercropping an experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season 2005 – 2006. Sixteen treatments comprising combinations of eight sowing patterns [A1: Sole black cumin, A2: Sole mung bean, A3: 3 rows black cumin– 2 rows mung bean, A4: 3 rows black cumin – 2 rows mung bean, A5: 2 rows black cumin – 1 rows mung bean, A6: 1 row black cumin – 2 rows mung bean, A7: 3 rows black cumin – 3 rows mung bean (Striped, A8: 1 row black cumin – 1 row mung bean (alternative rows] and two weed controls [V1: unweeded, V2: completely hand weeding] were arranged in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that in intercropping systems leaf area index (LAI of mung bean reduced but in the case of black cumin increased. Mung bean total dry matter in intercropping system did not differ comparing with sole crop but total dry matter in black cumin increased. All yield components in both crops affected by sowing patterns and weed control treatments. Number of branches/plant, number of pods or follicules/plant and number of seed/pods or follicules increased in A8, A4, A5 and A3 sowing patterns in mung bean and A3, A5 and A7 sowing patterns in black cumin compared with other arrangements. By increasing mung bean ratio in rows, the number of weed species, weed density, dry weight of weeds and abundance of weed species decreased. In unweeded treatment, number of branches/plant, number of pods or follicules/plant and number of seed/pods or follicules decreased in both crops. Land equivalent ratio (LER was more than 1.00 in all sowing patterns.

  6. Stability of tetrachlorvinphos residues in faba beans and soya bean oil towards different processing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.

    1987-01-01

    Cooking of contaminated faba beans did not degrade the originally present potentially toxic residues, namely, tetrachlorvinphos and its desmethyl derivative to any appreciable extent. Processing of contaminated soya bean oil, on the other hand, led to degradation of tetrachlorvinphos and its metabolites to give mono and dimethyl phosphates. Feeding of mice with bound residues of tetrachlorvinphos in beans for 90 days led to an apparent decrease in the rate of body weight gain. (author)

  7. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  9. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p raw soya beans for EE (p raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile with a linear decrease of cis-9-trans 11CLA and total saturated FA; and linear increase of total unsaturated and C18:3 FA. Energy balance was positively affected (p = 0.03) by whole raw soya beans as well as efficiency of NEL milk/DE intake (p = 0.02). Nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by whole raw soya

  10. Productivity of irrigated beans due to sources of stabilized nitrogen fertilizer and controlled release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiely Gomes Bernardes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT New nitrogen fertilizers are available in the market actually, however, does not have results on the efficiency of the Cerrado conditions. With that objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of urea including stabilized and controlled release urea on yield of irrigated common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L in no-tillage system. The experiment was conducted in the winter crop, at Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, in Santo Antônio de Goiás, State of Goiás, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with five replicates. Treatments consisted of five N sources (urea, urea + NBPT, urea + polymer, ammonium sulphate, and ammonium nitrate and a control (without N being applied 20 kg ha-1 of N at sowing and 80 kg ha-1 onf N in topdressing. We evaluated the chlorophyll content in leaves of common beans, the leaf N content and dry mass weight (MSPA in the flowering of common beans, the number of pods per plant, number of grains per pod, mass of 100 grains, grain yield and final stand of the common beans. The sources of nitrogen fertilizer did not influence, leaf N content, the mass of MSPA and the relative chlorophyll index of common beans. The use of polymerized urea and urea with urease inhibitor, did not produce increases in the number of grains per pod, number of pods per plant, mass of 100 grains and common beans yield compared to traditional sources of N, urea, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate.

  11. Effect of radiation processing on nutritional, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties of red kidney beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marathe, S.A.; Deshpande, R.; Khamesra, Arohi; Ibrahim, Geeta; Jamdar, Sahayog N.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study dry red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), irradiated in the dose range of 0.25–10.0 kGy were evaluated for proximate composition, functional, sensory and antioxidant properties. Radiation processing up to 10 kGy did not affect proximate composition, hydration capacity and free fatty acid value. All the sensory attributes were unaffected at 1.0 kGy dose. The dose of 10 kGy, showed lower values for odor and taste, however, they were in acceptable range. Significant improvement in textural quality and reduction in cooking time was observed at dose of 10 kGy. Antioxidant activity of radiation processed samples was also assessed after normal processing such as soaking and pressure cooking. Both phenolic content and antioxidant activity evaluated in terms of DPPH free radical scavenging assay and inhibition in lipid peroxidation using rabbit erythrocyte ghost system, were marginally improved (5–10%) at the dose of 10 kGy in dry and cooked samples. During storage of samples for six months, no significant change was observed in sensory, cooking and antioxidant properties. Thus, radiation treatment of 1 kGy can be applied to get extended shelf life of kidney beans with improved functional properties without impairing bioactivity; nutritional quality and sensory property. - Highlights: • Nutritional and sensory aspects of kidney beans are not altered up to 10 kGy dose of gamma radiation. • Radiation processing at 10 kGy improves cooking quality of kidney bean seeds. • Radiation processing at 10 kGy increases antioxidant activity of kidney bean seeds.

  12. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  13. Adubação mineral do feijoeiro: IX - Efeitos de N, P, K, Se de uma mistura de micronutrientes, em "terra-roxa-misturada" préviamente tratada, ou não, com calcário dolomítico e adubação verde com labelabe Mineral fertilizers for dry beans: IX - Effects of N, P, K, S and a mixture of micro-nutrients on "terra-roxa-misturada" soils treated, or not, with lime and green manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Em seis pares de experiências instaladas em áreas vizinhas, uma das quais, no ano agrícola anterior, foi tratada com calcário dolomítico e adubação verde com labelade, ficando a outra simplesmente em pousio, as respostas às adubações minerais foram geralmente menores na área prèviamente tratada, ao passo que as produções obtidas foram consideravelmente maiores naquelas que ficaram em pousio.The effects of the indicated fertilizer treatments on dry beans were tested on six areas treated with dolomitic limestone and green manure with Dolichos lablabL. in the previous year and in six neighbouring areas left simply idle in that year. The responses to the fertilizers were generally lower in the areas previously treated, but the yields were considerably higher in the untreated areas.

  14. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  15. Synthesis of epoxidised soya bean oil acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin bin Mohd Nor; Mohamad Hilmi bin Mahmood; Dahlan bin Haji Mohd.

    1988-10-01

    An epoxy acrylate was synthesized from Asahi's epoxy resin AER 331 which is an epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO). Triethylamine (TEA) and Hydroquinone (HQ) were used as catalyst and inhibitor respectively. Observations of the experiment are described. (author)

  16. chitwood on African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... African yam bean is a legume and its production has been reported to be ... determined according to standard methods (IITA, 1989). The .... control experiments were the highest-yielding accession, although ..... Handbook of.

  17. 7804 PERFORMANCE OF IMPROVED BEAN VARIETIES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... 3. June 2013. ABSTRACT. A project aimed at improving bean production in Kigoma Region was carried out ... Some rain is required during the flowering and pod setting stages [2]. ..... library.ciat.cgiar.org/articulos/ciat/paperb.

  18. PROCESSING AND UTILIZATION OF AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    (2012) P. biglobosa has important socio-economic and cultural values .... It is a common knowledge that Parkia bean processing is a chain activity which is ... that P. biglobosa trees are not productive even when found in the study area.

  19. Effect of copper on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Castor beans crop (Ricinus communis L.) is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor yield, few research has been made on this issue, mainly on the use de copper. In order to evaluate the effects of copper on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Cu (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Copper levels used, in general, did not affect the plant height, stem diameter and leaf area, however they influenced the leaves and shoot biomass dry mass and the quadratic trend was the best to show the behavior of these. (author)

  20. Respostas do feijoeiro à aplicação de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NPou NPK Responses of dry beans to applications of some undecomposed organic materials in the presence of mineral fertilizers containing, P, PK, NP or NPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Miyasaka

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiências conduzidas em Campinas (solo Latosol Roxo e Pindorama (solo Podzolizado de Lins e Marília, variação Marília, para estudar os efeitos de diversos tipos de matéria orgânica não decomposta, na presença de adubações minerais com P, PK, NP ou NPK, mostraram que, dos adubos minerais, sòmente o nitrogênio aumentou substancialmente a produção do feijoeiro. Dos adubos orgânicos comparados - ramas de soja perene, capim-gordura, fôlhas de café e serapilheira - o primeiro foi o mais eficiente. Em Campinas, as ramas de soja aumentaram a produção, tanto na ausência como na presença do nitrogênio mineral, quer aplicadas em sulcos laterais aos destinados às sementes de feijão, quer em cobertura, após a emergência das plantas. Em Pindorama, porém, só atuaram favoravelmente quando empregadas em sulcos laterais, na ausência do nitrogênio mineral.Experiments were conducted at Campinas and Pindorama, State of São Paulo, to study the effects of the indicated treatments on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgarisL. Of the mineral fertilizers, only nitrogen increased the yields in both localities. Of the organic materials - Glycine javanica, Melinis minutiflora, coffee tree leaves and forest litter - the first mentioned was the most effective. In the Campinas experiment, G. javanica induced considerable yield increases, either when side placed or top dressed in the absence or in the presence of mineral nitrogen. At Pindorama, however, it was effective only when side placed in the absence of mineral nitrogen.

  1. Influence of sulfur dioxide and ozone on vegetation of bean and barley plants under different soil moisture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowski, A; Grzesiak, S

    1974-01-01

    The effects of toxic gases on extent of injuries to assimilating surface, dry weight yields, and generative development in bean and barley were studied in three successive phases of vegetation under conditions of optimum soil moisture and of drought just above the wilting point. Experiments with ozone and sulfur dioxide on bean and SO/sub 2/ on barley demonstrate that the susceptibility of plants to toxic gases decrease under drought conditions that cause a temporary dehydration of tissues. Determinations of sulfate sulfur contents in different plant organs show that a lower hydration of tissues is accompanied by lower adsorption of sulfur dioxide.

  2. A technique developed for labeling the green manures (sunnhemp and velvet bean) with 15 N for nitrogen dynamic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose

    1997-01-01

    A technique was developed for labeling the leguminous plant tissue with nitrogen ( 15 N) to obtain labelled material for nitrogen dynamic studies. Sunnhemp (crotalaria juncea L.) and velvet beans (Mucuna aterrima, sinonimia Stizolobium aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were grown in pots containing 10 kg of a Red Yellow Podzolic soil, under greenhouse conditions. The rate of 1.2 of nitrogen (ammonium sulphate with 11.37 atom % 15 N) per pot was applied three times. The labelled dried plant material showed 3.177 and 4.337 of atom % 15 N, respectively for velvet beans and sunnhemp. (author)

  3. Effect of altitude on biochemical composition and quality of green arabica coffee beans can be affected by shade and postharvest processing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Mohammed; de Meulenaer, Bruno; Duchateau, Luc; Boeckx, Pascal

    2018-03-01

    Although various studies have assessed altitude, shade and postharvest processing effects on biochemical content and quality of coffee beans, data on their interactions are scarce. The individual and interactive effects of these factors on the caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGA) and sucrose contents as well as physical and sensory qualities of green coffee beans from large plantations in southwestern Ethiopia were evaluated. Caffeine and CGA contents decreased with increasing altitude; they respectively declined 0.12 and 1.23gkg -1 100m -1 . Sucrose content increased with altitude; however, the altitude effect was significant for wet-processed beans (3.02gkg -1 100m -1 ), but not for dry-processed beans (0.36g kg -1 100m -1 ). Similarly, sucrose content increased with altitude with much stronger effect for coffee grown without shade (2.11gkg -1 100m -1 ) compared to coffee grown under shade (0.93gkg -1 100m -1 ). Acidity increased with altitude when coffee was grown under shade (0.22 points 100m -1 ), but no significant altitude effect was observed on coffee grown without shade. Beans grown without shade showed a higher physical quality score for dry (37.2) than for wet processing (29.1). These results generally underline the complex interaction effects between altitude and shade or postharvest processing on biochemical composition and quality of green arabica coffee beans. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Preliminary Study on the Synthesis of Phosphorylated Mung Bean Starch: The Effect of pH on the Physicochemical and Functional Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illona Nathania

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mung bean (Vigna radiate L. is a grain legume widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Mung bean seeds contain a significant amount of carbohydrate (63%-w/w and are easily digested compared to seeds from other legumes. Mung bean starch has the potential to be used as thickener or gelling agents in food industries. Certain functional properties of mung bean starch, however, still need to be improved. In this research, a preliminary study was performed to upgrade mung bean starch properties using phosphorylation reaction. In particular, the effect of starch suspension pH (6–10 on the functional properties of the modified products was investigated. Phosphorylation was carried out at 130 °C, for 2 h using sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP with an intake of 5%-w based on dry starch. The phosphorylated products were subsequently washed with water and dried. The experimental results show that the P-content of the phosphorylated mung bean starch is accessible in the range of 0.04–0.08%. The solubility (6.09–11.37%-w/w and swelling power (9.88–11.17 g/g of the modified starch products have been improved compared to native starch (solubility = 6.06 %-w/w, swelling power = 8.05 g/g. Phosphorylation also proved to increase peak viscosity, paste clarity, and water absorption/oil absorption capacity of the products.

  5. Disinfestation of copra, desiccated coconut and coffee beans by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manato, E.C.

    1987-08-01

    Nine insect pests were found associated with copra of which copra beetle, Necrobia rufipes, saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne and tropical warehouse moth, Ephestia cautella were found feeding on this food. While feeding on different coffee beans, coffee bean weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus De Geer showed preference on Arabica, Liberica and Excelsa but not in Robusta coffee beans. For mass rearing, the most suitable medium for copra beetle was desiccated coconut + yeast (2:1) and for coffee bean beetle, it was dried cassava chips + yeast (3:1). The life cycles completed in these food media were 43 to 60 and 42 to 56 days by copra beetle and coffee bean weevil respectively. Irradiation studies on these 2 species of insects showed that the eggs were most sensitive followed by larvae and pupae. A dose of 0.05 kGy prevented adult emergence from irradiated eggs and younger larvae, while doses of 0.10 to 0.25 kGy effected the survival of emerged adults. However, a dose of 0.50 kGy would be effective for the disinfestation of small packages (i.e. 0.25 to 0.50 kg in each) of copra or coffee beans initially infested with immature stages of beetles and weevils respectively. Packaging of irradiated commodities in polypropylene bags particularly those impregnated with permethrin prevented reinfestation by the insect pests. Toxic residues of permethrin in the prolypropylene film resulted in high mortality thereby preventing insect penetration of the packaging materials. Both copra beetles and coffee bean weevils were rather good invaders than penetrators as these species entered into the packages readily through existing openings in jute sack, woven polypropylene sack or flour bag. Organoleptic tests showed no change in aroma, flavour and general acceptability of irradiated coffee beans. In microbial studies it was observed that a dose of 0.6 kGy would eliminate Salmonella

  6. Gamma-ray mutagenic effect on adzuki bean and the optimum dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Huifang; Li Guozhu

    2012-01-01

    Dry seeds of three kinds of adzuki beans (Jinhong1, Jihong9218, and Jingnong6) were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays to 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy. The radiation effects on seedlings were analyzed to estimate the optimum dose, which was 400 to 600 Gy, based on the average half lethal dose (LD 50 ) of 473.3 Gy for the three kinds of adzuki beans. The M 1 γ-ray mutagenic effects were studied by farming the three kinds of adzuki beans irradiated to 350, 500 and 650 Gy. It was found that the beans treated with higher doses had obvious inhibition on germination rate, seedling development, with significant or very significant difference compared with the CK. There was significantly negative correlation between seedling emergences, seedling height and doses. Irradiation affected mature plants by reducing plant height, decreasing nodes number of main stem, pods number per plant, seeds per pod and shortening pod length with significant. The order of radio-sensitivity to γ-rays was as follows: Jinhong1, Jihong9218, and Jingnong6. (authors)

  7. Reaction of common bean lines and aggressiveness of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, P H; Santos, J B; Lima, I A; Lara, L A C; Alves, F C

    2014-11-07

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the reaction of common bean lines to white mold, the aggressiveness of different Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from various common bean production areas in Brazil, and comparison of the diallel and GGE (genotype main effect plus genotype-by-environment interaction) biplot analysis procedures via study of the line-by-isolate interaction. Eleven common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lines derived from 3 backcross populations were used. Field experiments were performed in the experimental area of the Departamento de Biologia of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, MG, Brazil, in the 2011 and 2012 dry crop season and 2011 winter crop season through a randomized block design with 3 replications. This study was also set up in a greenhouse. Inoculations were performed 28 days after sowing by means of the straw test method. The reaction of the bean lines to white mold was assessed according to a diagrammatic scale from 1 (plant without symptoms) to 9 (dead plant). Estimations of general reaction capacity (lines) and general aggressiveness capacity (isolates) indicated different horizontal levels of resistance in the lines and levels of aggressiveness in the isolates. Therefore, it was possible to select more resistant lines and foresee those crosses that are the most promising for increasing the level of resistance. It was also possible to identify the most aggressive isolates that were more efficient in distinguishing the lines. Both diallel and GGE biplot analyses were useful in identifying the genotypic values of lines and isolates.

  8. Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitaro Tawaraya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Root exudates improve the nutrient acquisition of plants and affect rhizosphere microbial communities. The plant nutrient status affects the composition of root exudates. The purpose of this study was to examine common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. root exudates under phosphorus (P deficiency using a metabolite profiling technique. Common bean plants were grown in a culture solution at P concentrations of 0 (P0, 1 (P1 and 8 (P8 mg P L−1 for 1, 10 and 20 days after transplanting (DAT. Root exudates were collected, and their metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF MS. The shoot P concentration and dry weight of common bean plants grown at P0 were lower than those grown at P8. One hundred and fifty-nine, 203 and 212 metabolites were identified in the root exudates, and 16% (26/159, 13% (26/203 and 9% (20/212 of metabolites showed a P0/P8 ratio higher than 2.0 at 1, 10 and 20 DAT, respectively. The relative peak areas of several metabolites, including organic acids and amino acids, in root exudates were higher at P0 than at P8. These results suggest that more than 10% of primary and secondary metabolites are induced to exude from roots of common bean by P deficiency.

  9. High performance liquid chromatography determination of theobromine and caffeine in cocoa beans gamma irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Anderson D.B.; Mansur Neto, Elias

    1997-01-01

    Irradiation is a processing technology that has been shown to be a wholesome process by many scientific studies conducted worldwide during the past 40 years, which has been approved by 37 countries. Irradiated foods have been studied so extensively, that the effects on foods are better understood than any other preservation process, including food freezing and dehydration. Cocoa beans has been commercially irradiated in countries such as Ivory Coast and Argentina. The alkaloids theobromine and caffeine are responsible for the mildly stimulating properties and bitter taste of cocoa and chocolate products. Previously fermented dried and nonfumigated cocoa beans were irradiated at doses of 0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy using Co-60 gamma rays. The samples were analysed for determining theobromine and caffeine contents in the cocoa beans by TIMBIE et al. (1978) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Boiling water extracts were cooled, centrifuged and injected into the chromatograph. Theobromine and caffeine were quantitated at 273 nm and showed the tendency of decreasing as the dose of radiation increases. Theobromine and caffeine ranged from 42.3 to 37.1 mg/g and from 7.60 to 6.13 mg/g. respectively from 0 to 20.0 kGy. These results were discussed in relation to the possible acceptance of radiosterization of cocoa beans commercially up to the dose of 20.0 kGy. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab

  10. Earthworms (Amynthas spp. increase common bean growth, microbial biomass, and soil respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julierme Zimmer Barbosa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated the effect of earthworms on plants and biological soil attributes, especially among legumes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of earthworms (Amynthas spp. on growth in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and on soil biological attributes. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design with five treatments and eight repetitions. The treatments consisted of inoculation with five different quantities of earthworms of the genus Amynthas (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 worms per pot. Each experimental unit consisted of a plastic pot containing 4 kg of soil and two common bean plants. The experiment was harvested 38 days after seedling emergence. Dry matter and plant height, soil respiration, microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and metabolic quotient were determined. Earthworm recovery in our study was high in number and mass, with all values above 91.6% and 89.1%, respectively. In addition, earthworm fresh biomass decreased only in the treatment that included eight earthworms per pot. The presence of earthworms increased the plant growth and improved soil biological properties, suggesting that agricultural practices that favor the presence of these organisms can be used to increase the production of common bean, and the increased soil CO2 emission caused by the earthworms can be partially offset by the addition of common bean crop residues to the soil.

  11. High performance liquid chromatography determination of theobromine and caffeine in cocoa beans gamma irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Anderson D.B. [Faculdade de Engenharia de Varginha, MG (Brazil); Mansur Neto, Elias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Irradiation is a processing technology that has been shown to be a wholesome process by many scientific studies conducted worldwide during the past 40 years, which has been approved by 37 countries. Irradiated foods have been studied so extensively, that the effects on foods are better understood than any other preservation process, including food freezing and dehydration. Cocoa beans has been commercially irradiated in countries such as Ivory Coast and Argentina. The alkaloids theobromine and caffeine are responsible for the mildly stimulating properties and bitter taste of cocoa and chocolate products. Previously fermented dried and nonfumigated cocoa beans were irradiated at doses of 0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy using Co-60 gamma rays. The samples were analysed for determining theobromine and caffeine contents in the cocoa beans by TIMBIE et al. (1978) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Boiling water extracts were cooled, centrifuged and injected into the chromatograph. Theobromine and caffeine were quantitated at 273 nm and showed the tendency of decreasing as the dose of radiation increases. Theobromine and caffeine ranged from 42.3 to 37.1 mg/g and from 7.60 to 6.13 mg/g. respectively from 0 to 20.0 kGy. These results were discussed in relation to the possible acceptance of radiosterization of cocoa beans commercially up to the dose of 20.0 kGy. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Influence of bitter lupin on consumption and digestibility in organic dairy cattle soya bean free diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tocci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main principles of organic husbandry is that animal feed must be GMO free, and soya bean is well-known as a high risk GMO alimentary source. About 25 dry dairy cattle of the Italian Holstein breed, from the Cooperativa Emilio Sereni of Borgo S. Lorenzo (FI, were fed in two successive diets: the first with extruded soya bean (A, and the second in which bitter lupin, faba bean and proteinic pea substituted the soya bean (B. We evaluated both the consumption and the apparent digestibility (using acid insoluble ash as internal marker of the two diets, repeating the trial twice. The presence of bitter lupin did not influence either the consumption of other feed, or the faecal water content. The apparent digestibility of the organic matter resulted satisfactory in both the diets, but was significantly higher in diet (A than in diet (B (71,6% vs 67,3%. In conclusion, even though we wish the cultivation of sweet lupin would be increase in Italy, we retain that also bitter lupin (mixed with other feed to increase the palatability could be used as alternative protein source in dairy cattle diets.

  13. Marker-assisted selection in common beans and cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, M.W.; Fregene, M.A.; Beebe, S.E.; Ceballos, H.

    2007-01-01

    (CGM) and cassava brown streak (CBS) resistance from a wild relative, M. esculenta sub spp. flabellifolia. The use of advanced backcrossing with additional wild relatives is proposed as a way to discover genes for high protein content, waxy starch, delayed post-harvest physiological deterioration, and resistance to whiteflies and hornworm. Other potential targets of MAS such as beta carotene and dry matter content as well as lower cyanogenic potential are given. In addition, suggestions are made for the use of molecular markers to estimate average heterozygosity during inbreeding of cassava and for the delineation of heterotic groups within the species. A final section describes the similarities and differences between the MAS schemes presented for the two crops. Differences between the species can be ascribed partially to the breeding and propagation systems of common beans (seed propagated, selfpollinating) and cassava (clonally propagated, cross-pollinating). In addition, differences in growth cycles, breeding methods, availability of genetic markers, access to selection environments and the accompanying opportunities for phenotypic selection influence the decisions in both crops of when and how to apply MAS. Recommendations are made for applying MAS in breeding of both crops including careful prioritization of traits, marker systems, genetic stocks, scaling up, planning of crosses and the balance between MAS and phenotypic selection. (author)

  14. KARAKTERISASI BIJI DAN PROTEIN KORO KOMAK (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet SEBAGAI SUMBER PROTEIN [Characterization of Hyacinth Bean (Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet Seed and Its Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to characterize the physiochemical properties of hyacinth beans as new protein source. The result of research showed that hyacinth beans are oval shaped and orange and yellow coloured. The edible part of hyacinth beans is 83.2 ± 1.1 % of dry seed; in which the carbohydrate is 67.9 ± 1.1 %; protein: 17.1 ± 1.5 % and fat: 1.1 ± 0.4 %. According to their solubility, the protein fractions were found as albumin: 18.22 %; globuli : 55.15 % and glutelin : 26.13 %, whereas prolamin was not detected. Further analyis showed that, the globulin is consisted of globulin 7S (3.50% and globulin 11S (0.67 %. The hyacinth beans are potential to be used for protein source.

  15. REACTION OF INTRODUCED BEAN (PHASEOLUS ACCESSIONS TO THE INFESTATION BY THIELAVIOPSIS BASICOLA (BERKELEY & BROOME UNDER NATURAL EPIPHYTOTIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Georgieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A periodic phytopathology field monitoring was conducted on 35 introduced common bean (Phaseolus accessions at Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute in 2014. The epiphytotic disease black root rot on the bean crops (over 75 % reduction of the stand was recorded for the first time for the area of Bulgaria. The causal agent isolated from the plant tissue was identified as the fungus Thielaviopsis basicola (Berkeley Ferraris. A strong relationship between disease severity variation and environmental and soil conditions was established. Black root rot was most severe when cool and wet weather occurred from seedling time to about three weeks after planting, combined with increased soil compaction. Field resistance was recorded in Bulgarian var. “Plovdivski zult”, var. “Starozagorski tzer” and line № 564 (3,66%, 5.33% and 6,50 % dumping-off of bean seedlings, respectively. Bean accession introduced from dry climate areas were highly susceptible to black root rot pathogen (over 76.0 % dumping-off of bean seedlings. Indirect relationship was found between bean tolerance to Th. basicola and presence of the anthocyanin in the hypocotyl and seed coat color. Install the average negative correlation between seed color signs (and hypocotyl and the resistance of plants to Th. basicola. Samples with resistance to black root rot belong to the group with beige, red, brown or black color of seeds. The presence of phenolic compounds (anthocyanins in the seed coat and hypocotyls beans can serve as an indirect indication of the selection of resistant to black rot breeding materials.

  16. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. DE RON

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L. differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were i to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and ii to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593 and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence and high

  17. Seedling Emergence and Phenotypic Response of Common Bean Germplasm to Different Temperatures under Controlled Conditions and in Open Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ron, Antonio M; Rodiño, Ana P; Santalla, Marta; González, Ana M; Lema, María J; Martín, Isaura; Kigel, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and uniform seed germination and seedling emergence under diverse environmental conditions is a desirable characteristic for crops. Common bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) differ in their low temperature tolerance regarding growth and yield. Cultivars tolerant to low temperature during the germination and emergence stages and carriers of the grain quality standards demanded by consumers are needed for the success of the bean crop. The objectives of this study were (i) to screen the seedling emergence and the phenotypic response of bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled chamber and field conditions to display stress-tolerant genotypes with good agronomic performances and yield potential, and (ii) to compare the emergence of bean seedlings under controlled environment and in open field conditions to assess the efficiency of genebanks standard germination tests for predicting the performance of the seeds in the field. Three trials were conducted with 28 dry bean genotypes in open field and in growth chamber under low, moderate, and warm temperature. Morpho-agronomic data were used to evaluate the phenotypic performance of the different genotypes. Cool temperatures resulted in a reduction of the rate of emergence in the bean genotypes, however, emergence and early growth of bean could be under different genetic control and these processes need further research to be suitably modeled. Nine groups arose from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) representing variation in emergence time and proportion of emergence in the controlled chamber and in the open field indicating a trend to lower emergence in large and extra-large seeded genotypes. Screening of seedling emergence and phenotypic response of the bean germplasm under a range of temperatures in controlled growth chambers and under field conditions showed several genotypes, as landraces 272, 501, 593, and the cultivar Borlotto, with stress-tolerance at emergence, and high yield

  18. faba bean and field pea seed proportion for intercropping system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    reduced with increase in the seeding rate of field pea. ... productivity of the Faba bean/field pea was obtained from intercropping system. Growing Faba bean both as a ..... Management: Proceedings of the First and ... Population, time and crop.

  19. Beans and Other Legumes: Types and Cooking Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating Want to add nutritious beans and legumes to your diet but aren't ... Staff Legumes — a class of vegetables that includes beans, peas and lentils — are among the most versatile ...

  20. The Effect of Processing Method of Dolichos Bean (Lablob Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four diets were formulated to contain the control diet with 0.09 soybean meal or ... nutrient availability and overall utilisation of dolichos bean meal for pigs. ..... quick-cooking moth bean (Phaseolus aconitifolius Jacq.). The Indian Journal of Nu-.

  1. Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    had significant (P≤ 0.05) effect on bean plant girth, number of leaves, number of branches, mean number of flowers, total fresh ... Beans (Phaseolus spp) belong to one of several genera .... Meng (2016), that found that applying coffee pulp.

  2. New bean products to improve food security | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    ... Agricultural Research Organisation and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research ... New bean products to improve food security. April 21, 2016. Image ... more lucrative market for smallholder bean farmers, most of whom are women.

  3. Effects of Kidney Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris Meal on the Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Oreochromis niloticus (mean weight 1.36 + 0.05 g) fed diets containing varying levels of the kidney bean, Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated under laboratory conditions. The kidney bean was incorporated at separate levels of 60, 40, ...

  4. Java EE 7 development with NetBeans 8

    CERN Document Server

    Heffelfinger, David R

    2015-01-01

    The book is aimed at Java developers who wish to develop Java EE applications while taking advantage of NetBeans functionality to automate repetitive tasks. Familiarity with NetBeans or Java EE is not assumed.

  5. UTILIZATION OF MEMBRANE MICROFILTRATION IN PREPARATION OF HYDROLYZED VEGETABLE PROTEIN FROM FERMENTED RED BEAN (Phaseolus vulgaris L. EXTRACT AS FORTIFICATION AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Moerniati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein (HVP as savory flavor from fermented red bean broth through stirred membrane cell using micro filtration membrane with pore size of 0.45 µm was performed to get fortified agent utilized in preparation of beans sauce. The objective of this work was to study an effect of pressure and kind of red bean broth extract on content of total protein, soluble protein and dry solid in the retentate and permeate as hydrolyzed vegetable protein used for fortified agent of red bean sauces. Preparation process of hydrolyzed vegetable protein was done using fixed rotary speed of 400 rpm, pressure of 20, 25 and 30 psi at room temperature. To investigate the effect of pressure on this separation, the feed were red bean broth extract fermented for 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks, respectively. Fermentation process were conducted using salt fermentation with inoculum of Rhizopus-C1, salt and red bean ratios of 30:10:60%. The analysis of flux and contents of total protein, dissolved protein and dry solid in the retentate and permeate was carried out, and the result of experiment showed that interaction of Red bean broth extract with 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks of fermentation and operation condition of microfiltration membrane separation tends to affect on flux and content of total protein, dissolved protein and dry solid in retentate and permeate. Red bean broth extract for 6 weeks fermentation resulted higher protein content in permeate as hydrolyzed vegetable protein than in retentate. Permeate at pressure of 25 psi gives flux value of 0.0217 mL/cm2.minute and contents of total protein of 1.31 %, dissolved protein of 6.9 mg/g, and dry solid of 2.6%, while retentate as hydrolyzed vegetable protein or fortified agent indicate contents of total protein of 1.52%, dissolved protein of 4.15 mg/g, and dry solid of 3.64%. It was found that micro filtration process was able to increase dissolved protein content of about 3 times.   Keywords

  6. Study on rhizobium interaction with osmoprotectant rhizobacteria for improving mung bean yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryani, Y.; Sudadi; Dewi, W. S.; Yunus, A.

    2018-03-01

    Gunungkidul has calcareous soil with limitations including calcareous stone, mostly hilly terrain, and shallow cultivated layer. Furthermore, nowadays we face the disadvantages climates such as long dry seasons, a short rainy season and high temperatures caused by climate change. Climate change leads to irregular rainwater availability for microbes and crops. Research in this field is currently needed as climate change affected directly on crop production, while we need to find the strategy to keep high productivity of the plant. This research aimed to determine the ability of osmoprotectant rhizobacteria and rhizobium to support mung bean yield. Osmoprotectant rhizobacteria were isolated and screened from the calcareous soil in Gunungkidul with disadvantageous climates such as a long dry season, a short rainy season and high temperature. This research was arranged in Completely Randomized Design. The result showed that osmoprotectant rhizobacteria isolate of strain Al24-k and Ver5-k can produce 9.6306 mg g‑1 cell of glycine betaine in a soil density 1.7667 x 107 CFU g‑1 and 11.4870 mg g‑1 cell of glycine betaine in a soil density 1.9667 x 107 CFU g‑1. Inoculation of isolates osmoprotectant rhizobacteria can support mung bean yield. Osmoprotectant rhizobacteria isolate did not effect rhizobium in mung bean rhizosphere.

  7. Fate of nitrogen (15N) from velvet bean in the soil-plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivittaro, Walkyria Bueno; Muraoka, Takashi; Boaretto, Antonio Enedi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze

    2004-01-01

    Because of their potential for N 2 biological fixation, legumes are an alternative source of nitrogen to crops, and can even replace or supplement mineral fertilization. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate temporal patterns of velvet bean (Mucuna aterrima) green manure release of nitrogen to rice plants, and to study the fate of nitrogen from velvet bean in rice cultivation. The isotopic dilution methodology was used. Treatments consisted of a control and 10 incubation periods of soil fertilized with 15 N-labeled velvet bean (0, 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 days). The plant material was previously chopped, sifted (10 mm mesh sieve) and oven-dried (65 deg C). Incubation of the plant material (2.2 g kg -1 soil) was initiated by the longest period, in order to synchronize the planting of the test crop, rice (Oryza sativa), at time zero for all treatments. Green manure incorporation promoted increases in rice dry matter yield and nitrogen uptake. These variables showed maximum values at incubation periods of 38 and 169 days, respectively. Green manure nitrogen utilization by rice plants was highest at an incubation period corresponding to 151 days. More than 60% of the green manure nitrogen remained in the soil after rice cultivation. The highest green manure nitrogen recovery from the soil-plant system occurred at an incubation period equivalent to 77 days. (author)

  8. Common bean genotypes for agronomic and market-related traits in VCU trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Fernando Chiorato

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Value for Cultivation and Use (VCU trials are undertaken when evaluating improved common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. lines, and knowledge of agronomic and market-related traits and disease reaction is instrumental in making cultivar recommendations. This study evaluates the yield, cooking time, grain color and reaction to anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli and Curtobacterium wilt (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens of 25 common bean genotypes derived from the main common bean breeding programs in Brazil. Seventeen VCU trials were carried out in the rainy season, dry season and winter season from 2009 to 2011 in the state of São Paulo. Analyses of grain color and cooking time were initiated 60 days after harvest, and disease reaction analyses were performed in the laboratory under controlled conditions. In terms of yield, no genotype superior to the controls was observed for any of the seasons under consideration. Grains from the dry season exhibited better color, while the rainy season led to the shortest cooking times. The following genotypes BRS Esteio, BRS Esplendor and IAC Imperador were resistant to anthracnose, Fusarium wilt and Curtobacterium wilt and, in general, genotypes with lighter-colored grains were more susceptible to anthracnose and Fusarium wilt.

  9. Gamma radiosensitivity in common bean plant and cowpea; Gama radiossensitividade em feijoeiro comum e caupi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Sandra da Silva; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    An indispensable step in mutation induction experiments is the determination of the sensitivity to mutagens to be used. Taking this into consideration the radiosensitivity of bean cultivars Carioca, Princesa (P. vulgaris L.), and IPA-206 [V. unguiculata (L.) Walp] to gamma rays from a {sup 60} Co source was evaluated. Sets of seeds (40 seeds/sample) were irradiated with 100, 150, 200, 250 Gy, and compared to a control without irradiation (0 Gy), under greenhouse conditions. Bean and cowpea seeds were respectively inoculated with a suspension of Rhizobium (SEMIA-4077) and Bradyrhizobium (SEMIA-6145) strains. The radiosensitivity was evaluated through seedling height reduction determined at 15 days after emergence (15-DAE), and also through dry matter yield of above-ground part and root nodules at 40-DAE. Seedling height was significantly reduced with increased dose of radiation in relation to the control. The dose causing reduction of 50% seedling height for P. vulgaris cultivar Princesa was set up between 150-250 Gy. Cowpea (IPA-206) was less sensitive to radiation than common bean cultivars, considering the dose range of radiation studied, and a 75% seedling height reduction was reached in the range of 150-250 Gy. Dry mater yield of the above-ground part, root and nodule, were inversely related to the doses. It is recommended a dose range of 300-350 Gy for mutation breeding purposes using the cowpea cultivar (IPA-206). (author)

  10. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  11. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  12. Engineering soya bean seeds as a scalable platform to produce cyanovirin-N, a non-ARV microbicide against HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Barry R; Murad, André M; Vianna, Giovanni R; Ramessar, Koreen; Saucedo, Carrie J; Wilson, Jennifer; Buckheit, Karen W; da Cunha, Nicolau B; Araújo, Ana Claudia G; Lacorte, Cristiano C; Madeira, Luisa; McMahon, James B; Rech, Elibio L

    2015-09-01

    There is an urgent need to provide effective anti-HIV microbicides to resource-poor areas worldwide. Some of the most promising microbicide candidates are biotherapeutics targeting viral entry. To provide biotherapeutics to poorer areas, it is vital to reduce the cost. Here, we report the production of biologically active recombinant cyanovirin-N (rCV-N), an antiviral protein, in genetically engineered soya bean seeds. Pure, biologically active rCV-N was isolated with a yield of 350 μg/g of dry seed weight. The observed amino acid sequence of rCV-N matched the expected sequence of native CV-N, as did the mass of rCV-N (11 009 Da). Purified rCV-N from soya is active in anti-HIV assays with an EC50 of 0.82-2.7 nM (compared to 0.45-1.8 nM for E. coli-produced CV-N). Standard industrial processing of soya bean seeds to harvest soya bean oil does not diminish the antiviral activity of recovered rCV-N, allowing the use of industrial soya bean processing to generate both soya bean oil and a recombinant protein for anti-HIV microbicide development. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of the recycle of nitrogen in a succession bean - corn -bean By means of the isotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duennas Graciela; Munniz, Olegario; Sanchez, Tamara; Gomez, Luis

    1999-01-01

    To determine the recycle of Nitrogen in a succession bean - corn - bean a was developed I experience under field conditions, on Red Ferralitic soils (Rhodic Ferrasols) with the one I use of the stable isotope 15 Nitrogen

  14. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  15. Performance of Rotary Cutter Type Breaking Machine for Breakingand Deshelling Cocoa Roasted Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of cocoa beans to chocolate product is, therefore, one of the promising alternatives to increase the value added of dried cocoa beans. On the other hand, the development of chocolate industry requires an appropriate technology that is not available yet for small or medium scale of business. Breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans is one important steps in cocoa processing to ascertain good chocolate quality. The aim of this research is to study performance of rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a rotary cutter type breaking machine for breaking and deshelling cocoa roasted beans. Breaker unit has rotated by ½ HP power, single phase, 110/220 V and 1440 rpm. Transmission system that use for rotating breaker unit is pulley and single V belt. Centrifugal blower as separator unit between cotyledon and shell has specification 0.5 m 3 /min air flow, 780 Pa, 370 W, and 220 V. Field tests showed that the optimum capacity of the machine was 268 kg/h with 500 rpm speed of rotary cutter, 2,8 m/s separator air flow, and power require was 833 W. Percentage product in outlet 1 and 2 were 94.5% and 5.5%. Particle distribution from outlet 1 was 92% as cotyledon, 8% as shell in cotyledon and on outlet 2 was 97% as shell, 3% as cotyledon in shell. Key words:cocoa, breaking, rotary cutter, quality.

  16. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  17. Agronomic description of new improved climbing bean varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 21. David, S and Hoogendijk,M. 1997. Bean production systems in MbaJe district, Uganda with emphasis on varietal diversity and the adoption of new climbing beans. Network on bean research in Africa. CIA T. CIA T, occasional publication ...

  18. Effects of fermented soya bean on digestion, absorption and diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    For many centuries Asian people have consumed soya beans in various forms of traditional fermented soya bean foods. Major desirable aspects of fermented soya bean foods are their attractive flavour and texture, certain nutritional properties, and possible health promoting effects. This

  19. Effects of water blanching on polyphenol reaction kinetics and quality of cocoa beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, A. S.; Hii, C. L.; Law, C. L.; Suzannah, S.; Djaeni, M.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have been reported on the potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols. However, drying has an inhibitory effect on the substantial recovery of cocoa polyphenols. This is majorly because of the high degradation of polyphenol compounds as well as the enhanced activity of polyphenol oxidases; a pre-cursor for browning of polyphenols during drying. Pre-treatment technique such as water blanching (80° and 90°C for 5 min, 10 min and 15 min exposure times respectively) can inactivate the polyphenol oxidases enzyme and promote high percent of the polyphenol recovery in dried cocoa bean. The degradation kinetics of cocoa polyphenols during hot water blanching are analyzed; The rate constant for the polyphenol degradation after blanching was found to be ranging from 0.0208 to 0.0340 /min. The results for dried fresh cocoa beans showed an optimal level of polyphenol recovery (118 mg GAE/g) when blanched at 90°C for 5 minutes duration. The antioxidant activity is also analyzed using DPPH scavenging assay.

  20. Methyl bromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-01-01

    The 14 C activity in unroasted [ 14 C]-methyl bromide fumigated cocoa beans was used to study the fate and persistence of CH 3 Br in the stored beans. About 70% of the residues occurred in the shells. Unchanged CH 3 Br could not be detected, all the sorbed CH 3 Br having reacted with bean constituents apparently to form 14 C-methylated derivatives and inorganic bromide. No 14 C activity was found in the lipid fraction. Roasting decreased the bound (non-volatile) residues, with corresponding changes in the activities and amounts of free sugars, free and protein amino acids. Roasted nibs and shells showed a two-fold increase in the volatile fraction of the 14 C residue. This fraction may be related to the volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard-type reactions. (author)

  1. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  2. Foliar absorption of phosphorus by common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, A.E.; Rosa, J.P.P.

    1984-01-01

    The effet of urea and/or sucrose on P uptake from H 3 PO 4 and monoammonium phosphate by bean leaves. A solution containing 0.145% P and specific activity 10μ Ci/ml is sprayed early in the morning or late afternoon. Besides the treatment without urea and sucrose, these substances are added in two concentrations 0.66% N + sucrose, and 1.32% N + sucrose. Twenty four hous after application, 52% of the applied P is absorved by the bean trifoliate leaf. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. The Definitive Guide to NetBeans Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Heiko

    2009-01-01

    The Definitive Guide to NetBeans(t) Platform is a thorough and definitive introduction to the NetBeans Platform, covering all its major APIs in detail, with relevant code examples used throughout. The original German book on which this title is based was well received. The NetBeans Platform Community has put together this English translation, which author Heiko Bock updated to cover the latest NetBeans Platform 6.5 APIs. With an introduction by known NetBeans Platform experts Jaroslav Tulach, Tim Boudreau, and Geertjan Wielenga, this is the most up-to-date book on this topic at the moment. All

  4. Water sorption kinetics of damaged beans: GAB model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. Baptestini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to model the water sorption kinetics of damaged beans. Grains with initial moisture content of 53.85%, dry basis (d.b., were used. One portion of the grains was used to obtain desorption isotherms, while the other was subjected to drying until the moisture content of 5.26% (d.b., so that it was subjected to the adsorption. For the induction of damage, a Stein Breakage Tester was used. To obtain the equilibrium moisture content, grains were placed in a climatic chamber at 20, 30, 40 and 50 ± 1 °C combined with relative humidity of 30, 40, 50, 70 and 90 ± 3%. The GAB model fitted well to the equilibrium moisture experimental data of damaged grains and control. With increasing temperature, the monolayer moisture contents decreased in adsorption and desorption processes, ranging from 9.84 to 5.10% d.b. The lower moisture content in the monolayer in damaged grains indicates that lower moisture content is necessary to ensure their conservation.

  5. Common bean cultivars and lines interactions with environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbonell Sérgio Augusto Morais

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of bean lines brought forth in breeding programs or of cultivars in use can be affected by environmental variability. The adaptability and stability of grain yield of 18 common bean cultivars and lines in 23 environments (combinations of seasons, years and locations were evaluated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. 'IAC-Carioca' and 'IAC-Carioca Eté' were used as standard cultivars for the carioca grain type, while 'FT-Nobre' and 'IAC-Una' represented the standard for black grains. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with four replications and plots consisting of two, two central five meters rows flanked by border rows. Stability parameters were estimated by the methods Maximum Yield Deviations (MYD and by the Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction Analysis (AMMI. For the identification of the most stable cultivars, the two methods led to consistent results, although by MYD the highest stability was always associated to the highest yield. 'MAC-733327' and 'LP 9637' were the most suitable cultivars and lines for the joint seasons, while 'LP 9637' and 'FT-Nobre' were the most suitable for the dry season. The MYD method combined a simple procedure, easiness of result interpretation, uniqueness of parameters, and association between stability and yield. On the other hand, the AMMI method simplified the identification of stable cultivars by visual inspection, also providing information on the environments. However, the complex nature which combines uni-and multivariate techniques hampers its widespread use in breeding programs.

  6. Final Comments from Professors George and Beane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, James; George, Paul S.

    1996-01-01

    Concludes this journal focus section on curriculum integration with transcripts of questions asked by conference attendees and answers by Professors Beane and George. Areas addressed included experience levels with children and teachers, studies that point to the failure of curriculum integration, and how teachers can continue curriculum…

  7. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  8. Wild beans (Phaseolus L.) of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wild relatives of the five domesticated species of bean (Phaseolus L.) are widely distributed across the tropics and subtropics of the New World, with taxa extending to the Canadian border, the Caribbean islands and Bermuda, the Galapagos Islands, and south to Argentina. Mesoamerica holds the la...

  9. Synthesis of a jojoba bean disaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, A; Marnera, G; d'Alarcao, M

    1998-08-01

    A synthesis of the disaccharide recently isolated from jojoba beans, 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-chiro-inositol, has been achieved. The suitably protected chiro-inositol unit was prepared by an enantiospecific synthesis from L-xylose utilizing SmI2-mediated pinacol coupling as a key step.

  10. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  11. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  12. Determination of physicomechanical properties of velvet bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected physical and mechanical properties of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) were studied at two moisture content levels of 13% and 20% (db). Compression strength characteristics were conducted under quasi-static compressive force at longitudinal and latitudinal (lateral) loading positions and the rupture forces, ...

  13. Castor bean response to zinc fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Henrique Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Zinc is a trace element and it is absolutely essential for the normal healthy growth of plants. This element plays a part of several enzyme systems and other metabolic functions in the plants. Castor beans (Ricinus communis L.) crop is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor beans yield, few researches has been made on this issue, mainly on the use of zinc. In order to evaluate the effects of zinc on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Zn (0; 2; 4; 6 and 8 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Under conditions that the experiment was carried out the results showed that the Zn levels used, did not affect the castor bean plants growth. (author)

  14. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.

  15. Strategies of copper tolerance in root and shoot of broad bean (Vicia faba L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latef, A.A.H.; Alhmad, M.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dry mass and some physiological parameters were investigated in root and shoot of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) exposed to different concentrations of CuSO/sub 4/ (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg kg/sup -1/) for 15 days. Low Cu concentration did not affect dry mass of root and shoot. However, the negative effect of copper on dry mass was noticed in root than shoot especially at the higher concentrations of copper due to the accumulation of Cu was higher in root than that in shoot. Cu induced changes in the concentration of photosynthetic pigments, Zn, K and Ca. Exposure to Cu induced the accumulation of organic solutes (soluble sugar, soluble protein and total free amino acids) in root than shoot. Level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was correlated with the concentration of Cu in broad bean tissues. Copper stimulated the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and this stimulation was more obvious in shoot than root. (author)

  16. Nodulation and N2 fixation effectiveness of Bradyrhizobium strains in symbiosis with Adzuki Bean, Vigna angularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Delić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In pot experiment, one isolate Knj from a Serbian soil, four strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and three strains of Bradyrhizobium spp. were examined for the effect on adzuki bean nodulation and effectiveness in symbiotic N2 fixation. All the tested strains produced root nodules in adzuki bean. Strains of B. japonicum showed high potential of N2 fixation, particularly 525 and 542. B. japonicum strains resulted 65-71% shoot dry weight and 99-138% total N content of uninoculated control with full N content (100%. No significant difference was found between the plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium spp. strains and uninoculated control plants without N (40-42 and 42% shoot dry weight, respectively, which indicated symbiotic N2 fixation inactivity of the Bradyrhizobium spp. strains. Knj strain had the middle position (56% shoot dry weight. These data showed that B. japonicum 525 and 542 strains could be used in further investigations in order to apply them as inoculants in microbiological N fertilizers.

  17. Solar radiation use efficiency and morphophysiological indices in common bean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Carneiro da Silva Teixeira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common bean crops present a broad edaphoclimatic adaptation, allowing their cultivation throughout the year. However, in order to reach good economic income levels, it is fundamental to understand the processes that affect the growth and development of the crop in various environments. This study aimed to compare two common bean cultivars (BRS Radiante and Pérola contrasting in cycle and growth behavior by using morphophysiological indices and solar radiation use efficiency. The following traits were evaluated: light extinction coefficient, radiation use efficiency, phenologic development, leaf area index, total dry matter weight, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and dry matter partitioning. The BRS Radiante cultivar shows a higher vigor, when compared to the Pérola cultivar, due to its faster initial phenologic development and higher initial and relative growth rates. Both cultivars differ for leaf area index and shoot architecture, although that does not happen for light extinction coefficient. The BRS Radiante cultivar shows a higher solar radiation use efficiency, resulting in a greater dry matter yield throughout its development.

  18. Capture and utilization of solar radiation by the soybean and common bean crops and by weeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jose Barbosa dos; Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Silva, Antonio Alberto da; Costa, Luiz Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Aiming to develop techniques for the establishment of a Weed Integrated Management Program, the performance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) and of weeds Bidens pilosa L., Euphorbia heterophylla L. (two biotypes), sensitive and resistant to ALS inhibitor - herbicides and [ Desmodium tortuosum (SW.) DC.], was evaluated in relation to their efficiency in capturing and utilizing solar radiation.The following indices were calculated: total dry biomass production rate (Ct), leaf dry biomass production rate (Cf), radiation efficient use (x), net assimilation rate (EA), specific leaf area (SA), leaf area index (L), leaf matter ratio (FW) and leaf area ratio (FA). No difference was observed for all characteristics evaluated among E. heterophylla biotypes. Soybean showed the highest rate of total dry biomass production along its cycle and also the highest leaf area index, indicating its greater capacity in capturing light and providing shade to competitive plants. Especially after flowering, common bean was the most efficient in draining its photoassimilates for leaf formation. Soybean showed greater efficiency in converting radiation intercepted in the biomass. (author)

  19. Substitution of commercial concentrate with soy bean meal protected by tannin from banana stem juice for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yulistiani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Study was conducted to evaluate the optimal utilization of protected soy bean meal with secondary compound from banana stem juice in ration for sheep and its effect on sheep performance. Soy bean meal was mixed with banana stem juice at ratio 1:1 (w/v then dried in the oven at temperature 90oC. This protected soy bean meal was used to substitute commercial concentrate in sheep ration. The experiment used 24 head male lamb Sumatera composite breed. The lambs were grouped into six group based on its body weight and was assigned to one of 4 diets treatment. The sheep was fed on grass basal diet and supplemented with commercial concentrate. Data recorded were feed consumption, nutrient digestibility, average daily gain, feed efficiency and nitrogen utilization. Study was conducted in randomized complete block design and data obtained were analyzed using general linier model from SAS program. Results show that dry matter intake (DMI significantly (P 0.05 between R10, R20 and R30. The increasing in DMI is followed by the increasing crude protein (CP from 8.75 (R0 to 10.64; 11.68 and 12.32 g/BB0.75 respectively for R10; R20 and R30. Commercial concentrate substitution by protected soy bean meal significantly increased DM and CP digestibility at all levels. However, this substitution did not significantly affected organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF digestibility. Nitrogen excretion in urine was only increased at this level 30% substitution but nitrogen retention increased at substitution levels 20 and 30%. From this study can be concluded that commercial concentrate substitution with protected soy bean meal in the diet only increased CP consumption and CP digestibility but not average daily gain of lamb.

  20. YIELD CAPACITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GREEN BEANS IN CULTIVARS OF KIDNEY BEAN BRED AT OMSK AGRARIAN UNIVERSITY IN THE SOUTH FOREST-STEPPE OF WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kazydub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In  2014-2016  the  assessment of  kidney bean  cultivars bred at Omsk State Agrarian University on yield capacity, quality, and biochemical  chemical compounds  in green beans, such as proteins, zinc, iodine, iron and sucrose was carried  out  in  the  south  forest-steppe  of  Western Siberia. The technological  parameters of  green  beans: the  shape  of  cross-section  area; pulpiness,  fibrous  or non-fibrous,  and bean thickness were estimated. Threeyear study showed that all tested cultivars bred at Omsk State  Agrarian  University  surpassed  control  cultivar  in yield capacity,  chemical composition  and technological parameters of green beans. The cultivar ‘Pamiyaty Rizhovoy’ gave a highest yield: 563.4 g/m2  in 2014; 622.8 g/m2 in 2015; and 620.4 g/m2  in 2016. It is worth noticing that this cultivar is also distinguished by contents of micro and macroelements: 21.20-28.68  mg/kg  of zinc; 0.012-0.018 mg/kg of iodine; and 1.8-3.2 mg/kg of iron. In the course of the study, it was noticed the dependence of  yield  capacity  on  hydrothermal  coefficient  (HC. In 2014-2015 the yield capacity was a lowest when the moisturization was insufficient at 0.7 HC. With increase of HC the yield was higher. With sufficient moisturization at 1.0 HC the highest yield of green beans was observed in 2016.  The estimation  of  kidney  bean  cultivars  bred  at Omsk State  Agrarian University showed  that  all beans were  distinguished  by  high  quality  parameters  in  the phase  of  technical  maturity,  such  as  pulpiness,  nonfibrous, thickness 0.5 to  1.0 cm, and green and yellow colors.  The  highest  protein  content  comparing  to  the control  cultivar  ‘Zolushka’  was  detected  in  ‘Marusya’ 23.60%  in  2014,  20.94%  in  2015;  and  ‘Zoloto  Sibiry’ 19.79%  in  2016.  The  observed  results  confirmed  that contents  change of

  1. Optimation of Temperature and Duration of Cocoa Beans Roasting in a CylindricalRoaster

    OpenAIRE

    Jati, Misnwai; Widyotomo, Sukrisno; Sewed, Awad; Sugiyono

    2005-01-01

    A small scale cylindrical type cocoa roaster has been designed to improve Indonesian mallholder income and commence utilization of cocoa-base products. Capacity of the roaster was at 15 kg dried cocoa beans. Operating condition of the instrument in terms of temperature and duration of roasting for cocoa powder production has been optimized by using Response Surface Methodology in the range of 110–140 C for the former and 20–60 minute for the latter. Variable of the study were temperature prof...

  2. Effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth of beans plants (phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, M.; Mazon, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth and photosynthesis of three moisture levels (20,30 and 40 %) was studied.The first moisture level was near field capacity while the others exceeded. Weekly dry weight of different plant parts, chlorophyll content, net CO 2 exchange rate in light and darkness, 14 C O 2 assimilated rate and stomatal aperture were determined. Results show a positive effect of soil moisture over field capacity on growth, photosynthate and transpiration of beans during the first growing month. (Author) 76 refs

  3. Yield of castor bean fertilized with sewage sludge and potassium and magnesium sulphate

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti,Thâmara F. M.; Zuba,Geraldo R.; Sampaio,Regynaldo A.; Carneiro,João P.; Oliveira,Ely S. A. de; Rodrigues,Márcio N.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and nutrition of castor bean in response to fertilization with sewage sludge and potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) sulphate. The experiment was carried out from January to July 2011. The treatments, in a randomized block design with three replicates, in a Nitosol, corresponded to a factorial scheme (2 x 4 +1): two doses of K and Mg sulphate combined with four doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.60, 5.20 and 10.40 t ha-1, dry basis), applied base...

  4. Culinary and nutritional quality of common bean lines with Carioca grain type and interaction with environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Santos Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objectives of this work were to study the genetic variability and the interaction between genotypes and environments for cooking time and protein content of bean grains as well as to identify elite lines of Carioca grain type with short cooking time, high protein content and high adaptability and stability for these two traits. Sixteen experiments were conducted in a complete randomized block design with three replications during the rainy, dry and winter seasons, in Goiás, Distrito Federal, Pernambuco, Sergipe, Bahia and Paraná States, in 2009 and 2010. Each trial was composed by 16 elite lines of Carioca grain type and the data of cooking time and protein content were obtained. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and to stability and adaptability analysis, according to the methodology proposed by Annichiarico. Genetic variability was found for cooking time and for protein content among Carioca common bean elite lines; however, for protein content this variability is lower. The environmental effect is important for the expression of these traits and is larger than the genetic effect. The interaction between genotypes and environments is important for cooking time and for protein content of common beans. The lines CNFC 11951 and CNFC 11962 presents short cooking time, high protein content and high stability and adaptability for both traits.

  5. Value addition activities and challenges of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa farmers in Enegu state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Iwuchukwu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the value addition practices and challenges of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa farmers in Enugu State of Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was adopted in selecting a total of seventy-two (72 respondents used for the study. Results revealed that all (100% of the respondents processed African yam bean through sun drying, husking/hulling and preservation/storage while about 88.9% of the respondents processed the crop through frying/baking while 87.5% and 70.8% of the respondents indicated they were involved in winnowing and grinding. Lack of basic physical infrastructure (M=2.39, lack/poor technology on processing, preservation etc (2.35, difficulty in accessing loan (M=2.28 and lack of technology/innovation on production of the crop (M=2.28 were among the constraining factors to value addition in African yam bean. It is recommended that policy makers should work towards providing the necessary technology and basic infrastructure to farmers in order to increase their productivity, income and commercialization of this underutilized but important crop. Research efforts are also required to improve its agronomic characteristics and promote its cultivation.

  6. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Sajid; Daur, Ihsanullah; Al-Solaimani, Samir G.; Ahmad, Shakeel; Madkour, Mohamed H.; Yasir, Muhammad; Hirt, Heribert; Ali, Shawkat; Ali, Zahir

    2016-01-01

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  7. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Silicon Synergistically Enhance Salinity Tolerance of Mung Bean

    KAUST Repository

    Mahmood, Sajid

    2016-06-17

    The present study explored the eco-friendly approach of utilizing plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) inoculation and foliar application of silicon (Si) to improve the physiology, growth, and yield of mung bean under saline conditions. We isolated 18 promising PGPR from natural saline soil in Saudi Arabia, and screened them for plant-growth-promoting activities. Two effective strains were selected from the screening trial, and were identified as Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus drentensis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques, respectively. Subsequently, in a 2-year mung bean field trial, using a randomized complete block design with a split-split plot arrangement, we evaluated the two PGPR strains and two Si levels (1 and 2 kg ha−1), in comparison with control treatments, under three different saline irrigation conditions (3.12, 5.46, and 7.81 dS m−1). The results indicated that salt stress substantially reduced stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, relative water content (RWC), total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid content, plant height, leaf area, dry biomass, seed yield, and salt tolerance index. The PGPR strains and Si levels independently improved all the aforementioned parameters. Furthermore, the combined application of the B. drentensis strain with 2 kg Si ha−1 resulted in the greatest enhancement of mung bean physiology, growth, and yield. Overall, the results of this study provide important information for the benefit of the agricultural industry.

  8. Potential of sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson do C. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies concerning the tolerance, absorption and distribution of heavy metals in plants are essential for the success of phytoremediation programs. The present study was carried out in order to evaluate the potential of the sunflower, castor bean, common buckwheat and vetiver as lead phytoaccumulators. The species were grown in nutrient solution containing increasing doses of Pb (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L-1 during a 30-day exposure period. A completely randomized split-plot design was used, with a 4 x 5 factorial and three replicates. Significant reductions of dry matter of the root, shoot and whole plant were found in the all species under study as a function of the increased Pb doses. Vetiver showed higher tolerance to Pb contamination; sunflower and castor bean had intermediate tolerance and the common buckwheat proved to be the most sensitive species. The concentration and total content of Pb in plant compartments were significantly affected by the increased Pb doses in solution, and higher accumulation of this element was observed, in general, in the roots of the studied species. Common buckwheat proved to be not much promising for Pb-phytoremediation programs; sunflower showed potential for Pb phytoextraction and castor bean and vetiver were the most appropriate for Pb phytostabilization.

  9. Yield of castor bean fertilized with sewage sludge and potassium and magnesium sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thâmara F. M. Cavalcanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to evaluate the yield and nutrition of castor bean in response to fertilization with sewage sludge and potassium (K and magnesium (Mg sulphate. The experiment was carried out from January to July 2011. The treatments, in a randomized block design with three replicates, in a Nitosol, corresponded to a factorial scheme (2 x 4 +1: two doses of K and Mg sulphate combined with four doses of sewage sludge (0, 2.60, 5.20 and 10.40 t ha-1, dry basis, applied based on its nitrogen (N content and the N requirement for the crop and an additional treatment with NPK. The castor bean grain yield fertilized with sewage sludge did not differ from conventional fertilization, with the maximum value achieved at a dose of 7.5 t ha-1 of sewage sludge. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased zinc and copper levels in the soil to values close to or higher than those in conventional fertilization, without any influence on the concentrations in the leaf. Fertilization with K and Mg sulphate increased the levels of these cations in the soil without affecting the concentrations in the leaves. The fertilization with sewage sludge increased the contents of organic matter, sulfur, zinc, iron, copper and boron in the soil, and manganese and boron in castor bean leaves.

  10. The investigation of coagulation activity of natural coagulants extracted from different strains of common bean

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    Šćiban Marina B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation and flocculation by adding chemicals are the methods that are usually used for removal of water turbidity. This study is concerned with the coagulation activity of extracts of various strains of bean. The aim was to ascertain if bean varieties influence coagulation activity. Active components were extracted from 1 g of ground sample with 100 ml distilled water. Contents of dry matter and nitrogen were specified in the solid samples, and the content of soluble nitrogen was determined in the extracts. These data were used to calculate the efficiency of extraction of nitrogen-containing compounds. The coagulation activity was assessed by jar test using synthetic turbid water, of the initial pH 9 and turbidity 35 NTU. The jar test was carried out by adding different amounts of extracts to model water, and stirring the content. After sedimentation for 1 h, residual turbidity was determined by turbidimeter and coagulation activity was calculated. The increment of organic matter concentration after the coagulation was also determined. These experiments confirmed that extracts of all investigated strains of bean could be used successfully as natural coagulants.

  11. Tritium incorporation in corn and bean after an accute contamination with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H.A.; Archundia, C.; Bravo, G.; Nulman, R.; Ortiz Magana, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Tritium produced by natural or artificial processes is set free in the environment, generally as tritiated water, which the plants use to produce organic compounds such as proteins, fats and carbohidrates. The metabolism of tritium depends on the chemical form in which it is found, transport studies of tritium in different ecosystems, and in particular in food chains, gradually have become more important as a result of the tritium increase in the environment. In Mexico, corn and beans have been studied due to their great importance in the human food chain. The determination of tritium in organic compounds (bound tritium) requires an efficient conversion to tritiated water. For this reason, in this work we have detailed a dry oxidation method, which is a modification of the method of Schoniger, which consists of combustion in oxygen initiated by a simple electrical device using a disposable nichrome resistance, which is also used as a sample carrier. Tritium determination is done by a liquid scintillation counter with quenching correction using an internal standard. Graphs of tritium activity are shown plotted against the time between the application of tritiated water and the time of harvest. The highest activity is found about the 18th day for corn and the 16th day for beans. The calculated values for the half-lives for corn and beans are approximately 56 and 43 days respectively. (author)

  12. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes for drought stress adaptation in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwabena Darkwa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress linked with climate change is one of the major constraints faced by common bean farmers in Africa and elsewhere. Mitigating this constraint requires the selection of resilient varieties that withstand drought threats to common bean production. This study assessed the drought response of 64 small red-seeded genotypes of common bean grown in a lattice design replicated twice under contrasting moisture regimes, terminal drought stress and non-stress, in Ethiopia during the dry season from November 2014 to March 2015. Multiple plant traits associated with drought were assessed for their contribution to drought adaptation of the genotypes. Drought stress determined by a drought intensity index was moderate (0.3. All the assessed traits showed significantly different genotypic responses under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Eleven genotypes significantly (P ≤ 0.05 outperformed the drought check cultivar under both drought stress and non-stress conditions in seed yielding potential. Seed yield showed positive and significant correlations with chlorophyll meter reading, vertical root pulling resistance force, number of pods per plant, and seeds per pod under both soil moisture regimes, indicating their potential use in selection of genotypes yielding well under drought stress and non-stress conditions. Clustering analysis using Mahalanobis distance grouped the genotypes into four groups showing high and significant inter-cluster distance, suggesting that hybridization between drought-adapted parents from the groups will provide the maximum genetic recombination for drought tolerance in subsequent generations.

  13. [Influence of Different Straws Returning with Landfill on Soil Microbial Community Structure Under Dry and Water Farming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Mu-ling; Gao, Ming

    2015-11-01

    Based on rice, wheat, corn straw and rape, broad bean green stalk as the research object, using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) method, combining principal component analysis method to study the soil microbial quantity, distribution of flora, community structure characteristics under dry and water farming as two different cultivated land use types. The PLFA analysis results showed that: under dry farming, total PLFA quantity ranged 8.35-25.15 nmol x g(-1), showed rape > broad bean > corn > rice > wheat, rape and broad bean significantly increased total PLFA quantity by 1.18 and 1.08 times compared to the treatment without straw; PLFA quantity of bacterial flora in treatments with straws was higher than that without straw, and fungal biomass was significantly increased, so was the species richness of microbial community. Under water faming, the treatments of different straws returning with landfill have improved the PLFA quantity of total soil microbial and flora comparing with the treatment without straw, fungi significantly increased, and species richness of microbial communities value also increased significantly. Total PLFA quantity ranged 4.04-22.19 nmol x g(-1), showed rice > corn > wheat > broad bean > rape, which in rape and broad bean treatments were lower than the treatment without straw; fungal PLFA amount in 5 kinds of straw except broad bean treatment was significantly higher than that of the treatment without straw, bacteria and total PLFA quantity in broad bean processing were significantly lower than those of other treatments, actinomycetes, G+, G- had no significant difference between all treatments; rice, wheat, corn, rape could significantly increase the soil microbial species richness index and dominance index under water faming. The results of principal component analysis showed that broad bean green stalk had the greatest impact on the microbial community structure in the dry soil, rape green stalk and wheat straw had the biggest influence on

  14. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  15. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  16. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debastiani, R.; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans

  17. Ion beam analysis of ground coffee and roasted coffee beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debastiani, R., E-mail: rafa_debas@yahoo.com.br; Santos, C.E.I. dos; Yoneama, M.L.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The way that coffee is prepared (using roasted ground coffee or roasted coffee beans) may influence the quality of beverage. Therefore, the aim of this work is to use ion beam techniques to perform a full elemental analysis of packed roasted ground coffee and packed roasted coffee beans, as well as green coffee beans. The samples were analyzed by PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Light elements were measured through RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) experiments. Micro-PIXE experiments were carried out in order to check the elemental distribution in the roasted and green coffee beans. In general, the elements found in ground coffee were Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. A comparison between ground coffee and grinded roasted beans shows significant differences for several elements. Elemental maps reveal that P and K are correlated and practically homogeneously distributed over the beans.

  18. Puffing, a novel coffee bean processing technique for the enhancement of extract yield and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooki; Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2018-02-01

    Puffing of coffee beans, which induces heat- and pressure-derived physicochemical changes, was applied as an alternative to roasting. Roasted or puffed coffee beans with equivalent lightness values were compared. The moisture content was higher while the crude fat and protein compositions were lower in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The pH was lower and the acid content was higher in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The roasted beans exhibited greater specific volumes, while the puffed beans displayed greater extraction yields. The trigonelline and total phenolic contents were greater in puffed beans than in roasted beans resulting in an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Sensory evaluation of roasted and puffed coffee bean brews revealed that puffing did not affect the flavor or overall acceptance. The current study provides evidence that puffing is an alternative to roasting coffee beans with various benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of phosphorous fertilization on copper phytoextraction and antioxidant defenses in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyong; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Ren, Chao; Guo, Guangguang; Fu, Qingling; Zhu, Jun; Hu, Hongqing

    2018-01-01

    Application of fertilizers to supply appropriate nutrients has become an essential agricultural strategy for enhancing the efficiency of phytoremediation in heavy metal contaminated soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the beneficial effects of three types of phosphate fertilizers (i.e., oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock (APR), Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 , and NaH 2 PO 4 ) in the range of 0-600 mg P kg -1 soil, on castor bean growth, antioxidants [antioxidative enzymes and glutathione (GSH)], and Cu uptake. Results showed that with the addition of phosphorus fertilizers, the dry weight of castor bean and the Cu concentration in roots increased significantly, resulting in increased Cu extraction. The phosphorus concentration in both shoots and roots was increased as compared with the control, and the Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 treatment had the greatest effect. Application of APR, NaH 2 PO 4 , and Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and the activity of the two antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismustase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) in the leaves of castor bean. GSH concentration in leaves increased with the increasing levels of phosphorus applied to soil as well as the accumulation of phosphorus in shoots, compared to the control. These results demonstrated that the addition of phosphorus fertilizers can enhance the resistance of castor bean to Cu and increase the Cu extraction efficiency of the plant from contaminated soils.

  20. EVALUATION OF TRICHODERMA SPP. ON BEAN CULTURE, IN ANTHRACNOSE, WEB BLIGHT AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. V. Aguiar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mato Grosso is the third largest producer of bean from Brazil, being the third harvest (irrigated the most productive, but diseases such as anthracnose, web blight and nematodes of galls cause losses to producers. In addition, a measure widely used and little studied for the control of diseases and nematodes in Mato Grosso is the biological control, which consists of the action of other microorganisms on phytopathogens. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum and T. asperellum in the development (height of plants, chlorophyll and number of pods of culture of bean, in the control of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, web blight (Rhizoctonia solani and in the population of Meloidogyne spp. in the soil. The experiment was accomplished in area experimental of University Federal of Mato Grosso/Campus Sinop. The experimental design was of entirely randomized with 12 parcels of 5m² each, with 3 treatments and 4 replications. The cultivar used was Whitey, carioca group, and the seed treatment performed with product Pyraclostrobin + Thiophanate Methyl + Fipronil and after drying of the inoculation of biocontrol agents and manual seeding. It was observed that the application of T. harzianum and T. asperellum, not promoted increase of chlorophyll, height of plants in bean culture, without reducing the population of Meloidogyne spp.. However, biocontrol agents have reduced the severity of anthracnose and web blight and promoted an increase in the average number of plant pods-1. It is therefore concluded that biocontrol agents show potential for application in bean culture in the North of Mato Grosso.

  1. New Native Rhizobia Strains for Inoculation of Common Bean in the Brazilian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Martins Mercante

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Maximization of biological nitrogen fixation in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. crop depends on the genetic characteristics related to the plant, the symbiotic efficiency of rhizobia, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of rhizobia selected beforehand from Cerrado (Brazilian tropical savanna soils in Mato Grosso do Sul. The experiments were conducted in 2007 in the municipalities of Aquidauana, Anaurilândia, Campo Grande, and Dourados, all located in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. All procedures established followed the current recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture (Ministério de Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento – MAPA, in accordance with the “official protocol for assessing the feasibility and agronomic efficiency of strains, and inoculant technologies linked to the process of biological nitrogen fixation in legumes”. The program for selection of rhizobia for inoculation in bean plants resulted in identification of different strains with high symbiotic efficiency, competitiveness, and genetic stability, based on the Embrapa Agropecuária Oeste collection of multifunctional microorganism cultures. In previous studies, 630 isolates of Rhizobium were evaluated. They were obtained from nodules of leucaena (380 or dry beans (250 from 87 locations, including 34 municipalities in Mato Grosso do Sul. Three of them stood out from the others: CPAO 12.5 L2, CPAO 17.5 L2, and CPAO 56.4 L2. Inoculation of these strains in bean plants demonstrated economic viability and high potential for obtaining a more effective inoculant suitable for trading purposes.

  2. Transgenic soya bean seeds accumulating β-carotene exhibit the collateral enhancements of oleate and protein content traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Monica A; Parrott, Wayne A; Hildebrand, David F; Berg, R Howard; Cooksey, Amanda; Pendarvis, Ken; He, Yonghua; McCarthy, Fiona; Herman, Eliot M

    2015-05-01

    Transgenic soya bean (Glycine max) plants overexpressing a seed-specific bacterial phytoene synthase gene from Pantoea ananatis modified to target to plastids accumulated 845 μg β carotene g(-1) dry seed weight with a desirable 12:1 ratio of β to α. The β carotene accumulating seeds exhibited a shift in oil composition increasing oleic acid with a concomitant decrease in linoleic acid and an increase in seed protein content by at least 4% (w/w). Elevated β-carotene accumulating soya bean cotyledons contain 40% the amount of abscisic acid compared to nontransgenic cotyledons. Proteomic and nontargeted metabolomic analysis of the mid-maturation β-carotene cotyledons compared to the nontransgenic did not reveal any significant differences that would account for the altered phenotypes of both elevated oleate and protein content. Transcriptomic analysis, confirmed by RT-PCR, revealed a number of significant differences in ABA-responsive transcripton factor gene expression in the crtB transgenics compared to nontransgenic cotyledons of the same maturation stage. The altered seed composition traits seem to be attributed to altered ABA hormone levels varying transcription factor expression. The elevated β-carotene, oleic acid and protein traits in the β-carotene soya beans confer a substantial additive nutritional quality to soya beans. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Spilling the beans: A preschool gardening and nutrition education curriculum to increase the use of dry edible beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood obesity is a topic of concern nationwide, and the nutrition lessons learned early in childhood can have lifelong impacts. Gardening and other hands-on activities have been shown to be excellent methods to promote changes in children’s diets, especially as a means of improving vegetable con...

  4. Coping with climate variability and long-term climate trends for Nicaraguan maize-bean farmers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdji, S.; Zelaya Martinez, C.; Martinez Valle, A.; Mejia, O.; Laderach, P.; Lobell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Climate variability and change impact farmers at different timescales, but both are of concern for livelihoods and long-term viability of small farms in tropical, rain-fed agricultural systems. This study uses a historical dataset to analyze the impact of 40-year climate trends in Nicaragua on bean production, a staple crop that is an important source of calories and protein in the local diet, particularly in rural areas and in lower income classes. Bean yields are sensitive to rising temperatures, but also frequently limited by seasonal drought and low soil fertility. We use an empirical model to relate department-level yields to spatial variation and inter-annual fluctuations in historical precipitation, temperature and extreme rain events. We then use this model to quantify the impact on yields of long-term observed warming in day and night temperatures, increases in rainfall intensity, longer gaps between rain events, a shorter rainy season and overall drying in certain regions of the country. Preliminary results confirm the negative impacts of warming night temperatures, higher vapor pressure deficits, and longer gaps between rain events on bean yields, although some drying at harvest time has helped to reduce rotting. Across all bean-growing areas, these climate trends have led to a ~10% yield decline per decade relative to a stationary climate and production system, with this decline reaching up to ~20% in the dry northern highlands. In regions that have been particularly impacted by these trends, we look for evidence of farm abandonment, increases in off-farm employment, or on-farm adaptation solutions through crop diversification, use of drought or heat-tolerant seed, and adoption of rainwater harvesting. We will also repeat the modeling exercise for maize, another staple crop providing ~25% of daily calories at the national scale, but which is projected to be more resilient to climate trends.

  5. Apparent digestibility coefficient of chickpea, maize, high-quality protein maize, and beans diets in juvenile and adult Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Montoya-Mejía

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of our study was to assess the apparent digestibility of plant ingredients in diets for juvenile (50 g and adult (220 g Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Dietary dry matter and protein apparent digestibility coefficients of four plant-derived feedstuffs (chickpea, maize, high-quality maize protein, and beans were tested. The beans diet had the lowest apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter (ADCDM (69.41%, while no significant differences were detected in ADCDM among the other diets; ADCDM was significantly higher in adults compared with juveniles (77.02 vs. 73.76%. Apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient of ingredients (ADCI was significantly higher in the chickpea (70.48% and high-quality protein maize (71.09% ingredients, and lower in the beans (52.79% ingredient. Apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient of ingredients was significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults (72.56 vs. 56.80%. The protein digestibility of diet (ADCCP was significantly higher in the reference diet (93.68%, while the lowest corresponded to the maize (87.86% and beans (87.29% diets. Significantly lower apparent digestibility coefficient of protein (ADCICP was obtained with the high-quality maize protein (59.11% and maize (49.48% ingredients, while higher ADCICP was obtained with the chickpea and beans ingredients (71.31 and 63.89%, respectively. The apparent digestibility coefficient of ingredient crude protein ADCICP was significantly higher in juveniles compared with adults (67.35 vs. 53.46. Digestibility is generally higher in juveniles, and we recommend using chickpea as an ingredient in diets for Nile tilapia.

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  8. Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of partial replacement of fishmeal with african yam bean ( Sphenostylis stenocarpa ) meal on eggs, sperm quality and spawning performance of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) broodstock.

  9. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilian Seiko Kato; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. De; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Gabriel Adrian Sarries; Andres Enrique Lai Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  10. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A.

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of 210 Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of 210 Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg -1 fresh wt. obtained here is according to 210 Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg -1 . (author)

  11. The Effective Design of Bean Bag as a Vibroimpact Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Q. Liu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of a bean bag damper has been effectively applied in many engineering fields to control the vibroimpact of a structural system. In this study, the basic parameters responsible for the design of an effective bean bag: the size of beans, the mass ratio of the bean bag to the structure to which it is attached, the clearance distance and the position of the bag, are studied by both theoretical and experimental analyses. These will provide a better understanding of the performance of the bean bag for optimisation of damper design. It was found that reducing the size of beans would increase the exchange of momentum in the system due to the increase in the effective contact areas. Within the range of mass ratios studied, the damping performance of the damper was found to improve with higher mass ratios. There was an optimum clearance for any specific damper whereby the maximum attenuation could be achieved. The position of the bag with respect to nodes and antipodes of the primary structure determined the magnitude of attenuation attainable. Furthermore, the limitations of bean bags have been identified and a general criteria for the design of a bean bag damper has been formulated based on the study undertaken. It was shown that an appropriately configured bean bag damper was capable of reducing the amplitude of vibration by 80% to 90%.

  12. Pb-210 in beans grown in normal background environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingote, Raquel M.; Nogueira, Regina A., E-mail: mingote@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rnogueira@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was carried out on the activity concentration of {sup 210}Pb in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in normal background environments in Brazil. The Carioca beans and the black type were analyzed, which contribute with 90% of the Brazilian market share of the common beans. To this study 18 bean samples sowing in the Middle-Western and Southern regions of Brazil during the years 2010-2011 were analyzed. The proportion per bean type was similar to the national production: most of the Carioca beans (n=13; 72%) and black beans (n=5; 28%). Other 17 values of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans grown in Southeastern region available in the GEORAD, a dataset of radioactivity in Brazil, were added to the statistic analysis of the data. Considering the information contained in censored observations (60%), representative value of {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in beans was estimated by using robust ROS, a censored data analysis method. The value 0.047 Bq kg{sup -1} fresh wt. obtained here is according to {sup 210}Pb activity concentration in grains reported by UNSCEAR 0.05 Bq kg{sup -1}. (author)

  13. Mung bean proteins and peptides: nutritional, functional and bioactive properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yi-Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To date, no extensive literature review exists regarding potential uses of mung bean proteins and peptides. As mung bean has long been widely used as a food source, early studies evaluated mung bean nutritional value against the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO/the World Health Organization (WHO amino acids dietary recommendations. The comparison demonstrated mung bean to be a good protein source, except for deficiencies in sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. Methionine and cysteine residues have been introduced into the 8S globulin through protein engineering technology. Subsequently, purified mung bean proteins and peptides have facilitated the study of their structural and functional properties. Two main types of extraction methods have been reported for isolation of proteins and peptides from mung bean flours, permitting sequencing of major proteins present in mung bean, including albumins and globulins (notably 8S globulin. However, the sequence for albumin deposited in the UniProt database differs from other sequences reported in the literature. Meanwhile, a limited number of reports have revealed other useful bioactivities for proteins and hydrolysed peptides, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, anti-fungal activity and trypsin inhibitory activity. Consequently, several mung bean hydrolysed peptides have served as effective food additives to prevent proteolysis during storage. Ultimately, further research will reveal other nutritional, functional and bioactive properties of mung bean for uses in diverse applications.

  14. In vivo mutagenicity studies in rats mice and Chinese hamsters fed irradiated foodstuffs - chicken, fish, dates, pulses, mangoes and cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Three in vivo genetic toxicity tests were performed in rats, mice and Chinese hamsters to detect possible mutagenic effects of irradiated chicken, dried dates, fish, cocoa beans, pulses and mangoes. The tests employed were the micronucleus test and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) test for irradiated and unirradiated samples of all foodstuffs listed, and the spermatogonia test, (including SCE technique) in mice for irradiated and unirradiated chicken, fish and dates only. In the case of cocoa beans, the mutagenicity tests were performed on an additional test group fed beans fumigated with ethylene oxide. The different mammalian species used for the various experiments are given below. None of the tests provided any evidence of mutagenicity induced by irradiation in any of the foodstuffs studied. Moreover, these tests are currently considered to be the most sensitive in vivo mutagenicity tests in mammals. (orig.)

  15. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans.

  16. Sensory evaluation of black beans submitted to gamma radiation from Cobalt-60; Avaliacao sensorial de feijao preto submetido a radiacao de Cobalto-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Neila Camargo de; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet, E-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Entomologia e Irradiacao de Alimentos

    2005-04-15

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the sensory aspects of black beans submitted to gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co. The study involved eight panelists, between 17 to 23 years old, who were selected and trained for the descriptive analysis of appearance, aroma, flavor and texture. The panelists analyzed alterations of appearance, aroma, flavor and texture of non-irradiated and irradiated black beans with doses 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10kGy. The results were analyzed by test F, ANOVA and the Tukey test (5%), with the use of computers and the sensory analysis software Compusense Five and SAS. The results showed that irradiated samples decreased the bitter flavor, accentuated color and brightness and samples non-irradiated dry texture. The radiation treatment is a good method for conservation of black beans in doses evaluated in this study.(author)

  17. Nitrogen fixation by mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) under field conditions in the Philippines as quantified by 15N isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, C.M.; Rivera, F.; Hautia, R.A.; Del Rosario, E.

    1995-05-01

    Nitrogen fixation by five mung bean genotypes (Vigna radiata L.) was estimated using two reference crops at two locations in the Philippines. The percentage of N derived from fixation and the amount of N-fixed ranged from 64 to 87% and 43 to 85 kg N/ha respectively at one location and from 36.6 to 72% and 21 to 85 kg N/ha at another location using cotton as reference crop. Maize was not a good reference crop. The highest mung bean seed yields obtained were 1.99 t/ha and 0.86 t/ha in the two locations. As to residual benefits, corn dry matter seeds yield were higher when grown following N 2 -fixing mung bean than after non-fixing corn or cotton. (author). 25 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  18. Kinetics of water sorption of damaged bean grains: Thermodynamic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Corrêa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to determine the thermodynamic properties of damaged beans. Grains with initial moisture content of 53.85% (d.b. were used. A part of the grains was used to obtain the desorption isotherms, while another part was subjected to drying until a moisture content of 5.26% (d.b. was achieved; therefore, it was subjected to the adsorption process. To induce damage, a Stein breakage tester was used. To obtain the equilibrium moisture content, grains were placed in a climatic chamber whose temperatures were 20, 30, 40, and 50 ± 1 °C combined with a relative humidity of 30, 40, 50, 70, and 90 ± 3%. Although in the desorption process, damaged grains had a lower differential enthalpy compared with the control, the reverse behavior was observed in the adsorption process. Mechanical damage caused the formation of a greater number of available adsorption sites, resulting in higher differential entropy values in adsorption and lower values in desorption compared with the control. The mechanical damage had no effect on the Gibbs free energy.

  19. Functional properties and fatty acids profile of different beans varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Rando, Rossana; Ravenda, Pietro; Dugo, Giacomo; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2016-10-01

    Dried seeds of four varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris, three of Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata and two of Vigna angularis grown and marketed in Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast were analysed for fatty acids content. In oils from seeds of P. vulgaris, the main fatty acids were linolenic (34.7-41.5%) and linoleic (30.7-40.3%), followed by palmitic (10.7-16.8%). The first three aforementioned fatty acids in the lipid fraction of V. unguiculata varieties were 28.4, 28.7 and 26.2%, respectively; while in V. angularis varieties, main fatty acids were linoleic (36.4-39.1%) and palmitic (26.9-33.3%), followed by linolenic (17.9-22.2%). Statistical analyses indicate that botanical species play a rule in bean fatty acids distribution, while the same was not verified for geographical origin. Furthermore, the atherogenic index (AI) and the thrombogenic index (TI) were investigated for health and nutritional information. The results showed that these wide spread legumes have functional features to human health.

  20. Technological quality of common bean grains obtained in different growing seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Francischinelli Perina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The traits that provide technological quality to common bean grains exhibit genetic and environmental variation and variation in the genotype x environment interaction. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of different periods of the growing season on the technological quality of common bean grains. The experiment was conducted with 25 bean genotypes (carioca [beige with brown stripes] and black commercial group that are part of the Value for Cultivation and Use (Valor de Cultivo e Uso - VCU trials in three growing seasons, namely, the 2009/2010 rainy season, the 2010/2011 dry season and the 2010/2011 winter season, in a randomized block experimental design with three replications in which the following items were assessed: cooking time (CT, water absorption capacity before cooking (Peanc and after cooking (Peapc, percentage of whole grains (PWG, total soluble solids in the broth (TSSb, volume expansion before cooking (EXPVbc and after cooking (EXPVac, and dry grain density (DD, grain density after maceration (SD and grain density after cooking (CD. Assessments showed that the different growing seasons for obtaining grains for the purpose of analysis of technological quality have an effect on the results and on differentiation among genotypes, indicating genotype x environment interaction. They also showed that the genotypes C2-1-6-1, C4-8-1-1, LP04-03, IAC-Imperador, P5-4-4-1 and Pr11-6-4-1-2 had the best results in relation to cooking time in the mean values of the three growing seasons. The use of early selection based on phenotypic correlations that exist among the technological features is not expressive, due to the variation of magnitude among the different growing seasons.

  1. Effect of Different Treatments of Mixed and Row Intercropping on Yield and Yield Components of Sesame and Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Ghale Noyee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Intercropping is a kind of multi-culture system where two or more plants are cultivated in a piece of land simultaneously. The aim of intercropping is optimizing the use of space, time and physical resources in both the top and under of the soil surface through maximizing positive relationship and minimizing negative relationship between the components of agricultural ecosystems. In intercropping due to better use of available resources such as land, labor, time, light, water and nutrients, as well as reducing damages caused by pests and diseases and socio-economic advantages, increase in production per unit area can be expected. In this study, yield and yield components of sesame and bean in additive and replacement intercropping with mixed and row planting type was evaluated and the possible advantages of intercropping to monoculture as well as the types of intercropping were compared. Materials and Methods This experiment was conducted in Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, located in 10 kilometers south-east of the city of Mashhad, Iran (latitude 36° 17′ N, longitude 59° 35′ E and 985 m elevation in 2013 and 2014. Climate of the area is cold and dry. A Split-Plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was used with the factor of cropping system (as main plot and intercropping proportions (as sub plot. The cropping system was included; mixed and row cropping and intercropping proportions were included; monoculture of bean (100b, 25% sesame- 75% bean (25s75b, 50% sesame- 50% bean (50s50b, 75% sesame- 25% bean (75s25b, monoculture of sesame (100s, 10% bean- 100% sesame (10b100s, 20% bean- 100% sesame (20b100s, 30% bean- 100% sesame (30b100s, 100% bean- 10% sesame (100b10s, 100% bean- 20% sesame (100b20s, and 100% bean- 30% sesame (100b30s. Planting was done using common varieties of the region (Esfarayen and Derakhshan varieties for sesame and bean

  2. Caffeine Extraction from Raw and Roasted Coffee Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Donyau; Lin, Chih-Yang; Hu, Chen-Ti; Lee, Sanboh

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a stimulant, psychoactive, popular daily beverage, and its caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior. These important issues prompted us to study caffeine extraction from both the raw and roasted coffee beans of 3 types at different temperatures. A hemispheric model is developed to simulate the extraction process of the caffeine from the coffee beans of hemisphere is proposed. The experimental data are in good agreement with the predicted model. The effective diffusivities of caffeine in both the raw and roasted beans increase with temperature in all 3 types. An incubation period, decreasing with increasing temperature, is observed in all samples studied. Caffeine extraction in roasted beans is more rapid than that for the raw beans and the time difference is significant at low temperatures. In both the raw and roasted samples, caffeine diffusion in the raw beans and the incubation behavior are thermally activated processes. Single activation energies are obtained for diffusion within the extraction temperature range for all beans tested with the exception of one type of the coffee beans, Mandheling, which exhibits 2 activation energies in raw samples. The surface energies of the epidermis of the raw beans and roasted beans obtained from the contact angle measurements are used to interpret the difference of incubation periods. This study has a potential application to the decaffeinated coffee industry.Caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior so that caffeine extraction from coffee beans of different types at different temperatures is important for product refining and customers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  4. Field evaluation of N2 fixation by seventeen mung bean genotypes in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, C.M.; Rivera, F.; Hautia, R.A.; Del Rosario, E.

    1994-12-01

    Seventeen mung bean genotypes were screened for biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) during the late dry (March-May) and early dry (October-December) seasons of 1992 in the Philippines. The 15 N isotope dilution method was used to measure N 2 fixation. Performances were quantified based on both indirect and direct measurements of N 2 fixation. Genetic variation was observed among varieties tested for some BNF characteristic. However, genetic variability for percent N derived from fixation (%Ndfa) was not evident. PAEC 3 mutant, Taiwan Green, Acc 687 and Pagasa 7 were the best performers. Whereas Acc 2041 consistently performed poorly for most of the BNF characters tested. (author). 14 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Distribution of implanted ions in seeds and roots of mung bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Donghua; Wang Wei; Jiang Wusheng; Zhang Zhixiang; Hou Wenqiang; Guo Ximing; Li Yi

    1998-01-01

    Doses of 1 x 10 16 , and 2 x 10 16 cm -2 and 1 x 10 16 , 2 x 10 16 , 3 x 10 16 and 3.6 x 10 16 cm -2 for iron and copper ions are implanted in dry seeds of mung bean, respectively. The results show that the accumulated-copper and -iron ion amounts in the seeds and roots vary with different doses of ion beam, and the fresh and dry weights of the roots decrease progressively with increasing iron and copper doses, except the treatment of 1 x 10 16 Cu + ions/cm 2 , and the accumulated-copper and -iron ion amounts in the seeds of the different test groups can be correlated with the ion distribution in the roots

  6. Study on mutation induced effect of gamma ray and DES on black bean phaseolus vulgaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thi Dinh; Pham Le Ha; Nguyen Van Toan; Le Xuan Tham [Nuclear Research Institute, Radiobiology Department, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2001-03-01

    The study on mutation induced effect of gamma ray and DES on black bean Phaseolus vulgaris was carried out at Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Institute of Dalat. Dry seeds of variety No.1847 - Bonita - Cuba in set of 13 black bean varieties were irradiated with gamma ray from {sup 60}Co source at dose range from 150 Gy to 350 Gy and treated with DES at concentration from 0.1% to 0.3% in 2 hours for experiments in laboratory. The doses of 200, 250, 300 Gy and concentration of 0.2% DES in 2 hours were selected to treat dry seeds for experiments on the field. In populations of M{sub 1} generation, the height, number of branches and fruits per plant, number of seeds per fruit were decreased with increasing of irradiation doses. In populations of M{sub 2} generation, individual variants in leaf shape, chlorophyll, short stem, dwarf, early maturity, flowering in very short time were obtained and selected in all treatment cases. Mutation frequency at dose of 300 Gy was higher than that in other treatment cases, but ratio of sterility is also largest. The mutant lines of early maturity and short stem with flowering in very short time are promised materials for further studies. (author)

  7. IAC Jabola and IAC Esperança: common bean cultivars for market niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Fernando Chiorato

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the trade of common beans with specialty grains such as Jalo, Bolinha, Jabola, Vermelho, Rajado,Branco, Pintado and Canário is still considered a niche market when compared to the carioca and black grain types.However, the cultivation of these beans has proved promising as an alternative income source for farmers, since it offers adifferentiated and more valuable product. IAC-Jabola and IAC-Esperança were developed by the Instituto AgronômicoCampinas (IAC in view of their excellent grain type, plant size and higher mean yield than the standard control Jalo Precoce.The IAC had these cultivars registered in MAPA/RNC based on results of 24 VCU trials in 2005/2006/2007, in the state of SãoPaulo. The yield of IAC Jabola was 2124 kg ha-1, 2336 kg ha-1, and 2558 kg ha-1, in the rainy, dry and winter seasons,respectively. The IAC- Esperança produced 1718 kg ha-1, 1545 kg ha-1, and 2263 kg ha-1 in the rainy, dry and winter seasons,respectively.

  8. Performance of faba bean genotypes with Orobanche foetida Poir. and Orobanche crenata Forsk. infestation in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Trabelsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche foetida Poir. and O. crenata Forsk. are major constraints to faba bean (Vicia faba L. cultivation in Tunisia. To evalúate the different levels of resistance of seven small-seeded faba bean genotypes to these parasitic weed species, three trials were conducted in fields infested and non-infested with O. foetida in the Oued Beja Agricultural Experimental Unit and O. crenata in an experimental field at Ariana of the National Institute of Agricultural Research during three cropping seasons. Compared to the susceptible cv. Bad'i, the seven genotypes showed moderate to high levels of resistance to both Orobanche species. The number and dry weight of emerged broomrapes and underground tubercles recorded on the new improved genotypes were lower than those recorded on released and resistant 'Najeh' and 'Baraca'. The parasitism index on the new genotypes varied from 2-6 times less than susceptible 'Bad'i' in both Oued-Beja and Ariana. Yield reduction due to O.foetida infection varied from 13.5% on genotype XAR-VF00.13-89-2-1-1-1-1 to 59.7% on 'Baraca', whereas the yield loss was about 92% on the susceptible control. Parasitic infection did not affect dry grain protein accumulation in the tested genotypes.

  9. THE PERFORMANCE OF FERMENTATED YIELD OF COCOA BEAN QUALITY IN WEST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon David H

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Besides research aims to improve post-harvest handling through fermentaasi also to improve the quality of fermented cocoa beans so that the value the higher the cocoa product jula. The study was conducted in villages of the National program on Gapoktan GERNAS COCOA Joint Business Village District Pegadang Sekayam Sanggau Fermentation done with treatment for 5 days with a reversal of 1 time after 48 hours and followed by artificial drying for 8 hours and 12 hours of sun drying. Quality parameters are analyzed adjusted as required by SNI 01-2323-2002 which includes the general requirements: insect life, water content, bii smell and / or abnormal levels of broken seeds, kotora levels, levels of foreign objects, dirt mammals, and special requirements: size /100 gr, grade seed and seed fungi. Results The study concluded that meet the requirements of the Indonesian National Standard (SNI, 2002 and also the International Cocoa Standards. While the quality requirements based on the number of seeds g tiap100 the fermentation of cocoa beans from Pegadang Village, Sekayam, Sanggau located on I-D quality.

  10. Nitrogen 15 abundance in protein fractions of beans fertilized with (15NH4)2SO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaud, Saula Goulart; Oliveira, Admar Costa de; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze

    2002-01-01

    Studies evaluating the protein nutritive value of beans labelled with 15 N, using nitrogen balance and the quantitation of faecal and urinary endogenous nitrogen, determined by isotopic dilution, have been extensively used. The objective of this research was to verify if the isotopic labelling of raw, freeze dried beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar Pirata 1) with 1.394 atoms % 15 N, resulted in the same abundance of the whole flour and of the protein fractions extracted from the beans with 0.5 mol L -1 NaCl. The isotopic abundance found in the whole bean flour, in the protein extract, in the globulin and albumin fractions were respectively: 1.394 +- 0.011; 1.403 +- 0.012; 1.399 +- 0.007 and 1.399 +- 0.028 atoms % of 15 N, presenting no difference (P > 0.05). However, a difference was found (P < 0.05) between the above mentioned abundances and the isotopic abundance found in the nitrogen of the proteins in the extraction residue, which was 0.969 +- 0.084. Since the abundances did not differ, the protein nutritive indexes, such as digestibility and biological value, determined from the nitrogen balance and corrected for isotopic dilution, would not be affected by extracting the proteins from the beans with 0.5 mol L 1 NaCl. If working with the nitrogen balance of the residual proteins after extraction and even with the whole flours, these indexes could present incorrect values, since the isotopic labelling of the residual proteins was less than that of the protein fractions. (author)

  11. Incentives for cocoa bean production in Ghana: Does quality matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quarmine, W.; Haagsma, R.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Asante, F.; Huis, van A.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the institutional factors that constrain farmers’ incentives to enhance the quality of cocoa beans in Ghana. Data were collected at three levels of aggregation in the cocoa bean value chain: village, district, and national level. Multi-stage cluster sampling was employed to

  12. relative performance of staking techniques on yield of climbing bean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important staple grain legume in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. In addition, it is a major source of proteins, energy and micro-nutrients (e.g. Fe and Zn), especially for smallholder farmers. The climbing bean is particularly more productive, an efficient land user and tolerant to ...

  13. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  14. Assessment of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris l.) Seed quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major causes of low yield of common bean in Ethiopia is the shortage and/or inaccessibility of high quality seed. In the Hararghe highlands of eastern Ethiopia, farmers often use common bean seeds produced both under sole crop and intercrop systems. This study was carried out to investigate the physical, ...

  15. Examining growth, yield and bean quality of Ethiopian coffee trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bote, Adugna

    2016-01-01

    Coffee (Coffeaarabica L.)bean production and quality are determined by a diversity of interacting factors (e.g. shade, nitrogen, crop traits). Bean yield increases with increase in radiation, but adequate fertilizer suppliesare needed to sustain the productivity. This thesis analysed

  16. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luseko

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes ...

  17. Effect of soya bean diet preparations on some haematological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Soya bean diet preparations on the hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, plasma albumin, sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations were studied in male albino rats. The animals were fed diets containing 75%, 50% and 25% Soya bean in groups II, III and IV respectively. Group I rats ...

  18. identification of common bean genotypes with dual leaf and pod

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... bean. Although various sources of resistance have been developed around the world, none of the varieties grown in Uganda is ... with a common bean production of 876,576 ..... Coffee Glittering. 5.0. 5.2 ..... chains in Uganda.

  19. Feeding value of processed horse eye bean ( Mucuna urens ) meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the performance of pullet chicks fed graded levels of processed horse eye bean meal (HEBM) as partial replacement for soybean meal. The cracked beans were subjected to three processing methods viz: soaking in plain water for 48 hours, cooking for 90 minutes, and toasting on open ...

  20. Coffee Bean Grade Determination Based on Image Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ferdiansjah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quality standard for coffee as an agriculture commodity in Indonesia uses defect system which is regulated in Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI for coffee bean, No: 01-2907-1999. In the Defect System standard, coffee bean is classified into six grades, from grade I to grade VI depending on the number of defect found in the coffee bean. Accuracy of this method heavily depends on the experience and the expertise of the human operators. The objective of the research is to develop a system to determine the coffee bean grading based on SNI No: 01-2907-1999. A visual sensor, a webcam connected to a computer, was used for image acquisition of coffee bean image samples, which were placed under uniform illumination of 414.5+2.9 lux. The computer performs feature extraction from parameters of coffee bean image samples in the term of texture (energy, entropy, contrast, homogeneity and color (R mean, G mean, and B mean and determines the grade of coffee bean based on the image parameters by implementing neural network algorithm. The accuracy of system testing for the coffee beans of grade I, II, III, IVA, IVB, V, and VI have the value of 100, 80, 60, 40, 100, 40, and 100%, respectively.

  1. effect of fermented and unfermented mucuna bean seed, on growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    0.05) ... for carnivorous fish and are higher for fish reared in high .... average body weight of 2.0g and average length of ... (fortnightly) intervals. .... Mucuna bean based diets is as good as Soya bean ... Lecture presented at the FAO/UNDP Training.

  2. Screening of spontaneous castor bean accesses for genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... discriminant power between the castor bean accesses, being the multivariate analysis efficient in this process. The castor bean accesses ACS-001 CRSP and ACS-001-MASP are promising for introduction in genetic improvement programs of this culture. Keywords: Ricinus communis L., genotype, multivariate statistics, ...

  3. Methionine in Velvet Bean ( Mucuna pruriens ) Based Broiler Starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of broiler chicks fed starter diets containing 30% raw or heat treated, and 20% heat treated velvet beans with varying levels of methionine was determined. The influence of varying levels of heat treated velvet beans on growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers was also investigated. There was ...

  4. Grouping of Environments for Testing Navy Bean in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kassaye

    bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines was tested in a multi-environment variety trial ... of methods available for the analysis of GEI and stability. .... parameters in the kth bilinear term are obtained as the kth component of the .... AMMI ANOVA of grain yield for 16 navy bean lines at fourteen environments during 2010 – 2011 main ...

  5. Factors influencing smallholder farmers' bean production and supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) is a major staple food in Burundi; thus increasing its production and marketing has the potential for raising incomes of the farming households. In the country, bean outputs have been declining for decades, yet demand for the crop in East Africa has surged considerably. This study was ...

  6. Development and use of microsatellite markers in Marama bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the development of SSR enrichment techniques has increased the efficiency of SSR characterisation in new species. The aim of the study was to develop SSR's for detection of polymorphisms in Marama bean. The microsatellite regions of the genome were the main focus for potential to be used in Marama bean ...

  7. Correlation between caffeine contents of green coffee beans and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A moderate negative correlation (R = 0.5463) was found between the caffeine contents of green coffee beans and the altitudes at which the coffee plants were grown. The caffeine contents of 9 of the green coffee bean samples analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) provided comparable results in the ...

  8. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) caused by the fungus Pseudocercospora griseola and Bean common mosaic and necrosis virus (BCMV/BCMNV) are important diseases of common bean in Tanzania that can cause severe yield reduction when uncontrolled. This study was conducted to incorporate resistant genes for ALS and ...

  9. Determination of radioactivity in maize and mung beans grown in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two staple foods (maize and mung beans) which were cultivated in Minjingu village, where there is phosphate deposit in Tanzania, were collected directly from the farms. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Th and 40K were determined in the maize and mung beans samples using γ ray spectrometry employing HPGe ...

  10. Effects of irradiation on the physicochemical properties of carioca beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Damaris Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    The common bean is an important component in the diet of the average Brazilian person. Each harvest of beans, losses occur due to attacks of insects and rodents. One of the ways to preserve the beans, and at the same time keep its nutritional characteristics, is the use of gamma radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses of gamma radiation on the physical and chemical properties of the carioca variety of common beans subject to cooking of soaked and unsoaked beans. Portions of raw beans were used as control and the other was subject to ionizing radiation at doses of 1, 5 and 10 kGy. Following irradiation, a portion of the samples (control and irradiated) were soaked and the other was not, then all beans were cooked. The cooked samples were lyophilized, milled and then accommodated in pots and stored at -23 deg C temperatures. The analysis of chemical composition, determination of protein digestibility, condensed tannin and phytic acid content were performed using the milled samples. Using whole grains, were performed analysis of expansion capability and hydration, cooking time and instrumental color. Irradiation did not alter the chemical composition of soaked and unsoaked samples. The condensed tannin levels did not reduce according to increased doses. The phytic acid concentrations were reduced at the doses of 5 and 10 kGy for soaked samples, whereas for the not soaked beans, gamma irradiation did not influence the phytate content. The protein digestibility decreased on soaked samples, at doses of 1 kGy and in the other doses, the reduction was not significant. As for not soaked beans, increases in digestibility were observed at dose of 10 kGy. As the doses increased, reduction in cooking time on soaked and unsoaked beans was noted. At a dose of 10 kGy, the bean expansion capability increased. The samples' color did not change significantly, as the doses increased. Therefore, it is concluded that ionizing radiation has no effect

  11. Optimization growth of Spirulina platensis in bean sprouts extract medium with urea fertilizer for phycocyanin production as antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianursanti, Taurina, Zarahmaida; Indraputri, Claudia Maya

    2018-02-01

    Spirulina platensis has the potential to be developed because of essential chemical compounds in the form of phycocyanin that can be used as an antioxidant. The growth of microalgae and phycocyanin depends on the availability of nutrition contained in culture medium. The cultivation will be carried out at 1 L reactor with continuous aeration, light intensity is 3000-4000 lux, and temperature is 27-30°C. Phycocyanin is obtained by liquid-liquid extraction method using phosphate buffer pH 7. Phycocyanin test performed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The result show that the highest dry biomass is obtained on bean sprouts extract medium 8% (v/v) with the addition of urea fertilizer 120 ppm. The highest content of phycocyanin is obtained on bean sprouts extract medium 8% (v/v) with the addition of urea fertilizer 100 ppm with phycocyanin concentration of 257.12 mg/L.

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  14. Sensory analysis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Calvo M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of sensory profiling constitutes the basis of a descriptive quantitative analysis, defining a product with the minimum number of words and with maximum efficiency, using a precise tasting sheet, which can be reproduced and is understood by all. In this work, the texture profiling for different bean varieties that are characteristic of the Spanish market was carried out. Optimum conditions for samples and a tasting card were established, and a panel was trained. The texture profile results show significant differences amongst varieties and even amongst different origins for the same variety.

  15. Induced leaf variations in faba bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasin, M.

    1996-01-01

    The frequency and spectrum of M2 chlorophyll and other leaf mutations after gamma ray, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and nitrous oxide (N2O) seed treatment in two varieties of faba bean were studied. In general, cv JV1 was more sensitive and EMS treatment was most effective. The frequency of chlorina-type mutations was higher than that of xantha and chlorotica type chlorophyll mutations. The highest frequency of variations was observed in leaflet texture, followed by arrangement, shape and size in both varieties. The use of these leaf mutations in formulating an ideotype of Vicia faba L. are discussed

  16. Genetic variation for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits in faba bean (Vicia faba L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman SHARIFI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  An investigation was carried out to select the most successful faba bean genotype(s and to estimate the heritability for seed yield and some of agro-morphological traits. The results of analysis of variance indicated that the studied genotypes differed significantly for all of the traits. For 100-seed weight, two north's of Iran landraces (G1 and G2 and two improved breeding cultivars containing France (G4 and Barrakat (G10 possessed the heaviest seed weight, 161.33, 139, 119.67 and 166 g, respectively. G1 and G10 presented the highest values for dry seed weight (473.98 and 495.44 g m-2, respectively. G1 and G10 showed significantly higher magnitude values of the other traits. Broad sense heritability (h2 estimates were generally high to moderate for all of the studied traits. The highest estimates of broad sense heritability was inscribed as 98 % for pod length, dry seed length and dry seed width and 0.95 for hundred seed weight. The estimated broad-sense heritability was 0.80 for dry seed yield per m2. These results suggested that the environmental factors had a small effect on the inheritance of traits with high heritability. High estimates of heritability indicated that selection based on mean would be successful in improving of these traits. High heritability indicate an additive gene action for the traits, and hence, possible trait improvement through selection. Path coefficient analysis indicated that the traits containing day to harvesting, pod length, hundred seed weight and number of stems per plant play major role in seed yield determination of faba bean. Attention should be paid to these characters for augmentation of seed yield and these traits could be used as selection criteria in faba bean breeding programs. These findings indicate that selection for each or full of the above traits would be accompanied by high yielding ability under such conditions. 

  17. Cowpea, Common Bean And Mung Bean Radiation Use Efficiency, Light Extinction Coefficient And Radiation Interception In Double Cropping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimadadi, A.; Rostamza, M.; Jahansooz, M.R.; Ahmadi, A.; Tavakol Afshari, R.

    2006-01-01

    Crop growth modeling for forecasting various plant's functions and their contribution to yield, is one of the ways to improve field management. This trial was set up to evaluate radiation use efficiency of mung bean, common bean and cowpea cultivars in a double cropping system. Field experiment was conducted at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj. A 4-replicate group balanced block field experiment was set up. Results showed that the differences among three pulses were significant in terms of biomass (p0.05). Cowpea, producing 5876.8 Kg/ha, had the highest yield among the species used in this study. Comparison of grain yield observed in this experiment with mono crop yield potential, showed that cowpea, common bean and mung bean produced 40%, 37% and 58% of their mono crop grain yield potential, respectively. In the late vegetative growth period, cowpea, mung bean and common bean absorbed 90%, 33% and 36% of photosynthetic active radiation, respectively. There was a significant difference among pulses, in terms of their radiation use efficiency and light extinction coefficient (p0.05 and p0.01, respectively). Cowpea, common bean and mung bean had radiation use efficiencies of 0.84, 0.82 and 0.99, g/MJ and light extinction coefficients of 0.605, 0.344 and 0.458, respectively. Results indicated that in some cultivars, when K decreases and LAI increases, LUE might be increased twice

  18. Effect of endogenous and exogenous enzymatic treatment of green vanilla beans on extraction of vanillin and main aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardío, Violeta T; Flores, Argel; López, Karla M; Martínez, David I; Márquez, Ofelia; Waliszewski, Krzysztof N

    2018-06-01

    Endogenous and exogenous enzymatic hydrolysis carried out to obtain vanilla extracts with higher concentrations of vanillin using green vanilla beans. Sequences initiated with freezing of green vanilla beans at - 1 °C for 24 h, followed by endogenous hydrolysis under optimal β-glucosidase activity at 4.2 and 35 °C for 96 h, exogenous hydrolysis with Crystalzyme PML-MX at pH 5.0 and 40 °C for 72 h, and ethanol extraction at 40% (v v -1 ) for 30 days. In the proposed method, 200 g of fresh green vanilla beans with 84% moisture (32 g dry base) were used to obtain a liter of single fold vanilla extract. This method allowed the release of 82.57% of the theoretically available vanillin from its precursor glucovanillin with 5.78 g 100 g -1 green vanilla beans (dry base). Vanillic acid, p -hydroxybenzaldehyde and vanillyl alcohol were also released and found in commercial and enzymatic extracts. Glucovanillin was detected in commercial and traditional extracts but was absent in enzymatic extracts, indicating incomplete hydrolysis during the curing process. An in vitro assay was conducted to determine if the presence of peroxidase during hydrolysis might affect overall vanillin concentration. Results showed that POD can use vanillin as a substrate under conditions similar to those in which hydrolysis was conducted (pH 5.0 and 50 °C), possibly explaining why vanillin concentration was not complete at the end of the process.

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  20. Effects of bioprocessed antinutritional factors on bean protein quality : with special emphasis on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, F.

    1994-01-01

    Legumes, e.g. beans and peas, can contain antinutritional factors. Some varieties of faba beans (Vicia faba), soya beans (Glycine max ) and white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can contain in their raw state antinutritional

  1. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  2. Banana stem juice protected soy bean meal as feed suplement to sheep: In sacco and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Puastuti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein with low resistant of rumen degradability must be protected, which part of its protein could reach post ruminal and able to supply amino acids for ruminant. The experiment was conducted to obtain the best ratio of soy bean meal with banana stem juice as feed supplement protecting protein. Rumen degradability using rumen fistulated sheep were evaluated in saccous at incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours. The best ratio in the in sacco experiment was used for further in vivo experiment. Fifteen growing lambs with average live weight of 18.6 ± 2.2 kg were grouped according to body weight in trial with a simple randomized design. Three treated rations were R0 = control diet with 0% protected soy bean meal, R50 = diet with 50% protected soy bean meal, and R100 = diet with 100% protected soy bean meal. All diets were iso nitrogen and iso energy (CP 18% and TDN 75%. Diet consisted approximately 30% king grass and 70% concentrate. The experimental diets were offered for 12 weeks. The result from in sacco experiment showed that the best ratio between soybean meal and banana stem juice was 2:1 w/v (R2. This mixture had the highest rumen undegradable dry matter and protein. Result from in vivo experiment showed that the intake and digestibility of dry matters, the intake and digestibility of crude protein. The intake and digestibilities of dry matter intakes and digestibilitie of crude protein, pH value, NH3-N, total bacteria, purin and total VFA in rumen fluid were not affected by feed supplement. The same average body weight at the beginning of study resulted same body weight at the end of study. The ADG of R50 and R100 (138.1 and 122.2 g were respectively not different with the control, RO (120.9g. It was concluded that soy bean meal and banana stem juice 2:1 w/v was the best ratio, but as feed supplement with high resistant rumen degradable protein can not produce higher growth rate than the control group.

  3. Effects of feeding different varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) straws with concentrate supplement on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegi, Teklu; Tolera, Adugna; Wamatu, Jane; Animut, Getachew; Rischkowsky, Barbara

    2017-12-19

    A study was conducted to evaluate the varietal differences among faba bean straws and also to assess the potentials of faba bean straws supplemented with concentrate fed at the rate 70% straws and 30% concentrate mixture on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of the animals. Forty yearling Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight of 19.85+0.29 kg (mean + SD were grouped in a randomized complete block design into eight blocks of five animals each based on their initial body weight. Straws include in the study were from Mosisa (T1M), Walki (T2W), Degaga (T3D), Shallo (T4S) and local (T5L) varieties of faba bean and concentrate (2:1 ratio of wheat bran to "noug" seed cake). The experiment consisted of seven days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trials followed by evaluation of carcass parameters at the end. Local variety had lower (Pdigestibility. The apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of sheep fed Walki and Mosisa straws were higher than (P0.05) by variety of the faba bean straws. There is significant varietal differences between faba bean straws both in quality and quantity. Similarly, significant variation observed among sheep in feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency among sheep fed different straws of faba bean varieties with concentrate supplement. Based on these results, Walki and Mosisa varieties could be recommended as pulse crop rotation with cereals in the study area.

  4. Identification of biochemical features of defective Coffea arabica L. beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, María I; Vaughan, Michael J; Bonello, Pierluigi; McSpadden Gardener, Brian; Grotewold, Erich; Alonso, Ana P

    2017-05-01

    Coffee organoleptic properties are based in part on the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans. The presence of defective beans during processing and roasting contribute to off flavors and reduce overall cup quality. A multipronged approach was undertaken to identify specific biochemical markers for defective beans. To this end, beans were split into defective and non-defective fractions and biochemically profiled in both green and roasted states. A set of 17 compounds in green beans, including organic acids, amino acids and reducing sugars; and 35 compounds in roasted beans, dominated by volatile compounds, organic acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, were sufficient to separate the defective and non-defective fractions. Unsorted coffee was examined for the presence of the biochemical markers to test their utility in detecting defective beans. Although the green coffee marker compounds were found in all fractions, three of the roasted coffee marker compounds (1-methylpyrrole, 5-methyl- 2-furfurylfuran, and 2-methylfuran) were uniquely present in defective fractions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid variety cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonfia-Essien, W A; West, G; Alderson, P G; Tucker, G

    2008-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a major, economically important, international crop and has been associated with several nutritional benefits including high antioxidant capacity. New cocoa hybrids have been developed in Ghana that exhibit resistance to pest damage during storage. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these new hybrids in comparison to more traditional cocoa varieties. Total extractable phenolics were similar in all the four hybrids tested ranging from 69.9 to 81.6FAEg(-1). These levels were very similar to that extracted from traditional beans (73.8±2.5FAEg(-1)). The "phenolic profile" was determined by HPLC. A total of 25 peaks was observed but there were only minor differences in this profile between traditional and hybrid bean extracts. Antioxidant capacity was determined using the FRAP assay and traditional beans were found to possess 12.4μmolTEg(-1). In comparison the hybrid beans had antioxidant capacities ranging from 21.6 to 45.5μmolTEg(-1), and these were significantly higher than in the traditional beans for three out of the four hybrids. Since the phenolic and antioxidant levels and in these hybrid varieties were either similar to, or higher than, that obtained from traditional beans, the introduction of these new varieties would be unlikely to impact detrimentally on these nutritional components of the beans. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Study on the Relationship between Cooking Properties of Adzuki Bean and Storage Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Isao; Breene, William M.; 早川, 功

    1982-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Phaseolus angularis) has been used for many cooking purposes in Japan. The basic method for adzuki bean cooking is heating in the presence of moisture, it seems that the differences of moisture content between the beans before cooking and between cooking methods have influence on the qualities of cooking products. But there is a general complaint about the poor cooking properties of these beans. Since the cooking properties depend, both on the moisture contents of bean before coo...

  7. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  8. Diversification and population structure in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Blair

    Full Text Available Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13 for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican, Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru. The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of

  9. Improvement of Faba Bean Yield Using Rhizobium/Agrobacterium Inoculant in Low-Fertility Sandy Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh H. Youseif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fertility is one of the major limiting factors for crop’s productivity in Egypt and the world in general. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF has a great importance as a non-polluting and a cost-effective way to improve soil fertility through supplying N to different agricultural systems. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the most efficient nitrogen-fixing legumes that can meet all of their N needs through BNF. Therefore, understanding the impact of rhizobial inoculation and contrasting soil rhizobia on nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean is crucial to optimize the crop yield, particularly under low fertility soil conditions. This study investigated the symbiotic effectiveness of 17 Rhizobium/Agrobacterium strains previously isolated from different Egyptian governorates in improving the nodulation and N2 fixation in faba bean cv. Giza 843 under controlled greenhouse conditions. Five strains that had a high nitrogen-fixing capacity under greenhouse conditions were subsequently tested in field trials as faba bean inoculants at Ismaillia Governorate in northeast Egypt in comparison with the chemical N-fertilization treatment (96 kg N·ha−1. A starter N-dose (48 kg N·ha−1 was applied in combination with different Rhizobium inoculants. The field experiments were established at sites without a background of inoculation under low fertility sandy soil conditions over two successive winter growing seasons, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014. Under greenhouse conditions, inoculated plants produced significantly higher nodules dry weight, plant biomass, and shoot N-uptake than non-inoculated ones. In the first season (2012/2013, inoculation of field-grown faba bean showed significant improvements in seed yield (3.73–4.36 ton·ha−1 and seed N-yield (138–153 Kg N·ha−1, which were higher than the uninoculated control (48 kg N·ha−1 that produced 2.97 Kg·ha−1 and 95 kg N·ha−1, respectively. Similarly, in the second season (2013

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  11. Drying of building lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washimi, Hiroshi

    1988-08-20

    Dried lumber is classified into air dried and kiln-dried lumber. The water content of kiln-dried lumber is specified by the Japan Agricultural Standards. However, since building lumber varies in such factors as the location where it was growing, species and shape, the standards, though relaxed, are not being observed. In fact, lumbered products which are not ''Kiln-dried'' frequently bear ''kiln-dried lumber'' marks. In an attempt to correct the situation, the Forestry Agency has set up voluntary standards, but problems still remain. The conventional drying method consists of first subjecting the lumber to optimum drying, then letting bending and deformations to freely and fully appear, and follow this with corrective sawing to produce planks straight from end to end. Compared with air dried lumber in terms of moisture content, kiln-dried lumber remains much with same with minimal shrinkage and expansion. For oil-containing resin, such normal treatments as drying by heating, steaming and boiling seem to be quite effective. Kiln drying, which is becoming more and more important with changes in the circulation system, consists of the steaming-drying-heating method and the dehumidizing type drying method. The major factor which determines the drying cost is the number of days required for drying, which depends largely on the kind of lumber and moisture content. The Forestry Angency is promoting production of defoiled lumber. (2 figs, 2 tables)

  12. Advances in faba bean genetics and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Martin O'Sullivan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vicia faba L, is a globally important grain legume whose main centres of diversity are the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean basin. Because of its small number (six of exceptionally large and easily observed chromosomes it became a model species for plant cytogenetics the 70s and 80s. It is somewhat ironic therefore, that the emergence of more genomically tractable model plant species such as Arabidopsis and Medicago coincided with a marked decline in genome research on the formerly favoured plant cytogenetic model. Thus, as ever higher density molecular marker coverage and dense genetic and even complete genome sequence maps of key crop and model species emerged through the 1990s and early 2000s, genetic and genome knowledge of Vicia faba lagged far behind other grain legumes such as soybean, common bean and pea.However, cheap sequencing technologies have stimulated the production of deep transcriptome coverage from several tissue types and numerous distinct cultivars in recent years. This has permitted the reconstruction of the faba bean meta-transcriptome and has fuelled development of extensive sets of Simple Sequence Repeat and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. Genetics of faba bean stretches back to the 1930s, but it was not until 1993 that DNA markers were used to construct genetic maps. A series of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-based genetic studies mainly targeted at quantitative loci underlying resistance to a series of biotic and abiotic stresses were conducted during the 1990’s and early 2000s. More recently, SNP-based genetic maps have permitted chromosome intervals of interest to be aligned to collinear segments of sequenced legume genomes such as the model legume Medicago truncatula, which in turn opens up the possibility for hypotheses on gene content, order and function to be translated from model to crop. Some examples of where knowledge of gene content and function have already been productively exploited are

  13. Characterisation of a haemagglutinin from Hokkaido red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jack H; Wan, Chung T; Ng, Tzi B

    2010-01-15

    A haemagglutinin was purified from Japanese Hokkaido red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean) with a procedure that included three chromatographic media. Haemagglutinating activity was adsorbed on DEAE cellulose, Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S. The pure haemagglutinin was a homodimer and each subunit was around 30 kDa in molecular mass. The haemagglutinating activity of this agglutinin could not be inhibited by a variety of simple sugars at 200 mmol L(-1) concentration including alpha-L-fucose, D(+)-galactose, D(+)-glucose, D(+)-glucosamine, D(-)galactosamine, galacturonic acid, (+)-lactose, D(+)-melibose, L(-)-mannose, D(+)-mannose, D-mannosamine, D(+)-raffinose, L-rhamnose, (+)-xylose and galacturonic acid. The haemagglutinating activity was fully retained at pH 4-11 and at 0-80 degrees C, but was completely lost at extreme pH values (0-2 and 13-14) and at very high temperatures (90 degrees C and 100 degrees C). The haemagglutinin exhibited a weak mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes, a stronger anti-proliferative activity than Con A toward HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells and inhibited >80% of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity at 3.3 micromol L(-1). It was devoid of anti-fungal activity. Hokkaido red bean haemagglutinin possesses a potent anti-proliferative effect on HepG2 cells. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Performance of dairy goats fed diets with dry yeast from sugar cane as protein source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Soares de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43 on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking. Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%. Animals fed the dry yeast diet showed lower intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber. Diets did not influence milk yield; however the milk production efficiency (kg of milk produced/kg of crude protein ingested was better in goats fed the dry yeast diet. Acidity, somatic cell counts and milk urea nitrogen values were not affected by treatments. Animals fed the soybean + dry yeast diet had higher fat and total solids than those fed the dry yeast diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and total carbohydrate was lower for soybean only and soybean + dry yeast diets. Total digestible nutrients were higher for dry yeast and soy bean diets than soybean + dry yeast diet. Dry yeast from sugar cane is a good alternative protein source for feeding lactating dairy goats and can be recommended because it maintains the production performance.

  15. Phytic acid concentration influences iron bioavailability from biofortified beans in Rwandese women with low iron status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Gahutu, Jean B; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Boy, Erick; Hurrell, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ∼50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was

  17. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WENPU CHEN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chen W, Li X, Rahman MRT, Al-Hajj NQM, Dey KC, Raqib SM. 2014. Emulsification properties of soy bean protein. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 196-202. Emulsion stability and emulsifying ability are two important factors in food industry. Soy protein has the great of interest because of its amphilic structure. β-Conglycinnin and glycinin are main components in soy protein which can be used as emulsifiers in food processing. However, due to its size and molecular weight, the emulsifying ability of soy protein is limited. By chemical, physical and enzymatic modification, the emulsifying ability of soy protein can be improved. The addition of polysaccharides in emulsion is common. The interaction of polysaccharides and proteins are being discussed in this review. In some complex food emulsion, the function of soy protein molecules and emulsifier at the interface need to be investigated in the future study.

  18. Insects diversity in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIN SETIAWATI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus is a vegetable which usually made as a home yard plant for Indonesian people to fulfill their daily needs. This plant has not been produced in the large number by the farmer. So it is hard to find in the market. Lima bean is light by many kind of insect. Inventory, identification and the study of insect taxon to this plant is being done to collect some information about the insect who life in the plant. The research was done in Balitsa experiment garden in the district of Lembang in Bandung regency on November 2003-February 2004, the experiment start at 4 weeks age, at the height of 1260 m over the sea level. The observation was made systematically by absolute method (D-vac macine and relative method (sweeping net. The research so that there were 26 species of phytofagous insect, 9 species of predator insect, 6 species of parasitoid insect, 4 species of pollinator and 14 species of scavenger insect. According to the research the highest species number was got in the 8th week (3rd sampling, which had 27 variety of species, so the highest diversity was also got in this with 2,113 point. Aphididae and Cicadellidae was the most insect found in roay plant. The research also had high number of species insect so the diversity of insect and evenness become high. A community will have the high stability if it is a long with the high diversity. High evenness in community that has low species dominance and high species number of insect so the high of species richness.

  19. Magnet systems for ''Bean-Shaped'' tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Mendelsohn, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Raynes, D.; Stiner, D.J.; Todd, A.M.; Williams, J.E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Bean-shaping of tokamak plasmas offers a method of reaching stable operation at (beta) > 10%. In order to establish the indentation of the ''bean'', a set of high- current ''pushing coils'' (> 5 MA in a reactor) must be located at the midplane as close as possible to the inboard edge of the plasma. If located in the bore of the TF coils, then maintenance of the pushing coils may be impossible, and the interlocking coils may prevent reactor modularity. If located outside, the required pushing-coil current may be unacceptably large. This dilemma is overcome with a unique TF coil design in which the inboard leg is bent outward in the form of an arc. The pushing coils are housed in the midplane indentation of this arc, just outside the TF coils but adequately close to the plasma. The arched coil transfers forces to the top and bottom legs, where it can be reacted by a clamp structure if necessary. This technique would allow demountable joints to be placed near the inoard leg (for copper TF coils). Another design approach to the pushing coils is to use liquid Li or Na as the conductor and coolant. The liquid metal ''coils'' can be placed immediately adjacent to the plasma, giving optimal control of the plasma shape with minimal coil current, although modularity of the reactor may have to be surrendered. Conceptual designs are presented of PF and TF coil systems for an ignition test reactor with about 14% and for a full-scale demonstration reactor with about 20%, both using copper TF coils

  20. Cowpeas and pinto beans: Performance and yields of candidate space crops in the laboratory biosphere closed ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.), pinto beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat ( Triticum sativa L.) was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, from February to May 2005. The lighting regime was 13 h light/11 h dark at a light intensity of 960 μmol m -2 s -1, 45 mol m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps. The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different planting densities. Pinto bean production was 341.5 g dry seed m -2 (5.42 g m -2 day -1) and 579.5 dry seed m -2 (9.20 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 32.5 plants m -2 and 37.5 plants m -2, respectively. Cowpea yielded 187.9 g dry seed m -2 (2.21 g m -2 day -1) and 348.8 dry seed m -2 (4.10 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 20.8 plants m -2 and 27.7 plants m -2, respectively. The crop was grown at elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, with levels ranging from 300-3000 ppm daily during the majority of the crop cycle. During early stages (first 10 days) of the crop, CO 2 was allowed to rise to 7860 ppm while soil respiration dominated, and then was brought down by plant photosynthesis. CO 2 was injected 27 times during days 29-71 to replenish CO 2 used by the crop during photosynthesis. Temperature regime was 24-28 °C day/deg 20-24 °C night. Pinto bean matured and was harvested 20 days earlier than is typical for this variety, while the cowpea, which had trouble establishing, took 25 days more for harvest than typical for this variety. Productivity and atmospheric dynamic results of these studies contribute toward the design of an envisioned ground-based test bed prototype Mars base.

  1. Effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth of beans plants (phaseolus vulgaris L.) during the first growing month

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon, M.P.; Ballesteros, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of soil moisture, over field capacity, on growth and photosynthesis of three moisture levels (20, 30 and 40%) was studied. The first moisture level was near field capacity while the others exceeded. Weekly dry weight of different plant parts, chlorophyll content, net CO 2 exchange rate in light and darkness, 14 CO 2 assimilated rate and stomatal aperture were determined. Results show a positive effect of soil moisture over field capacity on growth, photosynthesis and transpiration of beans during the first growing month. (author)

  2. Effectiveness of Locust Bean Pod Solution (LBPS) in the Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    KEYWORDS: Cement, compressive strength, locust bean, sandcrete blocks, building. [Received ... necessitates the need for alternative low cost walling material. (Aguwa, 2010) ... of 1920 to 2080 kg/m2 and may be solid or hollow. Dense solid.

  3. Plants growth, water relations and photosynthesis of two bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... almost all physiological activities were suppressed. The superiority of the genotype Tema against Djadida genotype was attributed to quantitative rather than qualitative physiological response differences. Keywords: Salinity, fluridone, bean, growth, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  4. Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in quantitative characters of faba bean after seed irradiation and associated molecular changes. Sonia Mejri, Yassine Mabrouk, Marie Voisin, Philippe Delavault, Philippe Simier, Mouldi Saidi, Omrane Belhadj ...

  5. THE EFFECT OF REPLACING SOYA BEAN MEAL WITH COOKED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... performance, carcass characteristics and blood indices of finisher broilers. Mucuna sloanei seeds were ... that is rich in protein and used for both human and ... The over dependence on soya bean as major protein source for ...

  6. In vitro root induction of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Roba M; Elazab, Heba E M; Hussein, Gihan M H; Metry, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for regeneration of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants is the difficulty of in vitro root induction. In the present study, in vitro rooting and its architecture have been studied. Adventitious root formation was successfully induced from regenerated faba bean shoots of four Egyptian cultivars, i.e., Giza 461, Giza 40, Giza 834 and Giza 716 on hormone free MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l silver nitrate. Among the four cultivars, Giza 461 and Giza 40 were recorded as the highest root formation response (75 % and 65) followed by cultivars Giza716 and Giza843 (20%, and 10%). Anatomical study proved that the produced roots are initiated as the adventitious lateral root (LR) with tri-arch xylem strands as compared with the penta-arch of the primary roots of the intact faba bean seedling. The obtained results overcome the root induction problem in faba bean.

  7. Effectiveness of rapid neutrons on small hoarse bean seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlek, S.; Janiszewski, T.

    1986-01-01

    The small hoarse bean seeds were irradiated. The radiation doses 100-300 rads were used. The obtained mutants were applied in the breeding. The use of fast neutrons was successful and shortened the breeding cycle. (A.S.)

  8. reaction of selected common bean genotypes to physiological races

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Department of Biological Sciences, Egerton University, P. O. Box 536, Egerton, Kenya. 1Department of Plant ... order to identify potential sources of resistance to angular leaf spot. Selected bean ...... phaseolicola (Burk, 1926) Young, Dye and.

  9. Detection of metabolites in Flor de Mayo common beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    katia

    2012-07-10

    Jul 10, 2012 ... beans involves beneficial effects of inoculation on plant growth and development parameters and can be taken ..... deficit as a driver of the mutualistic relationship between the fungus ... Utilization of the plant hormone indole-.

  10. Genetic diversity study of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... small black wild type to the large white, brown, red and spotted types (Cobley and ..... Accession. North Omo. (A). Hadiya. (B). Metekel. (Dan gure. )(C. ) Shinile (D) .... Origin, domestication and evolution of the common bean ...

  11. Induced mutants in beans and peas resistant to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and peas (Pisum sativum) are important leguminous vegetable crops in Egypt. The area planted with beans is about 40,000 acres and peas 22,000 acres. These crops suffer from several diseases, particularly rusts, (Uromyces phaseoli/Uromyces pisi), which are mainly spread in northern Egypt. In our mutation induction programme we used 60 Co gamma rays and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). Bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for two hours before exposure to 8, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical treatments, bean and pea seeds were soaked in water for eight hours and then treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. The M 1 was cultivated in 1978

  12. Economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo local government, Osun state. ... Majority (78.3%) of the processors and marketers were making profit; 95.0% operate ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. Biochar from different residues on soil properties and common bean production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isley Cristiellem Bicalho da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The production of biochar from organic residues promises to be an interesting strategy for the management of organic waste. To assess the effect of biochar on soil properties and the production and nutrition of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., three simultaneous experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with different biochar from organic residues (rice husk, sawdust, and sorghum silage used as filtration material for swine biofertilizer. In each experiment the treatments consisted of five different biochar concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 L m−3, arranged in a completely randomized design, with four repetitions. In the experiments, the use of biochar increased soil pH, cation exchange capacity, nutrient availability in the soil, and nutrient accumulation in grains. The biochar concentrations corresponding to the maximum production of grain dry matter of bean plants were 100, 68, and 71 L m−3 for biochar from rice husk filter (BRHF, biochar from sawdust filter (BSF, and biochar from sorghum silage filter (BSSF, respectively.

  14. The Effect of Humic Acid on Nutrient Composition in Broad Bean (Vicia faba L. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sener AKINCI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Humic acids promote the conversion of mineral nutrients into forms available to plants. It also stimulates seed germination and viability, and its main effect usually being more prominent in the roots. The objective of this study was to determine of the influence of humic acid on broad bean (Vicia faba L. cultivar �Eresen 87� on root growth and development as well as nutrient uptake, during investigation in a pot experiment. Treatment with leonardite, as humic acid source positively affected both germination and harvesting, enhancing root length and biomass. Humic acid (HA caused significant increase of fresh (RFW and dry (RDW weights by 30.1% and 56.6% of broad bean roots, respectively. Flame photometer and atomic absorption spectrophotometry analyses revealed that K content was major nutrient among the tested elements. Humic acid increased the contents of Na and K significantly. The content of Ca and Fe was not significantly increased whereas Cu, Mn and Zn content decreased under HA treatment.

  15. Evaluation of three pinto bean varieties under drought and irrigation in Durango, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Pedroza-Sandoval

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the behavioral response in growth and physiology on three bean varieties under irrigation and drought. The study was conducted in 2014 at the experimental campus from the Autonomous University of Chapingo, Regional University Unit of the Arid Zones, Durango, Mexico. A randomized block design with three replications in a split plot arrangement was used. The plots were the soil moisture contents: favorable, near to Field Capacity (FC: 22-26% and unfavorable, near to Permanent Wilting Point (PWP: 16-20%; subplots were varieties of beans: Pinto Centauro, Pinto Americano, and Pinto Saltillo. The variety Pinto Centauro had the greatest plant height (10.2 cm, vegetation cover (155.1 cm2, and dry matter production per plant (5.2 g and, physiologically, it showed an outstanding water use efficiency (15.8 μmol CO2: μmol H20. The variety Pinto Americano was the most stable in growth and development when changing from the favorable moisture condition (CC to the hydric stress condition (PWP, which makes it more viable under restrictive water availability conditions, but also more susceptible to root rot, associated to soil pathogens.

  16. Evaluation of phosphatic fertilizers of different solubility for common bean using isotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Altunaga, Aurelio; Hernandez Barrueta, German; Nuviola Montoya, Antonio; Mendez Perez, Nancy; Herrero Echevarria, Grisel; Drevon, Jean Jacques

    2005-01-01

    Glass house experiments were carried out in the Experimental Station La Renee located in Habana province in the year 2003. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of phosphorus (P) sources varying in solubility for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) nutrition using the isotopic dilution method with 32 P , growing under two soils: Acrisol and Rhodic Ferralsol. The P sources, evaluated in both soils were phosphate rock (PR) Trinidad de Guedes and PR partially solubilized at 50% with H 2 SO 4 , namely FPA 50, whereas single super phosphate (SS) and triple super phosphate (TSP) were used in the Acrisol and Rhodic Ferralsol Soils, respectively. The common bean genotypes were BAT 477, DOR 364, DOR 390 and Censa, and BAT 58, BAT 477, DOR 364 and CC-25-9(N) in the Acrisol and Rhodic Felrrasol soils, respectively. Dry matter production, P extraction, and the fraction and quantity of P in plants obtained from different P sources were evaluated, and P use efficiency of each P fertilizer were calculated. Single and tripe super phosphate and FPA 50 were effective P fertilizers in both soils whereas RF was not. (author) [es

  17. Study on osmoprotectant rhizobacteria to improve mung bean growth under drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryani, Y.; Sudadi; Dewi, W. S.; Yunus, A.

    2018-03-01

    Climate change leads to irregular rainwater availability for crops and thus enhances drought stress. Furthermore, nowadays we face climate disadvantages such as long dry season, short rainy season and high air temperature caused by climate change. This research aimed at studying the ability of osmoprotectant rhizobacteria isolates to support mung bean growth under drought stress. The rhizobacteria were isolated from mung bean’s rhizosphere. The results showed that isolates of strain Al24-k and Ver5-k produced glycine betaine 9.6306 mg g‑1 cell, 1.7667 x 107 CFU g‑1 soil and 11.4870 mg g”1 cell, 1.9667 x 107 CFU g‑1 soil. The isolated rhizobacteria from mung bean’s rhizosphere under field capacity of soil moisture produced glycine betaine 6.8000 mg g‑1 cell, 1.2556 x 107 CFU g‑1 soil. Under 75% field capacity of soil moisture, isolates produced glycine betaine of 6.4059 mg g‑1 cell, 1.3111 x 107 CFU g‑1 soil, while under 50% from field capacity, the isolates produced glycine betaine of 7.4108 mg g‑1 cell, 1.6667 x 107 CFU g‑1 soil. The osmoprotectant rhizobacteria improved the resilience of mung bean to drought stress.

  18. Leather Industry Solid Waste as Nitrogen Source for Growth of Common Bean Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.Q.; Oliveira, L.C.A.; Bastos, A.R.R.; Carvalho, G.S.; Marques, J.G.S.M.; Carvalho, J.G.; De Souza, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    The leather industry generates large amounts of a Cr-containing solid waste (wet blue leather). This material is classified by the Brazilian Environmental Council as a category-one waste, requiring a special disposal. The patented process Br n. PI 001538 is a technique to remove chromium from wet blue leather, with the recovery of a solid collagenic material (collagen), containing high nitrogen levels. This work aimed to evaluate the residual effect of soil application of collagen on the production of dry matter, content and accumulation of N in common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), after the previous growth of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) cv. Napier, as well as to quantify the mineralization rate of N in the soil. The application of collagen, at rates equivalent to 16 and 32 tha-1, provided greater N contents in the common bean plants, indicating residual effect of these rates of application; the same was observed for the rates of 4 and 8tha-1, though in smaller proportions. Higher mineralization rates of N collagen occurred next to 16 days after soil incubation. During the 216 days of incubation, the treatments with collagen showed higher amounts of mineralized nitrogen.

  19. Some Morphological Characters and Yield of Common Field Bean (Vicia faba.L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Golchin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To evalauate the influences of irrigation time with wastewater of Iran mayhes factory (producing leaven on some morphological characters and yield of faba bean, a factorial experiment carried out on the base of randomized complete block design (CRBD in Iran Mayehs factory farm in spring2012. Experimental factors consisted of irrigation times at 3 levels I1 = one irrigation with determined amount of wastewater, I2 = two irrigations with determined amount of wastewater, I3 = irrigation during the growth period of plants with determined amount of wastewater and wastewater concentration at 6 levels (P0 = irrigation with normal water (control, P15=15% wastewaters + normal water, P30= 30% wastewaters + normal, P45= 45% wastewaters + normal water, P60= 60% wastewaters + normal water, P100= all wastewater with three replications. Results showed that the effect irrigation numbers on traits such as plant height, number of pods per plant and seed yield was significant. Results also revealed that the effect of weastwater concentration on1000seed weight was significant. The interaction of number of irrigations by weastwater concentrations on stem dry weight was also signification. Evaluation of different treatments showed that 45 percent concentration of wastewater was increased traits under study. It seems, that controlled irrigation of bean with wastewater of factory (producing yeast can be effective in improving its yield in the region.

  20. Granular formulation of Fusarium oxysporum for biological control of faba bean and tomato Orobanche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemat Alla, Mamdouh M; Shabana, Yasser M; Serag, Mamdouh M; Hassan, Nemat M; El-Hawary, Mohamed M

    2008-12-01

    Orobanche spp. represent a serious threat to a wide range of crops. They are difficult targets for herbicides, and biological control could provide a possible solution. This work therefore aimed to formulate mycoherbicides of Fusarium with adequate shelf life and virulence against Orobanche but safe to faba bean and tomato. Only two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. (Foxy I and Foxy II) obtained from diseased Orobanche shoots were found to be pathogenic to Orobanche crenata Forsk. and Orobanche ramosa L. Conidial suspension of both isolates significantly decreased germination, attachments and tubercles of Orobanche. Microconidia and chlamydospores of both isolates were formulated as mycoherbicides encapsulated in a wheat flour-kaolin matrix (four different formulations). All formulations greatly diminished Orobanche emerged shoots, total shoot number, shoot height, attachment of emerged shoots, the germinated seeds that succeeded in emerging above the soil surface and dry weight. Meanwhile, disease incidence and disease severity of emerged shoots were enhanced. The shelf life was adequate, particularly for coarse, freshly prepared, low-temperature-stored, microconidia-rich formulations. The induced growth reduction of Orobanche-infected host plants seemed to be nullified by formulations, particularly at the highest dose. These formulations seemed to destroy Orobanche but appeared harmless to host plants. Hence, they could be efficiently used as mycoherbicides for biological control of Orobanche in faba bean and tomato.

  1. Selection of common bean genotypes for the Cerrado/Pantanal ecotone via mixed models and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, A M; Pereira, M I S; de Abreu, H K A; Sharon, T; de Melo, C L P; Ito, M A; Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L

    2016-10-17

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, is predominantly grown on small farms and lacks accurate genotype recommendations for specific micro-regions in Brazil. This contributes to a low national average yield. The aim of this study was to use the methods of the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values (HMRPGV) and the centroid, for selecting common bean genotypes with high yield, adaptability, and stability for the Cerrado/Pantanal ecotone region in Brazil. We evaluated 11 common bean genotypes in three trials carried out in the dry season in Aquidauana in 2013, 2014, and 2015. A likelihood ratio test detected a significant interaction between genotype x year, contributing 54% to the total phenotypic variation in grain yield. The three genotypes selected by the joint analysis of genotypic values in all years (Carioca Precoce, BRS Notável, and CNFC 15875) were the same as those recommended by the HMRPGV method. Using the centroid method, genotypes BRS Notável and CNFC 15875 were considered ideal genotypes based on their high stability to unfavorable environments and high responsiveness to environmental improvement. We identified a high association between the methods of adaptability and stability used in this study. However, the use of centroid method provided a more accurate and precise recommendation of the behavior of the evaluated genotypes.

  2. Functional and conformational properties of phaseolin (Phaseolus vulgris L.) and kidney bean protein isolate: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shou-Wei; Tang, Chuan-He; Wen, Qi-Biao; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2010-03-15

    Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgris L.) seed is an underutilised plant protein source with good potential to be applied in the food industry. Phaseolin (also named G1 globulin) represents about 50 g kg(-1) of total storage protein in the seed. The aim of the present study was to characterise physicochemical, functional and conformational properties of phaseolin, and to compare these properties with those of kidney bean protein isolate (KPI). Compared with kidney bean protein isolate (KPI), the acid-extracted phaseolin-rich protein product (PRP) had much lower protein recovery of 320 g kg(-1) (dry weight basis) but higher phaseolin purity (over 950 g kg(-1)). PRP contained much lower sulfhydryl (SH) and disulfide bond contents than KPI. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses showed that the phaseolin in PRP was less denatured than in KPI. Thermal analyses in the presence or absence of dithiothreitol, in combination with SH and SS content analyses showed the contributions of SS to the thermal stability of KPI. The analyses of near-UV circular dichroism and intrinsic fluorescence spectra indicated more compacted tertiary conformation of the proteins in PRP than in KPI. PRP exhibited much better protein solubility, emulsifying activity index, and gel-forming ability than KPI. The relatively poor functional properties of KPI may be associated with protein denaturation/unfolding, with subsequent protein aggregation. The results presented here suggest the potential for acid-extracted PRP to be applied in food formulations, in view of its functional properties.

  3. Preparation and characterization of soaps made from soya bean oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work deals with the preparation of soaps from neem oil and soya bean oil blends and analyses the soap produced. The soaps were produced using cold process technique by varying the percentage of oils; (soya bean oil and neem oil) in the ratio of 100%, 90/10%, 80/20%, 70/30%, 60/40%, 50/50%, 40/60%, ...

  4. Tvorba pluginů pro NetBeans

    OpenAIRE

    Vondráček, Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is an analysis of plugin technology. The goal of the thesis is to characterization of basics of this technology in common and with focus on application on NetBeans platform and its integrated development environment and further demonstration of the technology in form developing exemplary NetBeans plugin. Opening part is dedicated to theoretical analysis of plugin principals, its purposes in soft-ware development and use cases for current software applications. The t...

  5. Beta limit of crescent and bean shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitou, H.; Yamazaki, K.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum attainable beta values which can be expected in tokamaks with crescent (BEAN 1) and rounded (BEAN 2) bean shaped cross-sections are obtained numerically by using the linear ideal MHD stability analysis code ERATO. The current profiles are optimized with a fixed pressure profile for high values of beta, keeping Mercier, high-n ballooning and n=1 kink modes stable. The poloidal plasma cross-sections are inscribed in a rectangle with an aspect ratio of three and an ellipticity of two. A confocal wall, the distance of which from the plasma surface is equal to the horizontal minor plasma radius, is present to stabilize against the kink mode. Depending on the shape and triangularity (indentation), a beta value of 10 to 17% is obtained. It is also shown that the coefficient of the Troyon-type beta scaling increases for an indented plasma. In the case of small indentation, the BEAN 1 type tokamaks show higher beta values than the BEAN 2 type. For strong indentation, the BEAN 2 type gives the highest beta value. (author). 29 refs, 15 figs

  6. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  7. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.

  8. Biological nitrogen fixation in common bean and faba bean using N-15 methodology and two reference crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, Marcelo.

    1989-01-01

    A field was conducted on a Typic ustropepts soil located at 'La Tola', the experimental campus of the Agricultural Sciences Faculty at Tumbaco, Ecuador. The objectives were to quantify faba bean (Vicia faba) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) biological nitrogen fixation, using quinoa (chenopodium quinoa) and maize (Zea mays) as reference crops. The average values were 80 and 70 per cent for faba bean and 42 and 14 per cent for common bean, respectively. It was assumed that nitrogen use eficiency was the same for fixing crops but observed that a crop with high nitrogen use efficiency overestimates legume biological nitrogen fixation. Results suggests that greater caution is needed when selecting reference crops for legumes with nitrogen fixation

  9. Evaluation of bean and soy tempeh influence on intestinal bacteria and estimation of antibacterial properties of bean tempeh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuligowski, Maciej; Jasińska-Kuligowska, Iwona; Nowak, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of bean tempeh on the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus paracasei bacteria was investigated. Antibacterial activity was observed only in relation to the bacteria Bacillus subtilis. The effect of tempeh products on human intestinal microflora was also assessed. Bean and soy tempeh were culinarily processed and next digested in conditions simulating the human digestive tract (one of the digestive tracts was equipped with a mechanism simulating absorption). Soy tempeh stimulated most the growth of bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium, while bean tempeh that of Escherichia coli. Using simulation of absorption for the digestion of fried soy tempeh resulted in a higher rise in the bacteria count of the genus Lactobacillus, while after digestion of fried bean tempeh the highest increase was recorded for Bifidobacterium and E. coli.

  10. Early interspecific interference in the wheat/faba bean (Triticum aestivum/ Vicia faba ssp. minor and rapeseed/squarrosum clover (Brassica napus var. oleifera/Trifolium squarrosum intercrops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Benincasa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of research on intercrops evaluate performances and interference between species on the basis of final yield, while little knowledge is available on the interference in early stages and at the root level, at least for cultivated intercrops. In fact, in the few studies on this subject species are often combined minding at experimental needs (e.g. common substrate, temperature and water requirements, easy root separation more than at their actual use in the farm. The present work evaluates interspecific interference during early developmental stages for two intercrops of agricultural interest: soft wheat-faba bean and rapeseed-squarrosum clover. Improving this knowledge would help intercrop growth modelling and rational cultivation. The experiments were carried out on soft wheat (Triticum aestivum, faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor, rapeseed (Brassica napus var. oleifera and squarrosum clover (Trifolium squarrosum, germinated and grown until 32 days after sowing (DAS as one-species stands or as wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops, with different densities and proportions for the two species in each couple. Germination was studied in controlled-temperature chamber, plantlet growth was studied on pots in the greenhouse. During germination no interspecific interference was observed for both wheat/faba bean and rapeseed/squarrosum clover intercrops. During plantlet growth, interspecific interference occurred in both intercrops causing variations in whole plant and root dry matter accumulation. In the wheat/faba bean intercrop each species suffered from the competitive effect of the companion species and faba bean was the dominant species when present in lower proportion than wheat. The unexpectedly high aggressivity of faba bean may be explained either with the greater seed size that could have represented an initial advantage within the short duration of the experiment or with the competition towards wheat for substrate N

  11. Nutritive value evaluated on rats of new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) released in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, E; Zacarias, I; Aguayo, M; Vasquez, M; Guzman, E

    1995-06-01

    Five new cultivars of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) recently released were analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and protein biological quality. The crude protein content in these cultivars ranged from 21.9 percent in cultivar Arroz 3 to 26.9 percent in cultivar Tórtola Diana (dry matter basis). Rats fed cultivar Tórtola INIA gained more weight, had a higher protein intake and registered higher PER and NPR than Tórtola corriente. On the other hand, rats consuming cultivars Arroz 3 and Fleetwood had lower weight gain, lower protein intake and lower PER and NPR than cultivar Coscorrón corriente. However, all these cultivars have a relatively good protein value as compared to other plant protein sources.

  12. Improving Tolerance of Faba Bean during Early Growth Stages to Salinity through Micronutrients Foliar Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. EL FOULY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity, either of soil or of irrigation water, causes disturbances in plant growth and nutrient balance. Previous work indicates that applying nutrients by foliar application increases tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment with three replicates was carried out in the green house of NRC, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of micronutrients foliar application on salt tolerance of faba bean. Two concentrations of a micronutrient compound (0.1% and 0.15% were sprayed in two different treatments prior to or after the salinity treatments. Levels of NaCl (0.00-1000-2000-5000 ppm were supplied to irrigation water. Results indicated that 2000 and 5000 ppm NaCl inhibited growth and nutrient uptake. Spraying micronutrients could restore the negative effect of salinity on dry weight and nutrients uptake, when sprayed either before or after the salinity treatments. It is suggested that micronutrient foliar sprays could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity.

  13. Biochar and lignite affect H+-ATPase and H+-PPase activities in root tonoplast and nutrient contents of mung bean under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabian, Shahram; Farhangi-Abriz, Salar; Rathjen, Judith

    2018-05-31

    This research was conducted to evaluate effects of biochar (50 and 100 g kg -1 soil) and lignite (50 and 100 g kg -1 soil) treatments on H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activity of root tonoplast, nutrient content, and performance of mung bean under salt stress. High saline conditions increased H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activities in root tonoplast, sodium (Na) content, reactive oxygen species (H 2 O 2 and O 2 - ) generation, relative electrolyte leakage (REL) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity in root and leaf, but decreased relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content index, leaf area, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) content of plant tissues, root and shoot dry weight of mung bean. Lignite and biochar treatments decreased the H + -ATPase and H + -PPase activities of root tonoplast under salt stress. Moreover, these treatments increased the cation exchange capacity of soil and nutrient values in plant tissues. Biochar and lignite diminished the generation of reactive oxygen species and DPPH activity in root and leaf cells, and these superior effects improved chlorophyll content index, leaf area and growth of mung bean under both conditions. In general, the results of this study demonstrated that biochar and lignite decreased the entry of Na ion into the cells, enriched plant cells with nutrients, and consequently improved mung bean performance under salt toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Difference planted season and creeper-pole on both growth and yield of the two cultivars of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPRIYONO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to know the effect of different cultivars, planted seasons and creeper poles at velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. growth, yield and their interactions. This research was conducted on litosol soil in Tancep, Ngawen, Gunungkidul on 170 m up sea level and 9-10° elevation. The depth of soil tillage was 5-17 cm. Design utilization was Randomized Completed Block Design (RCBD with factorial 3 factors. The treatment was (i cultivars: rase and putih Gunungkidul (ii planted seasons: dry and rainy seasons and (iii creeper-poles: control, corn 0 weeks old, corn 2 weeks old, corn 4 weeks old and bambu. There is replicated 3 times. The result of this research was the 1st velvet bean growth on rainy season was rapidly but they have long time planted. The 2nd, by splited rase cultivars, rainy season and creeper-pole utilization was yield increased. The 3rd, on the rainy season, the high yield was come by rase cultivar and creeper-pole utilization. The 4th, with the 2 times velvet bean density and without calculated corn yield, rase cultivar planted on rainy season and bamboo creeper-pole coused the highest velvet bean yield but no significant different with 4 weeks corn creeper-pole.

  15. Growth of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of refried beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Akins, E Deann; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Simonne, Amarat H

    2012-10-01

    Outbreaks of Clostridium perfringens have been associated with dishes containing refried beans from food service establishments. However, growth of C. perfringens in refried beans has not been investigated, and predictive models have not been validated in this food matrix. We investigated the growth of C. perfringens during the cooling of refried beans. Refried beans (pinto and black, with and without salt added) were inoculated with 3 log CFU/g C. perfringens spores and incubated isothermally at 12, 23, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50°C. The levels of C. perfringens were monitored 3, 5, 8, and 10 h after inoculation, and then fitted to the Baranyi primary model and the Rosso secondary model prior to solving the Baranyi differential equation. The final model was validated by dynamic cooling experiments carried out in stockpots, thus mimicking the worst possible food service conditions. All refried beans samples supported the growth of C. perfringens, and all models fit the data with pseudo-R(2) values of 0.95 or greater and mean square errors of 0.3 or lower. The estimated maximum specific growth rates were generally higher in pinto beans, with or without salt added (2.64 and 1.95 h(-1), respectively), when compared with black beans, with or without salt added (1.78 and 1.61 h(-1), respectively). After 10 h of incubation, maximum populations of C. perfringens were significantly higher in samples with no salt added (7.9 log CFU/g for both pinto and black beans) than in samples with salt added (7.3 and 7.2 log CFU/g for pinto and black beans, respectively). The dynamic model predicted the growth of C. perfringens during cooling, with an average root mean squared error of 0.44. The use of large stockpots to cool refried beans led to an observed 1.2-log increase (1.5-log increase predicted by model) in levels of C. perfringens during cooling. The use of shallower pans for cooling is recommended, because they cool faster, therefore limiting the growth of C. perfringens.

  16. Genetic divergence of bean genotypes to infestation of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Neves Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the genetics divergence of bean genotypes in relation to the oviposition, feeding and development of Zabrotes subfasciatus, determining the degrees of resistance to the weevil. The genotypes used were: IAC Carioca-Tybatã, IAC Fortaleza, IAPAR 81, IAC Carioca-Eté, IAC Galante, IAC Harmonia, IAC Una, IAC Diplomata, BRS Supremo and RAZ 49. Tests were performed in laboratory under controlled humidity, temperature and photophase conditions. In free choice test, 10 g of bean genotypes seeds were distributed in circular openings placed equidistant from each other in aluminum trays, where 70 couples were released. The attractiveness was evaluated 24 hours and seven days after the experiment started, and then the number of eggs was evaluated. In non choice test, 10 g of seeds were used where seven couples of Z. subfasciatus, 24 hours-old, were released, remaining seven days, and after the adults retreat, the total number eggs, viable and unviable eggs, the number and percentage of emerged adults, weight, longevity and period from egg to adult of males and females, sex ratio, dry mass and dry mass consumed by insect were evaluated. In the genotype IAC Harmonia was observed the lower oviposition; RAZ 49 was the most non preference-type resistant for feeding and/or antibiosis-type resistant; BRS Supremo, IAC Carioca-Eté and IAPAR 81 are no preference for feeding and/or antibiosis-type moderate resistant; IAC Galante is susceptible and the other genotypes are highly susceptible to Z. subfasciatus

  17. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding Dental Care Home Health Info Health Topics Dry Mouth Saliva, or spit, is made by the salivary ... help keep teeth strong and fight tooth decay. Dry mouth, also called xerostomia (ZEER-oh-STOH-mee-ah), ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  19. Growth and yield of broccoli fertilized with doses of velvet bean in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Rúbia Diniz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dose effects of green manure in vegetable crops production are still poorly understood. There are few scientific studies indicate that increasing the dose may influence plants characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of doses of velvet bean green manure on growth and yield, the partitioning of dry matter and nitrogen (N in plants of broccoli, as well as determine the apparent recovery and physiological efficiency of use N. We established four treatments plus a control. The treatments consisted of four levels of green manure: 0, 3, 6, 9 t ha-1 on a dry matter basis, with the addition of 12 t ha-1 of compost. Doses of green manure applied influenced the growth and yield of broccoli. The distribution of dry matter between plant parts of broccoli is not influenced by the doses of green manure. Doses of green manure influenced the amount of N accumulated in the inflorescence and whole plant of broccoli. The apparent recovery of N from green manure and efficiency of N use by plants of broccoli are positively associated with the applied doses.

  20. Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus predominate during well-performed Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations, underlining the importance of these microbial species for a successful cocoa bean fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Lefeber, Timothy; Bahrim, Bakhtiar; Lee, Ong Seng; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

    2013-09-01

    Two spontaneous Malaysian cocoa bean box fermentations (one farm, two plantation plots) were investigated. Physical parameters, microbial community dynamics, yeast and bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the respective fermented dry cocoa beans. Similar microbial growth and metabolite profiles were obtained for the two fermentations. Low concentrations of citric acid were found in the fresh pulp, revealing low acidity of the raw material. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates glucose, fructose, and citric acid by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, and/or mannitol. Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the prevalent species of the two fermentations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Acetobacter ghanensis were also found during the mid-phase of the fermentation processes. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Tatumella saanichensis and Enterobacter sp. were present in the beginning of the fermentations and they could be responsible for the degradation of citric acid and/or the production of gluconic acid and lactic acid, respectively. The presence of facultative heterofermentative LAB during the fermentations caused a high production of lactic acid. Finally, as these fermentations were carried out with high-quality raw material and were characterised by a restricted microbial species diversity, resulting in successfully fermented dry cocoa beans and good chocolates produced thereof, it is likely that the prevailing species H. opuntiae, S. cerevisiae, Lb. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus were responsible for it. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  2. Grain Size and Heat Source Effect on the Drying Profile of Cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four sweat boxes were constructed with wooden material (0.95 x 0.25 x 0.25m) L x W x H and one electric bulb with 100,200,300 and 400watts rating hoisted in each box interchangeably. Cocoa bean cleaned and sorted into four different grain sizes samples (A, B, C, D) was subjected to drying till 13-14% moisture content ...

  3. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  4. Induced mutations of winged bean in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klu, G Y.P.; Quaynor-Addy, M; Dinku, E; Dikumwin, E [National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon (Ghana)

    1989-07-01

    Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) D.C.) was introduced into Ghana about two decades ago and not long after a high quality baby food was compounded from it. Germplasm collections are established at the Kade Agricultural Research Station of the University of Ghana and the University of Cape Coast. In 1980 a mutation breeding project was initiated at the University of Cape Coast under FAO/IAEA research contract and among various mutants a single erect stem mutant, a multiple branched bush type and a mutant with extra long pods were obtained. A similar programme was started at the National Nuclear Research Centre Kwabenya in 1982. Seeds of accessions UPS 122 and Kade 6/16 were gamma irradiated (100-400 Gy). In M{sub 2} a mutant was obtained that did not flower throughout a growing period of five months. This mutant had very few leaves but developed an underground tuber weighing ca. 100 g. The parent, UPS 122, although normally tuber producing did not form tubers at Kwabenya within the period studied. In M{sub 3}, mutants with variations in seed size and seed coat colour have been detected.

  5. Immunoregulatory activities of polysaccharides from mung bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Zhu, Yingying; Ren, Guixing

    2016-03-30

    Ultrasonic treatment was performed on water-extractable polysaccharides from the seed of mung beans. Purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography, MWP-1' and MWP-2' were obtained. Average molecular weights (Mws) of MWP-1' and MWP-2' were 68.4 kDa, and 52.4 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharides components analysis indicated that MWP-1' was composed of Rha, Ara, Man and Gal in a molar percent of 0.4:2.6:5.3:0.7. MWP-2' was composed of Ara, Man, Gal and Glc in a molar percent of 0.5:1.4:2.1:0.4. In vitro study showed that both polysaccharides samples were able to stimulate the production of secretory molecules (NO, TNF-α and IL-6) of RAW264.7 murine macrophages in a dosage dependent manner. MWP-2' seemed to be the most potent and induced significantly higher the NO production. These findings suggest that the ultrasonic treatment polysaccharides isolated in our study have immune potentiation effects on macrophages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 78 FR 8698 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS; Invitation for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [Docket No. MARAD-2013 0005] Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel COOL BEANS; Invitation for Public Comments AGENCY... BEANS is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: Sightseeing and sunset cruises. Geographic Region: Florida...

  7. Yield and Quality of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata (l. R. Wilczek Seeds Produced in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil MISIAK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to do field and laboratory assessments of yield and quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. R. Wilczek seeds cultivated in Western Poland. Mean yield of seeds per plant was higher for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. than for mung one: 13.1 g and 2.58 g, respectively. The mean 1000 mung seeds weight was 50.9 g and their germination – 78 %. Germination capacities of seeds of both beans in the field were similar. Mung beans, compared to common bean, had much smaller seeds, started to bloom later and produced mature seeds later than the latter. Mung bean seeds had more total proteins and Magnesium and Copper than common bean seeds. In Western Poland, production of high quality mung bean seeds was possible.

  8. “Eat dry beans, split peas, lentils and soya regularly”: a food-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-09

    Apr 9, 2013 ... nutrient content, to prevent malnutrition (including protein and micronutrient ..... and anti-inflammatory functions which contribute to the prevention of ... muscle via a combination of mechanisms, including the potentiation of ...

  9. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  10. Agronomic performance of velvet bean at different spatial arrangement; Desempenho agronomico de mucuna-verde em diferentes arranjos espaciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Aijanio Gomes de Brito; Goncalves Junior, Murilo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; Costa, Janaina Ribeiro; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Araujo, Ednaldo da Silva, E-mail: gmguerra@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: janaina@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: jose@cnpab.embrapa.b, E-mail: ednaldo@cnpab.EMBRAP [EMBRAPA Agrobiologia, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different plant spatial arrangements on agronomic performance of velvet-bean (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis). The experiment was performed with eight treatments, distributed in a randomized complete block design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with four replicates. The treatments were velvet bean sowing at two spacings between furrows (0.5 and 1.0 m) and four plant densities (2, 4, 8 and 16 plants m{sup -1}). Determinations were made for the soil covering and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) rates, and for the dry matter yield and N accumulation in the plant shoots. Total soil cover was accomplished at 50 days after sowing at 16 plants m{sup -1} density and 0.5 m spacing between furrows. The combination of 16 plants m{sup -1}1density with the 1.0 m spacing between furrows provided the greatest dry matter yield and accumulated most N in the plant shoots. Irrespective of the plant spatial arrangement, the estimation of BNF in this species shows that about 70% N present in the shoot is derived from the atmosphere. (author)

  11. Changes in weed infestation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. under conditions of strip intercropping and different weed control methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Głowacka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in the years 2004-2006 in a private farm in the village of Frankamionka in Zamość district. There were two experimental factors: I. Cultivation methods - sole cropping and strip intercropping; and II. Tending methods - mechanical, mechanical-chemical, and chemical weed control. The subject of the study was weed infestation of the Mela variety of common bean. Beans were sown between 30 April and 5 May. Weed infestation was assessed in the last week before harvesting by determining its floristic composition and the frequency of occurrence of particular weed species, as well as the air-dry weight of weeds. The dominant weed species were Galinsoga parviflora, Echinochloa crus-galli, Chenopodium album, and Amaranthus retroflexus, which comprised 84.7% of the total number of weeds. Strip intercropping markedly reduced the number of weeds per unit area (by 50%, as well as the dry weight of their aerial parts. The most effective method of weed control was the mechanical-chemical method, which resulted in the lowest occurrence of weeds. It also significantly reduced the weight of weeds.

  12. Effectiveness of halo-tolerant, auxin producing Pseudomonas and Rhizobium strains to improve osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqshoof Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Halo-tolerant, auxin producing bacteria could be used to induce salt tolerance in plants. A number of Rhizobium and auxin producing rhizobacterial strains were assessed for their ability to tolerate salt stress by conducting osmoadaptation assay. The selected strains were further screened for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean seedlings under salt-stressed axenic conditions in growth pouch/jar trials. Three most effective strains of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas containing ACC-deaminase were evaluated in combination, for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean at original, 4, and 6 dS m-1 under axenic conditions. Results showed that sole inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains improved the total dry matter up to 1.4, and 1.9 fold, respectively, while the increase in salt tolerance index was improved up to 1.3 and 2.0 fold by the Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains, respectively. However, up to 2.2 fold increase in total dry matter and salt tolerance index was observed due to combined inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains. So, combined application of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains could be explored as an effective strategy to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean.

  13. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0.......02) and protein (33.5 versus 34.2 g/kg, P = 0.008), whereas milk production, urea and somatic cell contents were unaffected compared with the untreated field beans. Increasing the proportion of maize silage (from 9 to 21% of DM) in the ration decreased the content of urea in milk (P = 0.002), whereas milk......-β-carotene (P = 0.04) and β-carotene (P = 0.05). Toasting of field beans compared with untreated field beans did not affect the milk content of carotenoids and had only small effects on fatty acid composition. Regarding the sensory quality, the four treatments resulted in milk being characterized...

  14. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-05

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs.

  15. Induced mutations in beans and peas for resistance to rust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, F.A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Gamma rays and ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) were applied in a mutation-induction programme for rust resistance in bean and pea. Bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked 2 hours before irradiation with 9, 10 and 12 krad. For chemical mutagen treatments bean and pea seeds were pre-soaked for 8 hours and treated with 0.5 and 1.5% EMS for four hours. M 2 seeds of beans and peas were planted in 1979. Resistant M 2 plants were selected for their rust resistance and other morphological characters. M 3 seeds of selected plants were planted in 1980. In 1980 more seeds of the same varieties of beans and peas were treated with 0.1 and 0.3% EMS with the aim to produce rust-resistant mutants. Seed germination was reduced by gamma rays or EMS. Dwarf, malformed and abnormal plants were noticed. Some resistant M 2 plants selected gave high grain yields. Some were different in morphological characters. In the M 3 of selected plants various other mutant characters appeared, such as different height of plants, early and late flowering, resistance to powdery mildew in peas, altered grain yield, thickness of stem, pod shape and flower colour. (author)

  16. Amylolytic treatment on faba bean for producing emulsions and emulsion gels

    OpenAIRE

    Suryanarayanan, Tilak

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the thesis was to investigate the effect of carbohydrates on solubility, emulsifying, gelling and water holding properties of proteins. Faba bean is a readily available pulse crop with high protein content similar to soy bean and there is a lot of potential for a novel, high protein fermented gel product to be made from a pulse crop like faba bean. This is mainly due to its remarkable nutritional properties, functional properties and low cost, the demand for faba bean protein...

  17. Genotypic difference in "1"3"7Cs accumulation and transfer from the contaminated field in Fukushima to azuki bean (Vigna angularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Salem, Djedidi; Yamaya, Hiroko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Tomooka, Norihiko; Kaga, Akito; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    The screening of mini-core collection of azuki bean accessions (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi) for comparative uptake of "1"3"7Cs in their edible portions was done in field trials on land contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Ninety seven azuki bean accessions including their wild relatives from a Japanese gene bank, were grown in a field in the Fukushima prefecture, which is located approximately 51 km north of FDNPP. The contamination level of the soil was 3665 ± 480 Bq kg"−"1 dry weight ("1"3"7Cs, average ± SD). The soil type comprised clay loam, where the sand: silt: clay proportion was 42:21:37. There was a significant varietal difference in the biomass production, radiocaesium accumulation and transfer factor (TF) of radiocaesium from the soil to edible portion. Under identical agricultural practice, the extent of "1"3"7Cs accumulation by seeds differed between the accessions by as much as 10-fold. Inter-varietal variation was expressed at the ratio of the maximum to minimum observed "1"3"7Cs transfer factor for seeds ranged from 0.092 to 0.009. The total biomass, time to flowering and maturity, and seed yield had negative relationship to "1"3"7Cs activity concentration in seeds. The results suggest that certain variety/varieties of azuki bean which accumulated less "1"3"7Cs in edible portion with preferable agronomic traits are suitable to reduce the "1"3"7Cs accumulation in food chain on contaminated land. - Highlights: • Varietal difference in the biomass, "1"3"7Cs accumulation and transfer factor was found in azuki. • "1"3"7Cs accumulation by seeds differed between the azuki bean accessions by as much as 10 folds. • Different accumulation patterns among the azuki bean accessions depends on their growth performance.

  18. Fate and possible nutritional and toxicological significance of methylbromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans. Coordinated programme on isotopic tracer-aided studies on foreign chemical residues in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-03-01

    Methyl bromide residues in cocoa as a result of fumigation under practical conditions have been studied. Cocoa beans were exposed to 14 C-labelled CH 3 Br for 24 hours at 20-32degC and dosage 23.5 to 28mg/1 of fumigants (moisture content of 6-7%). Whole unroasted beans and their shells and nibs as well as shells and nibs of roasted (105degC for 30 min) beans were extracted separately with toluene (for free CH 3 Br) and the dried residues wet combusted. 14 C-activities were determined by liquid scintillation counting. Total methyl bromide (bound and free) was equivalent 83-98ppm in whole unroasted beans 35 hours after treatment and aeration, and 31, 15 and 10ppm after 7, 42 and 70 days respectively in one set of experiments and 37, 53 and 42ppm after 76, 60 and 51 days in another set. Approximately 80% of the residue occurred in the shells which constitute only 12 to 13% of unroasted beans. 99% of the total residues appeared to be in chemically-bound form. Roasting reduced the total residues by 32 to 62% in nibs and 3.6 to 14% in shells. A striking effect of roasting was the occurrence in roasted nibs of residues as (extractable) carbon-14 (62-82% of the total residues compared to 16.5 - 27% in unroasted nibs). The bound residues behaved as methylated derivatives whilst the volatile fraction behaved as volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard type reactions from the 14 C-labelled amino acides and sugars

  19. Nitrogen 15 abundance in protein fractions of beans fertilized with ({sup 15}NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaud, Saula Goulart; Oliveira, Admar Costa de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Estudos Agricolas. Dept. de Planejamento Alimentar e Nutricao; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Isotopos Estaveis]. E-mail: admarco@fea.unicamp.br

    2002-12-01

    Studies evaluating the protein nutritive value of beans labelled with 15 N, using nitrogen balance and the quantitation of faecal and urinary endogenous nitrogen, determined by isotopic dilution, have been extensively used. The objective of this research was to verify if the isotopic labelling of raw, freeze dried beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar Pirata 1) with 1.394 atoms % 15 N, resulted in the same abundance of the whole flour and of the protein fractions extracted from the beans with 0.5 mol L{sup -1} NaCl. The isotopic abundance found in the whole bean flour, in the protein extract, in the globulin and albumin fractions were respectively: 1.394 +- 0.011; 1.403 +- 0.012; 1.399 +- 0.007 and 1.399 +- 0.028 atoms % of 15 N, presenting no difference (P > 0.05). However, a difference was found (P < 0.05) between the above mentioned abundances and the isotopic abundance found in the nitrogen of the proteins in the extraction residue, which was 0.969 +- 0.084. Since the abundances did not differ, the protein nutritive indexes, such as digestibility and biological value, determined from the nitrogen balance and corrected for isotopic dilution, would not be affected by extracting the proteins from the beans with 0.5 mol L 1 NaCl. If working with the nitrogen balance of the residual proteins after extraction and even with the whole flours, these indexes could present incorrect values, since the isotopic labelling of the residual proteins was less than that of the protein fractions. (author)

  20. Effect of pest controlling neem and mata-raton leaf extracts on greenhouse gas emissions from urea-amended soil cultivated with beans: A greenhouse experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Bautista, Joaquin; Fernandez-Luqueno, Fabian; Lopez-Valdez, Fernando; Mendoza-Cristino, Reyna; Montes-Molina, Joaquin A.; Gutierrez-Miceli, Federico A.; Dendooven, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous laboratory experiment, extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) and Gliricidia sepium Jacquin, locally known as mata-raton, used to control pests on crops, inhibited emissions of CO 2 from a urea-amended soil, but not nitrification and N 2 O emissions. We investigated if these extracts when applied to beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) affected their development, soil characteristics and emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) in a greenhouse environment. Untreated beans and beans planted with lambda-cyhalothrin, a commercial insecticide, served as controls. After 117 days, shoots of plants cultivated in soil amended with urea or treated with lambda-cyhalothrin, or extracts of neem or G. sepium were significantly higher than when cultivated in the unamended soil, while the roots were significantly longer when plants were amended with urea or treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium than when treated with lambda-cyhalothrin. The number of pods, fresh and dry pod weight and seed yield was significantly higher when bean plants were treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium treatments than when left untreated and unfertilized. The number of seeds was similar for the different treatments. The number of nodules was lower in plants fertilized with urea, treated with leaf extracts of neem or G. sepium, or with lambda-cyhalothrin compared to the unfertilized plants. The concentrations of NH 4 + , NO 2 - and NO 3 - decreased significantly over time with the lowest concentrations generally found at harvest. Treatment had no significant effect on the concentrations of NH 4 + and NO 2 - , but the concentration of NO 3 - was significantly lower in the unfertilized soil compared to the other treatments. It was found that applying extracts of neem or G. sepium leaves to beans favored their development when compared to untreated plants, but had no significant effect on nitrification in soil.

  1. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya

  2. Chemometric dissimilarity in nutritive value of popularly consumed Nigerian brown and white common beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyib, Oluwasayo Kehinde; Alashiri, Ganiyy Olasunkanmi; Adejoye, Oluseyi Damilola

    2015-01-01

    Brown beans are the preferred varieties over the white beans in Nigeria due to their assumed richer nutrients. This study was aimed at assessing and characterising some popular Nigerian common beans for their nutritive value based on seed coat colour. Three varieties, each, of Nigerian brown and white beans, and one, each, of French bean and soybean were analysed for 19 nutrients. Z-statistics test showed that Nigerian beans are nutritionally analogous to French bean and soybean. Analysis of variance showed that seed coat colour varied with proximate nutrients, Ca, Fe, and Vit C. Chemometric analysis methods revealed superior beans for macro and micro nutrients and presented clearer groupings among the beans for seed coat colour. The study estimated a moderate genetic distance (GD) that will facilitate transfer of useful genes and intercrossing among the beans. It also offers an opportunity to integrate French bean and soybean into genetic improvement programs in Nigerian common beans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 43142 - United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ...] United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... comments on the possible establishment of voluntary United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans... industry requested that USDA develop grade standards for canned refried beans to be used by the industry...

  4. Isolation and screening of rhizobia for auxin biosynthesis and growth promotion of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. seedlings under axenic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashfaq Anjum, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Arshad and Muhammad Ashraf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of screening experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of rhizobia for producing auxins and improvegrowth and nodulation of mungbean (Vigna radiata L. were carried out under axenic conditions. Forty fouriolatess of rhizobia were isolated using standard procedures. Auxin biosynthesis by these rhizobial isolates wasdetermined in the absence and presence of L-Trp, a physiological precursor of auxins. Rhizobial isolates variedwidely in auxins biosynthesis capabilities. On the basis of auxins biosynthesis, a pouch experiment was conductedfor screening thirty four efficient isolates of rhizobia for the growth promotion of mung bean. Results of pouch studyshowed that inoculation with selected rhizobial isolates increased the root /shoot length, fresh, and dry shoot weightof mung bean up to 33, 59, 71, 148, 107 and 188%, respectively, over untreated control. Further studies are neededunder glasshouse and field conditions for confirmation of these results.

  5. Composição química de amêndoas fermentadas de cacau Chemical, composition of fermented cacao beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Soave Spoladore

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available During the manufacturing process 10-12% in weight of cacao beans, which consist of seed coat and embryo, are discarded. The above mentioned material has a potential for utilization as animal food and purine base source. Therefore the chemical composition was determined in each part of the beans (seed coat, embryo and cotyledons after fermentation and drying. The principal compounds of the cotyledons are lipids (48% of which 57% are saturated fatty acids. Total nitrogen, total sugar, and starch content in the seed coat and embryo varied between 3-5%, 5-6%, 11-24%, whereas crude fiber content was 20%. The theobromine and caffeine content varied between 0.6-0.9% and in the cotyledons around 0.5%.

  6. Knowing beans: Human mirror mechanisms revealed through motor adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Glenberg

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Human mirror mechanisms (MMs respond during both performed and observed action and appear to underlie action goal recognition. We introduce a behavioral procedure for discovering and clarifying functional MM properties: Blindfolded participants repeatedly move beans either toward or away from themselves to induce motor adaptation. Then, the bias for perceiving direction of ambiguous visual movement in depth is measured. Bias is affected by a number of beans moved, b movement direction, and c similarity of the visual stimulus to the hand used to move beans. This cross-modal adaptation pattern supports both the validity of human MMs and functionality of our testing instrument. We also discuss related work that extends the motor adaptation paradigm to investigate contributions of MMs to speech perception and language comprehension.

  7. Stable isotope composition of cocoa beans of different geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Matteo; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Barbero, Alice; Caligiani, Augusta; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic profile (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(18) O, δ(2) H, δ(34) S) was used to characterise a wide selection of cocoa beans from different renowned production areas (Africa, Asia, Central and South America). The factors most influencing the isotopic signatures of cocoa beans were climate and altitude for δ(13) C and the isotopic composition of precipitation water for δ(18) O and δ(2) H, whereas δ(15) N and δ(34) S were primarily affected by geology and fertilisation practises. Multi-isotopic analysis was shown to be sufficiently effective in determining the geographical origin of cocoa beans, and combining it with Canonical Discriminant Analysis led to more than 80% of samples being correctly reclassified. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Rhizosphere acidification of faba bean, soybean and maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.L. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100094 (China); Cao, J. [School of Life Science, Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, F.S. [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China); Li, L., E-mail: lilong@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Plant and Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, Beijing, 100094 (China)

    2009-07-01

    Interspecific facilitation on phosphorus uptake was observed in faba bean/maize intercropping systems in previous studies. The mechanism behind this, however, remained unknown. Under nitrate supply, the difference in rhizosphere acidification potential was studied by directly measuring pH of the solution and by visualizing and quantifying proton efflux of roots between faba bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Lincan No.5), soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Zhonghuang No. 17) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Zhongdan No.2) in monoculture and intercrop, supplied without or with 0.2 mmol L{sup -1} P as KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. The pH of the nutrient solution grown faba bean was lower than initial pH of 6.0 from day 1 to day 22 under P deficiency, whereas the pH of the solution with maize was declined from day 13 after treatment. Growing soybean increased solution pH irrespective of P supply. Under P deficiency, the proton efflux of faba bean both total (315.25 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1}) and specific proton efflux (0.47 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}) was greater than that those of soybean (21.80 nmol h{sup -1} plant{sup -1} and 0.05 nmol h{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, respectively). Faba bean had much more ability of rhizosphere acidification than soybean and maize. The result can explain partly why faba bean utilizes sparingly soluble P more effectively than soybean and maize do, and has an important implication in understanding the mechanism behind interspecific facilitation on P uptake by intercropped species.

  9. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  10. Proanthocyanidin accumulation and transcriptional responses in the seed coat of cranberry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with different susceptibility to postharvest darkening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freixas Coutin, José A; Munholland, Seth; Silva, Anjali; Subedi, Sanjeena; Lukens, Lewis; Crosby, William L; Pauls, K Peter; Bozzo, Gale G

    2017-05-25

    Edible dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that darken during postharvest storage are graded lower and are less marketable than their non-darkened counterparts. Seed coat darkening in susceptible genotypes is dependent upon the availability of proanthocyanidins, and their subsequent oxidation to reactive quinones. Mature cranberry beans lacking this postharvest darkening trait tend to be proanthocyanidin-deficient, although the underlying molecular and biochemical determinants for this metabolic phenomenon are unknown. Seed coat proanthocyanidin levels increased with plant maturation in a darkening-susceptible cranberry bean recombinant inbred line (RIL), whereas these metabolites were absent in seeds of the non-darkening RIL plants. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was used to monitor changes in the seed coat transcriptome as a function of bean development, where transcript levels were measured as fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped. A total of 1336 genes were differentially expressed between darkening and non-darkening cranberry bean RILs. Structural and regulatory genes of the proanthocyanidin biosynthesis pathway were upregulated in seed coats of the darkening RIL. A principal component analysis determined that changes in transcript levels for two genes of unknown function and three proanthocyanidin biosynthesis genes, FLAVANONE 3-HYDROXYLASE 1, DIHYDROFLAVONOL 4-REDUCTASE 1 and ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE 1 (PvANR1) were highly correlated with proanthocyanidin accumulation in seed coats of the darkening-susceptible cranberry bean RIL. HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that in vitro activity of a recombinant PvANR1 was NADPH-dependent and assays containing cyanidin yielded epicatechin and catechin; high cyanidin substrate levels inhibited the formation of both of these products. Proanthocyanidin oxidation is a pre-requisite for postharvest-related seed coat darkening in dicotyledonous seeds. In model plant species, the accumulation of

  11. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  12. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Donna M; Armstrong Florian, Traci L; Thompson, Sharon V

    2016-01-01

    Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  13. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M Winham

    Full Text Available Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States.A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70% low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA.The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471. Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65% and were satiating (62%. Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%, control blood glucose (56% or reduce cancer risk (56%, indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation.Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  14. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  15. Inflammation in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-04-01

    Dry eye is a condition of altered tear composition that results from a diseased or dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation causes structural alterations and/or functional paralysis of the tear-secreting glands. Changes in tear composition resulting from lacrimal dysfunction, increased evaporation and/or poor clearance have pro-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. Anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified in dry eye.

  16. Drying hardwood lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, A T

    1988-11-14

    Dried lumber is a high-value-added product, especially when it is of high quality. Lumber damaged during the drying operation can represent substantial lost revenue. It has been demonstrated that dehumidification kilns can improve lumber quality, and reduce energy consumption over conventional drying methods. A summary of the literature on drying hardwood lumber, particularly using heat pump dehumidification, has been prepared to allow the information to be readily accessible to Ontario Hydro personnel who work with customers in the lumber industry. For that purpose, this summary has been prepared from the perspective of the customer, a dry kiln operator. Included are brief descriptions of drying schedules, precautions needed to minimize drying defects in the lumber, and rules-of-thumb for selecting and estimating the capital cost of the drying equipment. A selection of drying schedules and moisture contents of green lumber, a glossary of lumber defects and brief descriptions of the possible preventive measures are also included. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Development of Texturized Vegetable Protein from Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus and African Oil Bean Seed [Pentaclethrama crophylla (Benth]: Optimization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arueya Gibson. L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of measures to combat protein shortages in form of meat analogues, extrusion processing conditions for the development of Texturized Vegetable Protein (TVP from under-utilized sources (Lima bean and African oil bean seed are analysed. Optimum parameters for processing were established as being: barrel temperature (92.45°C, screw speed (101.48 rpm, feed moisture (59.63% and African oil bean seed protein concentrates (AOBSPC of 1%. Concentrations of essential amino-acids were also found to be significant (0.90-7.3% with a near absence of anti-nutritional factors (0.0022–1.0008 g/kg. Sensory evaluation showed that TVP5 (100% LBPC compared favourably with the control sample (cooked meat in overall acceptability. An Acceptable and nutritious meat analogue had been developed.

  18. The preparation of soy-bean foods for use in rural communities of the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, T

    1998-08-01

    Since the beginning of 1970, there has been a great breakthrough in the popularization of soy-bean-based food in Nigeria and in many parts of the developing world, especially for use in the prevention of kwashiorkor. Since 1975, soy bean has become a main source of daily dietary protein in many parts of Nigeria as a result of the successful incorporation of soy-bean products into almost all traditional Nigerian foods. This is a review of previous work in Nigeria on eliminating the beany flavour, bitter taste, and flatus factors in soy-bean milk and cooked soy-bean paste preparations.

  19. Field evaluation of N2 fixation by mung bean in the Philippines, and residual effects on maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, C.M.; Rivera, F.G.; Hautea, R.A.; Del Rosario, E.

    1998-01-01

    Seventeen genotypes of mung bean (Vigna radiata) were screened for growth, yield, and symbiotic N 2 fixation during the late-dry (March-May) and early-dry (October-December) seasons of 1992 at the University of the Philippines at Los Banos (UPLB). The 15 N-dilution method was used to determine amounts of N fixed. Soil mineral N availability was higher (average 22 kg N/ha) in the late- than in the early-dry season (9.2 kg N/ha), and, possibly in consequence, vegetative growth was better in the late- than in the early-dry season; however, in contrast, seed yields were better in the latter. Cultivar Pagasa 5 had the highest value (52 kg N/ha) for fixed N in the late-dry season, whereas PAEC 3 had the highest value (70 kg N/ha) in the early-dry season; Accession 2041 had the lowest values in both seasons (33 and 26 kg N/ha, respectively). Genetic variability, albeit slight, was observed for total N fixed, but not for percent N derived from fixation (%Ndfa). Further field work at UPLB and at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Quezon City, investigated five mung genotypes, including three from the previous trials, for yield N 2 fixation and residual effects on subsequent maize (Zea mays). Estimates for %Ndfa and for amounts of N fixed ranged from 64 to 87% and 43 to 85 kg N/ha, respectively, at PNRI, and from 37 to 72% and 21 to 85 kg N/ha, respectively, at UPLB. The highest mung-bean seed yields obtained were 1.99 t/ha at PNRI and 0.86 t/ha at UPLB in the two locations. When maize was planted after mung, dry matter, seed yields and total N were consistently higher than when planted after maize or cotton, although most of the differences fell short of statistical significance. The data are discussed in terms of genetic diversity for yield and N 2 fixation in these soils, and potential to exploit mung-fixed N to improve cereal yields

  20. Determination of trace elements in various kinds of bean by X-ray spectrometric techniques (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U Tin Maung Kyi; U Wai Zin Oo

    2001-01-01

    Various kinds of bean such as Peanut, Gram Whole, Black Eye Bean, Small Red Bean, Lab Lab Bean, Green Mung Bean, Filed Pea, Seasame Seed, Sultani, Maize, Butter Bean, Dolichos Lab Lab, Toor Whole, Small Yellow Bean, Cow Pea have been collected and analysed by EDXRF analysis for trace elements. The measurement system consists of a Cd-109 annual excitation source, a Si (Li) detector, H V power supply, a spectrometry amplifier, a multichannel analyser and a personal computer. The samples were prepared as pressed pellets and measured by Emission Transmission Technique. The accuracy was determined by analysing standard reference material, SOIL-7 form IAEA. (author)

  1. Degradation of rotenone in yam bean seeds ( Pachyrhizus sp.) through food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catteau, Lucy; Lautié, Emmanuelle; Koné, Oumou; Coppée, Marie; Hell, Kerstin; Pomalegni, Charles Bertrand; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2013-11-20

    The purpose of this research is to screen different processes that could potentially decrease or even eliminate rotenone, a toxic isoflavonoid, from Pachyrhizus seeds. Yam bean seeds have very interesting nutritional characteristics, especially their high protein and lipid contents, and could potentially increase food security in under-nourished populations. However, they contain rotenone, a natural molecule previously used as an insecticide inhibiting the respiratory mitochondrial chain. It was also proven to be toxic to mammals as chronic exposure leads to the development of Parkinson-like symptoms in rats. As the thermosensitivity of rotenone had been reported, this study tested different processes (drying, roasting, boiling, frying, alcohol extraction), tegument removal, and traditional Beninese culinary recipes. Rotenone was then quantified in end-products by a validated method, associating microwave extraction, solid phase extraction (SPE), and HPLC-UV. With these processes a rotenone removal of up to 80% was obtained. The most effective methods were the drying and roasting of the seeds and the maceration of their flour in local alcohol. Rotenone degradation and elimination were confirmed by cytotoxic assays, effectively inducing a decrease in sample toxicity.

  2. Controlled release of Lactobacillus rhamnosus biofilm probiotics from alginate-locust bean gum microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Kiew, Tie Yi; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2014-03-15

    Chitosan-coated alginate microcapsules containing high-density biofilm Lactobacillus rhamnosus have been previously shown to exhibit higher freeze drying- and thermal-tolerance than their planktonic counterparts. However, their cell release profile remains poor due to the capsules' susceptibility to the gastric environment. Herein the effects of adding locust bean (LB) and xanthan (XT) gums to alginate (AGN) capsules on the stress tolerance and cell release profiles in simulated gastrointestinal fluids are investigated. Compared to the AGN-only capsules, the AGN-LB capsules exhibit improved stress tolerance (i.e. ≈ 6x for freeze drying, 100x for thermotolerance, 10x for acid), whereas the AGN-XT capsules only improve the acid tolerance. Importantly, the AGN-LB capsules possess the optimal cell release profile with a majority of cells released in the simulated intestinal juice than in the gastric juice. The AGN-LB capsules' superiority is attributed to their stronger interaction with the chitosan coating and high swelling capacity, thus delaying their bulk dissolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In Rwandese Women with Low Iron Status, Iron Absorption from Low-Phytic Acid Beans and Biofortified Beans Is Comparable, but Low-Phytic Acid Beans Cause Adverse Gastrointestinal Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Rohner, Fabian; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Campion, Bruno; Boy, Erick; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Zimmerman, Michael Bruce; Zwahlen, Christian; Wirth, James P; Moretti, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is a major inhibitor of iron bioavailability from beans, and high PA concentrations might limit the positive effect of biofortified beans (BBs) on iron status. Low-phytic acid (lpa) bean varieties could increase iron bioavailability. We set out to test whether lpa beans provide more bioavailable iron than a BB variety when served as part of a composite meal in a bean-consuming population with low iron status. Dietary iron absorption from lpa, iron-biofortified, and control beans (CBs) (regular iron and PA concentrations) was compared in 25 nonpregnant young women with low iron status with the use of a multiple-meal crossover design. Iron absorption was measured with stable iron isotopes. PA concentration in lpa beans was ∼10% of BBs and CBs, and iron concentration in BBs was ∼2- and 1.5-fold compared with CBs and lpa beans, respectively. Fractional iron absorption from lpa beans [8.6% (95% CI: 4.8%, 15.5%)], BBs [7.3% (95% CI: 4.0%, 13.4%)], and CBs [8.0% (95% CI: 4.4%, 14.6%)] did not significantly differ. The total amount of iron absorbed from lpa beans and BBs was 421 μg (95% CI: 234, 756 μg) and 431 μg (95% CI: 237, 786 μg), respectively, and did not significantly differ, but was >50% higher (P beans were hard to cook, and their consumption caused transient adverse digestive side effects in ∼95% of participants. Gel electrophoresis analysis showed phytohemagglutinin L (PHA-L) residues in cooked lpa beans. BBs and lpa beans provided more bioavailable iron than control beans and could reduce dietary iron deficiency. Digestive side effects of lpa beans were likely caused by PHA-L, but it is unclear to what extent the associated digestive problems reduced iron bioavailability. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02215278. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Biofortified red mottled beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: Studies in poultry (Gallus gallus and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn Raymond P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one standard ("Low Fe" and the other biofortified ("High Fe" in Fe (49 and 71 μg Fe/g, respectively were used. This commercial class of red mottled beans is the preferred varietal type for most of the Caribbean and Eastern and Southern Africa where almost three quarters of a million hectares are grown. Therefore it is important to know the affect of biofortification of these beans on diets that simulate human feeding studies. Methods Maize-based diets containing the beans were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for broiler except for Fe (Fe concentrations in the 2 diets were 42.9 ± 1.2 and 54.6 ± 0.9 mg/kg. One day old chicks (Gallus gallus were allocated to the experimental diets (n = 12. For 4 wk, hemoglobin, feed-consumption and body-weights were measured. Results Hemoglobin maintenance efficiencies (HME (means ± SEM were different between groups on days 14 and 21 of the experiment (P In-vitro analysis showed lower iron bioavailability in cells exposed to standard ("Low Fe" bean based diet. Conclusions We conclude that the in-vivo results support the in-vitro observations; biofortified colored beans contain more bioavailable-iron than standard colored beans. In addition, biofortified beans seems to be a promising vehicle for increasing intakes of bioavailable Fe in human populations that consume these beans as a dietary staple. This justifies further work on the large-seeded Andean beans which are the staple of a large-region of Africa where iron-deficiency anemia is a primary cause of infant death and poor health status.

  5. Persistence of pirimiphos-methyl in stored sultana raisins, common beans and their processed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidemetriou, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    When radiolabelled pirimiphos-methyl was applied to sultana raisins and common beans, the total residues decreased from 86 to 68% for raisins in 8 months and from 89 to 44% for beans in 4 months. The major part of the residue was found inside the raisins whereas in beans it was concentrated on the surface. Pirimiphos-methyl was considerably more persistent on raisins than on beans. After the initial penetration of the pesticide, the surface residues remained constant in raisins, while in beans they decreased from 77 to 23%. The bound residues in beans reached a maximum of 1.3%. The reduction of radioactivity during processing was 11% and 9% on prewashed raisins and beans, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  6. Irradiation Effect on the symbiotic fixation of nitrogen in Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roveda Hoyos, Gabriel; Rozo Avila, Liliana; Sierra Daza, Soraya

    1997-01-01

    The efficiency of legume - Rhizobium association is determined by biological (plant and bacteria) and environmental factors (soil and climate); for that reason, the best cultivars -Rhizobium strains combinations for each specie of legume must be selected according to the specifics environmental conditions. One of the most important sun light qualities are the irradiance levels to which the plants are exposed, because these levels have a close relation with the photosynthetic process, and also affect the biological nitrogen fixation, which has a high energetic requirements for symbiosis. The propose of this work was to determine the effect of irradiance on the Biological Nitrogen Fixation in common bean seedlings, under two environments conditions 100 and 500 moles m - 2 seg - 1 (IA and IB respectively), an nutrition control. The experimental results suggest that in the case of common bean, the irradiance requirements change depending on the Rhizobium strain that has be used in the symbiotic association. Both inoculated and non-inoculated plants with Rhizobium showed different behavior according to the levels of irradiance under which the plants were exposed. Under the irradiance of 500 moles m 2 seg - 1 (IA) the highest values of weight, area of plants, number and weight of nodules, nitrogen and phosphors content in leaves were founded, however under the lowest irradiance 100 μ moles m 2 seg - 1 (IB), the plants showed the largest root and steam, as a result of increase of bud distance, this behavior is known etiolation. The irradiance levels under which the plants are exposed determine the efficiency of symbiosis. The experimental results showed that the irradiance levels, no only affect the plant growth, but also the strains behavior. These results were easily observed in the treatments where ICA P-12 and ICA P-19 strains were used, for the dry weight of leaves, root and leaves area, number and weight of nodules, and nitrogen content of leaves in the plant. The

  7. Domestication Genomics of the Open-Pollinated Scarlet Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, Azalea; Suárez-Atilano, Marco; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Piñero, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The runner bean is a legume species from Mesoamerica closely related to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It is a perennial species, but it is usually cultivated in small-scale agriculture as an annual crop for its dry seeds and edible immature pods. Unlike the common bean, P. coccineus has received little attention from a genetic standpoint. In this work we aim to (1) provide information about the domestication history and domestication events of P. coccineus; (2) examine the distribution and level of genetic diversity in wild and cultivated Mexican populations of this species; and, (3) identify candidate loci to natural and artificial selection. For this, we generated genotyping by sequencing data (42,548 SNPs) from 242 individuals of P. coccineus and the domesticated forms of the closely related species P. vulgaris (20) and P. dumosus (35). Eight genetic clusters were detected, of which half corresponds to wild populations and the rest to domesticated plants. The cultivated populations conform a monophyletic clade, suggesting that only one domestication event occurred in Mexico, and that it took place around populations of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. No difference between wild and domesticated levels of genetic diversity was detected and effective population sizes are relatively high, supporting a weak genetic bottleneck during domestication. Most populations presented an excess of heterozygotes, probably due to inbreeding depression. One population of P. coccineus subsp. striatus had the greatest excess and seems to be genetically isolated despite being geographically close to other wild populations. Contrasting with previous studies, we did not find evidence of recent gene flow between wild and cultivated populations. Based on outlier detection methods, we identified 24 domestication-related SNPs, 13 related to cultivar diversification and eight under natural selection. Few of these SNPs fell within annotated loci, but the annotated domestication

  8. Domestication Genomics of the Open-Pollinated Scarlet Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azalea Guerra-García

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The runner bean is a legume species from Mesoamerica closely related to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. It is a perennial species, but it is usually cultivated in small-scale agriculture as an annual crop for its dry seeds and edible immature pods. Unlike the common bean, P. coccineus has received little attention from a genetic standpoint. In this work we aim to (1 provide information about the domestication history and domestication events of P. coccineus; (2 examine the distribution and level of genetic diversity in wild and cultivated Mexican populations of this species; and, (3 identify candidate loci to natural and artificial selection. For this, we generated genotyping by sequencing data (42,548 SNPs from 242 individuals of P. coccineus and the domesticated forms of the closely related species P. vulgaris (20 and P. dumosus (35. Eight genetic clusters were detected, of which half corresponds to wild populations and the rest to domesticated plants. The cultivated populations conform a monophyletic clade, suggesting that only one domestication event occurred in Mexico, and that it took place around populations of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. No difference between wild and domesticated levels of genetic diversity was detected and effective population sizes are relatively high, supporting a weak genetic bottleneck during domestication. Most populations presented an excess of heterozygotes, probably due to inbreeding depression. One population of P. coccineus subsp. striatus had the greatest excess and seems to be genetically isolated despite being geographically close to other wild populations. Contrasting with previous studies, we did not find evidence of recent gene flow between wild and cultivated populations. Based on outlier detection methods, we identified 24 domestication-related SNPs, 13 related to cultivar diversification and eight under natural selection. Few of these SNPs fell within annotated loci, but the annotated

  9. The effect of Orobanche crenata infection severity in faba bean, field pea, and grass pea productivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Fernandez-Aparicio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp. are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops i.e. faba bean, field pea and grass pea. Regression functions modelled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2 and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The proportion of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host-parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than 4 parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size

  10. The Effect of Orobanche crenata Infection Severity in Faba Bean, Field Pea, and Grass Pea Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Flores, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape weeds ( Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops, i.e., faba bean, field pea, and grass pea. Regression functions modeled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2, and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea, and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The increase of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host-parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than four parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size. In contrast

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  12. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...

  13. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth Trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking A burning feeling in the mouth A dry feeling in the throat Cracked lips ... Food and Drug Administration provides information on dry mouth and offers advice for ... Syndrome Clinic NIDCR Sjogren’s Syndrome Clinic develops new therapies ...

  14. Effects of Oganic and Biofertilizers on Growth Indices of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amin Ghafori

    2016-07-01

    has improved yield and growth index. Materials and methods In order to study the effects of biofertilizers and vermicompost on the growth indices of castor bean (Ricinus communis L., a field experiment was conducted during the growing season of 2009 at the Agricultural Research Station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. A randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Treatments included: Nitroxin biofertilizer, Phosphate suloblizing bacteria and Vermicompost and Control (without any fertilizer. The results indicated that uses of organic and biofertilizer significantly increased plant height, leaf area Index (LAI, Total Dry Matter (DM, Crop Growth Rate (CGR compared with control. The areas of green leaves were measured using a Delta-T leaf area meter (Delta-T Devices, Cambridge, England. Then the samples, including stems and leaves were dried in a forced-air oven at 80 ০C for 48 h and after the witch total dry matter (TDM was measured. The leaf area data were divided into ground area and the leaf area index (LAI was obtained. The LAI data were fitted to the Gaussian equation to predict the LAI of common bean in growth season. The sigmoid equation was fitted to the TDM data and by derivation from this equation, the crop growth rate (CGR and relative growth rate were obtained. The analysis was performed using SAS 9.1 and the graphs were prepared using Excel. Results and discussion The study results indicated that uses of organic and biofertilizer significantly increased plant height, leaf Area Index (LAI, Total Dry Matter (DM and Crop Growth Rate (CGR compared to control. The highest and lowest leaf area index was observed in vermicompost (2.15 and control (0.88 treatments, respectively. The maximum and the minimum amounts of dry matter were recorded in the vermicompost treatment with 693.32 g.m-2 and control with 495 g.m-2, respectively. Crop growth rate reached to its peak in 85 days after emergence, the height and the

  15. Genetic diversity and population structure of common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ethiopian genetic center is considered to be one of the secondary centers of diversity for the common bean. This study was conducted to characterize the distribution of genetic diversity between and within ecological/geographical regions of Ethiopia. A germplasm sample of 116 landrace accessions was developed, ...

  16. The genetic diversity and population structure of common bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The STRUCTURE result was confirmed by Principal Coordinate analysis (PCoA) which also clustered beans in three groups. Most Andean genotypes were included in K3.1 and Mesoamerican genotypes belonged to the K3.2 and K3.3 subgroups. This study sets the stage for further analyses for agronomic traits such as ...

  17. Lima Bean Starch-Based Hydrogels | Oladebeye | Nigerian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogels were prepared by crosslinking native lima bean starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with glutaraldehyde (GA) at varying proportions in an acidic medium. The native starch (N-LBS) and hydrogels (L-GA (low glutaraldehyde) and H-GA (high glutaraldehyde)) were examined for their water absorption capacity (WAC) ...

  18. Genetic diversity studies in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular characterization of thirteen common bean genotypes was done with random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Initially, 15 primers were screened out of which only seven were selected which generated a total of 65 amplification products out of which 63 bands (96.62%) were polymorphic indicating fair ...

  19. Action spectrum of peroxyacetyl nitrate damage to bean plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugger, W M; Taylor, O C; Klein, W H; Shropshire, W

    1963-04-06

    For plant damage from peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) there is absolute requirement for light prior to, during, and after fumigation of plants with the oxidant. Pinto beans were fumigated with PAN and exposed to a variety of light intensities and wavelengths. Maximum damage to plants was found when PAN fumigation was contemporaneous with incident light of 370, 419, 480, and 641 m..mu...

  20. POP levels in beans from Mediterranean and tropical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Haddaoui, Imen; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Fede, Maria Rita; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-06-01

    Despite the importance of beans as food, few studies are conducted to control their contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), compounds of great importance because of their toxicity and tendency to accumulate in food chains. In order to evaluate the human exposure to POPs by the consumption of beans a monitoring programme was conducted on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in samples coming from Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast. All beans were extracted with an accelerated solvents extractor in triplicate; the clean-up step was done with a Florisil column; identification and quantification was carried out using a TSQ Quantum XLS Ultra GC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring mode. Results revealed concentrations of ∑PAHs ranged from 7.31 µg kg -1 to 686 µg kg -1 , ∑PCBs between 1.85 µg kg -1 and 43.1 µg kg -1 and ∑OCPs ranged from 1.37 µg kg -1 to 71.8 µg kg -1 . Our results showed that beans coming from Ivory Coast are the most exposed to the risk of contamination by all the pollutants investigated. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Utilization of half-embryo test to identify irradiated beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1996-01-01

    Germination tests were carried out in irradiated and non-irradiated bean seeds which allow to observe characteristically variations on the shoots and roots. The methodology used in this work, is based upon biological changes which occur in two Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar, irradiated in a 60 Co source, with doses of 0,0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy. The shoots and roots were observed during 3 days of culturing period under specified conditions. The differences observed in these two varieties were analysed immediately after irradiation and after 6 months of storage period at room temperature. Irradiated half-embryos showed markedly reduced root grow and almost totally retarded shoot elongation. Differences between irradiated and nonirradiated half-embryo could be observed after irradiation when different beans and storage time were varied. The shoots of half-embryos irradiated with more than 2.5 kGy did not undergo any elongation, whereas, the shoots of non-irradiated or those beans irradiated under 1.0 kGy elongated significantly within the 3 day test period. (author)

  2. Evaluation of essential minerals in carioquinha beans by EDXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Ellen Cristina Alves de; Aquino, Reginaldo R.; Scapin, Marcos A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the levels of essential minerals in the carioquinha beans were analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF), searching determine the possible minerals, quantities and the correlation among different sources of same variety and the possible contribution of each to the human diet

  3. Yield performance of dwarf bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entries SDDT-54-C5, PC490-D8 and DOR 715 were stable across all sites and between the two seasons. DOR 715 was also high yielding entry in Thondwe and Ntchenachena sites followed by BCMV B2 though the latter was unstable. Among sites, Thondwe was the best because yields of most of the bean entries were ...

  4. Incorporation of resistance to angular leaf spot and bean common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Luseko

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... indicating high reliability for markers. In selection, it was ... Generation of breeding lines. Planting was .... the variances from the distribution of the score data for ALS disease. ... were distributed along the scale but it skewed to the left side showing ..... Standard system for the evaluation of bean germplasm.

  5. Metabolic changes associated with ozone injury of bean leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craker, L.E.; Starbuck, J.S.

    1972-07-01

    Metabolic processes in primary leaves of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were altered by ozone stress. Decreases in levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein, and increases in ribonuclease (RNase) and free amine groups were associated with visible oxidant injury to the leaves. It appears that some air pollution injury to plants may result from changes in metabolic processes. 23 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, James W.; Wilson, Michael H.; Derks, M.F.L.; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J.; Cullis, Christopher; Foyer, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed

  7. Enhancing faba bean (Vicia faba L.) genome resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James W; Wilson, Michael H; Derks, Martijn F L; Smit, Sandra; Kunert, Karl J; Cullis, Christopher; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-04-01

    Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed on faba bean (cv. Wizard) leaves. Read alignment to the faba bean reference transcriptome identified 16 300 high quality unigenes. In addition, Illumina paired-end sequencing was used to establish a baseline for genomic information assembly. Genomic reads were assembled de novo into contigs with a size range of 50-5000 bp. Over 85% of sequences did not align to known genes, of which ~10% could be aligned to known repetitive genetic elements. Over 26 000 of the reference transcriptome unigenes could be aligned to DNA-sequencing (DNA-seq) reads with high confidence. Moreover, this comparison identified 56 668 potential splice points in all identified unigenes. Sequence length data were extended at 461 putative loci through alignment of DNA-seq contigs to full-length, publicly available linkage marker sequences. Reads also yielded coverages of 3466× and 650× for the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Inter- and intraspecies organelle genome comparisons established core legume organelle gene sets, and revealed polymorphic regions of faba bean organelle genomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. Recovery of herbicide-resistant Azuki bean [ Vigna angularis (Wild ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the bar gene as determined by assaying for resistance to bialaphos applied directly to leaves. This result demonstrates the feasibility of introducing potentially useful agronomic traits into azuki bean through genetic engineering. Key Words: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, bar gene, bialaphos, transgenic, Vigna angulazris.

  9. Performance Evaluation of Rotating Cylinder Type Coffee Bean Roaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarsi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One strategy attempts to reduce dependence on primary commodity markets are overseas market expansion and development of secondary products. In the secondary product processing coffee beans is required of supporting equipment to facilitate these efforts. Research Center for Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa has developed coffee bean roaster. However, there are still many people who do not know about the technical aspects of roaster machine type of rotating cylinder so that more people use traditional ways to roast coffee beans. In order for the benefits of this machine is better known society it is necessary to study on the technical aspects. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the technical performance of the coffee beans roaster machine type of rotating cylinder. These include the technical aspects of work capacity of the machine, roasting technical efficiency, fuel requirements, and power requirements of using roaster machine. Research methods are including data collection, calculation and analysis. The results showed that the roaster machine type of a rotating cylinder has capacity of 12.3 kg/hour. Roasting efficiency is 80%. Fuel consumption is 0.6 kg. The calculated amount of the used power of current measurement is the average of 0.616 kW.

  10. multiple disease resistance in snap bean genotypes in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Department of Plant Science and Crop Protection, University of Nairobi, P. O. Box 29053- ... Agriculture (CIAT), National Agricultural Research Laboratories Institute, ... Climbing snap bean lines had thick pods that could reduce pod quality. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... were harvested in sterile distilled water and spore.

  11. Bean nodulation patterns in soils of different texture at Morogoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, nodulation success by the inoculum was total in the clay but only dismal in the sandy soil. The unexpected discrepancy between inoculum success on the one hand and nodulation plus plant growth response on the other, is discussed. Keywords: Bean nodulation, ELISA typing of nodules, phaseolus vulgaris

  12. Control of Bean Rust using Antibiotics Produced by Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic culture filtrates produced by Bacillus (CA5) and Streptomyces spp. were tested for translocation and persistence when applied on snap beans inoculated with rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in greenhouse pot experiments. The antibiotics were applied on the first trifoliate leaves and translocation was assessed as ...

  13. Enterotoxicity of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from beans pudding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    36 samples of beans pudding from selected sources were analysed for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus using standard protocols aimed at assessing its bacteriological quality. Samples obtained from restaurant showed slightly lower value for total plate count (1.3 x 104 - 1.6 x 106 cfu/gm) compared to samples ...

  14. Characterization of pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a pre-gelatinized flour using a mixture of broken rice and split beans by thermoplastic extrusion, and to evaluate the physicochemical, nutritional, and technological quality of the final product. The extrusion parameters were maintained using three heating zones with temperatures of 30 ºC, 40 ºC, and 70 ºC; screw speed of 177 rpm; feed rate of 257 g/m, and circular matrix of 3.85 mm. The following characterization analyses were performed: physicochemical, nutritional, water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI, and paste viscosity. The pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour had an intermediate value of WAI, 7.51 g/g, and high WSI value, 24.61%. Regarding proteins, it was verified an average content of 12.9% in the final product. The amino acid contents found in the pre-gelatinized flour indicate that the mixture has the essential amino acids. It was also found that the pre-gelatinized flour supplies more than 60% of the essential amino acids recommended for children aged one to three years old. The gelatinized flour composed of broken rice and split beans is an alternative to the use of these by-products of the manufacture process of rice and beans to obtain a product with viable technological characteristics and high nutritional value.

  15. Determination Of Lipid Contents Of Two New Soy Bean Cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of fatty acids and sterols in oil is very important as they serve as the vital indicators of the activity and purity, respectively of the oils. A qualitative Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry study of oils from soy beans of two varieties (TGX 1802-1F, and TGX 1019-2EB) was done to determine their fatty acid, ...

  16. Some engineering properties of white kidney beans (Phaseolus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... projected area from 128.13 to 198.83 mm2, the true density from 1128.05 to 1290.85 kgm-3, the .... The white kidney bean grains used in the study were obtained from .... For each experiment, a sample was dropped into the.

  17. Flow cytometry determination of ploidy level in winged bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ploidy determination and mutation breeding of crop plants are inseparable twins given that mutation breeding is hinged majorly on polyploidization of crop's chromosome number. The present research was aimed at determining the ploidy level of 20 accessions of winged bean (Psophoscarpus tetragonolobus) using known ...

  18. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels to make bread. A...

  19. Evaluation of Some Pesticide Residues in Stored Beans in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis were performed by gas chromatography with electron capture and flame ionization. All the 3 samples (100%) contained pesticide residues beyond the allowed beans maximum residue levels (MRLs) of 0.01 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively, for chlorpyrifos and endosulfan. The present ...

  20. Iron beans in Rwanda: crop development and delivery experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HarvestPlus and its partners have successfully developed and delivered iron bean varieties to more than one million farming households in Rwanda, DRC, and Uganda to help combat the adverse health effects of iron deficiency widespread in these countries. Focusing primarily on Rwanda, this chapter summarizes the ...