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Sample records for ka arm zenith

  1. Ka-Band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-03-06

    The Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) is a zenith-pointing Doppler cloud radar operating at approximately 35 GHz. The KAZR is an evolutionary follow-on radar to ARM's widely successful millimeter-wavelength cloud radar (MMCR). The main purpose of the KAZR is to provide vertical profiles of clouds by measuring the first three Doppler moments: reflectivity, radial Doppler velocity, and spectra width. At the sites where the dual-polarization measurements are made, the Doppler moments for the cross-polarization channel are also available. In addition to the moments, velocity spectra are also continuously recorded for each range gate.

  2. Automated rain rate estimates using the Ka-band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chandra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of millimeter wavelength radars for probing precipitation has recently gained interest. However, estimation of precipitation variables is not straightforward due to strong attenuation, radar receiver saturation, antenna wet radome effects and natural microphysical variability. Here, an automated algorithm is developed for routinely retrieving rain rates from profiling Ka-band (35-GHz ARM zenith radars (KAZR. A 1-D simple, steady state microphysical model is used to estimate the impact of microphysical processes and attenuation on the profiles of the radar observables at 35-GHz and thus provide criteria for identifying when attenuation or microphysical processes dominate KAZR observations. KAZR observations are also screened for saturation and wet radome effects. The proposed algorithm is implemented in two steps: high rain rates are retrieved by using the amount of attenuation in rain layers, while lower rain rates by the Ze–R (reflectivity-rain rate relation is implemented. Observations collected by the KAZR, disdrometer and scanning weather radars during the DYNAMO/AMIE field campaign at Gan Island of the tropical Indian Ocean are used to validate the proposed approach. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can be used to derive robust statistics of rain rates in the tropics from KAZR observations.

  3. Automated rain rate estimates using the Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, A.; Zhang, C.; Kollias, P.; Matrosov, S.; Szyrmer, W.

    2015-09-01

    The use of millimeter wavelength radars for probing precipitation has recently gained interest. However, estimation of precipitation variables is not straightforward due to strong signal attenuation, radar receiver saturation, antenna wet radome effects and natural microphysical variability. Here, an automated algorithm is developed for routinely retrieving rain rates from the profiling Ka-band (35-GHz) ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) zenith radars (KAZR). A 1-dimensional, simple, steady state microphysical model is used to estimate impacts of microphysical processes and attenuation on the profiles of radar observables at 35-GHz and thus provide criteria for identifying situations when attenuation or microphysical processes dominate KAZR observations. KAZR observations are also screened for signal saturation and wet radome effects. The algorithm is implemented in two steps: high rain rates are retrieved by using the amount of attenuation in rain layers, while low rain rates are retrieved from the reflectivity-rain rate (Ze-R) relation. Observations collected by the KAZR, rain gauge, disdrometer and scanning precipitating radars during the DYNAMO/AMIE field campaign at the Gan Island of the tropical Indian Ocean are used to validate the proposed approach. The differences in the rain accumulation from the proposed algorithm are quantified. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm has a potential for deriving continuous rain rate statistics in the tropics.

  4. CIMEL Measurements of Zenith Radiances at the ARM Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Wiscombe, Warren; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Starting from October 1, 2001, Cimel at the ARM Central Facility in Oklahoma has been switched to a new "cloud mode." This mode allows taking measurements of zenith radiance when the Sun in blocked by clouds. In this case, every 13 min. Cimel points straight up and takes 10 measurements with 9 sec. time interval. The new Cimel's mode has four filters at 440, 670, 870 and 1020 nm. For cloudy conditions, the spectral contrast in surface albedo dominates over Rayleigh and aerosol effects; this makes normalized zenith radiances at 440 and 670 as well as for 870 and 1020 almost indistinguishable. We compare Cimel measurements with other ARM cart site instruments: Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), Narrow Field of View (NFOV) sensor, and MicroWave Radiometer(MWR). Based on Cimel and MFRSR 670 and 870 nm channels, we build a normalized difference cloud index (NDCI) for radiances and fluxes, respectively. Radiance NDCI from Cimel and flux NDCI from MFRSR are compared between themselves as well as with cloud Liquid Water Path (LWP) retrieved from MWR. Based on our theoretical calculations and preliminary data analysis,there is a good correlation between NDCIs and LWP for cloudy sky above green vegetation. Based on this correlation, an algorithm to retrieve cloud optical depth from NDCI is proposed.

  5. Use of the ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes & Aerosol-Cloud Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander Marshak; Warren Wiscombe; Yuri Knyazikhin; Christine Chiu

    2011-05-24

    We proposed a variety of tasks centered on the following question: what can we learn about 3D cloud-radiation processes and aerosol-cloud interaction from rapid-sampling ARM measurements of spectral zenith radiance? These ARM measurements offer spectacular new and largely unexploited capabilities in both the temporal and spectral domains. Unlike most other ARM instruments, which average over many seconds or take samples many seconds apart, the new spectral zenith radiance measurements are fast enough to resolve natural time scales of cloud change and cloud boundaries as well as the transition zone between cloudy and clear areas. In the case of the shortwave spectrometer, the measurements offer high time resolution and high spectral resolution, allowing new discovery-oriented science which we intend to pursue vigorously. Research objectives are, for convenience, grouped under three themes: • Understand radiative signature of the transition zone between cloud-free and cloudy areas using data from ARM shortwave radiometers, which has major climatic consequences in both aerosol direct and indirect effect studies. • Provide cloud property retrievals from the ARM sites and the ARM Mobile Facility for studies of aerosol-cloud interactions. • Assess impact of 3D cloud structures on aerosol properties using passive and active remote sensing techniques from both ARM and satellite measurements.

  6. ARM tõestab, et ka analüütikud eksivad / Fredy-Edwin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Apple'i iPadidele ja iPhone'idele kiipe tootva Suurbritannia firma ARM Holdings aktsia on kõige suurem tõusja Londoni FTSE 100 indeksi kuue kuu, 12 kuu, 18 kuu, kahe aasta ja kolme aasta lõikes, samas on analüütikud kõigist indeksi aktsiatest kõige negatiivsemalt meelestatud just ARM Holdingsi suhtes. Graafik

  7. ARM tõestab, et ka analüütikud eksivad / Fredy-Edwin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esse, Fredy-Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Apple'i iPadidele ja iPhone'idele kiipe tootva Suurbritannia firma ARM Holdings aktsia on kõige suurem tõusja Londoni FTSE 100 indeksi kuue kuu, 12 kuu, 18 kuu, kahe aasta ja kolme aasta lõikes, samas on analüütikud kõigist indeksi aktsiatest kõige negatiivsemalt meelestatud just ARM Holdingsi suhtes. Graafik

  8. Magnetic zenith effect in ionospheric modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurevich, A.V.; Zybin, K.P.; Carlson, H.C.; Pedersen, T

    2002-12-09

    The theory of ionospheric modification for the beam of powerful radio emission directed along magnetic field lines is developed. Nonlinear process of beam self-focusing on striations is shown to determine strong amplification of heating and acceleration of plasma electrons. It results in a dramatic enhancement of optic emission from the magnetic zenith region in ionospheric F-layer. An excellent agreement between the theory and recent fundamental observations at HAARP facility (Alaska) [T. Pedersen et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. (2002), in press] is demonstrated.

  9. Percutaneous Zenith endografting for abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Kamaldeep S; Resnick, Scott A; Matsumura, Jon S; Amaranto, Daniel; Eskandari, Mark K

    2009-03-01

    A completely percutaneous approach to infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) endografting has the theoretic benefits of being minimally invasive and more expedient. Our goal was to demonstrate the utility of this approach using a suprarenal fixation device and a suture-mediated closure system. We conducted a single-institution, retrospective review of 14 patients who underwent percutaneous AAA repair with the Zenith device between August 2003 and March 2007. Immediate and delayed access-related outcomes were examined over a mean follow-up of 12.1+/-2.0 months. Mean AAA size was 5.6 cm. Immediate arterial closure and technical success rate was 96% (27/28 vessels). One immediate hemostatic failure required open surgical repair. Over follow-up, one vessel required operative repair for new-onset claudication. No other immediate or delayed complications (thrombosis, pseudoaneurysm, infection, or deep venous thrombosis) were detected. A percutaneous approach for the treatment of AAA has several advantages over femoral artery cutdown but also has its own unique set of risks in the immediate and late postoperative period. Ultimately, the "preclose technique" can be safely applied for the Zenith device despite its large-bore delivery system.

  10. Analysis of accuracy and precision of GNSS zenith tropospheric delay

    OpenAIRE

    Bohanec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to compare the calculations of zenith tropospheric delay, computed within the meteorological model, with an independently acquired calculation of three GNSS data processing methods. Data analysis was done in the absolute and relative mode of determination. Using absolute mode of zenith tropospheric delay computation we computed the differences between the computed zenith tropospheric delay with the meteorological model ALADIN, taken as a reference, and results of zen...

  11. Showers with large zenith angles observed in emulsion chambers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任敬儒; 陆穗苓; 解卫; 王承瑞; 何瑁; 张乃健

    1997-01-01

    Showers with large zenith angles are observed in emulsion chambers exposed at Mt.Kanbala.The intensity of high energy muons is given and the multicore showers with large zenith angles are found.It is indicated that a new phenomenon may exist in the high energy nuclear interactions of cosmic rays.

  12. Zenith Movie showing Phoenix's Lidar Beam (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation A laser beam from the Canadian-built lidar instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander can be seen in this contrast-enhanced sequence of 10 images taken by Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager on July 26, 2008, during early Martian morning hours of the mission's 61st Martian day after landing. The view is almost straight up and includes about 1.5 kilometer (about 1 mile) of the length of the beam. The camera, from its position close to the lidar on the lander deck, took the images through a green filter centered on light with wavelength 532 nanometers, the same wavelength of the laser beam. The movie has been artificially colored to to approximately match the color that would be seen looking through this filter on Mars. Contrast is enhanced to make the beam more visible. The lidar beam can be seen extending from the lower right to the upper right, near the zenith, as it reflects off particles suspended in the atmosphere. Particles that scatter the beam directly into the camera can be seen to produce brief sparkles of light. In the background, dust can be seen drifting across the sky pushed by winds aloft. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  14. Chapman Solar Zenith Angle variations at Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Emilie M.; Ajello, Joseph; Holsclaw, Gregory; West, Robert; Esposito, Larry W.; Bradley, Eric Todd

    2016-10-01

    Solar XUV photons and magnetospheric particles are the two main sources contributing to the airglow in the Titan's upper atmosphere. We are focusing here on the solar XUV photons and how they influence the airglow intensity. The Cassini-UVIS observations analyzed in this study consist each in a partial scan of Titan, while the center of the detector stays approximately at the same location on Titan's disk. We used observations from 2008 to 2012, which allow for a wide range of Solar Zenith Angle (SZA). Spectra from 800 km to 1200 km of altitude have been corrected from the solar spectrum using TIMED/SEE data. We observe that the airglow intensity varies as a function of the SZA and follows a Chapman curve. Three SZA regions are identified: the sunlit region ranging from 0 to 50 degrees. In this region, the intensity of the airglow increases, while the SZA decreases. Between SZA 50 and 100 degrees, the airglow intensity decreases from it maximum to its minimum. In this transition region the upper atmosphere of Titan changes from being totally sunlit to being in the shadow of the moon. For SZA 100 to 180 degrees, we observe a constant airglow intensity close to zero. The behavior of the airglow is also similar to the behavior of the electron density as a function of the SZA as observed by Ågren at al (2009). Both variables exhibit a decrease intensity with increasing SZA. The goal of this study is to understand such correlation. We demonstrate the importance of the solar XUV photons contribution to the Titan airglow and prove that the strongest contribution to the Titan dayglow occurs by solar fluorescence rather than the particle impact that predominates at night.

  15. Kuulus dress ka Evelinile!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilves kinkis Eestis esinenud popstaar Madonnale eesti rahvusmotiividega dressid. Sarnased spordirõivad tulevad müügile ka Tallinnas Viru keskuses Bastioni esinduskaupluses. Proua Evelin Ilvesele valmistatakse ainulaadsed valgest kangast dressid

  16. Kuulus dress ka Evelinile!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Proua Evelin Ilves kinkis Eestis esinenud popstaar Madonnale eesti rahvusmotiividega dressid. Sarnased spordirõivad tulevad müügile ka Tallinnas Viru keskuses Bastioni esinduskaupluses. Proua Evelin Ilvesele valmistatakse ainulaadsed valgest kangast dressid

  17. The ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Dan; Bromwich, David; Vogelmann, Andrew; Verlinde, Johannes; Russell, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and its changing climate in both atmosphere and ocean is linked to loss of Antarctic ice mass and global sea level rise. The specific mechanisms for West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) warming are not fully understood, but are hypothesized to involve linkage between moisture from Southern Ocean storm tracks and the surface energy balance over the WAIS, and related teleconnections with subtropical and tropical meteorology. This present lack of understanding has motivated a climate science and cloud physics campaign jointly supported by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE), called the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). The DOE's second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed to McMurdo Station on Ross Island in November 2015 and will operate through December 2016. The AMF2 includes (1) cloud research radars, both scanning and zenith, operating in the Ka- and X-bands, (2) high spectral resolution and polarized micropulse lidars, and (3) a suite of shortwave and longwave broadband and spectral radiometers. A second suite of instruments is deployed at the WAIS Divide Ice Camp on the West Antarctic plateau during December 2015 and January 2016. The WAIS instrument suite provides (1) measurement of all surface energy balance components, (2) a polarized micropulse lidar and shortwave spectroradiometer, (3) microwave total water column measurement, and (4) four times daily rawinsonde launches which are the first from West Antarctica since 1967. There is a direct linkage between the WAIS instrument suite and the AMF2 at McMurdo, in that air masses originating in Southern Ocean storm tracks that are driven up over the WAIS often subsequently descend over the Ross Ice Shelf and arrive at Ross Island. Preliminary data are already illustrating the prevalence of mixed-phase clouds and their role in the surface energy balance

  18. The ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. C.; Lubin, D.; Bromwich, D. H.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Verlinde, J.; Russell, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and its changing climate in both atmosphere and ocean is linked to loss of Antarctic ice mass and global sea level rise. The specific mechanisms for West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) warming are not fully understood, but are hypothesized to involve linkage between moisture from Southern Ocean storm tracks and the surface energy balance over the WAIS, and related teleconnections with subtropical and tropical meteorology. This present lack of understanding has motivated a climate science and cloud physics campaign jointly supported by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE), called the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). The DOE's second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed to McMurdo Station on Ross Island in November 2015 and will operate through December 2016. The AMF2 includes (1) cloud research radars, both scanning and zenith, operating in the Ka- and X-bands, (2) high spectral resolution and polarized micropulse lidars, and (3) a suite of shortwave and longwave broadband and spectral radiometers. A second suite of instruments is deployed at the WAIS Divide Ice Camp on the West Antarctic plateau during December 2015 and January 2016. The WAIS instrument suite provides (1) measurement of all surface energy balance components, (2) a polarized micropulse lidar and shortwave spectroradiometer, (3) microwave total water column measurement, and (4) four times daily rawinsonde launches which are the first from West Antarctica since 1967. There is a direct linkage between the WAIS instrument suite and the AMF2 at McMurdo, in that air masses originating in Southern Ocean storm tracks that are driven up over the WAIS often subsequently descend over the Ross Ice Shelf and arrive at Ross Island. Preliminary data are already illustrating (1) the prevalence of single- versus mixed-phase clouds and their role in the

  19. HF-induced airglow at magnetic zenith: theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Mishin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of airglow at 630nm (red line and 557.7nm (green line during HF modification experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP heating facility are analyzed. We propose a theoretical framework for understanding the generation of Langmuir and ion acoustic waves during magnetic zenith injections. We show that observations of HF-induced airglow in an underdense ionosphere as well as a decrease in the height of the emitting volume are consistent with this scenario.

  20. A faster switching regime for zenithal bistable nematic displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, J

    1997-12-01

    A simpler and faster switching regime for Zenithal Bistable Nematic displays is reported. A cell, based on homeotropic alignment of nematic liquid crystal over a continuous blazed monograting on one surface, can be switched using bipolar pulses an order of magnitude faster than monopolar pulses of the same voltage. We propose that this regime relies on simple dielectric coupling to drive the cell into a higher energy state with a long pulse time, and the relaxation into a lower energy state after the creation of surface defects from a shorter applied pulse. Although flexoelectric effects are observed, they do not form the basis of state selection as was proposed for the monopolar pulses

  1. HF-Induced Airglow at Magnetic Zenith: Theoretical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    zenith (MZ) (Kosch et at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program al., 2002a; Pedersen et al., 2003). The same is true for the ( HAARP ) heating...fo’sinx must be met. For MZ injec- X _h k2 r 2 ə. Here, r, is the thermal electron gyroradius tions at the HAARP heating facility (XL- 14.60 ), Huhr...Langmuir waves (Kuo et al., 1997). These shadow height at the HAARP site increased from -230 to waves saturate via spectral transfer toward small ki, due

  2. Calibration and Testing of Digital Zenith Camera System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulug, Rasit; Halicioglu, Kerem; Tevfik Ozludemir, M.; Albayrak, Muge; Basoglu, Burak; Deniz, Rasim

    2017-04-01

    Starting from the beginning of the new millennium, thanks to the Charged-Coupled Device (CCD) technology, fully or partly automatic zenith camera systems are designed and used in order to determine astro-geodetic deflections of the vertical components in several countries, including Germany, Switzerland, Serbia, Latvia, Poland, Austria, China and Turkey. The Digital Zenith Camera System (DZCS) of Turkey performed successful observations yet it needs to be improved in terms of automating the system and increasing observation accuracy. In order to optimize the observation time and improve the system, some modifications have been implemented. Through the modification process that started at the beginning of 2016, some DZCS components have been replaced with the new ones and some new additional components have been installed. In this presentation, the ongoing calibration and testing process of the DZCS are summarized in general. In particular, one of the tested system components is the High Resolution Tiltmeter (HRTM), which enable orthogonal orientation of DZCS to the direction of plump line, is discussed. For the calibration of these components, two tiltmeters with different accuracies (1 nrad and 0.001 mrad) were observed nearly 30 days. The data recorded under different environmental conditions were divided into hourly, daily, and weekly subsets. In addition to the effects of temperature and humidity, interoperability of two tiltmeters were also investigated. Results show that with the integration of HRTM and the other implementations, the modified DZCS provides higher accuracy for the determination of vertical deflections.

  3. Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer–Zenith (SASZe) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Connor J [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer – Zenith (SASZe) provides measurements of zenith spectral shortwave radiance at 1Hz over a continuous spectral range from approximately 300 nm to 1700 nm. The SASZe design connects an optical collector located outdoors to a pair of spectrometers and data collections system located indoors within a climate-controlled building via an umbilical cable of fiber optic and electrical cables. The light collector incorporates a collimator yielding a 1-degree Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) field of view. The data-acquisition electronics and spectrometers include an in-line fiber optic shutter and two Avantes fiber-coupled grating spectroradiometers within a temperature-controlled container. The Avantes Avaspec ULS 2048 charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer covers the wavelength range from about 300-1100 nm with a pixel spacing of less than 0.6 nm and a spectral resolution of about 2.4 nm FWHM. The Avantes Avaspec NIR256-1.7 spectrometer covers the wavelength range from about 950 nm to 1700 nm with a pixel spacing of less than 4 nm and a spectral resolution of about 6 nm FWHM.

  4. The solar zenith angle dependence of desert albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuo; Barlage, Michael; Zeng, Xubin; Dickinson, Robert E.; Schaaf, Crystal B.

    2005-03-01

    Most land models assume that the bare soil albedo is a function of soil color and moisture but independent of solar zenith angle (SZA). However, analyses of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and albedo data over thirty desert locations indicate that bare soil albedo does vary with SZA. This is further confirmed using the in situ data. In particular, bare soil albedo normalized by its value at 60° SZA can be adequately represented by a one-parameter formulation (1 + C)/(1 + 2C * cos(SZA)) or a two-parameter formulation (1 + B1 * f1(SZA) + B2 * f2(SZA)). Using the MODIS and in situ data, the empirical parameters C, B1, and B2 are taken as 0.15, 0.346 and 0.063. The SZA dependence of soil albedo is also found to significantly affect the modeling of land surface energy balance over a desert site.

  5. Influence of solar zenith angle on the enhanced vegetation index of a Guyanese rainforest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brede, B.; Suomalainen, J.M.; Bartholomeus, H.M.; Herold, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of solar zenith angle () on enhanced vegetation index (EVI) of a Guyanese tropical rainforest was studied. For this sub-crown resolution, hyperspectral data have been collected with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at five different solar zenith angles in a 1-day period. Th

  6. Thromboembolic Complications after Zenith{sup ®} Low Profile Endovascular Graft for Infrarenal Abdominal Aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urlings, T. A. J., E-mail: t-urlings@hotmail.com [Medical Center Westeinde, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Vries, A. C. de, E-mail: a.de.vries@mchaaglanden.nl; Mol van Otterloo, J. C. A. de, E-mail: a.de.molvanotterloo@mchaaglanden.nl; Eefting, D., E-mail: d.eefting@mchaaglanden.nl [Medical Center Westeinde, Department of Vascular Surgery (Netherlands); Linden, E. van der, E-mail: e.van.der.linden@mchaaglanden.nl [Medical Center Westeinde, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to objectify and evaluate risk factors for thromboembolic complications after treatment with a Zenith{sup ®} Low Profile Endovascular Graft (Zenith LP). Results were compared with those in the recent literature on endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) and with the thromboembolic complications in the patient group treated with a Zenith Flex Endovascular Graft in our institute in the period before the use of the Zenith LP.Materials and MethodsAll consecutive patients who were suitable for treatment with a Zenith LP endograft between October 2010 and December 2011 were included. The preprocedural computed tomography scan (CT), procedural angiographic images, and the postprocedural CT scans were evaluated for risk factors for and signs of thromboembolic complications. All patients treated between December 2007 and November 2012 with a Zenith Flex endograft were retrospectively evaluated for thromboembolic complications.ResultsIn the study period 17 patients were treated with a LP Zenith endograft. Limb occlusion occurred in 35 % of the patients. Limb occlusions occurred in 24 % of the limbs at risk (one limb occluded twice). In one patient two risk factors for limb occlusion were identified. Between December 2007 and November 2012, a total of 43 patients were treated with a Zenith Flex endograft. No limb occlusion or distal embolization occurred.ConclusionDespite that this was a small retrospective study, the Zenith LP endograft seems to be associated with more frequent thromboembolic complications compared with the known limb occlusion rates in the literature and those of the patients treated with a Zenith Flex endograft in our institute.

  7. Quantitative assessment of meteorological and tropospheric Zenith Hydrostatic Delay models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Guo, Jiming; Chen, Ming; Shi, Junbo; Zhou, Lv

    2016-09-01

    Tropospheric delay has always been an important issue in GNSS/DORIS/VLBI/InSAR processing. Most commonly used empirical models for the determination of tropospheric Zenith Hydrostatic Delay (ZHD), including three meteorological models and two empirical ZHD models, are carefully analyzed in this paper. Meteorological models refer to UNB3m, GPT2 and GPT2w, while ZHD models include Hopfield and Saastamoinen. By reference to in-situ meteorological measurements and ray-traced ZHD values of 91 globally distributed radiosonde sites, over a four-years period from 2010 to 2013, it is found that there is strong correlation between errors of model-derived values and latitudes. Specifically, the Saastamoinen model shows a systematic error of about -3 mm. Therefore a modified Saastamoinen model is developed based on the "best average" refractivity constant, and is validated by radiosonde data. Among different models, the GPT2w and the modified Saastamoinen model perform the best. ZHD values derived from their combination have a mean bias of -0.1 mm and a mean RMS of 13.9 mm. Limitations of the present models are discussed and suggestions for further improvements are given.

  8. Final Scientific/Technical Report Grant title: Use of ARM Measurements of Spectral Zenith Radiance for Better Understanding of 3D Cloud-Radiation Processes and Aerosol-Cloud Interaction This is a collaborative project with the NASA GSFC project of Dr. A. Marshak and W. Wiscombe (PIs). This report covers BU activities from February 2011 to June 2011 and BU "no-cost extension" activities from June 2011 to June 2012. This report summarizes results that complement a final technical report submitted by the PIs in 2011.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazikhin, Y

    2012-09-10

    Main results are summarized for work in these areas: spectrally-invariant approximation within atmospheric radiative transfer; spectral invariance of single scattering albedo for water droplets and ice crystals at weakly absorbing wavelengths; seasonal changes in leaf area of Amazon forests from leaf flushing and abscission; and Cloud droplet size and liquid water path retrievals from zenith radiance measurements.

  9. Zenith Pass Problem of Inter-satellite Linkage Antenna Based on Program Guidance Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Kun; Yang Di

    2008-01-01

    While adopting an elevation-over-azimuth architecture by an inter-satellite linkage antenna of a user satellite, a zenith pass problem always occurs when the antenna is tracing the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS). This paper deals with this problem by way of,firstly, introducing movement laws of the inter-satellite linkage to predict the movement of the user satellite antenna followed by analyzing the potential pass moment and the actual one of the zenith pass in detail. A number of specific orbit altitudes for the user satellite that can remove the blindness zone are obtained. Finally, on the base of the predicted results from the movement laws of the inter-satellite linkage, the zenith pass tracing strategies for the user satellite antenna are designed under the program guidance using a trajectory preprocessor. Simulations have confirmed the reasonability and feasibility of the strategies in dealing with the zenith pass problem.

  10. Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer (NFOV) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C; Marshak, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, JC; Schmelzer, J

    2008-11-01

    The two-channel narrow field-of-view radiometer (NFOV2) is a ground-based radiometer that looks straight up and measures radiance directly above the instrument at wavelengths of 673 and 870 nm. The field-of-view of the instrument is 1.2 degrees, and the sampling time resolution is one second. Measurements of the NFOV2 have been used to retrieve optical properties for overhead clouds that range from patchy to overcast. With a one-second sampling rate of the NFOV2, faster than almost any other ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrument, we are able, for the first time, to capture changes in cloud optical properties at the natural time scale of cloud evolution.

  11. Simultaneous Ka-Band Site Characterization: Goldstone, CA, White Sands, NM, and Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto; Morse, Jacquelynne; Zemba, Michael; Nessel, James; Morabito, David; Caroglanian, Armen

    2011-01-01

    To statistically characterize atmospheric effects on Ka-band links at NASA operational sites, NASA has constructed site test interferometers (STI s) which directly measure the tropospheric phase stability and rain attenuation. These instruments observe an unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., Anik F2) and measure the phase difference between the signals received by the two antennas and its signal attenuation. Three STI s have been deployed so far: the first one at the NASA Deep Space Network Tracking Complex in Goldstone, California (May 2007); the second at the NASA White Sands Complex, in Las Cruses, New Mexico (February 2009); and the third at the NASA Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) Remote Ground Terminal (GRGT) complex in Guam (May 2010). Two station-years of simultaneous atmospheric phase fluctuation data have been collected at Goldstone and White Sands, while one year of data has been collected in Guam. With identical instruments operating simultaneously, we can directly compare the phase stability and rain attenuation at the three sites. Phase stability is analyzed statistically in terms of the root-mean-square (rms) of the tropospheric induced time delay fluctuations over 10 minute blocks. For two years, the time delay fluctuations at the DSN site in Goldstone, CA, have been better than 2.5 picoseconds (ps) for 90% of the time (with reference to zenith), meanwhile at the White Sands, New Mexico site, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 2.2 ps with reference to zenith) for 90% of time. For Guam, the time delay fluctuations have been better than 12 ps (reference to zenith) at 90% of the time, the higher fluctuations are as expected from a high humidity tropical rain zone. This type of data analysis, as well as many other site quality characteristics (e.g., rain attenuation, infrastructure, etc.) will be used to determine the suitability of all the sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-band.

  12. Prunskiene tahab lepet ka Keskerakonnaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Leedu Rahvaerakonna (LLP) juht Kazimira Prunskeine käis Moskvas Ühtse Venemaa kongressil ning allkirjastas leppe oma erakonna ja Ühtse Venemaa vahel, samasuguse leppe kavatseb ta allkirjastada ka Eesti Keskerakonnaga, Kasahstanis võimul oleva Nur Otani partei ja Kreeka erakonnaga Uus Demokraatia

  13. Ajateenistust alustab ka viis neidu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Tuleval nädalal alustab ajateenistust üle 1600 noormehe, lisaks alustab juulis Kuperjanovi jala­väepataljonis vabatahtlikuna ajateenistust ka viis neidu. Juulikuise teenistusse kutsumisega alustavad teenistust ajateenijad, kelle ametikoht eeldab 11-kuulist ajateenistust ehk autojuhid, erialaspet­sialistid, allohvitserid ja reservrühmaülemad

  14. Hybrid Endograft Solution for Complex Iliac Anatomy : Zenith Body and Excluder Limbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Wendy T.; Tielliu, Ignace F.; Sondakh, Arthur O.; Vourliotakis, Georgios; Bracale, Umberto M.; Verhoeven, Eric L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate single-center results with selective use of Gore Excluder limbs (W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) in a Cook Zenith body (Cook Inc, Bloomington, IN) for elective endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. A prospectively held database for

  15. Zenith total delay study of a mesoscale convective system : GPS observations and fine-scale modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucurull, I.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Rius, A.

    2002-01-01

    Zenith Total Delay (ZTD) observations and model calculations are used to analyze a mesoscale convective system which yielded a large amount of precipitation over a short period of time in the north-western Mediterranean. ZTD observations are derived from the GPS signal delay whereas the ZTD model re

  16. Evaluating Radiometric Measurements Using a Fixed 45 Degrees Responsivity and Zenith Angle Dependent Responsivities (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Reda, I.; Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.; Andreas, A.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    This poster seeks to demonstrate the importance and application of an existing but unused approach that ultimately reduces the uncertainty of radiometric measurements. Current radiometric data is based on a single responsivity value that introduces significant uncertainty to the data, however, through using responsivity as a function of solar zenith angle, the uncertainty could be decreased by 50%.

  17. Evaluating Radiometric Measurements Using a Fixed 45 Degrees Responsivity and Zenith Angle Dependent Responsivities (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Reda, I.; Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.; Andreas, A.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    This poster seeks to demonstrate the importance and application of an existing but unused approach that ultimately reduces the uncertainty of radiometric measurements. Current radiometric data is based on a single responsivity value that introduces significant uncertainty to the data, however, through using responsivity as a function of solar zenith angle, the uncertainty could be decreased by 50%.

  18. Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino data, zenith distributions, and three-flavor oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Fogli, G L; Marrone, A; Scioscia, G

    1999-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the zenith angle distributions of atmospheric neutrino events observed in the Super-Kamiokande (SK) underground experiment, assuming two-flavor and three-flavor oscillations (with one dominant mass scale) among active neutrinos. In particular, we calculate the five angular distributions associated to sub-GeV and multi-GeV \\mu-like and e-like events and to upward through-going muons, for a total of 30 accurately computed observables (zenith bins). First we study how such observables vary with the oscillation parameters, and then we perform a fit to the experimental data as measured in SK for an exposure of 33 kTy (535 days). In the two-flavor mixing case, we confirm the results of the SK Collaboration analysis, namely, that \

  19. Optimizing sensitivity of Unmanned Aerial System optical sensors for low zenith angles and cloudy conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Sheng; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Zarco Tejada, Pablo J.

    Satellite-based imagery in optical domains cannot provide information on the land surface during periods of cloud cover. This issue is especially relevant for high latitudes where overcast days and low solar zenith angles are common. Current remote sensing-based models of evapotranspiration......) with UAV flight campaigns over a willow eddy covariance flux site under different cloudiness levels and solar zenith angles using varying camera settings. Radiance, reflectance, and vegetation indices were validated with ASD measurements and signal to noise metrics and dynamic ranges were assessed. Our....... The multispectral camera (Tetra Mini-MCA6) has 6 channels in the visible and near Infrared. For the laboratory calibration experiment, different camera settings and typical irradiance levels from cloudy to clear sky were designed. The light-source is based on super-continuum generation to produce a continuous solar...

  20. Large zenith angle observations with the high-resolution GRANITE III camera

    CERN Document Server

    Petry, D

    2001-01-01

    The GRANITE III camera of the Whipple Cherenkov Telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona (2300 m a.s.l.) has the highest angular resolution of all cameras used on this telescope so far. The central region of the camera has 379 pixels with an individual angular diameter of 0.12 degrees. This makes the instrument especially suitable for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at large zenith angles since the increase in average distance to the shower maximum leads to smaller shower images in the focal plane of the telescope. We examine the performance of the telescope for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at zenith angles up to 63 degrees based on observations of Mkn 421 and using Monte Carlo Simulations. An improvement to the standard data analysis is suggested.

  1. Zenith distribution and flux of atmospheric muons measured with the 5-line ANTARES detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANTARES Collaboration; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; de Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehr, F.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Giacomelli, G.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; de Jong, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Laschinsky, H.; Lefèvre, D.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyons, K.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Maurin, G.; Mazure, A.; Melissas, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Ostasch, R.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Pillet, R.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration

    2010-10-01

    The ANTARES high-energy neutrino telescope is a three-dimensional array of about 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 mooring lines installed in the Mediterranean Sea. Between February and November 2007 it acquired data in a 5-line configuration. The zenith angular distribution of the atmospheric muon flux and the associated depth-intensity relation are measured and compared with previous measurements and Monte Carlo expectations. An evaluation of the systematic effects due to uncertainties on environmental and detector parameters is presented.

  2. Gingival zenith and its role in redefining esthetics: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Pawar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to quantify some clinical parameters useful as esthetic guidelines when gingival contour is modified and to compare the left and right sides of six maxillary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Maxillary casts mounted on an articulator according to the axis orbital plane were photographed from 35 young adults. The angle formed between the gingival line and maxillary midline (GLA and the distance between the gingival zenith of the lateral incisor and the gingival line were measured (LID using a flexible protractor and digital vernier caliper, respectively. The asymmetry was evaluated using a paired t test for the left vs right measurements of GLA and LID. The descriptive statistics for GLA and LID were calculated. Results: The GLA measurements of the left side (86.7΀΁4.2΀ were significantly greater than those of the right side (84.6΀΁5.4΀, and the mean absolute symmetry for GLA was 1.7΀΁4.4΀. The mean LID measurement was 0.92΁0.11. Conclusions: The gingival zenith of the canine is apical to the gingival zenith of the incisors (GLA <90΀ and the gingival zenith of the lateral incisor is below or on (17% the gingival line when head is oriented on the axis orbital plane. A directional asymmetry was shown with the right side higher than the left side. Along with the other parameters related to dental esthetics, these clinical parameters may serve as esthetic guidelines and may enable us to obtain a more predictable outcome.

  3. Reactivity and reaction rate studies on the fourth loading of ZENITH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, I.R.; Freemantle, R.G.; Reed, D.L.; Wilson, D.J. [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)] (and others)

    1963-08-15

    The determination of the excess reactivity, control rod worths, prompt neutron lifetime, flux fine structure, and reaction rates of various nuclides for the fourth loading of the heated zero energy reactor ZENITH is described. The core contains 7.76 kg of U235, giving a carbon/U235 atom ratio of 7578, and forms the most dilute of the range studied. Comparisons of the experimental results with calculations using multigroup diffusion codes are presented. (author)

  4. Assessment of Automated Snow Cover Detection at High Solar Zenith Angles with PROBA-V

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the snow cover extent are both a cause and a consequence of climate change. Optical remote sensing with heliosynchronous satellites currently provides snow cover data at high spatial resolution with daily revisiting time. However, high latitude image acquisition is limited because reflective sensors of many satellites are switched off at high solar zenith angles (SZA) due to lower signal quality. In this study, the relevance and reliability of high SZA acquisition are objectively q...

  5. The Dependence of the Age Parameter from EAS Size and Zenith Angle of Incidence

    CERN Document Server

    Chilingarian, A A; Kazarian, S; Hovsepyan, G G; Mamidjanyan, E A; Melkumyan, L G; Sokhoyan, S H

    2000-01-01

    The quality of the MAKET-ANI detector installation in view of the uniformityof the registration efficiency is demonstrated. Based on a data samplecollected by the MAKET-ANI array in the period of June 1997 - March 1999, thedependencies of the age parameter on the zenith angle and the EAS size(10^5-10^7) are studied. The variation of the age parameter with the showersize can be approximately related to the elongation rate.

  6. Estimates of radiance reflected towards the zenith at the surface of the sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of water colour by ship-mounted sensors represents an important tool for the validation of satellite products and the monitoring of water quality. The recorded radiance from the sea has to be corrected for the surface-reflected radiance from sun and sky in order to obtain the water-leaving radiance. Here the simple case of radiance reflected towards the zenith is studied. A set of observed sky radiance and solar irradiance data from Oslo has been used together with a Gaussian slope distribution for the sea surface in order to estimate the reflected radiance. The spectral range studied is 405–650 nm, the solar zenith angles are in the range 37°–76°, and the wind speeds are up to 10 m s−1. The analysis of the results show that the reflected radiance has to be separated into three contributions: sky radiance and sun rays reflected at the foam-free surface and irradiance reflected by whitecaps and foam. It is then demonstrated that by using four input values, namely the downward irradiance, the sky radiance from the zenith, the solar zenith angle and the wind speed, it is possible to obtain by simple expressions estimates of the reflected radiance that only differ from the former calculated values by relative errors of less than 5%. The analysis also indicates that for the spectral range studied neither the water-leaving radiance nor the surface-reflected radiance can be disregarded relative to the other one in the Case 2 waters of the Oslofjord-Skagerrak area. The results form a first step towards the study of reflected radiance in viewing angles differing from the nadir direction.

  7. Estimates of radiance reflected towards the zenith at the surface of the sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of water colour by ship-mounted sensors represents an important tool for the validation of satellite products and the monitoring of water quality. The recorded radiance from the sea has to be corrected for the surface-reflected radiance from sun and sky in order to obtain the water-leaving radiance. Here the simple case of radiance reflected towards the zenith is studied. A set of observed sky radiance and solar irradiance data from Oslo has been used together with a Gaussian slope distribution for the sea surface in order to estimate the reflected radiance. The spectral range studied is 405–650 nm, the solar zenith angles are in the range 37°–76°, and the wind speeds are up to 10 m s−1. The analysis of the results show that the reflected radiance has to be separated into three contributions: sky radiance and sun rays reflected at the foam-free surface and irradiance reflected by whitecaps and foam. It is then demonstrated that by using four input values, namely the downward irradiance, the sky radiance from the zenith, the solar zenith angle and the wind speed, it is possible to obtain by simple expressions estimates of the reflected radiance that only differ from the former calculated values by relative errors of 4% or less. The analysis also indicates that for the spectral range studied neither the water-leaving radiance nor the surface-reflected radiance can be disregarded relative to the other one in the Case 2 waters of the Oslofjord-Skagerrak area. The results form a first step towards the study of reflected radiance in viewing angles differing from the nadir direction.

  8. KaVA ESTEMA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyadomari, Miyako; Imai, Hiroshi; Cho, Se-Hyung; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Choi, Yoon-Kyong; Kim, Jaeheon; Yun, Youngjoo; Matsumoto, Naoko; Min, Cheul-Hong; Oyama, Tomoaki; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Yoon, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Jin; Dodson, Richard; Rioja, Maria; Burns, Ross; Orosz, Gabor; Nakagawa, Akiharu; Chibueze O, James; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Sobolev, Andrey

    2016-07-01

    The ESTEMA (Expanded Study on Stellar Masers) project is one of three Large Programs of the KaVA (the combined array of the Korean VLBI Network and Japanese VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry), and conducted in 2015-2016. It aims to publish a database of the largest sample of VLBI images of circumstellar water (H2O) and silicon-monoxide (SiO) maser sources towards circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of 80 evolved stars in late AGB to early post-AGB phase. Here we present the specifications of the ESTEMA observations and the planned scientific goals in order to share the basic information of the ESTEMA with astronomical community and encourage future collaborations with the ESTEMA and future follow-up observations for the targeted stars.

  9. Fade Mitigation Techniques at Ka-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Asoka (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Rain fading is the dominant propagation impairment affecting Ka-band satellite links and rain fade mitigation is a key element in the design of Ka-band satellite networks. Some of the common fade mitigation techniques include: power control, diversity, adaptive coding, and resource sharing. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) provides an excellent opportunity to develop and test Ka-band rain impairment amelioration techniques. Up-link power control and diversity are discussed in this paper.

  10. Ka Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) for Interplanetary CubeSat Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ka Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) for Interplanetary CubeSat Communications allowing moving up from UHF, S or X to get higher gain for a given diameter.

  11. Technology for zenithal bistable display%顶点双稳显示技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耐和

    2004-01-01

    顶点双稳显示(Zenithal Bistable Display,简称ZBD)技术的最大特点是零功耗显示,它是唯一能够同有源阵列LCD竞争的无源寻址技术。ZBD技术能提供与有源阵列LcD同样的性能及图像质量,但功耗更低,且成本节约一半。

  12. High zenith angle observations of PKS 2155-304 with the MAGIC-I telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Paiano, S.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puerto Gimenez, I.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.

    2012-08-01

    Context. The high frequency peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 with a redshift of z = 0.116 was discovered in 1997 in the very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray range by the University of Durham Mark VI γ-ray Cherenkov telescope in Australia with a flux corresponding to 20% of the Crab Nebula flux. It was later observed and detected with high significance by the southern Cherenkov observatory H.E.S.S. establishing this source as the best studied southern TeV blazar. Detection from the northern hemisphere is difficult due to challenging observation conditions under large zenith angles. In July 2006, the H.E.S.S. collaboration reported an extraordinary outburst of VHE γ-emission. During the outburst, the VHE γ-ray emission was found to be variable on the time scales of minutes and with a mean flux of ~7 times the flux observed from the Crab Nebula. Follow-up observations with the MAGIC-I standalone Cherenkov telescope were triggered by this extraordinary outburst and PKS 2155-304 was observed between 28 July to 2 August 2006 for 15 h at large zenith angles. Aims: We studied the behavior of the source after its extraordinary flare. Furthermore, we developed an analysis method in order to analyze these data taken under large zenith angles. Methods: Here we present an enhanced analysis method for data taken at high zenith angles. We developed improved methods for event selection that led to a better background suppression. Results: The quality of the results presented here is superior to the results presented previously for this data set: detection of the source on a higher significance level and a lower analysis threshold. The averaged energy spectrum we derived has a spectral index of (-3.5 ± 0.2) above 400 GeV, which is in good agreement with the spectral shape measured by H.E.S.S. during the major flare on MJD 53 944. Furthermore, we present the spectral energy distribution modeling of PKS 2155-304. With our observations we increased the duty cycle of the source

  13. Improving the solar zenith angle dependence of broadband UV radiometers calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Cancillo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focusses on the proposal of a new method for the calibration of broadband ultraviolet radiometers. The advantage of the method proposed is the accurate modelling of the dependence on the solar zenith angle. The new model is compared with other one-step calibration methods and with the two-step method, which requires the knowledge of the actual response of the broadband radiometer. For this purpose, three broadband radiometers are calibrated against a spectrophotometer of reference. The new method is validated comparing its predictions with the spectrophotometer measurements using an independent data set.

  14. Ka-band MMIC subarray technology program (Ka-Mist)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, W.

    1995-09-01

    Ka-band monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) arrays have been considered as having high potential for increasing the capability of space, aircraft, and land mobile communication systems in terms of scan performance, data rate, link margin, and flexibility while offering a significant reduction in size, weight, and power consumption. Insertion of MMIC technology into antenna systems, particularly at millimeter wave frequencies using low power and low noise amplifiers in closed proximity to the radiating elements, offers a significant improvement in the array transmit efficiency, receive system noise figure, and overall array reliability. Application of active array technology also leads to the use of advanced beamforming techniques that can improve beam agility, diversity, and adaptivity to complex signal environments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the 'tile' array packaging architecture at EHF via the insertion of 1990 MMIC technology into a functional tile array or subarray module. The means test of this objective was to demonstrate and deliver to NASA a minimum of two 4 x 4 (16 radiating element) subarray modules operating in a transmit mode at 29.6 GHz. Available (1990) MMIC technology was chosen to focus the program effort on the novel interconnect schemes and packaging requirements rather than focusing on MMIC development. Major technical achievements of this program include the successful integration of two 4 x 4 subarray modules into a single antenna array. This 32 element array demonstrates a transmit EIRP of over 300 watts yielding an effective directive power gain in excess of 55 dB at 29.63 GHz. The array has been actively used as the transmit link in airborne/terrestrial mobile communication experiments accomplished via the ACTS satellite launched in August 1993.

  15. Cloud Droplet Size and Liquid Water Path Retrievals From Zenith Radiance Measurements: Examples From the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and the Aerosol Robotic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, J. C.; Marshak, A.; Huang, C.-H.; Varnai, T.; Hogan, R. J.; Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Knyazikhin, Y.; O'Connor, E. J.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) routinely monitor clouds using zenith radiances at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using the transmittance calculated from such measurements, we have developed a new retrieval method for cloud effective droplet size and conducted extensive tests for non-precipitating liquid water clouds. The underlying principle is to combine a water-absorbing wavelength (i.e. 1640 nm) with a nonwater-absorbing wavelength for acquiring information on cloud droplet size and optical depth. For simulated stratocumulus clouds with liquid water path less than 300 g/sq m and horizontal resolution of 201m, the retrieval method underestimates the mean effective radius by 0.8 m, with a root-mean-squared error of 1.7 m and a relative deviation of 13 %. For actual observations with a liquid water path less than 450 gm.2 at the ARM Oklahoma site during 2007-2008, our 1.5 min-averaged retrievals are generally larger by around 1 m than those from combined ground-based cloud radar and microwave radiometer at a 5min temporal resolution. We also compared our retrievals to those from combined shortwave flux and microwave observations for relatively homogeneous clouds, showing that the bias between these two retrieval sets is negligible, but the error of 2.6 m and the relative deviation of 22% are larger than those found in our simulation case. Finally, the transmittance-based cloud effective droplet radii agree to better than 11% with satellite observations and have a negative bias of 1 m. Overall, the retrieval method provides reasonable cloud effective radius estimates, which can enhance the cloud products of both ARM and AERONET.

  16. Erythemal ultraviolet insolation in New Zealand at solar zenith angles of 30 and 45..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, K G; Smith, G J; Rhoades, D A; Coppell, R B

    1996-05-01

    Solar UV radiometers with spectral responsivities that are close to the erythemal/carcinogenic action spectrum of skin have been installed at several centers of population in New Zealand, including Auckland, 37 degrees S, Wellington, 41 degrees S and Christchurch, 43.5 degrees S. The data set covers the period from the time the radiometry program commenced in 1988/1989 to the end of the southern summer, March 1995. The radiometers were recalibrated annually and the data were corrected for changes in the absolute responsivity of the radiometers. Erythemally effective UV irradiances at solar zenith angles of 30 degrees and 45 degrees were then extracted from the data set. No monotonic trend in these data is apparent, although there are statistically significant differences in mean irradiances from one year to the next. An example of this is the decrease observed in all sites following the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in June 1991. The maximum erythemally effective insolations at solar zenith angles of 30 degrees and 45 degrees were consistently lower in Christchurch than in the other two New Zealand sites. This could arise from higher levels of atmospheric turbidity and/or tropospheric ozone at this location. Also, a seasonal increase in erythemally effective UV insolation from spring to autumn was observed each year in all three New Zealand sites.

  17. High zenith angle observations of PKS 2155-304 with the MAGIC-I telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antoranz, P; Asensio, M; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Boller, A; Bonnoli, G; Tridon, D Borla; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Cossio, L; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; del Pozo, E De Cea; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Ortega, A Diago; Doert, M; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadamek, A; Hadasch, D; Häfner, D; Herrero, A; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Huber, B; Jankowski, F; Jogler, T; Kadenius, V; Klepser, S; Knoetig, M L; Krähenbühl, T; Krause, J; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Leonardo, E; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Makariev, M; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moldón, J; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Niedzwiecki, A; Nieto, D; Nilsson, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Partini, S; Persic, M; Pilia, M; Pochon, J; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Puljak, I; Reichardt, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Saito, T Y; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Spiro, S; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinke, B; Storz, J; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Takami, H; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Weitzel, Q; Zabalza, V; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R

    2012-01-01

    The high frequency peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 with a redshift of z=0.116 was discovered in 1997 in the very high energy (VHE, E >100GeV) gamma-ray range by the University of Durham Mark VI gamma-ray Cherenkov telescope in Australia with a flux corresponding to 20% of the Crab Nebula flux. It was later observed and detected with high significance by the Southern Cherenkov observatory H.E.S.S. Detection from the Northern hemisphere is difficult due to challenging observation conditions under large zenith angles. In July 2006, the H.E.S.S. collaboration reported an extraordinary outburst of VHE gamma-emission. During the outburst, the VHE gamma-ray emission was found to be variable on the time scales of minutes and with a mean flux of ~7 times the flux observed from the Crab Nebula. Follow-up observations with the MAGIC-I standalone Cherenkov telescope were triggered by this extraordinary outburst and PKS 2155-304 was observed between 28 July to 2 August 2006 for 15 hours at large zenith angles. Here we present ...

  18. Impact of the initial tropospheric zenith path delay on precise point positioning convergence during active conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, J. Z.; Rzepecka, Z.

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric delay is one of the key factors that influence the convergence time of the precise point positioning (PPP) method. Current models do not allow for the fixing of the zenith path delay tropospheric parameter, leaving the difference between nominal and final value to the estimation process. Here, we present an analysis of several PPP result-sets using the tropospheric parameter’s nominal value adopted from models: VMF1, GPT2w, MOPS, and ZERO-WET. The last variant assumes a zero value for the initial wet part of the zenith delay. The PPP results are subtracted from a solution based on the final tropospheric product from the International GNSS Service (IGS). Several days exhibiting the most active tropospheric conditions were selected for each of the 7 stations located in the mid-latitude Central European region. During the active days, application of the VMF1 model increases the resulting height component’s quality by about 33–36% when compared to the GPT2w and MOPS. The respective improvement in VMF1 latitude and longitude components is 27% and 15%. The average relative deterioration in the result standard deviations between active and calm tropospheric conditions reaches about 20–30% of the former. We discuss the impact of the initial tropospheric parameter’s variance and bias on positioning. In addition, we compare the results with those of other studies over the impact of active tropospheric conditions on the PPP method.

  19. Overview of the MISSE 7 Polymers and Zenith Polymers Experiments After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Grace T.; de Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7), two experiments called the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment for 1.5 years. The Polymers Experiment contained 47 samples, which were flown in a ram or wake flight orientation. The objectives of the Polymers Experiment were to determine the LEO atomic oxygen erosion yield (Ey, volume loss per incident oxygen atoms, given in cu cm/atom) of the polymers, and to determine if atomic oxygen erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. The Zenith Polymers Experiment was flown in a zenith flight orientation. The primary objective of the Zenith Polymers Experiment was to determine the effect of solar exposure on the erosion of fluoropolymers. Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) was flown in each experiment for atomic oxygen fluence determination. This paper provides an introduction to both the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and the MISSE 7 Zenith Polymers Experiment, and provides initial erosion yield results.

  20. AltiKa in-flight performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Francois; Desjonquères, Jean-Damien; Steunou, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    The SARAL/AltiKa satellite has been launched the 25th of February 2013 from the launch pad of Sriharikota (India). Since this date, AltiKa provides measurements and affords the first altimetry results in Ka band. This paper recalls the instrument design and assesses the in-flight performance. The SARAL/AltiKa mission has been developed in the frame of a cooperation between CNES (French Space Agency) and ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization). AltiKa is a single frequency Ka-band altimeter with a bi-frequency radiometer embedded. Both altimeter and radiometer share the same antenna. Altimeter expertise and routine calibrations performed during assessment phase demonstrate the stability of the instrument. Moreover the performance assessed over ocean are noteworthy such as 0.9 cm on epoch 1 Hz noise for 2 m of SWH, which is fully consistent with simulations and ground pre-flight tests results. The data availability is also very good and very few altimeter measurements are lost due to rain attenuation. Radiometer data analysis shows that the instrument is very stable and its performances are consistent with pre-flight tests results.

  1. Ionization constants pKa of cardiolipin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Olofsson

    Full Text Available Cardiolipin is a phospholipid found in the inner mitochondrial membrane and in bacteria, and it is associated with many physiological functions. Cardiolipin has a dimeric structure consisting of two phosphatidyl residues connected by a glycerol bridge and four acyl chains, and therefore it can carry two negative charges. The pKa values of the phosphate groups have previously been reported to differ widely with pKa1 = 2.8 and pKa2 = 7.5-9.5. Still, there are several examples of experimental observations from cardiolipin-containing systems that do not fit with this dissociation behavior. Therefore, we have carried out pH-titration and titration calorimetric experiments on two synthetic cardiolipins, 1,1',2,2'-tetradecanoyl cardiolipin, CL (C14:0, and 1,1',2,2'-tetraoctadecenoyl cardiolipin, CL (C18:1. Our results show that both behave as strong dibasic acids with pKa1 about the same as the first pKa of phosphoric acid, 2.15, and pKa2 about one unit larger. The characterization of the acidic properties of cardiolipin is crucial for the understanding of the molecular organization in self-assembled systems that contain cardiolipin, and for their biological function.

  2. Inferring spatial clouds statistics from limited field-of-view, zenith observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.H.; Thorne, L.R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Many of the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) measurements produce a time series of zenith observations, but spatial averages are often the desired data product. One possible approach to deriving spatial averages from temporal averages is to invoke Taylor`s hypothesis where and when it is valid. Taylor`s hypothesis states that when the turbulence is small compared with the mean flow, the covariance in time is related to the covariance in space by the speed of the mean flow. For clouds fields, Taylor`s hypothesis would apply when the {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} turbulence is small compared with advective flow (mean wind). The objective of this study is to determine under what conditions Taylor`s hypothesis holds or does not hold true for broken cloud fields.

  3. Investigation of the zenith angle dependence of cosmic-ray muons at sea level

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Bektasoglu; Halil Arslan

    2013-05-01

    Angular distribution of cosmic-ray muons at sea level has been investigated using the Geant4 simulation package. The model used in the simulations was tested by comparing the simulation results with the measurements made using the Berkeley Lab cosmic ray detector. Primary particles’ energy and fluxes were obtained from the experimental measurements. Simulations were run at each zenith angle starting from = 0° up to = 70° with 5° increment. The angular distribution of muons at sea level has been estimated to be in the form $I() = I(0^{°}) \\cos^{n}()$, where (0°) is the muon intensity at 0° and is a function of the muon momentum. The exponent = 1.95 ± 0.08 for muons with energies above 1 GeV is in good agreement, within error, with the values reported in the literature.

  4. Can liquid water profiles be retrieved from passive microwave zenith observations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewell, Susanne; Ebell, Kerstin; Löhnert, Ulrich; Turner, D. D.

    2009-03-01

    The ability to determine the cloud boundaries and vertical distribution of cloud liquid water for single-layer liquid clouds using zenith-pointing microwave radiometers is investigated. Simulations are used to demonstrate that there is little skill in determining either cloud base or cloud thickness, especially when the cloud thickness is less than 500 m. It is also shown that the different distributions of liquid water content within a cloud with known cloud boundaries results in a maximum change in the brightness temperature of less than 1 K at the surface from 20 to 150 GHz, which is on the order of the instrument noise level. Furthermore, it is demonstrated using the averaging kernel that the number of degrees of freedom for signal (i.e., independent pieces of information) is approximately 1, which implies there is no information on vertical distribution of liquid water in the microwave observations.

  5. Zenith skylight intensity and color during the total solar eclipse of 20 July 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, W E; Lloyd, J W; Silverman, S M

    1966-05-01

    The zenith skylight intensity was measured, with a resolution of 10 A, over the wavelength range from 5200 A to 6400 A during a total solar eclipse at Hermon, Maine. The intensity was found to change by about two orders of magnitude in the 2-min period before totality and reached a minimum during totality of 19.5 kR/A at 5200 A. The spectral distribution remained that of the day sky until the sun was more than 99.8% obscured. During totality, the shorter wavelengths were enhanced, indicating a shift to the blue in sky color. Comparisons with an independent measurement from an aircraft show that the intensity scale height of the secondary scattered component, predominating at totality, is significantly less than that of the day sky. The measurements are compared with the day and twilight sky.

  6. Order reconstruction phenomena and temperature-driven dynamics in a 3D zenithally bistable device

    KAUST Repository

    Raisch, A.

    2014-07-01

    We model the zenithally bistable device (ZBD) in three dimensions (3D), within the Landau-de Gennes theory, and find three stable static states in 3D without an applied field: the vertically aligned nematic (VAN) state, the hybrid aligned nematic (HAN) state and a third, high-tilt state, which we call the THAN state, with an interior and a surface defect. We recover the order reconstruction (OR) phenomenon around the defects in the HAN and THAN states and the 3D THAN and HAN solutions exhibit stable biaxial cylinders connecting defects on opposite faces of the ZBD device. We demonstrate a two-way temperature-driven switching between high-tilt and low-tilt states through controlled heating and cooling procedures in two dimensions (2D), with no applied fields. © CopyrightEPLA, 2014.

  7. Cassini UVIS observations of Titan ultraviolet airglow intensity dependence with solar zenith angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, E. M.; Ajello, J. M.; Holsclaw, G. M.; West, R. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Bradley, E. T.

    2017-01-01

    The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (UVIS) observed the airglow (dayglow and nightglow) of Titan over a range of solar zenith angles (SZA) from 14 to 150° on five separate observations obtained between 2008 and 2012. The modeling of the solar cycle normalized UVIS observations indicates that a Chapman layer function provides a satisfactory fit to the intensity of the EUV and FUV airglow molecular emissions of the N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield band system (LBH a1Πg→X1>∑g+), the Carroll-Yoshino band system (c4'1>∑u+→X1>∑g+), and of several atomic multiplets of nitrogen (NI, II) as a function of SZA. This result shows that the strongest contribution to the Titan dayglow occurs by processes (photoelectrons and photodissociation) involving the solar EUV flux rather than magnetospheric particle precipitation that dominates emission excitation in the nightglow.

  8. Accuracy Improvement of Zenith Tropospheric Delay Estimation Based on GPS Precise Point Positioning Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Qinglin; ZHAO Zhenwei; LIN Leke; WU Zhensen

    2010-01-01

    In the precise point positioning (PPP), some impossible accurately simulated systematic errors still remained in the GPS observations and will inevitably degrade the precision of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) estimation. The stochastic models used in the GPS PPP mode are compared. In this paper, the research results show that the precision of PPP-derived ZTD can be obviously improved through selecting a suitable stochastic model for GPS measurements. Low-elevation observations can cover more troposphere information that can improve the estimation of ZTD. A new stochastic model based on satellite low elevation cosine square is presented. The results show that the stochastic model using satellite elevation-based cosine square function is better than previous stochastic models.

  9. Cloud and aerosol optics by polarized micro pulse Lidar and ground based measurements of zenith radiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, Rodrigo

    Clouds impact Earth's climate through cloud transmission and reflection properties. Clouds reflect approximately 15 percent of the incoming solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere. A key cloud radiative variable is cloud optical depth, which gives information about how much light is transmitted through a cloud. Historically, remote measurements of cloud optical depth have been limited to uniform overcast conditions and had low temporal and spatial resolution. We present a novel method to measure cloud optical depth for coastal regions from spectral zenith radiance measurements for optically thin clouds, which removes some of these limitations. Our measurement site is part of South Florida's Cloud-Aerosol-Rain Observatory (CAROb), located on Virginia Key, FL (6 km from Miami). This work is based on Marshak et al.'s method for finding cloud optical depth from vegetative sites that provide a strong spectral contrast between red and near infrared surface albedo. However, given the unique nature of our site, which contains water, vegetation, beach, and urban surface types, we found no such spectral contrast at those wavelength pairs. We measured albedo, with hyperspectral resolution, for different surface types around our measurement site to estimate the effective spectral albedo for the area centered on the site with a 5km radius. From this analysis, we found the best possible albedo contrast (573.9 and 673.1 nm) for our site. We tested the derived cloud optical depth from zenith radiance at these two wavelengths against a concurrently running polarized micro pulse LIDAR (MPL) and found good agreement.

  10. Retrieval of stratospheric O3 and NO2 vertical profiles using zenith scattered light observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G S Meena; C S Bhosale; D B Jadhav

    2006-06-01

    Daily zenith scattered light intensity observations were carried out in the morning twilight hours using home-made UV-visible spectrometer over the tropical station Pune (18° 31′, 73° 51′)for the years 2000-2003.These observations are obtained in the spectral range 462-498 nm for the solar zenith angles (SZAs)varying from 87° to 91.5°. An algorithm has been developed to retrieve vertical profiles of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from ground-based measurements using the Chahine iteration method.This retrieval method has been checked using measured and recalculated slant column densities (SCDs)and they are found to be well matching. O3 and NO2 vertical profiles have been retrieved using a set of their air mass factors (AMFs)and SCDs measured over a range of 87-91.5° SZA during the morning.The vertical profiles obtained by this method are compared with Umkehr profiles and ozonesondes and they are found to be in good agreement.The bulk of the column density is found near layer 20-25 km.Daily total column densities (TCDs)of O3 and NO2 along with their stratospheric and tropospheric counterparts are derived using their vertical profiles for the period 2000-2003.The total column,stratospheric column and tropospheric column amounts of both trace gases are found to be maximum in summer and minimum in the winter season.Increasing trend is found in column density of NO2 in stratospheric,tropospheric and surface layers,but no trend is observed in O3 columns for above layers during the period 2000-2003.

  11. New versions of the BDS/GNSS zenith tropospheric delay model IGGtrop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Yuan, Yunbin; Ou, Jikun; Chai, Yanju; Li, Zishen; Liou, Yuei-An; Wang, Ningbo

    2015-01-01

    The initial IGGtrop model proposed for Chinese BDS (BeiDou System) is not very suitable for BDS/GNSS research and application due to its large data volume while it shows a global mean accuracy of 4 cm. New versions of the global zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) model IGGtrop are developed through further investigation on the spatial and temporal characteristics of global ZTD. From global GNSS ZTD observations and weather reanalysis data, new ZTD characteristics are found and discussed in this study including: small and inconsistent seasonal variation in ZTD between and stable seasonal variation outside; weak zonal variation in ZTD at higher latitudes (north of and south of ) and at heights above 6 km, etc. Based on these analyses, new versions of IGGtrop, named , are established through employing corresponding strategies: using a simple algorithm for equatorial ZTD; generating an adaptive spatial grid with lower resolutions in regions where ZTD varies little; and creating a method for optimized storage of model parameters. Thus, the models require much less parameters than the IGGtrop model, nearly 3.1-21.2 % of that for the IGGtrop model. The three new versions are validated by five years of GNSS-derived ZTDs at 125 IGS sites, and it shows that: demonstrates the highest ZTD correction performance, similar to IGGtrop; requires the least model parameters; is moderate in both zenith delay prediction performance and number of model parameters. For the model, the biases at those IGS sites are between and 4.3 cm with a mean value of cm and RMS errors are between 2.1 and 8.5 cm with a mean value of 4.0 cm. Different BDS and other GNSS users can choose a suitable model according to their application and research requirements.

  12. Assessment of Automated Snow Cover Detection at High Solar Zenith Angles with PROBA-V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Hawotte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the snow cover extent are both a cause and a consequence of climate change. Optical remote sensing with heliosynchronous satellites currently provides snow cover data at high spatial resolution with daily revisiting time. However, high latitude image acquisition is limited because reflective sensors of many satellites are switched off at high solar zenith angles (SZA due to lower signal quality. In this study, the relevance and reliability of high SZA acquisition are objectively quantified in the purpose of high latitude snow cover detection, thanks to the PROBA-V (Project for On-Board Autonomy-Vegetation satellite. A snow cover extent classification based on Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI has been performed for the northern hemisphere on latitudes between 55°N and 75°N during the 2015–2016 winter season. A stratified probabilistic sampling was used to estimate the classification accuracy. The latter has been evaluated among eight SZA intervals to determine the maximum usable angle. The global overall snow classification accuracy with PROBA-V, 82% ± 4%, was significantly larger than the MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer snow cover extent product (75% ± 4%. User and producer accuracy of snow are above standards and overall accuracy is stable until 88.5° SZA. These results demonstrate that optical remote sensing data can still be used with large SZA. Considering the relevance of snow cover mapping for ecology and climatology, the data acquisition at high solar zenith angles should be continued by PROBA-V.

  13. Retrieving Precipitable Water Vapor Data Using GPS Zenith Delays and Global Reanalysis Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available GPS has become a very effective tool to remotely sense precipitable water vapor (PWV information, which is important for weather forecasting and nowcasting. The number of geodetic GNSS stations set up in China has substantially increased over the last few decades. However, GPS PWV derivation requires surface pressure to calculate the precise zenith hydrostatic delay and weighted mean temperature to map the zenith wet delay to precipitable water vapor. GPS stations without collocated meteorological sensors can retrieve water vapor using standard atmosphere parameters, which lead to a decrease in accuracy. In this paper, a method of interpolating NWP reanalysis data to site locations for generating corresponding meteorological elements is explored over China. The NCEP FNL dataset provided by the NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction and over 600 observed stations from different sources was selected to assess the quality of the results. A one-year experiment was performed in our study. The types of stations selected include meteorological sites, GPS stations, radio sounding stations, and a sun photometer station. Compared with real surface measurements, the accuracy of the interpolated surface pressure and air temperature both meet the requirements of GPS PWV derivation in most areas; however, the interpolated surface air temperature exhibits lower precision than the interpolated surface pressure. At more than 96% of selected stations, PWV differences caused by the differences between the interpolation results and real measurements were less than 1.0 mm. Our study also indicates that relief amplitude exerts great influence on the accuracy of the interpolation approach. Unsatisfactory interpolation results always occurred in areas of strong relief. GPS PWV data generated from interpolated meteorological parameters are consistent with other PWV products (radio soundings, the NWP reanalysis dataset, and sun photometer PWV data. The

  14. A CAD-CAM prosthodontic option and gingival zenith position for a rotated maxillary right central incisor: An evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Singhal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Digital imaging provides an immediate treatment option for the patients. Software also provides an interim aid, for the clinician as well as technician, in the form of two-dimensional photographs. CAD-CAM is entirely a helping instrument against the conservative prosthetic options and gingival zenith position for a rotated central incisor. It helps in patient education and in motivation.

  15. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1KA4A-1WGZA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1KA4A-1WGZA 1KA4 1WGZ A A EVFQNETIKQILAKYRRIWAIGHAQSVLGWDLEVNMPKE...confEVID> 0 1KA4 A 1KA4A...tryChain> 1KA4 A 1KA4A FPLGTRARLD... CA 334 SER CA 255 1KA4 A 1KA4A LEEGKVPREHP HH

  16. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  17. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons, and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall, or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  18. Remote Synchronization Experiments for Quasi-Zenith Satellite System Using Multiple Navigation Signals as Feedback Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Iwata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The remote synchronization system for the onboard crystal oscillator (RESSOX is a remote control method that permits synchronization between a ground station atomic clock and Japanese quasi-zenith satellite system (QZSS crystal oscillators. To realize the RESSOX of the QZSS, the utilization of navigation signals of QZSS for feedback control is an important issue. Since QZSS transmits seven navigation signals (L1C/A, L1CP, L1CD, L2CM, L2CL, L5Q, and L5I, all combinations of these signals should be evaluated. First, the RESSOX algorithm will be introduced. Next, experimental performance will be demonstrated. If only a single signal is available, ionospheric delay should be input from external measurements. If multiple frequency signals are available, any combination, except for L2 and L5, gives good performance with synchronization error being within two nanoseconds that of RESSOX. The combination of L1CD and L5Q gives the best synchronization performance (synchronization error within 1.14 ns. Finally, in the discussion, comparisons of long-duration performance, computer simulation, and sampling number used in feedback control are considered. Although experimental results do not correspond to the simulation results, the tendencies are similar. For the overlapping Allan deviation of long duration, the stability of 1.23×10−14 at 100,160 s is obtained.

  19. Estimating Zenith Tropospheric Delays from BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Sui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The GNSS derived Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD plays today a very critical role in meteorological study and weather forecasts, as ZTDs of thousands of GNSS stations are operationally assimilated into numerical weather prediction models. Recently, the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS was officially announced to provide operational services around China and its neighborhood and it was demonstrated to be very promising for precise navigation and positioning. In this contribution, we concentrate on estimating ZTD using BDS observations to assess its capacity for troposphere remote sensing. A local network which is about 250 km from Beijing and comprised of six stations equipped with GPS- and BDS-capable receivers is utilized. Data from 5 to 8 November 2012 collected on the network is processed in network mode using precise orbits and in Precise Point Positioning mode using precise orbits and clocks. The precise orbits and clocks are generated from a tracking network with most of the stations in China and several stations around the world. The derived ZTDs are compared with that estimated from GPS data using the final products of the International GNSS Service (IGS. The comparison shows that the bias and the standard deviation of the ZTD differences are about 2 mm and 5 mm, respectively, which are very close to the differences of GPS ZTD estimated using different software packages.

  20. High-energy spectrum and zenith-angle distribution of atmospheric neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Sinegovsky, S I; Sinegovskaya, T S

    2011-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos, arising from decays of mesons produced through the collisions of cosmic ray particles with air nuclei, form the background in the astrophysical neutrino detection problem. An ambiguity in high-energy behavior of pion and especially kaon production cross sections for nucleon-nucleus collisions may affect essentially the calculated neutrino flux. We present results of the calculation of the energy spectrum and zenith-angle distribution of the muon and electron atmospheric neutrinos in the energy range 10 GeV to 10 PeV. The calculation was performed with usage of known hadronic models (QGSJET-II-03, SIBYLL 2.1, Kimel & Mokhov) for two of the primary spectrum parametrizations, by Gaisser & Honda and by Zatsepin & Sokolskaya. The comparison of the calculated muon neutrino spectrum with the IceCube40 experiment data make it clear that even at energies above 100 TeV the prompt neutrino contribution is not so apparent because of tangled uncertainties of the strange (kaons) and charm...

  1. Assessment of Neutrospheric Zenith Delay predictions from regional NWP in the context of PPP quality results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, T. A. F.; Galera Monico, J. F.; Alves, D. B. M.; Sapucci, L.

    2016-12-01

    The effect that the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) satellites signals suffer when passing through the electrically neutral Earth's atmosphere (neutrosphere) is due to the presence of gases and water vapor with heterogeneous distribution. This effect is the neutrospheric (or tropospheric) delay. In order to minimize such delay, which is normally mapped to the zenith (ZND), models can be used: theoretical models (blinds models; Hopfield; Saastamoinen); Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models; or estimated during the GNSS data processing. ZND obtained from the regional NWP models present better accuracy when assessed against the estimated ZND (reference), because the influence of regional climatic characteristics is better described when using NWP. Such models include continentality, dry and wet (like Amazon region) regions, seasonality with stronger variation (summer and winter), as well as a better spatial resolution. In Brazil, CPTEC/INPE (Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies/Brazilian Institute for Space Research) is operating a NWP model for South America. ZND/CPTEC predictions are produced as an operational product from regional NWP. In this work our main aim is to assess the quality of PPP (Precision Point Positioning) considering the temporal resolution of the new CPTEC/INPE NWP regional model. For doing that, the impact of different neutrosphere models in the context of PPP, considering blind models for the neutrosphere delay in the PPP are also assessed by comparison to the ZND/CPTEC model. The analysis is accomplished in different Brazilian regions considering the ZND seasonal variations.

  2. Estimating zenith tropospheric delays from BeiDou navigation satellite system observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Aigong; Xu, Zongqiu; Ge, Maorong; Xu, Xinchao; Zhu, Huizhong; Sui, Xin

    2013-04-03

    The GNSS derived Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) plays today a very critical role in meteorological study and weather forecasts, as ZTDs of thousands of GNSS stations are operationally assimilated into numerical weather prediction models. Recently, the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) was officially announced to provide operational services around China and its neighborhood and it was demonstrated to be very promising for precise navigation and positioning. In this contribution, we concentrate on estimating ZTD using BDS observations to assess its capacity for troposphere remote sensing. A local network which is about 250 km from Beijing and comprised of six stations equipped with GPS- and BDS-capable receivers is utilized. Data from 5 to 8 November 2012 collected on the network is processed in network mode using precise orbits and in Precise Point Positioning mode using precise orbits and clocks. The precise orbits and clocks are generated from a tracking network with most of the stations in China and several stations around the world. The derived ZTDs are compared with that estimated from GPS data using the final products of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The comparison shows that the bias and the standard deviation of the ZTD differences are about 2 mm and 5 mm, respectively, which are very close to the differences of GPS ZTD estimated using different software packages.

  3. Anomalies of zenith tropospheric delay following the Mw 7.8 Haida Gwaii earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y. B.; Lei, X. X.; Liu, Q.; He, C. Y.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, L.

    2014-05-01

    The 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake was a massive Mw 7.8 earthquake that struck the Queen Carlotte Islands Region on 28 October 2012 (UTC). This study analyzed the variations in zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) following the Mw 7.8 Haida Gwaii earthquake using near real-time ZTD data collected from eleven stations in the seismic region and the forecast ZTD of ECMWF. A new differential method was used to detect anomalies of ZTD time series. Result showed that obvious ZTD anomalies occurred on the day of the earthquake (day-of-year, doy 302). There were anomalous ZTD variations at eight stations in the post-earthquake period on doy 302, possibly due to the processes of earthquake-generated acoustic waves. Propagation of acoustic waves caused variations of tropospheric parameters (e.g., atmospheric pressure, temperate, and atmosphere density), thus influencing ZTD. Absence of anomalous ZTD variations at the remaining three stations was attributed to the special topographic conditions, i.e., the long epicentral distance and the presence of huge mountains as a natural protective screen. Our work provides new insights to the relationship between of earthquake event and ZTD variation. The proposed differential method is superior to conventional method for detecting specific ZTD anomalies caused by earthquake events.

  4. Observations of Mkn 421 in 2004 with H.E.S.S. at large zenith angles

    CERN Document Server

    Aharonian, F; Aye, K M; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Berghaus, P; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Braun, I; Breitling, F; Brown, A M; Bussons-Gordo, J; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L M; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Degrange, B; Djannati-Ata, A; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubus, G; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Feinstein, F; Fleury, P; Fontaine, G; Fuchs, Y; Funk, S; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Gillessen, S; Glicenstein, J F; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Horns, D; De Jager, O C; Johnston, S; Khelifi, B; Kirk, J G; Komin, Nu; Konopelko, A; Latham, I J; Le Gallou, R; Lemiere, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Leroy, N; Martineau-Huynh, O; Lohse, T; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; McComb, T J L; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nolan, S J; Noutsos, A; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ouchrif, M; Panter, M; Pelletier, G; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Raux, J; Rayner, S M; Redondo, I; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rolland, L; Rowell, G; Sahakian, V V; Sauge, L; Schlenker, S; Schlickeiser, R; Schuster, C; Schwanke, U; Siewert, M; Skjraasen, O; Sol, H; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Theoret, C G; Tluczykont, M; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Wagner, S J

    2005-01-01

    Mkn 421 was observed during a high flux state for nine nights in April and May 2004 with the fully operational High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in Namibia. The observations were carried out at zenith angles of 60$^\\circ$--65$^\\circ$, which result in an average energy threshold of 1.5 TeV and a collection area reaching 2~km$^2$ at 10~TeV. Roughly 7000 photons from Mkn~421 were accumulated with an average gamma-ray rate of 8 photons/min. The overall significance of the detection exceeds 100 standard deviations. The light-curve of integrated fluxes above 2~TeV shows changes of the diurnal flux up to a factor of 4.3. For nights of high flux, intra-night variability is detected with a decay time of less than 1 hour. The time averaged energy spectrum is curved and is well described by a power-law with a photon index $\\egamm$ and an exponential cutoff at $\\ecut$~TeV and an average integral flux above 2~TeV of 3 Crab flux units. Significant variations of the spectral shape are detected with a spectral harde...

  5. Performance analysis of GPS augmentation using Japanese Quasi-Zenith Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F.; Kubo, N.; Yasuda, A.

    2004-01-01

    The current GPS satellite constellation provides limited availability and reliability for a country like Japan where mountainous terrain and urban canyons do not allow a clear skyline to the horizon. At present, the Japanese Quasi-Zenith Satellite System (QZSS) is under investigation through a government-private sector cooperation. QZSS is considered a multi-mission satellite system, as it is able to provide communication, broadcasting and positioning services for mobile users in a specified region with high elevation angle. The performance of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) can be quantified by availability, accuracy, reliability and integrity. This paper focuses on availability, accuracy and reliability of GPS with and without augmentation using QZSS. The availability, accuracy and reliability of GPS only and augmented GPS using QZSS in the Asia-Pacific and Australian area is studied by software simulation. The simulation results are described by the number of visible satellites as a measure of availability, geometric dilution of precision as a measure of accuracy and minimal detectable bias, and bias-to-noise rate as a measure of reliability, with spatial and temporal variations. It is shown that QZSS does not only improve the availability and accuracy of GPS positioning, but also enhances the reliability of GPS positioning in Japan and its neighboring area.

  6. Evolution of robotic arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  7. Arm Lift (Brachioplasty)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sagging. An arm lift might also boost your body image. As you get older, the skin on your upper arms changes — sagging and becoming loose. Significant weight loss also can cause the undersides of your upper arms to droop. While exercise can strengthen and improve muscle tone in the ...

  8. Radar scatter from equatorial electrojet waves: An explanation for the constancy of the Type I Doppler shift with zenith angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, M. C.; Cuevas, R. A.; Hysell, D. L.

    2008-02-01

    The first results from the 430 MHz Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar Prototype (AMISR-P) at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory were reported by Hysell et al. (2007). We present additional data showing that the phase velocity of Type I echoes is independent of zenith angle, an unexplained property of these waves. We interpret the results using rocket data by predicting the total line-of-sight velocity at the four zenith angles used. We find that the radars preferentially detect waves within 10% of C s in at least four range gates for all beams and up to eight range gates for the 51 JULIA beam. This result is consistent with recent auroral observations that Type I waves are only generated with k vectors near the electron flow velocity, where the latter is the vector sum of the zero-order drift and the perturbation drift due to large-scale waves in the equatorial case.

  9. The Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Link Experiment (MGS/KaBLE-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4-GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-m-diameter parabolic antenna on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) research and development (R&D) 34-meter a ntenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. This Ka-band link experiment (KaBLE-II) allows the performances of the Ka-band and X-band signals to be compared under nearly identical conditions. The two signals have been regularly tracked during the past 2 years. This article presents carrier-signal-level data (P_c/N_o) for both X-band and Ka-band acquired over a wide range of station elevation angles, weather conditions, and solar elongation angles. The cruise phase of the mission covered the period from launch (November 7, 1996) to Mars orbit capture (September 12, 1997). Since September 12, 1997, MGS has been in orbit around Mars. The measurements confirm that Ka-band could increase data capacity by at least a factor of three (5 dB) as compared with X-band. During May 1998, the solar corona experiment, in which the effects of solar plasma on the X-band and Ka-band links were studied, was conducted. In addition, frequency and difference frequency (f_x - f_(Ka)/3.8), ranging, and telemetry data results are presented. MGS/KaBLE-II measured signal strengths (for 54 percent of the experiments conducted) that were in reasonable agreement with predicted values based on preflight knowledge, and frequency residuals that agreed between bands and whose statistics were consistent with expected noise sources. For passes in which measured signal strengths disagreed with predicted values, the problems were traced to known deficiencies, for example, equipment operating under certain conditions, such as a cold Ka-band solid-state power amplifier (SSPA

  10. Gingival Zenith Positions and Levels of Maxillary Anterior Dentition in Cases of Bimaxillary Protrusion: A Morphometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowd, Snigdha; Shankar, T; Chatterjee, Suravi; Mohanty, Pritam; Sahoo, Nivedita; Baratam, Srinivas

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the two clinical parameters, such as gingival zenith positions (GZPs) and gingival zenith levels (GZLs), of maxillary anterior dentition in bimaxillary protrusion cases and collate it with severiety of crown inclination. Gingival zenith position and GZL in 40 healthy patients (29 females and 11 males) with an average age of 21.5 years were assessed. Inclusion criteria involved absence of periodontal diseases, Angle's class I molar relationship, and upper anterior proclination within 25 to 45° based on Steiner's analysis; exclusion criteria included spacing, crowding, anterior restoration and teeth with incisor attrition or rotation. The GZP was evaluated using digital calipers from voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and GZL was assessed from the tangent drawn from GZP of central incisor and canines to the linear vertical distance of GZP of lateral incisor. All the central incisors showed a GZP distal to VBM with a mean average of 1 mm. Severe proclination between 40 and 45° showed a statistically significant variation. Lateral incisors displayed a mean of 0.5 mm deviation of GZP from the vertically bisected midline. In 80% of canine population, GZP was centralized. We conclude that the degree of proclination of maxillary anterior dentition was correlated to the gingival contour in bimaxillary cases. The investigation revealed that there is a variation in the location of GZP as the severity of proclination increases. This study highlights the importance of microesthetics in fixed orthodontic treatment. The gingival contour should be unaltered while retraction during management of bimaxillary protrusion.

  11. Multiple View Zenith Angle Observations of Reflectance From Ponderosa Pine Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee F.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Reflectance factors (RF(lambda)) from dense and sparse ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) stands, derived from radiance data collected in the solar principal plane by the Advanced Solid-State Array Spectro-radiometer (ASAS), were examined as a function of view zenith angle (theta(sub v)). RF(lambda) was maximized with theta(sub v) nearest the solar retrodirection, and minimized near the specular direction throughout the ASAS spectral region. The dense stand had much higher RF anisotropy (ma)dmurn RF is minimum RF) in the red region than did the sparse stand (relative differences of 5.3 vs. 2.75, respectively), as a function of theta(sub v), due to the shadow component in the canopy. Anisotropy in the near-infrared (NIR) was more similar between the two stands (2.5 in the dense stand and 2.25 in the sparse stand); the dense stand exhibited a greater hotspot effect than 20 the sparse stand in this spectral region. Two common vegetation transforms, the NIR/red ratio and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), both showed a theta(sub v) dependence for the dense stand. Minimum values occurred near the retrodirection and maximum values occurred near the specular direction. Greater relative differences were noted for the NIR/red ratio (2.1) than for the NDVI (1.3). The sparse stand showed no obvious dependence on theta(sub v) for either transform, except for slightly elevated values toward the specular direction.

  12. Salivary cortisol, stress and mood in healthy older adults: the Zenith study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ellen E A; McConville, Chris; Rae, Gordon; O'Connor, Jacqueline M; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J; Coudray, Charles; Strain, J J

    2008-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between salivary cortisol, stress and mood and to look at the circadian rhythms of positive (PA) and negative (NA) mood in older adults. The participants were 41 healthy adults aged 55-69 years, recruited in Northern Ireland as part of the European Commission-funded Zenith project. Salivary cortisol samples were obtained twice a day (2.30 p.m. and 10.30 p.m.) for 7 consecutive days in conjunction with momentary measures of positive (PA) and negative mood (NA), using PANAS and a trait measure of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale). Salivary cortisol levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. Higher perceived stress levels were associated with lower afternoon PA (r=-0.46, p=0.003) and higher afternoon (r=0.43, p=0.007) and evening (r=0.45, p=0.004) NA. Lower afternoon PA was correlated with higher evening cortisol concentrations (r=-0.47, p=0.002). Greater afternoon PA variability was associated with higher evening cortisol concentrations (r=0.38, p=0.015). A high intra-class correlation between cortisol and positive mood was found (r=0.67, p=0.009). Previously established rhythms for positive and negative mood were confirmed. Interestingly, there was no association between salivary cortisol levels and perceived stress in these healthy older adults. Further, more extensive research is required to better understand the apparent interplay between these variables and ageing.

  13. Impact of high-resolution data assimilation of GPS zenith delay on Mediterranean heavy rainfall forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boniface

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Impact of GPS (Global Positioning System data assimilation is assessed here using a high-resolution numerical weather prediction system at 2.5 km horizontal resolution. The Zenithal Tropospheric Delay (ZTD GPS data from mesoscale networks are assimilated with the 3DVAR AROME data assimilation scheme. Data from more than 280 stations over the model domain have been assimilated during 15-day long assimilation cycles prior each of the two studied events. The results of these assimilation cycles show that the assimilation of GPS ZTD with the AROME system performs well in producing analyses closer to the ZTD observations in average.

    Then the impacts of assimilating GPS data on the precipitation forecast have been evaluated. For the first case, only the AROME runs starting a few hours prior the triggering of the convective system are able to simulate the convective precipitation. The assimilation of GPS ZTD observations improves the simulation of the spatial extent of the precipitation, but slightly underestimates the heaviest precipitation in that case compared with the experiment without GPS. The accuracy of the precipitation forecast for the second case is much better. The analyses from the control assimilation cycle provide already a good description of the atmosphere state that cannot be further improved by the assimilation of GPS observations. Only for the latest day (22 November 2007, significant differences have been found between the two parallel cycles. In that case, the assimilation of GPS ZTD allows to improve the first 6 to 12 h of the precipitation forecast.

  14. Determining precipitable water in the atmosphere of Iran based on GPS zenith tropospheric delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Sadeghi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Precipitable water (PW is considered as one of the most important weather parameters in meteorology. Moreover, moisture affects the propagation of the Global Positioning System’s (GPS signals. Using four different models, the current paper tries to identify the best relationship between the atmospheric error known as zenith wet delay (ZWD and PW. For that matter, based on 54,330 radiosonde profiles from 11 stations, two different models i.e. linear and quadratic have been derived for Iran. For analyzing the accuracy of these models, ZWDs of three permanent GPS stations located in the cities of Tehran, Ahvaz and Tabriz have been used. Applying the aforementioned models as well as those already developed for Europe and the U.S., PWs are derived at the position of these stations in Iran. Further, in this research, root mean square error (RMSE and bias are the measures for selecting the optimal model. Here, the bias and the RMSE (between GPS and radiosonde derived PWs for the proposed linear model for Iran is 1.44 mm and 4.42 mm, and for quadratic model 2.18 mm and 4.74 mm respectively while, the bias and the RMSE for Bevis’ linear model is 2.63 mm and 4.98 mm and for Emardson and Derk’s quadratic models are 2.80 mm and 5.08 mm respectively. As such, it is observed that the bias of the proposed linear model for Iran is 1.19 mm and 1.36 mm less than the Bevis’ and Emardson and Derk’s models. In addition, the RMSE of the proposed linear model is 0.56 and 0.66 mm less than the RMSE of the later ones. This emphasizes that the estimation of the model coefficients must be based on regional meteorological measurements.

  15. Tropospheric refractivity and zenith path delays from least-squares collocation of meteorological and GNSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgan, Karina; Hurter, Fabian; Geiger, Alain; Rohm, Witold; Bosy, Jarosław

    2016-08-01

    Precise positioning requires an accurate a priori troposphere model to enhance the solution quality. Several empirical models are available, but they may not properly characterize the state of troposphere, especially in severe weather conditions. Another possible solution is to use regional troposphere models based on real-time or near-real time measurements. In this study, we present the total refractivity and zenith total delay (ZTD) models based on a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data and ground-based meteorological observations. We reconstruct the total refractivity profiles over the western part of Switzerland and the total refractivity profiles as well as ZTDs over Poland using the least-squares collocation software COMEDIE (Collocation of Meteorological Data for Interpretation and Estimation of Tropospheric Pathdelays) developed at ETH Zürich. In these two case studies, profiles of the total refractivity and ZTDs are calculated from different data sets. For Switzerland, the data set with the best agreement with the reference radiosonde (RS) measurements is the combination of ground-based meteorological observations and GNSS ZTDs. Introducing the horizontal gradients does not improve the vertical interpolation, and results in slightly larger biases and standard deviations. For Poland, the data set based on meteorological parameters from the NWP Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and from a combination of the NWP model and GNSS ZTDs shows the best agreement with the reference RS data. In terms of ZTD, the combined NWP-GNSS observations and GNSS-only data set exhibit the best accuracy with an average bias (from all stations) of 3.7 mm and average standard deviations of 17.0 mm w.r.t. the reference GNSS stations.

  16. Chinese Digital Zenith Telescope (DZT) used for Astro-geodetic Deflection of the Vertical Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, L.; Wang, B.; Wang, Z.; Yin, Z.; Hu, H.; Wang, H.; Han, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Classical optical astrometry can be used to measure and study variations of plumb line. For the earth gravity filed related researches, it is irreplaceable by technologies like GNSS、VLBI、SLR, etc. However, classical astrometric instruments have some major drawback, such as low efficiency, low automation, more operating observers, and individual error in some visual instruments. In 2011, The National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) successfully developed the new digital zenith telescope prototype (DZT-1), which has the ability of highly automatic observation and data processing, even allowing unattended observation by remote control. By utilizing CCD camera as imaging terminal and high-accuracy tiltmeter to replace mercurial plate, observation efficiency of DZT is improved greatly. According to the results of data obtained from test observations, single-observation accuracy of DZT-1 is 0.15-0.3″ and one night observation accuracy up to 0.07-0.08″, which is better than the observation accuracy of classical astrometric instruments. The observations of DZT can be used to obtain the plumb line variations and the vertical deflections, which can be used for carrying out seismic, geodetic and other related geo-scientific researches. Especially the collocated observations with gravimeters and the conjoint analysis of the observation data will be helpful to recognize the anomalous motion and variation of underground mass over time, and maybe provide significant information for estimating the scale of underground anomalous mass. The information is valuable for determining the three key factors of earthquake possibly. Moreover, the project team is carrying out the development of new DZT with better performance and studying the key techniques for new instrument to make DZT play a more significant role in the astronomy and geoscience fields.

  17. Global model of zenith tropospheric delay proposed based on EOF analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Langlang; Chen, Peng; Wei, Erhu; Li, Qinzheng

    2017-07-01

    Tropospheric delay is one of the main error budgets in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. Many empirical correction models have been developed to compensate this delay, and models which do not require meteorological parameters have received the most attention. This study established a global troposphere zenith total delay (ZTD) model, called Global Empirical Orthogonal Function Troposphere (GEOFT), based on the empirical orthogonal function (EOF, also known as geographically weighted PCAs) analysis method and the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) Atmosphere data from 2012 to 2015. The results showed that ZTD variation could be well represented by the characteristics of the EOF base function Ek and associated coefficients Pk. Here, E1 mainly signifies the equatorial anomaly; E2 represents north-south asymmetry, and E3 and E4 reflects regional variation. Moreover, P1 mainly reflects annual and semiannual variation components; P2 and P3 mainly contains annual variation components, and P4 displays semiannual variation components. We validated the proposed GEOFT model using tropospheric delay data of GGOS ZTD grid data and the tropospheric product of the International GNSS Service (IGS) over the year 2016. The results showed that GEOFT model has high accuracy with bias and RMS of -0.3 and 3.9 cm, respectively, with respect to the GGOS ZTD data, and of -0.8 and 4.1 cm, respectively, with respect to the global IGS tropospheric product. The accuracy of GEOFT demonstrating that the use of the EOF analysis method to characterize ZTD variation is reasonable.

  18. Predictions of Tropospheric Zenithal Delay for South America : Seasonal Variability and Quality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Zenithal Tropospheric Delay (Z TD is an important error source in the observable involved in the positioning methods using artificial satellite. Frequently, the Z TD influence in the positioning is minimized by applying empirical models. However, such models are not able to supply the precision required to some real time applications, such as navigation and steak out. In 2010 it will be implanted the new navigation and administration system of the air traffic, denominated CNS-ATM (Communication Navigation Surveillance - Air Traffic Management. In this new system the application of positioning techniques by satellites in the air traffic will be quite explored because they provide good precision in real time. The predictions of Z TD values from Numeric Weather Prediction (NWP, denominated dynamic modeling, is an alternative to model the atmospheric gases effects in the radio-frequency signals in real time. The Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC has generated operationally prediction of Z TD values to South American Continent since March, 2004. The aims of the present paper are to investigate the Z TD seasonal variability and evaluate the quality of predicted Z TD values. One year of GPS data from Brazilian Continuous GPS Network (RBMC was used in this evaluation. The RMS values resulting from this evaluation were in the range of 4 to 11 cm. Considering the Z TDtemporal variability, the advantages provide by this modeling, the results obtained in this evaluation and the future improvements, this work shows that the dynamic modeling has great potential to become the most appropriate alternative to model Z TD in real time.

  19. Tropospheric refractivity and zenith path delays from least-squares collocation of meteorological and GNSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgan, Karina; Hurter, Fabian; Geiger, Alain; Rohm, Witold; Bosy, Jarosław

    2017-02-01

    Precise positioning requires an accurate a priori troposphere model to enhance the solution quality. Several empirical models are available, but they may not properly characterize the state of troposphere, especially in severe weather conditions. Another possible solution is to use regional troposphere models based on real-time or near-real time measurements. In this study, we present the total refractivity and zenith total delay (ZTD) models based on a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data and ground-based meteorological observations. We reconstruct the total refractivity profiles over the western part of Switzerland and the total refractivity profiles as well as ZTDs over Poland using the least-squares collocation software COMEDIE (Collocation of Meteorological Data for Interpretation and Estimation of Tropospheric Pathdelays) developed at ETH Zürich. In these two case studies, profiles of the total refractivity and ZTDs are calculated from different data sets. For Switzerland, the data set with the best agreement with the reference radiosonde (RS) measurements is the combination of ground-based meteorological observations and GNSS ZTDs. Introducing the horizontal gradients does not improve the vertical interpolation, and results in slightly larger biases and standard deviations. For Poland, the data set based on meteorological parameters from the NWP Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and from a combination of the NWP model and GNSS ZTDs shows the best agreement with the reference RS data. In terms of ZTD, the combined NWP-GNSS observations and GNSS-only data set exhibit the best accuracy with an average bias (from all stations) of 3.7 mm and average standard deviations of 17.0 mm w.r.t. the reference GNSS stations.

  20. Modulation transfer functions at Ka band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesany, Vahid; Sistani, Bita; Salam, Asif; Haimov, Samuel; Gogineni, Prasad; Moore, Richard K.

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) is often used to describe the modulation of the radar signal by the long waves. MTFs were measured at 35 GHz (Ka band) with a switched-beam vector slope gauge/scatterometer on the research platform NORDSEE as part of the SAXON-FPN experiment. Three independent measurements of the scattering were available for each height measurement. This provided the opportunity to average the time series to reduce the effects of fading noise and sea spikes, or, alternatively, to append the time series to achieve more degrees of freedom in the spectral estimates. For upwind measurements, the phase of the VV-polarized Ka-band MTF was always positive, which implies that the maximum of the radar return originates from the forward face of the long-scale waves. This phase increases with increasing wind speed. The magnitude of the MTF decreases with increasing wind speed.

  1. KaKa带你杀大网

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昊月

    2005-01-01

    上期和大家一起漫步dust2,体会了其中的妙处,这期KaKa带你去inferno这张地图探个究竟。inferno是一张对于警匪都比较平衡的地图,攻守都有各自的优势,如何利用这些优势让自己在大网里的杀人数剧增,是KaKa这期要告诉大家的重点。上次KaKa教大家如果做匪徒在大网里杀人,这次咱做警察,练练如何在大网里防守,这次我们进一个开局金钱数16000的大网里,免得初期还要手枪肉搏。一切准备就绪,开局买上M4,炸宙,闪光再带把拆包器,可能会有人有疑问。”又不是打比赛,要买拆包器干吗?杀光敌人不就得了吗。”KaKa在这里还要提醒你一点.1.5版和1.6版其中的一个小区别就是如果警察成功拆除炸弹的话,可以增加3个杀人数,所以只要有机会就奋不顾身去抢拆包,这也算是提高自己在大网里杀人数一个“歪门邪道”,可比你和3个匪徒周旋半天划得来哦。

  2. Evolution of robotic arms

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond th...

  3. Validation of GPM Ka-Radar Algorithm Using a Ground-based Ka-Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kaneko, Yuki; Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Furukawa, Kinji; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-04-01

    GPM led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of US (NASA) aims to observe global precipitation. The core satellite is equipped with a microwave radiometer (GMI) and a dual-frequency radar (DPR) which is the first spaceborne Ku/Ka-band dual-wavelength radar dedicated for precipitation measurement. In the DPR algorithm, measured radar reflectivity is converted to effective radar reflectivity by estimating the rain attenuation. Here, the scattering/attenuation characteristics of Ka-band radiowaves are crucial, particularly for wet snow. A melting layer observation using a dual Ka-band radar system developed by JAXA was conducted along the slope of Mt. Zao in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. The dual Ka-band radar system consists of two nearly identical Ka-band FM-CW radars, and the precipitation systems between two radars were observed in opposite directions. From this experiment, equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) and specific attenuation (k) were obtained. The experiments were conducted for two winter seasons. During the data analyses, it was found that k estimate easily fluctuates because the estimate is based on double difference calculation. With much temporal and spatial averaging, k-Ze relationship was obtained for melting layers. One of the results is that the height of the peak of k seems slightly higher than that of Ze. The results are compared with in-situ precipitation particle measurements.

  4. W-band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, KB; Johnson, K

    2005-01-05

    The W-band Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud Radar (WACR) systems are zenith pointing Doppler radars that probe the extent and composition of clouds at 95.04 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops). This radar reports estimates for the first three spectra moments for each range gate up to 15 km. The 0th moment is reflectivity, the 1st moment is radial velocity, and the 2nd moment is spectral width. Also available are the raw spectra files. Unlike the millimeter wavelength cloud radar (MMCR), the WACR does not use pulse coding and operates in only copolarization and cross-polarization modes.

  5. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  6. Språka och lek

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bylander, Helle Iben; Thomsen, Inge Benn

    Språka och Lek innehåller mer än 100 språklekar och idéer. Bokens aktiviteter är noggrant beskrivna med tydliga mål och anvisningar, så att den pedagogiska personalen i förskolan kan erbjuda spännande och värdefulla språkliga upplevelser med hjälp av vardagsföremål och massor av fantasi. Boken är...

  7. Ka-band waveguide rotary joint

    KAUST Repository

    Yevdokymov, Anatoliy

    2013-04-11

    The authors present a design of a waveguide rotary joint operating in Ka-band with central frequency of 33 GHz, which also acts as an antenna mount. The main unit consists of two flanges with a clearance between them; one of the flanges has three circular choke grooves. Utilisation of three choke grooves allows larger operating clearance. Two prototypes of the rotary joint have been manufactured and experimentally studied. The observed loss is from 0.4 to 0.8 dB in 1.5 GHz band.

  8. Calibration of the KA Band Tracking of the Bepi-Colombo Spacecraft (more Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriot, J.; Serafini, J.; Sichoix, L.

    2013-12-01

    The radiosciences Bepi-Colombo MORE experiment will use X/X, X/Ka and Ka/Ka band radio links to make accurate measurements of the spacecraft range and range rate. Tropospheric zenith wet delays range from 1.5 cm to 10 cm, with high variability (less than 1000 s) and will impair these accurate measurements. Conditions vary from summer (worse) to winter (better), from day (worse) to night (better). These wet delays cannot be estimated from ground weather measurements and alternative calibration methods should be used in order to cope with the MORE requirements (no more than 3 mm at 1000 s). Due to the Mercury orbit, MORE measurements will be performed by daylight and more frequently in summer than in winter (from Northern hemisphere). Two systems have been considered to calibrate this wet delay: Water Vapor Radiometers (WVRs) and GPS receivers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a new class of WVRs reaching a 5 percent accuracy for the wet delay calibration (0.75 mm to 5 mm), but these WVRs are expensive to build and operate. GPS receivers are also routinely used for the calibration of data from NASA Deep Space probes, but several studies have shown that GPS receivers can give good calibration (through wet delay mapping functions) for long time variations, but are not accurate enough for short time variations (100 to 1000 s), and that WVRs must be used to efficiently calibrate the wet troposphere delays over such time spans. We think that such a calibration could be done by assimilating data from all the GNSS constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Beidou and IRNSS) that will be available at the time of the Bepi-Colombo arrival at Mercury (2021), provided that the underlying physics of the turbulent atmosphere and evapotranspiration processes are properly taken into account at such time scales. This implies to do a tomographic image of the troposphere overlying each Deep Space tracking station at time scales of less than 1000 s. For this purpose, we have

  9. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  10. MVACS Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; hide

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  11. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  12. An Elastica Arm Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, F; Corso, F Dal; Bigoni, D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  13. Dynamics of Robotic Arm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abhishek Chavan; Abhishek Bhuskute; Anmol Jain; Neha Shinde; M B Salunke

    2014-01-01

    ...'. Autonomous Systems are self-governed and does not require any manual interventions. This paper presents an overview of previous developments and the working of Robotic arms along with its mathematical aspects...

  14. Arm CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  15. High Efficiency Ka-Band Spatial Combiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Passi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Ka-Band, High Efficiency, Small Size Spatial Combiner (SPC is proposed in this paper, which uses an innovatively matched quadruple Fin Lines to microstrip (FLuS transitions. At the date of this paper and at the Author's best knowledge no such FLuS innovative transitions have been reported in literature before. These transitions are inserted into a WR28 waveguide T-junction, in order to allow the integration of 16 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC Solid State Power Amplifiers (SSPA's. A computational electromagnetic model using the finite elements method has been implemented. A mean insertion loss of 2 dB is achieved with a return loss better the 10 dB in the 31-37 GHz bandwidth.

  16. p Ka calculation of poliprotic acid: histamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Abreu, Heitor A.; De Almeida, Wagner B.; Duarte, Hélio A.

    2004-01-01

    Various theoretical studies have been reported addressing the performance of solvation models available to estimate p Ka values. However, no attention has been paid so far to the role played by the electronic, thermal and solvation energy individual contributions to the Gibbs free energy of the deprotonation process. In this work, we decompose the total Gibbs free energy into three distinct terms and then evaluate the dependence of each contribution on the level of theory employed for its determination using different levels of theory. The three possible p Kas of histamine have been estimated and compared with available experimental data. We found that the electronic energy term is sensitive to the level of theory and basis set, and, therefore, could be also a source of error in the theoretical calculation of p Kas.

  17. KaKa带你杀大网

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昊月

    2005-01-01

    前两期的Dust2和Inferno相信大家杀得一定很过瘾吧?这期KaKa继续向大家介绍杀大网的奥妙,这次我们转战Train这张地图。这张地图的特点是阴人的特点是掩体多、整体的颜色比较暗,可以到处阴人。Train的空间感也比较强,上下移动的频率比较多,所以大家在玩这种地图的时候枪口上下移动会很频繁。对鼠标垫比较好的玩家来说,是比较耗损好的鼠标垫哦,希望大家不要心疼。

  18. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    world war, a nuclear inferno , for over 40 years. A sober assessment of the situation in world politics was conducted at the meet- ing of the...there is success in stopping the arms race, or those forces accelerating the arms race and driving humanity to the edge of a nuclear inferno will gain...dialogue with all forces fighting against a nuclear inferno , affirmed by the Warsaw Pact countries, is being seen more and more as the only practicable

  19. Aeronautical applications of steerable K/Ka-band antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmken, Henry; Prather, Horton

    1995-01-01

    The expected growth of wideband data and video transmission via satellite will press existing satellite Ku-band services and push development of the Ka-band region. Isolated ground based K/Ka-band terminals can experience severe fading due to rain and weather phenomena. However, since aircraft generally fly above the severe weather, they are attractive platforms for developing commercial K/Ka-band communication links.

  20. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  1. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  2. Spectral invariant behavior of zenith radiance around cloud edges simulated by radiative transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Chiu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A previous paper discovered a surprising spectral-invariant relationship in shortwave spectrometer observations taken by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program. Here, using radiative transfer simulations, we study the sensitivity of this relationship to the properties of aerosols and clouds, to the underlying surface type, and to the finite field-of-view (FOV of the spectrometer. Overall, the relationship is mostly sensitive to cloud properties and has little sensitivity to the other factors. At visible wavelengths, the relationship primarily depends on cloud optical depth regardless of cloud thermodynamic phase and drop size. At water-absorbing wavelengths, the slope of the spectral-invariant relationship depends primarily on cloud optical depth; the intercept, by contrast, depends primarily on cloud absorption properties, suggesting a new retrieval method for cloud drop effective radius. These results suggest that the spectral-invariant relationship can be used to infer cloud properties even with insufficient or no knowledge about spectral surface albedo and aerosol properties.

  3. DARHT 2 kA Cathode Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henestroza, E.; Houck, T.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Miram, G.; Prichard, B.; Roy, P.K.; Waldron, W.; Westenskow, G.; Yu, S.; Bieniosek, F.M.

    2009-03-09

    In the campaign to achieve 2 kA of electron beam current, we have made several changes to the DARHT-II injector during 2006-2007. These changes resulted in a significant increase in the beam current, achieving the 2 kA milestone. Until recently (before 2007), the maximum beam current that was produced from the 6.5-inch diameter (612M) cathode was about 1300 A when the cathode was operating at a maximum temperature of 1140 C. At this temperature level, the heat loss was dominated by radiation which is proportional to temperature to the fourth power. The maximum operating temperature was limited by the damage threshold of the potted filament and the capacity of the filament heater power supply, as well as the shortening of the cathode life time. There were also signs of overheating at other components in the cathode assembly. Thus it was clear that our approach to increase beam current could not be simply trying to run at a higher temperature and the preferred way was to operate with a cathode that has a lower work function. The dispenser cathode initially used was the type 612M made by SpectraMat. According to the manufacturer's bulletin, this cathode should be able to produce more than 10 A/cm{sup 2} of current density (corresponding to 2 kA of total beam current) at our operating conditions. Instead the measured emission (space charge limited) was 6 A/cm{sup 2}. The result was similar even after we had revised the activation and handling procedures to adhere more closely to the recommend steps (taking longer time and nonstop to do the out-gassing). Vacuum was a major concern in considering the cathode's performance. Although the vacuum gauges at the injector vessel indicated 10{sup -8} Torr, the actual vacuum condition near the cathode in the central region of the vessel, where there might be significant out-gassing from the heater region, was never determined. Poor vacuum at the surface of the cathode degraded the emission (by raising the work function

  4. Torsional Arming of Thiomannosyl Donors & Conformational Control of Hexahydropyridazines via pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jacob Ingemar

    be controlled by manipulating the stereochemistry. There are many examples of conformational arming, where an equatorial rich donor is forced towards its more axial rich conformation resulting in a significant increase in reactivity. In order to study this conformational arming further, attempts at synthesizing......H. A relationship between conformation and pKa was established by showing that the pKa directly reflects the conformational equilibrium of conformers. Unfortunately, attaching the hexahydropyridazine to the secondary rim of an α-cyclodextrine was not achieved. Chapter 5 describes the attempted synthesis of seven...... 1). This is due to the higher degree of oxocarbenium ion stabilization exerted by the axial substituents. Therefore, the reactivity of a glycoside donor can be controlled by manipulating the stereochemistry. There are many examples of conformational arming, where an equatorial rich donor is forced...

  5. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanraj.C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378 are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device through Xbee interface card. LPC2148 and LPC2378 ARM processors are used in this prototype and winXtalk is used as a software terminal window. In this paper, the ultimate benefits of multiple processor interactions related to the embedded applications and design issues of processor interconnection are discussed. The features of multiple processor interaction in inter process communication and executions of embedded multitasking are also discussed. In modern embedded computing platform, embedded processor used in various applications like home automation, industrial control, medical system, access control, etc. In this paper, using embedded processor interactions, the several data communication is established.

  6. Armed conflict and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  7. Zenith-Distance Dependence of Chromatic Shear Effect: A Limiting Factor for an Extreme Adaptive Optics System

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, T

    2006-01-01

    Consider a perfect AO system with a very fine wavefront sampling interval and a very small actuator interval. If this AO system senses wavefront at a wavelength, lambda_{WFS}, and does science imaging at another wavelength, lambda_{SCI}, the light paths through the turbulent atmosphere at these two wavelengths are slightly different for a finite zenith distance, z. The error in wavefront reconstruction of the science channel associated with this non-common path effect, or so-called chromatic shear, is uncorrectable and sets an upper bound of the system performance. We evaluate the wavefront variance, sigma^2(lambda_{WFS},lambda_{SCI},z) for a typical seeing condition at Mauna Kea and find that this effect is not negligible at a large z. If we require that the Strehl ratio be greater than 99 or 95%, z must be less than about 50 or 60 deg respectively, for the combination of visible wavefront sensing and infrared science imaging.

  8. Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward through-going muons by Super-Kamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Y; Ichihara, E; Inoue, K; Ishihara, K; Ishino, H; Itow, Y; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kasuga, S; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Koshio, Y; Miura, M; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Sakurai, N; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Totsuka, Y; Yamada, S; Earl, M; Habig, A; Kearns, E; Messier, M D; Scholberg, K; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Walter, C W; Goldhaber, M; Barszczak, T; Casper, D; Gajewski, W; Kropp, W R; Price, L R; Reines, F; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Keig, W E; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Flanagan, J W; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Stenger, V J; Takemori, D; Ishii, T; Kanzaki, J; Kobayashi, T; Mine, S; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Oyama, Y; Sakai, A; Sakuda, M; Sasaki, O; Echigo, S; Kohama, M; Suzuki, A T; Haines, T J; Blaufuss, E; Kim, B K; Sanford, R; Svoboda, R; Chen, M L; Goodman, J A; Sullivan, G W; Hill, J; Jung, C K; Martens, K; Mauger, C; McGrew, C; Sharkey, E; Viren, B; Yanagisawa, C; Doki, W; Miyano, K; Okazawa, H; Saji, C; Takahata, M; Nagashima, Y; Takita, M; Yamaguchi, T; Yoshida, M; Kim, S B; Etoh, M; Fujita, K; Hasegawa, A; Hasegawa, T; Hatakeyama, S; Iwamoto, T; Koga, M; Maruyama, T; Ogawa, H; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Tsushima, F; Koshiba, M; Nemoto, M; Nishijima, K; Futagami, T; Hayato, Y; Kanaya, Y; Kaneyuki, K; Watanabe, Y; Kielczewska, D; Doyle, R A; George, J S; Stachyra, A L; Wai, L L; Wilkes, R J; Young, K K

    1999-01-01

    A total of 614 upward through-going muons of minimum energy 1.6 GeV are observed by Super-Kamiokande during 537 detector live days. The measured muon flux is 1.74+/-0.07(stat.)+/-0.02(sys.)x10^{-13}cm^{-2}s^{-1}sr^{-1} compared to an expected flux of 1.97+/-0.44(theo.)x10^{-13}cm^{-2}s^{-1}sr^{-1}. The absolute measured flux is in agreement with the prediction within the errors. However, the zenith angle dependence of the observed upward through-going muon flux does not agree with no-oscillation predictions. The observed distortion in shape is consistent with the \

  9. Briti korruptsioonivastane seadus kehtib ka Eestis / Tõnis Tamme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamme, Tõnis, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Suurbritannias jõustub 1. juulil 2011 uus korruptsioonivastane seadus (Bribery Act 2010), mis kehtib ühtmoodi nii Briti ettevõtetele kui ka mujal maailmas asutatud äriühingutele, kelle äritegevus või ka osa sellest omab puutumust Suurbritanniaga

  10. Assigning the pKa's of Polyprotic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, George M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses (1) polyproptic acids for which the difference between K-a's is large; (2) the Henderson-Hasselbach equation; (3) polyprotic acids for which the difference between K-a's is small; (4) analysis of microscopic dissociation constants for cysteine; and (5) analysis of pK-a data. (JN)

  11. A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlar, Joseph; Tjernstroem, Michael; Leck, Caroline [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mauritsen, Thorsten [Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Shupe, Matthew D.; Persson, P.O.G. [University of Colorado, NOAA-ESRL-PSD, Boulder, CO (United States); Brooks, Ian M.; Birch, Cathryn E. [University of Leeds, School of Earth and Environment, Leeds (United Kingdom); Sirevaag, Anders [University of Bergen, Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Nicolaus, Marcel [Norwegian Polar Institute, Tromsoe (Norway); Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Snow surface and sea-ice energy budgets were measured near 87.5 N during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), from August to early September 2008. Surface temperature indicated four distinct temperature regimes, characterized by varying cloud, thermodynamic and solar properties. An initial warm, melt-season regime was interrupted by a 3-day cold regime where temperatures dropped from near zero to -7 C. Subsequently mean energy budget residuals remained small and near zero for 1 week until once again temperatures dropped rapidly and the energy budget residuals became negative. Energy budget transitions were dominated by the net radiative fluxes, largely controlled by the cloudiness. Variable heat, moisture and cloud distributions were associated with changing air-masses. Surface cloud radiative forcing, the net radiative effect of clouds on the surface relative to clear skies, is estimated. Shortwave cloud forcing ranged between -50 W m{sup -2} and zero and varied significantly with surface albedo, solar zenith angle and cloud liquid water. Longwave cloud forcing was larger and generally ranged between 65 and 85 W m{sup -2}, except when the cloud fraction was tenuous or contained little liquid water; thus the net effect of the clouds was to warm the surface. Both cold periods occurred under tenuous, or altogether absent, low-level clouds containing little liquid water, effectively reducing the cloud greenhouse effect. Freeze-up progression was enhanced by a combination of increasing solar zenith angles and surface albedo, while inhibited by a large, positive surface cloud forcing until a new air-mass with considerably less cloudiness advected over the experiment area. (orig.)

  12. High power Ka band TWT amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golkowski, C.; Ivers, J.D.; Nation, J.A.; Wang, P.; Schachter, L.

    1999-07-01

    Two high power 35 GHz TWT amplifiers driven by a relativistic pencil, 850 kV, 200A electron beam have been assembled and tested. The first had a dielectric slow wave structure and was primarily used to develop diagnostics, and to gain experience in working with high power systems in Ka band. The source of the input power for the amplifier was a magnetron producing a 30 kW, 200ns long pulse of which 10 kW as delivered to the experiment. The 30 cm long dielectric (Teflon) amplifier produced output power levels of about 1 MW with a gain of about 23 dB. These results are consistent with expectations from PIC code simulations for this arrangement. The second amplifier, which is a single stage disk loaded slow wave structure, has been designed. It consists of one hundred uniform cells with two sets of ten tapered calls at the ends to lower the reflection coefficient. The phase advance per cell is {pi}/2. The amplifier passband extends from 28 to 40 GHz. It is designed to increase the output power to about 20 MW. The amplifier is in construction and will be tested in the near future. Details of the design of both systems will be provided and initial results from the new amplifier presented.

  13. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm. The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars. Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm. After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy. The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully. The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Electromyographic investigation of hypnotic arm levitation: differences between voluntary arm elevation and involuntary arm levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Burkhard; Schiebler, Philipp; Piesbergen, Christoph; Hagl, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-three volunteers were randomly exposed to 3 conditions: hypnotic arm levitation, holding up the arm voluntarily without hypnosis, and imagined arm lifting without hypnosis. Trapezius, deltoid, extensor digitorum, flexor digitorum profundus, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii muscles were measured. Strain and muscle activity during lifting and holding up the right arm for 3 minutes were used as dependent variables. During hypnotic arm levitation, the total muscle activity was lower than during holding it up voluntarily (p levitation.

  15. The sensitivity of the Late Saalian (140 ka) and LGM (21 ka) Eurasian ice sheets to sea surface conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleoni, Florence [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy); UJF, CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Stockholm University, Department of Geological Sciences, Stockhlom (Sweden); Liakka, Johan [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden); Krinner, Gerhard; Peyaud, Vincent [UJF, CNRS, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Jakobsson, Martin [Stockholm University, Department of Geological Sciences, Stockhlom (Sweden); Masina, Simona [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-08-15

    This work focuses on the Late Saalian (140 ka) Eurasian ice sheets' surface mass balance (SMB) sensitivity to changes in sea surface temperatures (SST). An Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), forced with two preexisting Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 ka) SST reconstructions, is used to compute climate at 140 and 21 ka (reference glaciation). Contrary to the LGM, the ablation almost stopped at 140 ka due to the climatic cooling effect from the large ice sheet topography. Late Saalian SST are simulated using an AGCM coupled with a mixed layer ocean. Compared to the LGM, these 140 ka SST show an inter-hemispheric asymmetry caused by the larger ice-albedo feedback, cooling climate. The resulting Late Saalian ice sheet SMB is smaller due to the extensive simulated sea ice reducing the precipitation. In conclusion, SST are important for the stability and growth of the Late Saalian Eurasian ice sheet. (orig.)

  16. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    34military activities, whether in the armed forces, their civilian sectors, or in the ’defence’ indus- try". In another paper Professor Carl Sagan ...spurring the development of new weapons. Star Wars is a case in point. As Carl Sagan puts it, the idea is doomed: "SDI is ruinously expensive, it can

  17. ARM : abstract rewriting machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.T. Kamperman; H.R. Walters (Pum)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTerm rewriting is frequently used as implementation technique for algebraic specifications. In this paper we present the abstract term rewriting machine (ARM), which has an extremely compact instruction set and imposes no restrictions on the implemented TRSs. Apart from standard

  18. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    like tired runners exposed to the sights of millions of viewers. The fear of oxygen starvation was handled by the U.S. President on several levels...and to present the U.S. attitudes as the only way out of the maze of the arms race. It is an attempt to push through the old principles of U.S

  19. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-12

    thai, in the long run one cannot oven tell to willy frandi’and fgon fahr . ’r’ho Soviets arc thus evoking the suspicion that they are playing dirty...material resources and the knowledge of scientists in combatting diseases , if the resources were spent on it that are taken up by the arms race

  20. Robotic Arm End Effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Image illustrates the tools on the end of the arm that are used to acquire samples, image the contents of the scoop, and perform science experiments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    Bonn RHEINISCHER MERKUR /CHRIST UND WELT, 12 Oct 85) . 14 GDR Commentary on Geneva Talks (Various sources,various dates) 19 Military...USSR GENEVA TALKS FRG DEFENSE UNDERSECRETARY SUPPORTS U.S. VIEW ON ARMS CONTROL Bonn RHEINISCHER MERKUR /CHRIST UND WELT in German 12 Oct 85 p 3

  2. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    chronology of the intensification of violence in the area, see Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá...Arms, London, UK: Zed Books, 2000, pp. 155–178. Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá: Cinep & Justicia

  3. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Joint-Stock Company"] [Text] A constituent conference of the "Ural- Kosmos " closed joint-stock company [aktsionernoye obshchestvo zakrytogo tipa] has...due to be destroyed under arms cuts. Their warheads will be replaced by communications satellites. The founders of the "Ural- Kosmos " company note

  4. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Soviet Laser Expert (N. G. Bazov Interview; CAMBIO 16, 11-18 Feb 85) 86 Unnamed General Urges French ’Star Wars’ Effort (Hoplites; LE MONDE, 6...1024 85 JPRS-TAC-85-002 1 April 1985 SPACE ARMS SPANISH MAGAZINE CITES SOVIET LASER EXPERT PM211619 [Editorial Report] Madrid CAMBIO 16 in Spanish

  5. Large Scale Distribution of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with Zenith Angles up to 80°

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D’Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Müller, S.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60° and 80°. We perform two Rayleigh analyses, one in

  6. LARGE SCALE DISTRIBUTION OF ULTRA HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS DETECTED AT THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY WITH ZENITH ANGLES UP TO 80 degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Fernandez, G. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60 degrees and 80 degrees. We perform two Rayleigh ana

  7. LARGE SCALE DISTRIBUTION OF ULTRA HIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS DETECTED AT THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY WITH ZENITH ANGLES UP TO 80 degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Batista, R. Alves; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Baeuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Hasankiadeh, Q. Dorosti; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Froehlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; Garcia, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Gonzalez, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kroemer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leao, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopez, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Micanovic, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafa, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, G.; Mueller, S.; Muenchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nozka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Fernandez, G. Rodriguez; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovanek, P.; Schroeder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanic, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijaervi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdes Galicia, J. F.; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cardenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vazquez, J. R.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60 degrees and 80 degrees. We perform two Rayleigh ana

  8. Large Scale Distribution of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays Detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with Zenith Angles up to 80°

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, M.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Borodai, N.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bridgeman, A.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, B.; Caccianiga, L.; Candusso, M.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chavez, A. G.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Cilmo, M.; Clay, R. W.; Cocciolo, G.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Cordier, A.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dallier, R.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Domenico, M.; de Jong, S. J.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Dembinski, H.; Dhital, N.; Di Giulio, C.; Di Matteo, A.; Diaz, J. C.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; Docters, W.; D’Olivo, J. C.; Dorofeev, A.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Dova, M. T.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Fang, K.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferguson, A. P.; Fernandes, M.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fox, B. D.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fröhlich, U.; Fuchs, B.; Fujii, T.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia-Gamez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garilli, G.; Gascon Bravo, A.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glaser, C.; Glass, H.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, N.; Gookin, B.; Gordon, J.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grebe, S.; Griffith, N.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Hartmann, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Hollon, N.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huber, D.; Huege, T.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Jarne, C.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Kasper, P.; Katkov, I.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Keivani, A.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Krömer, O.; Kruppke-Hansen, D.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; LaHurd, D.; Latronico, L.; Lauer, R.; Lauscher, M.; Lautridou, P.; Le Coz, S.; Leão, M. S. A. B.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; López, R.; Louedec, K.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Lu, L.; Lucero, A.; Ludwig, M.; Malacari, M.; Maldera, S.; Mallamaci, M.; Maller, J.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Marin, V.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martin, L.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Martraire, D.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurel, D.; Maurizio, D.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meissner, R.; Melissas, M.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Meyhandan, R.; Mićanović, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Molina-Bueno, L.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Moura, C. A.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, G.; Müller, S.; Münchmeyer, M.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Nelles, A.; Neuser, J.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Oliveira, M.; Pacheco, N.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Palmieri, N.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petermann, E.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Petrov, Y.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porcelli, A.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Purrello, V.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravel, O.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Rogozin, D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Rossler, T.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salesa Greus, F.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, B.; Sarmento, R.; Sato, R.; Scharf, N.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schiffer, P.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schoorlemmer, H.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Sigl, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Srivastava, Y. N.; Stanič, S.; Stapleton, J.; Stasielak, J.; Stephan, M.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Szuba, M.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Tepe, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Toma, G.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Torres Machado, D.; Travnicek, P.; Trovato, E.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Velzen, S.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vlcek, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weidenhaupt, K.; Weindl, A.; Werner, F.; Widom, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Williams, C.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Wykes, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Yapici, T.; Yuan, G.; Yushkov, A.; Zamorano, B.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zimbres Silva, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zuccarello, F.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of an analysis of the large angular scale distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 4 EeV detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory including for the first time events with zenith angle between 60° and 80°. We perform two Rayleigh analyses, one in

  9. NASA SCaN Overview and Ka-Band Actvities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, James D.; Midon, Marco Mario; Davarian, Faramaz; Geldzahler, Barry

    2014-01-01

    The Ka- and Broadband Communications Conference is an international forum attended by worldwide experts in the area of Ka-Band Propagation and satellite communications. Since its inception, NASA has taken the initiative of organizing and leading technical sections on RF Propagation and satellite communications, solidifying its worldwide leadership in the aforementioned areas. Consequently, participation in this conference through the contributions described below will maintain NASA leadership in Ka- and above RF Propagation as it relates to enhancing current and future satellite communication systems supporting space exploration.

  10. Onboard Interferometric SAR Processor for the Ka-Band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Peral, Eva; Clark, Duane I.; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2011-01-01

    An interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) onboard processor concept and algorithm has been developed for the Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIn) instrument on the Surface and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. This is a mission- critical subsystem that will perform interferometric SAR processing and multi-look averaging over the oceans to decrease the data rate by three orders of magnitude, and therefore enable the downlink of the radar data to the ground. The onboard processor performs demodulation, range compression, coregistration, and re-sampling, and forms nine azimuth squinted beams. For each of them, an interferogram is generated, including common-band spectral filtering to improve correlation, followed by averaging to the final 1 1-km ground resolution pixel. The onboard processor has been prototyped on a custom FPGA-based cPCI board, which will be part of the radar s digital subsystem. The level of complexity of this technology, dictated by the implementation of interferometric SAR processing at high resolution, the extremely tight level of accuracy required, and its implementation on FPGAs are unprecedented at the time of this reporting for an onboard processor for flight applications.

  11. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa BOZDEMİR; ADIGÜZEL, Esat

    1999-01-01

    Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides...

  12. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  13. Star Formation in Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2011-01-01

    The origin and types of spiral arms are reviewed with an emphasis on the connections between these arms and star formation. Flocculent spiral arms are most likely the result of transient instabilities in the gas that promote dense cloud formation, star formation, and generate turbulence. Long irregular spiral arms are usually initiated by gravitational instabilities in the stars, with the gas contributing to and following these instabilities, and star formation in the gas. Global spiral arms triggered by global perturbations, such as a galaxy interaction, can be wavemodes with wave reflection in the inner regions. They might grow and dominate the disk for several rotations before degenerating into higher-order modes by non-linear effects. Interstellar gas flows through these global arms, and through the more transient stellar spiral arms as well, where it can reach a high density and low shear, thereby promoting self-gravitational instabilities. The result is the formation of giant spiral arm cloud complexes,...

  14. A new zenith-looking narrow-band radiometer-based system (ZEN) for dust aerosol optical depth monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansa, A. Fernando; Cuevas, Emilio; Torres, Benjamín; Barreto, África; García, Rosa D.; Cachorro, Victoria E.; de Frutos, Ángel M.; López, César; Ramos, Ramón

    2017-02-01

    A new zenith-looking narrow-band radiometer based system (ZEN), conceived for dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) monitoring, is presented in this paper. The ZEN system comprises a new radiometer (ZEN-R41) and a methodology for AOD retrieval (ZEN-LUT). ZEN-R41 has been designed to be stand alone and without moving parts, making it a low-cost and robust instrument with low maintenance, appropriate for deployment in remote and unpopulated desert areas. The ZEN-LUT method is based on the comparison of the measured zenith sky radiance (ZSR) with a look-up table (LUT) of computed ZSRs. The LUT is generated with the LibRadtran radiative transfer code. The sensitivity study proved that the ZEN-LUT method is appropriate for inferring AOD from ZSR measurements with an AOD standard uncertainty up to 0.06 for AOD500 nm ˜ 0.5 and up to 0.15 for AOD500 nm ˜ 1.0, considering instrumental errors of 5 %. The validation of the ZEN-LUT technique was performed using data from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) Cimel Electronique 318 photometers (CE318). A comparison between AOD obtained by applying the ZEN-LUT method on ZSRs (inferred from CE318 diffuse-sky measurements) and AOD provided by AERONET (derived from CE318 direct-sun measurements) was carried out at three sites characterized by a regular presence of desert mineral dust aerosols: Izaña and Santa Cruz in the Canary Islands and Tamanrasset in Algeria. The results show a coefficient of determination (R2) ranging from 0.99 to 0.97, and root mean square errors (RMSE) ranging from 0.010 at Izaña to 0.032 at Tamanrasset. The comparison of ZSR values from ZEN-R41 and the CE318 showed absolute relative mean bias (RMB) < 10 %. ZEN-R41 AOD values inferred from ZEN-LUT methodology were compared with AOD provided by AERONET, showing a fairly good agreement in all wavelengths, with mean absolute AOD differences < 0.030 and R2 higher than 0.97.

  15. Robotic Arm of Rover 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    JPL engineers examine the robotic arm of Mars Exploration Rover 1. The arm is modeled after a human arm, complete with joints, and holds four devices on its end, the Rock Abrasion Tool which can grind into Martian rocks, a microscopic imager, and two spectrometers for elemental and iron-mineral identification.

  16. ARM User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  17. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-12

    Paris AFP 29 Jan] 40 FRANCE Potential of Iraqi CBW, Nuclear Arms Evaluated [E. Marcuse ; L’EXPRESS INTERNATIONAL 18 Jan] 40 Firm Denies...18 Jan 91 p 13 [Article by Elie Marcuse : "Iraq’s Dirty Weapons"] [Excerpts] [passage omitted] There are three possible actions in Iraq’s battle...example, culture media for breeding plague, cholera, and anthrax. Even minor quan- tities of mycotoxins, which can cause cancer even when strongly

  18. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161. In order- ing, it is recommended that the JPRS number, title, date and author, if applicable, of publication be...Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-025 14 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS U.S.-USSR GENEVA TALKS, USSR: Possibility for...34Vreyma" newscast] [Excerpts] A Moscow premiere. Our correspondent reports: The audience is hurrying to a premiere at the Moscow Satire Theater. What

  19. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  20. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    SINMUN in Korean 19 Jan 90 p 2 [ Editorial : "Arms Reduction Amid East-West Reconcil- iation"] [Text] It appears that with the end of cold-war, the...Navigation Radar Deployment PY1701143090 La Paz La Red Panamericana in Spanish 1130 GMT 17 Jan 90 [Text] Aeronautics Minister Luis Gonzales...airspace and that it can guarantee our sovereignty. Aeronautics Military Under Secretary Installed PY1701125290 La Paz La Red Panamericana in

  1. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  2. Under tõi kirjanduse juurde ka Ilvese / Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulli, Jaanus, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    Sirje Kiini raamatust "Marie Under : elu, luuletaja identiteet ja teoste vastuvõtt" (Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2009), mille esitlus toimus 10. dets. Kirjanike Majas Tallinnas. Sõnavõtuga esines ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  3. NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  4. Key Science Observations of AGNs with KaVA Array

    CERN Document Server

    Kino, Motoki; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Sohn, Bong Won

    2015-01-01

    KaVA (KVN and VERA Array) is a new combined VLBI array with KVN (Korean VLBI Network) and VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry). First, we briefly review the imaging capabilities of KaVA array which actually achieves more than three times better dynamic range than that achieved by VERA alone. The KaVA images clearly show detailed structures of extended radio jets in AGNs. Next, we represent the key science program to be led by KaVA AGN sub working group. We will conduct the monitoring observations of Sgr A* and M87 because of the largeness of their central super-massive black hole angular sizes. The main science goals of the program are (i) testing magnetically-driven-jet paradigm by mapping velocity fields of the M87 jet, and (ii) obtaining tight constraints on physical properties of radio emitting region in Sgr A*.

  5. Autorid ja esitajad tahavad maksu ka mobiiltelefonidelt / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Esitajate liidu arvates tuleks maksu alla minevate seadmete hulka arvata ka blu-ray plaadid, MP3-mängijad ja pleieriga mobiiltelefonid, millel on mälumahtu üle 128 MB. Elisa pressiesindaja Marika Raiski arvamus

  6. Rahvasaadik Pikhof toetab nii Tiibetit kui ka Hiinat / Mirko Ojakivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojakivi, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu liige Heljo Pikhof on kirjas nii Riigikogu Tiibeti toetusrühmas kui ka Hiina parlamendirühmas, samuti Taiwani toetusrühmas. TÜ sinoloogiateaduri Märt Läänemetsa arvamus, H. Pikhofi selgitus

  7. Ka-Band MMIC T/R Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is specifically written to address the need for improved Ka-band T/R modules. The solicitation calls for investigation and development of core...

  8. Under tõi kirjanduse juurde ka Ilvese / Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kulli, Jaanus, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    Sirje Kiini raamatust "Marie Under : elu, luuletaja identiteet ja teoste vastuvõtt" (Tallinn : Tänapäev, 2009), mille esitlus toimus 10. dets. Kirjanike Majas Tallinnas. Sõnavõtuga esines ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilves

  9. Autorid ja esitajad tahavad maksu ka mobiiltelefonidelt / Teele Tammeorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammeorg, Teele

    2010-01-01

    Esitajate liidu arvates tuleks maksu alla minevate seadmete hulka arvata ka blu-ray plaadid, MP3-mängijad ja pleieriga mobiiltelefonid, millel on mälumahtu üle 128 MB. Elisa pressiesindaja Marika Raiski arvamus

  10. Kindralpolkovnik Maiorov : "Teie mured on ka meie mured!" / Tiit Tambi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tambi, Tiit

    1993-01-01

    President Lennart Meri kohtumine Venemaa relvajõudude loode väegrupi ülemjuhataja kindralpolkovnik Leonid Majoroviga, 9. veebruar 1993. Ka kindralpolkovniku kohtumistest Eestis elavate sõjaveteranidega

  11. Võitlus terrorismiga on ka meie kohus / Ando Leps

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leps, Ando, 1935-

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Kesknädal 25. september lk. 4 (lühendatult). Septembri alguses Toledo Ülikoolis toimunud Euroopa Kriminoloogia Assotsiatsiooni II konverentsist. Autori ettekandest "Rahvusvaheline terrorism ja Eesti". Autor: Keskerakond. Parlamendisaadik

  12. Ka-Band MMIC T/R Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II proposal is presented as the follow on to the Phase I SBIR contract number NNC06CB21C entitled "Ka-band MMIC T/R Module" For active microwave...

  13. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission. Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil. The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. A comparative study of RADAR Ka-band backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, D.; Pierdicca, N.; Guerriero, L.; Ferrazzoli, Paolo; Calleja, Eduardo; Rommen, B.; Giudici, D.; Monti Guarnieri, A.

    2014-10-01

    Ka-band RADAR frequency range has not yet been used for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) from space so far, although this technology may lead to important applications for the next generation of SAR space sensors. Therefore, feasibility studies regarding a Ka-band SAR instrument have been started [1][2], for the next generation of SAR space sensors. In spite of this, the lack of trusted references on backscatter at Ka-band revealed to be the main limitation for the investigation of the potentialities of this technology. In the framework of the ESA project "Ka-band SAR backscatter analysis in support of future applications", this paper is aimed at the study of wave interaction at Ka-band for a wide range of targets in order to define a set of well calibrated and reliable Ka-band backscatter coefficients for different kinds of targets. We propose several examples of backscatter data resulting from a critical survey of available datasets at Ka-band, focusing on the most interesting cases and addressing both correspondences and differences. The reliability of the results will be assessed via a preliminary comparison with ElectroMagnetic (EM) theoretical models. Furthermore, in support of future technological applications, we have designed a prototypal software acting as a "library" of earth surface radar response. In our intention, the output of the study shall contribute to answer to the need of a trustworthy Ka-Band backscatter reference. It will be of great value for future technological applications, such as support to instrument analysis, design and requirements' definition (e.g.: Signal to Noise Ratio, Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero).

  15. Armed conflict and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health\\ud throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives\\ud in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely\\ud to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark\\ud contrast to the effect on children, the international arms\\ud trade results in huge profits for the large corporations\\ud involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions.\\ud Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important\\ud health issue that should be...

  16. [Measurement of atmosphere NO2 amounts and angle spacial distribution using zenith-light spectra and sky-light spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Jing-Guo; Gong, Min; He, Jie; Cao, Ting-Ting; Liang, Hui-Min; Sun, Peng

    2009-07-01

    A novel approach to retrieving atmosphere NO2 slant column density is described, in which the sunlight scattered in the zenith direction and the skylight are used as the light sources. The slant column density of the same azimuth but different obliquities, which are between 0.5 x 10(16) and 11 x 10(16) molecule x cm(-2), with the angle from 85 degrees to 10 degrees, as well as that of the same obliquity but different azimuths, which are between 10(16) and 10(17) molecule cm(-2), were calculated. The study indicates that the results have good correlation with real atmosphere status. The angle spatial distribution could be embodied by the difference of NO2 slant column density in different azimuths and obliquities. The reference spectrum and sample spectrum were collected with the same instrument at the same time, so the measurement accuracy has been improved. This method favored not only real-time monitoring NO2 content of space arbitrary direction, especially near the ground NO2 pollution emergencies, but also overcast and rainy areas where it is very difficult to collect good direct solar spectrum.

  17. GPS Zenith Total Delays and Precipitable Water in comparison with special meteorological observations in Verona (Italyduring MAP-SOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Corradini

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous meteorological examination of the Pre-Alpine zones in Northern Italy (Po Valleyis important for determination of atmospheric water cycles connected with floods and rainfalls.During a special meteorological observing period (MAP-SOP,radiosounding and other measurements were made in the site of Verona (Italy. This paper deals with Zenith Total Delay (ZTDand Precipitable Water (PWcomparisons obtained by GPS, radiosounding and other meteorological measurements.PW and ZTD from ground-based GPS data in comparisonwith classical techniques (e.g.,WVR,radiosoundingfrom recent literature present an accurate tool for use in meteorology applications (e.g.,assimilation in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWPmodels on short-range precipitation forecasts.Comparison of such ZTD for MAP-SOP showed a standard deviation of 16.1 mm and PW comparison showed a standard deviation of 2.7 mm,confirming the accuracy of GPS measurements for meteorology applications.In addition,PW data and its time variation are also matched with time series of meteorological situations.Those results indicate that changes in PW values could be connected to changes in air masses,i.e.to passages of both cold and warm fronts.There is also a correlation between precipitation, forthcoming increase and the following decrease of PW.A good agreement between oscillation of PW and precipitation and strong cyclonic activities is found.

  18. AES i ARM procesori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela D. Protić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Potreba za zaštitom informacija dovodi do velikih problema u izradi prenosivih uređaja kojima su limitirani snaga, memorija i energija. Ukoliko se takvim uređajima dodaju koprocesori, koji treba da obavljaju funkcije kriptozaštite, njihove se dimenzije povećavaju, pojavljuje se nefleksibilnost pa cena uređaja raste i do nekoliko puta. Na drugoj strani, algoritmi za zaštitu podataka su često memorijski zahtevni, a zbog velikog broja operacija koje je potrebno izvršavati u procesima šifrovanja i dešifrovanja, koprocesori često uspore rad osnovnog procesora. Za jedan od standarda za kriptozaštitu, AES, NIST je prihvatio Rijndaelov blokovski algoritam sa dužinom ulaznog i izlaznog bloka od 128 b, i dužinama šifarskog ključa od 128 b, 192 b i 256 b. Zbog karakteristika male potrošnje, 32-bitske arhitekture i brzog izvršavanja instrukcija, ARM procesori mogu da realizuju kriptozaštitu podataka, između ostalog i AES-om, a da ne opterete glavne procese u sistemima u kojima se koriste. Tehnologija ARM-a zaštićena je kao intelektualna svojina, pa je veliki broj proizvođača koristi za razvoj sopstvenih proizvoda, što je rezultovalo činjenicom da je u svetu proizvedeno preko 2 milijarde čipova koji su bazirani na ovoj tehnologiji. U radu su prikazane mogućnosti za poboljšanja u izvršenju algoritma AES primenom najnovijih verzija ARM procesora.

  19. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    put their feet on the table.... But that Is not the USSR’s problem. It is not for the USSR to teach the rules of etiquette vh~nh are broken in the...34 /12858 CSO: 5200/2634 • 138 - RELATED ISSUES LABOR PARTY DISTRICT CONGRESS: BAN NUCLEAR ARMED SHIPS Oslo AFTENPOSTEN in Norwegian 27 Jan 86 p 3 [Article...that countries which send warships into Norwegian ports should guarantee that these ships are not carry- ing nuclear weapons. The requirement would

  20. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. 对流层延迟修正的实证模型%Empirical model of correction for zenith tropospheric delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V F Kravchenko; V I Lutsenko; I V Lutsenko; D O Popov; A G Laush3; V N Gudkov3

    2014-01-01

    针对对流层延迟问题,考虑测量时对流层的折射率,采用标准模型计算对流层修正概率。经大量实验研究得到对流层延迟修正模型,它可以减少坐标测量误差约30%,海拔测量误差约40%。%The paper considers the possibility of correction of zenith tropospheric delays ,and calculates it with the standard model ,which takes into account the values of the refractive index of the troposphere at the time of measurement .Based on the experimental research ,this empirical model of correction for zenith tropospheric delays can reduce the measurement er -ror of coordinates to about 30% and altitude to about 40% .

  2. Effects of solar zenith angles on CO Cameron bands emission intensities in the dayside atmosphere of Mars: MEX/SPICAM observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothuraju, Thirupathaiah; Haider, Syed A.

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a model to calculate the photoelectron energy fluxes and emission intensities of the CO Cameron bands in the upper atmosphere of Mars between solar zenith angles 0° to 90°. The production and loss mechanisms of CO (a ^{3}Π) are incorporated in the model. The atmospheric neutral parameters are adopted from the Mars Climate Database (v5.2). The required solar EUV fluxes are taken from the Solar2000 model (v2.37) and scaled to Mars. The photoelectron fluxes are calculated at different solar zenith angles using an analytical yield spectrum approach based on the Monte Carlo method. In this model we have assumed that crustal magnetic fields are horizontal in direction. Thus, photoelectrons are losing their energy at the same height where they are produced. This assumption is valid at mid and high latitudes where magnetic fields are mostly horizontal. We have also developed a coupled chemistry model to calculate the ion and electron density at different solar zenith angles, which are used in the airglow model. The model results are compared with the observations provided by the SPICAM onboard MEX. Our model reproduces the observed intensity profiles quite well. The CO (a ^{3}Π) is produced due to photoelectron excitation/dissociation, photodissociation, and dissociative recombination processes. It is destroyed by CO _{2}, CO and radiative decay. It is found that photon and photoelectron dissociation are dominant production processes of CO (a ^{3}Π), while radiative decay is a major loss mechanism of this state. The estimated photoelectron fluxes, production rates and intensities are decreasing with increasing solar zenith angles.

  3. X-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Stoltz, Gilles; Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    We consider a generalization of stochastic bandits where the set of arms, $\\cX$, is allowed to be a generic measurable space and the mean-payoff function is "locally Lipschitz" with respect to a dissimilarity function that is known to the decision maker. Under this condition we construct an arm selection policy, called HOO hierarchical optimistic optimization), with improved regret bounds compared to previous results for a large class of problems. In particular, our results imply that if $\\cX$ is the unit hypercube in a Euclidean space and the mean-payoff function has a finite number of global maxima around which the behavior of the function is locally H\\"older continuous with a known exponent, then the expected of HOO regret is bounded up to a logarithmic factor by $\\sqrt{n}$, i.e., the rate of growth of the regret is independent of the dimension of the space. We also prove the minimax optimality of our algorithm when the dissimilarity is a metric.

  4. Sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic Ocean from 30ka to 10ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Kerr; Greenop, Rosanna; Burke, Andrea; Barker, Stephen; Chalk, Thomas; Crocker, Anya

    2016-04-01

    Some of the most striking features of the Late Pleistocene interval are the rapid changes in climate between warmer interstadial and cold stadial periods which, when coupled, are termed Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. This shift between warm and cold climates has been interpreted to result from changes in the thermohaline circulation (Broecker et al., 1985) triggered by, for instance, freshwater input from the collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet (Zahn et al., 1997). However, a recent study suggests that major ice rafting events cannot be the 'trigger' for the centennial to millennial scale cooling events identified over the past 500kyr (Barker at al., 2015). Polar planktic foraminiferal and lithogenic/terrigenous grain counts reveal that the southward migration of the polar front occurs before the deposition of ice rafted debris and therefore the rafting of ice during stadial periods. Based upon this evidence, Barker et al. suggest that the transition to a stadial state is a non-linear response to gradual cooling in the region. In order to test this hypothesis, our study reconstructs sea surface temperature across D-O events and the deglaciation in the North Atlantic between 30ka and 10ka using Mg/ Ca paleothermometry in Globigerina bulloides at ODP Sites 980 and 983 (the same sites as used in Barker et al., 2015) with an average sampling resolution of 300 years. With our new record we evaluate the timing of surface ocean temperature change, frontal shift movement, and ice rafting to investigate variations in the temperature gradient across the polar front over D-O events. References: Barker, S., Chen, J., Gong, X., Jonkers, L., Knorr, G., Thornalley, D., 2015. Icebergs not the trigger for North Atlantic cold events. Nature, 520(7547), pp.333-336. Broecker, W.S., Peteer, D.M., Rind, D., 1985. Does the ocean-atmosphere system have more than one stable mode of operation? Nature, 315 (6014), pp.21-26. Zahn, R., Schönfeld, J., Kudrass, H.-R., Park, M

  5. THE CURRENT STAR FORMATION RATE OF K+A GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Danielle M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ridgway, Susan E.; De Propris, Roberto [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Goto, Tomotsugu, E-mail: nielsen@astro.wisc.edu [Dark Cosmology Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)

    2012-12-20

    We derive the stacked 1.4 GHz flux from the FIRST survey for 811 K+A galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. For these objects we find a mean flux density of 56 {+-} 9 {mu}Jy. A similar stack of radio-quiet white dwarfs yields an upper limit of 43 {mu}Jy at a 5{sigma} significance to the flux in blank regions of the sky. This implies an average star formation rate of 1.6 {+-} 0.3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for K+A galaxies. However, the majority of the signal comes from {approx}4% of K+A fields that have aperture fluxes above the 5{sigma} noise level of the FIRST survey. A stack of the remaining galaxies shows little residual flux consistent with an upper limit on star formation of 1.3 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Even for a subset of 456 'young' (spectral ages <250 Myr) K+A galaxies, we find that the stacked 1.4 GHz flux is consistent with no current star formation. Our data suggest that the original starburst has been terminated in the majority of K+A galaxies, but that this may represent part of a duty cycle where a fraction of these galaxies may be active at a given moment with dusty starbursts and active galactic nuclei being present.

  6. Enhancing real-time precise point positioning with zenith troposphere delay products and the determination of corresponding tropospheric stochastic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yibin; Peng, Wenjie; Xu, Chaoqian; Cheng, Shuyang

    2017-02-01

    By introducing two types of zenith troposphere delay (ZTD) products in precise point positioning (PPP), we developed the ZTD-corrected PPP and the ZTD-constrained PPP, both of them reduced the PPP convergence time. Both enhanced PPP methods are examined by global empirical ZTD models and regional ZTD corrections. For global ZTD models, we verified that ZTD-corrected PPP will deviate the positioning results, while ZTD-constrained PPP could produce unbiased estimations. Therefore, the latter is utilized to study the performance of global ZTD models (ITG, GPT2w, GZTD and UNB3m). After numerous experiments, we found that the performance of ZTD models was positively related to the real ZTD accuracy, and we proposed a universal tropospheric stochastic model 2SQR(9rms) which denotes double the square of nine times ZTD rms, to constrain ZTD in PPP. The proposed model subsequently was validated by real-time static and kinematic ZTD-constrained PPP on the premise that the ZTD rms on every station was known. Compared with traditional PPP, in static PPP, the number of improved stations is increased by 15.5 per cent (ITG), 14.4 per cent (GPT2w), 11.1 per cent (GZTD) and 8.3 per cent (UNB3m). For kinematic PPP, PPP constrained by ITG model still had the best performance, the number of improved stations is increased by 14.4 per cent, after 30 min of initialization time, 13.4 cm east, 13.4 cm north and 11.7 cm up positioning accuracy was obtained, compared with 15.3 cm east, 15.3 cm north and 14.3 cm up accuracy by traditional PPP. In addition, experiments using regional ZTD corrections to enhance real-time PPP showed that both ZTD-corrected PPP and ZTD-constrained PPP can notably reduce the convergence time on the vertical component (within 15 cm).

  7. An analysis of GPT2/GPT2w+Saastamoinen models for estimating zenith tropospheric delay over Asian area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiye; Chen, Xihong; Sun, Jizhe; Liu, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    The tropospheric delay is a systematic error source in the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning. However, without accuracy meteorological information, the quality of the Zenith Tropospheric Delay (ZTD) derived from empirical tropospheric models like Saastamoinen model will degrade, leading to inaccurate estimates of positions. To solve the above problem, on the basis of Global Pressure and Temperature 2/2w (GPT2/GPT2w) model, this paper conducted GPT2/GPT2w+Saastamoinen models for estimating ZTD over Asian area. As GPT2w model has two resolutions of 1 and 5 degrees, the effects of two models (GPT2_5w+S refers to GPT2w+Saastamoinen model with the resolution of 5 degree; GPT2_1w+S refers to GPT2w+Saastamoinen model with the resolution of 1 degree) were analyzed respectively. The model's validation was carried out using the International GNSS Service (IGS) ZTD values derived from the observed data in the year 2012 at 27 IGS stations. The results show that the GPT2_1w+S model can provide tropospheric delay corrections with bias of 0.66 cm and Root Mean Square (RMS) of 4.93 cm, which is superior to GPT2+S model. The annual bias and RMS for the GPT2_5w+S model are slightly worse than that for the GPT2_1w+S model. For most stations, the bias and RMS show seasonal characteristics. The relation between the annual bias and RMS with latitude for the models is not obvious, and a latitude dependency between the models could not be detected.

  8. 18 Ka BP records of climatic changes, Bay of Bengal: Isotopic and sedimentological evidences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Suneethi, J.

    arid climate between 18 and 15 14C Ka BP, a variable climate between 15 and 13 Ka BP, and again an arid climate at 12.5 Ka BP. The negative d18O, reduced C/I and higher smectite document a humid phase culminating at 12 Ka BP. Arid climate phases...

  9. ATLAS distributed computing operations in the GridKa cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckeck, Guenter; Serfon, Cedric; Walker, Rodney [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Garching (Germany); Harenberg, Torsten; Kalinin, Sergey; Schultes, Joachim [Bergische Universitaet, Wuppertal (Germany); Kawamura, Gen [Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Leffhalm, Kai [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Meyer, Joerg [Georg-August-Universitaet, Goettingen (Germany); Petzold, Andreas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Sundermann, Jan Erik [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The ATLAS Grid Computing resources in Germany, Poland, the Czech Republic, Austria, and Switzerland consist of a cloud of 12 Tier-2 computing centers grouped around the Tier-1 center GridKa at the Steinbuch Centre for Computing at KIT. While the Tier-1 center serves as a hub for data management in the cloud and is the principal resource for reprocessing and custodial storage of raw ATLAS data, the Tier-2 centers provide the resources for user analysis and production of simulated events. During the first full year of data taking at the LHC, the GridKa cloud has successfully contributed to the overall ATLAS computing effort, enabling physicists to quickly analyze the large volume of new incoming data and the corresponding simulated events. This talk covers the computing operations in the GridKa cloud with focus on performance and experiences at both the Tier-1 and Tier-2 centers.

  10. Ka-band MMIC microstrip array for high rate communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. Q.; Raquet, C. A.; Tolleson, J. B.; Sanzgiri, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    In a recent technology assessment of alternative communication systems for the space exploration initiative (SEI), Ka-band (18 to 40 GHz) communication technology was identified to meet the mission requirements of telecommunication, navigation, and information management. Compared to the lower frequency bands, Ka-band antennas offer higher gain and broader bandwidths; thus, they are more suitable for high data rate communications. Over the years, NASA has played an important role in monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) phased array technology development, and currently, has an ongoing contract with Texas Instrument (TI) to develop a modular Ka-band MMIC microstrip subarray (NAS3-25718). The TI contract emphasizes MMIC integration technology development and stipulates using existing MMIC devices to minimize the array development cost. The objective of this paper is to present array component technologies and integration techniques used to construct the subarray modules.

  11. 12 kaBP lake environment on the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炳元; 王苏民; 朱立平; 李元芳

    2001-01-01

    The systemic analyses have been carried out in this paper to the paleolake shorelines, paleolake sediments and paleoclimatic proxies of 20 lakes, in which there were 12 kaBP dating data on the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that the paleolake level had apparently risen during 14-11 kaBP, the glaciers melting period, in the Tibetan area and Northwest China. Especially, much more increasing amplitude supplied by thawy glaciers water occurred than in the best period of Holocene. The temperate-humid climate around 12 kaBP appeared in the Tibetan area and even in the whole China. This event may be compared with the Bolling/Allerod warm period which was reflected by Europe and Greenland ice core records. It showed that the B/A event was not a regional one in the North Atlantic area.

  12. Kažun kao prepoznatljiv element identiteta Istre

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Temeljem terenskih istraživanja provedenih posljednjih desetljeća te prikupljene literature u članku se analizira pojam, funkcija i značaj građevine koja se u Istri označava najčešće imenom kažun, također casita (u nekoliko lokaliteta istroromanskoga govornog područja) te hižica, hiška, koča, kućica na sjevernom dijelu poluotoka. Konstrukcija kažuna podrazumijeva način građenja suhozidom na kružnoj osnovi: kameni prstenovi podižu se u kružni zid, a zatim sužavaju u „lažni svod“ koji se zasipa...

  13. Predicting pKa for proteins using COSMO-RS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin Peter; Jensen, Jan Halborg; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2013-01-01

    We have used the COSMO-RS implicit solvation method to calculate the equilibrium constants, pKa, for deprotonation of the acidic residues of the ovomucoid inhibitor protein, OMTKY3. The root mean square error for comparison with experimental data is only 0.5 pH units and the maximum error 0.8 p......H units. The results show that the accuracy of pKa prediction using COSMO-RS is as good for large biomolecules as it is for smaller inorganic and organic acids and that the method compares very well to previous pKa predictions of the OMTKY3 protein using Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics. Our approach...

  14. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. X-/Ka-band dichroic plate noise temperature reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruttipong, W.; Lee, P.

    1994-11-01

    The X-/Ka-band (8.4 GHz/32.0 GHz) dichroic plate installed as DSS 13 contributes an estimated 3 K to the system noise temperature at 32.0 GHz. Approximately 1 percent of the Ka-band incident field is reflected by the plate into the 300-K environment of the DSS-13 pedestal room. A low-cost, easily implemented method of reducing the noise temperature is presented. Using a curved reflector, the reflected field can be re-focused into an 80-K cold load, reducing the noise temperature contribution of the dichroic plate by about 2 K.

  17. Identiteto paieška šeimos fotografijose

    OpenAIRE

    Kniškaitė, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Darbe nagrinėjamas identitetas ir jo paieška šeimos fotografijose. Keliamas tikslas išanalizuoti identitetą ir jo vizualumą formuojančius faktorius. Kadangi darbo tema susijusi su savęs paieška, analizės objektu tampa tapatumas, o šeima pasirinkta kaip priemonė jam atskleisti. Albuminės fotografijos šiame darbe naudojamos kaip giminės istorinis šaltinis, kaip paveldas, kurio pagalba ne tik vizualiai atkuriamas šeimos genealoginis medis, bet ir pereinama prie interpretacinio požiūrio į albumi...

  18. The Neanderthal lower arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Neanderthal forearms have been described as being very powerful. Different individual features in the lower arm bones have been described to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. In this study, the overall morphology of the radius and ulna is considered, and morphological differences among Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens and recent H. sapiens are described. Comparisons among populations were made using a combination of 3D geometric morphometrics and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material included all available complete radii and ulnae from Neanderthals, early H. sapiens and archaeological and recent human populations, representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are few differences among the populations when features are considered individually. Neanderthals and early H. sapiens fell within the range of modern human variation. When the suite of measurements and shapes were analyzed, differences and similarities became apparent. The Neanderthal radius is more laterally curved, has a more medially placed radial tuberosity, a longer radial neck, a more antero-posteriorly ovoid head and a well-developed proximal interosseous crest. The Neanderthal ulna has a more anterior facing trochlear notch, a lower M. brachialis insertion, larger relative mid-shaft size and a more medio-lateral and antero-posterior sinusoidal shaft. The Neanderthal lower arm morphology reflects a strong cold-adapted short forearm. The forearms of H. sapiens are less powerful in pronation and supination. Many differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens can be explained as a secondary consequence of the hyper-polar body proportions of the Neanderthals, but also as retentions of the primitive condition of other hominoids.

  19. ARM Cloud Radar Simulator Package for Global Climate Models Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuying [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Xie, Shaocheng [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    It has been challenging to directly compare U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility ground-based cloud radar measurements with climate model output because of limitations or features of the observing processes and the spatial gap between model and the single-point measurements. To facilitate the use of ARM radar data in numerical models, an ARM cloud radar simulator was developed to converts model data into pseudo-ARM cloud radar observations that mimic the instrument view of a narrow atmospheric column (as compared to a large global climate model [GCM] grid-cell), thus allowing meaningful comparison between model output and ARM cloud observations. The ARM cloud radar simulator value-added product (VAP) was developed based on the CloudSat simulator contained in the community satellite simulator package, the Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package (COSP) (Bodas-Salcedo et al., 2011), which has been widely used in climate model evaluation with satellite data (Klein et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2010). The essential part of the CloudSat simulator is the QuickBeam radar simulator that is used to produce CloudSat-like radar reflectivity, but is capable of simulating reflectivity for other radars (Marchand et al., 2009; Haynes et al., 2007). Adapting QuickBeam to the ARM cloud radar simulator within COSP required two primary changes: one was to set the frequency to 35 GHz for the ARM Ka-band cloud radar, as opposed to 94 GHz used for the CloudSat W-band radar, and the second was to invert the view from the ground to space so as to attenuate the beam correctly. In addition, the ARM cloud radar simulator uses a finer vertical resolution (100 m compared to 500 m for CloudSat) to resolve the more detailed structure of clouds captured by the ARM radars. The ARM simulator has been developed following the COSP workflow (Figure 1) and using the capabilities available in COSP

  20. Pollen-climate relationships in time (9 ka, 6 ka, 0 ka) and space (upland vs. lowland) in eastern continental Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Cao, Xianyong; Dallmeyer, Anne; Zhao, Yan; Ni, Jian; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Temporal and spatial stability of the vegetation-climate relationship is a basic ecological assumption for pollen-based quantitative inferences of past climate change and for predicting future vegetation. We explore this assumption for the Holocene in eastern continental Asia (China, Mongolia). Boosted regression trees (BRT) between fossil pollen taxa percentages (Abies, Artemisia, Betula, Chenopodiaceae, Cyperaceae, Ephedra, Picea, Pinus, Poaceae and Quercus) and climate model outputs of mean annual precipitation (Pann) and mean temperature of the warmest month (Mtwa) for 9 and 6 ka (ka = thousand years before present) were set up and results compared to those obtained from relating modern pollen to modern climate. Overall, our results reveal only slight temporal differences in the pollen-climate relationships. Our analyses suggest that the importance of Pann compared with Mtwa for taxa distribution is higher today than it was at 6 ka and 9 ka. In particular, the relevance of Pann for Picea and Pinus increases and has become the main determinant. This change in the climate-tree pollen relationship parallels a widespread tree pollen decrease in north-central China and the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We assume that this is at least partly related to vegetation-climate disequilibrium originating from human impact. Increased atmospheric CO2 concentration may have permitted the expansion of moisture-loving herb taxa (Cyperaceae and Poaceae) during the late Holocene into arid/semi-arid areas. We furthermore find that the pollen-climate relationship between north-central China and the eastern Tibetan Plateau is generally similar, but that regional differences are larger than temporal differences. In summary, vegetation-climate relationships in China are generally stable in space and time, and pollen-based climate reconstructions can be applied to the Holocene. Regional differences imply the calibration-set should be restricted spatially.

  1. Layers of Experience Using "Arms"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laurinda; Coles, Alf; Ball, Derek; Morton, Pat; Coles, Matt; Ordman, Louise; Orr, Barry; Lam, Tung Ken

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the authors' personal accounts and their experiences in working on mathematics using "arms." "Arms" is an idea that first appeared as a program written by John Warwick and David Wooldridge in an ATM publication "Some Lessons in Mathematics with a Microcomputer," 1983. The introduction to…

  2. Multi-Step Ka/Ka Dichroic Plate with Rounded Corners for NASA's 34m Beam Waveguide Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruttipong, Watt; Khayatian, Behrouz; Hoppe, Daniel; Long, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    A multi-step Ka/Ka dichroic plate Frequency Selective Surface (FSS structure) is designed, manufactured and tested for use in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas. The proposed design allows ease of manufacturing and ability to handle the increased transmit power (reflected off the FSS) of the DSN BWG antennas from 20kW to 100 kW. The dichroic is designed using HFSS and results agree well with measured data considering the manufacturing tolerances that could be achieved on the dichroic.

  3. Multi-Step Ka/Ka Dichroic Plate with Rounded Corners for NASA's 34m Beam Waveguide Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veruttipong, Watt; Khayatian, Behrouz; Hoppe, Daniel; Long, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    A multi-step Ka/Ka dichroic plate Frequency Selective Surface (FSS structure) is designed, manufactured and tested for use in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antennas. The proposed design allows ease of manufacturing and ability to handle the increased transmit power (reflected off the FSS) of the DSN BWG antennas from 20kW to 100 kW. The dichroic is designed using HFSS and results agree well with measured data considering the manufacturing tolerances that could be achieved on the dichroic.

  4. Cloud parameters from zenith transmittances measured by sky radiometer at surface: Method development and satellite product validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Pradeep; Hayasaka, Tadahiro; Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Takamura, Tamio; Irie, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Takashi Y.; Letu, Husi; Kai, Qin

    2017-04-01

    data of a narrow field of view radiometer of collocated observation in one SKYNET site. Though the method is developed for the sky radiometer of SKYNET, it can be still used for the sky radiometer of AERONET and other instruments observing spectral zenith transmittances. The proposed retrieval method is then applied to retrieve cloud parameters at key sites of SKYNET within Japan, which are then used to validate cloud products obtained from space observations by MODIS sensors onboard TERRA/AQUA satellites and Himawari 8, a Japanese geostationary satellite. Our analyses suggest the underestimation (overestimation) of COD (Re) from space observations.

  5. Arménie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’Arménie est une petite république du Caucase, à la limite sud–est de l’Europe, qui a gagné son autonomie en 1990 après l’ouverture du bloc soviétique. Le nouveau Ministère du Patrimoine a sollicité la coopération de la France pour mettre en place une nouvelle politique culturelle. Tout d’abord, une évaluation sur place de la situation dans les domaines des monuments historiques, de l’archéologie et de l’Inventaire a permis d’envisager les réponses à proposer. Pour la demande d’informatisation des dossiers d’inventaire déjà réalisés sous l’autorité de l’Académie de Saint–Petersbourg, nous avons proposé de former des chercheurs arméniens aux méthodes et techniques de l’Inventaire général. L’accueil d’une stagiaire pendant trois mois au service régional de l’Inventaire de Haute–Normandie a été suivi par la mise en place d’un équipement informatique à Yérévan, puis par l’accueil et la formation de techniciens informaticiens et photographes arméniens. De retour dans leur pays ils ont commencé à remettre en place un service d’inventaire dont le programme comprend la création d’une base de données patrimoniales, le recensement de la ville de Yérévan, la numérisation d’images pour la publication d’un indicateur du patrimoine et la préparation de dossiers de protection au titre du patrimoine mondial.The Armenian heritage comprises both archaeological remains of towns destroyed by never–ending wars and a number of old churches from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, was founded three thousand years ago and is one of Europe’s oldest capitals. From 1925 it has developed according to an ambitious urban planning project. After the major political upheavals of 1991, a special ministry was created to look after the architectural and movable heritage of the country and to promote the Armenian national identity. A mission in Yerevan was

  6. Improvisatsioonilised filmietendus-kontserdid "Kas kino ka saab?"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi ja Eesti Film 100 poolt Suurgildi hoones korraldatud koostöönäitust "Elavad ja laulvad pildid" täiendab filmietenduste-kontsertide sari "Kas kino ka saab?", kus täna on kinoklassiku Georges Meliesi (1861-1938) filmiprogramm Jaak Lõhmuse kommenteeriva sõnavõtuga

  7. Che legend elab ka 40 aastat hiljem / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 9. okt. lk. 10. Argentinas sündinud ja 1967. aastal hukatud revolutsionääri Ernesto Che Guevara poliitikukarjäärist, tema panusest Kuuba revolutsiooni ja poliitikasse. Ernesto Che Guevara mälestamisest Ladina-Ameeerika riikides. Lisa: Kuuba revolutsioon; Che Guevara elu

  8. Additive manufacturing of Ka-band antennas for wireless communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armendariz, Unai; Rommel, Simon; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of WR-28 waveguide horn antennas operating in the Ka-band frequency range between 26.5 GHz and 40 GHz through 3D printing. Three different antennas are fabricated from polylactide acid filaments in conductive and non-conductive variants; the latter...

  9. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  10. Aju rehkendab pingsalt ka unelemise ajal / Tiit Kändler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kändler, Tiit, 1948-

    2011-01-01

    Siiani arvati, et kui inimene ei tegutse, siis ei tegutse ka aju. Nüüdseks on selge, et aju on aktiivne alati. Ja matemaatiliste ülesannete lahendamisega seotud ajupiirkonnad on ühed, mis inimese ajus alati valvel püsivad

  11. Eesti Energia emissioonis on koht ka rahvaaktsiatel / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia võimaliku aktsiaemissiooni korral tagatakse võimalus soetada aktsiaid ka jaeinvestoritel. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi sõnul tugevdaks see Eesti inimeste huvi energeetika vastu, samuti võimaldaks see paigutada oma sääste Eesti arenguga seotud ettevõttesse

  12. Suhkruturu reform : [ka teiste toiduainete turu reformist] / Ants Laansalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laansalu, Ants, 1938-2011

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Agriculture and the development of rural life : overview 2004/2005. - Tallinn, 2005, lk. 83-86. Euroopa Komisjon esitles 2004. a juuli keskel suhkruturu reformikava, mille eesmärgiks on muuta sektor konkurentsivõimelisemaks, turu nõudlustele vastavaks, tarbija- ja keskkonnasõbralikumaks ning lõpetada ületootmine

  13. Eesti Energia emissioonis on koht ka rahvaaktsiatel / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Energia võimaliku aktsiaemissiooni korral tagatakse võimalus soetada aktsiaid ka jaeinvestoritel. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Juhan Partsi sõnul tugevdaks see Eesti inimeste huvi energeetika vastu, samuti võimaldaks see paigutada oma sääste Eesti arenguga seotud ettevõttesse

  14. Ehitusala tõus jätkus ka mullu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti, 3. nov. 2004, lk. 14-15. Ehitusfirmade TOP 95 aastal 2003. Kasumi TOP 40. Käibe TOP 40. TOP-i koostamise metoodika. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Omakapitali tootluse TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Ehitusettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed

  15. Ottis osales ka ise kahtlases riigihankes / Villy Paimets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paimets, Villy, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Riigi Kinnisvara juht Tiit Ottis palus 2005. aasta mais keskkriminaalpolitseil algatada Kärdla piirivalvekordoni hangete uurimiseks kriminaalasi. Antud hankel osales ka Ottise loodud AS Gustaf, mis pakkus küll odavaimat hinda, kuid konkursi võitis AS Pameron. Vt. samas: Kriminaalasi algatati teo suhtes

  16. Che legend elab ka 40 aastat hiljem / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 9. okt. lk. 10. Argentinas sündinud ja 1967. aastal hukatud revolutsionääri Ernesto Che Guevara poliitikukarjäärist, tema panusest Kuuba revolutsiooni ja poliitikasse. Ernesto Che Guevara mälestamisest Ladina-Ameeerika riikides. Lisa: Kuuba revolutsioon; Che Guevara elu

  17. Kas läheb ka Ruudi tapmiseks? / Kati Murutar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Murutar, Kati, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Lastefilm "Ruudi" : stsenaristid Katrin Laur, Aare Toikka, Aarne Mägi : režissöör Katrin Laur : nimiosas lapsnäitleja Paul Oskar Soe : Allfilm - MRP Matila Röhr Productions - Schmidtz Katze Filmkollektiv 2006. Võetud kõne alla ka Peeter Simmi "Kõrini!" ja Peeter Urbla "Stiilipeo" arvustaja meelest teenimatult mahategevad retsensioonid

  18. Ehitusala tõus jätkus ka mullu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti, 3. nov. 2004, lk. 14-15. Ehitusfirmade TOP 95 aastal 2003. Kasumi TOP 40. Käibe TOP 40. TOP-i koostamise metoodika. Kasumi kasvu TOP 20. Käibe kasvu TOP 20. Omakapitali tootluse TOP 20. Rentaabluse TOP 20. Ehitusettevõtete üld- ja finantsandmed

  19. Experimental radio frequency link for Ka-band communications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Gene; Conray, Martin J.; Saunders, Alan L.; Pope, Dale E.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental radio frequency link has been demonstrated to provide two-way communication between a remote user ground terminal and a ground-based Ka-band transponder. Bit-error-rate performance and radio frequency characteristics of the communication link were investigated.

  20. High Througput pKa Prediction Using Semi Empirical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Jan H

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of organic molecules relevant to medicine and biotechnology contain one or more ionizable groups, which means that fundamental physical and chemical properties (e.g. the charge of the molecule) depend on the pH of the surroundings via the corresponding pKa values of the molecules. As drug- and material design increasingly is being done through high throughput screens, fast - yet accurate - computational pKa prediction methods are becoming crucial to the design process. Current empirical pKa predictors are increasingly found to fail because they are being applied to parts of chemical space for which experimental parameterization data is lacking. We propose to develop a pKa predictor that, due its quantum mechanical foundation, is more generally applicable but still fast enough to be used in high throughput screening. The method has the potential to impact virtually any biotechnological design process involving organic molecules as we will demonstrate for metabolic engineering and organic bat...

  1. Tõnu Talve "Ka" tuuritab Kadrinas ja Rakveres / Ants Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Ants, 1956-

    2005-01-01

    Tõnu Talve maalidest. Kadrinas esitatud trio Fragile performance'st ja näitusest tsüklist "Ka" Rakveres. Rakvere näitusel Teele Tuuna ja kolmeaastase tütre Anneliise tööd. Trio Fragile koosseisus on kitarrist Robert Jürjendal, trummar Arvo Urb ja maalija Tõnu Talve

  2. Holland soovib Maailmapanga juhi kohale ka teisi kandidaate / Kalev Vilgats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Kalev

    2005-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush nimetas Iraagi sõja peamise planeerija Paul Wolfowitzi Maailmapanga presidendi kandidaadiks. See valik on Euroopas põhjustanud vastuolusid, kuna temast kardetakse Bushi senise välispoliitilise stiili jätkajat ka Maailmapangas. Bill Clintonit peetakse üheks võimalikuks kandidaadiks ÜRO peasekräri kohale

  3. Improvisatsioonilised filmietendus-kontserdid "Kas kino ka saab?"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Ajaloomuuseumi ja Eesti Film 100 poolt Suurgildi hoones korraldatud koostöönäitust "Elavad ja laulvad pildid" täiendab filmietenduste-kontsertide sari "Kas kino ka saab?", kus täna on kinoklassiku Georges Meliesi (1861-1938) filmiprogramm Jaak Lõhmuse kommenteeriva sõnavõtuga

  4. ARM Soc Based Enotebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranita C Bawankar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electronic media has grown very fast replacing papers, tape devices, books, etc. The new technologies provide large number of data into single device, fast searching options and more readability than ever. As eBooks are replacing books; we are proposing ENotebook system in which user can write as he did in notebook, save, searches and then reread content. This paper presents design and development of ENotebook using ARM7. The system uses touch screen to get input data and operations like save, delete, open & close of data file. All data sensed by touch screen is digitized by internal ADCs of LPC2148 microcontroller which gives low power platform with fast execution. The output is shown on graphical LCD. Whatever user writes on screen it may need to save for future use. The content of such hand written data will be in graphical/pictorial form hence required large of memory for storage. We can provide external memory using pen drive, memory card, EEPROM etc. in this system we are using SD card interfacing through SPI port.

  5. The new Ford Ka: a design for the future; Der neue Ford Ka: Ein Konzept fuer die Zukunftt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.; Bietz, T.; Castro, P.; Cole, S.; Jansen, K.H.; McColm, A.

    1996-09-01

    One of the factors of success in the competitive world of today`s automotive industry is the ability to adapt quickly to changing customer requirements. Surveys in all European countries indicate an increasing demand for cars that are below the established small cars in terms of size and price. Ford is offering with the new Ford Ka a product in the Sub-B class, which gains new ground by a fascinating design as well as matches the B-class for safety and noise comfort. The Ka is fun-to-drive with lively, safe handling to `best in class` standard at an outstanding price/performance ratio. (orig.) [Deutsch] Befragungen in ganz Europa signalisieren einen steigenden Bedarf an Fahrzeugen, die in Groesse und Preis unterhalb der etablierten Kleinwagen positioniert sind. Ford bietet mit dem neuen Ka in der Sub-B-Klasse ein Produkt, das nicht nur durch wegweisendes Design besticht, sondern gleichzeitig Fahrvergnuegen durch agiles und sicheres Handling garantiert. Der Ka bietet Sicherheit und Geraeuschkomfort auf dem Niveau der naechsthoeheren Klasse und dies bei einem guten Preis-Leistungsverhaeltnis. (orig.)

  6. Mars Global Surveyor Ka-Band Frequency Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, D.; Butman, S.; Shambayati, S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft, launched on November 7, 1996, carries an experimental space-to-ground telecommunications link at Ka-band (32 GHz) along with the primary X-band (8.4 GHz) downlink. The signals are simultaneously transmitted from a 1.5-in diameter parabolic high gain antenna (HGA) on MGS and received by a beam-waveguide (BWG) R&D 34-meter antenna located in NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Network (DSN) complex near Barstow, California. The projected 5-dB link advantage of Ka-band relative to X-band was confirmed in previous reports using measurements of MGS signal strength data acquired during the first two years of the link experiment from December 1996 to December 1998. Analysis of X-band and Ka-band frequency data and difference frequency (fx-fka)/3.8 data will be presented here. On board the spacecraft, a low-power sample of the X-band downlink from the transponder is upconverted to 32 GHz, the Ka-band frequency, amplified to I-W using a Solid State Power Amplifier, and radiated from the dual X/Ka HGA. The X-band signal is amplified by one of two 25 W TWTAs. An upconverter first downconverts the 8.42 GHz X-band signal to 8 GHz and then multiplies using a X4 multiplier producing the 32 GHz Ka-band frequency. The frequency source selection is performed by an RF switch which can be commanded to select a VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator) or USO (Ultra-Stable Oscillator) reference. The Ka-band frequency can be either coherent with the X-band downlink reference or a hybrid combination of the USO and VCO derived frequencies. The data in this study were chosen such that the Ka-band signal is purely coherent with the X-band signal, that is the downconverter is driven by the same frequency source as the X-band downlink). The ground station used to acquire the data is DSS-13, a 34-meter BWG antenna which incorporates a series of mirrors inside beam waveguide tubes which guide the energy to a subterranean pedestal room, providing a stable environment

  7. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  8. Taxation, stateness and armed groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kasper; Vlassenroot, Koen; Marchais, Gauthier

    2016-01-01

    rackets, to the material reciprocation of the recognition of rights. Focusing on the taxation practices of armed groups, the article argues that taxation is at the core of armed groups’ production of public authority and citizenship, and that their modes of taxation are based on long-standing registers...... of authority and practices of rule that originate in the colonial era. In particular, the article shows that by appealing to both local customary and national forms of political community and citizenship, armed groups are able to assume public authority to tax civilians. However, their public authority may...

  9. Hydrological variability in northern Levant over the past 250 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gasse

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Levant features sharp climatic gradients from North to South and from West to East resulting in a large environmental diversity. The lack of long-term record from the northern Levant limits our understanding of the regional response to glacial-interglacial boundary conditions in this key area. The 250 ka paleoenvironmental reconstruction presented here is a first step to fill this geographical gap.

    The record comes from a 36 m lacustrine-palustrine sequence cored in the small intra-mountainous karstic basin of Yammoûneh (northern Lebanon. The paper combines times series of sediment properties, paleovegetation, and carbonate oxygen isotopes, to yield a comprehensive view of paleohydrologic-paleoclimatic fluctuations in the basin over the two last glacial-interglacial cycles. Efficient moisture was higher than today during interglacial peaks around 240, 215–220, ~130–120 ka and 11–9 ka (although under different Precipitation minus Evaporation balance. Moderate wetting events took place around 170, 150, 105–100, 85–75, 60–55 and 35 ka. The penultimate glacial period was generally wetter than the last glacial stage. Local aridity culminated from the LGM to 15 ka, possibly linked to water storage as ice in the surrounding highlands. An overall decrease in local water availability is observed from the profile base to top. Fluctuations in available water seem to be primarily governed by changes in local summer insolation controlled by the orbital eccentricity modulated by the precession cycle, and by changes in precipitation and temperature seasonality.

    Our record is roughly consistent with long-term climatic fluctuations in northeastern Mediterranean lands, except during the penultimate glacial phase. It shares some features with speleothem records of western Israel. Conversely, after 130 ka, it is clearly out of phase with hydrological changes in the Dead Sea basin. Potential causes of these spatial heterogeneities

  10. 基于雨雪天气背景的微波辐射计斜路径与天顶观测的反演结果对比分析%Comparative analysis of the zenith and off-zenith retrieved results from microwave radiometer in rain and snow weather conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英英; 杨凡; 徐桂荣; 李德俊; 袁正腾; 熊洁

    2015-01-01

    In order to test the improvement of results in the off-zenith directions under rain and snow weather, the retrieved temperature, hu-midity, vapor density and liquid water density profiles from MP-3000A microwave radiometer (MWR) of the zenith and off-zenith observa-tions from 17 to 18 February 2014 are studied by comparing them with the Thies Clima laser precipitation monitor,L-band sounding data and precipitable water retrieved from GPS-MET from Wuhan station. Results are as follows. (1) If observed at off-zenith, the brightness tempera-ture signal saturation phenomenon at K and V bands can be eliminated effectively. Brightness temperature varies with rainfall intensity. (2) The correlation coefficient between the MWR product retrieved in off-zenith observation and sounding is better. (3) Although precipitable wa-ter vapor (PWV) retrieved in off-zenith observation is larger than the GPS/PWV, their trends are consistent. In contrast, there is a clear jump for the result in zenith observation after precipitation occurs. (4) There is a good corresponding relationship between the accumulation of cloud liquid water retrieved in off-zenith observation and the enhancement precipitation intensity.%为检验斜路径观测反演方法对雨雪天气背景下微波辐射计反演结果的改进,以2014年2月17-18日发生在武汉的一次雨雪过程为例,利用武汉观象台MP-3000A型微波辐射计天顶方向和斜路径观测反演的温度、相对湿度、水汽密度、液态水含量等廓线产品,分别与武汉观象台L波段探空资料,以及GPS-MET和Thies Clima激光雨滴谱仪的观测资料进行了对比检验.结果表明:(1)微波辐射计以斜路径方向观测,可以较好地消除K、V波段亮温信号饱和现象,亮温随降水强度的变化出现起伏波动的特征;(2)微波辐射计斜路径方向的反演产品与探空观测的相关性较好;(3)与GPS-MET观测的大气整层可降水量(PWV)比较,斜路径观测反演的PWV虽然

  11. 13 kA Superconducting Busbars Manufacturing Process

    CERN Document Server

    Principe, R; Fornasiere, E

    2012-01-01

    In the LHC, the superconducting Main Bending magnets and Quadrupole magnets are series-connected electrically in different excitation circuits by means of superconducting busbars, carrying a maximum current of 13 kA. These superconducting busbars consist of a superconducting Rutherford cable thermally and electrically coupled to a copper section all along the length. The function of the copper section is essentially to provide an alternative path for the magnet current in case of resistive transition. The production of these components was originally outsourced. The decision to import the technology at CERN led to a global re-engineering of the standard process. Although based on the procedures adopted during the LHC construction, a few modifications and improvements have been implemented, profiting of the experience gained in the last few years. This document details the manufacturing process of the 13 kA busbars as it is actually performed at CERN, emphasizing the new solutions adopted during the first mon...

  12. NOVEL MLANTJARAN KA SASAK: FROM DILLEMATIC TEACHERS TO HUMOROUS ONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Tingkat

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the representation of the image of teachers in the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak written by Gde Srawana. Using the theory of literary sociology and the theory of representation as the basis of analysis, it was found that teachers were  imaged of being dilemmatic, humanistic idealistic, caring about the Balinese culture, and being humorous. Sociologically, the novel entitled Mlantjaran ka Sasak pictured the life background of the Balinese society during 1930s, indicated by the critical attitude of the intellectuals through I Made Sarati and Ida Ayu Priya, the characters who played a role as teachers, towards the caste feudalism in marriage. Such a critical attitude was expressed in such an inciting way that the ethic and aesthetic values needed to educate society were not neglected.

  13. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detector3 of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  14. Bistable Head Positioning Arm Latch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Ken; Endo, Juro; Mita, Masahiro; Abelein, Nathan

    A simple, low cost, yet effective device has been developed for immobilizing the head-arm assembly in a disk drive or similar mechanism during power-off conditions. The latching scheme also provides a consistent means of releasing the head-arm assembly from the immobilized position upon power up of the disk drive. The latch uses no electrical power in either immobilized or released state. This design is immune to extreme torque and linear shock forces applied to the disk drive case. The latch system can use the energy stored in the spinning disks to drive the head-arm assembly toward a safe position while simultaneously arming the latch mechanism to secure the head-arm assembly in the safe position upon arrival. A low energy five msec pulse of current drives the latch from one state to the other. Solenoids as presently used in latch mechanisms are bulky, expensive, have variable force characteristics, and often generate contaminants. The latch described in this paper is expected to replace such solenoids. It may also replace small magnet latches, which have limited latch force and apply unwanted torque to a proximate head positioning arm.

  15. Anatomically modern human in Southeast Asia (Laos) by 46 ka

    OpenAIRE

    Demeter, Fabrice; Shackelford, Laura L.; Bacon, Anne-Marie; Duringer, Philippe; Westaway, Kira; Sayavongkhamdy, Thongsa; Braga, José; Sichanthongtip, Phonephanh; Khamdalavong, Phimmasaeng; Ponche, Jean-Luc; wang, Hong; Lundstrom, Craig; Patole-Edoumba, Elise; Karpoff, Anne-marie

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties surround the timing of modern human emergence and occupation in East and Southeast Asia. Although genetic and archeological data indicate a rapid migration out of Africa and into Southeast Asia by at least 60 ka, mainland Southeast Asia is notable for its absence of fossil evidence for early modern human occupation. Here we report on a modern human cranium from Tam Pa Ling, Laos, which was recovered from a secure stratigraphic context. Radiocarbon and luminescence dating of the ...

  16. Riigikogus tehakse ka tööd / Vilja Savisaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Vilja, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Sakala, 13. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Harju Ekspress, 15. juuni 2007, lk. 8; Järva Teataja, 16. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Koit, 21. juuni 2007, lk. 6. Parlamendiliige Keskerakonna fraktsiooni poolt parlamendis algatatud eelnõudest

  17. Kui suudab Steve, suudab ka Apple / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Ehkki Apple'i kolmanda kvartali kasum kasvas kolmandiku võrra ja oli oodatust kümnendiku jagu suurem, langes ettevõtte aktsia hind börsil. Investoreid teeb rahutuks nii ettevõtte juhi Steve Jobsi tervis kui ka Apple'i majandusprognoos neljandaks kvartaliks. Lisa: Analüütikud on aktsia suhtes üksmeelel. Diagramm: Aktsia hinnal taas suund alla

  18. Euroopa Liit toetab ka väiketalupidajaid / Rein Aidma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aidma, Rein, 1950-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Vali Uudised 12. nov. lk. 4, Harjumaa, Hiiu Leht, Sakala 14. nov. lk. 3,2,2, Koit 18. nov. lk. 6, Põhjarannik, Severnoje Poberezhje 21. nov. lk. 4, Järva Teataja 25. nov. lk. 2. Väiksematel põllumajandusega tegelevatel ettevõtetel on võimalus saada ajutist abi paremaks toimetulekuks võimalike muutuste korral, mis leiavad aset liitumisjärgsel perioodil

  19. Ka omavalitsus vastutab palkade eest / Aivar Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Aivar, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Nädaline, Koit 11. nov. lk.4,6, Põhjarannik, Severnoje Poberezhje, Hiiumaa, Järva Teataja 11. nov. lk. 2, Pärnu Postimees 12. nov. lk. 15, Vali Uudised 14. nov. lk. 2, Valgamaalane 18. nov. lk. 2, Vooremaa 25. nov. lk. 2. Kohalike omavalitsuste võimalustest õpetajate ja kultuuritöötajate palkade täiendavaks tõstmiseks 2004. aastal

  20. Riigikogus tehakse ka tööd / Vilja Savisaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Savisaar, Vilja, 1962-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Sakala, 13. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 14. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Harju Ekspress, 15. juuni 2007, lk. 8; Järva Teataja, 16. juuni 2007, lk. 2; Koit, 21. juuni 2007, lk. 6. Parlamendiliige Keskerakonna fraktsiooni poolt parlamendis algatatud eelnõudest

  1. Ka omavalitsus vastutab palkade eest / Aivar Õun

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Õun, Aivar, 1959-

    2003-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Nädaline, Koit 11. nov. lk.4,6, Põhjarannik, Severnoje Poberezhje, Hiiumaa, Järva Teataja 11. nov. lk. 2, Pärnu Postimees 12. nov. lk. 15, Vali Uudised 14. nov. lk. 2, Valgamaalane 18. nov. lk. 2, Vooremaa 25. nov. lk. 2. Kohalike omavalitsuste võimalustest õpetajate ja kultuuritöötajate palkade täiendavaks tõstmiseks 2004. aastal

  2. Eestil on Euroopas ka oma tee / Jürgen Ligi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ligi, Jürgen, 1959-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 17. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 17. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Koit,17. apr. 2004, lk. 6; Meie Maa, 17. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 20. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Virumaa Nädalaleht, 23. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Sakala, 23. apr. 2004, lk. 2; Valgamaalane, 8. mai 2004, lk. 2. Maksu- ja sotsiaalpoliitika otsustusõigusest ning kaitsmisest EL-i riikides

  3. Kui suudab Steve, suudab ka Apple / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2008-01-01

    Ehkki Apple'i kolmanda kvartali kasum kasvas kolmandiku võrra ja oli oodatust kümnendiku jagu suurem, langes ettevõtte aktsia hind börsil. Investoreid teeb rahutuks nii ettevõtte juhi Steve Jobsi tervis kui ka Apple'i majandusprognoos neljandaks kvartaliks. Lisa: Analüütikud on aktsia suhtes üksmeelel. Diagramm: Aktsia hinnal taas suund alla

  4. Precision Deployable Mast for the SWOT KaRIn Instrument Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design and prototype a lightweight, precision-deployable mast for the Ka-band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn) antennas in the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT)...

  5. Use of Roud Wood in Kaingáng Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has the purpose of describing and analyzing the evolutionary habitation process of the Kaingáng. Its main focus is the typological reading of the shelters as well as the registration of the wooden building system used in the construction of the houses in the “Äpucaraninha” Reserve, located in a district of Londrina. The research proceeds with the elaboration of the genealogy of the kaingáng’s habitation through the consultation to the published historical reports and their chronological organization. The data collection within the group was accomplished through informal interviews, photographic survey and in loco observations. Aspects related to the use of the round wood as well as the other elements that are part of the construction, were verified at this stage. The raw material used in every building system is obtained in the Reserve itself, being the wood used not only in the structure but also in the sealing. The connections are made through fittings and fastenings with liana. In spite of the mixture of values and meanings that the Kaingáng community experiences through the contact with other cultures, traditional aspects related to the building of the “traditional house” are preserved, with no domain of other techniques by most of the group. The registration intends to contribute towards the identification and understanding of important issues related to the spaces built by the man.

  6. Rain Fade Compensation Alternatives for Ka Band Communication Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.

    1997-01-01

    Future satellite communications systems operating in Ka-band frequency band are subject to degradation produced by the troposphere which is much more severe than those found at lower frequency bands. These impairments include signal absorption by rain, clouds and gases, and amplitude scintillation's arising from refractive index irregularities. For example, rain attenuation at 20 GHz is almost three times that at 11 GHz. Although some of these impairments can be overcome by oversizing the ground station antennas and high power amplifiers, the current trend is using small (less than 20 inches apertures), low-cost ground stations (less than $1000) that can be easily deployed at user premises. As a consequence, most Ka-band systems are expected to employ different forms of fade mitigation that can be implemented relatively easily and at modest cost. The rain fade mitigation approaches are defined by three types of Ka-band communications systems - a low service rate (less than 1.5 Mb/s), a moderate service rate (1.5 to 6 Mb/s) system and a high service rate (greater than 43 Mb/s) system. The ACTS VSAT network, which includes an adaptive rain fade technique, is an example of a moderate service rate.

  7. ATLAS computing operations within the GridKa Cloud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, J; Walker, R [LMU Munich (Germany); Olszewski, A [Institute of Nuclear Physics Krakow (Poland); Nderitu, S [University of Bonn (Germany); Serfon, C; Duckeck, G

    2010-04-01

    The organisation and operations model of the ATLAS T1-T2 federation/Cloud associated to the GridKa T1 in Karlsruhe is described. Attention is paid to Cloud level services and the experience gained during the last years of operation. The ATLAS GridKa Cloud is large and divers spanning 5 countries, 2 ROC's and is currently comprised of 13 core sites. A well defined and tested operations model in such a Cloud is of the utmost importance. We have defined the core Cloud services required by the ATLAS experiment and ensured that they are performed in a managed and sustainable manner. Services such as Distributed Data Management involving data replication,deletion and consistency checks, Monte Carlo Production, software installation and data reprocessing are described in greater detail. In addition to providing these central services we have undertaken several Cloud level stress tests and developed monitoring tools to aid with Cloud diagnostics. Furthermore we have defined good channels of communication between ATLAS, the T1 and the T2's and have pro-active contributions from the T2 manpower. A brief introduction to the GridKa Cloud is provided followed by a more detailed discussion of the operations model and ATLAS services within the Cloud.

  8. Utjecaj materijala za pakiranje na kvalitetu Kačkavalja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goce Talevski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available U ovom radu ispitivan je utjecaj različitog ambalažnog materijala (A - kontrolni uzorak, B - polimerna emulzija, C - vosak i D - polimerna folija na kvalitetu Kačkavalja. Najnižu pH vrijednost imao je uzorak zaštićen voskom, što je rezultat zadržavanja nastalih organskih kiselina i plinova od strane ambalažnog materijala. Statistički značajan utjecaj ambalažnih materijala (p<0.01 bio je utvrđen kod sadržaja suhe tvari, proteina i pepela, dok statistička značajnost nije bila utvrđena kod sadržaja masti kod Kačkavalja. Proteolitički procesi bili su izraženiji kod uzorka zaštićenog voskom i polimernom folijom, s višim razinama topljivog dušika, primarnih i sekundarnih dušičnih spojeva i koeficijenta zrelosti u odnosu na kontrolni uzorak i uzorak zaštićen polimernom emulzijom.

  9. The prediction of zenith range refraction from surface measurements of meteorological parameters. [mathematical models of atmospheric refraction used to improve spacecraft tracking space navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    In the last two decades, increasingly sophisticated deep space missions have placed correspondingly stringent requirements on navigational accuracy. As part of the effort to increase navigational accuracy, and hence the quality of radiometric data, much effort has been expended in an attempt to understand and compute the tropospheric effect on range (and hence range rate) data. The general approach adopted has been that of computing a zenith range refraction, and then mapping this refraction to any arbitrary elevation angle via an empirically derived function of elevation. The prediction of zenith range refraction derived from surface measurements of meteorological parameters is presented. Refractivity is separated into wet (water vapor pressure) and dry (atmospheric pressure) components. The integration of dry refractivity is shown to be exact. Attempts to integrate wet refractivity directly prove ineffective; however, several empirical models developed by the author and other researchers at JPL are discussed. The best current wet refraction model is here considered to be a separate day/night model, which is proportional to surface water vapor pressure and inversely proportional to surface temperature. Methods are suggested that might improve the accuracy of the wet range refraction model.

  10. Low AC Loss in a 3 kA HTS Cable of the Dutch Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevtchenko, Oleg; Zuijderduin, Roy; Smit, Johan

    2012-01-01

    in the cable, potentially affecting public acceptance of the project. A way out would be to substantially reduce AC losses from 1 down to about 0.1W/m per phase at rated current of 3 kArms, frequency of 50Hz and temperature of 77K. In this paper we discuss a strategy towards this ambitious goal, a concept......Requirements for a 6km long high temperature superconducting (HTS) AC power cable of the Amsterdam project are: a cable has to fit in an annulus of 160mm, with two cooling stations at the cable ends only. Existing solutions for HTS cables would lead to excessively high coolant pressure drop...... design of the single phase cable 3 kA conductor made of YBCO tapes and present corresponding experimental and simulation data supporting the developed approach leading directly to this goal. HTS cable model was made that show a drastically reduced AC loss. The low loss was achieved by using appropriate...

  11. AltiKa: a Ka-band Altimetry Payload and System for Operational Altimetry during the GMES Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Patrick; Steunou, Nathalie; Caubet, Eric; Phalippou, Laurent; Rey, Laurent; Thouvenot, Eric; Verron, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the Ka-band altimetry payload and system that has been studied for several years by CNES, ALCATEL SPACE and some science laboratories. Altimetry is one of the major elements of the ocean observing system to be made sustainable through the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) and GMES (Global Monitoring of the Environment and Security) programs. A short review of some mission objectives to be fulfilled in terms of mesoscale oceanography in the frame of the GEOSS and GMES programs is performed. To answer the corresponding requirements, the approach consisting in a constellation of nadir altimeter is discussed. A coupled Ka-band altimeter-radiometer payload is then described; technical items are detailed to explain how this payload shall meet the science and operational requirements, and expected performances are displayed. The current status of the payload development and flight perspectives are given.

  12. AltiKa: a Ka-band Altimetry Payload and System for Operational Altimetry during the GMES Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Verron

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Ka-band altimetry payload and system that has beenstudied for several years by CNES, ALCATEL SPACE and some science laboratories.Altimetry is one of the major elements of the ocean observing system to be madesustainable through the GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems and GMES(Global Monitoring of the Environment and Security programs. A short review of somemission objectives to be fulfilled in terms of mesoscale oceanography in the frame of theGEOSS and GMES programs is performed. To answer the corresponding requirements, theapproach consisting in a constellation of nadir altimeter is discussed. A coupled Ka-bandaltimeter-radiometer payload is then described; technical items are detailed to explain howthis payload shall meet the science and operational requirements, and expectedperformances are displayed. The current status of the payload development and flightperspectives are given.

  13. Algorithms for Unequal-Arm Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Giacomo; Hellings, Ronald W.; Tinto, Massimo; Bender, Peter L.; Faller, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of data acquisition and data analysis is described in which the performance of Michelson-type interferometers with unequal arms can be made nearly the same as interferometers with equal arms. The method requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam.

  14. Jõhvi - mu arm (tagasivaade) / Endel Paap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paap, Endel, 1938-

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 1. okt. lk. 4. Jõhvi linnavalitsuse ja volikogu töö kriitika. Keskerakonna kandidaadi valimislubadustest Jõhvi volikogu valimistel. Autor: Keskerakond. Parlamendisaadik

  15. The effect of solar zenith angle on MODIS cloud optical and microphysical retrievals within marine liquid water clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvenor, D. P.; Wood, R.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we use a novel observational approach to investigate MODIS satellite retrieval biases of τ and re (using three different MODIS bands: 1.6, 2.1 and 3.7 μm, denoted as re1.6, re2.1 and re3.7, respectively) that occur at high solar zenith angles (θ0) and how they affect retrievals of cloud droplet concentration (Nd). Utilizing the large number of overpasses for polar regions and the diurnal variation of θ0 we estimate biases in the above quantities for an open ocean region that is dominated by low level stratiform clouds. We find that the mean τ is fairly constant between θ0 = 50° and ~65-70°, but then increases rapidly with an increase of over 70 % between the lowest and highest θ0. The re2.1 and re3.7 decrease with θ0, with effects also starting at around θ0 = 65-70°. At low θ0, the re values from the three different MODIS bands agree to within around 0.2 μm, whereas at high θ0 the spread is closer to 1 μm. The percentage changes of re with θ0 are considerably lower than those for τ, being around 5 % and 7% for re2.1 and re3.7. For re1.6 there was very little change with θ0. Evidence is provided that these changes are unlikely to be due to any physical diurnal cycle. The increase in τ and decrease in re both contribute to an overall increase in Nd of 40-70% between low and high θ0. Whilst the overall re changes are quite small, they are not insignificant for the calculation of Nd; we find that the contributions to Nd biases from the τ and re biases were roughly comparable for re3.7, although for the other re bands the τ changes were considerably more important. Also, when considering only the clouds with the more heterogeneous tops, the importance of the re biases was considerably enhanced for both re2.1 and re3.7. When using the variability of 1 km resolution τ data (γτ) as a heterogeneity parameter we obtained the expected result of increasing differences in τ between high and low θ0 as heterogeneity increased, which was

  16. Proprioceptive Interaction between the Two Arms in a Single-Arm Pointing Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Kigawa

    Full Text Available Proprioceptive signals coming from both arms are used to determine the perceived position of one arm in a two-arm matching task. Here, we examined whether the perceived position of one arm is affected by proprioceptive signals from the other arm in a one-arm pointing task in which participants specified the perceived position of an unseen reference arm with an indicator paddle. Both arms were hidden from the participant's view throughout the study. In Experiment 1, with both arms placed in front of the body, the participants received 70-80 Hz vibration to the elbow flexors of the reference arm (= right arm to induce the illusion of elbow extension. This extension illusion was compared with that when the left arm elbow flexors were vibrated or not. The degree of the vibration-induced extension illusion of the right arm was reduced in the presence of left arm vibration. In Experiment 2, we found that this kinesthetic interaction between the two arms did not occur when the left arm was vibrated in an abducted position. In Experiment 3, the vibration-induced extension illusion of one arm was fully developed when this arm was placed at an abducted position, indicating that the brain receives increased proprioceptive input from a vibrated arm even if the arm was abducted. Our results suggest that proprioceptive interaction between the two arms occurs in a one-arm pointing task when the two arms are aligned with one another. The position sense of one arm measured using a pointer appears to include the influences of incoming information from the other arm when both arms were placed in front of the body and parallel to one another.

  17. Functional Spectral Analysis of Paleoclimatic Evolution in Lanzhou Area over the Last 15 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桂芳; 殷鸿福; 李长安; 陈中原

    2003-01-01

    In this paper,we make use of the functional spectral analysis to infer the periodicity of paleoclimate in the Hongzuisi section since about 15 ka. Through combined analysis of organic carbon isotope and CaCO3 content,the law of paleoclimatic evolution of the Hongzuisi section is obtained. There were climatic changes from 10 ka to about 0.1 ka over the last 15 ka. Among these cycles,the cycle of several ka is most remarkable. The result indicates that functional spectral analysis is helpful for paleoclimatic study,which can provide useful information about paleoclimatic reconstruction and future forecast.

  18. High speed transfer switch with 50 kA and 50 kV ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reass, W. A.; Kasik, R. J.; Wilds, W. A.

    This paper gives the mechanical design and electrical parameters of a pneumatically operated transfer switch. This design is used to switch 3-second 50-kA current pulses, and is easily capable of 75 kA operation, with water-cooled versions capable of 20 kA continuously. Although the switch is not specifically designed to make or break 50 kA, it is provided with auxiliary Elkonite arcing contacts that have proven their value in protecting the main electrodes even under repetitive (50 kA) fault conditions. Included in this presentation will be the results of extensive life testing and associated criteria.

  19. Development prospects of Niška Banja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Vidoje

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic thinking is the base of every development and the favorite entries in theory and management practices. In tourist complex that has a special meaning because of the sole complexity of the phenomenon itself. In this sense, many of the methods of strategic management and tourism development in various areas in Serbia, SWOT analysis is one of the most reliable. For this, Niška Banja is a true challenge. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179013: Sustainable identity of Serbs and minorities living in border areas of East and South-east Serbia

  20. Miroljubivi uspon – nova kineska vanjskopolitička teorija

    OpenAIRE

    Baković, Ozren

    2004-01-01

    Kao izraz težnje za osuvremenjivanjem kineske vanjske politike u promijenjenim globalnim uvjetima na početku 21. stoljeća, pojavila se nova službena kineska vanjskopolitička teorija – teorija “miroljubivog uspona”. Nakon što je naviše kinesko rukovodstvo usvojilo teoriju, ona se sad nastoji objasniti međunarodnoj javnosti. Osnovna je postavka teorije “miroljubivog uspona” da snažan dugoročni rast kineskoga gospodarstva i afirmacija Kine u međunarodnim odnosima nije ni regionalna ni globalna p...

  1. Veretu retrobuum : [ka TPÜ AR kohvikust] / Allan Hmelnitski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hmelnitski, Allan

    2004-01-01

    "Ka mina eelistan kõigi söögikohtade seast Teaduste Akadeemia puhvetit, mis on 100% breezhnevi aegne disain - kunstnahast lett, ümmargused madalad lauad, pikk-pikk nahkdiivan, kurgid ja tomatid mis maitsevad hästi ja tugevalt, täpselt nagu aastal 85, hallides ülikondades vanemad härrad vestlemas põlevkivist ja paeklindi ajaloost. Vot see on tõeline petlik naiivsus, turvalisus, rahu, muretus ja stabiilsus nagu aastal 76 ema süles."

  2. Lapsed pole ainult tulevik, nad on ka olevik / Katrin Saks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saks, Katrin, 1956-

    2004-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, 13. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 13. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 13. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 16. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Vooremaa, 16. nov. 2004, lk. 2; Koit,16. nov. 2004, lk. 6; Vali Uudised, 17. nov. 2004, lk. 2. Valitsusliidu toel hääletati menetlusest välja eelnõu, mille eesmärk oli parandada kolme ja enama lapsega pere igapäeva toimetulekut, samuti üksikvanemate olukorda. Autor kritiseerib valitsuse sotsiaalkindlustuspoliitikat

  3. Politička ekonomija – ekonomija – politologija

    OpenAIRE

    Strpić, Dag

    2001-01-01

    Od 17. do 19. stoljeća politička ekonomija je prošla put od posebne društvene/ moralne znanosti do sinonima liberalne verzije cjeline političko-kameralnih ili državnih znanosti. Na prijelomu u 20. stoljeće, uspostavljanjem samostalne ekonomske znanosti i užim profiliranjem političkih znanosti, ona se počela marginalizirati (osim u naglašeno ideologiziranoj “marksističko-lenjinističkoj” verziji, gdje joj je nakon prvotne Staljinove anateme kasnije zadan centralni položaj). A u politologiji/pol...

  4. Deriving and Interpreting Ka(karimusubi in Premodern Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno MITROVIĆ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new syntax and semantics for kakarimusubi (KM, a focus construction prominent in the grammar of Old Japanese (OJ and Early Middle (Classical Japanese (CJ, which diachronically developed into the interrogative construction in Modern Japanese (MdJ headed by the ka particle. Adopting Chierchia & Caponigro’s (2013 novel analysis of Free Relatives (FRs as embedded interrogatives, an FR-based analysis of KM is proposed so as to obtain a compositional semantic analysis of this focus construction as well as an account of the adnominal marking of the presuppositional musubi component of this grammatical construction.

  5. Design of High Power Density Amplifiers: Application to Ka Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Davide; Leggieri, Alberto; Di Paolo, Franco; Bartocci, Marco; Tafuto, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Recent developments in the design of high-power-high-frequency amplifiers are assessed in this paper by the analysis and measurements of a high power density amplifier operating in the Ka Band. Design procedure is presented and a technical investigation is reported. The proposed device has shown over 23% of useful frequency bandwidth. It is an ensemble of 16 monolithic solid state power amplifiers that employees mixed technologies as spatial and planar combiners. Test performed have given maximum delivered power of 47.2 dBm.

  6. Ka- and W-band PM-HFET DRO's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, J.; Guettich, U.

    1993-06-01

    Dielectric resonator stabilized oscillators have been designed, fabricated, and investigated. The oscillators consist of microstrip matching and biasing circuits on alumina substrate, a dielectric resonator puck, and a low-noise quarter-micron InGaAs-GaAs pseudomorphic (PM) HFET as the active device. At 37 GHz and 81 GHz, output powers of 10 dBm and 0 dBm have been measured. The phase noise of the Ka-band and W-band oscillators has been determined to be -97 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz and -90 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz off carrier, respectively.

  7. Veretu retrobuum : [ka TPÜ AR kohvikust] / Allan Hmelnitski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hmelnitski, Allan

    2004-01-01

    "Ka mina eelistan kõigi söögikohtade seast Teaduste Akadeemia puhvetit, mis on 100% breezhnevi aegne disain - kunstnahast lett, ümmargused madalad lauad, pikk-pikk nahkdiivan, kurgid ja tomatid mis maitsevad hästi ja tugevalt, täpselt nagu aastal 85, hallides ülikondades vanemad härrad vestlemas põlevkivist ja paeklindi ajaloost. Vot see on tõeline petlik naiivsus, turvalisus, rahu, muretus ja stabiilsus nagu aastal 76 ema süles."

  8. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Certificate Number: 890119A1. 10032 Alsys AlsyCOMP 019, Version 4.1 Zenith Z-248 Model 50 and Intel isBC 286/12 Single Board Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-19

    Zenith Z-248 Model 50 under MS/DOS, Version 3.2 (host) to Intel isBC 286/12 single board computer (target), ACVC 1.10 g0 01 03 004 DD tŘ 1473 1DITION...Intel isBC 286/12 single board computer Completion of On-Site Testing: 19 January 1989 AcCesion For DTIC Tii prepared BY: . AFNOR .,ltir...Number: 890119A1.10032 Host: Zenith Z-248 Model 50 under MS/DOS, Version 3.2 Target: Intel isBC 286/12 single board computer Testing Completed 19 January

  9. Fan tomography of the tropospheric water vapor for the calibration of the Ka band tracking of the Bepi-Colombo spacecraft (MORE experiment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Serafini, Jonathan; Sichoix, Lydie

    2012-07-01

    The radiosciences Bepi-Colombo MORE experiment will use X/X, X/Ka and Ka/Ka band radio links to make accurate measurements of the spacecraft range and range rate. Tropospheric zenith wet delays range from 1.5 cm to 10 cm, with high variability (less than 1000 s) and will impair these accurate measurements. Conditions vary from summer (worse) to winter (better), from day (worse) to night (better). These wet delays cannot be estimated from ground weather measurements and alternative calibration methods should be used in order to cope with the MORE requirements (no more than 3 mm at 1000 s). Due to the Mercury orbit, MORE measurements will be performed by daylight and more frequently in summer than in winter (from Northern hemisphere). Two systems have been considered to calibrate this wet delay: Water Vapour Radiometers (WVRs) and GPS receivers. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a new class of WVRs reaching a 5 percent accuracy for the wet delay calibration (0.75 mm to 5 mm), but these WVRs are expensive to build and operate. GPS receivers are also routinely used for the calibration of data from NASA Deep Space probes, but several studies have shown that GPS receivers can give good calibration (through wet delay mapping functions) for long time variations, but are not accurate enough for short time variations (100 to 1000 s), and that WVRs must be used to efficiently calibrate the wet troposphere delays over such time spans. We think that such a calibration could be done by assimilating data from all the GNSS constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, Beidou and IRNSS) that will be available at the time of the Bepi-Colombo arrival at Mercury (2021), provided that the underlying physics of the turbulent atmosphere and evapotranspiration processes are properly taken into account at such time scales. This implies to do a tomographic image of the troposphere overlying each Deep Space tracking station at time scales of less than 1000 s. For this purpose, we have

  10. Validation of SCIAMACHY NO2 Vertical Column Densities with Mt.Cimone and Stara Zagora Ground-Based Zenith Sky DOAS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinov, I.; Petritoli, A.; Werner, R.; Valev, D.; Atanasov, At.; Bortoli, D.; Markova, T.; Ravegnani, F.; Palazzi, E.; Giovanelli, G.

    2004-08-01

    Ground-based zenith sky Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements performed by means of GASCOD instruments at Mt. Cimone (44N 11E), Italy and Stara Zagora (42N, 25E), Bulgaria are used for validation of SCIAMACHY NO2 vertical column density (vcd) of ESA SCI_NL product retrieved with 5.01 processor version. The results presented in this work regard satellite data for the JulyDecember 2002 period. On this base it is concluded that during summer-autumn period the overall NO2 vcd above both stations is fairly well reproduced by the SCIAMACHY data, while towards the winter period they deviate from the seasonal behaviour of NO2 vcd derived at both stations

  11. Relative paleointensity of the geomagnetic field during the past 200 ka from the West Philippine Sea and its chronological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Our rock magnetic analysis of core Ph05 from the West Philippine Sea demonstrates that the core preserves a strong, stable remanent magnetization and meets the magnetic mineral criteria for relative paleointensity (RPI) analyses. The magnetic minerals in the sequence are dominated by pseudosingle-domain magnetite, and the concentration of magnetic minerals is at the same scale. Both the conventional normalizing method and the pseudo-Thellier method were used in conjunction with the examination of the rock magnetic properties and natural remanent magnetization. Susceptibility (χ), anhysteretic remnant magnetization (ARM) and saturation isothermal remnant magnetization (SIRM) were used as the natural remanent magnetization normalizer. However, coherence analysis indicated that only ARM is more suitable for paleointensity reconstruction. The age model of core is established based on oxygen isotope data and AMS14C data, which is consistent with the age model estimated from RPI records. The relative paleointensity data provide a continuous record of the intensity variation during the last 200 ka, which correlates well with the global references RPI stacks. Several prominent low paleointensity values are identified and are correlated to the main RPI minima in the SINT-200 record, suggesting that the sediments have recorded the real changes of geomagnetic field.

  12. Relative paleointensity of the geomagnetic field during the past 200 ka from the West Philippine Sea and its chronological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG QingYong; LI AnChun; LI TieGang; JIANG FuOing; ZHOU XiaoJing

    2009-01-01

    Our rock magnetic analysis of core Ph05 from the West Philippine Sea demonstrates that the core preserves a strong, stable remanent magnetization and meets the magnetic mineral criteria for relative paleointensity (RPI) analyses. The magnetic minerals in the sequence are dominated by pseudosingle-domain magnetite, and the concentration of magnetic minerals is at the same scale. Both the conventional normalizing method and the pseudo.Thellier method were used in conjunction with the examination of the rock magnetic properties and natural remanent magnetization. Susceptibility (X), anhysteretic remnant magnetization (ARM) and saturation isothermal remnant magnetization (SIRM) were used as the natural remanent magnetization normalizer. However, coherence analysis indicated that only ARM is more suitable for paleointensity reconstruction. The age model of core is established based on oxygen isotope data and AMS14C data, which is consistent with the age model estimated from RPI records. The relative paleointensity data provide a continuous record of the intensity variation during the last 200 ka, which correlates well with the global references RPI stacks. Several prominent low paleointensity values are identified and are correlated to the main RPI minima in the SINT-200 record, suggesting that the sediments have recorded the real changes of geomagnetic field.

  13. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  14. Arms control and international security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolkowicz, R. (ed.); Joeck, N.

    1984-01-01

    This book compiles the papers delivered at a symposium held at the University of California, in 1983. It provides the discussions upon the value and importance of arms debate. The paper presents an expression of personal views rather than an analysis of the arguments of the primary presentations.

  15. Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor right away.Start OverDiagnosisYou may have TENDINITIS, inflammation of a tendon.Self CareUse an over- ... OverDiagnosisYour may have TENNIS ELBOW, a type of TENDINITIS.Self CareRest the arm, apply ice packs to ...

  16. ITIL and Grid services at GridKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marten, H.; Koenig, T.

    2010-04-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) is a new organizational unit of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Founded in February 2008 as a merger of the previous Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the Technical University Karlsruhe, SCC provides a broad spectrum of IT services for 8.000 employees and 18.000 students and carries out research and development in key areas of information technology under the same roof. SCC is also known to host the German WLCG [1] Tier-1 centre GridKa. In order to accompany the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km and to provide common first class services for science, SCC has selected the IT service management according to the industrial quasi-standard "IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)" [3] as a strategic element. The paper discusses the implementation of a few ITIL key components from the perspective of a Scientific Computing Centre using examples of Grid services at GridKa.

  17. The KaVA and KVN Pulsar Project

    CERN Document Server

    Dodson, Richard; Sohn, Bongwon; Rioja, Mar\\'\\ia J; Jung, Taehyun; Seymour, Andrew; Raja, Wasim

    2014-01-01

    We present our work towards using the Korean VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometer) Network (KVN) and VLBI Exploration of Radio Astronomy (VERA) arrays combined into the KVN and VERA Array (KaVA) for observations of radio pulsars at high frequencies ($\\simeq$22-GHz). Pulsar astronomy is generally focused at frequencies approximately 0.3 to several GHz and pulsars are usually discovered and monitored with large, single-dish, radio telescopes. For most pulsars, reduced radio flux is expected at high frequencies due to their steep spectrum, but there are exceptions where high frequency observations can be useful. Moreover, some pulsars are observable at high frequencies only, such as those close to the Galactic Center. The discoveries of a radio-bright magnetar and a few dozen extended Chandra sources within 15 arc-minute of the Galactic Center provide strong motivations to make use of the KaVA frequency band for searching pulsars in this region. Here, we describe the science targets and report progresses made...

  18. ITIL and Grid services at GridKa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, H; Koenig, T, E-mail: holger.marten@kit.ed, E-mail: tobias.koenig@kit.ed [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Steinbuch Centre for Computing Herman-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-04-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) is a new organizational unit of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Founded in February 2008 as a merger of the previous Institute for Scientific Computing of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and the Computing Centre of the Technical University Karlsruhe, SCC provides a broad spectrum of IT services for 8.000 employees and 18.000 students and carries out research and development in key areas of information technology under the same roof. SCC is also known to host the German WLCG [1] Tier-1 centre GridKa. In order to accompany the merging of the two existing computing centres located at a distance of about 10 km and to provide common first class services for science, SCC has selected the IT service management according to the industrial quasi-standard 'IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL)' [3] as a strategic element. The paper discusses the implementation of a few ITIL key components from the perspective of a Scientific Computing Centre using examples of Grid services at GridKa.

  19. Stability measurements on the 50 kA SMES conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfotenhauer, M. J.

    Stability measurements have been made on a large aluminium stabilized conductor designed for use in a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) coil. The conductor has been built to carry 50 kA at 1.8 K and in 4.6 T field. It consists of a 25.4 mm diameter, high purity aluminium stabilizer with eight superconducting strands of 2.8 mm diameter each, composed of 60% Cu, 40% NbTi. The strands are set in eight helical grooves, evenly spaced around the outer diameter of the aluminium. The conductor is designed for use in full scale SMES units and has been tested in the 1 m diameter, three-turn test coil of the University of Wisconsin proof of principle experiment (POPE). The POPE facility includes the test coil, a 4 T background magnet, a dewar for a 1.8 K, 1 atm environment and a 100 kA d.c. power supply. Test results demonstrate good agreement with a new dynamic stability model. The balance of time-dependent heat generation during current diffusion and time-dependent cooling to the helium produces three new features of stability: 1, a threshold current for propagation; 2, large propagation velocities; and 3, a finite length travelling normal zone. POPE measurements verify all three features of the dynamic stability model.

  20. Review: Bilirubin pKa studies; new models and theories indicate high pKa values in water, dimethylformamide and DMSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrow J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Correct aqueous pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, a poorly-soluble, unstable substance, are essential for understanding its functions. Our prior solvent partition studies, of unlabeled and [14C] UCB, indicated pKa values above 8.0. These high values were attributed to effects of internal H-bonding in UCB. Many earlier and subsequent studies have reported lower pKa values, some even below 5.0, which are often used to describe the behavior of UCB. We here review 18 published studies that assessed aqueous pKa values of UCB, critically evaluating their methodologies in relation to essential preconditions for valid pKa measurements (short-duration experiments with purified UCB below saturation and accounting for self-association of UCB. Results These re-assessments identified major deficiencies that invalidate the results of all but our partition studies. New theoretical modeling of UCB titrations shows remarkable, unexpected effects of self-association, yielding falsely low pKa estimates, and provides some rationalization of the titration anomalies. The titration behavior reported for a soluble thioether conjugate of UCB at high aqueous concentrations is shown to be highly anomalous. Theoretical re-interpretations of data in DMSO and dimethylformamide show that those indirectly-derived aqueous pKa values are unacceptable, and indicate new, high average pKa values for UCB in non-aqueous media (>11 in DMSO and, probably, >10 in dimethylformamide. Conclusions No reliable aqueous pKa values of UCB are available for comparison with our partition-derived results. A companion paper shows that only the high pKa values can explain the pH-dependence of UCB binding to phospholipids, cyclodextrins, and alkyl-glycoside and bile salt micelles.

  1. Development of the 320 kA pulsed magnetic horn power supply with a novel energy recovery system for the T2K experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koseki, Kunio, E-mail: kunio.koseki@kek.jp

    2014-01-21

    The 320 kA pulsed magnetic horn power supply with a novel magnetic energy recovery system for the T2K experiment has been developed. The magnetic energy once stored in the horn system during an excitation period by a pulsed current of 320 kA is recovered by a full-bridge circuit to the energy storage capacitors. Four switching arms by high-power thyristors in the full-bridge circuit are actively controlled for an efficient energy recovery process. Operational principle of the energy recovery system was proved by both the simulation study and the high-voltage test operation. Successful operations of the newly developed pulsed magnetic horn power supply were also confirmed by high-voltage test operations. -- Highlights: ●The 320 kA pulsed power supply for the T2K magnetic horn has been developed. ●A novel energy recovery method by a full-bridge circuit has been established. ●Successful operation of the pulsed power supply was confirmed by high-voltage operations.

  2. Lake-expanding events in the Tibetan Plateau since 40 kaBP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾玉连; 施雅风; 王苏民; 蒋雪中; 李世杰; 王爱军; 李徐生

    2001-01-01

    Since 40 kaBP, the current endorheism on the Tibetan Plateau had experienced at least four lake-expanding events, at 40-28 kaBP, 19-15 kaBP, 13-11 kaBP, 9.0-5.0 kaBP, respectively. The 40-28 kaBP and 9.0-5.0 kaBP lake-expanding events, corresponding to the global warming periods, were mainly determined by the abundant summer monsoon rainfall brought by strong Indian monsoon, aroused by enhanced solar radiation at earth orbital precessional cycle. The 40-28 kaBP lake-expanding event, also called the great lake period or the pan-lake period, for several great lake groups had come into being by the interconnection of the presently isolated and closed lake catchments. The total lake area over the Tibetan Plateau was estimated at least up to 150000 km2, 3.8 times of the present, and the lake supply coefficients were about 3-10. The 9.0-5.0 kaBP lake-expanding, with a total lake area of 68000 km2, less than the above mentioned reflected the Indian monsoon rainfall less than that of 40-28 kaBP. The expanded lak

  3. The 8.2 ka event in the northern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetscher, M.; Hoffmann, D. L.; Müller, W.; Spötl, C.

    2012-04-01

    The 8.2 ka event has been identified as a widespread climate excursion affecting most of the Northern Hemisphere. High-resolution records from ice cores and speleothems constrain the chronology of this event to between 8.21±0.02 and 8.08±0.03 ka BP (Vinther et al. 2006, Cheng et al. 2009). A distinctive asymmetrical pattern in d18O is consistent with modelling results suggesting rapid input of freshwater into the northern Atlantic due to catastrophic drainage of ice-marginal lakes (LeGrande et al., 2008). Despite an increasing amount of data, the regional expression of this event is still poorly understood. Here, we present a new speleothem record from Gasselhöhle in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria. The 205 mm-long GAS19 stalagmite was analysed at high resolution for stable isotopes (100 µm) and trace elements (~10-15 µm; continuous LA-ICPMS profiles). Twelve individual MC-ICP-MS U/Th ages underline an annual growth rate of ca. 60 µm during the Early Holocene. The d18O averages -8.9‰, only slightly more depleted than modern carbonate precipitates from the same cave chamber. The 8.2 ka event is marked in GAS19 by a ca. 1‰ excursion with a minimum value of -9.9‰. Largely invariant trace element concentrations (e.g. Mg, U, Sr, Ba) indicate essentially no changes in the local hydrological regime and therefore support the hypothesis of a temperature-dominated signal. The proximity to the lacustrine isotope record from Mondsee (eg. Lauterbach et al. 2011) opens new perspectives for the interpretation of the oxygen isotope signal using two archives at different elevations. Moreover, several coeval speleothem records are available across the Eastern Alps fostering a spatial comparison of the proxy signals associated with this event. Cheng, H. et al. (2009), Geology, 37, 1007-1010 Lauterbach, S. et al. (2011), JQS, 26, 253-267 LeGrande, A.N., Schmidt, G.A. (2008), Paleoceanography, 23, doi: 10.1029/2008PA001610 Vinther, B. et al. (2006), JGR, 111, D13103

  4. Controlling robot arm with the mind

    National Science Foundation

    2017-05-31

    Full Text Available Research test subjects at the University of Minnesota who were fitted with a specialized noninvasive brain cap were able to move a robotic arm just by imagining moving their own arms.

  5. Multiple Identifications in Multi-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Viswanathan, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of identifying the top $m$ arms in a multi-armed bandit game. Our proposed solution relies on a new algorithm based on successive rejects of the seemingly bad arms, and successive accepts of the good ones. This algorithmic contribution allows to tackle other multiple identifications settings that were previously out of reach. In particular we show that this idea of successive accepts and rejects applies to the multi-bandit best arm identification problem.

  6. Lighting measurement station: measurements of natural lighting for characterization of sky and zenith illuminance; Estacao de medicao de iluminacao: medicao de niveis de iluminacao natural para caracterizacao de iluminancias de ceu e luminancia de zenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Roberta Vieira Goncalves de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Arquitetura. Dept. de Tecnologia da Arquitetura e do Urbanismo]. E-mail: roberta@arq.ufmg.br; Pereira, Fernando Oscar Ruttkay [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Arquitetura. Lab. de Conforto Ambiental]. E-mail: feco@arq.ufsc.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the assembly of a standard station for measuring the day lighting for evaluation of the natural light availability. The mounting and data obtention form will also be described from a standard IDMP day lighting station for measuring the data from measuring zenith, horizontal, and vertical illuminance of the sky and vertical irradiance for the cardinal points.

  7. The Terrestrial NPP Simulation in China since 6ka BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Yong; DONG Wenjie; JI Jinjun; DAN Li

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of the long-term global carbon cycle required estimate of the changes in terrestrial carbon storage after the last glacial period. The results of simulation at mid-Holocene (MH) from PMIP (Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project) and the modern data from CRU (Climate Research Unit,East Anglia University, UK) allow us to use the Atmosphere-Vegetation Interaction Model (AVIM) to simulate the Chinese terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) at 6ka BP and present time. The change of NPP and total NPP in China from now to mid-Holocene are about 54 g m-2yr-1 and 0.63 Pg yr-1,respectively, mainly due to the build-up of temperate forest and tropical rainforest. Chinese terrestrial NPP variation from MH to now is closely related to the variation in intensity of Asian monsoon, which controlled the climate-vegetation pattern change.

  8. Patterns of millennial variability over the last 500 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siddall

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Millennial variability is a robust feature of many paleoclimate records, at least throughout the last several glacial cycles. Here we use the signal from an Antarctic climate event to probe the EPICA Dome C temperature proxy reconstruction through the last 500 ka for similar millennial-scale events. We find that clusters of millennial events occurred in a regular fashion over half of the time during this with a mean recurrence interval of 21 kyr. We find that there is no consistent link between ice-rafted debris deposition and millennial variability. Instead we speculate that changes in the zonality of atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic form a viable alternative to freshwater release from icebergs as a trigger for millennial variability. We suggest that millennial changes in the zonality of atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic are linked to precession and that this relationship is modified by the presence of the large, Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during glacial periods.

  9. The segetal flora of the Kałuszyn Upland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Skrzyczyńska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper a state of preservation and the characteristics of flora of the cultivated fields of the Kaluszyńska Upland is given. The flora of agrocenosis of the Kałuszyńska Upland is rich. The presence of 278 vascular plant species was noted in the study area. It is mainly the diversity of habitats and human activity that affected its species abundance. More than a half of a number of taxa (166 species - 59,6% belong to the group of rare, 40 of them are endangered extinction. Among the most threatened species there are 14 taxa e.g.: Fumaria schleicheri, Euphorbia exigua, Illecebrum verticillatum, Asperugo procumbens, Polycnemum arvense, Radiola linoides, Camelina sativa.

  10. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within......-social bonding. The paper ends by discussing the gender integration strategy of the Swedish Armed Forces....

  11. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  12. Calculated pKa Variations Expose Dynamic Allosteric Communication Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Eric J M; Heyes, Logan C; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Parker, Emily J

    2016-02-17

    Allosteric regulation of protein function, the process by which binding of an effector molecule provokes a functional response from a distal site, is critical for metabolic pathways. Yet, the way the allosteric signal is communicated remains elusive, especially in dynamic, entropically driven regulation mechanisms for which no major conformational changes are observed. To identify these dynamic allosteric communication networks, we have developed an approach that monitors the pKa variations of ionizable residues over the course of molecular dynamics simulations performed in the presence and absence of an allosteric regulator. As the pKa of ionizable residues depends on their environment, it represents a simple metric to monitor changes in several complex factors induced by binding an allosteric effector. These factors include Coulombic interactions, hydrogen bonding, and solvation, as well as backbone motions and side chain fluctuations. The predictions that can be made with this method concerning the roles of ionizable residues for allosteric communication can then be easily tested experimentally by changing the working pH of the protein or performing single point mutations. To demonstrate the method's validity, we have applied this approach to the subtle dynamic regulation mechanism observed for Neisseria meningitidis 3-deoxy-d-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase, the first enzyme of aromatic biosynthesis. We were able to identify key communication pathways linking the allosteric binding site to the active site of the enzyme and to validate these findings experimentally by reestablishing the catalytic activity of allosterically inhibited enzyme via modulation of the working pH, without compromising the binding affinity of the allosteric regulator.

  13. Law of Armed Conflict Deskbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    or hygienic reasons). c. Honorable burial. Individual burial is strongly preferred; however, there is a military necessity exception which permits...members of military aircraft crews;31 d. Merchant marine and civil aviation crews;32 e. Persons accompanying armed forces (dependents);33 and, f...99 - 108) 10. Hygiene (GC III, art. 29); separate baths, showers and toilets must be provided for female POWs. D. POW Accountability.63 (GC III

  14. Dual arm master controller concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures.

  15. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  16. Replantation (Finger, Hand, or Arm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... per month. The number of inches from the injury to the tip of a finger gives the minimum number of months after which ... Replantation refers to the surgical reattachment of a finger, hand, or arm that has been completely cut from a person’s ... 2017 by American Society for Surgery of the Hand × Search Tips Tip 1: Start with the basics like "carpal ...

  17. Correlation between Ka/Ks and Ks is related to substitution model and evolutionary lineage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Zhang; Vang, Søren;

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, Wyckoff and coworkers described a surprisingly strong correlation between Ka/Ks and Ks in several data sets using the LPB93 algorithm. This finding indicated the possibility of a paradigm shift in the way selection strength can be measured using the Ka/Ks ratio. We carried out a calculat......In 2005, Wyckoff and coworkers described a surprisingly strong correlation between Ka/Ks and Ks in several data sets using the LPB93 algorithm. This finding indicated the possibility of a paradigm shift in the way selection strength can be measured using the Ka/Ks ratio. We carried out...

  18. Evidence and modeling study of droughts in China during 4 - 2 ka BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ShaoWu; HUANG JianBin; WEN XinYu; ZHU JinHong

    2008-01-01

    Four periods with predominated droughts are identified in 4-2 ka BP according to documentary data, namely 3.6-3.5, 3.1-3.0, 2.8-2.7, and 2.45-2.35 ka BP. Palaeo-environmental data indicated that droughts were predominated in 4-2 ka BP in the south of Northeast China, Inner-Mongolia, east of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and South China. Modeling study shows that precession may be responsible for the occurrence of droughts in 4-2 ka BP, integrating the GCM with forcing of insolation.

  19. Proteolytic fragments of laminin promote excitotoxic neurodegeneration by up-regulation of the KA1 subunit of the kainate receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zu-Lin; Yu, Huaxu; Yu, Wei-Ming; Pawlak, Robert; Strickland, Sidney

    2008-12-29

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) protein laminin contributes to excitotoxic cell death in the hippocampus, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. To study this process, we disrupted laminin gamma1 (lamgamma1) expression in the hippocampus. Lamgamma1 knockout (KO) and control mice had similar basal expression of kainate (KA) receptors, but the lamgamma1 KO mice were resistant to KA-induced neuronal death. After KA injection, KA1 subunit levels increased in control mice but were unchanged in lamgamma1 KO mice. KA1 levels in tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-KO mice were also unchanged after KA, indicating that both tPA and laminin were necessary for KA1 up-regulation after KA injection. Infusion of plasmin-digested laminin-1 into the hippocampus of lamgamma1 or tPA KO mice restored KA1 up-regulation and KA-induced neuronal degeneration. Interfering with KA1 function with a specific anti-KA1 antibody protected against KA-induced neuronal death both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate a novel pathway for neurodegeneration involving proteolysis of the ECM and KA1 KA receptor subunit up-regulation.

  20. High precision detector robot arm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  1. High precision detector robot arm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  2. Retrieval of stratospheric and tropospheric BrO profiles and columns using ground-based zenith-sky DOAS observations at Harestua, 60° N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Pyle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A profiling algorithm based on the optimal estimation method is applied to ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible measurements from Harestua, Southern Norway (60° N, 11° E in order to retrieve BrO vertical profiles. The sensitivity of the zenith-sky observations to the tropospheric BrO detection is increased by using for the spectral analysis a fixed reference spectrum corresponding to clear-sky noon summer conditions. The information content and retrieval errors are characterized and it is shown that the retrieved stratospheric profiles and total columns are consistent with correlative balloon and satellite observations, respectively. Tropospheric BrO columns are derived from profiles retrieved at 80° solar zenith angle during sunrise and sunset for the 2000–2006 period. They show a marked seasonality with mean column value ranging from 1.52±0.62×1013 molec/cm² in late winter/early spring to 0.92±0.38×1013 molec/cm² in summer, which corresponds to 1.0±0.4 and 0.6±0.2 pptv, respectively, if we assume that BrO is uniformly mixed in the troposphere. These column values are also consistent with previous estimates made from balloon, satellite, and other ground-based observations. Daytime (10:30 LT tropospheric BrO columns are compared to the p-TOMCAT 3-D tropospheric chemical transport model (CTM for the 2002–2003 period. p-TOMCAT shows a good agreement with the retrieved columns except in late winter/early spring where an underestimation by the model is obtained. This finding could be explained by the non-inclusion of sea-ice bromine sources in the current version of p-TOMCAT. Therefore the model cannot reproduce the possible transport of air-masses with enhanced BrO concentration due to bromine explosion events from the polar region to Harestua. The daytime stratospheric BrO columns are compared to the SLIMCAT stratospheric 3-D-CTM. The model run used in this study, which assumes 21.2 pptv for the Bry loading (15 pptv for long

  3. Increasing Diversity in STEM through Ka Hikina O Ka Lā Summer Bridge Program for Native Hawaiian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, A.; Cie, D. K.; Calder, S.; Naho`olewa, D.; Rai, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Mitigation Initiative and the Kahikina O Ka Lā Program are NSF-funded projects at the University of Hawai`i Maui College. These projects offer instruction and activities intended to increase diversity in STEM careers. Ke Alahaka, the 2014 summer bridge program, was offered to Native Hawaiian high-school students who indicated an interest in STEM areas. Content workshops were offered in Marine Science, Physics, Biotechnology, and Computer Science and Engineering as well as a Hawaiian Studies course designed to provide a cultural context for the STEM instruction. Focus groups and other program assessments indicate that 50% of the students attending the workshops intend to pursue a STEM major during their undergraduate studies.

  4. Dating North European mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.): a nearly continuous record from 53 ka to 11 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkonen, P.; Aaris-Sørensen, K.; Arppe, L.; Clark, P. U.; Daugnora, L.; Lister, A.; Lõugas, L.; Seppä, H. A.; Stuart, A. J.; Wojtal, P.; Zupins, I.

    2010-05-01

    nearly continuously from 53 ka to 11 ka, completely disappearing from the area only during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). From the northern parts of the study area, mammoths disappeared ca. 27 ka ago. In the south they survived until the LGM, and occupied the area again during deglaciation. Mammoths survived in the eastern part of the study area until the end of Younger Dryas. References Weninger, B., Jöris, O., 2008. A 14C age calibration curve for the last 60 ka: the Greenland-Hulu U/Th timescale and its impact on understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition in Western Eurasia. Journal of Human Evolution 55,772-781. Weninger, B., Jöris, O., Danzeglocke, U., 2008. CalPal-2007. Cologne Radiocarbon Calibration & Palaeoclimate Research Package. http://www.calpal.de/ [2008-09-18].

  5. Ka mauli o ka 'oina a he mauli kanaka: an ethnographic study from an Hawaiian sense of place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneha, M F

    2001-09-01

    Ka Mauli O Ka 'Aina A He Mauli Kanaka: The Life of the Land is the Life of the People. A sense of place has been directly linked to spiritual well being for all indigenous peoples. Yet, there is minimal evidence that demonstrates understanding and awareness of indigenous health issues from this perspective. Health, or the lack of it, appears to be related to place or the loss of it. Issues of Hawaiian health are inseparable from issues of land, water, and atmosphere. The purpose of this research study was to explore the experience of a sense of place and its relationship to health as perceived and experienced by Hawaiian participants living in Wai'anae, Hawai'i. Thirteen adult men and women, ranging in age from 36 to 80 years, participated in this ethnographic study. Two interviews conducted with each participant addressed the research question, "What is the experience of the relationship between a sense of place and health for Hawaiians?" Participants were also asked to photograph how they experienced this relationship. The qualitative data analysis computer software, Atlas.ti, was used to assist in data analysis. The findings suggest that the relationship between sense of place and health embodies four categories: (1) relationship to akua (god, spirit), (2) relationship to natural elements, (3) relationship to self and others, and (4) belonging to a particular place. Three major traditional Hawaiian concepts, which defined how the relationship between sense of place and health are experienced, were pono, mana, and kuleana. The relationship between these concepts revealed five cultural themes. Health for Hawaiians: I. is having a spiritual connection to their ancestral place; II. relates to the past, present, and future; III. is experienced with intention and understanding; IV. means an openness to the flow and use of energy; and V. is experienced as a pu'uhonua or safe place. These themes suggest implications for Hawaiian health education, practice, and further

  6. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  7. Arms Race in Maghreb Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EL AMOURI ALLAL

    2016-01-01

    Maghreb countries competitive altitude towards each other’ s has reached a higher level by entering an arms race.Morocco and Al ̄geria have dominated more than 50 percent of the Africa’ s imported weapons,mainly because of inherited cold war mentality of competi ̄tion and hostility. Maghreb countries competition has drugged the re ̄gion into a chaos that threatens regional stability obviously which af ̄fect the domestic political stability,since military spending weakens the financial capacity of states.

  8. Dual arm master controller development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Mission Description and Objectives: NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), a robotic mission to visit a large (greater than approximately 100 meters diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will explore and investigate the boulder and return to Earth with samples. The ARRM is currently planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026.

  10. Data of evolutionary structure change: 2A3KA-2QCTA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chain>A 2QCTA IKGVY-GPKAY ...2A3KA-2QCTA 2A3K 2QCT A A --------NTPREVTLHFLRTAGHPLTRWALQRQPPSPK...dbID> A 2A3KA HYWPT---EEETY ...ure> ---EEEEEure> ATOM 1001 CA ...278 TYR CA 308 2QCT A 2QCT

  11. Absolute calibration of SARAL/AltiKa in Kavaratti during its initial calibration-validation phase

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, K.N.; Shukla, A.K.; Suchandra, A.B.; ArunKumar, S.V.V.; Bonnefond, P.; Testut, L.; Mehra, P.; Laurain, O

    Island is located near a repeating ground track of SARAL/AltiKa and »12 km away from the point of closest measurement of Jason-2, SARAL/AltiKa crossover point. Additionally, the altimeter and radiometer footprints do not experience any land contamination...

  12. Productivity fluctuations in the southeastern Arabian Sea during the last 140 ka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N.; Toshiyuki Masuzawab; Naidu, P.D.; Parthiban, G.; Mineko Yamamoto

    the palaeoproductivity fluctuations over the last 140 ka. High calcium carbonate, biogenic opal, biogenic Ba contents (wt%) and their mass accumulation rates (g/cm u2/ka) suggest higher productivity during major interglacials than in the glacials. Organic carbon content...

  13. Kõik, mis valesti sai minna, see on ka valesti läinud / George Soros

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soros, George, 1930-

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Molodjozh Estonii : Biznes Sreda, Delovõje Vedomosti 6. veebr. lk. 10. Praegune finantskriis, mille käivitas kinnisvaramulli lõhkemine USA-s, tähistab ka dollari kui rahvusvahelisel reservvaluutal baseeruva laenuandmise laienemise ajastu lõppu

  14. Nii Finnairil kui ka SASil väga head majandustulemused / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Lennukompaniide Finnair ja SAS teise kvartali majandustulemused ületasid nii analüütikute kui ka firmajuhtide prognoosid, kasumit on aidanud tõsta piletihinnatõus ja käibe kasv. Diagrammid: Põhjamaistel lennufirmadel teine kvartal sel aastal selgelt esimesest parem. Vt. samas: Ka SAS tõstab piletihindasid; Põhiline ebakindlustegur - kütuse hind

  15. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1T5KA-3CVDC [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bChain> 1T5KA GPMMK-KEQAY ...> - EEEE> ATOM 514 CA GLY A 69 -12.019 37.627 24...DChain> SQLMFSPGESY > EEE> 1T5KA SLTFT---EAGTY >EEEE --- EEE...ture>EEEE EEE> ATOM 2225 CA GLU C 73 6

  16. Ravimiturg peaks ka sel aastal jõudsalt kasvama / Violetta Riidas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riidas, Violetta

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Äripäev 30. apr. lk. 16. Eelmise aasta ravimituru kasv jätkub tõenäoliselt ka sel aastal, kuna negatiivne riigieelarve ravimihüvitisi ei kärbi. Vt. samas: Võrdlus: Ravimituru jaotus haiglaapteekide ning teiste asutuste vahel peamiste ATC rühmade lõikes, 2007

  17. A View from the Cocoon--Space Categorization in the Korean Verb [na-ka-ta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Alan Hyun-Oak

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the Korean verb "na-ka-ta" ("to get out, exit") focuses on why an expression such as "kyengkicang-ey na-ka-ta" ("someone goes out/in to the sports arena") is acceptable only in the context that the person's entering the arena is for the purpose of a contest, while it becomes semantically…

  18. Design and verification of a 24 kA calibration head for a DCCT test facility

    CERN Document Server

    Fernqvist, G; Saab, A

    1999-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is CERN's next particle accelerator project, scheduled for commissioning in 2005. The project requires accurate current measurements above 10 kA. Calibration heads have been developed in collaboration with industry to work up to 24 kA at sub-ppm accuracy. The paper describes the design and verification.

  19. Rain Fade Compensation for Ka-Band Communications Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, W. Carl; Nguyen, Lan; Dissanayake, Asoka; Markey, Brian; Le, Anh

    1997-01-01

    This report provides a review and evaluation of rain fade measurement and compensation techniques for Ka-band satellite systems. This report includes a description of and cost estimates for performing three rain fade measurement and compensation experiments. The first experiment deals with rain fade measurement techniques while the second one covers the rain fade compensation techniques. The third experiment addresses a feedback flow control technique for the ABR service (for ATM-based traffic). The following conclusions were observed in this report; a sufficient system signal margin should be allocated for all carriers in a network, that is a fixed clear-sky margin should be typically in the range of 4-5 dB and should be more like 15 dB in the up link for moderate and heavy rain zones; to obtain a higher system margin it is desirable to combine the uplink power control technique with the technique that implements the source information rate and FEC code rate changes resulting in a 4-5 dB increase in the dynamic part of the system margin. The experiments would assess the feasibility of the fade measurements and compensation techniques, and ABR feedback control technique.

  20. Ka-Band Transponder for Deep-Space Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Matthew S.; Mysoor, Narayan R.; Folkner, William M.; Mendoza, Ricardo; Venkatesan, Jaikrishna

    2008-01-01

    A one-page document describes a Ka-band transponder being developed for use in deep-space radio science. The transponder receives in the Deep Space Network (DSN) uplink frequency band of 34.2 to 34.7 GHz, transmits in the 31.8- to 32.3 GHz DSN downlink band, and performs regenerative ranging on a DSN standard 4-MHz ranging tone subcarrier phase-modulated onto the uplink carrier signal. A primary consideration in this development is reduction in size, relative to other such transponders. The transponder design is all-analog, chosen to minimize not only the size but also the number of parts and the design time and, thus, the cost. The receiver features two stages of frequency down-conversion. The receiver locks onto the uplink carrier signal. The exciter signal for the transmitter is derived from the same source as that used to generate the first-stage local-oscillator signal. The ranging-tone subcarrier is down-converted along with the carrier to the second intermediate frequency, where the 4-MHz tone is demodulated from the composite signal and fed into a ranging-tone-tracking loop, which regenerates the tone. The regenerated tone is linearly phase-modulated onto the downlink carrier.

  1. Paleointensities on 8 ka obsidian from Mayor Island, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The 8 ka BP (6050 BCE pantelleritic obsidian flow on Mayor Island, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, has been investigated using 30 samples from two sites. Due to a very high paramagnetic/ferromagnetic ratio, it was not possible to determine the remanence carriers. This is despite the fact that the samples were studied intensively at low, room, and high temperatures. We infer that a stable remanence within the samples is carried by single- or close to single-domain particles. Experiments to determine the anisotropy of thermoremanence tensor and the dependency on cooling rate were hampered due to alteration resulting from the repeated heating of the samples to temperatures just below the glass transition. Nonetheless, a well-defined mean paleointensity of 57.0 ± 1.0 μT, based on individual high quality paleointensity determinations, was obtained. This field value compares very well to a paleointensity of 58.1 ± 2.9 μT, which Tanaka et al. (2009 obtained for 5500 BCE at a site 100 km distant. Agreement with geomagnetic field models, however, is poor. Thus, gathering more high-quality paleointensity data for the Pacific region and for the southern hemisphere in general to better constrain global field models is very important.

  2. Design of Ka-band antipodal finline mixer and detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Changfei; Xu Jinping; Chen Mo

    2009-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the analysis and design of a finline single-ended mixer and detector. In the circuit, for the purpose of eliminating high-order resonant modes and improving transition loss, metallic via holes are implemented along the mounting edge of the substrate embedded in the split-block of the WG-finline-microstrip transition. Meanwhile, a Ka band slow-wave and bandstop filter, which represents a reactive termination, is designed for the utilization of idle frequencies and operation frequencies energy. Full-wave analysis is carried out to optimize the input matching network of the mixer and the detector circuit using lumped elements to model the nonlinear diode. The exported S-matrix of the optimized circuit is used for conversion loss and voltage sensitivity analysis.The lowest measured conversion loss is 3.52 dB at 32.2 GHz; the conversion loss is flat and less than 5.68 dB in the frequency band of 29-34 GHz. The highest measured zero-bias voltage sensitivity is 1450 mV/mW at 38.6 GHz,and the sensitivity is better than 1000 mV/mW in the frequency band of 38-40 GHz.

  3. Patterns of millennial variability over the last 500 ka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siddall

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Millennial variability is a robust feature of many paleoclimate records, at least throughout the last several glacial cycles. Here we use the mean signal from Antarctic climate events 1 to 4 to probe the EPICA Dome C temperature proxy reconstruction through the last 500 ka for similar millennial-scale events. We find that clusters of millennial events occurred in a regular fashion over half of the time during this with a mean recurrence interval of 21 kyr. We find that there is no consistent link between ice-rafted debris deposition and millennial variability. Instead we speculate that changes in the zonality of atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic form a viable alternative to freshwater release from icebergs as a trigger for millennial variability. We suggest that millennial changes in the zonality of atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic are linked to precession via sea-ice feedbacks and that this relationship is modified by the presence of the large, Northern Hemisphere ice sheets during glacial periods.

  4. Proxy benchmarks for intercomparison of 8.2 ka simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Morrill

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP3 now includes the 8.2 ka event as a test of model sensitivity to North Atlantic freshwater forcing. To provide benchmarks for intercomparison, we compiled and analyzed high-resolution records spanning this event. Two previously-described anomaly patterns that emerge are cooling around the North Atlantic and drier conditions in the Northern Hemisphere tropics. Newer to this compilation are more robustly-defined wetter conditions in the Southern Hemisphere tropics and regionally-limited warming in the Southern Hemisphere. Most anomalies around the globe lasted on the order of 100 to 150 yr. More quantitative reconstructions are now available and indicate cooling of 1.0 to 1.2 °C and a ~20% decrease in precipitation in parts of Europe, as well as spatial gradients in δ18O from the high to low latitudes. Unresolved questions remain about the seasonality of the climate response to freshwater forcing and the extent to which the bipolar seesaw operated in the early Holocene.

  5. Detecting small seamounts in AltiKa repeat cycle data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, K. M.; Smith, W. H. F.

    2016-12-01

    We present a technique of stacking repeat cycles of satellite altimeter sea surface height profiles that lowers the noise and improves the resolution of small seamounts. Our approach differs from other studies because it uses the median (not the mean) of the stacks, which suppresses outliers. Seamounts as small as 720 m tall are easily detected in stacked 40 Hz AltiKa data profiles, and a 500 m tall seamount is perceptible. Noise variance decreases with an increase in the number of cycles stacked, and RMS noise dips below 2 cm when 11 or more cycles are stacked. Coherence analyses between geoid height and bathymetry show that full wavelengths down to about 10 km can be resolved. Comparisons of study areas with and without seamounts find that signal from small seamounts lies in the 10-28 km waveband. A simple Gaussian band-pass filter based on the seamount waveband passes signals that can be used in seamount detection studies. Such studies may find seamounts <2 km tall that are predicted to be abundant on the ocean floor.

  6. Experimental approaches for measuring pKa's in RNA and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaplyal, Pallavi; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2014-01-01

    RNA and DNA carry out diverse functions in biology including catalysis, splicing, gene regulation, and storage of genetic information. Interest has grown in understanding how nucleic acids perform such sophisticated functions given their limited molecular repertoire. RNA can fold into diverse shapes that often perturb pKa values and allow it to ionize appreciably under biological conditions, thereby extending its molecular diversity. The goal of this chapter is to enable experimental measurement of pKa's in RNA and DNA. A number of experimental methods for measuring pKa values in RNA and DNA have been developed over the last 10 years, including RNA cleavage kinetics; UV-, fluorescence-, and NMR-detected pH titrations; and Raman crystallography. We begin with general considerations for choosing a pKa assay and then describe experimental conditions, advantages, and disadvantages for these assays. Potential pitfalls in measuring a pKa are provided including the presence of apparent pKa's due to a kinetic pKa or coupled acid- and alkali-promoted RNA unfolding, as well as degradation of RNA, precipitation of metal hydroxides and poor baselines. Use of multiple data fitting procedures and the study of appropriate mutants are described as ways to avoid some of these pitfalls. Application of these experimental methods to RNA and DNA will increase the number of available nucleic acid pKa values in the literature, which should deepen insight into biology and provide benchmarks for pKa calculations. Future directions for measuring pKa's in nucleic acids are discussed.

  7. Latent herpesvirus infection arms NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas W; Keppel, Catherine R; Schneider, Stephanie E; Reese, Tiffany A; Coder, James; Payton, Jacqueline E; Ley, Timothy J; Virgin, Herbert W; Fehniger, Todd A

    2010-06-03

    Natural killer (NK) cells were identified by their ability to kill target cells without previous sensitization. However, without an antecedent "arming" event, NK cells can recognize, but are not equipped to kill, target cells. How NK cells become armed in vivo in healthy hosts is unclear. Because latent herpesviruses are highly prevalent and alter multiple aspects of host immunity, we hypothesized that latent herpesvirus infection would arm NK cells. Here we show that NK cells from mice latently infected with Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) were armed as evidenced by increased granzyme B protein expression, cytotoxicity, and interferon-gamma production. NK-cell arming occurred rapidly in the latently infected host and did not require acute viral infection. Furthermore, NK cells armed by latent infection protected the host against a lethal lymphoma challenge. Thus, the immune environment created by latent herpesvirus infection provides a mechanism whereby host NK-cell function is enhanced in vivo.

  8. Introduction to Reading and Visualizing ARM Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program standard data format is NetCDF 3 (Network Common Data Form). The object of this tutorial is to provide a basic introduction to NetCDF with an emphasis on aspects of the ARM application of NetCDF. The goal is to provide basic instructions for reading and visualizing ARM NetCDF data with the expectation that these examples can then be applied to more complex applications.

  9. Ka-Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) Enabling High Speed Data Communication for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan F.; Chahat, Nacer; Hodges, Richard; Thomson, Mark W.; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    CubeSats are at a very exciting point as their mission capabilities and launch opportunities are increasing. But as instruments become more advanced and operational distances between CubeSats and earth increase communication data rate becomes a mission-limiting factor. Improving data rate has become critical enough for NASA to sponsor the Cube Quest Centennial Challenge when: one of the key metrics is transmitting as much data as possible from the moon and beyond Currently, many CubeSats communicate on UHF bands and those that have high data rate abilities use S-band or X-band patch antennas. The CubeSat Aneas, which was launched in September 2012, pushed the envelope with a half-meter S-band dish which could achieve 100x the data rate of patch antennas. A half-meter parabolic antenna operating at Ka-band would increase data rates by over 100x that of the AMOS antenM and 10,000 that of X-band patch antennas.

  10. The rise and fall of Lake Bonneville between 45 and 10.5 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, L.V.; Lund, S.P.; Smoot, J.P.; Rhode, D.E.; Spencer, R.J.; Verosub, K.L.; Louderback, L.A.; Johnson, C.A.; Rye, R.O.; Negrini, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    A sediment core taken from the western edge of the Bonneville Basin has provided high-resolution proxy records of relative lake-size change for the period 45.1-10.5 calendar ka (hereafter ka). Age control was provided by a paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV)-based age model for Blue Lake core BL04-4. Continuous records of ??18O and total inorganic carbon (TIC) generally match an earlier lake-level envelope based on outcrops and geomorphic features, but with differences in the timing of some hydrologic events/states. The Stansbury Oscillation was found to consist of two oscillations centered on 25 and 24 ka. Lake Bonneville appears to have reached its geomorphic highstand and began spilling at 18.5 ka. The fall from the highstand to the Provo level occurred at 17.0 ka and the lake intermittently overflowed at the Provo level until 15.2 ka, at which time the lake fell again, bottoming out at ~14.7 ka. The lake also fell briefly below the Provo level at ~15.9 ka. Carbonate and ??18O data indicate that between 14.7 and 13.1 ka the lake slowly rose to the Gilbert shoreline and remained at about that elevation until 11.6 ka, when it fell again. Chemical and sedimentological data indicate that a marsh formed in the Blue Lake area at 10.5 ka.Relatively dry periods in the BL04-4 records are associated with Heinrich events H1-H4, suggesting that either the warming that closely followed a Heinrich event increased the evaporation rate in the Bonneville Basin and (or) that the core of the polar jet stream (PJS) shifted north of the Bonneville Basin in response to massive losses of ice from the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) during the Heinrich event. The second Stansbury Oscillation occurred during Heinrich event H2, and the Gilbert wet event occurred during the Younger Dryas cold interval. Several relatively wet events in BL04-4 occur during Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) warm events.The growth of the Bear River glacier between 32 and 17 ka paralleled changes in the values of proxy

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research (ARM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With heavily instrumented field sites around the globe, the ARM Climate Research Facility provides the world's most comprehensive outdoor laboratory and data archive...

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research (ARM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With heavily instrumented field sites around the globe, the ARM Climate Research Facility provides the world's most comprehensive outdoor laboratory and data archive...

  13. Cyclone Xaver seen by SARAL/AltiKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharroo, Remko; Fenoglio, Luciana; Annunziato, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    During the first week of December 2013, Cyclone Xaver pounded the coasts and the North Sea. On 6 December, all along the Wadden Sea, the barrier islands along the north of the Netherlands and the northwest of Germany experienced record storm surges. We show a comparison of the storm surge measured by the radar altimeter AltiKa on-board the SARAL satellite and various types of in-situ data and models. Two tide gauges along the German North Sea coast, one in the southern harbour of the island of Helgoland and one on an offshore lighthouse Alte Weser, confirmed that the storm drove sea level to about three meters above the normal tide level. Loading effects during the storm are also detected by the GPS measurements at several tide gauge stations. The altimeter in the mean time shows that the storm surge was noticeable as far as 400 km from the coast. The altimeter measured wind speeds of 20 m/s nearly monotonically throughout the North Sea. An offshore anemometer near the island of Borkum corroborated this value. A buoy near the FINO1 offshore platform measured wave heights of 8 m, matching quite well the measurements from the altimeter, ranging from 6 m near the German coast to 12 m further out into the North Sea. Furthermore we compare the altimeter-derived and in-situ sea level, wave height and wind speed products with outputs from the Operation Circulation and Forecast model of the Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH) and with a global storm surge forecast and inundation model of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. The Operational circulation model of BSH (BSHcmod) and its component, the surge model (BSHsmod), perform daily predictions for the next 72 hours based on the meteorological model of the Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD). The JRC Storm Surge Calculation System is a new development that has been established at the JRC in the framework of the Global Disasters Alerts and Coordination System (GDACS). The system uses

  14. "Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the ARM 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. J. Michalsky, G. P. Anderson, J. Barnard, J. Delamere, C. Gueymard, S. Kato, P. Kiedron, A. McComiskey, and P. Ricchiazzi

    2006-04-01

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sponsored a large intensive observation period (IOP) to study aerosol during the month of May 2003 around the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility (CRF) in north central Oklahoma. Redundant measurements of aerosol optical properties were made using different techniques at the surface as well as in vertical profile with sensors aboard two aircraft. One of the principal motivations for this experiment was to resolve the disagreement between models and measurements of diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance at the surface, especially for modest aerosol loading. This paper focuses on using the redundant aerosol and radiation measurements during this IOP to compare direct beam and diffuse horizontal broadband shortwave irradiance measurements and models at the surface for a wide range of aerosol cases that occurred during 30 clear-sky periods on 13 days of May 2003. Models and measurements are compared over a large range of solar-zenith angles. Six different models are used to assess the relative agreement among them and the measurements. Better agreement than previously achieved appears to be the result of better specification of input parameters and better measurements of irradiances than in prior studies. Biases between modeled and measured direct irradiances are less than 1%, and biases between modeled and measured diffuse irradiances are less than 2%.

  15. Resilient FTS3 service at GridKa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, T.; Bubeliene, J.; Hoeft, B.; Obholz, L.; Petzold, A.; Wisniewski, K.

    2015-12-01

    The FTS (File Transfer Service) service provides a transfer job scheduler to distribute and replicate vast amounts of data over the heterogeneous WLCG infrastructures. Compared to the channel model of the previous versions, the most recent version of FTS simplifies and improves the flexibility of the service while reducing the load to the service components. The improvements allow to handle a higher number of transfers with a single FTS3 setup. Covering now continent-wide transfers compared to the previous version, whose installations handled only transfers within specific clouds, a resilient system becomes even more necessary with the increased number of depending users. Having set up a FTS3 services at the German T1 site GridKa at KIT in Karlsruhe, we present our experiences on the preparations for a high-availability FTS3 service. Trying to avoid single points of failure, we rely on a database cluster as fault tolerant data back-end and the FTS3 service deployed on an own cluster setup to provide a resilient infrastructure for the users. With the database cluster providing a basic resilience for the data back-end, we ensure on the FTS3 service level a consistent and reliable database access through a proxy solution. On each FTS3 node a HAproxy instance is monitoring the integrity of each database node and distributes database queries over the whole cluster for load balancing during normal operations; in case of a broken database node, the proxy excludes it transparently to the local FTS3 service. The FTS3 service itself consists of a main and a backup instance, which takes over the identity of the main instance, i.e., IP, in case of an error using a CTDB (Cluster Trivial Database) infrastructure offering clients a consistent service.

  16. Arms Control and Strategic Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Yumin

    2014-01-01

    This essay intends to offer a comment on concepts, trends and attitudes concerning arms control and strategic stability with reference to the current international security situation. It also offers observations from two different perspectives about strategic stability: one proceeds from the concept of universal security and aims to prevent conflicts and instability from disrupting regional and international security environment on which nation states depend so much for their peaceful development; the other starts from maintaining the global leadership by a super power and aiming to contain any challenge that sways or is likely to sway its dominating status. If China and the United States commit themselves to the undertaking of a new type of major powers relationship that stresses win-win cooperation, they will be able to contribute greatly to a stable international security architecture that is good for world peaceful development.

  17. ICRESH-ARMS 2015 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Verma, Ajit; Varde, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Containing selected papers from the ICRESH-ARMS 2015 conference in Lulea, Sweden, collected by editors with years of experiences in Reliability and maintenance modeling, risk assessment, and asset management, this work maximizes reader insights into the current trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and Risk Management. Featuring a comprehensive analysis of the significance of the role of RAMS and Risk Management in the decision making process during the various phases of design, operation, maintenance, asset management and productivity in Industrial domains, these proceedings discuss key issues and challenges in the operation, maintenance and risk management of complex engineering systems and will serve as a valuable resource for those in the field.

  18. The intrinsic line width of the Fe Ka line of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiren

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescent lines are unique features of the reflection spectrum of the cold torus when irradiated by the central AGN. Their intrinsic line widths can be used to probe the line-emitting region. The line widths of the Fe \\Ka line measured from the first order Chandra High Energy Grating (HEG) spectra are $3-5$ times larger than those measured with the Si \\Ka line for Circinus, Mrk 3, and NGC 1068. Because the observed Si \\Ka and Fe \\Ka lines are not necessarily coming from the same physical region, it is uncertain whether the line widths of the Fe \\Ka line are over-estimated or not. We measured the intrinsic line widths of the Fe \\Ka line of several nearby bright AGN using the second and third order Chandra HEG spectra, whose spectral resolutions are better than the first order data. We found the measured widths are all smaller than those from the first order data. The results clearly show that the widths of the Fe \\Ka line measured from the first order HEG data are over-estimated. It indicates that the ...

  19. The Potential for a Ka-band (32 GHz) Worldwide VLBI Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Bach, U.; Colomer, F.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.; Gulyaev, S.; Horiuchi, S.; Ichikawa, R.; Kraus, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, J. A.; Lovell, J.; Majid, W.; Natusch, T.; Neidhardt, A.; Phillips, C.; Porcas, R.; Romero-Wolf, A.; Saldana, L.; Schreiber, U.; Sotuela, I.; Takeuchi, H.; Trinh, J.; Tzioumis, A.; deVincente, P.

    2012-01-01

    Ka-band (32 GHz, 9mm) Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI) networking has now begun and has tremendous potential for expansion over the next few years. Ka-band VLBI astrometry from NASA's Deep Space Network has already developed a catalog of 470 observable sources with highly accurate positions. Now, several antennas worldwide are planning or are considering adding Ka-band VLBI capability. Thus, there is now an opportunity to create a worldwide Ka-band network with potential for high resolution imaging and astrometry. With baselines approaching a Giga-lambda, a Ka-band network would be able to probe source structure at the nano-radian (200 as) level ( 100X better than Hubble) and thus gain insight into the astrophysics of the most compact regions of emission in active galactic nuclei. We discuss the advantages of Ka-band, show the known sources and candidates, simulate projected baseline (uv) coverage, and discuss potential radio frequency feeds. The combination of these elements demonstrates the feasibility of a worldwide Ka network within the next few years!

  20. Studying NASA's Transition to Ka-Band Communications for Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David; Reinhart, Richard; Mortensen, Dale; Welch, Bryan; Downey, Joseph; Evans, Mike

    2014-01-01

    As the S-band spectrum becomes crowded, future space missions will need to consider moving command and telemetry services to Ka-band. NASAs Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed provides a software-defined radio (SDR) platform that is capable of supporting investigation of this service transition. The testbed contains two S-band SDRs and one Ka-band SDR. Over the past year, SCaN Testbed has demonstrated Ka-band communications capabilities with NASAs Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) using both open- and closed-loop antenna tracking profiles. A number of technical areas need to be addressed for successful transition to Ka-band. The smaller antenna beamwidth at Ka-band increases the criticality of antenna pointing, necessitating closed loop tracking algorithms and new techniques for received power estimation. Additionally, the antenna pointing routines require enhanced knowledge of spacecraft position and attitude for initial acquisition, versus an S-band antenna. Ka-band provides a number of technical advantages for bulk data transfer. Unlike at S-band, a larger bandwidth may be available for space missions, allowing increased data rates. The potential for high rate data transfer can also be extended for direct-to-ground links through use of variable or adaptive coding and modulation. Specific examples of Ka-band research from SCaN Testbeds first year of operation will be cited, such as communications link performance with TDRSS, and the effects of truss flexure on antenna pointing.

  1. The Potential for a Ka-band (32 GHz) Worldwide VLBI Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C. S.; Bach, U.; Colomer, F.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J.; Gulyaev, S.; Horiuchi, S.; Ichikawa, R.; Kraus, A.; Kronschnabl, G.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Ka-band (32 GHz, 9mm) Very Long Baseline Interferometric (VLBI) networking has now begun and has tremendous potential for expansion over the next few years. Ka-band VLBI astrometry from NASA's Deep Space Network has already developed a catalog of 470 observable sources with highly accurate positions. Now, several antennas worldwide are planning or are considering adding Ka-band VLBI capability. Thus, there is now an opportunity to create a worldwide Ka-band network with potential for high resolution imaging and astrometry. With baselines approaching a Giga-lambda, a Ka-band network would be able to probe source structure at the nano-radian (200 as) level ( 100X better than Hubble) and thus gain insight into the astrophysics of the most compact regions of emission in active galactic nuclei. We discuss the advantages of Ka-band, show the known sources and candidates, simulate projected baseline (uv) coverage, and discuss potential radio frequency feeds. The combination of these elements demonstrates the feasibility of a worldwide Ka network within the next few years!

  2. Tephrochronology of a 70 ka-long marine record in the Marsili Basin (southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrino, S.; Insinga, D. D.; Pelosi, N.; Kissel, C.; Laj, C.; Capotondi, L.; Sprovieri, M.

    2016-11-01

    A sequence of tephra layers is studied in a 13.9 m-long deep-sea core (MD01-2474G) from the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The chronology of the succession is provided by a high-resolution age-depth model based on isotope stratigraphy and AMS radiocarbon dating, which place the succession of events in a time interval spanning the last 70 ka. Based on a precise chronological framework and proximal-distal correlations, the Y-1, Y-6 and Y-7 main marker tephras were identified. Compositional data on fresh micro-pumice or glass shards of selected tephras were correlated with the coeval volcanic activity of Aeolian Arc (Vulcano and Salina), Mt. Etna, Phlegrean Fields Pantelleria and Ischia. The tephra sequence contains a number of deposits documenting recurrent activity on Vulcano Island at ca. 6.9 ka BP (MD3), ca. 16.7 ka BP (MD11), ca. 23.2 ka BP (MD14), ca. 29.6 ka BP (MD15), ca. 36.9 ka BP (MD22) and ca. 42.5 ka BP (MD27). The results presented in this study improve the southern Tyrrhenian Sea tephrostratigraphic framework and provide new insights into chemistry and dispersal area of Aeolian Arc pyroclastic deposits in this sector of the Central Mediterranean.

  3. Cortical spiking network interfaced with virtual musculoskeletal arm and robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eDura-Bernal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm.This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuro-prosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility

  4. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  5. A new global zenith tropospheric delay model GZTD%一种新的全球对流层天顶延迟模型GZTD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚宜斌; 何畅勇; 张豹; 许超钤

    2013-01-01

    Troposphere delay is one of the main error sources in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS).Its obvious randomness is mainly attributed to meteorological parameters (total pressure,temperature and water vapor pressure,etc.).In this paper,the temporal and spatial variations of global Zenith Troposphere Delay (ZTD) is analyzed using the time series of global 4D-grid ZTD from 2002 to 2009,provided by Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS)Atmosphere.According to the analysis,a new global ZTD correction model without requiring meteorological parameters,called GZTD,is developed based on spherical harmonics.Experimental results show that the precision of inner coincidence of GZTD model (bias:0.2 cm,RMS:3.7 cm) considering the longitudinal and latitudinal variations of ZTD performs better than other latitude-only models,such as UNB3m (bias:3.4 cm,RMS:6.0 cm),UNB4 (bias:4.7 cm,RMS:7.4 cm),UNB3 (bias:4.0 cm,RMS:7.0 cm) and EGNOS (bias:4.5 cm,RMS:6.9 cm).Compared to ZTD time series from 385 global International GNSS Service (IGS) sites,GZTD model (bias:-0.02 cm,RMS:4.24 cm) is still clearly superior to other similar models.The GZTD model owns such advantages as well-performance,simplicity in computation and less parameters-requirement.%对流层延迟是GNSS导航定位主要误差源之一,主要受气象参数(如总气压、温度和水汽压等)的影响,具有变化随机性强的特点.本文利用GGOS Atmosphere提供的2002 2009年全球天顶对流层延迟格网时间序列研究了全球对流层天顶延迟的时空变化特征.并以此为基础对全球天顶对流层延迟(Zenith Troposphere Delay,ZTD)进行建模,提出了一种基于球谐函数的全球非气象参数对流层天顶延迟改正模型——GZTD模型.实验对比结果表明考虑ZTD经纬向变化的GZTD模型内符合精度全球统计结果(bias:0.2 cm,RMS:3.7 cm)优于只考虑ZTD纬向变化的UNB3m(bias:3.4 cm,RMS:6.0 cm)、UNB4 (bias:4.7 cm,RMS:7.4 cm)、UNB3 (bias:4.0 cm,RMS:7

  6. Historical review of bryological research in Fruška Gora Mt. (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Miloš M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruška Gora is a mountain located in the southern part of Pannonian plane and it is poorly bryologicaly investigated as well as most parts of Serbia. First data on bryophytes, for this region, were published in 1949 by Teodor Soška in his paper Pregled mahovina i lišajeva u okolini Beograda (Review of mosses and lichens in the vicinity of Belgrade. Soška listed 34 species of mosses and 8 liverworts species for this region. Later, in 1955, Zlatko Pavletić in his capital work Prodromus flore briofita Jugoslavije (Prodromus of Yugoslavian bryophyte flora, stated 26 moss species and 3 liverwort species, without indicating specific localities, but all of them were Soška’s original results. In 1966, the second botanist with original findings of bryophytes on Fruška Gora was Popović, who recorded 2 liverwort and 19 moss species, for this mountain, also without specific localities. By far, the most comprehensive data were given by Cvetić and Sabovljević in 2004. Their study A contribution to the bryophyte flora of Fruška Gora (Vojvodina, Serbia counted total number of 118 mosses and 14 liverworts, on 16 localities within National park Fruška Gora. The latest study on bryophytes of Fruška Gora was in 2013, and it is the first and so far, the last study of bryophyte assemblages on grasslands. Authors of this paper recorded 18 species of mosses from 29 releveé. Complete bryophyte flora of Fruška Gora is still unknown. Considering the fact that this is the region with high biodiversity, dense hydrological network and a rather complex geology, Fruška Gora certainly deserves further bryological researches.

  7. Retrieval of nitrogen dioxide stratospheric profiles from ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible observations: validation of the technique through correlative comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hendrick

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrieval algorithm based on the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM has been developed in order to provide vertical distributions of NO2 in the stratosphere from ground-based (GB zenith-sky UV-visible observations. It has been applied to observational data sets from the NDSC (Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change stations of Harestua (60° N, 10° E and Andøya (69° N, 16° E in Norway. The information content and retrieval errors have been analyzed following a formalism used for characterizing ozone profiles retrieved from solar infrared absorption spectra. In order to validate the technique, the retrieved NO2 vertical profiles and columns have been compared to correlative balloon and satellite observations. Such extensive validation of the profile and column retrievals was not reported in previously published work on the profiling from GB UV-visible measurements. A good agreement - generally better than 25% - has been found with the SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales and DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy balloons. A similar agreement has been reached with correlative satellite data from the HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III instruments above 25km of altitude. Below 25km, a systematic underestimation - by up to 40% in some cases - of both HALOE and POAM III profiles by our GB profile retrievals has been observed, pointing out more likely a limitation of both satellite instruments at these altitudes. We have concluded that our study strengthens our confidence in the reliability of the retrieval of vertical distribution information from GB UV-visible observations and offers new perspectives in the use of GB UV-visible network data for validation purposes.

  8. Phenomena induced by powerful HF pumping towards magnetic zenith with a frequency near the F-region critical frequency and the third electron gyro harmonic frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-instrument observational data from an experiment on 13 October 2006 at the EISCAT/HEATING facility at Tromsø, Norway are analysed. The experiment was carried out in the evening hours when the electron density in the F-region dropped, and the HF pump frequency fH was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer. The distinctive feature of this experiment is that the pump frequency was just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency, while both the HF pump beam and UHF radar beam were directed towards the magnetic zenith (MZ. The HF pump-induced phenomena were diagnosed with several instruments: the bi-static HF radio scatter on the London-Tromsø-St. Petersburg path, the CUTLASS radar in Hankasalmi (Finland, the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT UHF radar at Tromsø and the Tromsø ionosonde (dynasonde. The results show thermal electron excitation of the HF-induced striations seen simultaneously from HF bi-static scatter and CUTLASS radar observations, accompanied by increases of electron temperature when the heater frequency was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer by up to 0.4 MHz. An increase of the electron density up to 25% accompanied by strong HF-induced electron heating was observed, only when the heater frequency was near the critical frequency and just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency. It is concluded that the combined effect of upper hybrid resonance and gyro resonance at the same altitude gives rise to strong electron heating, the excitation of striations, HF ray trapping and extension of HF waves to altitudes where they can excite Langmuir turbulence and fluxes of electrons accelerated to energies that produce ionization.

  9. Assessment of the near real-time GNSS zenith total delay estimated from different solutions using different orbit and clock products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, T.; Lidberg, M.; Johansson, J. M.; Ridal, M.; Jivall, L.; Kempe, C.

    2016-12-01

    Due to the fact that there is a big lack of humidity observations in the meteorological observing system, usage of ground-based GNSS data to provide the near real-time (NRT) zenith total delay (ZTD) is important for operational meteorology. The accuracy of the NRT GNSS ZTD is highly dependent on the quality of the real-time satellite orbits and clock products used for the data processing. Therefore, the effect of real-time satellite orbits and clock errors on the NRT GNSS ZTD estimates is necessary to investigate. Since March, 2016, Lantmäteriet (Swedish Mapping, Cadastre and Land Registration Authority) became one of the analysis centres contributing NRT GNSS ZTDs to the E-GVAP program. Currently we are processing the GNSS data obtained from around 680 stations in Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Norway. The NRT GNSS ZTDs are estimated using two different solutions: network and precise point positioning (PPP). The network solution is running by Bernese (V5.2) using the CODE ultra-rapid orbits product. The PPP solutions are running by the GIPSY-OASIS (V6.2) using two different satellite orbits and clock products. One is using the IGS provided real-time products. The other is using the JPL ultra-rapid products which however has a longer latency (over one hour). The NTR ZTDs from all three solutions will be assessed with respect to the ones estimated using the IGS final satellite orbits and clock product in terms of accuracy and precision.

  10. Monitoring stratospheric chlorine activation from time series of OClO DSCDs above Kiruna using ground-based zenith sky DOAS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Myojeong; Enell, Carl-Fredrik; Pukite, Janis; Platt, Ulrich; Raffalski, Uwe; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    After to the Montreal protocol and amendments, the production of CFCs was strongly reduced. Since then scientists have steadily made efforts to monitor the amount of chlorine compounds which are responsible for the destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. Although very recent research of stratospheric ozone indicates an ozone recovery, ozone depletion is still observed in the polar spring and is expected to last for about another 70 years according to the WMO. Therefore, continuous observation and analysis of the stratospheric ozone as well as other stratospheric trace gases are highly demanded. Several previous studies have investigated OClO which is an indicator for stratospheric chlorine activation using satellite, ground-based, and balloon remote sensing measurements. In this work, we investigate long-term time series of OClO DSCDs (Differential Slant Column densities) above Kiruna, Sweden (67.84°N, 20.41°E) which is located inside the Arctic Circle by using the ground-based zenith sky DOAS measurements. Since our measurements are performed at the fixed site, for the interpretation also the relative position of the polar vortex has to be considered. Our long-term data obtained during about 15 years allows us to classify the dependence of the OClO amount on the various meteorological conditions. Our data show a large variability with high OClO SCDs in cold, and low OClO SCDs in warm winters. Our measurements also allow to investigate the effect of the chlorine activation and its duration on the strength of the ozone destruction.

  11. Retrieval of nitrogen dioxide stratospheric profiles from ground-based zenith-sky UV-visible observations: validation of the technique through correlative comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hendrick

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A retrieval algorithm based on the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM has been developed in order to provide vertical distributions of NO2 in the stratosphere from ground-based (GB zenith-sky UV-visible observations. It has been applied to observational data sets from the NDSC (Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change stations of Harestua (60° N, 10° E and Andøya (69.3° N, 16.1° E in Norway. The information content and retrieval errors have been analyzed following a formalism used for characterizing ozone profiles retrieved from solar infrared absorption spectra. In order to validate the technique, the retrieved NO2 vertical profiles and columns have been compared to correlative balloon and satellite observations. Such extensive validation of the profile and column retrievals was not reported in previously published work on the profiling from GB UV-visible measurements. A good agreement – generally better than 25% – has been found with the SAOZ (Système d'Analyse par Observations Zénithales and DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy balloon data. A similar agreement has been reached with correlative satellite data from HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III instruments above 25 km of altitude. Below 25 km, a systematic overestimation of our retrieved profiles – by up to 50% in some cases – has been observed by both HALOE and POAM III, pointing out the limitation of the satellite solar occultation technique at these altitudes. We have concluded that our study strengthens our confidence in the reliability of the retrieval of vertical distribution information from GB UV-visible observations and offers new perspectives in the use of GB UV-visible network data for validation purposes.

  12. Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO. From AMIE Field Observations to Global-Cloud Permitting Models final report Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Min [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2016-01-08

    Methods of convective/stratiform precipitation classification and surface rain rate estimation based on the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program cloud radar measurements were developed and evaluated. Simultaneous and collocated observations of the Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR), two scanning precipitation radars (NCAR S-PolKa and Texas A&M University SMART-R), and surface precipitation during the DYNAMO/AMIE field campaign were used. The motivation of this study is to apply the unique long-term ARM cloud radar observations without accompanying precipitation radars to the study of cloud lifecycle and precipitation features under different weather and climate regimes.

  13. A Novel Ku-Band/Ka-Band and Ka-Band/E-Band Multimode Waveguide Couplers for Power Measurement of Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Harmonic Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, Edwin G.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and test results for a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler (MDC). The coupler, fabricated from two dissimilar frequency band waveguides, is capable of isolating power at the second harmonic frequency from the fundamental power at the output port of a traveling-wave tube (TWT) amplifier. Test results from proof-of-concept demonstrations are presented for a Ku-band/Ka-band MDC and a Ka-band/E-band MDC. In addition to power measurements at harmonic frequencies, a potential application of the MDC is in the design of a satellite borne beacon source for atmospheric propagation studies at millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies (Ka-band and E-band).

  14. Ka-mixing in the unimolecular dissociation of NO 2 studied by classical dynamics calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenshchikov, S. Yu; Flöthmann, H.; Schinke, R.; Bezel, I.; Wittig, C.; Kato, S.

    1998-03-01

    Coriolis and centrifugal vibration-rotation coupling in the unimolecular dissociation of ground electronic state NO 2 has been examined by using classical trajectories. The time evolution of the projection Ka of the rotational angular momentum N in a body-fixed frame is analyzed. The main result is a relation between the decomposition lifetime and the degree of Ka-mixing. For example, less than 30% of the available Ka space becomes populated for an average lifetime of 5 ps. This is consistent with the conclusions, based on time-resolved experiments, that rotation-vibration transfer is slower than reaction except just above the threshold.

  15. Pra Na Wa Ka: The Development of Training Course for Continuing Buddhism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phra M.P. Romphothanthong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Buddhism is a religion that requires meditation, practice, intellectual precepts of the threefold-training such as morality, concentration and wisdom. The purpose of practicing Buddhism is the goal of deliverance through attaining knowledge and wisdom. The Pra Na Wa Ka are newly ordained monks and needed to study both of the scriptures and the practice for appreciating understanding in morality, concentration and wisdom. A training model and guidelines are needed to improve the quality and efficiency of Pra Na Wa Ka because currently most of the monks who are the teachers lacked knowledge and are not ready to act as the Pra Na Wa Ka teacher, because lack of the teaching media, lack of the proper knowledge of the teacher vocational, the lesson plan arrangement, the psychology of teaching, lack of technique variety of teaching methods. Most of the temple had no education administration of the Pra Na Wa Ka who ordained in short-term, within 3 days 7 days 15 days or to one month, lack of the short period course to study about Buddhism, the Pra Na Wa Ka cannot accurately recite the Pali words, the Pra Na Wa Ka who were ordained were not motivated and faithful in learning and low morality. Approach: This research intended to study the history of the education administration of the Pra Na Wa Ka (Newly ordained monk and to study about the problems and need of the Pra Na Wa Ka in knowledge about Buddhism and to develop the curriculum and the training package of the Pra Na Wa Ka in Buddhism. Results: The Pra Na Wa Ka traing course is a curriculum to study Buddhism through 3 training courses; (1 Basic Course: 3 days for initiation 7 days, (2 Intermediate course 7 days for initiation 15 days and (3 Long period course 15 days for initiation more than 30 days. The training courses were accompanied by a training kit to understand the main precepts of morality, concentration and wisdom. The curriculum was successful in providing Pra Na Wa Ka

  16. A Ka-band (32 GHz) beacon link experiment (KABLE) with Mars Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, A. L.; Hansen, D. M.; Mileant, A.; Hartop, R. W.

    1987-02-01

    A proposal for a Ka-Band (32 GHz) Link Experiment (KABLE) with the Mars Observer mission was submitted to NASA. The experiment will rely on the fourth harmonic of the spacecraft X-band transmitter to generate a 33.6 GHz signal. The experiment will rely also on the Deep Space Network (DSN) receiving station equipped to simultaneously receive X- and Ka-band signals. The experiment will accurately measure the spacecraft-to-Earth telecommunication link performance at Ka-band and X-band (8.4 GHz).

  17. Effect of methylation on the side-chain pKa value of arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evich, Marina; Stroeva, Ekaterina; Zheng, Yujun George; Germann, Markus W

    2016-02-01

    Arginine methylation is important in biological systems. Recent studies link the deregulation of protein arginine methyltransferases with certain cancers. To assess the impact of methylation on interaction with other biomolecules, the pKa values of methylated arginine variants were determined using NMR data. The pKa values of monomethylated, symmetrically dimethylated, and asymmetrically dimethylated arginine are similar to the unmodified arginine (14.2 ± 0.4). Although the pKa value has not been significantly affected by methylation, consequences of methylation include changes in charge distribution and steric effects, suggesting alternative mechanisms for recognition. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  18. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  19. Why we cannot grow a human arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, John L

    2013-11-01

    There are several significant issues that prevent us from growing a human arm now, or within the next 10-20 years. From a tissue engineering perspective, while we can grow many of the components necessary for construction of a human arm, we can only grow them in relatively small volumes, and when scaled up to large volumes we lack the ability to develop adequate blood/nerve supply. From a genetic engineering perspective, we will probably never be able to turn on the specific genes necessary to "grow an arm" unless it is attached to a fetus and this presents enormous ethical issues related to farming of human organs and structures. Perhaps the most daunting problem facing the transplantation of a tissue engineered or transplanted arm is that of re-innervation of the structure. Since the sensory and motor nerve cells of the arm are located outside of the structure, re-innervation requires those nerves to regenerate over relatively large distances to repopulate the nervous system of the arm. This is something with which we have had little success. We can grow repair parts, but "growing an arm" presents too many insurmountable problems. The best we could possibly do with tissue engineering or genetic engineering would be the equivalent of a fetal arm and the technical problems, costs, and ethical hurdles are enormous. A more likely solution is a functional, permanent, neuroelectronically-controlled prosthesis. These are nearly a reality today.

  20. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B; Mattoli, V; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  1. Books in Action: The Armed Services Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, John Y., Ed.

    In an effort to reach a wide audience, the Center for the Book in the Library of Congress presents this book in honor of the 40th anniversary celebration of the Armed Services Editions (ASE), the paperback books distributed during World War II. The titles of the essays and their authors are as follows: "The Armed Services Editions: An…

  2. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and making a turn or coming to a stop shall signal the turn or stop in accordance with this section. (b) A...

  3. Homosexuality in the Dutch Armed Forces 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anna Adolfsen; Saskia Keuzenkamp; m.m.v. Linda Mans

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Uniform uit de kast. This study looks at the attitudes of defence personnel to homosexuality. How do members of the military view homosexual colleagues? Can gays and lesbians working in the armed forces be open about their sexual preferences? Do they regard the armed forces as a gay

  4. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M [Advanced Robotics Technology and Systems Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Mazzolai, B; Dario, P [Italian Institute of Technology, Genova (Italy); Mattoli, V [Centre of Research in Microengineering Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: cecilia.laschi@sssup.it

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  5. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications. The robotic arm consists of a shoulder, elbow, wrist and a five-finger gripper. It can perform different gripping actions, such as lateral, spherical, cylindrical and tip-holding gripping actions; each finger has three movable links. The actuator used for the robotic arm is a high torque dc servo motor and the five-finger gripper consists of five cables placed like tendons in the human arm. Implementation is done using a human hand glove which senses the motion from sensor technology to produce a proportional analog voltage, digitized via the microcontroller Atmel ATmega32. The microcontroller then through the processed signal controls the mechanical structure that is the robotic arm. Keywords –

  6. NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  7. Tänane heategevuskontsert toetab ka Kiigemetsa kooli / Vaike Käosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käosaar, Vaike

    2007-01-01

    Heategevuskontserdist "Ma olen eriline" Põltsamaa lossihoovis, kus esinevad mitmed Eestimaa tuntud muusikud ja mille tulusid kasutatakse samasuguse pealkirjaga raamatu kirjastamise toetuseks, et aidata peresid, kus kasvab autistlikke lapsi ning Kiigemetsa Kooli, kus õpetatakse teiste seas ka autismipuudega lapsi

  8. Elektrit võivad suuremad tarbijad ka ise toota / Monica Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Monica, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Koostootmisjaamas ehk kombijõujaamas toodetakse samaaegselt nii elektrit kui ka sooja. Vt. samas: Võimalikel kasutajatel napib teadmisi. Lisad: Elektri, soojuse ja külma koostootmine; Koostootmisjaam on töökindel

  9. Euroopa Liit annab arenguabi ka voodoo sünnimaale / Irma Kaljulaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaljulaid, Irma

    2010-01-01

    4. märtsil Togos toimunud presidendivalimistest, kus oli kohal ka Euroopa Liidu vaatluskomisjon. Euroopa Liidu ja Togo vahelisi suhteid reguleerib peamiselt 2000. aastal sõlmitud Cotonou leping. Üldised andmed

  10. Riik plaanib haiglatele anda õiguse ka arstirohtu müüa / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 31. märts lk. 3. Riik tahab anda haiglatele õiguse pidada jaemüügirohupoode, selle kava vastu on aga konkureerivad apteegiketid, konkurentsi- ja ravimiamet. Lisa: Ketistunud apteegiturg

  11. Carbonate and carbon fluctuations in the Eastern Arabian Sea over 140 ka: Implications on productivity changes?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.; Naidu, P.D.; Haake, B.G.; Schiebel, R.

    orientation. ARTICLE IN PRESS Table1 Core depth, age, stable oxygen isotope data, linear sedimenta- tion rate (LSR), and calcite and organic carbon concentration ofsedimentcoreSL-1 Depth (cm) Age (kaBP) d 18 O (%) LSR (cm/ka) CaCO 3 (%) C org (%) 1 0.49 47....96 0.50 225 44.00 30.85 0.38 230 45.00 C00.49 5.02 33.34 0.49 235 45.99 32.38 0.73 240 46.99 C00.24 5.02 38.10 0.56 Table1(continued) Depth (cm) Age (kaBP) d 18 O (%) LSR (cm/ka) CaCO 3 (%) C org (%) 245 47.98 45.24 0.48 250 48.98 C00.50 5.02 45.10 0...

  12. Design and Validation of High Date Rate Ka-Band Software Defined Radio for Small Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The Design and Validation of High Date Rate Ka- Band Software Defined Radio for Small Satellite project will develop a novel Ka-band software defined radio (SDR) that is capable of establishing high data rate inter-satellite links with a throughput of 500 megabits per second (Mb/s) and providing millimeter ranging precision. The system will be designed to operate with high performance and reliability that is robust against various interference effects and network anomalies. The Ka-band radio resulting from this work will improve upon state of the art Ka-band radios in terms of dimensional size, mass and power dissipation, which limit their use in small satellites.

  13. High Performance Ka-band Phase Shifters for Space Telecommunications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel MEMS-based digital phase shifter targeted for Ka-band operation, but scalable down to X-band and up to W-band. This novel phase shifter will...

  14. Eurotsoon kaasas Kreeka päästmiseks ka IMFi / Jürgen Tamme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamme, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Euroala liidrid Prantsusmaa president Nicolaz Sarkozy ja Saksamaa kantsler Angela Merkel jõudsid kokkuleppele Kreekale kahepoolsete laenude andmises, kuid ka Rahvusvahelise Valuutafondi kaasamises, kui võlakriisis Kreeka valitsus selleks soovi avaldab

  15. MMIC for High-Efficiency Ka-BAnd GaN Power Amplifiers (2007043) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the need for high-efficiency, high-output power amplifiers operating in the Ka-band frequencies. For space communications, the power...

  16. Venezia filmifestivali punane vaip ootab tänavu ka eestlasi / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti mängufilm "Sügisball" (režissöör Veiko Õunpuu, produtsent Katrin Kissa) esilinastub 7. septembril Venezia 64. filmifestivali konkursiprogrammis Orizzonti. Ka teistest võistlevatest filmidest

  17. Soft switching (ZVZCS) high current, low voltage modular power converter (13 kA, 16 V)

    CERN Document Server

    Bordry, Frederick; Thiesen, H

    2001-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the next accelerator being constructed at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN). The superconducting LHC particle accelerator requires high currents (13 kA) and relatively low voltages (16 V) for its magnets. This paper describes the development and the production of a (13 kA, 16 V) power converter. The converter is made with a modular concept with five current sources (3.25 kA, 16 V) in parallel. The 3.25 kA sources are built as plug-in modules: a diode rectifier on the AC mains, a zero voltage zero current switching (ZVZCS) inverter working at 25 k Hz and an output stage. The obtained performance is presented and discussed. (6 refs).

  18. Riik plaanib haiglatele anda õiguse ka arstirohtu müüa / Andrus Karnau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karnau, Andrus

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 31. märts lk. 3. Riik tahab anda haiglatele õiguse pidada jaemüügirohupoode, selle kava vastu on aga konkureerivad apteegiketid, konkurentsi- ja ravimiamet. Lisa: Ketistunud apteegiturg

  19. Test results of 12/18 kA ReBCO coated conductor current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, I. A.; Surin, M. I.; Naumov, A. V.; Novikov, M. S.; Novikov, S. I.; Ilin, A. A.; Polyakov, A. V.; Scherbakov, V. I.; Shutova, D. I.

    2017-07-01

    A pair of hybrid current leads (brass + stacked & soldered ReBCO tapes) rated for 12 kA in steady state and for up to 18 kA at pulsed over current conditions was designed, developed and tested at NRC ;Kurchatov Institute; (NRC ;KI;). During the experiment at LN2 temperature, the current leads (CLs) were successfully charged with 18 kA at 100 A/s ramp rate. To date, as far as we know, this is the highest current capacity achieved for 2G HTS current leads. The feasibility of ;stack-and-soldering technique; for 10 kA+ class coated conductor CLs for accelerators and fusion was demonstrated. This paper gives an overview of the leads design and presents the preliminary test results. Detailed studies of magnetic properties and current sharing process for the stacked and staggered HTS joints are also reported.

  20. Tänane heategevuskontsert toetab ka Kiigemetsa kooli / Vaike Käosaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Käosaar, Vaike

    2007-01-01

    Heategevuskontserdist "Ma olen eriline" Põltsamaa lossihoovis, kus esinevad mitmed Eestimaa tuntud muusikud ja mille tulusid kasutatakse samasuguse pealkirjaga raamatu kirjastamise toetuseks, et aidata peresid, kus kasvab autistlikke lapsi ning Kiigemetsa Kooli, kus õpetatakse teiste seas ka autismipuudega lapsi

  1. CIA võis lennutada ja hoida vange ka Euroopa idaosas / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2006-01-01

    Amnesty Internationali raportis antakse ülevaade kolme vahistatud Jeemeni mehe kogetust aastatel 2003-2005. Meeste tunnistustest järeldab Amnesty, et neid hoiti kinni ka Ida-Euroopas. Lisa: Kolme Jeemeni mehe tunnistused

  2. Computational chemical analysis of unconjugated bilirubin anions and insights into pKa values clarification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Hissi, Esteban G.; Estrada, Mario R.; Lavecchia, Martín J.; Pis Diez, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    The pKa, the negative logarithm of the acid dissociation equilibrium constant, of the carboxylic acid groups of unconjugated bilirubin in water is a discussed issue because there are quite different experimental values reported. Using quantum mechanical calculations we have studied the conformational behavior of unconjugated bilirubin species (in gas phase and in solution modeled implicitly and explicitly) to provide evidence that may clarify pKa values because of its pathophysiological relevance. Our results show that rotation of carboxylate group, which is not restricted, settles it in a suitable place to establish stronger interactions that stabilizes the monoanion and the dianion to be properly solvated, demonstrating that the rationalization used to justify the high pKa values of unconjugated bilirubin is inappropriate. Furthermore, low unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) pKa values were estimated from a linear regression analysis.

  3. Ku/Ka/W-band Antenna for Electronically-Scanned Cloud and Precipitation Radar Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of the key antenna technologies for Tri-band (Ku/Ka/W), scanning precipitation and cloud radar is a required milestone in preparation for one or more...

  4. Advances in Ka-Band Communication System for CubeSats and SmallSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegege, Obadiah; Wong, Yen F.; Altunc, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed that evaluated the feasibility of Ka-band communication system to provide CubeSat/SmallSat high rate science data downlink with ground antennas ranging from the small portable 1.2m/2.4m to apertures 5.4M, 7.3M, 11M, and 18M, for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Lunar CubeSat missions. This study included link analysis to determine the data rate requirement, based on the current TRL of Ka-band flight hardware and ground support infrastructure. Recent advances in Ka-band transceivers and antennas, options of portable ground stations, and various coverage distances were included in the analysis. The link/coverage analysis results show that Cubesat/Smallsat missions communication requirements including frequencies and data rates can be met by utilizing Near Earth Network (NEN) Ka-band support with 2 W and high gain (>6 dBi) antennas.

  5. Solid State KA-Band, Solid State W-Band and TWT Amplifiers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I of the proposal describes plans to develop a state of the art transmitter for the W-Band and KA -Band Cloud Radar system. Our focus will be concentrated in...

  6. High Performance Ka Band Power Amplifiers for Future EVA Radio Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, AlphaSense, Inc. and the University of Washington detail the development of a novel, high performance Ka band power amplifier for EVA radio...

  7. Venezia filmifestivali punane vaip ootab tänavu ka eestlasi / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti mängufilm "Sügisball" (režissöör Veiko Õunpuu, produtsent Katrin Kissa) esilinastub 7. septembril Venezia 64. filmifestivali konkursiprogrammis Orizzonti. Ka teistest võistlevatest filmidest

  8. Potential for Paragliding Tourism Development in Niška Banja (South Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Pavić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available People today pay attention more on their health and because of that sports tourism becomes more popular. Especially popular segment of sports tourism is adventure sports including paragliding which has a special place. Tourist product of Niška Banja, as one of more visited tourism destination in Serbia, is mostly based on its health function. In the first part of this paper it is presented touristic valorisation of Niška Banja using criteria recommended form World Tourism Organization. In the second part of this paper it is used marketing mix as a tool for creating potential tourism product Paragliding weekend in Niška Banja. The aim of this paper is to show how the tourism offers of Niška Banja can be diversified using a new integrated product and how the touristic value can be increased.

  9. Uusim tehnika annab säästu ka maasoojuspumpades / Lauri Lehtinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtinen, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    Õhksoojuspumpadega tuntust kogunud inverter- ehk sagedusmuunduriga kompressortehnikat kasutatakse ka uue põlvkonna maasoojuspumpades. Tootjate sõnul annab invertertehnika varasemate seadmetega võrreldes umbes 10–15% kokkuhoidu

  10. High-power X- and Ka-band Gallium Nitride Amplifiers with Exceptional Efficiency Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Achieving very high-power amplification with maximum efficiency at X- and Ka-band is challenging using solid-state technology. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) has been the...

  11. Tšernobõl mõjutab ka praegu sündivaid lapsi / Marek Laane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laane, Marek, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    Nõrk radioaktiivsus mõjutab tugevasti inimese pärilikkusainet DNA, tekitades muutusi ka kiiritada saanute lastes, leidsid Tšernobõli tuumakatastroofi likvidaatoreid uurinud Ukraina ja Iisraeli teadlased

  12. Indrek Saar tegutseb ka Kuressaare teatris / Indrek Saar ; interv. Aarne Mäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Indrek, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Rakvere Teatri direktor kuulub ka Kuressare Linnateatri loomenõukogusse. Muljeid H. Hoffmanni-J. Crouchi-P. McDermotti muusikalist "Kolumats" (lavastaja Ch. Römer) Kuressaare teatrilaval koostöös VAT Teatriga

  13. Haabersti tulistaja laskis inimeste pihta ka Ida-Virumaal / Erik Kalda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalda, Erik, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 13. sept. lk. 1. Tallinnas Haabersti linnaosavalitsuses tulirelvast sotsiaalhoolekande osakonna juhatajat Tatjana Sarzanovat raskelt haavanud Vladimirit on politsei juba 10 päeva otsinud sugulase tulistamise pärast Ida-Virumaal

  14. Kahtlustatavate ringi lisandus ka K-Projekt / Kadri Paas, Kadri Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paas, Kadri, 1982-

    2010-01-01

    Tallinna transpordiameti liikluskorralduse osakonna juhataja Vello Lõugase kriminaalasja raames sai pistiseandmise kahtlustuse ka K-Projekt ja selle suuromanik Rein Annusver. Läbi otsiti Tallinna liikluskorraldaja Mati Songisepa kodu ja töökoht

  15. Uusim tehnika annab säästu ka maasoojuspumpades / Lauri Lehtinen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtinen, Lauri

    2009-01-01

    Õhksoojuspumpadega tuntust kogunud inverter- ehk sagedusmuunduriga kompressortehnikat kasutatakse ka uue põlvkonna maasoojuspumpades. Tootjate sõnul annab invertertehnika varasemate seadmetega võrreldes umbes 10–15% kokkuhoidu

  16. CyARM: Haptic Sensing Device for Spatial Localization on Basis of Exploration by Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Akita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new type of perception aid device based on user's exploration action, which is named as CyARM (acronym of “Cyber Arm”. The user holds this device in her/his arm, the extension of the arm is controlled by tension in wires, which are attached to her/his body according to the distance to the object. This user interface has unique characteristics that give users the illusion of an imaginary arm that extends to existing objects. The implementations of CyARM and our two experiments to investigate the efficiency and effectiveness of CyARM are described. The results show that we could confirm that CyARM can be used to recognize the presence of an object in front of the user and to measure the relative distance to the object.

  17. NASA's Evolution to Ka-Band Space Communications for Near-Earth Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kevin; Stocklin, Frank; Geldzahler, Barry; Friedman, Daniel; Celeste, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the exploration of NASA using a Ka-band system for spacecraft communications in Near-Earth orbits. The reasons for changing to Ka-band are the higher data rates, and the current (X-band spectrum) is becoming crowded. This will require some modification to the current ground station antennas systems. The results of a Request for Information (RFI) are discussed, and the recommended solution is reviewed.

  18. Ka küberkurjategijaid köidab ennekõike raha

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Finansovõi Menedzhment : infovõpusk nr. 20 dets. lk. 7. Riskijuhtimise aastakonverentsil rõhutas siseministeeriumi sisejulgeoleku asekantsler Erkki Koort, et küberhaavatavat infrastruktuuri tuleb kaitsta ühtaegu nii virtuaalse kui ka füüsilise rünnaku vastu. Lisa: Küberhaavatava kriitilise infrastruktuuri nimekiri. Vt. samas: Küberkaitses vajab täpsustamist erasektori roll; Igaüks õpib enda vigadest; Eesti on terroriohu osas ääremaa

  19. Test results on prototype 50-kA conductors for tokamak induction heating coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollan, J.J.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.; Turck, B.

    1979-01-01

    Fabricability of a very large, 50-kA superconducting cable has been demonstrated. Test results of critical current and stability measurements are presented. The design critical current of 55 kA at 7 T was met. The recovery current was degraded as a result of the expectedly poor insulation system. Energy loss measurements on prototype advanced mixed matrix conductors, which will be incorporated into a second prototype cable, are presented.

  20. REAL-TIME FADE MITIGATION USING RADIOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS FOR FUTURE KA-BAND SERVICES AT DLR.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Due to the congestion of popular C- and Ku-band frequencies, the satellite communication systems are rapidly moving toward the higher frequencies. Most of the commercial communication satellites in the near future will operate Ka-band transponders. One of the inevitable part of such systems are ground stations which support In-Orbit-testing and the traffic routine for the satellites. The main problem at Ka-band link planning is the link availability reduction due to rain fade and scintillatio...

  1. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to

  2. The arms race between fishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Quirijns, Floor J.; HilleRisLambers, Reinier; De Wilde, Jan W.; Den Heijer, Willem M.

    An analysis of the changes in the Dutch demersal fishing fleet since the 1950s revealed that competitive interactions among vessels and gear types within the constraints imposed by biological, economic and fisheries management factors are the dominant processes governing the dynamics of fishing fleets. Double beam trawling, introduced in the early 1960s, proved a successful fishing method to catch deep burying flatfish, in particular sole. In less than 10 years, the otter trawl fleet was replaced by a highly specialised beam trawling fleet, despite an initial doubling of the loss rate of vessels due to stability problems. Engine power, size of the beam trawl, number of tickler chains and fishing speed rapidly increased and fishing activities expanded into previously lightly fished grounds and seasons. Following the ban on flatfish trawling within the 12 nautical mile zone for vessels of more than 300 hp in 1975 and with the restriction of engine power to 2000 hp in 1987, the beam trawl fleet bifurcated. Changes in the fleet capacity were related to the economic results and showed a cyclic pattern with a period of 6-7 years. The arms race between fishers was fuelled by competitive interactions among fishers: while the catchability of the fleet more than doubled in the ten years following the introduction of the beam trawl, a decline in catchability was observed in reference beam trawlers that remained the same. Vessel performance was not only affected by the technological characteristics but also by the number and characteristics of competing vessels.

  3. Youth Armed Groups in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the many years of Colombia’s civil war, youth have been trying to find their way in complicated and dangerous situations. A central component of this is their relationship with armed groups, something that has evolved considerably over the past ten years. This practice note examines the context within which these connections are formed and the implications this has for self/social identity and meaningful resistance. The ideas in this practice note are based on consultations with young Colombians, particularly those displaced from 2000-2013. These sessions included art activities, focus groups and individual interviews. Art activities involved descriptive and expressive projects so that participants could explore their feelings and memories of situations and experiences. This provided a base for group discussions where youth exchanged information and debated issues. A total of 34 workshops were held over a twelve year period. These consultations revealed how war flows all over young people, touching every aspect of their identity. The boundaries between the personal and political no longer exist in today’s civil wars, if indeed they every truly did. Young people growing up inside Colombia’s war understand this at a deep level. An acknowledgement of this pain – showing the connections between the personal and political dimensions of war – is, they would maintain, the basis for their personal healing as well as an important tool for the building of sustainable peace.

  4. KINEMATIČKA ANALIZA APERKATA BOKSERA REPREZENTATIVNOG NIVOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izet Kahrović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Technique of blows in boxing is very difficult to learn because it requires a high level of coordination of the entire body. Movement to perform right uppercut in the head is quite complex. In performance of uppercust, it is very pronounced extensions in knee joint with plantar flexion in the upper parts of the feet, hocks, while somewhat less pronounced body rotation around the longitudinal axis. The subject of this research is kinematic analysis of boxers uppercuts representative level. The problems of research are speed and angles of elbow joint uppercuts of boxers representative level. The aim was to determine differences in hand speed and angles of the elbow joint. The task was to:capture shocks, preparing images for digitization, digitization and processing of data in the software HUMAN. Sample of examiners are representative level two boxers. The subjects performed upperacts, and the material is captured by the ca- 346 CRNOGORSKA SPORTSKA AKADEMIJA, „Sport Mont“ časopis br. 31,32,33. mera Casio FX speed 300 frames per second. Video record is processing in software HUMAN, digitizing 3-point, two-segment models of the human body. Analyze the speed of the reference points of the hand, elbow and shoulder, and angle of the elbow joint. Large differences were observed between the speed of the shoulder and elbow joints, and hands occasionally performing uppercust in both subjects as well as the obvious differences in rates centers shoulder joints, elbow and hand and compared subjects with each other, which was the objective of the study. The observed differences in the angle between forearm and upper arm with two boxers in all three phases of shock, do not differ greatly from the most favorable angles to perform this technique.

  5. Progress in the prediction of pKa values in proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexov, Emil; Mehler, Ernest L.; Baker, Nathan A.; Baptista, Antonio; Huang, Yong; Milletti, Francesca; Nielsen, Jens E.; Farrell, Damien; Carstensen, Tommy; Olsson, Mats H.; Shen, Jana K.; Warwicker, Jim; Williams, Sarah; Word, J Michael

    2011-12-15

    The pKa-cooperative aims to provide a forum for experimental and theoretical researchers interested in protein pKa values and protein electrostatics in general. The first round of the pKa -cooperative, which challenged computational labs to carry out blind predictions against pKas experimentally determined in the laboratory of Bertrand Garcia-Moreno, was completed and results discussed at the Telluride meeting (July 6-10, 2009). This paper serves as an introduction to the reports submitted by the blind prediction participants that will be published in a special issue of PROTEINS: Structure, Function and Bioinformatics. Here we briefly outline existing approaches for pKa calculations, emphasizing methods that were used by the participants in calculating the blind pKa values in the first round of the cooperative. We then point out some of the difficulties encountered by the participating groups in making their blind predictions, and finally try to provide some insights for future developments aimed at improving the accuracy of pKa calculations.

  6. The GridKa Tier-1 Computing Center within the ALICE Grid Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, WooJin J.; Christopher, Jung; Heiss, Andreas; Petzold, Andreas; Schwarz, Kilian

    2014-06-01

    The GridKa computing center, hosted by Steinbuch Centre for Computing at the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT) in Germany, is serving as the largest Tier-1 center used by the ALICE collaboration at the LHC. In 2013, GridKa provides 30k HEPSPEC06, 2.7 PB of disk space, and 5.25 PB of tape storage to ALICE. The 10Gbit/s network connections from GridKa to CERN, several Tier-1 centers and the general purpose network are used by ALICE intensively. In 2012 a total amount of ~1 PB was transferred to and from GridKa. As Grid framework, AliEn (ALICE Environment) is being used to access the resources, and various monitoring tools including the MonALISA (MONitoring Agent using a Large Integrated Services Architecture) are always running to alert in case of any problem. GridKa on-call engineers provide 24/7 support to guarantee minimal loss of availability of computing and storage resources in case of hardware or software problems. We introduce the GridKa Tier-1 center from the viewpoint of ALICE services.

  7. Changes in the content of eolian iron during the past 900 ka and the implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Jianjing; GUO Zhengtang

    2003-01-01

    In this study, total Fe2O3 content (Fet) in two parallel sections fromthe central Loess Plateau (Xifeng and Changwu) is analyzed to address the variations of eolian iron in the past 900 ka. The obtained timeseries indicate that Fet values in some glacial intervals are comparable to that of interglacial periods and its oscillations do not generally correspond to the long-term glacial-interglacial changes. Rather, it exhibits higher frequency fluctuations without detectable 100 ka period, but with a strong 20 ka period and a clear 40 ka period. The combination of 20 ka and 40 ka periods suggest that eolian iron content was relatively independent of glacial-interglacial changes, but more strongly influenced by the insolation changes in the northern hemisphere. Higher iron content was observed for the S5-1 soil that is correlative to marine δ 18O stage 13. In marine records, this stage is characterized by higher δ 13C values, suggesting that the event is of global significance.

  8. Earth as diode: monsoon source of the orbital ~100 ka climate cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Y. Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A potential source for Earth's enigmatic ~100 ka climate cycle, which is found in many ancient geological records at low latitudes and also in the pacing of glaciation during the late Pleistocene, is traced to a climatic rectifying process inherent in the monsoon. Seasonal information needed to identify the rectifying mechanism is preserved within varves of a continuous, 200 ka recording of annual maximum surface temperature (Tmax from the equator of Western Pangea. Specific seasonal reactions recorded in varves show how the monsoon reacted to seasonal differences in insolation at equinox to produce a 11.7 ka semi-precession cycle in Tmax. At solstice, anti-phasing of insolation in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, intensified and focused by a highly asymmetric Pangea relative to the equator, produced a strong equatorial maritime monsoon that performed a nonlinear rectifying function similar to that of a simple rectifying diode. Expressed in the resulting varve series are substantial cycles in Tmax of 100 ka, 23.4 ka, and 11.7 ka. Importantly, any external or internal forcing of the tropical (monsoon climate system at higher-than-orbital frequencies (e.g. solar, ENSO should also be amplified at Milankovitch frequencies by the monsoon.

  9. Interpretation and preliminary simulation of the 40 ka periodicity of the Quaternary glaciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Nan; CHEN Xing

    2007-01-01

    More and more proxy records approved that the periodicity of the glacial cycles is about 40 ka before MPT (middle Pleistocene transition) as early as late Tertiary from 3.0 Ma to 0.9 Ma, whereas it changes to about 100 ka after MPT.Summer insolation at high latitude in Northern Hemisphere, usually considered as the main external force for the ice age, is dominated by the 23 ka precession period, which does not match the period of the glacial cycles.In this paper, we define an energy index C and its threshold Ct that indicate the net energy supply and the overall response of the climate system.The difference between these two parameters determines whether the ice sheet melts or not, and accordingly the start and termination of the interglacial stages, as well as the periodicity of glacial oscillations.Based on the energy threshold hypothesis, the preliminary simulation experiments are made to test the period of the glacial cycles and driven factors from a conceptual model.The results indicate that energy index C and threshold Ct can interpret not only the 40 ka periodicity before MPT, but also the quasi-100 ka periodicity after MPT to some extent, and the 40 ka is the basic period of the glacial cycles, which discloses the inherent continuity of climatic change before and after MPT.

  10. A Ka-band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. E.; García-Miró, C.; Horiuchi, S.; Sotuela, I.

    2011-10-01

    The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of ~200 micro-arcsec (μas) in α cos δ and ~300 μas in δ. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 μas level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions.

  11. A Ka-Band Celestial Reference Frame with Applications to Deep Space Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.; Clark, J. Eric; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Sotuela, Ioana

    2011-01-01

    The Ka-band radio spectrum is now being used for a wide variety of applications. This paper highlights the use of Ka-band as a frequency for precise deep space navigation based on a set of reference beacons provided by extragalactic quasars which emit broadband noise at Ka-band. This quasar-based celestial reference frame is constructed using X/Ka-band (8.4/32 GHz) from fifty-five 24-hour sessions with the Deep Space Network antennas in California, Australia, and Spain. We report on observations which have detected 464 sources covering the full 24 hours of Right Ascension and declinations down to -45 deg. Comparison of this X/Ka-band frame to the international standard S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz) ICRF2 shows wRMS agreement of approximately 200 micro-arcsec in alpha cos(delta) and approximately 300 micro-arcsec in delta. There is evidence for systematic errors at the 100 micro-arcsec level. Known errors include limited SNR, lack of instrumental phase calibration, tropospheric refraction mis-modeling, and limited southern geometry. The motivation for extending the celestial reference frame to frequencies above 8 GHz is to access more compact source morphology for improved frame stability and to support spacecraft navigation for Ka-band based NASA missions.

  12. Active Galactic Nuclei and the Truncation of Star Formation in K+A Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Michael J I; Caldwell, Nelson; Palamara, David; Cool, Richard J; Dey, Arjun; Hickox, Ryan; Jannuzi, Buell T; Murray, Stephen S; Zaritsky, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We have searched for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in K+A galaxies, using multiwavelength imaging and spectroscopy in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. The K+A galaxies, which have had their star formation rapidly truncated, are selected via their strong Balmer absorption lines and weak H-alpha emission. Our sample consists of 24 K+A galaxies selected from 6594 0.10K+A galaxies are likely ongoing galaxy mergers, with nearby companion galaxies or tidal tails. Galaxy mergers may be responsible for the truncation of star formation, or we are observing the aftermath of merger triggered starbursts. As expected, the optical colors of K+A galaxies largely fall between blue galaxies with ongoing star formation and red passive galaxies. However, only 1% of the galaxies with colors between the red and blue populations are K+A galaxies, and we conclude that the truncation of ...

  13. 5 ka BP event in monsoonal China%我国季风区5 ka BP气候事件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东; 谭亮成; 安芷生

    2016-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope A lot of studies suggested the Holocene climate change had played an important role in the evolution of the Neolithic cultures around the world. During the Holocene, there were a series of abrupt climate changes. One of the abrupt events occurred around~5 ka BP, which signiifcantly changed the environment of many regions over the world. Because this event occurred before the dawn of civilization, it had caused important inlfuences on human society. In this paper, we reviewed the recently published high-resolution, absolutely-dated speleothem and limnological records from different regions of monsoonal China, which had recorded hydrological changes during the 5 ka BP event period. We further discussed its impacts on the Neolithic culture of China, as well as the driving mechanisms.Materials and methods We divided the monsoonal China into Northeast China, North China, Central China, East China, South China, Southwest China and the Tibetan Plateau. We compared the hydrological changes in different regions of monsoonal China, by using recent published high-resolution, absoluted dated records.Results We suggested the monsoonal China, from the north to the south, had experienced dry climate during this event. The dry event was most signiifcantly recorded in North China, Northeast China and Tibetan Plateau. It began at 5.6—5.5 ka BP, reaching to the driest at ~5.0 ka BP, and then the precipitation rapidly recovered. Stalagmite record from Central China also showed similar result with North China. There was also cold and dry climate in Southwest China during the period of 5.5—4.8 ka BP. In South China, notably dry climate was observed in 5.5—5.0 ka BP. It seems there was imprint of 5 ka BP event in East China, although it’s hard to determine the exact timing, because of low resolutions and poor age controls of the published records. The extreme dry climate had played an important role on the evolution of Chinese Neolithic culture. The

  14. Vana arm ei roosteta / Maarja Vaino

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaino, Maarja

    2005-01-01

    A. H. Tammsaare romaani "Ma armastasin sakslast" ilmumisest möödub 70 aastat. Tammsaare muuseum korraldab selle tähistamiseks 7. novembril koos Tallinna Ülikooli eesti kirjanduse õppetooliga konverentsi. Vt. ka sõnum lk. 19

  15. Vana arm ei roosteta / Maarja Vaino

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaino, Maarja

    2005-01-01

    A. H. Tammsaare romaani "Ma armastasin sakslast" ilmumisest möödub 70 aastat. Tammsaare muuseum korraldab selle tähistamiseks 7. novembril koos Tallinna Ülikooli eesti kirjanduse õppetooliga konverentsi. Vt. ka sõnum lk. 19

  16. Rationalization of the pKa values of alcohols and thiols using atomic charge descriptors and its application to the prediction of amino acid pKa's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugur, Ilke; Marion, Antoine; Parant, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    approaches (gas phase or continuum solvent-based approaches), with five distinct atomic charge models (Mulliken, Löwdin, NPA, Merz-Kollman, and CHelpG), and with nine different DFT functionals combined with 16 different basis sets. Moreover, the capability of semiempirical methods (AM1, RM1, PM3, and PM6......) to also predict pKa's of thiols, phenols, and alcohols is analyzed. From our benchmarks, the best combination to reproduce experimental pKa's is to compute NPA atomic charge using the CPCM model at the B3LYP/3-21G and M062X/6-311G levels for alcohols (R(2) = 0.995) and thiols (R(2) = 0.986), respectively...... of the experimental pKa's of phenols, alcohols, and thiols. Our protocol is based on the linear relationship between computed atomic charges of the anionic form of the molecules (being either phenolates, alkoxides, or thiolates) and their respective experimental pKa values. It is tested with different environment...

  17. 改进的对流层天顶延迟估计方法%Improved Method of Estimate the Zenith Troposphere Delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文溢; 陈西宏; 孙际哲; 刘赞

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the poor performance of tradition models in the zenith tropospheric non-hydrostatic delay evaluation,a variable method based on improved Hopfield model was proposed.The meteorological parameters formula in the model of medium latitude atmosphere was used to infer the formula of the hydrostatic and non-hy-drostatic delay again in this method.In order to get the factors of temperature and water vapor pressure,the method interpolated value in the table of global tropospheric delay atmosphere parameter.By using the meteoro-logical data of eight International GPS service stations in Asia,the tropospheric delay was compared between im-proved model and tradition models,such as Hopfield model,Saastamoinen model and Black model.Computing results showed that the accuracy of improved model was better than tradition models.%针对传统对流层延迟模型在估计天顶湿延迟方面存在精度不高和稳定性差的问题,提出了基于改进Hopfield模型的对流层天顶延迟估计方法。该方法利用中纬度大气模式中的气象参数公式,重新推导了Hopfield模型中静力项和湿项延迟表达式,并利用全球对流层延迟气象参数格网值进行内插获取温度变化率和水汽压系数。选取亚洲地区不同经纬度的八个国际 GPS 服务(IGS,International GPS Service)站的气象数据,分别采用传统模型和改进模型进行对流层天顶延迟估计,计算结果表明改进模型的精度优于传统模型,尤其是湿项延迟方面,估算精度提高了一个数量级。

  18. Effect of densifying the GNSS GBAS network on monitoring the troposphere zenith total delay and precipitable water vapour content during severe weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapłon, Jan; Stankunavicius, Gintautas

    2016-04-01

    The dense ground based augmentation networks can provide the important information for monitoring the state of neutral atmosphere. The GNSS&METEO research group at Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (WUELS) is operating the self-developed near real-time service estimating the troposphere parameters from GNSS data for the area of Poland. The service is operational since December 2012 and it's results calculated from ASG-EUPOS GBAS network (120 stations) data are supporting the EGVAP (http://egvap.dmi.dk) project. At first the zenith troposphere delays (ZTD) were calculated in hourly intervals, but since September 2015 the service was upgraded to include SmartNet GBAS network (Leica Geosystems Polska - 150 stations). The upgrade included as well: increasing the result interval to 30 minutes, upgrade from Bernese GPS Software v. 5.0 to Bernese GNSS Software v. 5.2 and estimation of the ZTD and it's horizontal gradients. Processing includes nowadays 270 stations. The densification of network from 70 km of mean distance between stations to 40 km created the opportunity to investigate on it's impact on resolution of estimated ZTD and integrated water vapour content (IWV) fields during the weather events of high intensity. Increase in density of ZTD measurements allows to define better the meso-scale features within different synoptic systems (e.g. frontal waves, meso-scale convective systems, squall lines etc). These meso-scale structures, as a rule are short living but fast developing and hardly predictable by numerical models. Even so, such limited size systems can produce very hazardous phenomena - like widespread squalls and thunderstorms, tornadoes, heavy rains, snowfalls, hail etc. because of prevalence of Cb clouds with high concentration of IWV. Study deals with two meteorological events: 2015-09-01 with the devastating squalls and rainfall bringing 2M Euro loss of property in northern Poland and 2015-10-12 with the very active front bringing

  19. ARM Unmanned Aerial Systems Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) coupled with changes in the regulatory environment for operations of UAS in the National Airspace increase the potential value of UAS to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. UAS include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and tethered balloon systems (TBS). The roles UAVs and TBSs could play within the ARM Facility, particularly science questions they could help address, have been discussed in several workshops, reports, and vision documents, including: This document describes the implementation of a robust and vigorous program for use of UAV and TBS for the science missions ARM supports.

  20. ARM Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Voyles

    2005-12-31

    Through the ARM Program, the DOE funded the development of several highly instrumented ground stations for studying cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer, and for measuring other parameters that determine the radiative properties of the atmosphere. This scientific infrastructure, and resultant data archive, is a valuable national and international asset for advancing scientific knowledge of Earth systems. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE designated ARM sites as a national scientific user facility: the ARM Climate Research (ACRF). The ACRF has enormous potential to contribute to a wide range interdisciplinary science in areas such as meteorology, atmospheric aerosols, hydrology, biogeochemical cycling, and satellite validation, to name only a few.

  1. Arm-to-arm variation when evaluating neuromuscular block: an analysis of the precision and the bias and agreement between arms when using mechanomyography or acceleromyography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Skovgaard, L T; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2010-01-01

    Studies comparing acceleromyography and mechanomyography indicate that the two methods cannot be used interchangeably. However, it is uncertain to what extent differences in precision between the methods and the naturally occurring arm-to-arm variation have influenced the results of these studies....... Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the precision and the arm-to-arm variation, when the same method is used on both of the arms....

  2. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashish Sharma; Kelvin Lewis

    2014-01-01

    The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications...

  3. MiniSAR composite gimbal arm development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klarer, Paul Richard; Winscott, Mark (Orion International, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-01-01

    An exploratory effort in the application of carbon epoxy composite structural materials to a multi-axis gimbal arm design is described. An existing design in aluminum was used as a baseline for a functionally equivalent redesigned outer gimbal arm using a carbon epoxy composite material. The existing arm was analyzed using finite element techniques to characterize performance in terms of strength, stiffness, and weight. A new design was virtually prototyped. using the same tools to produce a design with similar stiffness and strength, but reduced overall weight, than the original arm. The new design was prototyped using Rapid Prototyping technology, which was subsequently used to produce molds for fabricating the carbon epoxy composite parts. The design tools, process, and results are discussed.

  4. Kanegelo ya Nimirode: Re lebelela diphihlelelo t�a gagwe ka lefsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elelwani B. Farisani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kanegelo ya Hama/Nimirode e �omi�it�we go gatelela Bathobaso ba Afrika-Borwa le ba Amerika. Taodi�wana ye e lekola Nimirode ka lefsa le go t�ea magato a go bu�et�a seriti sa gagwe le sa Bathobaso sekeng.Seo se tlo dirwa ka dikgato t�e tlhano ka mo tlase. Sa mathomo, re tlo lekola dimelo t�a bana ba Noage, go kwe�i�a Nimirode, yo e lego yena �edi ye kgolo ya taodi�wana ye. Sa bobedi re tlo lebelela ka fao bangwadi ba bangwe ba t�welet�ago seswant�ho sa go befa sa Nimirode. Sa boraro, re tlo sekaseka tiri�o ya kanegelo ya Hama/Nimirode go gatelela le go dira Bathobaso makgoba. Sa bone, re tlo sekaseka diphihlelelo le dikatlego t�a Nimirode. Mo re tlo tsepelela diphihlelelo t�a gagwe t�e tharo t�e kgolo bjalo ka go ba mmu�i wa maemo, motsomi yo maatla le moagi. Nepo ya karolo ye ke go ganet�ana le tshekatsheko ya go se be botse ye e nepilwego Nimirode nakong ya go feta. Re tlo tlalelet�a ka go fa tshekatsheko ye e tebilego ya thogako godimo ga Hama/Ku�e/Nimirode. Sa bohlano, ebile e le sa mafelelo, re tlo t�welet�a nyanyeng bohlokwa bja kanegelo ya Nimirode go bao ba bego ba gatelet�we le go ba makgoba ka baka la temana ye. Re tlo nepi�a Afrika-Borwa.

  5. Molecular Paleoclimate Reconstructions over the Last 9 ka from a Peat Sequence in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Huang, Xianyu; Sachse, Dirk; Ding, Weihua; Xue, Jiantao

    2016-01-01

    To achieve a better understanding of Holocene climate change in the monsoon regions of China, we investigated the molecular distributions and carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions (δ13C and δD values) of long-chain n-alkanes in a peat core from the Shiwangutian (SWGT) peatland, south China over the last 9 ka. By comparisons with other climate records, we found that the δ13C values of the long-chain n-alkanes can be a proxy for humidity, while the δD values of the long-chain n-alkanes primarily recorded the moisture source δD signal during 9-1.8 ka BP and responded to the dry climate during 1.8-0.3 ka BP. Together with the average chain length (ACL) and the carbon preference index (CPI) data, the climate evolution over last 9 ka in the SWGT peatland can be divided into three stages. During the first stage (9-5 ka BP), the δ13C values were depleted and CPI and Paq values were low, while ACL values were high. They reveal a period of warm and wet climate, which is regarded as the Holocene optimum. The second stage (5-1.8 ka BP) witnessed a shift to relatively cool and dry climate, as indicated by the more positive δ13C values and lower ACL values. During the third stage (1.8-0.3 ka BP), the δ13C, δD, CPI and Paq values showed marked increase and ACL values varied greatly, implying an abrupt change to cold and dry conditions. This climate pattern corresponds to the broad decline in Asian monsoon intensity through the latter part of the Holocene. Our results do not support a later Holocene optimum in south China as suggested by previous studies.

  6. The long arms of anencephaly: A refutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Mason

    2009-08-01

    A paper published in 1925 reported that human fetuses with anencephaly have arms that are longer than normal. This finding was accepted as true through the early 1990s. An analysis of body dimensions done in 1996 and enlarged and updated here shows that the arms of human fetuses with anencephaly are appropriate for gestational age and normal in proportion to their leg lengths. A subtle difference in measurement technique was found to explain the discordant findings.

  7. Regulation of flexible arms under gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Luca, A. [Univ. di Roma, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Informatica e Sistemistica; Siciliano, B. [Univ. di Napoli Federico, Napoli (Italy). Dipt. di Informatica e Sistemistica

    1993-08-01

    A simple controller is presented for the regulation problem of robot arms with flexible links under gravity. It consists of a joint PD feedback plus a constant feedforward. Global asymptotic stability of the reference equilibrium state is shown under a structural assumption about link elasticity and a mild condition on the proportional gain. The result holds also in the absence of internal damping of the flexible arm. A numerical case study is presented.

  8. The Geometry of the Galaxy's Spiral Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Wolfire, M.; Hollenbach, D.

    2008-05-01

    We present a new model for the spiral structure of the Milky Way based upon an analysis of the essentially all-sky spectral data obtained by the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite. The model provides the volume emissivities of the [C II] 128 µm and [N II] 205 µm lines, as a function of position within the Galaxy. These lines are important coolants of the interstellar medium and strong tracers of the spiral structure. Despite decades of work, there is still no full agreement on the number of spiral arms in the Milky Way, much less the details of their geometry. Motivated, in part, by this fact, we conducted a systematic search for 2-arm, 3-arm, and 4-arm models that maximize agreement with the COBE data. We find that only a four-arm model, with arms defined by logarithmic spiral forms and pitch angles ranging from 13.5 to 15.6 degrees, is consistent with the observations. The arms are neither evenly spaced nor identical in form. The resultant volume emissivity models for C+ and N+, when convolved with the FIRAS beam and integrated over the Galaxy, reproduce the COBE [C II] 128 µm and [N II] 205 µm intensity maps extremely well. We also examine all models for the Galaxy's spiral structure that have been proposed over the past half century in the context of the same COBE observations. A significant fraction of these models, including many recent ones, appear to be incompatible with the data. However, several four-arm models from the literature are consistent with the COBE observations.

  9. Arm & Interarm Star Formation in Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Foyle, Kelly; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between spiral arms and star formation in the grand-design spirals NGC 5194 and NGC 628 and in the flocculent spiral NGC 6946. Filtered maps of near-IR (3.6 micron) emission allow us to identify "arm regions" that should correspond to regions of stellar mass density enhancements. The two grand-design spirals show a clear two-armed structure, while NGC 6946 is more complex. We examine these arm and interarm regions, looking at maps that trace recent star formation - far-ultraviolet (GALEX NGS) and 24 micron emission (Spitzer, SINGS) - and cold gas - CO (Heracles) and HI (Things). We find the star formation tracers and CO more concentrated in the spiral arms than the stellar 3.6 micron flux. If we define the spiral arms as the 25% highest pixels in the filtered 3.6 micron images, we find that the majority (60%) of star formation tracers occurs in the interarm regions; this result persists qualitatively even when considering the potential impact of finite data resolution and diffu...

  10. ARM assembly language with hardware experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Elahi, Ata

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a hands-on approach to learning ARM assembly language with the use of a TI microcontroller. The book starts with an introduction to computer architecture and then discusses number systems and digital logic. The text covers ARM Assembly Language, ARM Cortex Architecture and its components, and Hardware Experiments using TILM3S1968. Written for those interested in learning embedded programming using an ARM Microcontroller. ·         Introduces number systems and signal transmission methods   ·         Reviews logic gates, registers, multiplexers, decoders and memory   ·         Provides an overview and examples of ARM instruction set   ·         Uses using Keil development tools for writing and debugging ARM assembly language Programs   ·         Hardware experiments using a Mbed NXP LPC1768 microcontroller; including General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) configuration, real time clock configuration, binary input to 7-segment display, creating ...

  11. Comparison of excitotoxic profiles of ATPA, AMPA, KA and NMDA in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, B W; Noraberg, J; Zimmer, J

    2001-10-26

    The excitotoxic profiles of (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (ATPA), (RS)-2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) were evaluated using cellular uptake of propidium iodide (PI) as a measure for induced, concentration-dependent neuronal damage in hippocampal slice cultures. ATPA is in low concentrations a new selective agonist of the glutamate receptor subunit GluR5 confined to KA receptors and also in high concentrations an AMPA receptor agonist. The following rank order of estimated EC(50) values was found after 2 days of exposure: AMPA (3.7 mM)>NMDA (11 mM)=KA (13 mM)>ATPA (33 mM). Exposed to 30 microM ATPA, 3 microM AMPA and 10 microM NMDA, CA1 was the most susceptible subfield followed by fascia dentata and CA3. Using 8 microM KA, CA3 was the most susceptible subfield, followed by fascia dentata and CA1. In 100 microM concentrations, all four agonists induced the same, maximal PI uptake in all hippocampal subfields, corresponding to total neuronal degeneration. Using glutamate receptor antagonists, like GYKI 52466, NBQX and MK-801, inhibition data revealed that AMPA excitotoxicity was mediated primarily via AMPA receptors. Similar results were found for a high concentration of ATPA (30 microM). In low GluR5 selective concentrations (0.3-3 microM), ATPA did not induce an increase in PI uptake or a reduction in glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity of hippocampal interneurons. For KA, the excitotoxicity appeared to be mediated via both KA and AMPA receptors. NMDA receptors were not involved in AMPA-, ATPA- and KA-induced excitotoxicity, nor did NMDA-induced excitotoxicity require activation of AMPA and KA receptors. We conclude that hippocampal slice cultures constitute a feasible test system for evaluation of excitotoxic effects and mechanisms of new (ATPA) and classic (AMPA, KA and NMDA) glutamate receptor agonists. Comparison of concentration

  12. A 600-ka Arctic sea-ice record from Mendeleev Ridge based on ostracodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas M.; Polyak, L.V.; Reed, D.; Kandiano, E. S.; Marzen, R. E.; Council, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic paleoceanography and sea-ice history were reconstructed from epipelagic and benthic ostracodes from a sediment core (HLY0503-06JPC, 800 m water depth) located on the Mendeleev Ridge, Western Arctic Ocean. The calcareous microfaunal record (ostracodes and foraminifers) covers several glacial/interglacial cycles back to estimated Marine Isotope Stage 13 (MIS 13, ∼500 ka) with an average sedimentation rate of ∼0.5 cm/ka for most of the stratigraphy (MIS 5–13). Results based on ostracode assemblages and an unusual planktic foraminiferal assemblage in MIS 11 dominated by a temperate-water species Turborotalita egelida show that extreme interglacial warmth, high surface ocean productivity, and possibly open ocean convection characterized MIS 11 and MIS 13 (∼400 and 500 ka, respectively). A major shift in western Arctic Ocean environments toward perennial sea ice occurred after MIS 11 based on the distribution of an ice-dwelling ostracode Acetabulastoma arcticum. Spectral analyses of the ostracode assemblages indicate sea ice and mid-depth ocean circulation in western Arctic Ocean varied primarily at precessional (∼22 ka) and obliquity (∼40 ka) frequencies.

  13. KaM_CRK: Clustering and Ranking Knowledge for Reasonable Results Based on Behaviors and Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhong Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A model named KaM_CRK is proposed, which can supply the clustered and ranked knowledge to the users on different contexts. By comparing the attributes of contexts and JANs, our findings indicate that our model can accumulate the JANs, whose attributes are similar with the user’s contexts, together. By applying the KaM_CLU algorithm and Centre rank strategy into the KaM_CRK model, the model boosts a significant promotion on the accuracy of provision of user's knowledge. By analyzing the users' behaviors, the dynamic coefficient BehaviorF is first presented in KaM_CLU. Compared to traditional approaches of K_means and DBSCAN, the KaM_CLU algorithm does not need to initialize the number of clusters. Additionally, its synthetic results are more accurate, reasonable, and fit than other approaches for users. It is known from our evaluation through real data that our strategy performs better on time efficiency and user's satisfaction, which will save by 30% and promote by 5%, respectively.

  14. Ka-band Technologies for Small Spacecraft Communications via Relays and Direct Data Downlink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, James M.; Niederhaus, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Downey, Joe; Roberts, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    As the scientific capabilities and number of small spacecraft missions in the near Earth region increase, standard yet configurable user spacecraft terminals operating in Ka-band are needed to lower mission cost and risk and enable significantly higher data return than current UHF or S-band terminals. These compact Ka-band terminals are intended to operate with both the current and next generation of Ka-band relay satellites and via direct data communications with near Earth tracking terminals. This presentation provides an overview of emerging NASA-sponsored and commercially provided technologies in software defined radios (SDRs), transceivers, and electronically steered antennas that will enable data rates from hundreds of kbps to over 1 Gbps and operate in multiple frequency bands (such as S- and X-bands) and expand the use of NASA's common Ka-bands frequencies: 22.55-23.15 GHz for forward data or uplink; and 25.5-27.0 GHz for return data or downlink. Reductions in mass, power and volume come from integration of multiple radio functions, operations in Ka-band, high efficiency amplifiers and receivers, and compact, flat and vibration free electronically steered narrow beam antennas for up to + 60 degrees field of regard. The software defined near Earth space transceiver (SD-NEST) described in the presentation is intended to be compliant with NASA's space telecommunications radio system (STRS) standard for communications waveforms and hardware interoperability.

  15. Overview of Ka-band communications technology requirements for the space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Edward F.

    1991-12-01

    In the Space Exploration Initiative, Ka-band frequencies are likely to carry the bulk of the communications traffic both in the vicinity of and on the return links from the moon and Mars. The four exploration architectures identified by the Synthesis Group are examined and Ka-band technology requirements to meet the data traffic needs and schedule are identified. Specific Ka-band technology requirements identified are: transmitters - 0.5 to 200 W with high efficiency; antennas - 5m and 9m diameter, with multiple beams and/or scanning beams; and spacecraft receivers - noise figure of 2 dB. For each component, the current state of technology is assessed and needed technology development programs are identified. It is concluded that to meet the schedules of lunar and Mars precursor missions beginning in approximately the year 2000, aggressive technology development and advanced development programs are required immediately for Ka-band communications systems components. Additionally, the greater data transmission rates for the cargo and piloted phases of the exploration program require further Ka-band communications technology developments targeted for operations beginning in about 2010.

  16. Performance of a Ka-band transponder breadboard for deep-space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysoor, N. R.; Lane, J. P.; Kayalar, S.; Kermode, A. W.

    1995-08-01

    This article summarizes the design concepts applied in the development of and advanced Ka-band (34.4 GHz/32 GHz) transponder breadboard for the next generation of space communications systems applications. The selected architecture upgrades the X-band (7.2 GHz/8.4 GHz) deep-space transponder (DST) to provide Da-band up/Ka- and X-band down capability. The Ka-band transponder breadboard incorporates several state-of-the-art components, including sampling mixers, a Ka-band dielectric resonator oscillator, and microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs). The MMICs that were tested in the breadboard include upconverters, downconverters, automatic gain control circuits, mixers, phase modulators, and amplifiers. The measured receiver dynamic range, tracking range, acquisition rate, static phase error, and phase jitter characteristics of the Ka-band breadboard interfaced to the advanced engineering model X-band DST are in good agreement with the expected performance. The results show a receiver tracking threshold of -149 dBm with a dynamic range of 80 dB and a downlink phase jitter of 7 deg rms. The analytical results of phase noise and Allan standard deviation are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Geological record of meltwater events at Qinghai Lake, China from the past 40 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weijian; Liu, Taibei; Wang, Hao; An, Zhisheng; Cheng, Peng; Zhu, Yizhi; Burr, G. S.

    2016-10-01

    We report here on a previously unpublished sediment core from Qinghai Lake, China, that preserves a continuous record of sedimentation for the past 40 ka. A striking feature of the record is a set of distinct meltwater events recorded at 35, 19 and 14 ka respectively. These events are manifest as distinct pulses of relatively old organic radiocarbon in the sediments. We interpret these as a signal of glacial melting in the Qinghai Lake watershed. The meltwater signals are closely correlated to temperature and precipitation records associated with deglaciation. The events at 19 ka and 14 ka correspond to well-established high latitude Melt Water Pulse (MWP) events during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2, and the 35 ka event corresponds to a period of pervasive high lake levels in western China during late MIS 3. We interpret these anomalous dates as the result of relatively old carbon that was destabilized by the glaciers, and released into the lake as the glaciers melted. The data indicate that this process takes thousands of years. We expect that the approach employed here to identify these events is generally applicable to any lake system with a significant glacial meltwater component.

  18. Very short-term reactive forecasting of the solar ultraviolet index using an extreme learning machine integrated with the solar zenith angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Ravinesh C; Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio V; Adamowski, Jan F; Quilty, John M

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to erythemally-effective solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) that contributes to malignant keratinocyte cancers and associated health-risk is best mitigated through innovative decision-support systems, with global solar UV index (UVI) forecast necessary to inform real-time sun-protection behaviour recommendations. It follows that the UVI forecasting models are useful tools for such decision-making. In this study, a model for computationally-efficient data-driven forecasting of diffuse and global very short-term reactive (VSTR) (10-min lead-time) UVI, enhanced by drawing on the solar zenith angle (θs) data, was developed using an extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm. An ELM algorithm typically serves to address complex and ill-defined forecasting problems. UV spectroradiometer situated in Toowoomba, Australia measured daily cycles (0500-1700h) of UVI over the austral summer period. After trialling activations functions based on sine, hard limit, logarithmic and tangent sigmoid and triangular and radial basis networks for best results, an optimal ELM architecture utilising logarithmic sigmoid equation in hidden layer, with lagged combinations of θs as the predictor data was developed. ELM's performance was evaluated using statistical metrics: correlation coefficient (r), Willmott's Index (WI), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (ENS), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute error (MAE) between observed and forecasted UVI. Using these metrics, the ELM model's performance was compared to that of existing methods: multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), M5 Model Tree, and a semi-empirical (Pro6UV) clear sky model. Based on RMSE and MAE values, the ELM model (0.255, 0.346, respectively) outperformed the MARS (0.310, 0.438) and M5 Model Tree (0.346, 0.466) models. Concurring with these metrics, the Willmott's Index for the ELM, MARS and M5 Model Tree models were 0.966, 0.942 and 0.934, respectively. About 57% of the ELM model's absolute

  19. Fabrication of band-pass filter using YBCO film at Ka-band frequency; YBCO hakumaku wo mochiita Ka-band taiiki tsuka fuiruta no sakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshitake, T.; Hattori, W.; Murakami, S.; Suzuki, S. [NEC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    In this report, Ka band microstrip band pass filter was produced experimentally using an YBCO system high temperature superconductivity thin film as examination initial stage high temperature superconductivity a thin film superscription communication element. With it, the following were examined: Evaluation method and frequency characteristics of the filter. Especially, the examination on structure of the package and system of measurement using refrigerating machine becomes important in order to evaluate the filter with the high frequency. (NEDO)

  20. The how and why of arm swing during human walking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyns, P.; Bruijn, S.M.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Humans walk bipedally, and thus, it is unclear why they swing their arms. In this paper, we will review the mechanisms and functions of arm swinging in human gait. First, we discuss the potential advantages of having swinging arms. Second, we go into the detail on the debate whether arm swing is ari

  1. Radar altimetry backscattering signatures at Ka, Ku, C, and S bands over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frappart, F.; Fatras, C.; Mougin, E.; Marieu, V.; Diepkilé, A. T.; Blarel, F.; Borderies, P.

    This study presents a comprehensive comparison of radar altimetry signatures at Ka-, Ku-, C-, and S-bands using SARAL, ENVISAT and Jason-2 data over the major bioclimatic zones, soil and vegetation types encountered in West-Africa, with an emphasis on the new information at Ka-band provided by the recently launched SARAL-Altika mission. Spatio-temporal variations of the radar altimetry responses were related to changes in surface roughness, land cover and soil wetness. Analysis of time series of backscattering coefficients along the West African bioclimatic gradient shows that radar echoes at nadir incidence are well correlated to soil moisture in semi-arid savannah environments. Radar altimeters are able to detect the presence of water even under a dense canopy cover at all frequencies. But only measurements at Ka-band are able to penetrate underneath the canopy of non-inundated tropical evergreen forests.

  2. Kuolleiden saaret. Historiallisen ajan keskisuomalaisten saarihautausmaiden luonne ja käyttö hautapaikkoina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Ruohonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kirkkomaiden ulkopuolella sijaitsevat hautasaaret ovat leimallisia erityisesti harvaan asutuille seuduille, joissa kirkkomatkat ovat olleet pitkiä ja hankalia. Saaria on pidetty väliaikaisina hautausmaina, joihin on haudattu kesällä, kelirikkoaikana tai levottomana ajankohtana kuolleet odottamaan myöhempää kuljetusta kirkkomaalle. Saarten käyttöä hautaustarkoituksiin ei ole kuitenkaan systemaattisesti tutkittu. Tässä artikkelissa tarkastellaan Keski-Suomessa sijaitsevien Petäjäveden ja Uuraisten hautapaikkoja sekä niiksi epäiltyjä kohteita. Laajan ja monia tieteenaloja käsittelevän lähdeaineiston kautta artikkeli selvittää kohteiden luonnetta ja niiden käyttöä hautapaikkoina. Erityistä huomiota kiinnitetään aineiston esittelyn lisäksi hautaustradition ajoittamiseen eri menetelmillä.

  3. Diatom species composition in the Raška river (Southwestern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidaković Danijela P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the composition of epilithic diatoms in the Raška River. Samples were collected by scraping stone surfaces with a brush from 5 localities along the Raška River in April, June, August and November 2011 and March and May 2012. Diatom frustules were cleaned using cold acid method, and mounted on permanent slides. An investigation of the Raška River resulted in description of 106 diatom taxa. The most species rich genera are Navicula (10, Gomphonema (10 and Nitzschia (9, while other genera are presented with one or more species. Detailed floristic analysis of the benthic diatom flora in this river has not been conducted before. Therefore, this paper provides a groundwork for future researches. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 037009

  4. New observational capabilities on atmospheric sciences of the Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) Graciosa island ARM facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Kim; Ortega, Paul; Azevedo, Eduardo; Miller, Mark

    2016-04-01

    One source of uncertainty that thwarts accurate and comprehensive representation of the present and future climate in models is the response of shallow cloud systems to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols. Low clouds systems that prevail over subtropical oceans, in particular, play a critical role in boundary layer dynamics and in the global climate, despite being poorly represented in climate models. The Azores have been identified as an optimal site to conduct research aimed at better understanding the physical processes and life cycle of marine stratocumulus and other marine boundary layer clouds. The United States Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Program has been providing data to advance research from atmospheric observations at diverse climatic regimes around the world (http://www.arm.gov/) for over 20 years. Since 2009, the Azores has been included in this global program. The campaign of the ARM Mobile Facility at Graciosa Island, Azores, in the context of the Clouds, Aerosol and Precipitation in the Marine Boundary Layer (CAP-MBL) project, added the most extensive and comprehensive dataset of marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds to date. Solid preliminary findings from this valuable data set have been used to understand interactions between the cloud microphysical and macrophysical processes in marine boundary layer clouds that play a fundamental role in the cloud dynamics and precipitation, which in turn determine cloud radiative properties that impact on the energy balance of the Earth. Based upon the design and siting from the previous ARM Mobile Facility in support of CAP-MBL, the new Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) fixed site joined the global network of ARM Climate Research Facilities in October 2013. Since then, this user facility has augmented its baseline measurement capability to include a Ka-/W-Band scanning cloud radar, an X-Band precipitation radar and Raman and Doppler lidars. Coupled

  5. Assemble four-arm DNA junctions into nanoweb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    DNA is of structural polymorphism, which is useful in nanoarchitecture; especially, four-arm DNA junc tions can be used to assemble nanowebs. The static four-arm DNA junctions were designed and synthesized. One-arm DNA and two-arm DNA came out simultaneously with the four-arm DNA junction's formation. A new method, termed the two-step method, was proposed and the productivity of four-arm DNA junctions was increased. A nanoweb was assembled successfully, but it showed irregularity itself. It was not the same as we expected. We consider that it is aresult from the flexibility of four-arm DNA junction.

  6. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements (ARM-ACME) and ARM-ACME 2.5 Final Campaign Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tom, M. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sweeney, C. [NOAA Earth Systems Research Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 5-year multi-institution and multi-agency airborne study of atmospheric composition and carbon cycling at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, with scientific objectives that are central to the carbon-cycle and radiative-forcing goals of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of 1) the carbon exchange of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) SGP region; 2) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative-forcing, convective processes, and CO2 concentrations over the ARM SGP region, and 3) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  7. pKa values in proteins determined by electrostatics applied to molecular dynamics trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Tim; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2015-06-09

    For a benchmark set of 194 measured pKa values in 13 proteins, electrostatic energy computations are performed in which pKa values are computed by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. In contrast to the previous approach of Karlsberg(+) (KB(+)) that essentially used protein crystal structures with variations in their side chain conformations, the present approach (KB2(+)MD) uses protein conformations from four molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 10 ns each. These MD simulations are performed with different specific but fixed protonation patterns, selected to sample the conformational space for the different protonation patterns faithfully. The root-mean-square deviation between computed and measured pKa values (pKa RMSD) is shown to be reduced from 1.17 pH units using KB(+) to 0.96 pH units using KB2(+)MD. The pKa RMSD can be further reduced to 0.79 pH units, if each conformation is energy-minimized with a dielectric constant of εmin = 4 prior to calculating the electrostatic energy. The electrostatic energy expressions upon which the computations are based have been reformulated such that they do not involve terms that mix protein and solvent environment contributions and no thermodynamic cycle is needed. As a consequence, conformations of the titratable residues can be treated independently in the protein and solvent environments. In addition, the energy terms used here avoid the so-called intrinsic pKa and can therefore be interpreted without reference to arbitrary protonation states and conformations.

  8. Spiral arms as cosmic ray source distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M.; Kissmann, R.; Strong, A. W.; Reimer, O.

    2015-04-01

    The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy with (or without) a bar-like central structure. There is evidence that the distribution of suspected cosmic ray sources, such as supernova remnants, are associated with the spiral arm structure of galaxies. It is yet not clearly understood what effect such a cosmic ray source distribution has on the particle transport in our Galaxy. We investigate and measure how the propagation of Galactic cosmic rays is affected by a cosmic ray source distribution associated with spiral arm structures. We use the PICARD code to perform high-resolution 3D simulations of electrons and protons in galactic propagation scenarios that include four-arm and two-arm logarithmic spiral cosmic ray source distributions with and without a central bar structure as well as the spiral arm configuration of the NE2001 model for the distribution of free electrons in the Milky Way. Results of these simulation are compared to an axisymmetric radial source distribution. Also, effects on the cosmic ray flux and spectra due to different positions of the Earth relative to the spiral structure are studied. We find that high energy electrons are strongly confined to their sources and the obtained spectra largely depend on the Earth's position relative to the spiral arms. Similar finding have been obtained for low energy protons and electrons albeit at smaller magnitude. We find that even fractional contributions of a spiral arm component to the total cosmic ray source distribution influences the spectra on the Earth. This is apparent when compared to an axisymmetric radial source distribution as well as with respect to the Earth's position relative to the spiral arm structure. We demonstrate that the presence of a Galactic bar manifests itself as an overall excess of low energy electrons at the Earth. Using a spiral arm geometry as a cosmic ray source distributions offers a genuine new quality of modeling and is used to explain features in cosmic ray spectra at the Earth

  9. Notitie over vangsten en discards van de pulsvisserij van de ARM25 / ARM33 / TH6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasenberg, M.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 en 2012 zijn Vof Zeevisserijbedrijf C. Caljouw en Zn. (ARM25), Visserijbedrijf Van Belzen vof (ARM33) en Zeevisserijbedrijf Johanna Cornelia K.J. Bout en Zn. cv. (TH6) overgeschakeld naar de pulsvisserij. De drie chepen hebben deelgenomen aan de pulskormonitoring en in dit onderzoek gegevens

  10. Spiral Arms as Cosmic Ray Source Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M; Strong, A W; Reimer, O

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that the distribution of suspected cosmic ray sources are associated with the spiral arm structure of galaxies. It is yet not clearly understood what effect such a cosmic ray source distribution has on the particle transport in our Galaxy. We use the PICARD code to perform high-resolution 3D simulations of electrons and protons in galactic propagation scenarios that include four-arm and two-arm logarithmic spiral cosmic ray source distributions with and without a central bar structure as well as the spiral arm configuration of the NE2001 model for the distribution of free electrons in the Milky Way. Results of these simulation are compared to an axisymmetric radial source distribution. Also, effects on the cosmic ray flux and spectra due to different positions of the Earth relative to the spiral structure are studied. We find that high energy electrons are strongly confined to their sources and the obtained spectra largely depend on the Earth's position relative to the spiral arms. Similar f...

  11. Design of a Ka-Band Propagation Terminal for Atmospheric Measurements in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Jacquelynne R.; Nessel, James A.; Zemba, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a Ka-Band beacon receiver developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) that will be installed alongside an existing Ka-Band Radiometer [2] located at the east end of the Svalbard Near Earth Network (NEN) complex. The goal of this experiment is to characterize rain fade attenuation to improve the performance of existing statistical rain attenuation models. The ground terminal developed by NASA GRC utilizes an FFT-based frequency estimation [3] receiver capable of characterizing total path attenuation effects due to gaseous absorption, clouds, rain, and scintillation by directly measuring the propagated signal from the satellite Thor 7.

  12. Accurate calculation of the p Ka of trifluoroacetic acid using high-level ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazian, Mansoor; Zakery, Maryam; Noorbala, Mohammad R.; Coote, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    The p Ka value of trifluoroacetic acid has been successfully calculated using high-level ab initio methods such as G3 and CBS-QB3. Solvation energies have been calculated using CPCM continuum model of solvation at the HF and B3-LYP levels of theory with various basis sets. Excellent agreement with experiment (to within 0.4 p Ka units) was obtained using CPCM solvation energies at the B3-LYP/6-31+G(d) level (or larger) in conjunction with CBS-QB3 or G3 gas-phase energies of trifluoroacetic acid and its anion.

  13. Kas kollaste kaartide lõpp toob lõpu ka lapsesoodustusele? / Jarno Laur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laur, Jarno, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Erastamisväärtpaberite väljaandmise ja kasutamise lõpetamise eelnõust, millega lõpetataks ka lastega seotud 25 000 kroonine hinnasoodustus maa väljaostmisel. Sama ka Vali Uudised 13. jaan. 2005, lk. 2 ; Kuulutaja 13. jaan. 2006, lk. 4 ; Põhjarannik 13. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Lääne Elu 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Nädaline 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Hiiu Leht 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Lõunaleht 19. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Meie Maa 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 21. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Nädalaleht 13. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Valgamaalane 19. jaan. 2006, lk. 2

  14. Controlling the pKa of the bacteriorhodopsin Schiff base by use of artificial retinal analogues.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Artificial bacteriorhodopsin pigments based on synthetic retinal analogues carrying an electron-withdrawing CF3 substituent group were prepared. The effects of CF3 on the spectra, photocycles, and Schiff base pKa values of the pigments were analyzed. A reduction of 5 units in the pKa of the Schiff base is observed when the CF3 substituent is located at the C-13 polyene position, in the vicinity of the protonated Schiff base nitrogen. The results lead to the unambiguous characterization of the...

  15. Convergence of an adaptive Ka\\v{c}anov FEM for quasi-linear problems

    OpenAIRE

    Garau, Eduardo M.; Morin, Pedro; Zuppa, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    We design an adaptive finite element method to approximate the solutions of quasi-linear elliptic problems. The algorithm is based on a Ka\\v{c}anov iteration and a mesh adaptation step is performed after each linear solve. The method is thus \\emph{inexact} because we do not solve the discrete nonlinear problems exactly, but rather perform one iteration of a fixed point method (Ka\\v{c}anov), using the approximation of the previous mesh as an initial guess. The convergence of the method is prov...

  16. Kas kollaste kaartide lõpp toob lõpu ka lapsesoodustusele? / Jarno Laur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laur, Jarno, 1975-

    2006-01-01

    Erastamisväärtpaberite väljaandmise ja kasutamise lõpetamise eelnõust, millega lõpetataks ka lastega seotud 25 000 kroonine hinnasoodustus maa väljaostmisel. Sama ka Vali Uudised 13. jaan. 2005, lk. 2 ; Kuulutaja 13. jaan. 2006, lk. 4 ; Põhjarannik 13. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Lääne Elu 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Nädaline 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Hiiu Leht 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Lõunaleht 19. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Meie Maa 17. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Vooremaa 21. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Virumaa Nädalaleht 13. jaan. 2006, lk. 2 ; Valgamaalane 19. jaan. 2006, lk. 2

  17. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Ka Band Radio Science Experiments and the Effect of the Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami W.; Morabito, David

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the possibilities of utilizing the telecommunication links between spacecraft and Earth to examine changes in the phase/frequency, amplitude, and polarization of radio signals to investigate, specifically for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)mission utilizes X-band coherent (uplink and downlink) carrier Doppler and range for its gravity investigation Gravity team will also take advantage of Ka-band downlink signal Tropospheric calibration data from Advanced Water Vapor Radiometer (AWVR) will be used. The calibration of the received Ka band signal for the effect of the troposphere is discussed.

  18. Temperature Distribution Analysis of JAERI 60 kA HTS Lead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FUYoukun; T.Isono

    2003-01-01

    High temperature suprerconductor (HTS)current lead has an advantage in reducing electric power consumption of a refrigerator for a large current superconducting magnet system such as a fusion device. A fusion device requires more than 20 pairs of large current leads and each current capacity is about 60 kA. The conventional 60 kA current lead needs 100 kW electric power for refrigeration and a 2/3 reduction is available by the application of a HTS current lead.

  19. Design of a Ka-band Propagation Terminal for Atmospheric Measurements in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Jacquelynne R.; Nessel, James A.; Zemba, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of a Ka-Band beacon receiver developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) that will be installed alongside an existing Ka-Band Radiometer located at the east end of the Svalbard Near Earth Network (NEN) complex. The goal of this experiment is to characterize rain fade attenuation to improve the performance of existing statistical rain attenuation models. The ground terminal developed by NASA GRC utilizes an FFT-based frequency estimation receiver capable of characterizing total path attenuation effects due to gaseous absorption, clouds, rain, and scintillation by directly measuring the propagated signal from the satellite Thor 7.

  20. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Ka Band Radio Science Experiments and the Effect of the Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Sami W.; Morabito, David

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the possibilities of utilizing the telecommunication links between spacecraft and Earth to examine changes in the phase/frequency, amplitude, and polarization of radio signals to investigate, specifically for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO)mission utilizes X-band coherent (uplink and downlink) carrier Doppler and range for its gravity investigation Gravity team will also take advantage of Ka-band downlink signal Tropospheric calibration data from Advanced Water Vapor Radiometer (AWVR) will be used. The calibration of the received Ka band signal for the effect of the troposphere is discussed.

  1. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements VI (ARM-ACME VI) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, Sebastien [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    From October 1, 2015 through September 30, 2016, AAF deployed a Cessna 206 aircraft over the Southern Great Plains, collecting observations of trace gas mixing ratios over the ARM/SGP Central Facility. The aircraft payload included two Atmospheric Observing Systems (AOS Inc.) analyzers for continuous measurements of CO2, and a 12-flask sampler for analysis of carbon cycle gases (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O, 13CO2). The aircraft payload also includes solar/infrared radiation measurements. This research (supported by DOE ARM and TES programs) builds upon previous ARM-ACME missions. The goal of these measurements is to improve understanding of: (a) the carbon exchange of the ARM region; (b) how CO2 and associated water and energy fluxes influence radiative forcing, convective processes, and CO2 concentrations over the ARM region, and (c) how greenhouse gases are transported on continental scales.

  2. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  3. Working End of Robotic Arm on Phoenix

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This illustration shows some of the components on and near the end of the robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Primary and secondary blades on the scoop will aid in the collection of soil samples. A powered rasp will allow the arm to sample an icy layer expected to be about as hard as concrete. The thermal and electrical conductivity probe, which is one part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer, will assess how heat and electrons move through the soil from one spike to another of a four-spike electronic fork that will be pushed into the soil at different stages of digging by the arm.

  4. Featured Image: The Birth of Spiral Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    In this figure, the top panels show three spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster, imaged with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The bottom panels provide a comparison with three morphologically similar galaxies generated insimulations. The simulations run by Marcin Semczuk, Ewa okas, and Andrs del Pino (Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Poland) were designed to examine how the spiral arms of galaxies like the Milky Way may have formed. In particular, the group exploredthe possibility that so-called grand-design spiral arms are caused by tidal effects as a Milky-Way-like galaxy orbits a cluster of galaxies. The authors show that the gravitational potential of the cluster can trigger the formation of two spiral arms each time the galaxy passes through the pericenter of its orbit around the cluster. Check out the original paper below for more information!CitationMarcin Semczuk et al 2017 ApJ 834 7. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/1/7

  5. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  6. Characterizing spiral arm and interarm star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Kreckel, K; Schinnerer, E; Groves, B; Adamo, A; Hughes, A; Meidt, S

    2016-01-01

    Interarm star formation contributes significantly to a galaxy's star formation budget, and provides an opportunity to study stellar birthplaces unperturbed by spiral arm dynamics. Using optical integral field spectroscopy of the nearby galaxy NGC 628 with VLT/MUSE, we identify 391 HII regions at 35pc resolution over 12 kpc^2. Using tracers sensitive to the underlying gravitational potential, we associate HII regions with either arm (271) or interarm (120) environments. We find that most HII region physical properties (luminosity, size, metallicity, ionization parameter) are independent of environment. We calculate the fraction of Halpha luminosity due to the diffuse ionized gas (DIG) background contaminating each HII region, and find the DIG surface brightness to be higher within HII regions compared to the surroundings, and slightly higher within arm HII regions. Use of the temperature sensitive [SII]/Halpha line ratio map instead of the Halpha surface brightness to identify HII region boundaries does not ch...

  7. Fusion of hand and arm gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquin, D.; Benoit, E.; Sawada, H.; Ionescu, B.

    2005-12-01

    In order to improve the link between an operator and its machine, some human oriented communication systems are now using natural languages like speech or gesture. The goal of this paper is to present a gesture recognition system based on the fusion of measurements issued from different kind of sources. It is necessary to have some sensors that are able to capture at least the position and the orientation of the hand such as Dataglove and a video camera. Datagloge gives a measure of the hand posture and a video camera gives a measure of the general arm gesture which represents the physical and spatial properties of the gesture, and based on the 2D skeleton representation of the arm. The measurements used are partially complementary and partially redundant. The application is distributed on intelligent cooperating sensors. The paper presents the measurement of the hand and the arm gestures, the fusion processes, and the implementation solution.

  8. Intra-operative robotics: NeuroArm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael J; Greer, Alexander D; Sutherland, Garnette R

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript describes the development and ongoing integration of neuroArm, an image-guided MR-compatible robot. A neurosurgical robotics platform was developed, including MR-compatible manipulators, or arms, with seven degrees of freedom, a main system controller, and a human-machine interface. This system was evaluated during pre-clinical trials and subsequent clinical application, combined with intra-operative MRI, at both 1.5 and 3.0 T. An MR-compatible surgical robot was successfully developed and merged with ioMRI at both 1.5 or 3.0 T. Image-guidance accuracy and microsurgical capability were established in pre-clinical trials. Early clinical experience demonstrated feasibility and showed the importance of a master-slave configuration. Surgeon-directed manipulator control improved performance and safety. NeuroArm successfully united the precision and accuracy of robotics with the executive decision-making capability of the surgeon.

  9. Latent Heating Profiles Derived from ARM Radar Observations in MC3E and GoAmazon Field Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Q.; Li, R.; Mu, Z.; Giangrande, S. E.; Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Atmosphere latent heating (LH) is released through water phase change processes in the atmosphere. There is a physical connection between LH rate and updraft velocity (ω) inside clouds. In this study, we develop a new LH algorithm based on a quantified LH-ω relationship found in cloud resolving model (CRM) simulations. The self-consistency check with CRM simulations shows that the retrievals correctly replicate the main features of LH profiles, including their total and individual components (i.e. condensation-evaporation heating rate, deposition-sublimation heating rate, and freezing-melting heating rate). Further, the algorithm is applied to real cases from the DOE-ARM MC3E and GoAmazon2014/6 Field Campaigns using available UHF (915 and 1290 MHz) zenith radar retrievals of vertical velocity and rain rate as input. The retrieved LH profiles in the deep convective rains show positive heating throughout the column, the LH profiles in the stratiform rains with well-defined bright-band showing clear dipole patterns with positive heating above and negative cooling below the freezing level. The altitudes of maximum heating in the widespread stratiform regimes are clearly higher than those found within deep convective regions. Overall, these Latent heating rate profiles, as an important geophysical quantity of interest, can provide useful climate diagnostic data, and ultimately, constraints for model-based analyses of large-scale heating distributions.

  10. The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowle, D. [Mission Research Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

  11. Phoenix Deploying its Robotic Arm Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animated gif is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) taken on Sol 3. It shows the stair-step motion used to unstow the arm from a protective covering called the biobarrier. The last two moves allow the arm to stand straight up. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Phoenix Deploying its Robotic Arm Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This animated gif is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) taken on Sol 3. It shows the stair-step motion used to unstow the arm from a protective covering called the biobarrier. The last two moves allow the arm to stand straight up. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Martian Soil Inside Phoenix's Robotic Arm Scoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) shows material from the Martian surface captured by the Robotic Arm (RA) scoop during its first test dig and dump on the seventh Martian day of the mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008). The test sample shown was taken from the digging area informally known as 'Knave of Hearts.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Testing the Robotic Arm Rasp on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Members of NASA Phoenix Mars Mission's Robotic Arm engineering team test the arm's motorized rasp in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. The testbed has a near-duplicate of the Phoenix lander for use in developing techniques to be used on Mars and for checking commands planned for the lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Phoenix Robotic Arm connects with `Alice'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm comes into contact with a rock informally named 'Alice' near the 'Snow White' trench. This image was acquired by Phoenix's NASA's Surface Stereo Imager on July 13 during the 48th Martian day, or sol, since Phoenix landed. For scale, the width of the scoop at the end of the arm is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Larsen, Esben Salling

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members...... with more diverse militaries, such as the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, include recognition of diversity as a societal imperative to sustain the legitimacy of the armed forces, the necessity of systematically collecting and reporting personnel data to guide policy, the necessity of patience...

  17. Two-Armed, Mobile, Sensate Research Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberger, J. F.; Roberts, W. Nelson; Ryan, David J.; Silverthorne, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The Anthropomorphic Robotic Testbed (ART) is an experimental prototype of a partly anthropomorphic, humanoid-size, mobile robot. The basic ART design concept provides for a combination of two-armed coordination, tactility, stereoscopic vision, mobility with navigation and avoidance of obstacles, and natural-language communication, so that the ART could emulate humans in many activities. The ART could be developed into a variety of highly capable robotic assistants for general or specific applications. There is especially great potential for the development of ART-based robots as substitutes for live-in health-care aides for home-bound persons who are aged, infirm, or physically handicapped; these robots could greatly reduce the cost of home health care and extend the term of independent living. The ART is a fully autonomous and untethered system. It includes a mobile base on which is mounted an extensible torso topped by a head, shoulders, and two arms. All subsystems of the ART are powered by a rechargeable, removable battery pack. The mobile base is a differentially- driven, nonholonomic vehicle capable of a speed >1 m/s and can handle a payload >100 kg. The base can be controlled manually, in forward/backward and/or simultaneous rotational motion, by use of a joystick. Alternatively, the motion of the base can be controlled autonomously by an onboard navigational computer. By retraction or extension of the torso, the head height of the ART can be adjusted from 5 ft (1.5 m) to 6 1/2 ft (2 m), so that the arms can reach either the floor or high shelves, or some ceilings. The arms are symmetrical. Each arm (including the wrist) has a total of six rotary axes like those of the human shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints. The arms are actuated by electric motors in combination with brakes and gas-spring assists on the shoulder and elbow joints. The arms are operated under closed-loop digital control. A receptacle for an end effector is mounted on the tip of the wrist and

  18. The quest for the bionic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Douglas T

    2014-06-01

    The current state of research of upper extremity prosthetic devices is focused on creating a complete prosthesis with full motor and sensory function that will provide amputees with a near-normal human arm. Although advances are being made rapidly, many hurdles remain to be overcome before a functional, so-called bionic arm is a reality. Acquiring signals via nerve or muscle inputs will require either a reliable wireless device or direct wiring through an osseous-integrated implant. The best way to tap into the "knowledge" present in the peripheral nerve is yet to be determined.

  19. Diversity in the Danish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Larsen, Esben Salling;

    The Danish Armed Forces face the functional imperative of becoming a smaller, professional expeditionary force and the societal imperative of including women and ethnic minorities. It currently lags behind its NATO partners in gender and ethnic diversity. Lessons to be learned from NATO members...... with more diverse militaries, such as the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, include recognition of diversity as a societal imperative to sustain the legitimacy of the armed forces, the necessity of systematically collecting and reporting personnel data to guide policy, the necessity of patience...

  20. Validation of multiple-Doppler analysis of convective clouds using the ARM multi-frequency radar network during MC3E

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, K. W.; Collis, S. M.; Giangrande, S. E.; Kollias, P.

    2012-12-01

    Convective processes play an important role in Earth's energy balance by redistributing heat and moisture throughout the atmosphere. Vertical air motions associated with these processes are inherently linked to the life cycle of these convective systems and are therefore directly tied to their energetic impacts. Despite this importance, the spatial and temporal scales of these vertical air motions are poorly understood and not accurately represented in convective parameterization schemes found in numerical weather prediction models. A radar data assimilation tool based on a 3-dimensional variational technique has been developed to study these vertical air motions within convective clouds. However, in order to trust the output of this tool, its sensitivities and accuracies need to be properly characterized. Scanning precipitation radars located at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are used in the assimilation process to retrieve vertical air motions for selected convective cases during the recent Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E). Using a statistical approach, the veracity of these retrievals is evaluated by comparing them with observations from the UHF ARM Zenith-pointing Radar (UAZR) network located at SGP.

  1. Tallinna info- ja abitelefon toetab ka hättasattunud lapsi / Hille Tänavsuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tänavsuu, Hille, 1941-2014

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 16. jaan., lk. 5. Infotelefoni projektijuhi Herve Merivaldi sõnul ei sõanda lapsed lastekaitsetöötaja või politsei poole pöörduda. Abitelefonile helistades aitavad dispetsherid neil ühendust saada inimestega, kes neid aidata võivad

  2. Internetiside VoIP sobib ka ettevõtteile / Valdur Laid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laid, Valdur, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 8. juuni lk. 19. Kommunikatsiooni liikumisest internetti ehk IP-võrku ning selle võimalustest ettevõtjaile. Vt. samas: Väikefirmade IP-lahendus jõuab aasta lõpus massturule

  3. 35 ka BP climate simulations in East Asia and probing the mechanisms of climate changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ge; ZHENG Yiqun; KE Xiankun

    2005-01-01

    Paleoclimate modeling has become an important tool to detect the future climate of the global warming that is difficult to be validated. The paleoclimate modeling has to be evaluated by regionally geological data in order to determine if it is able to reproduce a reality of climate states. Geological evidence shows that there was a warm-wet interstadial at 35000±3000 a BP in China, which provides an important climate period to be historical analogue for the future climate changes induced by greenhouse gas emissions. Integrated geological records of later phase of the MSI3 from China also provide basements for evaluation of 35 ka BP climate modeling. This paper reports the paleoclimate experiments applied by various forces, and validates the outputs by geological data, consequently improving the boundary conditions in the experiments and making the paleoclimates more approach the reality. The simulations show an increased temperature in the mid-low latitudes and an extended rain-belt northwards in East Asia, while a decreased temperature in high latitudes and a strong exchange of the N-S atmospheric circulation. As there is only ca. 10-15 ka from 35 ka BP to the LGM (21 ka BP) during which climate rapidly changed from a warm-wet interstadial to a typical ice age, this simulation provides scientific basis to recognize the criteria of global warming and trends of natural climate development.

  4. Liha tootmine : [2000-2004 Eestis liikide kaupa, s.h. ka kitseliha] / Matti Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirsalu, Matti, 1947-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Agriculture and the development of rural life : overview 2004/2005. - Tallinn, 2005, lk. 20-22. 2004. a. vähenes sealihatoodang 3%, lamba- ja kitseliha toodang 25%.Veise- ja linnuliha tootmine kasvas kubki 5%. Tabel: Lihatoodang aastatel 2000-2004

  5. Mahepõllumajandus : [1999-2004, ka ökomärgist] / Peeter Prass

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prass, Peeter

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Agriculture and the development of rural life : overview 2004/2005. - Tallinn, 2005, lk.43-45. Hinnanguliselt moodustas 2004. a. mahepõllundusega hõivatud maa üldisest põllumajandusmaast alla 5%. Piimalehmadest olid maheloomad veidi üle 2%. Diagrammid

  6. Computer Aided Design of Ka-Band Waveguide Power Combining Architectures for Interplanetary Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaden, Karl R.

    2006-01-01

    Communication systems for future NASA interplanetary spacecraft require transmitter power ranging from several hundred watts to kilowatts. Several hybrid junctions are considered as elements within a corporate combining architecture for high power Ka-band space traveling-wave tube amplifiers (TWTAs). This report presents the simulated transmission characteristics of several hybrid junctions designed for a low loss, high power waveguide based power combiner.

  7. Development of a 1 kA, 50 Hz Superconducting Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevtchenko, O.A.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; Fedorovsky, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A single-phase, thermally switched superconducting power converter operating at mains frequency is being developed and tested by the authors. Typical design values of the device are: input voltage of 220 V; input current of 7 A; output voltage of 1 V; and output current of 1 kA. The average output

  8. Results from Two Years of Ka-Band Propagation Characterization at Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, James A.; Morse, Jacquelynne Rose; Zemba, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Over the several years, NASA plans to launch several earth science missions which are expected to achieve data throughputs of 5-40 terabits per day transmitted from low earth orbiting spacecraft to ground stations. The current S-band and X-band frequency allocations in use by NASA, however, are incapable of supporting the data rates required to meet this demand. As such, NASA is in the planning stages to upgrade its existing Near Earth Network (NEN) Polar ground stations to support Ka-band (25.5-27 GHz) operations. Consequently, it becomes imperative that characterization of propagation effects at these NEN sites is conducted to determine expected system performance, particularly at low elevation angles ((is) less than 10 deg) where spacecraft signal acquisition typically occurs. Since May 2011, NASA Glenn Research Center has installed and operated a Ka-band radiometer at the NEN site located in Svalbard, Norway. The Ka-band radiometer monitors the water vapor line, as well as 6 frequencies around 26.5 GHz at multiple elevation angles: 45 deg, 20 deg, and 10 deg. Two year data collection results indicate comparable performance to previously characterized northern latitude sites in the United States, i.e., Fairbanks, Alaska. It is observed that cloud cover at the Svalbard site remains the dominant loss mechanism for Ka-band links, resulting in a margin requirement of 4.1 dB to maintain link availability of 99% at 10 deg elevation.

  9. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1MRUA-2C3KA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1MRUA-2C3KA 1MRU 2C3K A A TPSHLSDRYELGEILGFGGMSEVHLARDLRLHRDVAVKV...HHHHHHHHHHHHH HHHH -----HHHH -- 0 1MRU... A 1MRUA GDSVD-ARSDV 1MRU A 1MRU...ILE CA 362 ASP CA 288 SER CA 245 1MRU

  10. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1MRUB-2C3KA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1MRUB-2C3KA 1MRU 2C3K B A MTTPSHLSDRYELGEILGFGGMSEVHLARDLRLHRDVAV...HH ---HHHHHHHHHHHHHH -------HHHH HHHH -- 0 1MRU... B 1MRUB GDSVD-A.../rmsd> 3.5074009895324707 1 1MRU... B 1MRUB

  11. Miil ja Vichmann ühiselt ka laevaäris / Hannes Sarv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarv, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    Olav Miili ja Marcel Vichmanni vahel jagamisele minev Ärimaja kontsern on seotud ka uute, AS-i Saaremaa Laevakompanii (SLK) käe all sõitvate parvlaevade ehitamisega. Samuti on ettevõtjad seotud AS-iga Tallinna Olümpiapurjespordikeskus

  12. Antarctic ice volume for the last 740 ka calculated with a simple ice sheet model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    2005-01-01

    Fluctuations in the volume of the Antarctic ice sheet for the last 740 ka are calculated by forcing a simple ice sheet model with a sea-level history (from a composite deep sea δ18O record) and a temperature history (from the Dome C deuterium record). Antarctic ice volume reaches maximum values of a

  13. Design and Evaluation of 275 kV-3 kA HTS Power Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, M.; Mukoyama, S.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Jun, T.; Liu, J.; Nakayama, R.; Hayakawa, N.; Wang, X.; Ishiyama, A.; Amemiya, N.; Hasegawa, T.; Saitoh, T.; Ohkuma, T.; Maruyama, O.

    A 275 kV 3 kA high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been developed in the Materials & Power Applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC) project. The cable is expected to be put to practical use as the backbone power line in the future because the capacity of 1.5 GW is about the same as overhead transmission lines. The 30 m cable has been designed on the basis of design values that had been obtained by various voltage tests, AC loss measurement tests, short circuit tests, and other elementary tests. Cable insulation was determined by the design stresses and test conditions based on IEC, JEC (Japan electrical standards), and other HTS demonstrations. This cable was also designed to withstand the short circuit test of 63 kA for 0.6 seconds and to have low losses, including AC loss and dielectric loss of 0.8 W/m at 3kA, 275 kV. Based on the design, a 30 m cable was manufactured, and short samples during this manufacturing process were confirmed to have the designed characteristics. Furukawa Electric prepared a demonstration of the 30 m cable with two terminations and a cable joint. The long-term test under a current of 3 kA, and test voltage determined from 30 years of insulation degradation has been conducted since November 2012 at Shenyang in China.

  14. Progress of 275 kV-3 kA YBCO HTS cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, M.; Mukoyama, S.; Amemiya, N.; Ishiyama, A.; Wang, X.; Aoki, Y.; Saito, T.; Ohkuma, T.; Maruyama, O.

    2011-11-01

    A 275 kV-3 kA high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been developed in the Materials & Power Applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC) project. AC loss reduction of a two-layer HTS conductor was undertaken by removing the edges of YBCO tapes with low critical current density. The HTS conductor using these tapes was fabricated, and low loss of 0.235 W/m at 3 kA rms was achieved. The 275 kV-3 kA cable was designed, and the 2 m model cables were fabricated. This cable had 325 mm 2 copper stranded former inside the HTS conductor and a 310 mm 2 copper shield layer on the HTS shield layer for over-current protection. These cables withstood an over-current of 63.0 kA for 0.6 s, which is the worst situation for 275 kV systems. The partial discharge (PD) and V- t characteristics of a liquid nitrogen (LN 2)/polypropylene (PP) laminated paper composite insulation system have been integrated into the design of the insulation for the 275 kV cable. The results revealed that the PD inception stress (PDIE) did not depend on the insulation thickness, and that lifetime indices of V- t characteristics at PD inception were as high as about 80-100.

  15. Steerable K/Ka-Band Antenna For Land-Mobile Satellite Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Arthur; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Woo, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Prototype steerable microwave antenna tracks and communicates with geostationary satellite. Designed to mount on roof of vehicle and only 10 cm tall. K/Ka-band antenna rugged and compact to suit rooftop mobile operating environment. More-delicate signal-processing and control equipment located inside vehicle.

  16. Säästa tasub ka praegu / Märten Ross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ross, Märten, 1971-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 1. nov. lk. 9. Eesti Panga asepresident peab valeks kõrge inflatsiooni kartuses kostvaid soovitusi, et kroonisäästud tuleks kulutada millegi ostmiseks, ning leiab, et euro kindla vahetuskursi tõttu on Eesti kroon piisavalt kaitstud

  17. Ac loss measurements on a superconducting transformer for a 25 kA superconducting rectifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Mulders, J.M.; de Reuver, J.L.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Ac loss measurements have been performed on a superconducting transformer. The transformer is a part of a 25 kA thermally switched superconducting rectifier operating at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. The loss measurements have been automatized by means of a microcomputer sampling four relevant signals and

  18. Müügiga kimpus majaomanikud otsivad samal ajal ka rentnikke / Kaire Talviste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talviste, Kaire, 1979-

    2008-01-01

    Olukorrast eramute üüriturul: kinnisvaraportaalides on rendile pakkuda ligi paarsada maja, mida püütakse samal ajal ka edutult müüa, rendihinnad ulatuvad 30 000 - 50 000 kroonini kuus, eramuid üürivad peamiselt välismaalased

  19. USA tahab sõjaväkke ka ajutisi sisserändajaid / Liisi Poll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poll, Liisi, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    USA soovib sõjaväkke hakata värbama ka sisserändajaid, kellel on riigis viibimiseks vaid ajutine luba, kuna Iraagis ja Afganistanis venivate konfliktide tõttu vajab vabatahtlikkusel põhinev armee uusi sõdureid

  20. Evaluation and Performance Analysis of 3D Printing Technique for Ka-Band Antenna Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armendariz, Unai; Rommel, Simon; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design and fabrication of 3D printed WR-28 waveguide horn antennas operating in the Ka-band frequency range between 26.5GHz and 40GHz. Three antennas are fabricated from polylactide acid filaments in conductive and non-conductive variants; the latter is covered...