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Sample records for k88 k99 f41

  1. The detection of K88, K99 fimbrial antigen and enterotoxin genes of Escherichia coli isolated from piglets and calves with diarrhoea in Indonesia

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    Supar

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC strains cause diarrhoeal disease in piglets and calves in Indonesia. These strains possess two virulence factors namely attachment and enterotoxin antigens . These factors could be detected phenotypically and genetically. Haemolytic Escherichia coli (E coli isolates possessing K88 fimbrial antigen associated with 0-group 108 and 149. They were positive for K88 gene and demonstrated their ability to produce heat labile enterotoxin (LT and genetically were all positive for LT gene . Seventeen isolates ofE coli K88 which associated with 0-group 149 were positive forSTb gene, other O-serotypes were negative . Ten isolates of Ecoli K88 which associated with 0-group 108 possessed K88, K99, LT and STa genes, but negative for STb gene . However, phenotypically the K99 antigen and STa toxin were not expressed under laboratory conditions, the reason was not well understood . E. coli K99 strains isolated from calves wit h diarrhoea were all associated with 0-group 9 and produced STa toxin when tested by suckling mousse bioassay. The E. coli K99 calf isolates were all hybridized with K99 and STa gene only . It is likely that K99 gene is associated with STa gene . The DNA hybridization technique is more convenience to be used for confirmation diagnosis of colibacillosis, however, not all veterinary laboratories could perform these tests .

  2. Passive immunity in cattle against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: serologic evaluation of a bacterin containing K99 and F41 fimbriae in colostrum of vaccinated females and calf serum Imunidade passiva contra Escherichia coli enterotoxigênica: avaliação sorológica de uma bacterina contendo as fímbrias K99 e F41 no colostro de fêmeas vacinadas e no soro de bezerros

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    H.C.P. Figueiredo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A bacterin from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, containing fimbriae K99 and F41, was produced and its capacity to induce anti-K99 and anti-F41 antibodies in colostrum of vaccinated cows and in calf serum, and the persistence of these antibodies in neonates were determined. Three experiments were performed on two commercial farms. In all experiments animals were allotted randomly to the blocks, each block consisting of two pregnant females (a vaccinated one and a control one and their respective calves. In experiment A (farm 1, comprised of 18 blocks, the animals received a vaccine dose 30 days before delivery. In experiment B (farm 1, consisted of 26 blocks, the animals received two vaccine doses (60 and 30 days before delivery. In experiment C (farm 2, consisted of 22 blocks, the animals received two vaccine doses (60 and 30 days before delivery. In experiments A and B pregnant cows and heifers were used and colostrum and serum from 24- to 36-hour-old calves were collected. In experiment C, pregnant embryo-recipient heifers were used and colostrum and sera from calves at 7, 14, 28 and 42 days of age were collected. Anti-K99 and anti-F41 antibodies were detected by ELISA using purified K99 and F41 fimbrial antigens. In experiment A no difference between treated and control groups was observed for the concentration of anti-K99 and anti-F41 antibodies in colostrum and calf serum. In experiment B a difference (PProduziu-se uma bacterina de Escherichia coli enterotoxigênica (ETEC contendo as fímbrias K99 e F41 e avaliaram-se a capacidade de indução de anticorpos anti-K99 e anti F-41 no colostro de vacas vacinadas e no soro de bezerros e a persistência dos anticorpos nos neonatos. Três experimentos foram realizados em duas fazendas comerciais. Os animais foram aleatoriamente alocados em blocos, de duas fêmeas prenhes (uma vacinada e outra controle e seus respectivos bezerros. No experimento A (fazenda 1, com 18 blocos, os animais

  3. Monoclonal antibodies against the K99 antigen of Escherichia coli for diagnostic purposes.

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    Angulo, A F; Jansen, W H; Osterhaus, A D; Uytdehaag, F G; Maas, H M; Guinée, P A

    1986-04-01

    Hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies against the K99 antigen of Escherichia coli were produced by the fusion of spleen cells from immunized BALB/c mice with P3/X63-Ag8.653 myeloma cells. The seven hybridomas which produced the highest antibody titers in vitro, as detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Perma slide agglutination test (PSAT), were chosen for antibody production in vivo. No cross reaction was observed with K88ab, F41 and P987 antigens in the ELISA. The titer of each ascitic fluid was established by the ELISA and the slide agglutination (SAT) tests. The two ascitic fluids with the highest titer in the SAT were incorporated into the set of antisera used for serotyping at our laboratory. The results were satisfactory both in terms of stability and specificity.

  4. A genome-wide association analysis for susceptibility of pigs to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F41.

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    Ji, H Y; Yang, B; Zhang, Z Y; Ouyang, J; Yang, M; Zhang, X F; Zhang, W C; Su, Y; Zhao, K W; Xiao, S J; Yan, X M; Ren, J; Huang, L S

    2016-10-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a type of pathogenic bacteria that cause diarrhea in piglets through colonizing pig small intestine epithelial cells by their surface fimbriae. Different fimbriae type of ETEC including F4, F18, K99 and F41 have been isolated from diarrheal pigs. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study to map the loci associated with the susceptibility of pigs to ETEC F41 using 39454 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 667 F2 pigs from a White Duroc×Erhualian F2 cross. The most significant SNP (ALGA0022658, P=5.59×10-13) located at 6.95 Mb on chromosome 4. ALGA0022658 was in high linkage disequilibrium (r 2>0.5) with surrounding SNPs that span a 1.21 Mb interval. Within this 1.21 Mb region, we investigated ZFAT as a positional candidate gene. We re-sequenced cDNA of ZFAT in four pigs with different susceptibility phenotypes, and identified seven coding variants. We genotyped these seven variants in 287 unrelated pigs from 15 diverse breeds that were measured with ETEC F41 susceptibility phenotype. Five variants showed nominal significant association (P<0.05) with ETEC F41 susceptibility phenotype in International commercial pigs. This study provided refined region associated with susceptibility of pigs to ETEC F41 than that reported previously. Further works are needed to uncover the underlying causal mutation(s).

  5. [Isolation of an agglutinating anti-E. coli K 88+ serum].

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    Petkov, M; Belchev, K; Ganovski, D

    1981-01-01

    An agglutinating anti-K 88+ serum was obtained through immunizing rabbits with geometrically rising amounts of cell-free K 88 antigenic extraction. Use was made of bacterial suspensions cultured in Minka agar and homogenized at 8000 r. p. m. to remove the K 88 pili. The cell depot was removed by centrifugation at 15 000 r. p. m., and the protein in the supernatant was determined by the method of Kingsey. The titer of the K88 serum was within the 1:320-1:640 range. The specificity and activity of the serum was evaluated by the hemagglutination test, immunoelectrophoresis, and immunodiffusion. The serum is highly specific and yields positive agglutination results with all K 88+ Escherichia coli strains. It does not react with antigen - K 88-negative E. coli organisms as well as with the O antigen of the investigated strains.

  6. K88 Fimbrial Adhesin Targeting of Microspheres Containing Gentamicin Made with Albumin Glycated with Lactose

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    Andre-i Sarabia-Sainz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The formulation and characterization of gentamicin-loaded microspheres as a delivery system targeting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88 was investigated. Glycated albumin with lactose (BSA-glucose-β (4-1 galactose was used as the microsphere matrix (MS-Lac and gentamicin included as the transported antibiotic. The proposed target strategy was that exposed galactoses of MS-Lac could be specifically recognized by E. coli K88 adhesins, and the delivery of gentamicin would inhibit bacterial growth. Lactosylated microspheres (MS-Lac1, MS-Lac2 and MS-Lac3 were obtained using a water-in-oil emulsion, containing gentamicin, followed by crosslinking with different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Electron microscopy displayed spherical particles with a mean size of 10–17 µm. In vitro release of gentamicin from MS-Lac was best fitted to a first order model, and the antibacterial activity of encapsulated and free gentamicin was comparable. MS-Lac treatments were recognized by plant galactose-specific lectins from Ricinus communis and Sophora japonica and by E. coli K88 adhesins. Results indicate MS-Lac1, produced with 4.2 mg/mL of crosslinker, as the best treatment and that lactosylated microsphere are promising platforms to obtain an active, targeted system against E. coli K88 infections.

  7. K88 Fimbrial Adhesin Targeting of Microspheres Containing Gentamicin Made with Albumin Glycated with Lactose

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    Sarabia-Sainz, Andre-i; Sarabia-Sainz, Hector Manuel; Ramos-Clamont Montfort, Gabriela; Mata-Haro, Veronica; Guzman-Partida, Ana María; Guzman, Roberto; Garcia-Soto, Mariano; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz

    2015-01-01

    The formulation and characterization of gentamicin-loaded microspheres as a delivery system targeting enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (E. coli K88) was investigated. Glycated albumin with lactose (BSA-glucose-β (4-1) galactose) was used as the microsphere matrix (MS-Lac) and gentamicin included as the transported antibiotic. The proposed target strategy was that exposed galactoses of MS-Lac could be specifically recognized by E. coli K88 adhesins, and the delivery of gentamicin would inhibit bacterial growth. Lactosylated microspheres (MS-Lac1, MS-Lac2 and MS-Lac3) were obtained using a water-in-oil emulsion, containing gentamicin, followed by crosslinking with different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. Electron microscopy displayed spherical particles with a mean size of 10–17 µm. In vitro release of gentamicin from MS-Lac was best fitted to a first order model, and the antibacterial activity of encapsulated and free gentamicin was comparable. MS-Lac treatments were recognized by plant galactose-specific lectins from Ricinus communis and Sophora japonica and by E. coli K88 adhesins. Results indicate MS-Lac1, produced with 4.2 mg/mL of crosslinker, as the best treatment and that lactosylated microsphere are promising platforms to obtain an active, targeted system against E. coli K88 infections. PMID:26389896

  8. Adsorptive property of Cu2+-loaded montmorillonite clays for Escherichia coli K88 in vitro

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    Tong Guo; Shoujun Cao; Rui Su; Zhiqiang Li; Ping Hu; Zirong Xu

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption properties of Cu2+-loaded montmorillonite clays (MMT-Cu) for Escherichia coli K88 as a function of time,bacteria concentrations,pH,ionic strength and temperature were investigated.The results showed that the bacteria adsorption onto MMT-Cu surface reached equilibrium after 90 min.The percentages of E.coli K88 adsorbed onto the surfaces of MMT-Cu and montmorillonite clays (MMT) at equilibrium were 88.9% and 56.5%,respectively.Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a lot of E.coli K88 adhered to the surface of MMT-Cu.The zeta potential of MMT-Cu was relatively high as compared to that of MMT.The adsorptive ability of MMT-Cu for E.coli K88 was higher than that of MMT (P < 0.05).Moreover,pH,ionic strength and temperature produced a strong influence on the extent of E.coli K88 adsorption to surface of MMT-Cu and MMT.The mechanism of adsorption of E.coli onto MMT-Cu may involve electrostatic attraction and physiochemical properties of bacterial cell walls and minerals surfaces.

  9. Peranan Zona Pelusida Sebagai Barier Terhadap Cemaran Escherichia coli K99 (THE ROLE OF ZONA PELLUCIADA AS A BARRIER OF E COLI K99 CONTAMINATION

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    I Wayan Batan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the role of zona pelucida (ZP as a barrier of embryo againstE.coli K99 contamination.   The complete randomized design was used in this study.  The embryos weregiven treatment as a follow : 1 embryos without ZP were contaminated with E.coli K99;  2 embryo withintact ZP were contaminated with E.coli K99;  and  3 embryos  with intact ZP were not contaminated withE.coli K99, as a control.  In each treatment there was 15 replication and in each replication there was oneembryo.  The embryos were incubated in incubator at 37°C and 5% CO2 atmosphere.  The embryos wereobserved every six hours in 24 hours using inverted microscope.  The result showed that embryos withintact ZP could develop in culture contaminated with  E.coli K99, while embryos without ZP becomedegenerated.  The viability of intact embryos was 75% and the embryos without ZP were 65%.  Embryosculture in contaminated medium could develop from eight cells embryo into morulla stage of embryo,compact morulla, and blastocyst. E.coli K99 contamination could inhibit embryo development.  In conclusion,ZP could protect embryo against E.coli K99 contamination.

  10. Isolation and Characterization of a Lytic Bacteriophage of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88%大肠杆菌K88噬菌体的分离鉴定及其生物学特性

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    王冉; 韩晗; 张辉; 包红朵; 王恬

    2012-01-01

    分离鉴定裂解性产肠毒素性大肠杆菌( ETEC) K88噬菌体,并研究其生物学特性及裂菌效力.用双层平板法从猪场污水中分离噬菌体,通过透射电镜和酶切基因组对获得的噬菌体进行鉴定;同时测定了噬菌体最佳感染复数、一步生长曲线、酸碱稳定性、热稳定性等噬菌体的生物学特性及其体外裂菌效力.结果表明分离获得了一株产肠毒素性大肠杆菌K88强裂解性噬菌体,命名为PK88-4;其噬菌斑清晰透亮,周围无晕环;电镜显示:其头部呈正多面体对称,有可伸缩性尾部;核酸类型为双链DNA(基因组大小约60 kb);该噬菌体能耐受60℃左右高温、在pH值为5 ~10内效价稳定;最佳感染复数为0.01;潜伏期为10 min,暴发期为40 min,裂解量为40;在5h内对培养液中的大肠杆菌杀灭率将近100%.PK88-4是一株强裂解性肌尾科大肠杆菌K88噬菌体,具有裂解周期短、杀菌能力强等特点,为畜牧业防治产肠毒素性大肠杆菌K88感染提供了新的思路.%To isolate and characterize the lytic bacteriophage that might be used in prevention and treatment of porcine postweaning diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic E. coli K88 (ETEC-K88). E. coli expressing the K88 adhesin on their surface is a common cause of diarrhea in newborn and weaned piglets. Mixtures of 3 strains of ETEC K88 were used as hosts for isolation of phages in sewage from 22 pig farms. The isolated phage was characterized at the microbiological and molecular levels. The optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) , one-step growth curve, Thermo-and pH stability, lytic effective in vitro of the isolated bacteriophage were investigated. One phages that lysed ETEC K88 was isolated by double-layer agar plate method and named PK88-4. The phage produced large,clear plaques. The electron microscope showed the phage had necks and contractile tails and therefore belonged to the Myoviridae. The estimated genome size was about 60 kb

  11. In Vitro Effects of Thymol-β-D-Glucopyranoside on Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli K88.

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    Levent, G; Harvey, R B; Ciftcioglu, G; Beier, R C; Genovese, K J; He, H L; Anderson, R C; Nisbet, D J

    2016-02-01

    Although thymol is bactericidal against many pathogens in vitro, its in vivo effectiveness against pathogens in the lower gastrointestinal tract is limited because of its rapid absorption in the proximal gut. Thymol-β-D-glucopyranoside (β-thymol), a conjugated form of thymol, can deliver thymol to the lower gastrointestinal tract and has shown antibacterial effects. In the present study, we examined the in vitro effects of β-thymol on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) and Escherichia coli K88 (K88). We inoculated one-half strength Mueller-Hinton broth with 5.8 ± 0.09 log CFU/ml novobiocin- and naladixic acid-resistant (NN) ST (NVSL 95-1776) and 5.1 ± 0.09 log CFU ml(-1) NN-resistant K88, with or without porcine feces (0.1% [wt/vol]) (fecal incubations). The resultant bacterial suspensions were distributed under N2 to triplicate sets of tubes to achieve initial concentrations of 0, 3, 6, and 12 mM for ST treatments and 0, 3, 12, and 30 mM for K88 treatments. Samples were incubated at 39°C and then plated onto NN-containing brilliant green agar and NN-containing MacConkey agar; ST and K88 CFU concentrations were determined via 10-fold dilutions, and viable cell counts were performed at 0, 6, and 24 h. No differences in ST CFU counts were observed in β-thymol-treated tubes without the added porcine feces (i.e., pure culture) at 6 or 24 h. However, in tubes that contained fecal incubations, ST CFU counts were reduced (P < 0.05) from controls at 6 h in tubes treated with 6 and 12 mM β-thymol, whereas in tubes treated with 3, 6, and 12 mM β-thymol the CFU counts were reduced (P < 0.05) at 24 h. No differences were observed in K88 CFU counts in pure culture or in fecal incubations at 6 h, but K88 CFU counts were reduced (P < 0.05) in both pure and fecal incubations at 24 h. The results from this study demonstrate that β-thymol, in the presence of fecal suspensions, has anti-Salmonella and anti-E. coli effects, suggesting a role of

  12. Effect of different butyrate supplementations on growth and health of weaning pigs challenged or not with E. coli K88

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    Paolo Trevisi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a full factorial design (4 diets X challenge, Yes/No, 72 weaning pigs were assigned to one of the diets: Control; experimental diets, obtained with the addition of 2 g/kg free sodium butyrate (fNaB, or 0.6 g/kg fat-protected sodium butyrate (pNaB, or 2 g/kg INVE-NutriAd commercial mixture (Mix, based on 75 g/kg protected butyrate. Oral challenge with Escherichia coli K88 was done on 2/3 of pigs on d 7. Pigs were slaughtered on d 13. The mortality in challenged pigs, tended to be higher in control group (50.0% than in the three supplemented groups (23.5%. Growth tended to be increased averagely by the supplements (p=0.100 after the challenge, that also significantly reduced growth. In general the diet did not affect the fecal shedding of Escherichia coli and Lactobacilli, the K88-specific IgA activity in blood, the morphology of oxyntic mucosa and the expression of H+/K+-ATPase gene. The supplementations tended to increase villous length of jejunum (p=0.101. On the whole, growth, villous height and surviving rate can be positively affected either when the supplementation is done by free butyrate, by protected butyrate or by the special Inve Nutri-Ad product and these effects are distributed both on pigs infected or not with Escherichia coli K88.

  13. RESPONS ANTIBODI ANTI ETEC K99 PADA INDUK SAPI BUNTING SETELAH PEMBERIAN VAKSIN ESCHERICHIA COLI POLIVALEN

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    Anita Esfandiari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to detect antibody (IgG against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETECK99 in the blood of cows vaccinated by Escherichia coli polyvalent vaccine. Eight dry cows were injectedsubcutaneously by polyvalent Escherichia coli twice prior to parturition. Before vaccinated, the cows were givenimmunomodulator orally for 3 days. Blood samples were drawn from coccigeal vein prior to the 1st vaccination,two week following the 1st vaccination and at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after the 2nd vaccination. Blood samples wereanalyzed for IgG and ETEC K99 using indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA assay. Results of theexperiment indicated that absorbance values of all vaccinated cows before the first vaccination until third weekfollowing the 2nd vaccination were below cut off values. The absorbance values then increased and were above cutoff values at fourth week following the 2nd vaccination. In conclusion, antibody against ETEC K99, were detected inthe blood of cows, fourth week following the 2nd vaccination.

  14. Chito-oligosaccharide reduces diarrhea incidence and attenuates the immune response of weaned pigs challenged with Escherichia coli K88.

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    Liu, P; Piao, X S; Thacker, P A; Zeng, Z K; Li, P F; Wang, D; Kim, S W

    2010-12-01

    Seventy-two barrows (Landrace × Large White, initial BW of 4.9 ± 0.3 kg and 17 ± 3 d old) were used to determine if dietary chito-oligosaccharides can replace antibiotics as a means to reduce signs associated with infection in weaned pigs challenged with Escherichia coli. Pigs were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design using 6 pens per treatment with 3 pigs per pen. The treatments consisted of pigs fed the unsupplemented corn-soybean meal diet challenged or unchallenged with E. coli K88 and pigs fed the same diet supplemented with 160 mg of chito-oligosaccharides or 100 mg of cyadox/kg and challenged with E. coli K88. On d 7, 1 group of pigs fed the unsupplemented diet, as well as all pigs fed diets containing chito-oligosaccharides or cyadox, were orally dosed with 30 mL of an alkaline broth containing E. coli K88. Another group of pigs fed the unsupplemented diet was orally dosed with 30 mL of sterilized alkaline broth. Fecal consistency was visually assessed each morning from d 7 to 14. Blood samples were collected at 0, 24, 48, and 168 h postinfection. On d 14 postchallenge, all pigs were killed to evaluate intestinal morphology and determine E. coli concentrations in the intestine. During the postchallenge period (wk 2), unsupplemented pigs challenged with E. coli had decreased (P diarrhea incidence, E. coli counts in the intestine, plasma interleukin-1β, plasma IL-10, and IGA-positive cells in the jejunal and ileal lamina propria, compared with unchallenged pigs. Supplementation with cyadox largely mitigated these effects. Although chito-oligosaccharide reduced the incidence of diarrhea, the growth performance of E. coli-challenged pigs supplemented with chito-oligosaccharide was not better than that of unsupplemented pigs challenged with E. coli. Therefore, chito-oligosaccharide, at the amount used in this experiment, does not seem to be an effective substitute for antibiotics as a growth promoter for newly weaned pigs

  15. K88M METAR

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  16. Transformation and Expression of gfp Gene into Escherich coli K88%动物病原大肠杆菌K88的绿色荧光蛋白基因标记及其稳定性研究

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    车建美; 刘波; 蓝江林

    2010-01-01

    成功地将gfp/luxAB双标记基因整合到K88染色体上,得到绿色荧光蛋白基因标记的大肠杆菌K88:gfp/lux,其菌体和菌落形态与原始菌株K88完全一致,引入的新质粒不影响菌株的基本形态.从含gfp基因的质粒DNA和K88:gfp/lux基因组DNA上均可扩增出大小约700 bp的gfp基因片段.大肠杆菌特异性基因检测结果表明,从大肠杆菌K88K88:gfp/lux基因组DNA上均扩增出大小约260 bp的大肠杆菌特异性基因片段,说明gfp基因标记后的菌株均为大肠杆菌.在相同的培养条件下,K88:gfp/lux和K88的生长曲线的变化趋势基本相同.通过检测肠毒性基因(estA)发现,从大肠杆菌K88K88:gfp/lux基因组DNA上均扩增出大小约158 bp的肠毒性基因片段,说明gfp基因标记后的菌株在肠毒性方面未发生变化.在无选择压力条件下将K88:gfp/lux菌株每隔12 h连续转接10次后,所有菌落均保持着均匀并且强烈的绿色荧光,说明标记基因在K88:gfp/lux中的表达稳定性很高.K88:gfp/lux和K88在中性偏酸性的环境中生长较好,当初始pH值偏碱性时,生长较差.

  17. Evaluation of Colicin Effect on the Induction of Treated Mice in Prevention of Infection Caused by Escherichia coli K99

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    Yahya Tahamtan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Colicin produce by colicinogenic E. coli (CEC arenarrow limited spectrum antimicrobial agents that are able to kill or prevent close related strains. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluation effect of Colicin to induce immunized mice to prevent infection caused by E. coliK99. Patient and Methods. The experiment was conducted into two mice groups (30 in each group with two weeks old. All mice were administered by streptomycin sulfate prior to treatment to eliminate resident E. coli. Group one was orally inoculated with PBS as control and the second was immunized by Colicin solution as immunize group. Both control and immunized group were challenged by 3 LD 50 of E. coli K99 and follow a week. Results. Immunized mice group were not showed severe clinical signs. While diarrhea with different sings of colibaccillosis was established in control group and infected mice was died. Conclusion. Overuse antibiotics developed serious new types of multi drug resistance in human medicine and therefore has limited their use in farm animals. The study indicates the use of Colicin and biotherapy instead of antibiotic is more safe and efficient for control of E. coliK99 infection. Immunized mice by Colicin solution protected E. coli K99 colonization and reduce fecal shedding. Investigation in livestock for applying Colicin in farm animal is recommended.

  18. Oral challenge with E.coli K88 as a tool to assess growth and health performance in feeding trials of-weaned pigs

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    P. Bonilauri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of dietary solutions for weaning pigs is problematic. In field situations, an accurate control of replications is difficult and disturbing factors are hardly removed; in experimental farm, hygienic conditions are in general superior to practical farms. In the study of alternatives to in-feed antibiotics the challenge with K88 E.coli has been often proposed. The predisposition to this colibacillosis is, at least partially, genetically controlled and depends on the presence of intestinal receptors for the F4 fimbrial antigens of K88 E.coli...

  19. A proteinaceous fraction of wheat bran may interfere in the attachment of enterotoxigenic E. coli K88 (F4+) to porcine epithelial cells.

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    González-Ortiz, Gemma; Bronsoms, Sílvia; Quarles Van Ufford, H C; Halkes, S Bart A; Virkola, Ritva; Liskamp, Rob M J; Beukelman, Cees J; Pieters, Roland J; Pérez, José Francisco; Martín-Orúe, Susana María

    2014-01-01

    Wheat bran (WB) from Triticum aestivum has many beneficial effects on human health. To the best of our knowledge, very little has been published about its ability to prevent pathogenic bacterial adhesion in the intestine. Here, a WB extract was fractionated using different strategies, and the obtained fractions were tested in different in vitro methodologies to evaluate their interference in the attachment of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) with the aim of identifying the putative anti-adhesive molecules. It was found that a proteinaceous compound in the >300-kDa fraction mediates the recognition of ETEC K88 to IPEC-J2. Further fractionation of the >300-kDa sample by size-exclusion chromatography showed several proteins below 90 kDa, suggesting that the target protein belongs to a high-molecular-weight (MW) multi-component protein complex. The identification of some relevant excised bands was performed by mass spectrometry (MS) and mostly revealed the presence of various protease inhibitors (PIs) of low MW: Serpin-Z2B, Class II chitinase, endogenous alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM3. Furthermore, an incubation of the WB extract with ETEC K88 allowed for the identification of a 7S storage protein globulin of wheat, Globulin 3 of 66 kDa, which may be one of the most firmly attached WB proteins to ETEC K88 cells. Further studies should be performed to gain an understanding of the molecular recognition of the blocking process that takes place. All gathered information can eventually pave the way for the development of novel anti-adhesion therapeutic agents to prevent bacterial pathogenesis.

  20. Effect of dietary addition of free or fat-protected calcium formate on growth, intestinal morphology and health of Escherichia coli k88 challenged weaning pigs

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    G. Merialdi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of adding organic acid to diets for weaning pigs is quite established. An improvement of growth after weaning has been averagely demonstrated with a meta-analysis of feeding trials (Partanen and Mroz, 1999. However data showing that organic acids can positively counteract the presence of post-weaning diarrhoea and of enterotoxigenic E. coli k88 (ETEC (Tsiloyiannis et al., 2001 contrast with the absence of positive results in ETEC challenged pigs (Risley et al., 1993.

  1. A novel watery diarrhoea caused by the co-infection of neonatal piglets with Clostridium perfringens type A and Escherichia coli (K88, 987P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaocen; Ren, Wenzhi; Nie, Ying; Cheng, Liqing; Tan, Wei; Wang, Chong; Wei, Libin; Zhang, Rui; Yan, Guangmou

    2013-09-01

    In 2011, a novel watery diarrhoea in 1-7 day-old piglets occurred in Changchun, China, characterized by high pathogenicity and mortality. Investigation of clinical signs, examination for viruses, and isolation and identification of bacteria showed that co-infection by Clostridium perfringens type A and Escherichia coli (K88, 987P) was the most likely cause of the disease. Newborn piglets challenged with a mixture of Clostridium perfringens type A and Escherichia coli (K88, 987P) died within 3 days with clinical signs and gross lesions similar to those in the piglets that died in the outbreak. A subsequent study showed that the use in sows of an inactivated vaccine against the two causal bacteria was effective at reducing the incidence of the watery diarrhoea in piglets. Piglets from sows given the inactivated vaccine had a incidence of watery diarrhoea of 8% (14/175), much lower than the 95% (192/201) seen in piglets from control sows. This is the first report of diarrhoea in piglets resulting from co-infection of Clostridium perfringens type A and Escherichia coli (K88, 987P). Further studies are required to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of dietary supplementation of bacteriophages against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 on clinical symptoms of post-weaning pigs challenged with the ETEC pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C Y; Kim, S J; Park, B C; Han, J H

    2017-02-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of bacteriophages (phages) against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 as a therapy against the ETEC infection in post-weaning pigs. Two groups of post-weaning pigs aged 35 days, eight animals per group, were challenged with 3.0 × 10(10) colony forming units of ETEC K88, a third group given the vehicle. The unchallenged group and one challenged group were fed a basal nursery diet for 14 days while the remaining challenged group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 1.0 × 10(7) plaque forming units of the phage per kg. Average daily gain (ADG), goblet cell density and villous height:crypt depth (VH:CD) ratio in the intestine were less in the challenged group than in the unchallenged group within the animals fed the basal diet (p therapy is effective for alleviation of acute ETEC K88 infection in post-weaning pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Passive immunisation of neonatal lambs against infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli via colostrum of ewes immunised with crude and purified K99 pili.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, K; Mukkur, T K

    1983-09-01

    Lambs sucking ewes immunised four to five weeks before parturition with crude preparations of K99 and purified K99 pili of single subunit composition were protected against challenge infection with heterologous enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. In contrast, the majority of lambs sucking sham-immunised ewes suffered severe diarrhoea and dehydration, followed by death in nearly half of the affected lambs. Protection was related to the presence of antibody in the colostral whey and lamb sera. K99-specific antibody activity in the colostral whey was found to be confined to IgM and IgG (IgG1 and IgG2) but not to the IgA class.

  4. 产肠毒素大肠杆菌K88菌毛蛋白与大肠杆菌不耐热肠毒素b亚单位的原核表达及其鼻腔免疫效果%Prokaryotic expressions of K88 fimbrial protein of enterotoxigenic E.coli and E.coli heatlabile enterotoxin b subunit and their immune effects by intranasal route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜柯安; 贺志良; 宋方洲; 马永平

    2012-01-01

    目的 原核表达产肠毒素大肠杆菌(Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli,ETEC)K88菌毛蛋白与大肠杆菌不耐热肠毒素(Heat-labile enterotoxin,LT)b亚单位(LTb),并评价其鼻腔免疫效果.方法 采用PCR技术分别扩增不含信号肽的K88和LTb基因,克隆至表达载体pQE30中,构建重组表达质粒pQE30-K88和pQE30-LTb,转化大肠杆菌M15,IPTG诱导表达.表达的重组K88和LTb蛋白纯化、复性后,进行SDS-PAGE分析.分别用K88单独、K88联合LTb滴鼻免疫BALB/c小鼠,以生理盐水作为对照,每次间隔1周,共4次,末次免疫后10d,分离血清,并收集鼻腔和小肠黏膜冲洗液,间接ELISA法检测各组血清特异性IgG和黏膜sIgA抗体水平.结果 重组表达质粒pQE30-K88和pQE30-LTb经双酶切和测序证实构建正确;表达的重组K88和LTb蛋白相对分子质量分别为28 100和12 500,表达量分别约占菌体总蛋白的35%和40%,主要以包涵体形式存在;纯化复性后的重组蛋白纯度均可达95%以上.K88联合LTb滴鼻免疫组血清特异性IgG及鼻腔、小肠黏膜冲洗液中特异性SIgA水平均较K88单独免疫组和对照组明显增高,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 在大肠杆菌中高效表达并纯化了重组K88和LTb蛋白,K88联合LTb滴鼻免疫BALB/c小鼠后,可增强特异性血清抗体反应,且诱导了黏膜免疫应答,为将来开发新型的ETEC基因工程疫苗奠定了基础.%Objective To express the K88 fimbrial protein of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin b subunit (LTb) in prokaryotic cells and evaluate their immune effect by intranasal route. Methods K88 and LTB genes, containing no signal peptides, were amplified by PCR and cloned into expression vector pQE30, respectively. The constructed recombinant plasmids pQE30-K88 and pQE30-LTb were transformed to E. coli M15 and induced with IPTG. The expressed recombinant K88 and LTb proteins were purified and re-naturalized, then identified by

  5. A vaccine candidate for post-weaning diarrhea in swine constructed with a live attenuated Salmonella delivering Escherichia coli K88ab, K88ac, FedA, and FedF fimbrial antigens and its immune responses in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Jin; Stein, Barry D; Lee, John Hwa

    2012-07-01

    In order to construct a novel vaccine candidate for preventing post-weaning diarrhea in swine, the individual genes for Escherichia coli K88ab, K88ac, FedA, and FedF fimbriae were inserted into a secretion plasmid pBP244 containing asd, lepB, secA, and secB. These were transformed into Salmonella Typhimurium Δlon ΔcpxR Δasd. Secretion of the individual recombinant fimbrial antigens was confirmed by immunoblot analysis. Groups 1 and 2 mice received a single oral dose of the vaccine mixture and S. Typhimurium carrying pBP244 only as a control, respectively. In groups 3 and 4, mice were primed and boosted with the vaccine mixture and S. Typhimurium carrying pBP244 only as a control, respectively. In general, all immunized mice had significantly increased serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G (P immunized mice. Thus, the vaccine candidate can be highly immunogenic and be safe to the environment.

  6. 枯草芽孢杆菌对大肠杆菌K88感染仔猪小肠健康的影响%Effects of Bacillus subtilis on the Small Intestine Healthy of Piglet Administered with Escherichia coli K88

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海花; 陈海明; 吴崇义; 朱琪; 王文杰

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to study the effects of Bacillus subtilis(B. subtilis) on small intestine devel-opment and microflora of piglet administered with Escherichia coli (E. coli) K88. All eight castrated "Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire"male piglet used in this experiment had similar initial body weight (6.8±0.5) kg, they were divided into two groups (control group and test group) of 4 replicates of 1 pigs fed in single pen. Test group was fed the basal diet, and the test group was fed basal diet with 0.1% B. subtilis, and there were seven-day test period. All piglets were administered orally with E. coli K88. The result showed that piglet fed B. subtilis had greater villus height in jejunum and ileum(P<0.05), lower crypt depth(P<0.05) in ileum, and greater ratio of villus height and crypt depth (P<0.01) in duodenum, jejunum and ileum compared to piglets fed the unsupplemented diet. Feeding a Bacillus subtilis diet decreased the E. coli amount (P<0.05) and increased the Lactobacillus amount(P<0.05) in jejunum and ileum. The results indicated that feeding a Bacillus subtilis diet could modify the small intestine development and microflora.%试验主要探讨饲粮中添加枯草芽孢杆菌对大肠杆菌K88感染仔猪小肠发育和微生物区系的影响。选取体重(6.8±0.5) kg的杜长大三元杂种去势公仔猪8头,随机区组均分为2组,每组4个重复,每头猪单栏饲养,对照组饲喂基础饲粮,试验组饲喂基础饲粮+0.1%枯草芽孢杆菌制剂,饲养试验结束前每头猪灌服致病性大肠杆菌K88菌液(1×1011 CFU)。试验结果表明,试验组仔猪比对照组显著提高空肠和回肠绒毛高度(P<0.05),显著降低回肠部位隐窝深度(P<0.05),极显著提高十二指肠、空肠和回肠绒毛高度/隐窝深度(P<0.01);显著降低空肠和回肠大肠杆菌数量(P<0.05),显著增加空肠和回肠乳酸杆菌数量(P<0.05)。结果提示,在仔猪感染致病性大肠杆菌K

  7. Effect of added dietary threonine on growth performance, health, immunity and gastrointestinal function of weaning pigs with differing genetic susceptibility to Escherichia coli infection and challenged with E. coli K88ac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, P; Corrent, E; Mazzoni, M; Messori, S; Priori, D; Gherpelli, Y; Simongiovanni, A; Bosi, P

    2015-06-01

    Threonine (Thr) is important for mucin and immunoglobulin production. We studied the effect of added dietary Thr on growth performance, health, immunity and gastrointestinal function of weaning pigs with differing genetic susceptibility to E. coli K88ac (ETEC) infection and challenged with ETEC. Forty-eight 24-day-old weaned pigs were divided into two groups by their ETEC susceptibility using mucin 4 (MUC4) gene as a marker (2 MUC4(-/-) , not-susceptible, and 2 MUC4(+/+) , susceptible, pigs per litter). Within genotype, pigs were fed two different diets: 8.5 (LThr) or 9.0 (HThr) g Thr/kg. Pigs were orally challenged on day 7 after weaning and slaughtered on day 12 or 13 after weaning. Before ETEC challenge, HThr pigs ate more (p pigs excreted less E. coli (p pigs responded to the challenge with more diarrhoea, ETEC excretion and anti-K88 IgA in blood and jejunal secretion (p pigs had a higher increase of anti-K88 IgA values in jejunal secretion (p = 0.089) and in blood (p = 0.089, in MUC4(+/+) pigs only). Thr did not affect total IgA and IgM values, morphometry of jejunum, goblet cells count in colon, total mucin from jejunum and colon, but varied jejunal goblet cells counts (p pig genetic susceptibility to ETEC infection.

  8. Porcine intestinal epithelial cell lines as a new in vitro model for studying adherence and pathogenesis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Seung Y; George, Sajan; Brözel, Volker; Moxley, Rodney; Francis, David; Kaushik, Radhey S

    2008-07-27

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections result in large economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. The organism causes diarrhea by adhering to and colonizing enterocytes in the small intestines. While much progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of ETEC, no homologous intestinal epithelial cultures suitable for studying porcine ETEC pathogenesis have been described prior to this report. In the current study, we investigated the adherence of various porcine ETEC strains to two porcine (IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2) and one human (INT-407) small intestinal epithelial cell lines. Each cell line was assessed for its ability to support the adherence of E. coli expressing fimbrial adhesins K88ab, K88ac, K88ad, K99, F41, 987P, and F18. Wild-type ETEC expressing K88ab, K88ac, and K88ad efficiently bound to both IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2 cells. An ETEC strain expressing both K99 and F41 bound heavily to both porcine cell lines but an E. coli strain expressing only K99 bound very poorly to these cells. E. coli expressing F18 adhesin strongly bound to IPEC-1 cells but did not adhere to IPEC-J2 cells. The E. coli strains G58-1 and 711 which express no fimbrial adhesins and those that express 987P fimbriae failed to bind to either porcine cell line. Only strains B41 and K12:K99 bound in abundance to INT-407 cells. The binding of porcine ETEC to IPEC-J2, IPEC-1 and INT-407 with varying affinities, together with lack of binding of 987P ETEC and non-fimbriated E. coli strains, suggests strain-specific E. coli binding to these cell lines. These findings suggest the potential usefulness of porcine intestinal cell lines for studying ETEC pathogenesis.

  9. 载锌凹凸棒石黏土中锌的解吸及抑菌作用研究%Zinc Desorption and Antibacterial Activity on E. coliK88 of Zinc-bearing Palygorskite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓晗; 朱玉萍; 温超; 周岩民

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of inclusion level of zinc-bearing palygorskite (ZnBP), desorption time and the concentration of Na+and NH4+on the zinc desorption of ZnBP prepared by solid or liquid ion exchange in an artiifcial gastrointestinal pH environment of piglet. Meanwhile, the antibacterial activity of ZnBP on E. coli K88 was also evaluated. The results showed that the desorption rate of zinc was negatively correlated with inclusion level of ZnBP, but was positively associated with the concentration of Na+and NH4+. However, the desorption rate was not affected by desorption time. The desorption rate of ZnBP prepared by solid ion exchange was higher than that of ZnBP made using liquid ion exchange. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ZnBP prepared by solid ion exchange were 12.5 and 15.625 mg/mL, respectively. The corresponding values for ZnBP prepared by liquid ion exchange were 100 and 125 mg/mL, respectively. It was concluded that the desorption capacity and antibacterial activity of ZnBP prepared by solid ion exchange were superior than that of ZnBP made under liquid enviroment.%通过体外模拟仔猪胃肠道pH环境,研究固相和液相载锌凹凸棒石黏土(载锌凹土)添加量、解吸时间、Na+、NH4+浓度对载锌凹土中锌解吸的影响,以及载锌凹土对大肠杆菌K88的抑制作用。结果表明,载锌凹土中锌的解吸率与载锌凹土添加量呈负相关,与Na+和NH4+浓度成正相关,但随时间的变化规律不明显,固相载锌凹土解吸率高于液相载锌凹土;固相载锌凹土的最低抑菌质量浓度(MIC)和最小杀菌质量浓度(MBC)分别为12.5 mg/mL和15.625 mg/mL,液相载锌凹土的MIC和MBC分别为100 mg/mL和125 mg/mL。结果表明,固相载锌凹土在体外模拟胃肠道环境条件下的解吸速度较快,对大肠杆菌的抑菌作用较强。

  10. 某水电站坝址F41,F42断层泥化带工程特性研究%The Engineering Properties of F41 and F42 Fault Muddy Zone at the Dam Site of Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓争荣; 吴树良; 杨友刚; 雷世兵; 郑新; 曹道宁

    2012-01-01

    某峡谷区水电站坝址发育有区域性断裂穿越大坝河床近岸坝基(不属于活动断裂),将其分为碎裂岩带和F41,F42断层软弱构造岩带,其中F42为泥化带,系拟建水电站最大坝高200m级坝基最软弱部位.为了提供该水电站工程设计所需的工程地质资料,在查明F41,F42断层发育几何学特征的基础上,通过勘探技术、取样室内物理力学性质试验、平洞内现场原位力学性质试验、现场原状样渗透变形试验研究其工程特性,并以试验成果为基础,提出断层泥化带主要物理力学性质及渗透性参数建议值.研究结果表明:断层泥化带工程性状差,须采取工程处理措施.可为其它工程遇到类似断层时类比参考.%The dam site of a hydropower station planned to be built in a gorge area has developed inactive and regional fault passing through the river bankside dam foundation. The fault can be divided into cataclasite rock belt and F41, F42 weak tectonic fault zones, which, known as fault muddy zones, are the weakest part in the dam foundation of the above hydropower station whose maximum dam height is more than 200 m. To provide geological data for the hydro-power project design, we studied the engineering characteristics of the F41 and F42 fault muddy zones on the basis of their geometrical features by means of engineering investigation, indoor test on the physical and mechanical properties of samples , in - situ adit test on the mechanical properties , and seepage deformation test on undisturbed samples .According to the test results, we proposed the recommended values of main physico- mechanical properties and permeability parameters of the fault muddy zones. The research results indicate that treatments must be taken on the fault muddy zones owing to its weak engineering properties. It would provide reference for similar faults of other projects.

  11. A comparative study of the efficiency of a pro-biotic and the anti-K99 and anti-A14 vaccines in the control of diarrhea in calves in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, F A; Paulillo, A C; Schocken-Iturrino, R P; Lucas, F A; Orgaz, A; Quintana, J L

    1995-01-01

    A total of 99 pregnant cows were divided into eight groups submitted to the following treatments: group I (n = 29) consisted of unvaccinated cows whose calves did not receive a probiotic and was used as control. Group II (n = 10) consisted of vaccinated cows whose calves did not receive a probiotic. Groups III, IV and V (n = 10 neach) consisted of vaccinated cows whose calves received a probiotic for 5, 15 and 30 days, respectively. Groups VI, VII and VIII (n = 10 each) consisted of unvaccinated cows whose calves received a probiotic for 5, 15 and 30 days, respectively. Each animal in the vaccinated groups received two 5.0 ml vaccine doses containing pili K99 and A14 of Escherichia coli by the subcutaneous route. The probiotic containing Lactobacillus acidophilus at the dose of 2.0 x 10(8) live cells in 250 ml milk, was administered orally. All animals were observed clinically and bacteriologically and anti-K99 and anti-A14 antibody titers were determined in serum and colostrum. Mean calf weight was measured at birth and at 30 days of age. The results showed that a combination of the vaccine with the probiotic administered for 15 and 30 days was the most efficient treatment for the control of diarrhea.

  12. Immunogenicity of recombinant F4 (K88) fimbrial adhesin FaeG expressed in tobacco chloroplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huifeng; Qian, Bingjun; Chen, Weiwei; Liu, Zhenhua; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Liang, Wanqi

    2010-08-01

    To test the possibility of producing the novel vaccine in plants against diarrhea normally found in neonatal and newly weaned piglets, the faeG gene, encoding a major F4ac fimbrial subunit protein, was introduced into the tobacco chloroplast genome. After two rounds of selection under spectinomycin, we obtained the transgenic plants nearly homoplasmic. RNA gel blot analysis indicated that faeG and the antibiotic selective gene aminoglycoside 3' adenylyltransferase (aadA) were highly transcribed as a dicistron, while the translational level of recombinant FaeG in transplastomic tobacco was about 0.15% of total soluble protein. The immunogenicity of recombinant FaeG produced in tobacco chloroplasts was confirmed by the observation that FaeG-specific antibodies were elicited in mice immunized with total soluble protein of transgenic plants, as well as the result that mouse sera stimulated by chloroplast-derived recombinant FaeG could neutralize F4ac enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in vivo. This study provides a new alternative for producing the ETEC vaccine using the chloroplast expression system.

  13. Lesiones macro y microscópicas de intestino delgado de cerdos neonatos sin calostrar inoculados experimentalmente con cepas de E. coli fimbriadas Histopatholocial lesions in the small intestine of calostrum deprived pigs inoculated with strains of E. Coli bearing F4, F5, F6 y F41 fimbriaes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M CANAL

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó con el propósito de evaluar los efectos patológicos de cepas enteropatógenas de E. coli que expresan antígenos fimbriales F4, F5, F6 y F41, administradas oralmente a cerdos neonatos que no ingirieron calostro. Los cerdos inoculados experimentalmente con las cuatro cepas enteropatógenas de E. coli presentaron diarrea acuosa y de color amarilla a las 4 h.p.i. Las lesiones macroscópicas se caracterizaron por congestión y abundante contenido acuoso, apreciándose diferencias solo en la intensidad lesional entre los diferentes grupos inoculados. Microscópicamente, el íleon fue el segmento más afectado, observándose congestión, adherencia bacteriana, vacuolización epitelial de las vellosidades intestinales, atrofia, infiltrados de neutrófilos y necrosis linfoide en placas de Peyer, siendo la cepa E. coli F4 responsable de las lesiones de mayor severidad. Los resultados de la presente investigación confirman la importancia de los antígenos fimbriales como factor de adhesión de cepas enteropatógenas de E. coli al intestino delgado de cerdos lactantes y permite proyectar a futuro metodologías que utilicen las propiedades antigénicas de las fimbrias no solo como métodos de diagnóstico sino también en la elaboración de inmunógenos los cuales evitarían la adhesión bacteriana y la presentación de cuadros de colibacilosis, enfermedad responsable de cuantiosas pérdidas económicas en la explotación porcina en la actualidadA study to evaluate the degrees of lesions caused by different enteropathogenic strains of E. coli was carried out. Newborn piglets without calostrum were innoculated with enteropathogenic strains of E. coli which contained F4, F5, F6 and F41 fimbriae in order to characterize the macro and microscopic lesions to the duodenum, jejunum and ilium. The pigs experimentally innoculated with the four enteropathegenic strains of E. coli presented watery, yellowish diarrhea four

  14. Agentes bacterianos enteropatogênicos em suínos de diferentes faixas etárias e perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos de cepas de Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp Enteropathogenic bacterial agents in pigs of different age groups and profile of resistance in strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. to antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Menin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As enterites infecciosas bacterianas provocam severas perdas para a indústria suína em todo o mundo. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar os agentes bacterianos, associados com a ocorrência de diarréia em suínos, em diferentes faixas etárias, no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, e verificar o perfil de resistência das cepas de Escherichia coli e Salmonella spp, frente aos principais antimicrobianos utilizados em granjas de suínos. Os principais gêneros/espécies bacterianos diagnosticados foram Escherichia coli, Clostridium spp, Salmonella spp Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Brachyspira pilosicoli e Lawsonia intracellularis. Os fatores de virulência de E. coli mais prevalentes na fase de maternidade foram F5 / (K99 20%, F6 / (987P 16,3%, F42 6,8% e F41 5,7%, já nas fases de creche e terminação, predominaram cepas com fimbrias F4 (K88 11,2% e 5,4%, respectivamente. Para E. coli os maiores índices de resistência foram encontrados para oxitetraciclina (94% e tetraciclina (89,5% e os menores índices de resistência para neomicina (55%, ceftiofur (57,4%. Quanto às amostras de Salmonella spp, estas apresentaram maior resistência à oxitetraciclina (77%, e à tetraciclina (42,1% e menor à gentamicina (3,5% e amoxicilina (4,8%.Infectious bacterial enteritis causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiology of bacterial agents that are associated with the occurrence of diarrhea in pigs at different age groups, and to verify the profile of resistance of strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp to the main antimicrobial agents. The main bacterial species diagnosed were Escherichia coli, Clostridium spp, Salmonella spp, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Brachyspira pilosicoli and Lawsonia intracellularis. The E. coli virulence factors of higher prevalence in preweaning piglets were F5 / (K99 20%, F6 / (987P 16.3%, F42 6.8% and F41 5.7%, whereas at the nursery and with

  15. Detecção de cepas patogênicas pela PCR multiplex e avaliação da sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de Escherichia coli isoladas de leitões diarréicos Detection of pathogenic strains by multiplex PCR and antimicrobial sensitivity of Escherichia coli isolated from piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Macêdo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a freqüência dos genes de fímbrias (K88, K99, 987P, F18 e F41 e toxinas (LT, Stb, StaP e Stx2e de cepas de E. coli isoladas de leitões com diarréia usando a técnica de PCR multiplex com primers específicos para esses genes, e estudou-se o padrão de sensibilidade das cepas patogênicas pelo método de difusão em disco ao florfenicol, ceftiofur sódico, colistina, fosfomicina, neomicina, norfloxacina, sulfa + trimetoprim, doxiciclina, tetraciclina e lincomicina. Foram utilizadas 144 amostras de E.coli isoladas de leitões com diarréia, provenientes de granjas localizadas no estado de Minas Gerais. Dessas, 42 (29,2% foram positivas para pelo menos um dos fatores de virulência testados. Dentre essas 42 amostras, 23 (54,8% apresentaram genes de fímbria e toxina, sete (16,6% apresentaram somente genes de toxinas e 12 (28,6% amostras somente genes de fímbria. O resultado do teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos demonstrou que o florfenicol (89,5 % e o ceftiofur sódico (84,2% foram as drogas de melhor eficácia in vitro sobre cepas de E. coli com fatores de virulência.The frequency of virulence determinants genes for fimbrial adhesions (K88, K99, 987P, F18 and F41 and toxins (LT, Stb, StaP and Stx2e in E. coli strains isolated from diarrheic piglets using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay with specific primers for these genes was studied. The antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of pathogenic isolates for florfenicol, sodium ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, neomycin, norfloxacin, sulfa + trimetoprim, doxycycline, tetracycline and lincomycin was also tested using the disk diffusion method. E. coli were isolated from 144 diarrheic piglets from farms in the state of Minas Gerais. Forty-two out of 144 studied samples (29.2% were positive for at least one tested virulence factor. Out of these 42, 23 samples (54.8% contained fimbria and toxin genes, seven (16.6% samples had genes for toxins only and 12 (28.6% samples

  16. Virulence factors of Escherichia coli in relation to the importance of vaccination in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Araujo Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC is the major cause of diarrhea in newborn and weaned pigs. Bacteria adhesion to the host cell is considered a specific phenomenon among fimbrial and non-fimbrial adhesins with their respective receptors on enterocytes. Enteric disorders are related with the fimbriae F4 (K88, F5 (K99, F6 (987P, F41, and F18. In addition to ETEC, another category of E. coli , porcine pathogenic E. coli (PEPEC,can cause diarrhea in pigs; it produces the porcine attaching and effacing-associated (Paa adhesin in, which is capable to cause a typical lesion known as an attaching and effacing (A/E lesion. Immunization of sows with adhesin is important to stimulate the production of antibodies and their subsequent transfer to piglets through colostrum. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the main impacts of enteric diseases caused by E. coli in swine production and to highlight the importance of continuing research on this bacterium to improve disease prevention through vaccination.

  17. Detection of the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in pathogenic Escherichia coli from pigs affected by post-weaning diarrhoea in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Ludovica; Luppi, Andrea; Bonilauri, Paolo; Gherpelli, Yuri; Pezzotti, Giovanni; Pesciaroli, Michele; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance genes in Escherichia coli from pigs affected by post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD). DNA samples collected from 51 E. coli isolates from Italian pigs affected by PWD in 2015-2016 were studied. Isolates were classified as presumptively resistant to colistin by routine susceptibility testing and were investigated for the presence of the mcr-1 gene of plasmid origin by PCR. E. coli isolates testing negative for mcr-1 were analysed for the presence of a novel plasmid-mediated gene, mcr-2. Isolates were characterised for fimbrial [F4 (k88), F5 (k99), F6 (987P), F18 and F41] and toxin (LT, STa, STb and Stx2e) determinants by PCR as well as for the occurrence of haemolysis by phenotypic observation. Susceptibility to apramycin, cefquinome, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, gentamicin, tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) was also determined by disk diffusion. Most of the isolates showed the presence of at least one virulence factor, confirming their pathogenic potential. The presence of mcr-1 was shown in 37 (72.5%) of the 51 isolates. All of the mcr-1-negative isolates tested negative for the mcr-2 gene. Moreover, 80.4% of the isolates were resistant to apramycin, 9.8% to cefquinome, 54.9% to enrofloxacin, 52.9% to florfenicol, 76.5% to gentamicin, 96.1% to tetracycline and 78.4% to SXT. This is the first report documenting the presence of the mcr-1 gene in pathogenic E. coli isolated from pigs affected by PWD in Italy. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Selected Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain Promotes EGFR-Independent Akt Activation in an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88-Infected IPEC-J2 Cell Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Yang, Jin-Cai; Yang, Gui-Yan; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are important intestinal pathogens that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Although probiotic bacteria may protect against ETEC-induced enteric infections, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this study, porcine intestinal epithelial J2 cells (IPEC-J2) were pre-incubated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 and then exposed to F4+ ETEC. Increases in TLR4 and NOD2 mRNA expression were observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge, but these increases were attenuated by L. rhamnosus treatment. Expression of TLR2 and NOD1 mRNA was up-regulated in cells pre-treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus counteracted F4+ ETEC-induced increases in TNF-α concentration. Increased PGE2. concentrations were observed in cells infected with F4+ ETEC and in cells treated with L. rhamnosus only. A decrease in phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was observed at 3 h after F4+ ETEC challenge in cells treated with L. rhamnosus. Pre-treatment with L. rhamnosus enhanced Akt phosphorylation and increased ZO-1 and occludin protein expression. Our findings suggest that L. rhamnosus protects intestinal epithelial cells from F4+ ETEC-induced damage, partly through the anti-inflammatory response involving synergism between TLR2 and NOD1. In addition, L. rhamnosus promotes EGFR-independent Akt activation, which may activate intestinal epithelial cells in response to bacterial infection, in turn increasing tight junction integrity and thus enhancing the barrier function and restricting pathogen invasion. Pre-incubation with L. rhamnosus was superior to co-incubation in reducing the adhesion of F4+ ETEC to IPEC-J2 cells and subsequently attenuating F4+ ETEC-induced mucin layer destruction and suppressing apoptosis. Our data indicate that a selected L. rhamnosus strain interacts with porcine intestinal epithelial cells to maintain the epithelial barrier and promote intestinal epithelial cell activation in response to bacterial infection, thus protecting cells from the deleterious effects of F4+ ETEC.

  19. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Boulardii and β-galactomannan oligosaccharide on porcine intestinal epithelial and dendritic cells challenged in vitro with Escherichia coli F4 (K88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badia Roger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Probiotic and prebiotics, often called "immune-enhancing" feed additives, are believed to deal with pathogens, preventing the need of an immune response and reducing tissue damage. In this study, we investigated if a recently developed β-galactomannan (βGM had a similar protective role compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. Boulardii (Scb, a proven probiotic, in the context of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC infection. ETEC causes inflammation, diarrhea and intestinal damage in piglets, resulting in large economic loses worldwide. We observed that Scb and βGM products inhibited in vitro adhesion of ETEC on cell surface of porcine intestinal IPI-2I cells. Our data showed that Scb and βGM decreased the mRNA ETEC-induced gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, GM-CSF and chemokines CCL2, CCL20 and CXCL8 on intestinal IPI-2I. Furthermore, we investigated the putative immunomodulatory role of Scb and βGM on porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs per se and under infection conditions. We observed a slight up-regulation of mRNA for TNF-α and CCR7 receptor after co-incubation of DC with Scb and βGM. However, no differences were found in DC activation upon ETEC infection and Scb or βGM co-culture. Therefore, our results indicate that, similar to probiotic Scb, prebiotic βGM may protect intestinal epithelial cells against intestinal pathogens. Finally, although these products may modulate DC activation, their effect under ETEC challenge conditions remains to be elucidated.

  20. In Vitro Evaluation of Swine-Derived Lactobacillus reuteri: Probiotic Properties and Effects on Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells Challenged with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilin; Wang, Li; Chen, Zhuang; Ma, Xianyong; Yang, Xuefen; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-06-28

    Probiotics are considered as the best effective alternatives to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic potential of lactobacilli for use in swine farming by using in vitro evaluation methods. A total of 106 lactic acid bacterial isolates, originating from porcine feces, were first screened for the capacity to survive stresses considered important for putative probiotic strains. Sixteen isolates showed notable acid and bile resistance, antibacterial activity, and adherence to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). One isolate, LR1, identified as Lactobacillus reuteri, was selected for extensive study of its probiotic and functional properties in IPEC-1 cell models. L. reuteri LR1 exhibited good adhesion to IPEC-1 cells and could inhibit the adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to IPEC-1 cells. L. reuteri LR1 could also modulate transcript and protein expression of cytokines involved in inflammation in IPEC-1 cells; the Lactobacillus strain inhibited the ETEC-induced expression of proinflammatory transcripts (IL-6 and TNF-α) and protein (IL-6), and increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). Measurement of the permeation of FD-4 showed that L. reuteri LR1 could maintain barrier integrity in monolayer IPEC-1 cells exposed to ETEC. Immunolocalization experiments showed L. reuteri LR1 could also prevent ETEC-induced tight junction ZO-1 disruption. Together, these results indicate that L. reuteri LR1 exhibits desirable probiotic properties and could be a potential probiotic for use in swine production.

  1. Effects of doses of ZnO or Zn-Glutamate on growth performance, gut characteristics, health and immunity of early-weaned pigs orally challenged with E. coli K88

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Trevisi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that dietary zinc oxide (ZnO at pharmacological level improves growth and/or reduces diarrhoea in weaned pigs (Mavromichaelis et al., 2000. However, the theories to explain ZnO action conflict with experimental data, and it is not clear if other zinc sources supplied over requirements can improve growth or health of piglet. Thus, dietary strategies to supplement zinc within the EU rules are difficulty identified. Recent findings show also that dietary glutamate reduces villus atrophy after weaning (Ewtushik et al., 2000 and is an important fuel for the enterocyte (Reeds et al., 2000...

  2. Study on the Antagonism of Clostridium butyricum Against Animal Pathogens%丁酸梭菌对动物致病菌的拮抗作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢树贵; 戴青; 赵述淼; 徐国强; 梁运祥

    2007-01-01

    探讨了丁酸梭茵(Clostridium butyricum)B1株对5种常见动物致病菌的体外拮抗作用.将丁酸梭菌分别与猪大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)K88K99、O139株和猪肠炎沙门氏菌(Salmonella enteritidis)O4Hi株、金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)混合接种于GAM培养基进行厌氧培养,并与致病菌单独培养相比较.结果发现,培养48 h后,致病菌菌数显著低于对照,说明丁酸梭菌B1株对猪大肠杆菌K88K99、O139株和猪肠炎沙门氏茵O4Hi株、金黄色葡萄球菌均有显著抑制作用.

  3. Trial Production of Highly Immunized Yolk Antibody on Chicken against Yellow and White Diarrhea of Piglets%仔猪黄白痢高免卵黄抗体的试制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐艳林; 张微; 宋桂才; 谭守国; 刘军

    2009-01-01

    To overcome the disadvantages of low curative rate and easily produced drug resistance in treating yellow and white diarrhea of piglet with antibiotics, immunized healthy chickens by the mixture of proper amount of K88K99、987P antigens in a certain proportion are used to prepare highly immunized yolk antibody for the treatment of piglets with yellow and white diarrhea. The results show that the method is feasible.%为了解决临床上应用抗生素治疗仔猪黄、白痢病治愈率低、细菌易产生耐药性的缺点,将适当数量的K88K99、987P抗原按一定比例混合后免疫健康鸡,制备高免的卵黄抗体治疗发病仔猪,结果表明该方法是可行的.

  4. 肠毒性大肠杆菌的绿色荧光蛋白转化及表达研究%Study on the Transformation and Expression of Green Fluorescent Protein Gene in the Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红梅; 周涵韬; 张赛群; 曹宜; 刘波

    2006-01-01

    通过电击转化法,将带有gfp标记基因的pGLO质粒成功转化到肠毒素型大肠杆菌K88K99中,经过紫外检测及荧光显微镜检测均发现转化菌株发出绿色的荧光,表明gfp基因得到稳定、高效的表达.进一步通过PCR分子鉴定、血清型鉴定、微生物学特性分析均表明,转化菌株与原始菌株是一致的.该转化菌株将为研究肠毒性大肠杆菌的致病机理及益生素的筛选提供有效的手段.

  5. Isolation and Identification and Probiotic Characteristics Study of a New Feeding Lactobacillus%一株新饲用乳杆菌的分离鉴定及益生性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓雯; 刘庆; 闫轶洁; 王安如; 汪攀

    2011-01-01

    从猪粪便中分离得到一株新饲用乳杆菌,对其16S rDN基因进行了测序,该段基因序列已提交GenBank,登录号为HQ641209.将该菌株16S rDN基因序列进行在线BLST比对并与其他乳杆菌属菌株的16S rDN序列建立系统发育树,结果显示该菌16S rDN序列与NCBI公布的约氏乳杆菌Lactobacillus johnsonii(B295648)的同源性为99.7%,因此该菌鉴定为约氏乳杆菌(Lactobacillus johnsonii),将其命名为“Lactobacillus johnsonii Sun001”.经测试,该菌株对E.coli K88K99菌株的生长有抑制作用,在pH为2.5的模拟胃液中处理3h存活率为68.8%,在0.3%胆盐浓度的模拟肠液中处理3h存活率为21.4%.%A new Lactobacillus was isolated from a faecal sample of pig. The 16S rDNA gene was sequenced, and it was submitted to GenBank, the accession number was HQ641209. Online BLAST with other Lactobacillus and phylogenetic analysis based on the fragment of 16S rDNA reveal that its sequence homology was 97. 9% comparing with Lactobacillus johnsonii strain (AB295648). The isolated strain was identified as Lactobacillus johnsonii and named Lactobacillus johnsonii SunOOl. L. Johnsonii had high level tolerance to the simulated gastric juice (pH 2. 5, 3 h of incubation, survival rate was 68. 8%) and simulated gastric juice (bile salt concentration 3% ,3 h of incubation, survival rate was 21. 4%) and high antibacterial activity ti E. Coli K88, K99.

  6. Effects of Nano-Selenium and Iodine on Performance of Laying Hens Vaccinated with Swine E.coli%纳米硒、碘对免疫接种蛋鸡产蛋性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾礼华; 马慧敏; 王之盛; 周安国

    2009-01-01

    选取168只45周龄未接种大肠杆菌疫苗、体重及产蛋率相近的商品代尼克珊瑚粉产蛋鸡,研究了日粮中添加纳米硒、碘对免疫接种应激状态下蛋鸡产蛋性能的影响.采用均匀试验设计方法,设7个处理(包含一个基础对照组,一个疫苗对照组,除基础对照组外各组均接种大肠杆菌疫苗),每个处理4个重复,每个重复6只鸡,所用抗原为大肠杆菌为K88K99、987p标准菌株.结果表明:接种疫苗显著降低蛋鸡产蛋性能(P0.05),比疫苗对照组提高26.25 %(P<0.05);料蛋比为2.16,比空白对照组降低了6.43 %,比疫苗对照组降低了19.35 %.%One hundred and sixty eight commercial Nic-T layers at 45weeks age were divided into seven groups(a black control,a vaccines control and five experimental groups) with 4 replicates of 6 layers,which there was no significant difference in weights and egg production and never inoculated E.coli before. A uniform design method was employed to study the effect of nano-selenium and iodine on the performance of inoculated E.coli layers,and standard bacteria of E.coli K88,K99,987p was used in this experiment. The results showed that: E.coli inoculation decreased layers performance significantly(P<0.05).The selenium and iodine influenced the performance of inoculated layers:the performance was improved by increasing iodine and decreased by increasing selenium,decreasing caused by selenium declined or disappeared by increasing iodine. The supplement of nano-se and iodine was 0.45,4.00 mg/kg,laying rates achieved 91.04 %. It was raised 1.48 percent(P<0.05) against the black control group.It was raised 26.25 percent(P<0.05) against the inoculation control. The suitable supplement of nano-se and iodine for feed/egg was 0.45,4.00 mg/kg,feed/egg achieved 2.16. It was decreased 6.43 % (P<0.05)against the black control group.It was decreased 19.35 %(P<0.05)against the inoculation control.

  7. 7株鸡源肠球菌的分离、鉴定及益生性能比较%Isolation, Identification and Comparison of Probiotic Characteristics of Seven Kinds of Chicken Enterococcocci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠明; 李莉媛; 张晓琳; 韩伟; 郭伟群

    2012-01-01

    对从健康6日龄AA肉仔鸡肠道中分离出的7株肠球菌进行了体外生物学特性研究.利用肠球菌选择性培养基进行分离,采用16S rRNA和Biolog两种方法进行菌种鉴定,并测定其生长、产乳酸、抑制病原茵、耐人工胃肠液等益生性能指标.研究发现,从小鸡肠道中分离得到的7株茵,经鉴定为粪肠球菌(Entero-coccus faecalis)或屎肠球菌(Enterococcus faecium),通过对7株茵的益生性能进行综合评价比较后,筛得菌株Enterococcus faeciumgJ01013,其具有生长速度快(代时<30min)、延滞期短、产L-乳酸能力强(达6.5g/L)、对致病型大肠杆菌K88/K99、多杀性巴氏杆菌、鸡白痢沙门氏茵及金黄色葡萄球菌有较强的抑制作用(最大抑茵圈直径可达21.5mm)、人工胃肠液中存活率高(最高达93.5%)等优良特点,为饲用益生菌产品开发提供了菌种来源.%This article studies the biological characteristics in vitro of seven enterococcocci which are isolated from the guts of 6 - day - old AA broiler chickens. Selective medium is used to isolate enterococcocci and two methods that are 16S rRNA and Biolog are used to identify these strains, and the probiotic characteristics index such as growth,lactic acid production,inhibiting pathogens and tolerance of artificial gastrointestinal fluid are determined. This research finds that the seven strains are either Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus faecium. After comparing the performances of probiotics, an excellent strain named Enterococcus faecium GJ01013 can be obtained. It has the following characteristics: faster growth (generation time <30 min) , shorter lag phase, better capacity of L - lactic acid production (up to 6.5 g/L) .stronger inhibitory of Esckerichia coli K88/K99,Pasteurella multocida,Salmonella pullorum and Staphyloccocus aureus Ro$enbach(ihe maximum antibacterial diameter can be up to 21. 5 mm) ,and higher survival rate of artificial gastrointestinal fluid( the

  8. A Novel Chitosan CpG Nanoparticle Regulates Cellular and Humoral Immunity of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To develop a safe and novel immunoadjuvant to enhance the immunity and resistance of animals against E.coli infection. Methods An 88-base immunostimulatory oligodeoxynuleotide containing eleven CpG motifs (CpG ODN)was synthesized and amplified by PCR. The chitosan nanoparticle (CNP) was prepared by ion linking method to entrap the CpG ODN that significantly promotes the proliferation of lymphocytes of pig in vitro. Then the CpG- CNP was inoculated into 21-day old Kunming mice, which were orally challenged with virulent K88/K99 E. Coli 35 days after inoculation. Blood was collected from the tail vein of mice on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 after inoculation to detect the changes and content of immunoglobulins, cytokines and immune cells by ELISA, such as IgG, IgA, IgM, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6. Results The CpG provoked remarkable proliferation of lymphocytes of pig in vitro in comparison with that of control group (P<0.05). The inoculation with CpG-CNP significantly raised the content of IgG, IgM, and IgA in the sera of immunized mice (P<0.05). The levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 in the mice significantly increased in comparison with those in controls (P<0.05), so was the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes in immunized mice. The humoral and cellular immunities were significantly enhanced in immunized mice, which resisted the infection of E. coli and survived, while the control mice manifested evident symptoms and lesions of infection. Conclusions CpG-CNP can significantly promote cellular and humoral immunity and resistance of mice against E. coli infection, and can be utilized as an effective adjuvant to improve the immunoprotection and resistance of porcine against infectious disease.

  9. Effects of Nano-Selenium and Iodine on Specific Egg Yolk Antibody Production in Laying Hens Vaccinated with Swine Escherichia coli%纳米硒、碘对鸡卵黄抗体产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾礼华; 马慧敏; 王之盛; 周安国

    2013-01-01

    本试验选取168只45周龄未接种大肠杆菌疫苗且体重及产蛋率相近的商品代尼克珊瑚粉产蛋鸡,采用均匀试验设计方法,设7个处理(包含1个基础对照组,1个疫苗对照组.除基础对照组外,其他各组均接种大肠杆菌疫苗,所用抗原为大肠杆菌为K88K99、987p标准菌株),每个处理4个重复,每个重复6只鸡.研究了在日粮中添加纳米硒、碘对鸡蛋中抗猪大肠杆菌卵黄抗体产量的影响.结果表明:蛋鸡甘粮中添加纳米硒、碘能显著提高卵黄抗体产量(P<0.05),且纳米硒起主要作用.纳米硒、碘添加量为2.12,4.00 mg/kg时,卵黄抗体浓度达到13.48 mg/mL,比基础对照组提高36.53%(P<0.05),比疫苗对照组提高23.63%(P<0.05).

  10. Sequence analysis on type Ⅱ heat labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli from diarrhaea patients in Liaoning Province, China%辽宁地区腹泻患者大肠杆菌分离株Ⅱ型不耐热肠毒素的检测及测序分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁超文; 江馗语; 张力国; 刘文鑫

    2016-01-01

    目的 对辽宁地区人源性腹泻样本中致病性大肠杆菌(Pathogenic Escherichia coli)的毒力因子进行检测,掌握产Ⅱ型不耐热肠毒素(Type Ⅱ heat labile enterotoxin,LT-Ⅱ)大肠杆菌在我国北方地区的流行现状并阐明LT-Ⅱ与其他致病因子间的关系.方法 于2014年3月至2015年3月收集辽宁地区人源性腹泻粪便样品,用麦康凯培养基和生化试验的方法分离出大肠杆菌,并用多重PCR方法对毒力基因(elt-Ⅱ、elt-Ⅰ、sta、stb、K88K99等)进行检测,对分离到的LT-Ⅱ阳性大肠杆菌中elt-Ⅱ基因进行测序及分型.结果 354份腹泻样品中共分离到携带有毒力因子的大肠杆菌139株,检出率为39.2%.毒力因子阳性大肠杆菌中,有12株携带elt-Ⅱ(8.6%)基因.在12株携带elt-Ⅱ的大肠杆菌中,2株单独携带elt-Ⅱ,6株携带F1,1株携带K88,1株携带astA,2株携带irp2/astA;测序结果表明12株elt-Ⅱ阳性大肠杆菌中有10株携带elt-Ⅱc1亚型,2株携带elt-Ⅱc4亚型.结论 在引起人源性腹泻的毒力因子中有大肠杆菌Ⅱ型不耐热肠毒的存在,且主要以LT-Ⅱc1为主要流行型.

  11. The investigation of new forms of resistance to some antibiotics in E coli strains isolated from piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ašanin Ružica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of bacteria poses a significant problem everywhere in the world, and consequently in our country as well. The non-critical use of antibacterial medicines in human and veterinary medicine has contributed to the spreading of this resistance. Due to the topical importance of this problem, large numbers of states in the world are financing projects of which the objective is to follow and monitor bacterial resistance. The objective of this investigation was to isolate and identify pathogenic strains of E. coli from piglets with clinically manifest diarrhea and to examine the sensitivity of the isolated strains to a certain number of selected antibiotics. The material for these investigations were parts of intestines (jejunum, ileum from piglets that died, rectal smears and feces of diseased piglets sampled pig farms in the vicinity of Belgrade. Conventional methods of microbiological diagnostics were used for isolation, and conventional and commercial tests API 20E (bio Merieux, France were used for identification. Following biochemical identification using hyper immune serums for certain group (O antigens: (O8, O138, O139, O147, O149, and O157, the serological typization of the strains was carried out. Commercial antiserums: T K88 (F4, K99 (F5, and 987P (F6, Toxigenic E. coli pili antisera, Denka Seiken Co. Ltd. Tokyo, Japan were used to establish the presence and to identify fimbrial antigens-adhesions through slide agglutination reaction. The sensitivity of the antibiotics to the isolated strains of E. coli was examined using the disc diffusion method according to Kirby Bauer and the microdillution method in bouillon according to CLSI recommendations (2008. Examinations using the microdillution method in bouillon were performed with pure active antibiotic substances: ampicillin, apramycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin (Sigma, USA. A total of 400 E. coli strains were isolated, including 48 E

  12. Prevalence of Four Enteropathogens with Immunochromatographic Rapid Test in the Feces of Diarrheic Calves in East and Southeast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Içen1, Neval Berrin Arserim2, Nurettin IŞIK3, Cumali Özkan4* and Abdullah Kaya4

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fecal specimens taken from 192 diarrheic and 14 healthy calves (2-40 days old were examined for the presence of bacterial and parasitic agents. Fecal samples from diarrheic calves with the four immunochromatographic rapid tests were 92.7% positive for four enteropathogens. The individual prevalence was 25, 21.8, 9.4 and 2.1% for Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum, E. coli K99 and Coronavirus, respectively. Concomitant infections caused by two agents were 15.6% for Rotavirus+Cryptosporidium, 1.0% for Rotavirus+Coronavirus, 5.2 % for Cryptosporidium+E. coli K99, and 7.3% for Rotavirus+E. coli K99. Besides concomitant infections caused by three agents were 3.1% for Cryptosporidium +Rotavirus+E.coli K99 and 1.0%, Cryptosporidium+Rotavirus+Coronavirus. In addition one calf (1.0% was infected by combination of four agents as Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus, Coronavirus, and E. coli K99. The calculated individual prevalence was 56.9% for Rotavirus, 47.8% for C. parvum, 26.0% for E. coli K99 and 5.2% for Coronavirus. However, 88 samples were positive in smear detection for Cryptosporidium while 92 were positive in rapid test. As a result of this study it can be concluded that multiple etiologies of diarrhea can be seen and this can help in the development of a specific treatment and preventative measures for practitioners in east and southeast of Turkey.

  13. Screening for PKS gene from soil metagenomics library and identification of the actives against root-knot nematodes%拮抗南方根结线虫PKS基因的筛选及活性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗坤; 赵志祥; 芦晓飞; 黎定军; 谢丙炎

    2010-01-01

    土壤环境中蕴藏着巨大的微生物资源,而99%的土壤微生物不能用传统的纯培养.本研究基于西藏米拉山高寒草甸土壤微生物宏基因组Fosmid文库,采用PCR方法从文库中筛选PKS基因,以南方根结线虫(Meloidogyne incognita)为靶标测定其杀线活性,并验证温室盆栽防效.从Fosmid文库中筛选得到2个含PKS基因的克隆K99和K82.K99属于Ⅰ型PKS,K82属于杂合PKS/NRPS;K99发酵液、热处理发酵液浸泡南方根结线虫J2 12 h后,杀线活性为100%.温室盆栽防效结果表明,K99的发酵菌液对南方根结线虫的防效为89%.K99能产生一种外分泌有杀线活性的物质,其热稳定性好,具有重要的开发利用价值.

  14. Target Molecular Simulations of RecA Family Protein Filaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeng-Tseng Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of the RadA family mechanism is crucial to understanding the DNA SOS repair process. In a 2007 report, the archaeal RadA proteins function as rotary motors (linker region: I71-K88 such as shown in Figure 1. Molecular simulations approaches help to shed further light onto this phenomenon. We find 11 rotary residues (R72, T75-K81, M84, V86 and K87 and five zero rotary residues (I71, K74, E82, R83 and K88 in the simulations. Inclusion of our simulations may help to understand the RadA family mechanism.

  15. Fermented soya bean (tempe) extracts reduce adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P.J.; Nout, M.J.R.; Beumer, R.R.; Meulen, van der J.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effect of processed soya bean, during the successive stages of tempe fermentation and different fermentation times, on adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 to intestinal brush border cells as well as Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells; and

  16. Gclust Server: 19374 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 19374 CEL_F41D9.3_71989871 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(189) 452 wrk-1: Wrapper/Rega-1/Klingo...Related Sequences(189) Sequence length 452 Representative annotation wrk-1: Wrapper/Rega-1/Klingo

  17. Thermal Properties of Mineralized and Non Mineralized Type I Collagen in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Investigaciones en Materiales , UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan. C.P. 04510. Mexico. D.F.41nstituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, UNAM...Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan. C.P. 04510. Mexico. D.F. 5Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, UABC, Km 103 carret. Tijuana Ensenada. C.P. 453. Ensenada, Baja

  18. 77 FR 72365 - National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Library of Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting... Committee: National Library of Medicine Special Emphasis Panel; Conflict R01/K99/K22. Date: January 25, 2013... Library of Medicine, 6705 Rockledge Drive, Suite 301, Bethesda, MD 20817, (Telephone Conference...

  19. Synthesis and application of glycoconjugate-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as potent anti-adhesion agents for reducing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Yash S.; Stone, Roland; Fellows, Benjamin; Qi, Bin; Huang, Guohui; Mefford, O. Thompson; Tzeng, Tzuen-Rong J.

    2015-04-01

    Polyethylene oxide stabilized magnetic nanoparticles (PEO-MNPs) bio-functionalized with glycoconjugate (Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glcβ-sp) (GM3-MNPs) are synthesized using click chemistry. Interaction of GM3-MNPs with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain K99 (EC K99) is investigated using different microscopic techniques. Our results suggest that GM3-MNPs can effectively act as non-antibiotic anti-adhesion agents for treating ETEC infections.Polyethylene oxide stabilized magnetic nanoparticles (PEO-MNPs) bio-functionalized with glycoconjugate (Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glcβ-sp) (GM3-MNPs) are synthesized using click chemistry. Interaction of GM3-MNPs with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain K99 (EC K99) is investigated using different microscopic techniques. Our results suggest that GM3-MNPs can effectively act as non-antibiotic anti-adhesion agents for treating ETEC infections. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and methods used in the synthesis and characterization of the polymer and particles described in this manuscript. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00511f

  20. Gram-negative bacterial molecules associate with Alzheimer disease pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamova, Boryana; Jin, Lee-Way; DeCarli, Charles; Phinney, Brett; Sharp, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We determined whether Gram-negative bacterial molecules are associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology given that previous studies demonstrate Gram-negative Escherichia coli bacteria can form extracellular amyloid and Gram-negative bacteria have been reported as the predominant bacteria found in normal human brains. Methods: Brain samples from gray and white matter were studied from patients with AD (n = 24) and age-matched controls (n = 18). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and E coli K99 pili protein were evaluated by Western blots and immunocytochemistry. Human brain samples were assessed for E coli DNA followed by DNA sequencing. Results: LPS and E coli K99 were detected immunocytochemically in brain parenchyma and vessels in all AD and control brains. K99 levels measured using Western blots were greater in AD compared to control brains (p < 0.01) and K99 was localized to neuron-like cells in AD but not control brains. LPS levels were also greater in AD compared to control brain. LPS colocalized with Aβ1-40/42 in amyloid plaques and with Aβ1-40/42 around vessels in AD brains. DNA sequencing confirmed E coli DNA in human control and AD brains. Conclusions: E coli K99 and LPS levels were greater in AD compared to control brains. LPS colocalized with Aβ1-40/42 in amyloid plaques and around vessels in AD brain. The data show that Gram-negative bacterial molecules are associated with AD neuropathology. They are consistent with our LPS-ischemia-hypoxia rat model that produces myelin aggregates that colocalize with Aβ and resemble amyloid-like plaques. PMID:27784770

  1. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria on APRIL and IL-10 Secretion in Caco-2 Cells%乳酸菌对Caco-2细胞分泌APRIL和IL-10的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄怡; 黄琴; 李雅丽; 崔志文; 李卫芬; 余东游

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study was designed to evaluate the immunological effects of probiotic strains Enterococcus faecium and Lactococcus lactis on production of pro-inflammatory cytokine of APRIL and anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in intestinal epithelial cells. [Method] Human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, Caco-2 cells were incubated with PBS (Group CT, negative control), Escherichia coli K88 (Group EC, positive control), and Enterococcus faecium (Group EF), and Lactococcus lactis (Group LL) for 2 h, respectively. Besides, Caco-2 cells were firstly treated with E. Faecium and L. Lactis for 1 h, respectively, and then followed by incubation with E. Coli K.88 for an additional 2 h (Group EF-EC and Group LL-EC). Culture supematants were collected for analyzing the contents ofAPRIL and IL-10 by ELISA method. [Result] Results showed that E.faecium and L. Lactis induced an increased release ofAPRIL and IL-10. Pre-culture of Caco-2 cells with E. Faecium and L. Lactis was capable of markedly up-regulating production of IL-10 while decreasing APRIL secretion following co-culture with E. Coli K.88. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrated that E. Faecium and L. Lactis could activate immunity of intestinal epithelial cells by inducing APRIL and IL-10 secretion. Moreover, these two strains of lactic acid bacteria also exhibited anti-inflammatory properties via modulating the immune response in Caco-2 cells when they were infected with E. Coli K88.%[目的]通过检测促炎细胞因子APRIL和抗炎细胞因子IL-10的分泌水平来观察屎肠球菌和乳酸乳球菌对肠上皮细胞先天性免疫应答的调节作用.[方法]Caco-2细胞分别和PBS(CT组,阴性对照组)、Escherichia coli K88(EC组,阳性对照组),Enterococcus faecium(EF组)或Lactococcus Iactis(LL组)共孵育2h,以及先分别和Enterococcus faecium或Lactococcus lactis共孵育1h,再和Escherichia coli K88共孵育2h(EF-EC组和LL-EC组).试验结束时,用ELISA方法检

  2. Técnicas inmunohistoquímicas para la identificación de antígenos fimbriales de E. coli enteropatógeno Immunohistochemical methods for the identification of enteropathogenic E. coli fimbriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. CANAL

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar dos técnicas inmunohistoquímicas (IHQ, Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta (IFI y Streptavidina-Biotina-Peroxidasa (LSAB para la identificación de antígenos fimbriales de E. coli y su correlación con el Test de Aglutinación, se realizó una inoculación experimental con cepas enteropatógenas de E. coli que expresaban antígenos fimbriales F4, F5, F6 y F41 en cerdos neonatos, los cuales no ingierieron calostro y se mantuvieron aislados de sus madres. El antígeno F4 se distribuyó en duodeno, yeyuno e íleon, en cambio los antígenos F5, F6 y F41 se visualizaron en íleon y con menor frecuencia en yeyuno y duodeno. El Test de Aglutinación fue eficaz en la identificación de antígenos F4 y F5, no así para F6 y F41. Los resultados del presente estudio demuestran que tanto LSAB en tejidos embebidos en parafina como IFI en secciones obtenidas en crióstato, son igualmente efectivas para identificar antígenos fimbriales de E. coli y pueden ser utilizadas como un método rápido de diagnóstico en cerdos lactantes con cuadro de colibacilosis y en estudios epidemiológicos de diarreas neonatalesA study to evaluate two Inmunohistochemistry (IHC techniques (Indirect Immunoflourescense IFI and Streptavidina-Biotine-Peroxidase LSAB to identify the antigen fimbrial of different enteropathogenic strains of E. coli was done, correlating the results with the Aglutination test. Newborn piglets without calostrum were innoculated with enteropathogenic strains of E. coli which contained F4, F5, F6 and F41. Piglets were analysed to microbiologically isolate and identify the antigen fimbrial in the small intestine with IHC and Aglutination test. The IHC techniques , identified F4 fimbriae was in the three intestinal segments ; However, the Ag F5, F6 and F41 were found in the ileon and jejunum with lesser frequency than in the duodenum. The aglutination test identified antigen F4 and F5 but was not able to identify F6 and F41. These

  3. Utilization of distillery slop for sugar cane production and environmental pollution reduction

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The research aimed to study the effect of distillery slop and chemical fertilizer on soil fertility, growth and yield of sugar cane. The field experiment was conducted on Mahasarakam soil series, using the K 88-92 variety of sugar cane. The results showed that distillery slop significantly increased some nutrients in soil, particularly potassium, magnesium, sulfur and chloride. The results also showed that application of distillery slop did not affect most of the physical properties of soil. ...

  4. Fermented soya bean (tempe) extracts reduce adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P J; Nout, M J R; Beumer, R R; van der Meulen, J; Zwietering, M H

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of processed soya bean, during the successive stages of tempe fermentation and different fermentation times, on adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 to intestinal brush border cells as well as Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells; and to clarify the mechanism of action. Tempe was prepared at controlled laboratory scale using Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus as the inoculum. Extracts of raw, soaked and cooked soya beans reduced ETEC adhesion to brush border cells by 40%. Tempe extracts reduced adhesion by 80% or more. ETEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells reduced by 50% in the presence of tempe extracts. ETEC K88 bacteria were found to interact with soya bean extracts, and this may contribute to the observed decrease of ETEC adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. Fermented soya beans (tempe) reduce the adhesion of ETEC to intestinal epithelial cells of pig and human origin. This reduced adhesion is caused by an interaction between ETEC K88 bacteria and soya bean compounds. The results strengthen previous observations on the anti-diarrhoeal effect of tempe. This effect indicates that soya-derived compounds may reduce adhesion of ETEC to intestinal cells in pigs as well as in humans and prevent against diarrhoeal diseases.

  5. Protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on epithelial barrier disruption caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in intestinal porcine epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunpeng; Zhu, Cui; Chen, Zhuang; Chen, Zhongjian; Zhang, Weina; Ma, Xianyong; Wang, Li; Yang, Xuefen; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-04-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) play an important role in maintaining the mucosal barrier function and gastrointestinal health of animals. Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) was reported to protect the intestinal barrier function of early-weaned piglets against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 challenge; however, the underlying cellular mechanism of this protection was unclear. Here, an established intestinal porcine epithelia cell (IPEC-J2) model was used to investigate the protective effects and related mechanisms of L. plantarum on epithelial barrier damages induced by ETEC K88. Epithelial permeability, expression of inflammatory cytokines, and abundance of TJ proteins, were determined. Pre-treatment with L. plantarum for 6h prevented the reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) (Pplantarum were higher (Pplantarum was shown to regulate proteins of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. These results indicated that L. plantarum may improve epithelial barrier function by maintenance of TEER, inhibiting the reduction of TJ proteins, and reducing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by ETEC K88, possibly through modulation of TLRs, NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

  6. Multistatic, Concurrent Detection, Classification And Localization Concepts For Autonomous, Shallow Water Mine Counter Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    commanding and controlling the vehicles are being integrated in the payload for compatibility with the MOOS-Ivp control architecture developed under UPS...payload architecture is being upgraded to be compatible with the current MOOS-IvP autonomy system architecture , complient with thye ASTM F41...main vehicle computer ( MVC ) sitting in the tail section and all the autonomy algorithms in the MOOS computer in the payload section. Figure 4: Cymbal

  7. TRADOC Library and Information Network (TRALINET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    useful to you in knowing more about how li- brary personnel see librarianship . It could be helpful to the profession as it looks at itself and its...Disagree4-4 r ) KP THIS COLUMN 11. I went into librarianship to work with books, not machines. 1 3F 41 15 Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree...Disagree Strongly Disagree 61. Technology that will really change librarianship is far in the future, certainly not in this century. 13 Strongly

  8. Improved Therapeutic Regimens for Treatment of Post-Traumatic Ocular Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    619-626, 1991. MORáN F41. J, PUENTE LF, PéREZ-GIRALDO C, BLANCO MT, HURTADO C, GóMEZ- GARCíA AC. Activity of vancomycin and teicoplanin against human...evaluation and management. Retina 27, 662–680 (2007). 52 García-Sáenz MC, Arias- Puente A, Rodríguez-Caravaca G, Bañuelos JB. Effectiveness of

  9. Arcobacter cloacae sp. nov. and Arcobacter suis sp. nov., two new species isolated from food and sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levican, Arturo; Collado, Luis; Figueras, María José

    2013-02-01

    Three strains recovered from mussels (F26), sewage (SW28-13(T)) and pork meat (F41(T)) were characterized as Arcobacter. They did not appear to resemble any known species on the basis of their 16S rDNA-RFLP patterns and the rpoB gene analyses. However, strains F26 and SW28-13(T) appeared to be the same species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of strains SW28-13(T) and F41(T) to the type strains of all other Arcobacter species ranged from 94.1% to 99.6% and 93.4% to 98.8%, respectively. Phenotypic characteristics and the DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) results showed that they belonged to 2 new Arcobacter species. A multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) with the concatenated sequences of 5 housekeeping genes (gyrA, atpA, rpoB, gyrB and hsp60) was used for the first time in the genus, showing concordance with the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis and DDH results. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra also discriminated these strains as two new species. The names proposed for them are Arcobacter cloacae with the type strain SW28-13(T) (=CECT 7834(T)=LMG 26153(T)) and Arcobacter suis with the type strain F41(T) (=CECT 7833(T)=LMG 26152(T)).

  10. Intestinal Colonization by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    adhere to swine, cattle, and sheep intestine. Pili convey some of the species specificity which is characteristic of ETEC. Species specificity is not...absolute in that K99 ETEC colonize swine, cattle, sheep , and mice (Bibliography publication 17). Publication 12 also documents the specificity of the...different pilus types, and it could not be attributed to enterotoxin neutralization by colostrum . In contrast to the live ETEC vaccines, the live rough

  11. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Shock Waves and Shock Tubes (15th) Held in Berkeley, California on July 28-August 2, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Borrell Perturbation Analysis of Reactive Flowfields in Shock Tubes 359 Yasunari Takano Numerical Simulations of the Initiation of Gaseous...A 0.6’ 0. I0.4 I/Mach Numter "N pt-1 PERTURBATION ANALYSIS OF REACTIVE FLOWFIELDS IN SHOCK TUBES Yasunari Takano Department of Applied Mathematics...Takahira, H., 737Nagazmatsu, Henry ., 901 Ritzel, D. V., 579 Takano, Yasunari , 359Uakagawa, T., 211 Robaugh, David, 319 Takayama, K., 99, 113,Nakoryakov, V

  12. The ATPase activity of Fml1 is essential for its roles in homologous recombination and DNA repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Saikat; Whitby, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    In fission yeast, the DNA helicase Fml1, which is an orthologue of human FANCM, is a key component of the machinery that drives and governs homologous recombination (HR). During the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by HR, it limits the occurrence of potentially deleterious crossover recombinants, whereas at stalled replication forks, it promotes HR to aid their recovery. Here, we have mutated conserved residues in Fml1’s Walker A (K99R) and Walker B (D196N) motifs to determine whether its activities are dependent on its ability to hydrolyse ATP. Both Fml1K99R and Fml1D196N are proficient for DNA binding but totally deficient in DNA unwinding and ATP hydrolysis. In vivo both mutants exhibit a similar reduction in recombination at blocked replication forks as a fml1Δ mutant indicating that Fml1’s motor activity, fuelled by ATP hydrolysis, is essential for its pro-recombinogenic role. Intriguingly, both fml1K99R and fml1D196N mutants exhibit greater sensitivity to genotoxins and higher levels of crossing over during DSB repair than a fml1Δ strain. These data suggest that without its motor activity, the binding of Fml1 to its DNA substrate can impede alternative mechanisms of repair and crossover avoidance. PMID:22844101

  13. Production of aggregation prone human interferon gamma and its mutant in highly soluble and biologically active form by SUMO fusion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tileva, M; Krachmarova, E; Ivanov, I; Maskos, K; Nacheva, G

    2016-01-01

    The Escherichia coli expression system is a preferable choice for production of recombinant proteins. A disadvantage of this system is the target protein aggregation in "inclusion bodies" (IBs) that further requires solubilisation and refolding, which is crucial for the properties and the yield of the final product. In order to prevent aggregation, SUMO fusion tag technology has been successfully applied for expression of eukaryotic proteins, including human interferon gamma (hIFNγ) that was reported, however, with no satisfactory biological activity. We modified this methodology for expression and purification of both the wild type hIFNγ and an extremely prone to aggregation mutant hIFNγ-K88Q, whose recovery from IBs showed to be ineffective upon numerous conditions. By expression of the N-terminal His-SUMO fusion proteins in the E. coli strain BL21(DE3)pG-KJE8, co-expressing two chaperone systems, at 24 °C a significant increase in solubility of both target proteins (1.5-fold for hIFNγ and 8-fold for K88Q) was achieved. Two-step chromatography (affinity and ion-exchange) with on-dialysis His-SUMO-tag cleavage was applied for protein purification that yielded 6.0-7.0mg/g wet biomass for both proteins with >95% purity and native N-termini. The optimised protocol led to increased yields from 5.5 times for hIFNγ up to 100 times for K88Q in comparison to their isolation from IBs. Purified hIFNγ showed preserved thermal stability and antiproliferative activity corresponding to that of the native reference sample (3 × 10(7)IU/mg). The developed methodology represents an optimised procedure that can be successfully applied for large scale expression and purification of aggregation-prone proteins in soluble native form.

  14. Half-a-Century of the »Körmend Growth Study«

    OpenAIRE

    Eiben, O. G.; Tóth, G.

    2000-01-01

    The authors give a sketch about the „Körmend Growth Study« which is series of cross-sectional growth studies, carried out in Körmend, a small town in Western Hungary. The first investigation was carried out in 1958 (K-58) and it has been repeated every ten years (K-68, K-78, K-88, and K-98). All 3-18 year-old healthy boys and girls in nurseries and schools in Körmend were involved in the study. Twenty-three body measurements were taken. This paper focuses on changes in height, ...

  15. Ocorrência de patógenos de origem bacteriana e viral e marcadores de virulência de Escherichia coli e Rhodococcus equi isolados das fezes de aves silvestres de cativiero da fauna brasileira

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Amanda Bonalume Cordeiro de [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the occurrence of Escherichia coli, Rhodococcus equi, Salmonella sp., Coronavirus and Rotavirus in the feces of Passeriformes and psittaciformes belonging to Brazilian wildlife, from 29 different species, without enteric signs. Virulence markers were also investigated in strains of E. coli (cnf1, hlyA, papC, papGI, papGII, papGIII, fimH, afa, sfa, iucD, usp, vt1, vt2, eae, k88) and R. equi (vapA and vapB genes). The birds used in the study came from the Centro d...

  16. Oral administration of a select mixture of Bacillus probiotics generates Tr1 cells in weaned F4ab/acR pigs challenged with an F4+ ETEC/VTEC/EPEC strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Meng-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Although breeding of F4 receptor − negative (F4R−) pigs may prevent post-weaning diarrhea, the underlying immunity is poorly understood. Here, various doses of a Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis mixture (BLS-mix) were orally administered to F4ab/acR− pigs for 1 week before F4 (K88) − ...... of BLS-mix during episodes of intestinal inflammation that is caused by enteric pathogens might prohibit clearance of the pathogen. Select probiotic mixtures may allow for tailoring strategies to prevent infectious diseases....

  17. Development and characterization of high affinity leptins and leptin antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpilman, Michal; Niv-Spector, Leonora; Katz, Meirav; Varol, Chen; Solomon, Gili; Ayalon-Soffer, Michal; Boder, Eric; Halpern, Zamir; Elinav, Eran; Gertler, Arieh

    2011-02-11

    Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone acting both centrally and peripherally. It participates in a variety of biological processes, including energy metabolism, reproduction, and modulation of the immune response. So far, structural elements affecting leptin binding to its receptor remain unknown. We employed random mutagenesis of leptin, followed by selection of high affinity mutants by yeast surface display and discovered that replacing residue Asp-23 with a non-negatively charged amino acid leads to dramatically enhanced affinity of leptin for its soluble receptor. Rational mutagenesis of Asp-23 revealed the D23L substitution to be most effective. Coupling the Asp-23 mutation with alanine mutagenesis of three amino acids (L39A/D40A/F41A) previously reported to convert leptin into antagonist resulted in potent antagonistic activity. These novel superactive mouse and human leptin antagonists (D23L/L39A/D40A/F41A), termed SMLA and SHLA, respectively, exhibited over 60-fold increased binding to leptin receptor and 14-fold higher antagonistic activity in vitro relative to the L39A/D40A/F41A mutants. To prolong and enhance in vivo activity, SMLA and SHLA were monopegylated mainly at the N terminus. Administration of the pegylated SMLA to mice resulted in a remarkably rapid, significant, and reversible 27-fold more potent increase in body weight (as compared with pegylated mouse leptin antagonist), because of increased food consumption. Thus, recognition and mutagenesis of Asp-23 enabled construction of novel compounds that induce potent and reversible central and peripheral leptin deficiency. In addition to enhancing our understanding of leptin interactions with its receptor, these antagonists enable in vivo study of the role of leptin in metabolic and immune processes and hold potential for future therapeutic use in disease pathologies involving leptin.

  18. Development and Characterization of High Affinity Leptins and Leptin Antagonists*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpilman, Michal; Niv-Spector, Leonora; Katz, Meirav; Varol, Chen; Solomon, Gili; Ayalon-Soffer, Michal; Boder, Eric; Halpern, Zamir; Elinav, Eran; Gertler, Arieh

    2011-01-01

    Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone acting both centrally and peripherally. It participates in a variety of biological processes, including energy metabolism, reproduction, and modulation of the immune response. So far, structural elements affecting leptin binding to its receptor remain unknown. We employed random mutagenesis of leptin, followed by selection of high affinity mutants by yeast surface display and discovered that replacing residue Asp-23 with a non-negatively charged amino acid leads to dramatically enhanced affinity of leptin for its soluble receptor. Rational mutagenesis of Asp-23 revealed the D23L substitution to be most effective. Coupling the Asp-23 mutation with alanine mutagenesis of three amino acids (L39A/D40A/F41A) previously reported to convert leptin into antagonist resulted in potent antagonistic activity. These novel superactive mouse and human leptin antagonists (D23L/L39A/D40A/F41A), termed SMLA and SHLA, respectively, exhibited over 60-fold increased binding to leptin receptor and 14-fold higher antagonistic activity in vitro relative to the L39A/D40A/F41A mutants. To prolong and enhance in vivo activity, SMLA and SHLA were monopegylated mainly at the N terminus. Administration of the pegylated SMLA to mice resulted in a remarkably rapid, significant, and reversible 27-fold more potent increase in body weight (as compared with pegylated mouse leptin antagonist), because of increased food consumption. Thus, recognition and mutagenesis of Asp-23 enabled construction of novel compounds that induce potent and reversible central and peripheral leptin deficiency. In addition to enhancing our understanding of leptin interactions with its receptor, these antagonists enable in vivo study of the role of leptin in metabolic and immune processes and hold potential for future therapeutic use in disease pathologies involving leptin. PMID:21119198

  19. Automatic Assessment of the Quality of Group 3 Facsimile Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    TESI CHARI t -- t * LEVEL" L( NCS TIB 81-5 NATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEM - - ,* ° TECHNICAL INFORMATION BULLETIN 81-5 AUTOMATIC ASSESSMENT ’ OF THE...n Ie-----rcn dano#’r a e -aus.- . importantes . On tr-5uve al~ det r’’chns Sui Gamma 30 Ai Lyon et M-izi-8eiki. -do* CE 1426--.. &Lille, Bordewaux. T... importantes . Ontrouve ainmi des machines Bull Gamma 30 A Lyon et Miarseille, des GE 425 A Lille, Bordeaux. Toulouse et Montpollior, inr. F 41’? A Maay

  20. Drug: D00943 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00943 Drug Sodium fluoride (JAN/USP); Fluorinse (TN) Na. F 41.9882 41.9882 D00943....Miscellaneous 2790 Miscellaneous D00943 Sodium fluoride (JAN/USP) Anatomical Ther...ARATIONS A01A STOMATOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS A01AA Caries prophylactic agents A01AA01 Sodium fluoride D00943 Sodium fluoride...2CD Fluoride A12CD01 Sodium fluoride D00943 Sodium fluoride (JAN/USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] T...herapeutic Nutrients/Minerals/Electrolytes Electrolyte/Mineral Replacement Fluoride D00943 Sodium fluoride (

  1. Silicon Labs扩展8位混合信号MCU产品线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫丽华

    2006-01-01

    尽管车用电子、IPTV机顶盒的兴起催生了16位、32位MCU的发展势头,但Silicon Labs仍将目光锁定8位MCU市场,日前推出的C8051F41x系列产品进一步扩大了公司小型8位混合信号微控制器(MCU)产品线。

  2. Dicty_cDB: VFK294 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available for mK... 45 0.003 ( P59438 ) RecName: Full=Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 5 protein homol... 45 0.003 AF534398_...la melanogaster RE38137 fu... 43 0.021 (Q297N8) RecName: Full=Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 5 protein homol... 4...0.082 AB463066_1( AB463066 |pid:none) Synthetic construct DNA, clone: pF... 41 0.082 (Q9UPZ3) RecName: Full=Herman

  3. Biggs AAF, El Paso, Texas. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-14

    BGSAF E AO 38 U -OOTN FRO HORL OLOBLECIMAOLOYIONS Hoti !S WEATHER CONDITLOONS MONTH CRMS I AD/OR jRAIN &,cRj ANDOR MAIL -B A’ D/OR WITH 015? NO. OF (L5 W...0_____ Fs 32_FJa067 F 73F 0 F -93 F Total . -,-.. ;. .." "I ~ q " -," " * ’f 41 v>"K~ ’ ’, ,Jim j - - ’ ArTA C PSYCHROMETRIC SUMMARY L. < el’ AT.Ft? SUIV

  4. The ATPase activity of Fml1 is essential for its roles in homologous recombination and DNA repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, S; Whitby, MC

    2012-01-01

    In fission yeast, the DNA helicase Fml1, which is an orthologue of human FANCM, is a key component of the machinery that drives and governs homologous recombination (HR). During the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by HR, it limits the occurrence of potentially deleterious crossover recombinants, whereas at stalled replication forks, it promotes HR to aid their recovery. Here, we have mutated conserved residues in Fml1's Walker A (K99R) and Walker B (D196N) motifs to determine whether its a...

  5. Key comparison on pH of an unknown phosphate buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastkowski, F.; Spitzer, P.; Sander, B.; Máriássy, M.; Dimitrova, L.; Reyes, A.; Rodríguez, A.; Manzano, V. Lara; Vospelova, A.; Jakobsen, P. T.; Pawlina, M.; Korol, M.; Kozlowski, W.; Delgado, M.; Ticona Canaza, G.; Dias, J. C.; Gonzaga, F. B.; Nagyné Szilágyi, Z.; Jakusovszky, B.; Nongluck, T.; Waters, J.; Pratt, K. W.; Asakai, T.; Maksimov, I.; Hankova, Z.; Uysal, E.; Gavrilkin, V.; Prokunin, S. V.; Ferreira, E.; Fajardo, S.

    2016-01-01

    Results of CCQM-K99 key comparison on unknown phosphate buffer pH ~ 7.5 at 5 °C, 15 °C, 25 °C, 37 °C and 50 °C are reported. Good agreement is found between the majority of participants. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Localizing the Subunit Pool for the Temporally Regulated Polar Pili of Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Roosendaal, B., P.M.P. Van Bergen en Henegouwen and F.K. De Graaf (1986) Subcellular localization of K99 fimbrial subunits and effect of temperature on...ORGANIZAT A4A97 University of California Office of Naval Research 6c. ADDRE(t Silage , a tory 7b AJDlS jity, State, and ZIP Code) 2’r~aaulsciences Laborat...colloidal gold conjugate, diluted 1:8 in OLG, and incubated 1 1/2 hr at room temperature . A squirt wash with high salt buffer and then water followed. The

  7. Adhesive ability means inhibition activities for lactobacillus against pathogens and S-layer protein plays an important role in adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenming; Wang, Haifeng; Liu, Jianxin; Zhao, Yunhao; Gao, Kan; Zhang, Juan

    2013-08-01

    Eighty-five strains of lactobacillus were isolated from the pig intestine and identified by sequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene, from which five lactobacillus strains with high adhesive ability were selected. The inhibition ability of the five lactobacillus strains with or without S-layer proteins against adherence of Escherichia coli K88 and Salmonella enteritidis 50335 to Caco-2 was evaluated in vitro with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG strain (LGG) as a positive control. In addition, tolerance of lactobacilli to heat, acid, bile, Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) were assessed. All five selected strains, Lactobacillus salivarius ZJ614 (JN981856), Lactobacillus reuteri ZJ616 (JN981858), L. reuteri ZJ617 (JN981859), L. reuteri ZJ621 (JN981863) and L. reuteri ZJ623 (JN981865), showed inhibition against the two pathogens, E. coli K88 and S. enteritidis 50335. L. reuteri ZJ621 showed higher inhibition ability than the others to S. enteritidis 50335 (P S-layer protein, the inhibition activities of the lactobacilli against pathogens decreased significantly (P S-layer proteins plays an important role.

  8. Use of Fluorescence Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the Detection of Escherichia coli Adhesion to Pig Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C H; Gan, L N; Qin, W U; Zi, C; Zhu, G Q; Wu, S L; Bao, W B

    2016-09-01

    An efficient and accurate method to test Escherichia coli (E. coli) adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells will contribute to the study of bacterial pathogenesis and the function of genes that encode receptors related to adhesion. This study used the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. qPCR primers were designed from the PILIN gene of E. coli F18ab, F18ac, and K88ac, and the pig β-ACTIN gene. Total deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from E. coli and intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2 cells) were used as templates for qPCR. The 2-ΔΔCt formula was used to calculate the relative number of bacteria in cultures of different areas. We found that the relative numbers of F18ab, F18ac, and K88ac that adhered to IPEC-J2 cells did not differ significantly in 6-, 12-, and 24-well culture plates. This finding indicated that there was no relationship between the relative adhesion number of E. coli and the area of cells, so the method of qPCR could accurately test the relative number of E. coli. This study provided a convenient and reliable testing method for experiments involving E. coli adhesion, and also provided innovative ideas for similar detection methods.

  9. Linkage and comparative mapping of the locus controlling susceptibility towards E. COLI F4ab/ac diarrhoea in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, C B; Cirera, S; Anderson, S I; Archibald, A L; Raudsepp, T; Chowdhary, B; Edfors-Lilja, I; Andersson, L; Fredholm, M

    2003-01-01

    In 1995, Edfors-Lilja and coworkers mapped the locus for the E. COLI K88ab (F4ab) and K88ac (F4ac) intestinal receptor to pig chromosome 13 (SSC13). Using the same family material we have refined the map position to a region between the microsatellite markers Sw207 and Sw225. Primers from these markers were used to screen a pig BAC library and the positive clones were used for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. The results of the FISH analysis helped to propose a candidate gene region in the SSC13q41-->q44 interval. Shotgun sequencing of the FISH-mapped BAC clones revealed that the candidate region contains an evolutionary breakpoint between human and pig. In order to further characterise the rearrangements between SSC13 and human chromosome 3 (HSA3), detailed gene mapping of SSC13 was carried out. Based on this mapping data we have constructed a detailed comparative map between SSC13 and HSA3. Two candidate regions on human chromosome 3 have been identified that are likely to harbour the human homologue of the gene responsible for susceptibility towards E. COLI F4ab/ac diarrhoea in pigs.

  10. Construction and Expression of Tandem Repeat Gene of Tachyplesin Ⅰ and its Antibacterial Activity%抗菌肽(tachyplesin Ⅰ)串联基因的构建、表达及抗菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢海伟; 孙兰萍; 王娣; 许晖; 郭勇

    2012-01-01

    In order to produce tachyplesin I with stable construction by efficient gene engineering approach, the tachyplesin 1 gene (tac) was obtained by RT-PCR and the tandem repeat of tachyplesin I gene sequence (2tac) was developed by annealing two synthesized complementary single-stranded DNAs and constructed into pSBPTQ shuttk vector. The vectors containing thQ target gene sequence were then transformed into Bacillus subtilis WB800. Both expression of tac and 2tac were induced by 2% sucrose. The fermentation supernatant was purified by the means of salt precipitation, dialyse, ion-exchange chromatography in sequence. Then 2TAC was cleaved by BrCN. The antimicrobial activities of TAC, 2TAC and hydrolytic 2TAC were measured by the size of bacteriostatic circle of the fermentation supernatants against Eschenchia coli K88. Ultrastructural alterations of E. coli K88 and Salmonella typhimurium were observed under transmission electron microscopy. The results show that, in comparison with TAC, 2TAC is expressed at a higher level and both of them have strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli K88 and Salmonella typhimurium in vitro. The secreted TAC and 2TAC are about 8.25 and 17.36 mg-L"1 in the fermentation supernatant, respectively. 2TAC cleaved by BrCN has higher antimicrobial activity than TAC.%为了实现通过基因工程方法制备具有稳定结构的抗菌肽tachyplesin Ⅰ,采取了tachyplesinⅠ基因串联表达的方法.实验以高拷贝穿梭表达载体pSBPTQ为表达载体,通过RT-PCR扩增tachyplesin Ⅰ基因(tac)和采用直接退火的方法合成tachyplesin Ⅰ串联基因(2tac).构建重组表达载体pSBPTQ-TAC和pSBPTQ-2TAC,转化到枯草杆菌WB800实现高效表达,经2%蔗糖诱导获得表达串联产物(2TAC)和TAC.通过离子交换柱层析纯化后得表达产物2TAC和TAC,2TAC经BrCN水解后,对表达产物抑菌活性分析,观察发酵液上清对大肠杆菌(E.coli K88)和伤寒沙门氏菌(Salmonella typhi)的抑菌圈和细胞

  11. Role of heme-protein covalent bonds in mammalian peroxidases. Protection of the heme by a single engineered heme-protein link in horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liusheng; Wojciechowski, Grzegorz; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2006-07-14

    Oxidation of SCN-, Br-, and Cl- (X-) by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and other plant and fungal peroxidases results in the addition of HOX to the heme vinyl group. This reaction is not observed with lactoperoxidase (LPO), in which the heme is covalently bound to the protein via two ester bonds between carboxylic side chains and heme methyl groups. To test the hypothesis that the heme of LPO and other mammalian peroxidases is protected from vinyl group modification by the hemeprotein covalent bonds, we prepared the F41E mutant of HRP in which the heme is attached to the protein via a covalent bond between Glu41 and the heme 3-methyl. We also examined the E375D mutant of LPO in which only one of the two normal covalent heme links is retained. The prosthetic heme groups of F41E HRP and E375D LPO are essentially not modified by the HOBr produced by these enzymes. The double E375D/D225E mutant of LPO that can form no covalent bonds is inactive and could not be examined. These results unambiguously demonstrate that a single heme-protein link is sufficient to protect the heme from vinyl group modification even in a protein (HRP) that is normally highly susceptible to this reaction. The results directly establish that one function of the covalent heme-protein bonds in mammalian peroxidases is to protect their prosthetic group from their highly reactive metabolic products.

  12. Heat-related deaths in hot cities: estimates of human tolerance to high temperature thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Sharon L; Chowell, Gerardo; Yang, Shuo; Petitti, Diana B; Morales Butler, Emmanuel J; Ruddell, Benjamin L; Ruddell, Darren M

    2014-03-20

    In this study we characterized the relationship between temperature and mortality in central Arizona desert cities that have an extremely hot climate. Relationships between daily maximum apparent temperature (ATmax) and mortality for eight condition-specific causes and all-cause deaths were modeled for all residents and separately for males and females ages heat. For this condition-specific cause of death, the heat thresholds in all gender and age groups (ATmax = 90-97 °F; 32.2-36.1 °C) were below local median seasonal temperatures in the study period (ATmax = 99.5 °F; 37.5 °C). Heat threshold was defined as ATmax at which the mortality ratio begins an exponential upward trend. Thresholds were identified in younger and older females for cardiac disease/stroke mortality (ATmax = 106 and 108 °F; 41.1 and 42.2 °C) with a one-day lag. Thresholds were also identified for mortality from respiratory diseases in older people (ATmax = 109 °F; 42.8 °C) and for all-cause mortality in females (ATmax = 107 °F; 41.7 °C) and males Heat-related mortality in a region that has already made some adaptations to predictable periods of extremely high temperatures suggests that more extensive and targeted heat-adaptation plans for climate change are needed in cities worldwide.

  13. Characterization of Arcobacter suis isolated from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacometti, Federica; Salas-Massó, Nuria; Serraino, Andrea; Figueras, Maria José

    2015-10-01

    During a survey in a dairy plant in Italy, the second strain (strain FG 206) of Arcobacter suis described in the literature was isolated from raw water buffalo milk. The objective of this study was to confirm the species identification, better define the species by comparing its characteristics with those of the reference strain (F41(T) = CECT 7833(T) = LMG 26152(T)) and to investigate its potential clinical relevance by detecting the virulence gene pattern of the new strain. Phenotypical characterization and 16S rRNA-RFLP gave a complete overlap of results for the two strains. As expected, an RFLP pattern common to A. suis and Arcobacter defluvii was obtained by MseI endonuclease digestion, and a pattern specific for A. suis was obtained by BfaI endonuclease digestion. 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA) showed a robust relatedness of strain FG 206 to the A. suis type strain F41(T). The recovery of strain FG 206 from a dairy plant shows that this species of Arcobacter is present in the food chain. Like the type strain recovered from pig meat, the species A. suis may not be confined to a single type of food.

  14. Identificación de fimbrias de Escherichiacoli enteropatógeno mediante inmunohistoquímica en cerdos lactantes con diarrea Inmunohistochemical identification of enteropathogenic E. coli fimbriae in suckling pigs with diarrhoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. CANAL

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó con el propósito de considerar a las técnicas inmunohistoquímicas como método de diagnóstico seguro y rápido para la identificación de antígenos fimbriales de E. coli en intestino delgado de cerdos lactantes con cuadro diarreico. Se realizó aislamiento microbiológico e inmunohistoquímica en duodeno, yeyuno e íleon de 50 cerdos lactantes infectados naturalmente. E. coli sola (34% así como asociada (24% a otros microorganismos fue el agente etiológico mas frecuentemente diagnosticado en cerdos lactantes con diarrea, seguido de Salmonella sp., Rotavirus y Campylobacter sp. Mediante IHQ se identificó antígenos fimbriales en 10 cerdos con aislamiento de E. coli, en 1 con Salmonella sp. y en 5 sin diagnóstico etiológico. El antígeno fimbrial más frecuentemente encontrado fue F41 en 8 cerdos entre 1 y 35 días de edad, seguido de la asociación de F4-F41 en 5 animales de 15 a 28 días y, finalmente, F4 en 3 cerdos entre 8 y 35 días. E. coli F4 fue identificado en los tres segmentos intestinales, mientras que E. coli F41 colonizó principalmente íleon y yeyuno. Los resultados de la presente investigación confirman la importancia de E. coli en los cuadros de diarrea en cerdos lactantes, así como la efectividad de las técnicas IHQ para la identificación de antígenos fimbriales en cortes de intestino embebidos en parafina. Sin embargo, se debe resaltar la posible presentación de otros factores de adhesión de E. coli a los enterocitos, lo que permite proyectar futuras investigacionesA study to evaluated the inmunohistochemistry techniques (IHC as dignosis the E. coli fimbrial antigens in intestines of sucklings pigs with diarrhea, was carried out. Fifty suckling pigs, naturally infected, with diarrhoea were analyzed to microbiologically isolate and identify the antigen fimbrial in the small intestine with Inmunohistochemistry (Indirect Inmunofluorencence and Streptavidin-Biotin-Peroxidase and

  15. Brewers dried yeast as a source of mannan oligosaccharides for weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L A; Newman, M C; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D

    2002-10-01

    Brewers dried yeast, a source of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), was assessed as an alternative to an antimicrobial agent (carbadox) for young pigs in two experiments. The yeast contained 5.2% MOS. Agglutination tests confirmed adsorption of several serovars of E. coli and Salmonella spp. onto the yeast product. In Exp. 1, seven replicates (five pigs per pen) of 22-d-old pigs were fed a nonmedicated basal diet or the basal diet with carbadox (55 mg/kg), yeast (3%), or a combination of 3% yeast and 2% citric acid for 28 d. Carbadox did not improve growth performance. Growth rate and feed intake were depressed (P yeast alone or in combination with acid. Log counts of total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens in feces were not affected by diet, but Bifidobacteria spp. counts were lower (P yeast + acid diet and lactobacilli counts were higher (P yeast. Fecal pH and VFA concentrations and intestinal morphological traits were not consistently affected by diet. Serum IgG levels were elevated in the yeast + acid (P yeast and carbadox additions to the diet on enteric microbial populations in young pigs housed in isolation units were evaluated. Pigs (n = 24) were weaned at 11 d of age (4.1 kg BW) and placed in isolation chambers (two pigs per chamber) equipped with individual air filtering systems and excrement containers. Treatments were a nonmedicated basal diet and the basal diet with 55 mg/kg of carbadox or with 3% yeast. Diets were fed for 29 d, then each pig was orally dosed with approximately 9.5 x 10(8) CFU of E. coli K88. Daily fecal E. coli K88 counts were not different (P > 0.05) among treatments, but fecal shedding of carbadox-resistant coliforms was higher (P yeast (P Yeast reduced colonization oftotal coliforms in the duodenum,jejunum, cecum, and colon, but it did not have a consistent effect on colonization of E. coli K88. Pigs fed yeast tended (P yeast and carbadox had minimal effects on growth, microbial populations, and intestinal health

  16. Removal of Antibiotic Resistance of Live Vaccine Strain Escherichia coli MM-3 and Evaluation of the Immunogenicity of the New Strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Ling YUAN; Peng WANG; Hao-Xia TAO; Xiang-Xin LIU; Yan-Chun WANG; De-Wen ZHAN; Chun-Jie LIU; Zhao-Shan ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    MM-3 was a live vaccine strain candidate for protecting neonatal piglets from diarrhea.Designed in the 1980s, a high degree of protection from colibacillosis was afforded to piglets in a challenge study and field trials. However MM-3 had a drawback of carrying the antibiotic resistance gene (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, cat). The introduction of a host-plasmid balanced lethal system into the vaccine was a good idea to solve the problem. The λ-Red recombination system was adopted in this study to realize the replacement of cat by aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase gene (asd) in the plasmid pMM085. The new plasmid named pMMASD was introduced into an Escherichia coli strain χ6097 and Salmonella typhimurium χ4072 where the asd gene had been knocked out in their chromosomes. Cultured in an Erlenmeyer flask,expression levels of two antigens K88ac fimbriae and heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) in cell lysate were similar among MM-3, χ4072(pMMASD) and χ6097(pMMASD). However, χ4072(pMMASD) possessed the more effective secretion mechanism to transport LTB enterotoxin into culture liquid. The relatively higher stability of pMMASD in Salmonella typhimurium χ4072 than that of pMM085 in MM-3 was determined both in vitro in the absence of selective pressure, and in vivo following oral inoculation. Oral immunization of BALB/c mice with χ4072(pMMASD) or χ6097(pMMASD) was sufficient to elicit IgA responses in mucosal tissues as well as systemic IgG antibody responses to the K88 fimbriae, while MM-3 failed to elicit specific antibody responses to K88 fimbriae in mucosal tissues. Among three live strains, only χ4072(pMMASD)could develop strong humoral responses against LTB enterotoxin. The results suggest that χ4072(pMMASD)is expected to be a promising live vaccine strain.

  17. Spectroscopic characterization of mutations at the Phe41 position in the distal haem pocket of horseradish peroxidase C: structural and functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heering, Hendrik A; Smith, Andrew T; Smulevich, Giulietta

    2002-05-01

    Three mutants of horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRPC) have been constructed in which the conserved distal aromatic residue Phe(41) has been substituted by Trp, Val or Ala and the properties of the mutant proteins have been compared with that of the wild-type. The ferric and ferrous states have been studied by resonance Raman, electronic absorption and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopies, together with their respective fluoride and CO complexes as probes for the integrity of the distal haem-pocket hydrogen-bonding network. The catalytic properties of the mutants, most notably the HRPC-mutant Phe(41)-->Trp (F41W) variant, were also affected. Structural modelling suggests that the bulky indole group of the F41W mutant blocks the distal cavity, inhibiting the binding of fluoride and CO to the haem iron, severely impairing the reaction of the enzyme with H(2)O(2) to form Compound I. Substitution with the smaller side-chain residues Val or Ala resulted in a 2-fold increase in the affinity of the mutants for the aromatic donor benzhydroxamic acid (BHA) compared with the wild-type, whereas the sterically hindered F41W mutant was not able to bind BHA at all. All the mutations studied increased the amount of a ferric six-coordinate aquo-high-spin species. On the other hand, the similarity in the Fe-Im stretching frequencies of the mutants and wild-type protein suggests that the distal haem-pocket mutations do not cause any substantive changes on the proximal side of the haem. Spectra of the HRPC mutant Phe(41)-->Ala-CO and the HRPC mutant Phe(41)-->Val-CO complexes strongly suggested a weakening of the interaction between CO and Arg(38) due to a secondary rearrangement of the haem relative to helix B. The effects observed for these HRP mutants were somewhat different from those noted recently for the analogous Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) mutants, particularly the Trp mutant. These differences can be reconciled in part as being due to the smaller size of the

  18. Risk factors for neonatal calf diarrhoea and enteropathogen shedding in New Zealand dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mawly, J; Grinberg, A; Prattley, D; Moffat, J; Marshall, J; French, N

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the risk factors for neonatal calf diarrhoea, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 97 New Zealand dairy farms. Faecal specimens from 1283 calves were scored as liquid, semi-solid or solid, and analysed for bovine rotavirus (BRV) and coronavirus (BCV), enterotoxigenic K99(+)Escherichia coli (K99), Salmonella spp. and Cryptosporidium parvum. Calf- and farm-level data were collected by means of a questionnaire and the odds of liquid faeces calculated using mixed effects logistic regression models. Among the infectious agents, only C. parvum (odds ratio [OR] = 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-5.6; P = 0.02), BRV (OR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3-5.9; P = 0.01) and co-infection with more than one agent (compared with mono-infection: OR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-4.8; P = 0.01) were associated with increased odds of liquid faeces in calves which were 9 to 21 days old. Housing of calves in open barns so exposing them to the weather was also associated with increased odds of liquid faeces compared with closed barns (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-12.2; P = 0.03). Vaccinating cows against calf enteropathogens (OR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9; P = 0.03), administering waste milk (from mastitis and/or containing antibiotics; OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-0.8; P = 0.01), the sex of calves (females compared to males OR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.07-0.7; P <0.01), and the use of straw for bedding (OR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.03-0.9; P = 0.03) decreased the odds of liquid faeces. Conversely, in calves that were 1 to 5 days old, only K99 was associated with liquid faeces (OR = 4.6; 95% CI, 1.2-16.1; P = 0.02). In this age group, the odds of liquid faeces were smaller on farms where females took care of the calves, compared with males (OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.01-0.9; P = 0.04). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Marker-assisted selection on E. coli F4ab/ac resistance and the effect on neonatal survival in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Anderson, Susan I.; Cirera, Susanna;

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that express the F4ab or F4ac fimbriae (formerly known as K88ab/ac) are major causes of diarrhea and death in neonatal and young pigs. A locus controlling susceptibility towards ETEC F4ab/ac has previously been mapped to pig chromosome 13q41. A number...... to the genomic sequence of pig mucin 4 we also report on more than 15 SNPs discovered in the porcine MUC4 sequence. Collaboration with the Danish Slaughterhouses on genotyping of the intron 7 SNP of Mucin 4 in 6.373 breeding boars (3.432 Landrace and 2.941 Large White) and analysis of their offspring has...... revealed data of relevance to neonatal survival. Analysis on offspring from 6.373 animals show a highly significant (P

  20. Desenvolvimento e avaliação de novas estratégias de imunização contra colibacilose suína Development and evaluation of new strategies for immunization against swine colibacillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Simionatto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Colibacilose suína causada por Escherichia coli enterotoxigênica continua sendo um dos principais problemas sanitários na criação de suínos. A tecnologia do DNA recombinante proporciona a possibilidade de desenvolvimento de novas estratégias de imunização. Neste trabalho é descrito o desenvolvimento de uma vacina de subunidade através da produção e purificação da proteína FaeC da fímbria de E. coli K88. O gene que codifica este antígeno foi amplificado por PCR e clonado em um vetor de expressão em E. coli, fusionado a uma cauda de histidinas. A proteína recombinante expressa por esta bactéria foi purificada, e depois de quantificada foi utilizada para imunizar camundongos. Paralelamente a isso, o mesmo gene foi clonado no vetor de expressão em célula eucariótica, introduzindo a seqüência de Kozak para favorecer a tradução deste gene em células musculares. O plasmídio resultante, denominado pUP310, foi produzido em larga escala e também utilizado na imunização de camundongos. A resposta imune induzida por ambas formas de imunizações foi monitorada por ELISA, onde o antígeno utilizado foi a proteína FaeC purificada. Houve indução de resposta imune nos camundongos inoculados com pUP310 e FaeC purificada. Foi possível detectar anticorpos anti-FaeC 42 dias após a primeira inoculação e este título foi aumentando, sendo ainda detectável 7 meses após a primeira inoculação. Conclui-se que pUP310 e FaeC recombinante são candidatos potenciais para imunização de suínos contra E. coli K88.Swine colibacillosis caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli remains one of the main sanitary problems in pig farms. The recombinant DNA technology offers the possibility of developing new immunization strategies. This paper describes the development of a subunit vaccine through the expression and purification of the E. coli K88 FaeC fimbrial protein. The gene that codes for this antigen was amplified by PCR and cloned

  1. 牵引并电脑中频治疗颈性眩晕的疗效分析%Analysis of efficacy of traction plus computer middle frequency on cervical vertigo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈蕊心

    2002-01-01

    Objective We investigate the mechanism of comprehensive management in the treatment of cervical vertigo through treating 15 patients with cervical vertigo by cervical traction plus computer middle frequency machine.Method Sedentary jaw occiput traction band was used.Traction was regulated individually.Traction angle was determined according to patients' force line. Multifunctional computer machine K88 32 I was used after traction.Result 10 cases were cured completely,4 were improved,1 showed no any improvement.Conclusion cervical traction can increase space between cervical spine and uncinate cervical joint,relieve congestion and edema,improved compressed vertebral artery and distorted artery.Based on traction,computer middle frequency reinforces therapeutic effects of traction and produces cooperated effects.

  2. Blue stragglers in open clusters. III. NGC 7789

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönberner, D.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Drilling, J. S.

    2001-02-01

    We performed for the first time a detailed LTE spectroscopic study of a sample of blue straggler stars in the moderately old open cluster NGC 7789. For eight stars the parameters and abundances of several elements were determined. The cluster members show a remarkable surface magnesium deficiency which is quite unusual for late B - early A stars. Iron and titanium abundances are in agreement with other photometric and spectroscopic estimates of the NGC 7789 metallicity. All the confirmed blue stragglers have rather low projected rotational velocities (with one exception for K88, vsin i = 80 km s-1). Based on the spectra collected at Kitt Peak National Observatory, operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under contract with the National Science Foundation, and at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Plank Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.}

  3. Domain Modeling: NP_005411.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available plex with PAP and p-nitrophenol, obtained by two-step soaking method p2zywx_ chr4/NP_005411.1/NP_005411.1_ho...lo_6-293.pdb blast 20Y,44T,45Y,46P,47K,48S,49G,50T,51T,52W,75F,80F,83C,85K,88L,89M,105K,107H,129R,133D,137S,...141F,145V,147G,148H,192Y,196K,226T,227S,228F,231M,239Y,242L,246I,247M,254F,255M,256R,257K,258G,259I,262D 47K,105K,107H,137S A3P,NPO 0 ...

  4. In vitro transformation of the tremorgenic mycotoxin verruculogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, A; Bauer, J; Gareis, M; Enders, C; Kollarczik, B; Gedek, B

    1992-03-01

    A quantity of 50 mg of crystalline verruculogen was prepared from batch cultures ofAspergillus fumigatus for the use in thein vitro studies with S-9 liver fractions, feces suspensions, and cultures ofEscherichia coli.Incubation of verruculogen with S-9 liver fractions from swine resulted in the transformation of the parent compound into TR-2 toxin and 3 other more polar.TR-2 toxin was also shown to be the main transformation product when incubat-ing verruculogen with fecal suspensions or pure cultures ofE. coli (0149: K88). Incubation times of more than 2 hours led to a complete degradation of verruculogen as well as TR -2 toxin.

  5. Ultrastable laser system for spectroscopy of the 1S0-3P0 clock transition in Sr atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdasov, O. I.; Gribov, A. Yu.; Belotelov, G. S.; Pal'chikov, V. G.; Strelkin, S. A.; Khabarova, K. Yu.; Kolachevsky, N. N.; Slyusarev, S. N.

    2017-06-01

    A laser system with a spectral linewidth less than 1 Hz for spectroscopy of the 1S0-3P0 clock transition in strontium atoms has been demonstrated. A semiconductor laser emitting at a wavelength of 698 nm was stabilised to an external high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity with vibration and temperature compensation near the zero expansion point. After laser cooling to a temperature below 3 μK, 88Sr atoms were loaded into an optical lattice at a magic wavelength of 813 nm. The laser system was used to characterise the 88Sr clock transition by magnetically induced spectroscopy. The resonance spectral width was determined to be 130 ± 17 Hz, which corresponds to a quality factor of 3 × 1012.

  6. Diarrea neonatal porcina. Aislamiento de cepas de Escherichia coli toxigénicas productoras de STa, LT y VT Neonatal diarrhoea of piglets. Isolation of toxigenic Escherichia coli strains producing STa, LT, and VT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ZAMORA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Las cepas toxigénicas de Escherichia coli juegan un importante papel como causa de las enteritis colibacilar porcina, motivo por el cual se investigó la presencia de estos micoorganismos en fecas de cerditos con diarrea. Se aislaron 79 (27.33% cepas de Escherichia coli toxigénicas, 46 (58.2% produjeron STa, 20 (25.3% LT y 13 (16.5% VT, de las cuales 5 sintetizaban VT1, 3 VT2 y 5 expresaron simultáneamente VT1 y VT2. Una cepa que sintetizó simultáneamente VT1 y VT2 perteneció al serotipo O149: K91, K88 y 2 cepas STa+ correspondieron a los serotipos O9: K35 y la otra O149: K91Toxigenic Escherichia coli strains play an important role in the genesis of the enteric colibacillosis of swine., For this reason these mircoorganisms was investigated in faeces of piglets with diarrhoea. A total of 79 (27.3% toxigenic Escherichia coli strains were isolated, of which 46 (58.2% were STa, 20 (25.3% LT and 13 (16.5% VT. Five out of 13 VT strains synthesised VT1, 3 VT2 and 5 expressed VT1 and VT2 simultaneously. One strain that synthesised both VT1 and VT2 belonged to the serotype O149: K91; K88 and 2 strains STa+ corresponded to the serotypes O9: K35. The other one belonged to O149: K91

  7. Effects of Co-Administration of Bacillus subtilis and Porcine Lactobacillus salivarius on Intestinal Villus of Piglets%枯草芽孢杆菌和猪源乳酸杆菌混合饲喂对仔猪肠绒毛发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓军; 李云锋; 杨倩

    2013-01-01

    本研究主要探讨混合饲喂枯草芽孢杆菌RJGP16和猪源乳酸杆菌B1对仔猪肠道肠绒毛发育的影响,以及这两种益生菌在体内拮抗大肠埃希氏菌K88的能力.试验选取8窝新生仔猪为研究对象,分别于0、7、11和26日龄经口腔灌服枯草芽孢杆菌菌液(活菌数1.0×109 CFU· mL-1)、猪源乳酸杆菌菌液(活菌数1.0×109 CFU· mL-1)、枯草芽孢杆菌和猪源乳酸杆菌混合菌液(体积比1∶1),以及对饲喂混合菌液的试验组进行大肠埃希菌K88的攻毒试验.试验结果表明,同时饲喂枯草芽孢杆菌和猪源乳酸杆菌能显著提高十二指肠(P<0.05)和回肠(P<0.01)的肠绒毛高度,增加十二指肠(P<0.05)和空肠(P<0.0l)绒毛的数量,降低空肠(P<0.05)和回肠(P<0.01)的隐窝深度,以及增加十二指肠(P<0.05)、空肠(P<0.05)和回肠(P<0.0l)的绒腺比.此外,同时饲喂这两种益生菌能有效地拮抗大肠埃希菌K88对仔猪肠道上皮的损伤.笔者的研究提示枯草芽孢杆菌和猪源乳酸杆菌对肠道绒毛的发育起到了促进作用,并能有效地提高抗感染能力.%This study focused on the effects of co-administration of Bacillus subtilis RJGP16 and porcine Lactobacillus salivarius Bl on intestinal villus of piglets, as well as the antagonism between the probiotics and Escherichia coli K88 in vivo. Eight litters newborn piglets were orally administrated with B. subtilis (viable count 1.0×109 CFU · mL-1), procine L. salivarius (viable count 1. 0×109 CFU · mL-1), these two kinds of probiotics (volume ratio 1:1) respectively, at 0, 7, 11 and 26 days after birth. After co-administration of the two probiotics, the piglets were inoculated with E. coli K88. The results showed that the co-administration of the two probiotics could significantly promote the villus height (VH) of duodenum (P<0. 05) and ileum (P<0. 01) , increase the villus number of duodenum (P<0. 05) and jejunum (F<0. 01) , lower the crypt depth

  8. Developing a Tool for the Location Optimization of the Alert Aircraft with Changing Threat Anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    E X Bandırma BAN LTBG 40°19′N 27°59′E X Batman BAT LTCJ 37°56′N 41°07′E X Bursa BUR LTBR 40°15′N 29°33′E X Çanakkale CAN...Base 1 At least 2 F161 Bandirma 2 Exactly 2 F163 Afyon 3 At Most 2 F42 Aydin 4 At Most 4 F162 Batman 5 At Most 2 F43 Burdur 6 At Most 2 F163...4x_F42 Erzurum 2xF161 Merzifon 2xF161 Bandirma 4xF161 Corlu 4xF163 Incirlik 2xF161 Mus 4xF161 Batman 4xF162 Dalaman 4xF163 Incirlik 2x_F41 The

  9. Aspectos clínicos e citopatológicos da infecção por Candida sp em mucosa retrocomissural de dependentes químicos

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes, Juliana Kern de

    2015-01-01

    Orientador: Prof. Dr. Antonio Adilson Soares de Lima Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Odontologia. Defesa: Curitiba, 10/12/2015 Inclui referências : f. 41-43;46-57 Área de concentração Resumo: Os dependentes químicos são mais susceptíveis a desenvolver doenças bucais, incluindo a candidose crônica hiperplásica (CCH). Este estudo investigou o perfil epidemiológico e citopatológico da CCH numa população...

  10. FY 1999 Meeting of The Society of Heating, Air-Conditioning and Sanitary Engineering of Japan. Actual result/diagnosis; 1999 nendo gakujutsu koenkai gaiyo. Jisseki, Shindan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-12-05

    F-39 and 40 reported on the operation and adjustment aiming at optimization of the heat storage system of two buildings which were completed 11 years ago from a viewpoint of nighttime shifting rate, etc. and also reported on interesting results like that there was no seen remarkable reduction in accuracy of the sensor after 11 years. In the diagnosis system of an open type water heat storage tank for proper operation of a heat storage type air-conditioning system, F-41 newly proposed and evaluated a simple diagnosis method to divide tanks into three levels by necessary and minimum actual measurement and data. As to the diagnosis of the heat storage type air-conditioning system, F-42 studied and reported an applicability of fuzzy abduction and a possibility of improvement/study simulation. (translated by NEDO)

  11. Official Guard and Reserve Manpower Strengths and Statistics, FY 1985 Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    SOŘ onp.N ~NIA 5.0- V%0 as SW 41 0 a-r mao a N av ut -o : 0 40 a- W. w%.N V ini l-U- 0m Nl-l a 40 a%%-b V-o " N so4 N moof ao api ~e a Vola a im Ma...p nq i mw lq 0o *ID r 4y 604 W% " F 41 Al ý .i v 49-4*- 40 99- N4.N, *VF0 o4 ŕ m so60 M 10 a -t’ vl% w rN409 o x60 40 40 S - ns w . r nV a m 4ý 605

  12. Waterborne Transportation Lines of the United States 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-20

    I I 420 MCKINLEY AVE. APT. E2 I COCOA BEACH FL 32931 341 LITTLE ROCK FAoCR SERVICE I P. 0. Ox 1523 ! LITTLE ROCK AN 72203 361 LITTLE, JOHN L. 2123...14COI 17.01PUMP, HEATING ITX CHOCOLATE 1 9165 I I I .. .I I ! I ’CI L I (29) MONSANTO COMPANY I! I I I I I I I I II LONG JOHN 1505C65 I 2413A351 39.41...INC. !9 !TCUIN4 ARGES AND DRILLhiA ZICS-OIL FIELD IGULF OF MEXICO-OfFSOPK UP TC 300 MILKS I IQUIP.F41 CIFSNOI I 17!N1OXVILL( ENiON. INC. 13 !LIPFSTCNP

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11332-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 265_1( AK129265 |pid:none) Mus musculus premature mRNA for mK... 45 0.015 ( P59438 ) RecName: Full=Hermansky....28 (Q297N8) RecName: Full=Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 5 protein homol... 41 0.28 A... Synthetic construct DNA, clone: pF... 41 0.37 (Q9UPZ3) RecName: Full=Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 5 protein; A...40 |pid:none) Homo sapiens Hermansky-Pudlak synd... 41 0.37 AK292436_1( AK292436 |pid:none) Homo sapiens cDN...m 3D7 chromo... 38 3.1 BC082542_1( BC082542 |pid:none) Mus musculus Hermansky-Pudlak synd... 37 4.1 AL844509

  14. EXCHANGE RATE PASS-THROUGH, IMPORT PRICES AND INFLATION UNDER STRUCTURAL BREAKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arintoko Arintoko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research estimates the exchange rate pass-through (ERPT into import prices by applying an extension of the basic model of ERPT on Indonesia. It estimates models of cointegration and error-correction mechanism (ECM, with and without structural breaks. It uses the techniques of Zivot-Andrews and of Gregory-Hansen to test for structural breaks and cointegration with the structural breaks, respectively. The results show that with the control variables, inflation affects import prices and lower the pass-through for short term, in a condition of free floating exchange rate. In the short term, with the inclusion of structural breaks, significant inflation affects import prices and lowers the ERPT coefficient.  Keywords:    Exchange rate pass-through, inflation, structural breaks, cointegration, error-correction mechanismJEL classification numbers: C22, C32, E31, F41

  15. An Investigation of the Indirect Boundary Element Method in One- and Two-Dimensional Elastostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    9 C DIMENSION X(l),Y(l),KBC(1),LNODE(l) REAL K(HK,1), LANDA COIIMOl PSHOEI FORF1R,F2R.F3R,F4R,F01,Fll,F21,F31.F41,F02,F12, &F22 ,F32,F42 ,FLG COMMON...SUBROUTINE SXS (SXN, SXT, STHETN , CTHETN,LAMDA, G) C C SIGMA X INFLUENCE COEFS FOR SINGULARITY CONDITIONS C REAL LANDA SXN - (LAMDA + 2.*G*STHETN...MAC/DEEE. Scott. 11; SAMSO/MNND. Norton AFB CA: Stinfo Library. Offutt NE ARCTICSUBLAB Code 54, San Diego . CA ARMY ARRADCOM, Dover, NJ; BMDSC-RE (H

  16. Leptin-induced downregulation of the rat hippocampal somatostatinergic system may potentiate its anorexigenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perianes-Cachero, Arancha; Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Puebla-Jiménez, Lilian; Canelles, Sandra; Viveros, María Paz; Mela, Virginia; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Arilla-Ferreiro, Eduardo; Barrios, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    The learning and memory mechanisms in the hippocampus translate hormonal signals of energy balance into behavioral outcomes involved in the regulation of food intake. As leptin and its receptors are expressed in the hippocampus and somatostatin (SRIF), an orexigenic neuropeptide, may inhibit leptin-mediated suppression of food intake in other brain areas, we asked whether chronic leptin infusion induces changes in the hippocampal somatostatinergic system and whether these modifications are involved in leptin-mediated effects. We studied 18 male Wistar rats divided into three groups: controls (C), treated intracerebroventricularly (icv) with leptin (12 μg/day) for 14 days (L) and a pair-fed group (PF) that received the same amount of food consumed by the L group. Food restriction increased whereas leptin decreased the hippocampal SRIF receptor density, due to changes in SRIF receptor 2 protein levels. These changes in the PF group were concurrent with an increase of hippocampal G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 protein levels and activation of Akt and cyclic AMP response element binding protein. The inhibitory effect of SRIF on adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity, however, was decreased in L rats, coincident with lower G inhibitory α3 and higher AC-I levels as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 activation. In addition, 20 male Wistar rats were included to analyze whether the leptin antagonist L39A/D40A/F41A and the SRIF receptor agonist SMS 201-995 modify SRIF signaling and food intake, respectively. Administration of L39A/D40A/F41A reversed changes in SRIF signaling, whereas SMS 201-995 ameliorated food consumption in L. Altogether, these results suggest that increased somatostatinergic tone in PF rats may be a mechanism to improve the hippocampal orexigenic effects in a situation of metabolic demand, whereas down-regulation of this system in L rats may represent a mechanism to enhance the anorexigenic effects of leptin.

  17. Avaliação da eficiência de um probiótico no controle de diarréia e no ganho de peso de bezerros Evaluation of the efficiency of a probiotic in the control of diarrhea and weight gain in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Ávila

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 99 vacas prenhes distribuídas em oito grupos que receberam os seguintes tratamentos: grupo I, com 29 vacas não vacinadas e seus bezerros que não receberam probiótico, ficando como controle; grupo II, com 10 vacas vacinadas e seus bezerros que não receberam probiótico; grupos III, IV e V, com 10 animais cada, vacas vacinadas e seus bezerros que receberam probiótico durante 5, 15 e 30 dias, respectivamente; os grupos VI, VII e VIII, com 10 animais cada, vacas não vacinadas e seus bezerros que receberam probiótico durante 5, 15 e 30 dias, respectivamente. Cada animal dos grupos vacinados recebeu duas doses vacinais contendo os pili K99 e A14 de Escherichia coli na dose de 5,0ml por via subcutânea. O probiótico contendo Ruminobacter amylophilum, Ruminobacter succinogenes, Succinovibrio dextrinosolvens, Bacillus cereus, Lactobacillus acidophilus e Streptococcus faecium, na dose de 3,0× 10(8 células vivas (UFC de cada amostra em 250ml de leite, era adiministrado por via oral. Os animais foram observados diariamente e foram determinados os títulos de anticorpos anti-K99 e anti-A14 no soro e no colostro. Anotaram-se os pesos dos bezerros ao nascimento e aos 30 dias. Os resultados mostraram que a associação de vacina com probiótico administrado por 15 e 30 dias foram os tratamentos mais eficientes no controle da diarréia e ganho de peso.A total of 99 pregnant cows were dividided into eight groups and submitted to the following treatments: group I (n = 29 non vaccinated cows whose calves did not receive probiotic and was used as control; group II (n or = 10 vaccinated cows whose calves did not receive a probiotic; groups III, IV and V (n or = 10 each vaccinated cows whose calves received a probiotic for 5, 15 and 30 days, respectively; groups VI, VII and VIII (n or = 10 each non vaccinated cows whose calves received a probiotic for 5, 15 and 30 days, respectively. Each animal in the vaccinated groups received two vaccine

  18. Validation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis dihydroneopterin aldolase as a molecular target for anti-tuberculosis drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, V C A; Villela, A D; Rodrigues-Junior, V S; Pissinate, K; Eichler, P; Pinto, A F M; Basso, L A; Santos, D S; Bizarro, C V

    2017-04-15

    An early step of target validation in antimicrobial drug discovery is to prove that a gene coding for a putative target is essential for pathogen's viability. However, little attention has been paid to demonstrate the causal links between gene essentiality and a particular protein function that will be the focus of a drug discovery effort. This should be considered an important step in target validation since a growing number of proteins are found to exhibit multiple and unrelated tasks. Here, we show that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) folB gene is essential and that this essentiality depends on the dihydroneopterin aldolase/epimerase activities of its protein product, the FolB protein from the folate biosynthesis pathway. The wild-type (WT) MtFolB and point mutants K99A and Y54F were cloned, expressed, purified and monitored for the aldolase, epimerase and oxygenase activities using HPLC. In contrast to the WT MtFolB, both mutants have neither aldolase nor epimerase activities in the conditions assayed. We then performed gene knockout experiments and showed that folB gene is essential for Mtb survival under the conditions tested. Moreover, only the WT folB sequence could be used as a rescue copy in gene complementation studies. When the sequences of mutants K99A or Y54F were used for complementation, no viable colonies were obtained, indicating that aldolase and/or epimerase activities are crucial for Mtb survival. These results provide a solid basis for further work aiming to develop new anti-TB agents acting as inhibitors of the aldolase/epimerase activities of MtFolB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies on Calf Diarrhoea in Mozambique: Prevalence of Bacterial Pathogens

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    Mbazima G

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diarrhoea in calves was investigated in 8 dairy farms in Mozambique at 4 occasions during 2 consecutive years. A total of 1241 calves up to 6 months of age were reared in the farms, and 63 (5% of them had signs of diarrhoea. Two farms had an overall higher prevalence (13% and 21% of diarrhoea. Faecal samples were collected from all diarrhoeal calves (n = 63 and from 330 healthy calves and analysed for Salmonella species, Campylobacter jejuni and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC. Salmonella spp. was isolated in only 2% of all calves. Campylobacter was isolated in 11% of all calves, irrespective of health condition, and was more frequent (25% in one of the 2 diarrhoeal farms (p = 0.001. 80% of the isolates were identified as C. jejuni. No ETEC strains were detected among the 55 tested strains from diarrhoeal calves, but 22/55 (40% strains from diarrhoeal calves and 14/88 (16% strains from healthy calves carried the K99 adhesin (p = 0.001. 6,757 E. coli isolates were typed with a biochemical fingerprinting method (the PhenePlate™ giving the same E. coli diversity in healthy and diarrhoeal calves. Thus it was concluded: i the overall prevalence of diarrhoea was low, but 2 farms had a higher prevalence that could be due to an outbreak situation, ii Salmonella did not seem to be associated with diarrhoea, iii Campylobacter jejuni was common at one of the 2 diarrhoeal farms and iv ETEC strains were not found, but K99 antigen was more prevalent in E. coli strains from diarrhoeal calves than from healthy, as well as more prevalent in one diarrhoeal farm.

  20. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic integration and modeling of enrofloxacin in swine for Escherichia coli

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    Jianyi eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was tooptimize the dose regimens of enrofloxacin to reduce the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli (E.coli using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD modeling approach. The single dose (2.5 mg/kg body weight of enrofloxacin was administered intramuscularly (IM to the healthy pigs. Using cannulation, the pharmacokinetic properties, including peak concentration (Cmax, time to reach Cmax (Tmax and area under the curve (AUC, were determined in plasma and ileum content. The Cmax, Tmax, and AUC in the plasma were 1.09 ± 0.11 μg/mL, 1.27 ± 0.35 h and 12.70 ± 2.72 µg•h/mL, respectively. While in ileum content, the Cmax, Tmax and AUC were 7.07 ± 0.26 μg/mL, 5.54 ± 0.42 h and 136.18 ± 12.50 µg•h/mL, respectively. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC data of 918 E.coli isolates, an E.coli O101/K99 strain (enrofloxacin MIC = 0.25 μg/mL was selected for pharmacodynamic studies. The in vitro minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, mutant prevention concentration (MPC and ex vivo time-killing curves for enrofloxacin in ileum content were established against the selected E.coli O101/K99 strain. Integrating the in vivo pharmacokinetic data and ex vivo pharmacodynamic data, a sigmoid Emax (Hill equation was established to provide values for ileum content of AUC24h/MIC producing, bactericidal activity (52.65 h and virtual eradication of bacteria (78.06 h. A dosage regimen of 1.96 mg/kg every 12 h for 3 days should be sufficient in the treatment of E.coli.

  1. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Integration and Modeling of Enrofloxacin in Swine for Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyi; Hao, Haihong; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Chen, Dongmei; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the dose regimens of enrofloxacin to reduce the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli (E.coli) using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling approach. The single dose (2.5 mg/kg body weight) of enrofloxacin was administered intramuscularly (IM) to the healthy pigs. Using cannulation, the pharmacokinetic properties, including peak concentration (C max), time to reach C max (T max), and area under the curve (AUC), were determined in plasma and ileum content. The C max, T max, and AUC in the plasma were 1.09 ± 0.11 μg/mL, 1.27 ± 0.35 h, and 12.70 ± 2.72 μg·h/mL, respectively. While in ileum content, the C max, T max, and AUC were 7.07 ± 0.26 μg/mL, 5.54 ± 0.42 h, and 136.18 ± 12.50 μg·h/mL, respectively. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data of 918 E. coli isolates, an E. coli O101/K99 strain (enrofloxacin MIC = 0.25 μg/mL) was selected for pharmacodynamic studies. The in vitro minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), mutant prevention concentration (MPC), and ex vivo time-killing curves for enrofloxacin in ileum content were established against the selected E. coli O101/K99 strain. Integrating the in vivo pharmacokinetic data and ex vivo pharmacodynamic data, a sigmoid E max (Hill) equation was established to provide values for ileum content of AUC24h/MIC producing, bactericidal activity (52.65 h), and virtual eradication of bacteria (78.06 h). A dosage regimen of 1.96 mg/kg every 12 h for 3 days should be sufficient in the treatment of E. coli.

  2. Lactobacillus zeae protects Caenorhabditis elegans from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-caused death by inhibiting enterotoxin gene expression of the pathogen.

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    Mengzhou Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has become increasingly used for screening antimicrobials and probiotics for pathogen control. It also provides a useful tool for studying microbe-host interactions. This study has established a C. elegans life-span assay to preselect probiotic bacteria for controlling K88(+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, a pathogen causing pig diarrhea, and has determined a potential mechanism underlying the protection provided by Lactobacillus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Life-span of C. elegans was used to measure the response of worms to ETEC infection and protection provided by lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB. Among 13 LAB isolates that varied in their ability to protect C. elegans from death induced by ETEC strain JG280, Lactobacillus zeae LB1 offered the highest level of protection (86%. The treatment with Lactobacillus did not reduce ETEC JG280 colonization in the nematode intestine. Feeding E. coli strain JFF4 (K88(+ but lacking enterotoxin genes of estA, estB, and elt did not cause death of worms. There was a significant increase in gene expression of estA, estB, and elt during ETEC JG280 infection, which was remarkably inhibited by isolate LB1. The clone with either estA or estB expressed in E. coli DH5α was as effective as ETEC JG280 in killing the nematode. However, the elt clone killed only approximately 40% of worms. The killing by the clones could also be prevented by isolate LB1. The same isolate only partially inhibited the gene expression of enterotoxins in both ETEC JG280 and E. coli DH5α in-vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The established life-span assay can be used for studies of probiotics to control ETEC (for effective selection and mechanistic studies. Heat-stable enterotoxins appeared to be the main factors responsible for the death of C. elegans. Inhibition of ETEC enterotoxin production, rather than interference of its intestinal colonization, appears to be the

  3. An investigation of the disease spectrum of psychological outpatients from the military in the General Hospital from 2000 to 2010%某三级甲等综合医院2000-2010年军人心理门诊疾病谱调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆利; 张倩; 陶然; 杜士君; 杨小柳; 索利娜; 彭艳红; 龙舟; 肖利军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the features of the disease spectrum of psychological outpatient from the military in the General Hospital, and to provide some data for psychological consultation among the troops. Methods The medical records of 888 first - visit cases from the military from January 2000 to December 2010 were analyzed and the top five diseases were compared. Results F41 (other anxiety disorders), F32 (depressive episode), F51 (nonorganic sleep disorders), F45 (somatoform disorders), F99 ( not otherwise specified mental illness) occupied the first five positions among mental and behavioral disorders. Mild problems of psychological screening, problems with love and marriage .problems with interpersonal relationship、 family problems and problems with sex occupied the first five positions among psychological problems. Conclusions The incidence of psychological problems among the military personnel is increasing. Anxiety and depressive disorders are the biggest hazards. Effective settlement of problems with love and marriage is a good way to reduce the incidence of psychological problems.%目的 分析综合医院心理科军人门诊的病种分布特征与变化趋势,为部队心理卫生工作提供参考依据.方法 选取2000 -2010年间某医院军人心理门诊首诊资料完整者共888例,对所有资料进行统计分析.结果 军人精神类疾病前5位分别是F41(其他焦虑障碍)、F32(抑郁发作)、F51(非器质性睡眠障碍)、F45(躯体形式障碍)、F99(未特指的精神障碍);一般心理问题前5位依次为心理筛查轻度问题、婚恋问题、人际关系、家庭问题、性问题.结论 军人心理门诊量呈上升趋势,焦虑、抑郁仍是防治重点,婚恋家庭问题的解决是降低心理问题发生率的有效路径.

  4. Caracterización genotipica de aislamientos de Escherichia coli obtenidos de cerdos con diarrea posdestete y enfermedad de los edemas Genotypic characterization of toxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from pigs with postweaning diarrhea (PWD and edema disease (ED

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    Fabiana A Moredo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue caracterizar mediante PCR 47 aislamientos de Escheríchia coli recuperados de 32 cerdos con diagnóstico clínico de diarrea posdestete (DPD y de 3 cerdos con enfermedad de los edemas (ED. Sobre 44 aislamientos provenientes de cerdos con DPD, 42 (95,5 % fueron caracterizados como E. coli enterotoxigénicos (ETEC y 2 (4,5 % como E. coli productores de toxina Shiga (STEC. Catorce aislamientos de ETEC (33,3 % fueron positivos para los genes estl/estlI/fedA. El genotipo más complejo fue eltA/estll/east1/faeG/aidA. Los aislamientos provenientes de cerdos con ED se clasificaron como STEC porcinos y fueron portadores de stxJaidA. Once aislamientos (25 % fueron portadores del gen que codifica la expresión de la adhesina AIDA-I. Sin embargo, en ningún aislamiento se detectaron los genes que codifican la expresión de las adhesinas F5, F6, F41, de intimina y de "Paa". La prevención de la DPD y de la ED podría realizarse mediante el desarrollo de vacunas que generen anticuerpos contra las adhesinas de las cepas de E. coli prevalentes en la Argentina.The purpose of this work was to characterize 47 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 32 pigs diagnosed with postweaning diarrhea and tree pigs with edema disease by PCR. Forty two (95.5 % of the strains isolated from diarrheic pigs were characterized as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC and 2 (4.5 % as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. Fourteen (33.3 % ETEC strains were positive for est/estll/fedA genes. The most complex genotype was eltA/estl/faeG/aidA. Strains isolated from pigs with ED were classified as porcine STEC and were stxjaidA carriers. Eleven (25 % strains carried the gene encoding adhesln protein AIDA-I. However, genes coding for F5, F6, F41, intimin and Paa were not detected. The development of vaccines generating antibodies against prevalent E. coli adhesins in Argentina could be useful for the prevention of PWD and ED.

  5. Protective antibody titres and antigenic competition in multivalent Dichelobacter nodosus fimbrial vaccines using characterised rDNA antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raadsma, H W; O'Meara, T J; Egerton, J R; Lehrbach, P R; Schwartzkoff, C L

    1994-03-01

    The relationship between K-agglutination antibody titres and protection against experimental challenge with Dichelobacter nodosus, the effect of increasing the number of D. nodosus fimbrial antigens, and the importance of the nature of additional antigens in multivalent vaccines on antibody response and protection against experimental challenge with D. nodosus were examined in Merino sheep. A total of 204 Merino sheep were allocated to one of 12 groups, and vaccinated with preparations containing a variable number of rDNA D. nodosus fimbrial antigens. The most complex vaccine contained ten fimbrial antigens from all major D. nodosus serogroups, while the least complex contained a single fimbrial antigen. In addition to D. nodosus fimbrial antigens, other bacterial rDNA fimbrial antigens (Moraxella bovis Da12d and Escherichia coli K99), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used in some vaccines. Antibody titres to fimbrial antigens and BSA were measured by agglutination and ELISA tests, respectively. Antibody titres were determined on five occasions (Weeks 0, 3, 6, 8, and 11 after primary vaccination). All sheep were exposed to an experimental challenge with virulent isolates of D. nodosus from either serogroup A or B, 8 weeks after primary vaccination. For D. nodosus K-agglutinating antibody titres, a strong negative correlation between antibody titre and footrot lesion score was observed. This relationship was influenced by the virulence of the challenge strain. Increasing the number of fimbrial antigens in experimental rDNA D. nodosus fimbrial vaccines resulted in a linear decrease in K-agglutinating antibody titres to individual D. nodosus serogroups. Similarly, a linear decrease in protection to challenge with homologous serogroups was observed as the number of D. nodosus fimbrial antigens represented in the vaccine increased. The reduction in antibody titres in multicomponent vaccines is thought to be due to antigenic competition. The level of competition

  6. Presentation of postweaning Escherichia coli diarrhea in southern Ontario, prevalence of hemolytic E. coli serogroups involved, and their antimicrobial resistance patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua, Rocio; Friendship, Robert M; Dewey, Catherine E; Gyles, Carlton; Fairbrother, John M

    2002-04-01

    Post-weaning Escherichia coli diarrhea (PWECD) in Ontario was investigated using a case-control study involving 50 Ontario nurseries. The clinical signs and the impact on productive parameters were determined by means of a producer survey. The hemolytic E. coli serogroups involved in PWECD (O149:K91:K88) were examined in this study. Based on a polymerase chain reaction test, the hemolytic E. coli from 82% of the case herds were positive for 3 enterotoxins (STa, STb, and LT), those from 12% of the case herds were positive for STb and LT only, and those from one herd (6%) were positive for 3 enterotoxins, as well as for verotoxin and F18 pili. The E. coli involved in disease were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Case farms commonly used a wide variety of antibiotics either in the feed or water, or as injectable drugs. The most common antibiotic used to treat PWECD on the study farms was apramycin, but evidence of resistance to this antibiotic was noted. The PWECD problem was commonly seen within a week of weaning but onset of diarrhea was reported as late as the grower-finisher stage. Growth rate was poorer in case herds and mortality was higher than in control herds, demonstrating that PWECD is an economically important disease in Ontario.

  7. Induction of pro-inflammatory gene expression by Escherichia coli and mycotoxin zearalenone contamination and protection by a Lactobacillus mixture in porcine IPEC-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranu, Ionelia; Marin, Daniela Eliza; Pistol, Gina Cecilia; Motiu, Monica; Pelinescu, Diana

    2015-04-01

    This work investigated the effect of Escherichia coli K88 and zearalenone contamination on pro-inflammatory gene expression (Toll like receptors, cytokines) and signalling molecules and the protective activity of a mixture of Lactobacilli sp. (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidofilus and Lactobacillus paracasei) in porcine intestinal epithelial cells as part of the local immune system. IPEC-1 cell monolayer was exposed for 1 h to the individual or combined action of E. coli, zearalenone and lactobacilli mixture. Our results showed that TLRs (1-10) and cytokine (IL-1,-6,-8,-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ) genes expressed early (after 1 h of culture) in IPEC-1 cells. E. coli alone increased the TLRs mRNA expression, especially TLR4 and the inflammatory cytokines while ZEA alone showed either no effect or a marginally effect on TLRs, cytokines, and signalling genes when compared to untreated cells. The combined actions of the two contaminants lead to a synergistically up-regulation of key cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-10 and TNF-α) and TLRs (-2,-3,-4,-6, and -10). The live lactobacilli mixture was able to attenuate the pathogen and mycotoxin-induced response by downregulated the majority of inflammatory related genes suggesting that this mixture has an immunomodulatory potential and may be used to lower the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biophysical studies of interaction between hydrolysable tannins isolated from Oenothera gigas and Geranium sanguineum with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekowski, Szymon; Ionov, Maksim; Kaszuba, Mateusz; Mavlyanov, Saidmukhtar; Bryszewska, Maria; Zamaraeva, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Tannins, secondary plant metabolites, possess diverse biological activities and can interact with biopolymers such as lipids or proteins. Interactions between tannins and proteins depend on the structures of both and can result in changes in protein structure and activity. Because human serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma and responsible for interactions with important biological compounds (e.g. bilirubin) and proper blood pressure, therefore, it is very important to investigate reactions between HSA and tannins. This paper describes the interaction between human serum albumin (HSA) and two tannins: bihexahydroxydiphenoyl-trigalloylglucose (BDTG) and 1-O-galloyl-4,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-d-glucose (OGβDG), isolated from Geranium sanguineum and Oenothera gigas leafs, respectively. Optical (spectrofluorimetric) and chiral optical (circular dichroism) methods were used in this study. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that OGβDG quenched HSA fluorescence more strongly than BDTG. Both OGβDG and BDTG formed complexes with albumin and caused a red shift of the fluorescence spectra but did not significantly change the protein secondary structure. Our studies clearly demonstrate that the tested tannins interact very strongly with human serum albumin (quenching constant K=88,277.26±407.04 M(-1) and K=55,552.67±583.07 M(-1) respectively for OGβDG and BDTG) in a manner depending on their chemical structure.

  9. Inhibition of bacterial adhesion and salmonella infection in BALB/c mice by sialyloligosaccharides and their derivatives from chicken egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Sakanaka, Senji; Sasaki, Ken; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Noda, Tetsuji; Amano, Fumio

    2002-06-05

    The effects of an egg-yolk-derived sialyloligosaccharide (YDS), asialo-YDS, and a sialylglycopeptide of YDS (SGP) on bacterial adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and on Salmonella infection in BALB/c mice were examined. YDS, its derivative asialo-YDS, and SGP strongly inhibited the binding of Salmonella enteritidis but not E. coli K-88 to a human epithelial cell line, Caco-2. In a Salmonella infection experiment using BALB/c mice, oral administration of these reagents effectively prevented the bacteria from proliferating in spleen, as well as preventing lethality. An experiment using radioactive SGP orally administered to mice revealed that the compound was absorbed from the intestine into blood and eliminated via urine within 8 h. However, these reagents did not influence the production of TNF-alpha or NO. in culture macrophages. The results suggest that they inhibit Salmonella infection not by activating macrophages but by inhibiting the entry of bacteria through the gut, suggesting that YDS and its derivatives are useful for preventing Salmonella infection when ingested continuously.

  10. 利用λ-Red重组系统和平衡致死系统改造抗药性致腹泻工程疫苗%Utilization of λ-Red Recombination System and Balanced Lethal System to Reconstruct the Plasmid with Antibiotic Resistant Gene Using in Live Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁盛凌; 王芃; 刘向昕; 王艳春; 展德文; 张兆山

    2006-01-01

    质粒pMM085是含有猪毒素源性大肠杆菌(ETEC)的黏附素K88与无毒肠毒素LTA-B+基因的重组质粒,含氯霉素抗性基因,由此构建的菌苗株带有抗药性.利用平衡致死系统改建此疫苗株,即将质粒上的氯霉素抗性基因cat替换成asd基因,并把新构建的质粒转移到缺失asd基因的大肠杆菌X6097中.但由于质粒pMM085是一个23kD的大质粒,传统的基因工程操作不易进行,利用λ-Red重组系统,将表达Red重组蛋白的质粒pKD46转化含pMM085的大肠杆菌X6097,并用两端各带有39nt cat基因同源区、含全长asd基因的PCR产物电击转化此感受态细胞,在λ-Red重组系统的帮助下,成功实现了asd基因对cat基因的置换.

  11. Carbohydrate-binding specificities of potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains in porcine jejunal (IPEC-J2) cells and porcine mucin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, Valerie Diane; Bagon, Bernadette B; Balolong, Marilen P; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial lectins are carbohydrate-binding adhesins that recognize glycoreceptors in the gut mucus and epithelium of hosts. In this study, the contribution of lectin-like activities to adhesion of Lactobacillus mucosae LM1 and Lactobacillus johnsonii PF01, which were isolated from swine intestine, were compared to those of the commercial probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Both LM1 and PF01 strains have been reported to have good adhesion ability to crude intestinal mucus of pigs. To confirm this, we quantified their adhesion to porcine gastric mucin and intestinal porcine enterocytes isolated from the jejunum of piglets (IPEC-J2). In addition, we examined their carbohydrate-binding specificities by suspending bacterial cells in carbohydrate solutions prior to adhesion assays. We found that the selected carbohydrates affected the adherences of LM1 to IPEC-J2 cells and of LGG to mucin. In addition, compared to adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells, adhesion to mucin by both LM1 and LGG was characterized by enhanced specific recognition of glycoreceptor components such as galactose, mannose, and N-acetylglucosamine. Hydrophobic interactions might make a greater contribution to adhesion of PF01. A similar adhesin profile between a probiotic and a pathogen, suggest a correlation between shared pathogen-probiotic glycoreceptor recognition and the ability to exclude enteropathogens such as Escherichia coli K88 and Salmonella Typhimurium KCCM 40253. These findings extend our understanding of the mechanisms of the intestinal adhesion and pathogen-inhibition abilities of probiotic Lactobacillus strains.

  12. High-Yield Soluble Expression and Simple Purification of the Antimicrobial Peptide OG2 Using the Intein System in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Gang Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OG2 is a modified antimicrobial peptide, that is, derived from the frog peptide Palustrin-OG1. It has high antimicrobial activity and low cytotoxicity, and it is therefore promising as a therapeutic agent. Both prokaryotic (Escherichia coli and eukaryotic (Pichia pastoris production host systems were used to produce OG2 in our previous study; however, it was difficult to achieve high expression yields and efficient purification. In this study, we achieved high-yield OG2 expression using the intein fusion system. The optimized OG2 gene was cloned into the pTWIN1 vector to generate pTWIN-OG2-intein2 (C-terminal fusion vector and pTWIN-intein1-OG2 (N-terminal fusion vector. Nearly 70% of the expressed OG2-intein2 was soluble after the IPTG concentration and induction temperature were decreased, whereas only 42% of the expressed of intein1-OG2 was soluble. Up to 75 mg of OG2-intein2 was obtained from a 1 l culture, and 85% of the protein was cleaved by 100 mM DTT. Intein1-OG2 was less amenable to cleavage due to the inhibition of cleavage by the N-terminal amino acid of OG2. The purified OG2 exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against E. coli K88. The intein system is the best currently available system for the cost-effective production of OG2.

  13. Formulation of Granules for Site-Specific Delivery of an Antimicrobial Essential Oil to the Animal Intestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yin-Hing; Wang, Qi; Gong, Joshua; Wu, Xiao Yu

    2016-03-01

    Owing to proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the use of antibiotics for livestock growth promotion is banned in many countries and alternatives to in-feed antibiotics are needed. Cinnamon essential oil exhibits strong in vitro antibacterial activity; however, direct addition of essential oils to animal feed has limited practicality due to their high volatility, odor, fast decomposition, and poor availability in the lower intestines. To solve these problems, we formulated trans-cinnamaldehyde (CIN) with an adsorbent powder and fatty acid via a melt-solidification technique. Core granules of an optimized composition contained up to 48% wt/wt CIN. The granules were then coated with an enteric polymer to impart site-specific release of CIN. CIN was mostly retained in simulated gastric fluid and released rapidly (>80% under 2 h) in simulated intestinal fluids. Rapid CIN autoxidation into cinnamic acid was inhibited by adding 1% vol/vol eugenol, which maintained CIN stability for at least 1 y. The granule formulation increased the antimicrobial activity of CIN against Escherichia coli K88 slightly with a minimum bactericidal concentration of 450 μg/mL for CIN in lauric acid-based granules compared with 550-600 μg/mL for palmitic acid-based granules and free CIN, respectively. These results encourage the potential use of encapsulated CIN for control of animal enteric pathogens by oral in-feed administration.

  14. The effects of live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae on postweaning diarrhea, immune response, and growth performance in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trckova, M; Faldyna, M; Alexa, P; Sramkova Zajacova, Z; Gopfert, E; Kumprechtova, D; Auclair, E; D'Inca, R

    2014-02-01

    The effects of live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain CNCM I-4407, 10(10) cfu/g; Actisaf; Lesaffre Feed Additives, Marcq-en-Baroeul, France) on the severity of diarrhea, immune response, and growth performance in weaned piglets orally challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strain O149:K88 were investigated. Live yeast was fed to sows and their piglets in the late gestation, suckling, and postweaning periods. Sows were fed a basal diet without (Control; n = 2) or with (Supplemented; n = 2) 1 g/kg of live yeast from d 94 of gestation and during lactation until weaning of the piglets (d 28). Suckling piglets of the supplemented sows were orally treated with 1 g of live yeast in porridge carrier 3 times a week until weaning. Weaned piglets were fed a basal starter diet without (Control; n = 19) or with (Supplemented; n = 15) 5 g of live yeast/kg feed for 2 wk. Significantly lower daily diarrhea scores (P diarrhea (P diarrhea in yeast-fed weaned piglets positively affected their growth capacity in the postweaning period (P diarrhea caused by ETEC.

  15. A Case of Hepatitis B Reactivation due to the Hepatitis B Virus Escape Mutant in a Patient undergoing Chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunchen Wu; Hui Shi; Yun Wang; Mengji Lu; Yang Xu; Xinwen Chen

    2012-01-01

    A 62-year-old man had chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and was diagnosed with liver cirrhosis.At the time of diagnosis the patient's virologic markers were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg),antibody to hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc),while antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and HBV DNA were negative.Later the patient received chemotherapy for malignancy.However,this was interrupted due to elevated liver enzymes.At the same time HBV DNA became positive.Lamivudine (LMV) therapy was administered immediately.However,the levels of serum aminotransferase and total bilirubin (TB) were still rising.Finally the patient died of fulminant hepatic failure.A sequence revealed HBV genotype C (HBsAg subtype adw) with immune escape mutations,F8L,S34L,F41S,G44V,F93C,V96G,L110I,C149Y and F161Y.The high morbidity and mortality of this complication is one of the major obstacles to completing the standard treatment for malignancy in HBV carriers.Therefore,the relative risk of antiviral prophylactic failure should be further assessed and the optimal strategy for antiviral prophylaxis in HBsAg-positive patients with oncologic and hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy should be revised.

  16. Word Criticality Analysis. MOS: 16B. Skill Levels 1 & 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    COMMAND FORT MONROE, VIRGINIA 23651 - A-9 1916 A., ’F 41 IIL SEQUJENTIAL CATA AGE 4 A’~~s~ ,~.. ~ AG 1C 2 TYPE MEORO By-. S5 ANC ~,(f A ZA’I’L Y elt *4...il #1 1l, 13. 1)1 1.;, IC , !. 1 !*2,t Ict ’. 9201 96,V1 - 95, 9C92 es.* 64. ,. 6z[*4 ’-.’ !9,1 !6,1. T.1 61o 669. 659. -.,1 %, 55, 56p: 45.1 4, 47.2...4 SliEL 57.1 let! 4 S t - Y-S fE P lot 4 SHV-r 2)01 4 ST i.Z. ).h. 4 ’ I.ACI 7t- 4 S)C’ 1s 1 98.gl 7.1 4 sIrf.. E !#I 141.1 UN3.1 4 sc i C,± ict

  17. Temporal Variations in Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Chanover, N. J.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Hammel, H. B.; dePater, I.; Noll, K.; Wong, M.; Clarke, J.; Sanchez-Levega, A.; Orton, G. S.; Gonzaga, S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, Jupiter has undergone many atmospheric changes from storms turning red to global. cloud upheavals, and most recently, a cornet or asteroid impact. Yet, on top of these seemingly random changes events there are also periodic phenomena, analogous to observed Earth and Saturn atmospheric oscillations. We will present 15 years of Hubble data, from 1994 to 2009, to show how the equatorial tropospheric cloud deck and winds have varied over that time, focusing on the F953N, F41 ON and F255W filters. These filters give leverage on wind speeds plus cloud opacity, cloud height and tropospheric haze thickness, and stratospheric haze, respectively. The wind data consistently show a periodic oscillation near 7-8 S latitude. We will discuss the potential for variations with longitude and cloud height, within the calibration limits of those filters. Finally, we will discuss the role that large atmospheric events, such as the impacts in 1994 and 2009, and the global upheaval of 2007, have on temporal studies, This work was supported by a grant from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program. HST observational support was provided by NASA through grants from Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under contract NAS5-26555.

  18. The Rewards and Challenges of Export-Led Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany H. MAKHLOUF

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The economic achievements of post- WWII Japan and Germany, the success of the Asian Four Tigers in the 1970s and 1980s, and the impressive growth of China, after adopting an export-led strategy in 1978, have caused many nations to view the export-ledmodel as the fastestroute to economic growth and financial stability. As a result, many governments started to promote and protect their countries’ exports,and mix politics, diplomacy and trade as well as seek greater access to friendly countries’ markets. Export-led development strategies, however, carry some risks, such as increased dependence on foreign markets and political forces that are beyond the exporters’ control. Global market forces, at times, cause export-dependent countries to have a sudden decline in their export revenues as the oil exporting countries have been experiencing as a result of a sharp decline in the world price of crude oil since 2014. This paper examines the main benefits, costs, and risks associated with export-led strategies, particularly as adopted by developing countries. It further explores the motives and risks faced by individual companies as they sell some of their products outside their home markets.Keywords. Import substitution, Trade liberalization, Infant industries, Export promotion, Foreign investment, Export infrastructure.JEL. F10, F16, F17, F41.

  19. Heat transfer and pressure drop performance of smooth and internally finned tubes with oil and refrigerant 22 mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, L.M. (Indiana-Purdue Univ., Ft. Wayne, IN (US)); Pate, M.B. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (US)); Bergles, A.E. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (US))

    1989-01-01

    The overall performance of a smooth tube and two augmented tubes is compared by using an enhancement performance ratio, defined as the ratio of heat transfer enhancement to pressure drop increase. The augmented tubes are compared to the smooth tube with pure R-22 and with mixtures of R-22 plus 150-or 300-SUS naphthenic mineral oil. Additionally, the performance of all three tubes with refrigerant-oil mixtures is compared to performance of the same tube with pure refrigerant. Various oil concentrations up to 5% by weight were tested and mass flux was varied from 92,000 to 294,000 lb/h{circle dot}ft{sup 2} (125 to 400 kg/m{sup 2}{circle dot}s). Nominal evaporation conditions were 37{degrees}F(3{degrees}C) with inlet and outlet qualities of 15% and 85%, respectively. The condensation conditions were 105{degrees}F (41{degrees}C) with inlet and outlet qualities of 85% and 15%, respectively. The enhancement performance ratio of the micro-fin tube is consistently higher than that of the low-fin tube with either pure refrigerant or refrigerant-oil mixtures. With pure refrigerant, the enhancement performance ratio of the augmented tubes is generally greater than unity, indicating improved performance relative to a smooth tube.

  20. Influence of aging on visual perception and visual motor integration in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhwi; Park, Young-Kyung; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Park, Mi-Sook; Kim, Hong

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated age-related changes of cognitive function in Korean adults using the Korean-Developmental Test of Visual Perception-2 (K-DTVP-2) and the Visual Motor Integration-3rd Revision (VMI-3R) test, and determined the main factors influencing VP and VMI in older adults. For this research, 139 adults for the K-DTVP-2 and 192 adults for the VMI-3R, from a total of 283 participants, were randomly and separately recruited in province, Korea. The present study showed that the mean score of the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R in 10-yr age increments significantly decreased as age increased (K-DTVP-2, F= 41.120, PVMI-3R, F= 16.583, PVMI-3R and K-DTVP-2 were significantly decreased in participants in their 50s compared to those in their 20s (PVMI-3R score. K-DTVP-2 score (Standardized β= -0.611) decreased more sensitively with aging than VMI-3R (Standardized β= -0.467). The two measurements had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.855, PVMI should be regularly checked from an individual's 50s, which is a critical period for detecting cognitive decline by aging. Both the K-DTVP-2 and VMI-3R could be used for determining the level of cognitive deficit by aging.

  1. A non-enteric adenovirus A12 gastroenteritis outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; Volotão, Eduardo de Mello; Rocha, Monica Simões; Rebelo, Maria Cristina; Xavier, Maria da Penha Trindade Pinheiro; de Assis, Rosane Maria; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2016-01-01

    A gastroenteritis outbreak that occurred in 2013 in a low-income community in Rio de Janeiro was investigated for the presence of enteric viruses, including species A rotavirus (RVA), norovirus (NoV), astrovirus (HAstV), bocavirus (HBoV), aichivirus (AiV), and adenovirus (HAdV). Five of nine stool samples (83%) from patients were positive for HAdV, and no other enteric viruses were detected. Polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis, which revealed four strains and one strain of non-enteric HAdV-A12 and HAdV-F41, respectively. The HAdV-A12 nucleotide sequences shared 100% nucleotide similarity. Viral load was assessed using a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. Stool samples that were positive for HAdV-A12 had high viral loads (mean 1.9 X 107 DNA copies/g stool). All four patients with HAdV-A12 were < 25 months of age and had symptoms of fever and diarrhoea. Evaluation of enteric virus outbreaks allows the characterisation of novel or unique diarrhoea-associated viruses in regions where RVA vaccination is routinely performed. PMID:27223654

  2. Postnatal leptin is necessary for maturation of numerous organs in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attig, Linda; Larcher, Thibaut; Gertler, Arieh; Abdennebi-Najar, Latifa; Djiane, Jean

    2011-01-01

    The postnatal leptin surge, described particularly in rodents, has been demonstrated to be crucial for hypothalamic maturation and brain development. In the present study, the possible general effects of this hormone on maturation of numerous peripheral organs have been explored. To test this hypothesis, we used a leptin antagonist (L39A/D40A/F41A) to investigate the effects of the blockage of postnatal leptin action on neonatal growth and maturation of organs involved in metabolism regulation, reproduction and immunity. For that purpose, newborn female pups were subcutaneously injected from days 2-13 with either saline or leptin antagonist and sacrificed at weaning. Organs were submitted to histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Leptin antagonist treatment clearly impaired the maturation of pancreas, kidney, thymus and ovary. All these alterations, at the organ level, occurred without changes in the whole-body mass of the animals. Leptin antagonist treatment induced: (1) a reduction in b cell area and a concomitant increase of a cells in Langherans islets in the pancreas, (2) a reduction in the number of glomeruli and a persistence of immature glomeruli in kidney, (3) an increase in the thymic cortical layer thickness, reflecting an unmatured stage, (4) a drastic reduction of the pool of primordial follicles, in ovaries. All these results strongly argue for a crucial role of leptin for the achievement of organ maturation, opening new perspectives in the field of leptin physiology and organ development.

  3. Molecular screening of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from dairy neonatal calves in Cordoba province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Natalia Y; Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Bellingeri, Romina V; Grosso, María C; Motta, Carlos E; Larriestra, Alejandro J; Vissio, Claudina; Tiranti, Karina I; Terzolo, Horacio R; Moreira, Ana R; Vivas, Adriana B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a current molecular characterization of bovine pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from random samplings in Argentinean dairy farms. Rectal swabs were obtained from 395 (63.7%) healthy and 225 (36.3%) diarrheic calves, belonging to 45 dairy farms in Cordoba Province, Argentina. E. coli isolates were examined for virulence genes (f5, f41, f17, sta, stb, lt, eae, vt) using PCR and the prevalence of E. coli virulence profiles was spatially described in terms of spatial distribution. A total of 30.1% isolates were found to be positive for at least one of the virulence genes. Depending on the different gene combinations present, 11 virulence profiles were found. Most of the isolates analyzed had a single gene, and no combination of fimbrial and enterotoxin gene was predominant. There was no association between the frequency and distribution of E. coli virulence genes and calf health status. Most of the virulence profiles were compatible with ETEC strains and showed a homogeneous distribution over the sampled area. A clustering pattern for E. coli virulence profiles could not be recognized. This work provides updated information on the molecular characterization of pathogenic E. coli strains from dairy herds in Cordoba, Argentina. These findings would be important to formulate prevention programs and effective therapies for diarrhea in calves caused by E. coli.

  4. Comparison of Range of Motion After Total Knee Prosthesis According to Different Type of Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Seyfettinoglu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness and range of motion of different type of knee prosthesis. Material and Method: This study includes 180 of 225 patients (139 F, 41 M, average age: 65, range of age: 51-82 between April 2005 and September 2007 with the diagnosis of gonarthrosis. All patients underwent to primary total knee arthroplasty. Primary osteoartrhritis is the reason of gonarthrosis. The patients with secondary osteoartrhritis were excluded from the study. All the patients were operated by the same surgical team and rehabilitated after surgery. Patella didnt change any patient. PCL was protected in some of the patients and cut some of patients. Totally seven type prosthesis in 16 subgroup were applied to the patients. All measurement were done by the same surgeon. Average follow up period was 31 months (24-49 months. Results: Patients without subgrouping were tested according to the range of motion before and after surgery to the type of the prosthesis trademark. Range of motion was decreased with the usage of Rotaglide and LCS® type of prosthesis. Range of motion didnt change with the usage of Maxim and Kinemax type. The range of motion increased in the other trademark of prosthesis. Flexion angle was increased statistically significant with nexgen® and scorpio® prosthesis (p

  5. Combining ability of grain sorghum lines selected for aluminum tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero Beserra Menezes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate combining ability of 58 sorghum lines previously selected for Aluminum (Al tolerance. One hundred sixty-five hybrids were evaluated at three levels of Al saturation (0%, 20% and 50% at the same season. General Combining Ability (GCA effects were significant for female lines for all three traits. GCA effects for male lines were significant only for plant height. Specific Combining Ability (SCA effects were significant only for flowering time. The ratio GCA to SCA was greater than the unity, indicating the prevalence of additive effects for the control of Al tolerance. F7, F14, F17, F20, F21, F24, F29, F31, F41, F42, F48, F51, F54 and F55 lines contributed to increase yield, while F29, F48 and F51 also contributed to reduce flowering time. M2 was the best male line since it contributed to increase yield and plant height, and to reduce flowering time.

  6. Domain Modeling: NP_110435.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_110435.1 chr17 COILED-COIL REGION OF NUDEL p2v71b_ chr17/NP_110435.1/NP_110435.1..._apo_8-167.pdb blast 12L,13K,15E,16T,19W,20K,22L,23S,26Y,27K,29S,30F,33A,36E,37L,40F,41Q,44S,45R,48E,51L,52E,55L,...58A,59E,61R,62N,65L,66Q,68D,69N,72L,73K,75E,76V,79L,80K,82K,83L,86Q,87Y,90S,93Q,94V,96V,97L,98E,99D,100D,101L,...103Q,104T,105R,106A,107I,108K,110Q,111L,112H,113K,114Y,115V,117E,118L,119E...,120Q,121A,122N,124D,125L,126E,128A,129K,131A,132T,133I,135S,136L,138D,139F,140E,142R,143L,144N,145Q,146A,147I,149R,150N,152F,153L,154E,156E,157L,158D,159E,160K,161E,163L,164L,167V 0 ...

  7. Domain Modeling: NP_001020750.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1020750.1_apo_8-167.pdb blast 12L,13K,15E,16T,19W,20K,22L,23S,26Y,27K,29S,30F,33A,36E,37L,40F,41Q,44S,45R,48E,51L,52E,55L,...58A,59E,61R,62N,65L,66Q,68D,69N,72L,73K,75E,76V,79L,80K,82K,83L,86Q,87Y,90S,93Q,94V,96V,97L,98E,99D,100D,101L,...103Q,104T,105R,106A,107I,108K,110Q,111L,112H,113K,114Y,115V,117E,118L,...119E,120Q,121A,122N,124D,125L,126E,128A,129K,131A,132T,133I,135S,136L,138D,139F,140E,142R,143L,144N,145...Q,146A,147I,149R,150N,152F,153L,154E,156E,157L,158D,159E,160K,161E,163L,164L,167V 0 ...

  8. Exploring the helium core of the delta Scuti star CoRoT 102749568 with asteroseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xinghao; Lin, Guifang; Chen, Yanhui; Guo, Junjun

    2016-01-01

    Based on regularities in rotational splittings, we seek possible multiplets for the observed frequencies of CoRoT 102749568. Twenty-one sets of multiplets are identified, including four sets of multiplets with $l=1$, nine sets of multiplets with $l=2$, and eight sets of multiplets with $l=3$. In particular, there are three complete triplets ($f_{10}$, $f_{12}$, $f_{14}$), ($f_{31}$, $f_{34}$, $f_{35}$), and ($f_{41}$, $f_{43}$, $f_{44}$). The rotational period of CoRoT 102749568 is estimated to be $1.34^{+0.04}_{-0.05}$ days. When doing model fittings, three $l=1$ modes ($f_{12}$, $f_{34}$, and $f_{43}$) and the radial first overtone $f_{13}$ are used. Our results shows that the three nonradial modes ($f_{12}$, $f_{34}$, and $f_{43}$) are mixed modes, which mainly provide constraints on the helium core. The radial first overtone $f_{13}$ mainly provides constraint on the stellar envelope. Hence the size of the helium core of CoRoT 102749568 is determined to be $M_{\\rm He}$ = 0.148 $\\pm$ 0.003 $M_{\\odot}$ and ...

  9. Learning of a postural control task by elderly post-stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Marcio Gatinho Bonuzzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the learning process of a postural control task between post-stroke patients and healthy subjects. The sample was composed of 20 post-stroke individuals (Experimental Group and 20 aged matched healthy individuals (Control Group. Participants practiced a postural control task in a virtual environment with increasing of complexity. The study design involved four phases: pre-test (five trials, acquisition phase (four blocks of thirty minutes, post-test (five trials, and retention test (five trials after a week without practice. The statistical analysis was run by a 2 x 3 ANOVA (groups x learning tests. Results: There was no difference in motor learning between Experimental Group and Control Group (F= 41.22; p=0.88. In addition, it was founded that the Control Group could learn the task in a higher-level complexity than Experimental Group (F = 4.77; p = 0.01, and both groups increased the error during the trials of practice (F = 0.53; p = 0.00 because of task complexity.  Conclusion: Therefore has been found that post-stroke individuals have the ability to learn a postural control task similar to healthy subjects, and the task complexity seems to be a key-factor in order to differentiate stroke from healthy subject's motor learning process.

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiology of pathogenic Escherichia coli of calves and the role of calves as reservoirs for human pathogenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolenda, Rafał; Burdukiewicz, Michał; Schierack, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli bacteria are the most common causes of diarrhea and septicemia in calves. Moreover, calves form a major reservoir for transmission of pathogenic E. coli to humans. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of publications on E. coli as calf pathogens and the role of calves as reservoir have not been done so far. We reviewed studies between 1951 and 2013 reporting the presence of virulence associated factors (VAFs) in calf E. coli and extracted the following information: year(s) and country of sampling, animal number, health status, isolate number, VAF prevalence, serotypes, diagnostic methods, and biological assays. The prevalence of VAFs or E. coli pathotypes was compared between healthy and diarrheic animals and was analyzed for time courses. Together, 106 papers with 25,982 E. coli isolates from 27 countries tested for VAFs were included. F5, F17, and F41 fimbriae and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) - VAFs of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were significantly associated with calf diarrhea. On the contrary, ETEC VAF F4 fimbriae and heat-labile enterotoxin as well as enteropathogenic (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) were not associated with diarrhea. The prevalence increased overtime for ST-positive isolates, but decreased for F5- and STEC-positive isolates. Our study provides useful information about the history of scientific investigations performed in this domain so far, and helps to define etiological agents of calf disease, and to evaluate calves as reservoir hosts for human pathogenic E. coli.

  11. An assessment of career satisfaction among Macedonian dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolovska, Julijana; Mancevska, Sanja; Kapusevska, Biljana; Popovska, Lidija; Mindova, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of overall career satisfaction in relation to various personal and work-related factors among the dentists in the Republic of Macedonia. The sample comprised 118 registered dentists, working in different conditions (34 public practice dentists, 32 completely private, 42 private dentists who work with a health insurance fund and 10 concessioners). All of them filled in a questionnaire which contained 16 items, divided into five groups. The different clusters of questions were related to various working conditions and personal factors. The first four groups of questions were answered with a--point Likert format with a score range from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 4 (very satisfied). In the fifth group, dentists chose one of four offered answers. The statistical analyses were made by one-way ANOVA and chi-square tests. Significant differences related to working conditions were found between public practitioners (moderately dissatisfied) and private practitioners (very satisfied) (F=41.41 (df=3); pcareer satisfaction among the dentists (public and private) in the Republic of Macedonia. The finding that high percentages of dentists feel stress at their work place very often requires further exploration.

  12. Multidetector CT imaging of mechanical prosthetic heart valves: quantification of artifacts with a pulsatile in-vitro model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symersky, Petr [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Oosterpark 9, P.O box 95500, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Budde, Ricardo P.J. [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Westers, Paul [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Department of Biostatistics, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mol, Bas A.J.M. de [Academic Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Technology Eindhoven, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) can detect the cause of prosthetic heart valve (PHV) dysfunction but is hampered by valve-induced artifacts. We quantified artifacts of four PHV using a pulsatile in-vitro model and assessed the relation to leaflet motion and valve design. A Medtronic Hall tilting disc (MH), and Carbomedics (CM), St Jude (SJM), and ON-X bileaflet valves underwent CT in an in-vitro model using retrospective gating with a 64 detector CT system in stationary and pulsatile conditions. Artifacts and radiopaque component volumes were quantified with thresholds based on surrounding structures and valvular components. Hypodense artifacts volumes (mm{sup 3}) were 1,029 {+-} 147, 535 {+-} 53, 371 {+-} 16, and 366 {+-} 18 for the SJM, MH, CM and ON-X valves (p < 0.001 except for the latter two valves p = 0.43). Hyperdense artifact volumes were 3,546 {+-} 141, 2,387 {+-} 103, 2,003 {+-} 102, and 3,033 {+-} 31 for the SJM, MH, CM and ON-X valve, respectively (all differences p < 0.001). Leaflet motion affected hypodense (F = 41.5, p < 0.001) and hyperdense artifacts (F = 53.7, p < 0.001). Closed and moving leaflets were associated with the least and the most artifacts respectively (p < 0.001, both artifact types). Both valve design and leaflet motion affect PHV-induced artifacts. Best imaging results may be expected for the CM valve during phases in which the leaflets are closed. (orig.)

  13. Simplified molecular input-line entry system and International Chemical Identifier in the QSAR analysis of styrylquinoline derivatives as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropova, Alla P; Toropov, Andrey A; Benfenati, Emilio; Gini, Giuseppina

    2011-05-01

    The simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES) and IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI) were examined as representations of the molecular structure for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), which can be used to predict the inhibitory activity of styrylquinoline derivatives against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Optimal SMILES-based descriptors give a best model with n = 26, r(2) = 0.6330, q(2) = 0.5812, s = 0.502, F = 41 for the training set and n = 10, r(2) = 0.7493, r(pred)(2) = 0.6235, R(m)(2) = 0.537, s = 0.541, F = 24 for the validation set. Optimal InChI-based descriptors give a best model with n = 26, r(2) = 0.8673, q(2) = 0.8456, s = 0.302, F = 157 for the training set and n = 10, r(2) = 0.8562, r(pred)(2) = 0.7715, R(m)(2) = 0.819, s = 0.329, F = 48 for the validation set. Thus, the InChI-based model is preferable. The described SMILES-based and InChI-based approaches have been checked with five random splits into the training and test sets. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. MOLECULAR-PHYLOGENETIC CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE OF Escherichia coli ISOLATED FROM GOATS WITH DIARRHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeida Guimarães

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal diarrhea determines significant changes in feed conversion, causing productivity loss in caprine herds. The antimicrobial resistance in bacteria is characterized as an important public health issue; therefore, Escherichia coli may be characterized as an important pathogen due to expressing virulence mechanisms responsible for significant clinical conditions in humans and animals. The present study evaluated the presence of E. coli among 117 caprine fecal samples and analyzed the isolates for antimicrobial resistance. Suggestive colonies were submitted to biochemical screening followed by genotypic group determination and phylogenetic analysis; further, the samples were submitted to antimicrobials susceptibility test. E. coli, Salmonella spp, Shigella sonnei and Enterobacter aerogenes were identified. E. coli isolates were phylogenetically classified as B2 (9/39, D (19/39, B1 (7/39 e A (4/29 groups. The analysis of the isolates also revealed the presence of K99 (04/39 and Stx (02/39 virulence factors. Antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed sensitive isolates to Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin, Amoxicillin and Ciprofloxacin, being all resistant to Lincomycin, Vancomycin and Penicillin. The results support the need of establishing restricted protocols for antimicrobial use, a fundamental procedure for health improvement in Brazilian caprine herds.

  15. Metal-Ligand Bonds of Second- and Third-Row d-Block Metals Characterized by Density Functional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents systematic data for 200 neutral diatomic molecules ML (M is it second- or third-row d-block metal and L = H, F, Cl, Br, I, C, N, O, S, or Se) Computed with the density functionals TPSSh and BP86. With experimental Structures and bond enthalpies available for many of these mole......This paper presents systematic data for 200 neutral diatomic molecules ML (M is it second- or third-row d-block metal and L = H, F, Cl, Br, I, C, N, O, S, or Se) Computed with the density functionals TPSSh and BP86. With experimental Structures and bond enthalpies available for many...... of these molecules, the computations first document the high accuracy of TPSSh, giving metal-ligand bond lengths with a mean absolute error of similar to 0.01 angstrom for the second row and 0.03 angstrom for the third row. TPSSh provides metal-ligand bond enthalpies with mean absolute errors of 37 and 44 k.......99. Equally important, TPSSh provides uniform accuracy across all three rows of the d-block, which is unprecedented and due to the 10% exact exchange, which is close to optimal for the d-block as a whole. This work provides an accurate and systematic prediction of electronic ground-state spins, characteristic...

  16. Exploring structure and interactions of the bacterial adaptor protein YjbH by crosslinking mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Eryani, Yusra; Ib Rasmussen, Morten; Kjellström, Sven;

    2016-01-01

    Adaptor proteins assist proteases in degrading specific proteins under appropriate conditions. The adaptor protein YjbH promotes the degradation of an important global transcriptional regulator Spx, which controls the expression of hundreds of genes and operons in response to thiol-specific oxida......Adaptor proteins assist proteases in degrading specific proteins under appropriate conditions. The adaptor protein YjbH promotes the degradation of an important global transcriptional regulator Spx, which controls the expression of hundreds of genes and operons in response to thiol......-specific oxidative stress in Bacillus subtilis. Under normal growth conditions, the transcription factor is bound to the adaptor protein and therefore degraded by the AAA+ protease ClpXP. If this binding is alleviated during stress, the transcription factor accumulates and turns on genes encoding stress...... and validate a structure model of YjbH and then to probe its interactions with other proteins. The core structure of YjbH is reminiscent of DsbA family proteins. One lysine residue in YjbH (K177), located in one of the α-helices outside the thioredoxin fold, crosslinked to both Spx K99 and Spx K117, thereby...

  17. Prevalence of Salmonella and E. coli in neonatal diarrheic calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. El-Seedy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal calf diarrhea remains one of the most important problems faced by livestock, causing great economic losses. This study investigated the prevalence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli, especially enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, in diarrheic calves. Fecal samples were collected from 127 diarrheic calves up to 3 months of age at 12 farms from different governorates in Egypt. 119 bacterial isolates (93.7% were recovered and the prevalences of Salmonella and E. coli in diarrheic calves were 18.1% and 75.6%, respectively. Serotyping of Salmonella isolates revealed that S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium were the most prevalent serotypes, representing 60.9% and 30.4%, respectively, while S. Dublin was 8.7%. Serogrouping of E. coli isolates showed that 10 O-serogroups were obtained where O26 and O103 were the most prevalent (17.7% of each. Salmonella serotypes showed positive results with PCR test using oligonucleotide primer amplifying 521 bp fragment of invA gene of Salmonella while 70% of E. coli serogroups possessed ETEC virulent gene (K99. The in-vitro antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that Salmonella serotypes showed high sensitivity against enrofloxacin, spectinomycin and neomycin while E. coli isolates showed high sensitivities against marbofloxacin, spectinomycin and neomycin only.

  18. Cell scientist to watch - Sabine Petry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Originally from Germany, Sabine Petry received her Diploma (MSc) from Goethe University in Frankfurt and undertook her Master's thesis at the Max Planck Institute of Biophysics. She then moved to the UK to pursue a PhD under the supervision of Venki Ramakrishnan at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge. In 2008, Sabine started her postdoctoral work in the laboratory of Ron Vale at the University of California, San Francisco as an EMBO fellow and then an HHMI postdoctoral fellow of the Life Science Research Foundation. She started her own lab at Princeton University in 2013, and her work has already been recognised with an NIH Pathway to Independence K99/R00 Award and the Kimmel Scholar Award for Cancer Research; she was also named a Pew Scholar and Packard Fellow in 2014. Sabine's research combines structural, biophysical, biochemical and cell biology methods to study the mechanism by which microtubules build cellular structures, allowing cells to attain a particular shape and function. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. 热敏肠毒素促进产肠毒素大肠杆菌对小肠上皮细胞系IPEC-J2的黏附的初步研究%HEAT-LABILE ENTEROTOXIN ENHANCES ETEC ADHERENCE TO PORCINE SMALL INTESTINE EPITHELIAL CELL LINE IPEC-J2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁磊; 吴娟; 朱国强

    2012-01-01

    本试验利用PCR技术,以K88ac标准株C83902基因组DNA为模板扩增出热敏肠毒素(heat-labile toxins,LT)基因,大小约1.1 kb。将其克隆入表达质粒载体pACYC184,构建和筛选出含正确插入LT基因的pACYC-LT重组质粒。采用同样方法,构建和筛选出两种含点突变LT基因的重组质粒(pACYC-LT72和pACYC-LT192)。进一步将上述重组质粒DNA转化入不表达任何毒素的大肠杆菌SE5000株。GM1-ELISA结果表明,上述重组菌均能在体外正常表达LT毒素蛋白。以猪小肠上皮细胞系IPEC-J2为模型,比较了表达和不表达LT的细菌对细胞黏附性能。数据表明,LT的表达使细菌对肠上皮细胞的黏附效应明显增加(12.3±3.4倍)。两种LT毒素蛋白的单氨基酸突变体的表达证明了LT毒素的ADP核糖基化作用对其增强致病菌对肠细胞的黏附作用是必要的。蛋白激酶A的抑制剂Rp-cAMP、腺苷酸环化酶的抑制剂DDA和LT毒素的受体GM1都可阻断LT毒素对细菌黏附性能的提升作用。%The LT gene with size of 1.1 kb was amplified in PCR using the genomic DNA template of K88ac E.coli strain C83902.The PCR products were digested with the restriction enzymes at each end and then cloned into vector pACYC184.The recombinant LT plasmids were then constructed and confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis.In addition,two LT variants(pACYC-LT72 and pACYC-LT192)were also constructed,each bearing mutations of amino acid residues in the A subunit(A72R and R192G) that rendered the toxin inactive.The LT expression was confirmed in GM1-ELISA.Porcine small intestine epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 with glycoprotein receptors for bacterial in vitro adhesion was prepared and used in the study.The data demonstrated that elaboration of LT promoted a significant increase in E.coli adherence and the ADP-ribosylation activity was necessary for this process.We also demonstrated that the enhancement of bacterial adherence was blocked by

  20. pH条件对短短芽孢杆菌FJAT-0809-GLX次生代谢物产生的影响%Effects of Initial pH Value for the Fermentation of Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-0809-GLX on the Generation of Secondary Metabolites Substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥; 刘波; 朱育菁; 胡桂萍; 车建美; 唐建阳

    2012-01-01

    Components of FJAT-0809-GLX fermentation liquid inlO different initial pH values were analyzed by GC-MS. Eleven compounds with the match degree above 90 % were identified. The compounds found commonly in these 10 fermentation liquid was Hexahydro-pyrrolo [1,2-a] pyrazine-1, 4-dione. There were two sorts of functional compounds in the FJAT-0809-GLX fermentation liquids; one is volatile compounds which relate to the special aroma of this fermentation liquid, including 5-methyl-2-Furancarboxaldehyde, Maltol, Benzeneacetaldehyde, n-Hexa-decanoic acid, Oleic Acid, and 2-Hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-l-one. The other sort of functional compound had antiseptic and bacteriostatic effect, including Maltol, 2-Furanmethanol and Hexahydro-pyrrolo [1, 2-a] pyrazine-1,4-dione and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-Furancarboxaldehyde. The fermentation liquid with the initial pH value of 6 to 12 had inhibitory activity against K88. The pH value 7 had the best inhibitory activity; the diameter of inhibition zone was 20. 33mm. Different initial pH values led to different terminal pH value, and then affect the generation properties of secondary metabolites of Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-0809-GLX.%应用GC-MS对10种不同初始pH条件下发酵的FJAT-0809-GLX发酵液的丙酮萃取液进行初步成分鉴定,从这10种发酵液中得到匹配率≥90%成分11种,各发酵液中的成分存在明显差异,其中共有成分1种,为六氢吡咯并[1,2-a]吡嗪-1,4-二酮.在匹配率≥90%成分中,功能性成分按其功能可分为2类,一类为挥发性或芳香类物质,与该发酵液具有的特殊香气有关,包括5-甲基呋喃醛、2-甲基-3-羟基-4-吡喃酮、苯乙醛、棕榈酸、顺式十八碳-9-烯酸、甲基环戊烯醇酮;另一类为防腐或抑菌类成分,包括2-甲基-3-羟基-4-吡喃酮、2-呋喃甲醇、六氢-吡咯[1,2-a]吡嗪-1,4-二酮和5-羟甲基糠醛.初始pH 6~12的发酵液对大肠杆菌K88均有抑制效果,其中初始pH为7的抑菌效

  1. Translocation of certain indigenous bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract in a mouse model drenched B. coagulans%凝结芽孢杆菌对小鼠肠道细菌易位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 张邑帆; 沈克飞; 谷山林; 付利芝; 杨金龙; 郑华

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the translocation of certain indigenous bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract in a mouse feeded probiotic culture. The spore of B. coagulans, pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella mutant, Escberichia coli K88 and the mixtures of the spores and pathogenic bacteria were orally administered to mice. And then, the growth performance of mice were statistics, certain indigenous bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract in the liver, the spleen and the blood from the mouse model were examined after 6day, The results showed that the mean weight in different experiments teams has variation, among them, the increased weight values of the team orally administed the spores was obviously comparation with that of other teams, which revealed that B. coagulans spore were germinative, propagative and promotion animal growth; In addition, no gastrointestinal tract bacteria were examed in the liver, the spleen and the blood of the mouse in the control and oral administion spores, while there were translocated gastrointestinal tract bacteria in the teams of oral administion pathogenic bacteria and mixtures with spore and pathogenic bacteria. It should emphasis that there were lower translocation gastrointestinal tract bacteria in the mixture teams compare with that in the.teams of oral administion pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, our study revealed that B. eoagulans spore has probiotic characteristics that anti-gastrointestinal tract bacteria translocation and pevetion and control intestinal tract disease occurres.%本试验研究凝结芽孢杆菌对肠道细菌易位的影响。采用形成芽孢的凝结芽孢菌、肠道致病菌(沙门氏菌,大肠杆菌K88)及其的混合物对小鼠灌胃饲养,连续饲喂6d后,统计小鼠的生长性能,检测肝脏、脾和血液中的肠道细菌数目。结果表明,各个灌服组小鼠平均增重变化较大,其中芽孢灌服组的增重最明显,揭示该菌芽孢在肠道内可发芽、增值

  2. Increased methionine sulfoxide content of apoA-I in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Jonathan W C; Jenkins, Alicia J; Lyons, Timothy J; Klein, Richard L; Yim, Eunsil; Lopes-Virella, Maria; Carter, Rickey E; Thorpe, Suzanne R; Baynes, John W

    2008-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and premature mortality in diabetes. HDL plays an important role in limiting vascular damage by removing cholesterol and cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides from oxidized low density lipoprotein and foam cells. Methionine (Met) residues in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major apolipoprotein of HDL, reduce peroxides in HDL lipids, forming methionine sulfoxide [Met(O)]. We examined the extent and sites of Met(O) formation in apoA-I of HDL isolated from plasma of healthy control and type 1 diabetic subjects to assess apoA-I exposure to lipid peroxides and the status of oxidative stress in the vascular compartment in diabetes. Three tryptic peptides of apoA-I contain Met residues: Q(84)-M(86)-K(88), W(108)-M(112)-R(116), and L(144)-M(148)-R(149). These peptides and their Met(O) analogs were identified and quantified by mass spectrometry. Relative to controls, Met(O) formation was significantly increased at all three locations (Met(86), Met(112), and Met(148)) in diabetic patients. The increase in Met(O) in the diabetic group did not correlate with other biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as N(epsilon)-malondialdehyde-lysine or N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, in plasma or lipoproteins. The higher Met(O) content in apoA-I from diabetic patients is consistent with increased levels of lipid peroxidation products in plasma in diabetes. Using the methods developed here, future studies can address the relationship between Met(O) in apoA-I and the risk, development, or progression of the vascular complications of diabetes.

  3. Isolation and characterization of bacteriophages of Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, H; Zhang, H; Wang, R

    2011-10-01

    In this study, 2 bacteriophages of Salmonella Pullorum were isolated using an enrichment protocol and the double agar layer method. They were named PSPu-95 and PSPu-4-116, respectively, against clinical isolates of Salmonella Pullorum SPu-95 and SPu-116. The host ranges of the 2 bacteriophages were determined by performing spot tests with 20 bacteria strains. Both bacteriophages had wide host ranges. Bacteriophage PSPu-95 had a lytic effect on 17 of the 20 isolates (85%), and PSPu-4-116 produced a lytic effect on 14 isolates (70%) and was the only bacteriophage that produced a clear plaque on enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the bacteriophages belonged to the order Caudovirales. Bacteriophage PSPu-95 was a member of the family Siphoviridae, but bacteriophage PSPu-4-116 belonged to the family Myoviridae. Both had a double-stranded DNA, which was digested with HindIII or EcoRI, that was estimated to be 58.3 kbp (PSPu-95) and 45.2 kbp (PSPu-4-116) by 1% agar electrophoresis. One-step growth kinetics showed that the latent periods were all less than 20 min, and the burst size was 77.5 pfu/cell for PSPu-95 and 86 pfu/cell for PSPu-4-116. The bacteriophages were able to survive in a pH range between 4 and 10, and they were able to survive in a treatment of 70°C for 60 min. The characterizations of these 2 bacteriophages were helpful in establishing a basis for adopting the most effective bacteriophage to control bacteria in the poultry industry.

  4. Utilization of distillery slop for sugar cane production and environmental pollution reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasanee Thitakamol

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to study the effect of distillery slop and chemical fertilizer on soil fertility, growth and yield of sugar cane. The field experiment was conducted on Mahasarakam soil series, using the K 88-92 variety of sugar cane. The results showed that distillery slop significantly increased some nutrients in soil, particularly potassium, magnesium, sulfur and chloride. The results also showed that application of distillery slop did not affect most of the physical properties of soil. Only the saturated hydraulic conductivity was significantly decreased under non-application of fertilizer. Under the application of distillery slop, chemical fertilizer had no significant effect on the yield and the juice quality of sugar cane for both crop years. However, under non-application of distillery slop in the first crop year, application of 21-0-0 and 20-20-0 fertilizer had a significant effect on cane yield. With the application of chemical fertilizer, distillery slop had an influence on the yield of sugar cane in both crop years while different doses of slop did not make any significant difference on cane yield. The average yields of the first crop year were 126.7, 195.6, 203.0 and 187.2 ton/hectare and those of the second crop year were 85.0, 150.0, 150.8 and 142.4 ton/hectare after the application of 0, 187.5, 375 and 562.5 m3/hectare, respectively. The results also showed that application of distillery slop did not have any significant effect on juice quality for both crop years. Investigation of slop trace under the ground surface indicated that application of distillery slop did not affect the quality of underground water as the deepest level of trace was only 50 centimeters.

  5. A standardised challenge model with an enterotoxigenic F4+ Escherichia coli strain in piglets assessing clinical traits and faecal shedding of fae and est-II toxin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Franz; Vahjen, Wilfried; Pieper, Robert; Martinez-Vallespin, Beatriz; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of five feed additives on post weaning diarrhoea (PWD) in piglets challenged 3 d after weaning with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain (ETEC). In three experimental runs, a total of 84 piglets was weaned at 21 days of age and randomly assigned to seven treatments. As dietary treatment, piglets were fed a basal diet or diets with addition of bovine colostrum (0.2%), pineapple stem extract containing bromelain (0.2%), an autolysed yeast preparation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (0.1%), a combination of organic acids (0.7%) and a phytogenic product with thyme essential oil (0.015%). A porcine ETEC, serotype O149:K91:K88ac was given twice via oral infection on day 3 after weaning at 10(10) colony forming units/animal. One group of piglets was fed the basal diet without ETEC challenge. Traits included clinical sores, body temperature, faecal scoring and determination of faecal dry matter and the shedding of fae and est-II ETEC toxin genes. After weaning, non-challenged control piglets did not show signs of diarrhoea or impaired health, while the majority of infected piglets had a drop in body temperature, signs of diarrhoea and impaired general health. Mortality, the decrease of faecal dry matter and shedding of the toxin genes fae and est-II were not affected by the different additives. In conclusion, the ETEC challenge model induced distinct clinical signs of PWD in piglets, but the tested feed additives had no preventive effect under these conditions.

  6. [Distribution of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH)- and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH)-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in coastal Shimane Prefecture and TDH and TRH V parahaemolyticus contamination of retail shellfish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Hiroshi

    2007-03-01

    We studied distribution of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH)- and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH)-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus in coastal sea water, sediment, and shellfish and related retail shellfish contamination in Shimane Prefecture, Japan, between 2002 and 2004. V. parahaemolyticus was isolated from > 80% of sea water, sediment, and shellfish. The detection of TDH gene (tdh) and TRH gene (trh)-positive V parahaemolyticus in sea water was 11%, in sediment 16%, and in shellfish 26%. The number of genes and gene-related in seawater was 23 MPN/L, in sediment 29 MPN/100 g, and in shellfish 460 MPN/10 g. TDH- and TRH-producing V. parahaemolyticus detected in seawater was 5%, in sediment 11% and in shellfish 14%. The continuous distribution of TDH-producing O2:K28, O4:K88, O4:K37, and O4:KUT organisms on the western coast and TRH2-producing O5:k30, O5:K43, O10:K19, O10:KUT, O11:K40, O11:KUT, and OUT:KUT organisms on the Oki Island coast suggested the settlement of these organisms in these coastal environments. From 7 (12%) of 59 retail short-necked clam samples, we isolated TDH-producing O 1:KUT, O3:K6 (2 strains from 2 samples imported from Korea), O4:K12, OUT:K8, and TRH2-producing OUT:K40 and OUT:K51 organisms. These findings suggested that TDH- and TRH-producing V. parahaemolyticus are widely distributed along the coast of this prefecture and are transported by contaminated retail shellfish from other areas.

  7. Lactobacillus amylovorus Inhibits the TLR4 Inflammatory Signaling Triggered by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli via Modulation of the Negative Regulators and Involvement of TLR2 in Intestinal Caco-2 Cells and Pig Explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamore, Alberto; Roselli, Marianna; Imbinto, Ambra; Seeboth, Julie; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Mengheri, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation derived from pathogen infection involves the activation of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Despite the established immunomodulatory activities of probiotics, studies relating the ability of such bacteria to inhibit the TLR signaling pathways are limited or controversial. In a previous study we showed that Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698T, a novel lactobacillus isolated from unweaned pigs, protects the intestinal cells from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 infection through cytokine regulation. In the present study we investigated whether the ability of L. amylovorus to counteract the inflammatory status triggered by ETEC in intestine is elicited through inhibition of the TLR4 signaling pathway. We used the human intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells and intestinal explants isolated from 5 week-old crossbreed Pietrain/Duroc/Large-White piglets, treated with ETEC, L. amylovorus or L. amylovorus cell free supernatant, either alone or simultaneously with ETEC. Western blot analysis showed that L. amylovorus and its cell free supernatant suppress the activation of the different steps of TLR4 signaling in Caco-2/TC7 cells and pig explants, by inhibiting the ETEC induced increase in the level of TLR4 and MyD88, the phosphorylation of the IKKα, IKKβ, IκBα and NF-κB subunit p65, as well as the over-production of inflammatory cytokines IL-8 and IL-1β. The immunofluorescence analysis confirms the lack of phospho-p65 translocation into the nucleus. These anti-inflammatory effects are achieved through modulation of the negative regulators Tollip and IRAK-M. We also found that L. amylovorus blocks the up-regulation of the extracellular heat shock protein (Hsp)72 and Hsp90, that are critical for TLR4 function. By using anti-TLR2 antibody, we demonstrate that TLR2 is required for the suppression of TLR4 signaling activation. These results may contribute to develop therapeutic interventions using L. amylovorus in intestinal disorders of piglets and humans

  8. Reflection of serum immunoglobulin isotypes in the egg yolk of laying hens immunized with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Nath Barman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the seroconversion and development of egg yolk immunoglobulins in adult laying White Leghorn hens immunized against an isolate of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC bearing K91 and K88ac antigens, obtained from diarrheic piglet. Materials and Methods: Adult laying White Leghorn hens were immunized with inactivated enterotoxic E. coli strain isolated originally from a case of piglet diarrhea following recommended schedule. The development of whole antibodies and isotype-specific antibodies in serum and egg yolk were measured using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Piglets suffering from diarrhea with fecal samples positive for ETEC were fed with egg yolk and compared with diarrheic control group. Results: The serum and egg yolk ELISA antibody titer against E. coli strain used in the present study was as high as 2666.66±307.92 and 933.33±203.67 respectively on 50 day-post-vaccination (DPV. The immunoglobulin Y (IgY was the predominant isotype in serum and egg yolk, which reached the peak titer of 2200±519.61 in serum on 40 DPV and 800±244.94 in egg yolk on 50 DPV. IgM titer in serum and egg yolk was found to be meager, and no IgA could be detected. Diarrheic piglets fed with the egg yolk suspension from immunized hens showed a promising result in controlling diarrhea. Conclusion: Egg yolk antibodies are considered a suitable immunotherapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotic therapy. High titer of egg yolk antibodies raised in the immunized hen against an isolate of ETEC holds the potential to be used for passive protection of diarrheic piglets during their most susceptible period of infection.

  9. Effect of increasing the dietary tryptophan to lysine ratio on plasma levels of tryptophan, kynurenine and urea and on production traits in weaner pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzalo, Meeka M; Kim, Jae Cheol; Htoo, John K; de Lange, Cornelius F M; Mullan, Bruce P; Hansen, Christian Fink; Resink, Jan-Willem; Stumbles, Phillip A; Hampson, David J; Pluske, John R

    2015-01-01

    This experiment examined if immune system stimulation of weaner pigs, initiated by inoculation an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli (ETEC), increased the requirement for dietary tryptophan (Trp), modulated the inflammatory response, altered plasma levels of Trp and its metabolite kynurenine (Kyn) and effected post-weaning diarrhoea. Individually housed pigs (n = 72) weaned at 21 d of age were allocated to one of six treatments (n = 12) according to a two by three factorial arrangement of (1) with or without ETEC infection and (2) three dietary ratios of standardised ileal digestible (SID) Trp to lysine (Lys) (SID Trp:Lys) of 0.16, 0.20 or 0.24, in a completely randomised block design. Pigs had ad libitum access to diets (per kg 14.13 MJ ME, 12.4 g SID Lys, 195 g crude protein) for 3 weeks after weaning. Pigs were infected with ETEC (O149:K98:K88) at 72, 96 and 120 h after weaning and then bled on day 3, 11 and 19. An increased dietary Trp:Lys ratio increased plasma Trp and Kyn (p pigs fed 0.24 SID Trp:Lys had lower levels of plasma urea than at 0.20 Trp:Lys (p = 0.047) and on day 11, plasma urea was lower at 0.20 than at 0.16 SID Trp:Lys (p = 0.007). Infection increased (p = 0.039) the diarrhoea index and deteriorated faecal consistency from day 4-10 (p dietary antibiotic growth promotants, increasing the dietary SID Trp:Lys ratio to 0.24 improved feed conversion ratio after weaning and increased plasma levels of Trp and Kyn regardless of infection with E. coli.

  10. Assessing and Measuring Chronic Multimorbidity in the Older Population: A Proposal for Its Operationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Vetrano, Davide L; Onder, Graziano; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis A; Coscollar-Santaliestra, Carlos; Carfí, Angelo; Pisciotta, Maria S; Angleman, Sara; Melis, René J F; Santoni, Giola; Mangialasche, Francesca; Rizzuto, Debora; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Bernabei, Roberto; Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Marengoni, Alessandra; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2016-12-21

    Although the definition of multimorbidity as "the simultaneous presence of two or more chronic diseases" is well established, its operationalization is not yet agreed. This study aims to provide a clinically driven comprehensive list of chronic conditions to be included when measuring multimorbidity. Based on a consensus definition of chronic disease, all four-digit level codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) were classified as chronic or not by an international and multidisciplinary team. Chronic ICD-10 codes were subsequently grouped into broader categories according to clinical criteria. Last, we showed proof of concept by applying the classification to older adults from the Swedish National study of Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) using also inpatient data from the Swedish National Patient Register. A disease or condition was considered to be chronic if it had a prolonged duration and either (a) left residual disability or worsening quality of life or (b) required a long period of care, treatment, or rehabilitation. After applying this definition in relation to populations of older adults, 918 chronic ICD-10 codes were identified and grouped into 60 chronic disease categories. In SNAC-K, 88.6% had ≥2 of these 60 disease categories, 73.2% had ≥3, and 55.8% had ≥4. This operational measure of multimorbidity, which can be implemented using either or both clinical and administrative data, may facilitate its monitoring and international comparison. Once validated, it may enable the advancement and evolution of conceptual and theoretical aspects of multimorbidity that will eventually lead to better care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  11. Thermodynamic Temperature Measurement to the Indium Point Based on Radiance Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2017-04-01

    A multi-national project (the EMRP InK project) was completed recently, which successfully determined the thermodynamic temperatures of several of the high-temperature fixed points above the copper point. The National Metrology Institute of Japan contributed to this project with its newly established absolute spectral radiance calibration capability. In the current study, we have extended the range of thermodynamic temperature measurement to below the copper point and measured the thermodynamic temperatures of the indium point (T_{90} = 429.748 5 K), tin point (505.078 K), zinc point (692.677 K), aluminum point (933.473 K) and the silver point (1 234.93 K) by radiance comparison against the copper point, with a set of radiation thermometers having center wavelengths ranging from 0.65 μm to 1.6 μm. The copper-point temperature was measured by the absolute radiation thermometer which was calibrated by radiance method traceable to the electrical substitution cryogenic radiometer. The radiance of the fixed-point blackbodies was measured by standard radiation thermometers whose spectral responsivity and nonlinearity are precisely evaluated, and then the thermodynamic temperatures were determined from radiance ratios to the copper point. The values of T-T_{90} for the silver-, aluminum-, zinc-, tin- and indium-point cells were determined as -4 mK (U = 104 mK, k=2), -99 mK (88 mK), -76 mK (76 mK), -68 mK (163 mK) and -42 mK (279 mK), respectively.

  12. Evaluation of the MeltPro TB/STR assay for rapid detection of streptomycin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Hu, Siyu; Li, Guoli; Li, Hui; Liu, Xiaoli; Niu, Jianjun; Wang, Feng; Wen, Huixin; Xu, Ye; Li, Qingge

    2015-03-01

    Rapid and comprehensive detection of drug-resistance is essential for the control of tuberculosis, which has facilitated the development of molecular assays for the detection of drug-resistant mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We hereby assessed the analytical and clinical performance of an assay for streptomycin-resistant mutations. MeltPro TB/STR is a closed-tube, dual-color, melting curve analysis-based, real-time PCR test designed to detect 15 streptomycin-resistant mutations in rpsL 43, rpsL 88, rrs 513, rrs 514, rrs 517, and rrs 905-908 of M. tuberculosis. Analytical studies showed that the accuracy was 100%, the limit of detection was 50-500 bacilli per reaction, the reproducibility in the form of Tm variation was within 1.0 °C, and we could detect 20% STR resistance in mixed bacterial samples. The cross-platform study demonstrated that the assay could be performed on six models of real-time PCR instruments. A multicenter clinical study was conducted using 1056 clinical isolates, which were collected from three geographically different healthcare units, including 709 STR-susceptible and 347 STR-resistant isolates characterized on Löwenstein-Jensen solid medium by traditional drug susceptibility testing. The results showed that the clinical sensitivity and specificity of the MeltPro TB/STR was 88.8% and 95.8%, respectively. Sequencing analysis confirmed the accuracy of the mutation types. Among all the 8 mutation types detected, rpsL K43R (AAG → AGG), rpsL K88R (AAG → AGG) and rrs 514 A → C accounted for more than 90%. We concluded that MeltPro TB/STR represents a rapid and reliable assay for the detection of STR resistance in clinical isolates.

  13. Mind-wandering, cognition, and performance: a theory-driven meta-analysis of attention regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Jason G; Oswald, Frederick L; Beier, Margaret E

    2014-11-01

    The current meta-analysis accumulates empirical findings on the phenomenon of mind-wandering, integrating and interpreting findings in light of psychological theories of cognitive resource allocation. Cognitive resource theory emphasizes both individual differences in attentional resources and task demands together to predict variance in task performance. This theory motivated our conceptual and meta-analysis framework by introducing moderators indicative of task-demand to predict who is more likely to mind-wander under what conditions, and to predict when mind-wandering and task-related thought are more (or less) predictive of task performance. Predictions were tested via a random-effects meta-analysis of correlations obtained from normal adult samples (k = 88) based on measurement of specified episodes of off-task and/or on-task thought frequency and task performance. Results demonstrated that people with fewer cognitive resources tend to engage in more mind-wandering, whereas those with more cognitive resources are more likely to engage in task-related thought. Addressing predictions of resource theory, we found that greater time-on-task-although not greater task complexity-tended to strengthen the negative relation between cognitive resources and mind-wandering. Additionally, increases in mind-wandering were generally associated with decreases in task performance, whereas increases in task-related thought were associated with increased performance. Further supporting resource theory, the negative relation between mind-wandering and performance was more pronounced for more complex tasks, though not longer tasks. Complementarily, the positive association between task-related thought and performance was stronger for more complex tasks and for longer tasks. We conclude by discussing implications and future research directions for mind-wandering as a construct of interest in psychological research.

  14. 从甜叶菊叶片中分离纯化抗氧化内生真菌%Separation and Purification of Antioxidant Endophytic Fungi from Stevia Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉兵; 郝再彬; 李海云; 陈志良

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to separate and purify antioxidant endophytic fun- gi from Stevia leaves. [Method] Stevia leaves were used as materials for endophytic fungi screening and purification. Then, liquid culture was conducted to test fermented supernatant abilities of antioxidant, DPPH free radical clearing and chemilumines- cence inhibition. [Result] Forty two endophytic fungi were separated from F01 to F42. F41 was proved to be the strongest in antioxidant aspect; F37 was the strongest in DPPH clearing; F02, F07, F20, F25, F37, and F416 stood out in a comprehensive comparison of the above aspects. Flow injection chemiluminescenct method was used to test the above six fermentation liquors, and the results showed that antioxidant abilities of the six were quite strong for all of chemiluminescence rates were over 70%. Through preliminary morphological identification, bacterial colony was found white or yellowy and only F02 was of dissepiment. [Conclusion] Fungi with high-antioxidation activities were separated, which paved the way for future research.%[目的]从甜叶菊叶片中分离纯化抗氧化内生真菌。[方法】以甜叶菊叶片为材料,从中分离纯化出内生真菌,对它们进行了液体培养,检测其发酵上清液的总抗氧化性能、清除DPPH自由基和抑制化学发光的能力。[结果]共分离获得42株内生真菌,编号为F01-F42。总抗氧化最强的为F41;清除DPPH能力最强的为F37;综合比较总抗氧化性能和清除DPPH能力,F02、F07、F20、F25、F37、F416株较突出。利用流动注射化学发光法对这6株发酵液进行检测,化学发光抑制率均大于70%,验证了它们的抗氧化性能较突出;对这6株进行了初步形态鉴定,它们的菌落颜色为白色或淡黄色,F02菌丝有隔膜,其他没有。[结论】筛选出高抗氧化活性的真菌,为将来的抗氧化研究奠定了基础。

  15. Resposta eritropoética de ratos em diferentes graus de parasitemia por Trypanosoma evansi Erithropoietic response in Trypanosoma evansi infected rats with different parasitaemia intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Wolkmer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O Trypanosoma evansi é um protozoário hemoflagelado que causa, em várias espécies, uma doença caracterizada por altos níveis de parasitemia, com rápido desenvolvimento de anemia. Este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a relação entre o grau de parasitemia e a alteração na eritropoese de ratos (Rattus norvegicus da linhagem Wistar infectados experimentalmente com T. evansi. Foram utilizados 42 ratos, dos quais 36 foram inoculados pela via intraperitoneal com 0,2ml de sangue, contendo 2,5 x 104 parasitas. Seis ratos não-inoculados foram utilizados como controles. Após inoculação, a parasitemia foi avaliada a cada 12h. Os grupos para análise foram estipulados de acordo com a média de tripanossomas em 10 campos homogêneos focados aleatoriamente, sendo: A, controle; B, animais que apresentaram um grau de parasitemia entre 1-10 tripanossomas/campo; C, ratos com 11-20 tripanossomas/campo; D, ratos com 21-30 tripanossomas/campo; E, ratos com 31-40 tripanossomas/campo; F, 41-50 tripanossomas/campo; e G, ratos com mais de 51 tripanossomas/campo. Quando os animais apresentaram o número de protozoários equivalente ao grupo, foram coletadas amostras de sangue para realização de hemograma e dosagem de ferro, e foi realizada citologia de medula óssea para avaliação da relação mielóide:eritróide. A análise estatística mostrou redução significativa das hemácias e do hematócrito a partir de 31 tripanossomas/campo (grupos E, F e G; PTrypanosoma evansi is a flagellate protozoan that causes a disease characterized by high parasitemia and acute anemia in various species. This study was aimed at evaluating and establishing a relationship between different parasitemia levels and eritropoyesis in Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected by T. evansi. Forty two animals were used. In 36 animals parasites were inoculated by intraperitoneal blood injection of 0.2ml containing 2.5x104 parasites. Six non-inoculated animals

  16. Crecimiento y supervivencia de plántulas de cinco especies de Acacia (Fabaceae, que coexisten en bosques secos neotropicales de Argentina, en distintas condiciones de disponibilidad de luz y agua Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae species that coexists in neotropical semiarid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Venier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de la plántula es una de las etapas más riesgosas para las plantas, especialmente en zonas áridas y semiáridas donde la sequía y alta radiación solar influyen sobre su emergencia, desarrollo y supervivencia. Se evaluó en invernadero la supervivencia y variables de crecimiento en plántulas sometidas a estrés hídrico y a distintas condiciones de luz, en cinco especies de Acacia (A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii y A. praecox que coexisten en los bosques xerófilos de Córdoba, Argentina. Aunque se encontraron diferencias entre las especies (F=5.66, p=0.001, todas tuvieron altos porcentajes de supervivencia en las distintas condiciones de luz y agua, sugiriendo que serían tolerantes al estrés hídrico y podrían establecerse bajo luz o sombra. Si bien todas las especies mejoraron el crecimiento con luz y sin estrés hídrico, A. aroma, A. caven y A. atramentaria mostraron una tendencia hacia un mayor crecimiento en la mayoría de las variables consideradas (F=41.9, pSeedling establishment is one of the most risky stages of plants, especially in arid and semiarid regions, where low water availability and high solar radiation influence its emergence, development and survival. In seasonally dry xerophytic forests occurring in North-Western Córdoba, central Argentina, five neotropical species of Acacia co-exist: A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii and A. praecox. With the aim to evaluate growth variables and survival of these five species seedlings, in response to water stress and different light availability conditions, a greenhouse experiment was undertaken from March to June of 2010. Although small differences were found between species (F=5.66, p=0.001, all of them showed high percentages of seedling survival in response to different light and water treatments, suggesting that seedlings would be tolerant to water stress and could be established both in light and shade. On the other hand

  17. 先天性白内障人工晶状体植入术后近视漂移的分析%Myopic shift after congenital cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾铮; 宋旭东; 杨文利

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the refractive changes after cataract extraction and implantation of a foldable intraocular lens (IOL) in children with congenital cataract. Methods 36 cases (62 eyes) of con- genital cataract were retrospectively reviewed. The follow-up period was 12~36 (24.52±7.54)months postop- eratively. These patients were divided into 3 groups according to their ages when they accepted operations, group A: 1.5 to 4 years old ; group B: 4.1 to 6 years old ; group C: 6.1 to 8 years old. Results The myopic shift ranged from -0.19~-3.25D. The mean shift power for these groups was -1.03D/y,-0.65D/y and -0.35D/y respectively. There was statistics significant difference in the change rate of power (D/y) in 3 groups (F =41.430, P=0.000) and between every 2 groups (P =0.000). Conclusions To adapt to the trend of myopia when growth,the target refractive status should be low or moderate hyperopia when implant lOis in children with congenital cataract. There should be a decrease in the power of hyperopia with the increase in the age at surgery.%目的 分析不同年龄的先天性白内障患者的人工晶状体度数数选择.方法 回顾性分析先天性白内障患儿36例(62只眼),植入折叠IOL,术后随访时间12~36(24.52±7.54)个月.分为三组:A组1.5~4岁,B组4.1~6岁,C组6.1~8岁.结果 近视移动范围为-0.19~-3.25D,A组平均漂移-1.03D/年,B组平均漂移-0.65D/年,C组平均漂移-0.35D/年.3组屈光度数变化率(D/年)比较,差异有统计学意义(F=41.430,P=0.000),三组之间两两比较,差异也具有统计学意义(P=0.000).结论 先天性白内障植入IOL后最好保留轻中度的远视,补偿发育带来的近视趋势,年龄越大,欠矫的度数应越少.

  18. Q Values of Seismic Coda in Ningxia and Adjacent Regions based on Sato Model%利用Sato模型对宁夏及邻区尾波Q值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师海阔; 朱新运; 贺永忠; 张立恒

    2011-01-01

    Based on the Sato model, adopting digital wave datas of 121 earthquake above ML2.0 from January 2008 to December 2009, which were recorded by Ningxia earthquake nets, the average Q value of seismic coda in relative regions is calculated, and the relationship between Q value and frequency is polyfited. The whole region's result is Q(f)= (44.81±15.87) · f0.9491±0.0805. Compared with other regions, the Q value of seismic coda in Ningxia and adjacent regions is relatively lower, but the dependence on frequency is higher. According to the regional seismic tectonic characteristics and the homochronous seismic activity, we divided the research region into four concentrated minor-earthquake areas: (a) Ji Lantai, (b) Yin Chuan, (c) Wei Ningtong, (d) Gu Hai, and the calculated Q values of the four regions relatively are: (a) Q(f)= (53.59±17.08)f0.9148±0.0692, (b) O(f) = (53.04± 16.29)f0.921±0.0777, (c) Q(f) = (42. 25 ± 15.03)f0.9532±0.0787, (d) Q(f) = (41.65 ± 13.46) f0.9636±0.0774. Comparison of the polyfited results shows that Q value' s distribution reflects the related region's tectonic activities and seismic activity.%本文利用Sato模型,选取2008-2009年宁夏地震台网记录的121次ML≥2.0地震的数字地震波资料,计算宁夏及邻区平均尾波Q值,并拟合了Q值对频率的依赖关系. 结果表明,与国内其他地区相比,宁夏及邻区Q值较低,对频率f依赖性较高. 结合研究区同期地震活动水平及地震地质构造特征,将研究区划分为四个小震密集区:吉兰泰地震区、银川地震区、卫宁同地震区、固海地震区. 分别统计并拟合Q值对频率的关系式为Q(f)=(53.59±17.08)f 0.9148±0.0692;Q(f)=(53.04±16.29)f 0.921±0.0777;Q(f)=(42.25±15.03)f 0.9532±0.0787及Q(f)=(41.65±13.46)f 0.9636±0.0774. 对拟合结果进行比较表明,Q值分布较好地反映了相关构造区构造活动及地震活动水平.

  19. The suitable uptake value threshold of 18F-FDG PET/CT image on gross tumor volume delineation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma%18F-FDG PET/CT勾画鼻咽癌原发肿瘤体积最适阈值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓翀; 林勤; 石丽婉; 朱鹭超; 田野

    2014-01-01

    目的寻找18F-FDG PET/CT勾画鼻咽癌大体肿瘤体积(GTV)的最适阈值.方法 16例初诊鼻咽癌患者在治疗前接受18F-FDG PET/CT及MRI检查,将MRI/CT融合图像上勾画的肿瘤GTV定义为GTVf,18F-FDG PET/CT勾画肿瘤范围为BTV.不同阈值条件下的BTV通过调整最大标准摄取值(SUVmax)的比例得到.将不同阈值条件下的BTV和GTVf进行比较,当二者在体积及形态学上达到最佳匹配时对应的阈值水平为最适阈值(sTL).sTL×SUVmax得到相应的最适标准摄取值(sSUV).结果 16例患者最适阈值sTL(%)为20.93 ±6.51,相应的最适标准摄取值sSUV为2.27±0.48.sTL与SUVmax呈负相关(R2=0.85,F=78.57,P<0.05);sSUV与SUVmax呈正相关(R2 =0.75,F=41.88,P<0.05);sTL与GTVf无相关性.结论利用SUVmax阈值法勾画鼻咽癌GTV是可行的,最适阈值不是一个固定数值,与SUVmax相关,与肿瘤体积没有明显相关性.%Objective To define a suitable threshold setting for gross tumor volume (GTV)when using 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomogram (PET/CT) for radiotherapy planning in Nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC).Methods Sixteen NPC patients respectively received PET/CT and MRI scan before their radiation treatment.All of the images were transferred to the radiotherapy planning system (TPS).MRI/CT-based primary GTV was defined as GTVf.Biological target volumes (BTVs) were derived from PET/CT-based GTVs of primary tumors.The BTVs were defined as the volumes when adjusting different percentage of the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax).GTVfs were compared with BTVs.The suitable threshold level (sTL) could be determined when BTV value and its morphology using a certain threshold level were observed to be the fittest GTVf.The suitable standardized uptake value (sSUV) was calculated as the sTL multiplied by the SUVmax.Results Our result demonstrated no single sTL or sSUV method could achieve an optimized volumetric match with the GTVf.The sTL was

  20. Effects of ischemic preconditioning and iloprost on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Yasin; Kara, Ibrahim; Aydin, Cemalettin; Ay, Nuray Kahraman; Teker, Melike Elif; Senol, Serkan; Inan, Bekir; Basel, Halil; Uysal, Omer; Zeybek, Rahmi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of cardiac ischemic preconditioning and iloprost on reperfusion damage in rats with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. 38 male Wistar Albino rats used in this study were divided into 5 groups. The control group (Group 1) (n=6), ischemia/reperfusion (IR) group (Group 2) (n=8), cardiac ischemic preconditioning (CIP) group (Group 3) (n=8), iloprost (ILO) group (Group 4) (n=8), and cardiac ischemic preconditioning + iloprost (CIP+ILO) group (Group 5) (n=8). Pre-ischemia, 15 minutes post-ischemia, 45 minutes post-reperfusion, mean blood pressure (MBP), and heart rates (HR) were recorded. The rate-pressure product (RPP) was calculated. Post-reperfusion plasma creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), troponin (cTn) vlaues, and infarct size/area at risk (IS/AAR) were calculated from myocardial tissue samples. Arrhythmia and ST segment elevations were evaluated during the ischemia and reperfusion stages. Although the MBP, HR, RPP values, biochemical parameters of CK-MB and LDH levels, IS/AAR rates, ST segment elevation values were found to be similar in CIP and CIP+ILO groups and the IR and ILO groups (p>0.05), CIP-containing group values had a positively meaningful difference (pILO group. While mild-moderate findings of damage were observed in Group 3 and Group 5, severely findings of damage were releaved in Group 2 and Group 4. The arrhythmia score of the ILO group was meaningfully lower (F: 41.4, p<0.001) than the IR group. We can conclude that the effects of myocardial reperfusion damage can be reduced by cardiac ischemic preconditioning, intravenous iloprost reduced the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia associated with reperfusion, and its use with CIP caused no additional changes.

  1. Biosynthesis of Sandalwood Oil: Santalum album CYP76F cytochromes P450 produce santalols and bergamotol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L Diaz-Chavez

    Full Text Available Sandalwood oil is one of the world's most highly prized essential oils, appearing in many high-end perfumes and fragrances. Extracted from the mature heartwood of several Santalum species, sandalwood oil is comprised mainly of sesquiterpene olefins and alcohols. Four sesquiterpenols, α-, β-, and epi-β-santalol and α-exo-bergamotol, make up approximately 90% of the oil of Santalum album. These compounds are the hydroxylated analogues of α-, β-, and epi-β-santalene and α-exo-bergamotene. By mining a transcriptome database of S. album for candidate cytochrome P450 genes, we cloned and characterized cDNAs encoding a small family of ten cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases annotated as SaCYP76F37v1, SaCYP76F37v2, SaCYP76F38v1, SaCYP76F38v2, SaCYP76F39v1, SaCYP76F39v2, SaCYP76F40, SaCYP76F41, SaCYP76F42, and SaCYP76F43. Nine of these genes were functionally characterized using in vitro assays and yeast in vivo assays to encode santalene/bergamotene oxidases and bergamotene oxidases. These results provide a foundation for production of sandalwood oil for the fragrance industry by means of metabolic engineering, as demonstrated with proof-of-concept formation of santalols and bergamotol in engineered yeast cells, simultaneously addressing conservation challenges by reducing pressure on supply of sandalwood from native forests.

  2. Evaluation of analgesic efficacy of intra-articular bupivacaine, bupivacaine plus fentanyl, and bupivacaine plus tramadol after arthroscopic knee surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sukanya; Kaushal, Harpreet; Gupta, Ravi K

    2011-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of intra-articular (IA) bupivacaine, bupivacaine-fentanyl, and bupivacaine-tramadol for relief of postoperative pain after arthroscopic knee surgery. In a randomized double-blind design, 60 adult American Society of Anesthesiologists class I or class II patients undergoing elective arthroscopic knee surgery under general anesthesia were randomized to 3 groups: all received 30 mL of 0.25% bupivacaine, plus either 1 mL of normal saline solution (group I), 1 mL (50 μg) of fentanyl (group II), or 1 mL (50 mg) of tramadol (group III). Pain was assessed by use of a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours postoperatively. Intramuscular diclofenac sodium was used as rescue analgesic. Postoperative adverse effects were noted. The mean VAS pain scores were the lowest for group II, intermediate for group III, and highest for group I. There was a significant main effect for group differences on pain scores (F = 41.138, P tramadol were better than IA bupivacaine, and bupivacaine with fentanyl was better than that with tramadol. However, both the combinations were comparable to each other with regard to the secondary outcome measure (supplementary analgesic requirement). Thus IA bupivacaine-fentanyl appears to be the best combination for relief of postoperative pain in patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery, followed by IA bupivacaine-tramadol. Level I, randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathogenicity of Vietnamese enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains in colostrum-deprived one-day-old piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, T N; Wilkie, I; Driesen, S J; Fahy, V A; Trott, D J

    2006-03-01

    Preweaning colibacillosis is a major cause of economic loss to the swine industry in Vietnam. The aim of this study was to examine the enteropathogenicity of representative enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains obtained during an earlier epidemiologic survey conducted in five provinces in North Vietnam. This included isolates belonging to serotype O8 that produced heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins but did not produce any of the recognized fimbriae (F4, F5, F6, F41, F18). In vitro hemagglutination (unique mannose-resistant hemagglutination activity with guinea pig, sheep, human, and chicken red blood cells at 37 degrees C, but not at 18 degrees C) and enterocyte brush border attachment assays suggested that the F- ETEC strains produced an unidentified colonization factor that promoted adherence to the intestinal epithelium. Colostrum-deprived 1-day-old piglets challenged with an F- strain (1-2 x 10(9) bacteria) developed acute watery diarrhea within 4 hours of inoculation and suffered up to 20% weight loss, with comparable severity to piglets challenged with conventional F4 and F5 strains. At necropsy, viable counts and histopathologic examination of intestinal sections demonstrated colonization of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum by F4-positive strains. In comparison, the F- and F5-positive strains attached exclusively to the ileum. Transmission electron micrographs of negatively stained F- cells grown at 37 degrees C demonstrated the presence of fimbriae. These results confirm the presence of a potentially new pathogenic ETEC fimbrial type in piggeries in Vietnam, with a unique hemagglutination property and attachment characteristics similar to ETEC bearing F5 fimbriae.

  4. [Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae) species that coexists in neotropical semi-arid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venier, Paula; Cabido, Marcelo; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Funes, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae) species that coexists in neotropical semi-arid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions. Seedling establishment is one of the most risky stages of plants, especially in arid and semiarid regions, where low water availability and high solar radiation influence its emergence, development and survival. In seasonally dry xerophytic forests occurring in North-Western Córdoba, central Argentina, five neotropical species of Acacia co-exist: A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii and A. praecox. With the aim to evaluate growth variables and survival of these five species seedlings, in response to water stress and different light availability conditions, a greenhouse experiment was undertaken from March to June of 2010. Although small differences were found between species (F = 5.66, p = 0.001), all of them showed high percentages of seedling survival in response to different light and water treatments, suggesting that seedlings would be tolerant to water stress and could be established both in light and shade. On the other hand, although all species showed an increase in growth in light conditions and without water stress, we have found some trends towards a greater growth in the seedlings ofA. aroma, A. caven and A. atramentaria when compared to those of A. praecox and A. gilliessi in most of the variables considered (F = 41.9, p < 0.0001; F = 7.06, p < 0.0001; F = 53.59, p < 0.0001). This pattern was confirmed through a cluster analysis that classified the species in two main groups. These results, together with others already reported, would indicate a regenerative niche differentiation that might be favoring the regional coexistence of these five species in semiarid forests in central Argentina.

  5. Crecimiento y supervivencia de plántulas de cinco especies de Acacia (Fabaceae, que coexisten en bosques secos neotropicales de Argentina, en distintas condiciones de disponibilidad de luz y agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Venier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de la plántula es una de las etapas más riesgosas para las plantas, especialmente en zonas áridas y semiáridas donde la sequía y alta radiación solar influyen sobre su emergencia, desarrollo y supervivencia. Se evaluó en invernadero la supervivencia y variables de crecimiento en plántulas sometidas a estrés hídrico y a distintas condiciones de luz, en cinco especies de Acacia (A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii y A. praecox que coexisten en los bosques xerófilos de Córdoba, Argentina. Aunque se encontraron diferencias entre las especies (F=5.66, p=0.001, todas tuvieron altos porcentajes de supervivencia en las distintas condiciones de luz y agua, sugiriendo que serían tolerantes al estrés hídrico y podrían establecerse bajo luz o sombra. Si bien todas las especies mejoraron el crecimiento con luz y sin estrés hídrico, A. aroma, A. caven y A. atramentaria mostraron una tendencia hacia un mayor crecimiento en la mayoría de las variables consideradas (F=41.9, p<0.0001; F=7.06, p<0.0001; F=53.59, p<0.0001. Estos resultados sumados a otros ya reportados indicarían una diferenciación de nichos regenerativos favoreciendo la coexistencia regional de estas especies en los bosques xerófilos de Córdoba.

  6. Prevalence and Symptom Correlation of Lactose Intolerance in the North East Part of Bangladesh.

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    Saha, M; Shil, B C; Saha, S K; Chowdhury, M; Perveen, I; Banik, R; Rahman, M H

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to see the prevalence of lactose intolerance and symptom correlation following oral lactose challenge in healthy volunteers in the north east part of Bangladesh. Symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, borborygmi, flatulence, diarrhea and others were noted for 24 hours and blood glucose was estimated at 0 hour and 30 minutes after 50 gm oral lactose load to healthy volunteers. Failure to rise blood glucose level ≥1.1 mmol/l at 30 minutes after lactose intake from fasting level was taken as lactose malabsorption (LM) i.e., lactose intolerance. Sensitivity and specificity of different symptoms were then found out. A total of 171 volunteers (male 123, female 48) with a mean age 34.08 years participated in this study. Lactose intolerance was found among 82.5% (n=141, M=100, F=41) subjects. Symptoms mostly experience by the lactose malabsorbers were diarrhea 93(66.0%), borborygmi 80(56.7%), abdominal pain 31(22.0%) and flatulence 32(22.7%). LM prevalence was found to increase with increasing number of symptoms up to 3 symptoms. A week positive correlation (r=0.205, P=0.007) was found between the number of symptoms and proportion of subjects having positive lactose tolerance test. Lactose intolerance among healthy adults of North East part of our country is as common as in other Asian countries including China and Malaysia. But LM is higher than that of Europeans and south Indians. Diarrhea and borborygmi were mostly associated with LM.

  7. Patterns of healthcare utilization in patients with generalized anxiety disorder in general practice in Germany

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    Ariel Berger

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: To describe patterns of healthcare utilization among patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD in general practitioner (GP settings in Germany. Methods: Using a large computerized database with information from GP practices across Germany, we identified all patients, aged > 18 years, with diagnoses of, or prescriptions for, GAD (ICD-10 diagnosis code F41.1 between October 1, 2003 and September 30, 2004 ("GAD patients". We also constituted an age- and sex-matched comparison group, consisting of randomly selected patients without any GP encounters or prescriptions for anxiety or depression (a common comorbidity in GAD during the same period. GAD patients were then compared to those in the matched comparison group over the one-year study period. Results: The study sample consisted of 3340 GAD patients and an equal number of matched comparators. Mean age was 53.2 years; 66.3% were women. Over the 12-month study period, GAD patients were more likely than matched comparators to have encounters for various comorbidities, including sleep disorders (odds ratio [OR] = 6.75 [95% CI = 5.31, 8.57], substance abuse disorders (3.91 [2.89, 5.28], and digestive system disorders (2.62 [2.36, 2.91] (all p <0.01. GAD patients averaged 5.6 more GP encounters (10.5 [SD = 8.8] vs 4.9 [5.7] for comparison group and 1.4 more specialist referrals (2.3 [2.9] vs 0.9 [1.7] (both p <0.01. Only 58.3% of GAD patients received some type of psychotropic medication (i.e., benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and/or sedatives/hypnotics. Conclusions: Patients with GAD in GP practices in Germany have more clinically recognized comorbidities and higher levels of healthcare utilization than patients without anxiety or depression.

  8. Long Term Persistence of IgE Anti-Influenza Virus Antibodies in Pediatric and Adult Serum Post Vaccination with Influenza Virus Vaccine

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    Tamar A. Smith-Norowitz, Darrin Wong, Melanie Kusonruksa, Kevin B. Norowitz, Rauno Joks, Helen G. Durkin, Martin H. Bluth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of IgE specific to different viruses (HIV-1, Parvovirus B19, Parainfluenza virus, Varicella Zoster Virus, and the ability of IgE anti-HIV-1 to suppress HIV-1 production in vitro, strongly suggest an important role for IgE and/or anti viral specific IgE in viral pathogenesis. Nevertheless, the presence and persistence of IgE anti-Influenza virus antibodies has not been studied. Total serum IgE and specific IgE and IgG anti-Influenza virus antibodies were studied in children (N=3 (m/f 14-16 y/o and adults (N=3 (m/f, 41-49 y/o 2-20 months after vaccination with Influenza virus (Flumist® or Fluzone®, as well as in non-vaccinated children (N=2. (UniCAP total IgE Fluoroenzymeimmunoassay, ELISA, Immunoblot. We found that serum of vaccinated children and adults contained IgE and IgG anti-Influenza virus antibodies approaching two years post vaccination. Non-vaccinated children did not make either IgE or IgG anti-Influenza antibodies. Similar levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 cytokines were detected in serum of vaccinated compared with non vaccinated subjects (p>0.05, as well as between vaccinated adults compared with vaccinated children and non vaccinated subjects (p>0.05. Vaccinated children and adults continue to produce IgE anti-Influenza virus antibodies long term post vaccination. The long term production of IgE anti-Influenza virus antibodies induced by vaccination may contribute to protective immunity against Influenza.

  9. Clinicopathological study of jaw cysts in southeast region of Turkey.

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    Demirkol, Mehmet; Ege, Bilal; Yanik, Saim; Aras, M Hamdi; Ay, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze clinic and radiologic features and the prevalence of jaw cysts in southeast region of Turkey. This study was carried out in 149 cysts of the jaw diagnosed among 407 individuals who were taken biopsy in our department from October 2008 to December 2012. All cysts were treated by enucleation, marsupialization, or combination, and all cases were histologically examined. One-hundred-and-forty-eight cases were classified odontogenic, one was non-odontogenic. There were 89 cysts (59.7%) in men, 60 (40.3%) in women. The mean age was 32.72 years. We found 80 cysts (35 F, 45 M) in the maxillary and 69 (28 F, 41 M) in mandible. It is observed that 94 were radicular cysts (63%), 40 were dentigerous cysts (26.9%), 9 were odontogenic keratocysts (OKC) (6.1%), 5 were residual radicular cysts (3.4%), and 1 was nasopalatine cyst (0.6%). In radicular cysts, 56 of them (59.5%) were located in the anterior region of the jaws; 18 dentigerous cysts and 2 OKCs were found in the posterior region of mandible. Clinically, the chief complaint of patients was expansion and pain. Radiographically, scalloping of the lesion between the teeth was found in 1 case, root resorption was seen in 3 cases, and displacement of the teeth and follicles was observed in 16 cases. We found similar prevalence of jaw cysts that reported in the literature, in which most odontogenic cysts (OCs) were inflammatory origin.

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the epidemiology of pathogenic Escherichia coli of calves and the role of calves as reservoirs for human pathogenic E. coli.

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    Rafał eKolenda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli bacteria are the most common causes of diarrhea and septicemia in calves. Moreover, calves form a major reservoir for transmission of pathogenic E. coli to humans. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of publications on Escherichia coli as calf pathogens and the role of calves as reservoir have not been done so far. We reviewed studies between 1951 and 2013 reporting the presence of virulence associated factors (VAFs in calf E. coli and extracted the following information: year(s and country of sampling, animal number, health status, isolate number, VAF prevalence, serotypes, diagnostic methods and biological assays. The prevalence of VAFs or E. coli pathotypes was compared between healthy and diarrheic animals and was analysed for time courses. Together, 106 papers with 25982 E. coli isolates from 27 countries tested for VAFs were included. F5, F17 and F41 fimbriae and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST – VAFs of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC were significantly associated with calf diarrhea. On the contrary, ETEC VAF F4 fimbriae and heat-labile enterotoxin as well as enteropathogenic (EPEC, Shiga toxin-producing (STEC, and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC were not associated with diarrhea. The prevalence increased overtime for ST-positive isolates, but decreased for F5- and STEC-positive isolates. Our study provides useful information about the history of scientific investigations performed in this domain so far, and helps to define etiological agents of calf disease, and to evaluate calves as reservoir hosts for human pathogenic E. coli.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterization of virulence genes, phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli isolated from diarrheic and healthy camel-calves in Tunisia.

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    Bessalah, Salma; Fairbrother, John Morris; Salhi, Imed; Vanier, Ghyslaine; Khorchani, Touhami; Seddik, Mouldi Mabrouk; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of virulence genes, serogroups, antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic and healthy camel calves in Tunisia. From 120 fecal samples (62 healthy and 58 diarrheic camel calves aged less than 3 months), 70 E. coli isolates (53 from diarrheic herds and 17 from healthy herds) were examined by PCR for detection of the virulence genes associated with pathogenic E. coli in animals. A significantly greater frequency of the f17 gene was observed in individual camels and in herds with diarrhea, this gene being found in 44.7% and 41.5% of isolates from camels and herds with diarrhea versus 22.5% and 11.7% in camels (p=0.05) and herds without diarrhea (p=0.02). The aida, cnf1/2, f18, stx2 and paa genes were found only in isolates from camels with diarrhea, although at a low prevalence, 1.8%, 3.7%, 1.8%, 3.7% and 11.3%, respectively. Prevalence of afa8, cdtB, eae, east1, iroN, iss, kpsMTII, paa, sfa, tsh and papC genes did not differ significantly between herds with or without diarrhea. Genes coding for faeG, fanC, f41, estI, estII, CS31a and eltA were not detected in any isolates. All isolates were sensitive to amikacin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and ceftiofur and the highest frequency of resistance was observed to tetracycline, and ampicillin (52.8% and 37.1% respectively). The phylogenetic groups were identified by conventional triplex PCR. Results showed that E. coli strains segregated mainly in phylogenetic group B1, 52.8% in diarrheic herds and 52.9% in healthy herds.

  12. Magnitude of potentially inappropriate prescribing in Germany among older patients with generalized anxiety disorder

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    Berger, Ariel; Mychaskiw, Marko; Dukes, Ellen; Edelsberg, John; Oster, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    Background Several medications commonly used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have been designated "potentially inappropriate" for use in patients aged ≥65 years because their risks may outweigh their potential benefits. The actual extent of use of these agents in clinical practice is unknown, however. Methods Using a database with information from encounters with general practitioners (GP) in Germany, we identified all patients, aged ≥65 years, with any GP office visits or dispensed prescriptions with a diagnosis of GAD (ICD-10 diagnosis code F41.1) between 10/1/2003 and 9/30/2004 ("GAD patients"). Among GAD-related medications (including benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants [TCAs], selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine, hydroxyzine, buspirone, pregabalin, and trifluoperazine), long-acting benzodiazepines, selected short-acting benzodiazepines at relatively high dosages, selected TCAs, and hydroxyzine were designated "potentially inappropriate" for use in patients aged ≥ 65 years, based on published criteria. Results A total of 975 elderly patients with GAD were identified. Mean age was 75 years, and 72% were women; 29% had diagnoses of comorbid depression. Forty percent of study subjects received potentially inappropriate agents – most commonly, bromazepam (10% of all subjects), diazepam (9%), doxepin (7%), amitriptyline (5%), and lorazepam (5%). Twenty-three percent of study subjects received long-acting benzodiazepines, 10% received short-acting benzodiazepines at relatively high doses, and 12% received TCAs designated as potentially inappropriate. Conclusion GPs in Germany often prescribe medications that have been designated as potentially inappropriate to their elderly patients with GAD – especially those with comorbid depressive disorders. Further research is needed to ascertain whether there are specific subgoups of elderly patients with GAD for whom the benefits of these medications outweigh their risks. PMID

  13. Magnitude of potentially inappropriate prescribing in Germany among older patients with generalized anxiety disorder

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    Dukes Ellen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several medications commonly used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD have been designated "potentially inappropriate" for use in patients aged ≥65 years because their risks may outweigh their potential benefits. The actual extent of use of these agents in clinical practice is unknown, however. Methods Using a database with information from encounters with general practitioners (GP in Germany, we identified all patients, aged ≥65 years, with any GP office visits or dispensed prescriptions with a diagnosis of GAD (ICD-10 diagnosis code F41.1 between 10/1/2003 and 9/30/2004 ("GAD patients". Among GAD-related medications (including benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants [TCAs], selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, venlafaxine, hydroxyzine, buspirone, pregabalin, and trifluoperazine, long-acting benzodiazepines, selected short-acting benzodiazepines at relatively high dosages, selected TCAs, and hydroxyzine were designated "potentially inappropriate" for use in patients aged ≥ 65 years, based on published criteria. Results A total of 975 elderly patients with GAD were identified. Mean age was 75 years, and 72% were women; 29% had diagnoses of comorbid depression. Forty percent of study subjects received potentially inappropriate agents – most commonly, bromazepam (10% of all subjects, diazepam (9%, doxepin (7%, amitriptyline (5%, and lorazepam (5%. Twenty-three percent of study subjects received long-acting benzodiazepines, 10% received short-acting benzodiazepines at relatively high doses, and 12% received TCAs designated as potentially inappropriate. Conclusion GPs in Germany often prescribe medications that have been designated as potentially inappropriate to their elderly patients with GAD – especially those with comorbid depressive disorders. Further research is needed to ascertain whether there are specific subgoups of elderly patients with GAD for whom the benefits of these medications outweigh

  14. Efectos de Cyberprogram 2.0 en factores del desarrollo socioemocional

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    Maite Garaigordobil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Desde los años ochenta, la violencia entre iguales ha suscitado una gran preocupación dentro de la comunidad científica y ha generado un intenso debate social. El principal objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos de un programa antibullying (Cyberprogram2.0 en factores del desarrollo socioemocional y en la violencia. Método. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 176 adolescentes españoles, de 13 a 15 años (77 hombres, 99 mujeres, de los cuales 93 fueron asignados aleatoriamente a la condición experimental y 83 a la de control. Se empleó un diseño cuasi-experimental postest con grupo de control equivalente. El programa contiene actividades para prevenir/reducir el bullying/cyberbullying. La intervención consistió en realizar 19 sesiones de una hora de duración durante un curso escolar. Al finalizar la intervención, se administró el Cuestionario de Evaluación del Programa CEP-Cyberprogram-2.0. Resultados. Los ANOVA postest confirmaron que el programa estimuló una mejora significativa de los experimentales en diversas cogniciones, emociones y conductas asociadas al desarrollo socioemocional y a la disminución de la violencia (F[41,134] = 58.82, p < 0.001; η² = 0.95; r = 0.97. La intervención afectó similarmente a ambos sexos. Conclusión. La discusión se centra en la importancia de implementar programas para prevenir la violencia y fomentar el desarrollo socioemocional.

  15. Post-stroke depression: Prevalence and relationship with disability in chronic stroke survivors

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    Srivastava Abhishek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate (1 the prevalence of operationally defined depressive disorder (ICD-10 in chronic stroke subjects and (2 the relationship of post-stroke depression (PSD with disability. Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Setting: Neurological rehabilitation unit of a tertiary care university research center. Materials and Methods: Participants were those with first episode of supratentorial stroke of more than 3 months′ duration with impaired balance and gait who had been referred for rehabilitation. Data were collected on demographic data, stroke data (side and type of lesion and post-stroke duration, cognition (mini mental state examination, depressive ideation (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale - HRDS, impairment (Scandinavian Stroke Scale, balance (Berg Balance Scale, ambulatory status (Functional Ambulation Category, walking ability (speed, and independence in activities of daily living (Barthel Index. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 13.0. We carried out the chi-square test for ordinal variables and the independent t test for continuous variables. Results: Fifty-one patients (M:F: 41:10 of mean age 46.06 ± 11.19 years and mean post-stroke duration of 467.33 ± 436.39 days were included in the study. Eighteen of the 51 participants (35.29% met the criteria for depression. Demographic variables like male gender, being married, living in a nuclear family, urban background, and higher HRDS score were significantly correlated with PSD (P < 0.05. Depression was related to functional disability after stroke but to a statistically insignificant level (P > 0.05 and was unrelated to lesion-related parameters. Conclusion: Depression occurs in one-third of chronic stroke survivors and is prevalent in subjects referred for rehabilitation. PSD is related primarily to demographic variables and only to a lesser extent to functional disability following stroke.

  16. Effects of Energy Conservation Strategies on Cancer Related Fatigue and Health Promotion Lifestyle in Breast CancerSurvivors: a Randomized Control Trial

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    Sadeghi, Elham; Gozali, Nahid; Moghaddam Tabrizi, Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: Cancer-related fatigue is frequently experienced by patients during and after therapy. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of energy conservation strategies and health promotion in breast cancer survivors. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was carried out to compare the intervention effect (n=69.0) with controls (n=66.0) based on routine oncology ward care. The intervention was five weekly sessions for groups of 6-8 breast cancer survivors. Data on fatigue and health promotion lifestyle were obtained before and after completion the intervention and then 8 weeks later for analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Results: Our findings showed cancer-related fatigue to be reduced in the intervention group from pre- to post-intervention, and this persisted over the 8-weeks follow-up period (F = 69.8, p<0.001). All subscales of the cancer fatigue scale demonstrated statistically significant effects with partial eta-squared values ranging from 0.15 (the smallest effect in cognitive fatigue) to 0.21 (the largest for affective fatigue). Changes in the health promotion life style indicated a significant promotion from pre- to post-intervention, and this again continued after 8-weeks follow-up (F = 41.6, p < 0.001). All six domains of a health promoting life style featured significantly elevated values, the largest effect being seen in the interpersonal relations subscale (F=57.7, partial η2=0.21, p<0.001) followed by physical activity (F=51.9, partial η2=0.18, p<0.001). Conclusions: The program was effective in decreasing cancer related fatigue and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

  17. Sleep-related cognitive processes, arousal, and emotion dysregulation in insomnia disorder: the role of insomnia-specific rumination.

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    Palagini, Laura; Moretto, Umberto; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Carney, Colleen

    2017-02-01

    Insomnia-specific rumination has presented in subjects with insomnia. Research has identified hyperarousal as a key factor, with both trait and state components. It has been shown that emotion dysregulation also plays a role in insomnia. Hence, the aim was to investigate how insomnia rumination is associated with both trait- and state-dependent arousal and emotion dysregulation in insomnia. Sixty-eight subjects with insomnia disorder (DSM-5) and 36 good sleepers were evaluated using: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Daytime Insomnia Symptom Response Scale (DISRS), Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS), Pre-sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS), and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses and mediation analyses were performed. Subjects with insomnia (F 41, mean age 50.2 ± 10) presented higher scores than good sleepers (F 22, mean age 49.7 ± 14) in all the scales (ISI, DISRS, APS, PSAS, DERS; p cognitive B = 0.22, p cognitive and somatic arousal (p = 0.02), and the association between trait hyperarousal and emotion dysregulation (Z = 2.3, p = 0.04). In insomnia, specific rumination is related to both trait predisposition to arousal and to state-dependent arousal. It is also related to emotion dyregulation. Insomnia-specific ruminative response style may modulate the complex association between trait- and state-dependent arousal factors and arousal and emotion regulation in insomnia. In this framework, a broad range of cognitive processes may be considered when dealing with subjects with insomnia: the use of rumination-oriented psychological strategies could be important. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of SiC surface polarity on the wettability and reactivity in an Al/SiC system

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    Shen, Ping; Wang, Yi; Ren, Lihua; Li, Shixin; Liu, Yuhua; Jiang, Qichuan

    2015-11-01

    The wetting of (0 0 0 1) 6H-SiC single crystals by molten Al was investigated using a dispensed sessile drop method in a high vacuum at 973-1173 K. The wettability and reactivity in this system are sensitive to the surface polarity of SiC. The interfacial reaction on the Si-terminated surface is rapid. The formation of a continuous Al4C3 product layer at the interface leads to an equilibrium contact angle of 56 ± 1° at 1173 K. In comparison, the interfacial reaction on the C-terminated surface is sluggish. The interface is only partially covered by discrete Al4C3 platelets even after dwelling at 1173 K for 2 h. The final wettability, however, is much better (θF = 41 ± 1°) than that of the Si-terminated surface which was covered by a dense Al4C3 layer, suggesting that the formation of Al4C3 should not always contribute to the wetting in the Al/SiC system. A plausible explanation is that the clean (i.e., deoxidized) C-terminated surface should be well wetted by molten Al in nature, owing to the strong chemical interactions between liquid Al and the surface atoms of the C-terminated SiC. It is likely that the presence of the oxide film at the surface of the molten Al drop or the SiC substrate and the rapid formation of Al4C3, which prevent the establishment of a real Al/SiC interface, conceal the intrinsic wettability of this system.

  19. Long term persistence of IgE anti-influenza virus antibodies in pediatric and adult serum post vaccination with influenza virus vaccine.

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    Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Wong, Darrin; Kusonruksa, Melanie; Norowitz, Kevin B; Joks, Rauno; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H

    2011-03-18

    The production of IgE specific to different viruses (HIV-1, Parvovirus B19, Parainfluenza virus, Varicella Zoster Virus), and the ability of IgE anti-HIV-1 to suppress HIV-1 production in vitro, strongly suggest an important role for IgE and/or anti viral specific IgE in viral pathogenesis. Nevertheless, the presence and persistence of IgE anti-Influenza virus antibodies has not been studied. Total serum IgE and specific IgE and IgG anti-Influenza virus antibodies were studied in children (N = 3) (m/f 14-16 y/o) and adults (N = 3) (m/f, 41-49 y/o) 2-20 months after vaccination with Influenza virus (Flumist(®) or Fluzone(®)), as well as in non-vaccinated children (N = 2). (UniCAP total IgE Fluoroenzymeimmunoassay, ELISA, Immunoblot). We found that serum of vaccinated children and adults contained IgE and IgG anti-Influenza virus antibodies approaching two years post vaccination. Non-vaccinated children did not make either IgE or IgG anti-Influenza antibodies. Similar levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 cytokines were detected in serum of vaccinated compared with non vaccinated subjects (p > 0.05), as well as between vaccinated adults compared with vaccinated children and non vaccinated subjects (p > 0.05). Vaccinated children and adults continue to produce IgE anti-Influenza virus antibodies long term post vaccination. The long term production of IgE anti-Influenza virus antibodies induced by vaccination may contribute to protective immunity against Influenza.

  20. Nonorganic insomnia in generalized anxiety disorder. 1. Controlled studies on sleep, awakening and daytime vigilance utilizing polysomnography and EEG mapping.

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    Saletu-Zyhlarz, G; Saletu, B; Anderer, P; Brandstätter, N; Frey, R; Gruber, G; Klösch, G; Mandl, M; Grünberger, J; Linzmayer, L

    1997-01-01

    Objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality as well as daytime vigilance of insomniac patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated, as compared with normal controls. Forty-four outpatients (25 females, 19 males), aged 24-65 (mean 43) years, diagnosed with non-organic insomnia (ICD-10: F 51.0), related to mild GAD (F 41.1), with a Hamilton anxiety (HAMA) score of 22 +/- 6 and a Zung self-rating anxiety (SAS) score of 37 +/- 6 were included. After 1 adaptation night, sleep induction, maintainance and architecture were measured objectively by polysomnography, subjective sleep and awakening quality were assessed by self-rating scales and visual analog scales, objective awakening quality was measured by a psychometric test battery, and diurnal tiredness was measured by a 3-min vigilance-controlled EEG (V-EEG) and a 4-min resting EEG mapping. In polysomnography patients demonstrated-as compared with normals-significantly increased wake time during the total sleep period and more early-morning awakening, decreased total sleep and sleep efficiency. Subjective sleep quality was deteriorated as well, as were well-being, drive, mood, and wakefulness in the morning. In noopsychic performance, GAD patients did rather well in attention, concentration, attention variability, and numerical memory, while fine-motor activity and reaction time were deteriorated. In psychophysiology, critical flicker frequency was decreased in the morning, while muscle strength, blood pressure and pulse rate showed no differences. EEG mapping during the late morning hours (10.00-12.00 h) demonstrated hypervigilance in the V-EEG, while in the resting recording an increased sleep pressure was detected. The latter was correlated significantly to the SAS score, but less so to the observer-rated Hamilton anxiety score. Our findings suggest that CNS hypervigilance and hyperarousal, as actual symptoms of GAD, lead to nocturnal insomnia, which in turn may cause-as a consequence

  1. Nonorganic insomnia in panic Disorder: comparative sleep laboratory studies with normal controls and placebo-controlled trials with alprazolam.

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    Saletu-Zyhlarz, Gerda M; Anderer, Peter; Berger, Peter; Gruber, Georg; Oberndorfer, Stefan; Saletu, Bernd

    2000-06-01

    Objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality was investigated in 11 drug-free patients (4 females, 7 males) aged 30-55 (mean: 44+/-9) years with nonorganic insomnia (F 51.0) related to panic disorder (F 41.0) as compared with 11 age- and sex-matched normal controls aged 30-58 (mean: 44+/-9) years, utilising polysomnography (PSG) and psychometry. PSG demonstrated decreased sleep efficiency (primary target variable), total sleep time (TST) and S2 as well as increased middle and late insomnia, S1, S3+S4, snoring and PLM in patients. There were no intergroup differences in REM variables. Subjective sleep quality deteriorated, as did drive and fine motor activity in the morning, while concentration increased. Blood pressure in the evening and morning and pulse rate in the evening were elevated. These differences as compared with normals were distinct from those observed in other sleep disorders. In a subsequent acute, placebo-controlled cross-over design study, patients received alprazolam 0.5 mg (Xanor((R));) and placebo. As compared with placebo, alprazolam induced an increase in sleep efficiency (primary target variable), TST and S2, a decrease in wakefulness during the total sleep period, S3+S4 and the oxygen desaturation and PLM indices, and improved subjective sleep quality, somatic complaints, drive, affectivity and drowsiness in the morning. There were no changes in REM variables. Thus, alprazolam induced changes that were opposite to the differences observed between patients and controls before treatment, thereby normalizing sleep and awakening quality. As observed in insomnia related to GAD and subsequent benzodiazepine therapy, the present study also points to a key-lock principle in the treatment of insomnia caused by anxiety disorders and neurophysiologically visualizes processes at the receptor level (e.g. benzodiazepine agonists versus inverse agonists). Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Silexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treatment of 'subsyndromal' anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Siegfried; Gastpar, Markus; Müller, Walter E; Volz, Hans-Peter; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Dienel, Angelika; Schläfke, Sandra

    2010-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the anxiolytic efficacy of silexan, a new oral lavender oil capsule preparation, in comparison to placebo in primary care. In 27 general and psychiatric practices 221 adults suffering from anxiety disorder not otherwise specified (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders-IV 300.00 or International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth revision F41.9) were randomized to 80 mg/day of a defined, orally administered preparation from Lavandula species or placebo for 10 weeks with visits every 2 weeks. A Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) total score >or=18 and a total score >5 for the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were required. The primary outcome measures were HAMA and PSQI total score decrease between baseline and week 10. Secondary efficacy measures included the Clinical Global Impressions scale, the Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale, and the SF-36 Health Survey Questionnaire. Patients treated with silexan showed a total score decrease by 16.0+/-8.3 points (mean+/-SD, 59.3%) for the HAMA and by 5.5+/-4.4 points (44.7%) for the PSQI compared to 9.5+/-9.1 (35.4%) and 3.8+/-4.1 points (30.9%) in the placebo group (Poil preparation had a significant beneficial influence on quality and duration of sleep and improved general mental and physical health without causing any unwanted sedative or other drug specific effects. Lavandula oil preparation silexan is both efficacious and safe for the relief of anxiety disorder not otherwise specified. It has a clinically meaningful anxiolytic effect and alleviates anxiety related disturbed sleep.

  3. Molecular modeling study for inhibition mechanism of human chymase and its application in inhibitor design.

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    Mahreen Arooj

    Full Text Available Human chymase catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptide bonds. Three chymase inhibitors with very similar chemical structures but highly different inhibitory profiles towards the hydrolase function of chymase were selected with the aim of elucidating the origin of disparities in their biological activities. As a substrate (angiotensin-I bound crystal structure is not available, molecular docking was performed to dock the substrate into the active site. Molecular dynamics simulations of chymase complexes with inhibitors and substrate were performed to calculate the binding orientation of inhibitors and substrate as well as to characterize conformational changes in the active site. The results elucidate details of the 3D chymase structure as well as the importance of K40 in hydrolase function. Binding mode analysis showed that substitution of a heavier Cl atom at the phenyl ring of most active inhibitor produced a great deal of variation in its orientation causing the phosphinate group to interact strongly with residue K40. Dynamics simulations revealed the conformational variation in region of V36-F41 upon substrate and inhibitor binding induced a shift in the location of K40 thus changing its interactions with them. Chymase complexes with the most active compound and substrate were used for development of a hybrid pharmacophore model which was applied in databases screening. Finally, hits which bound well at the active site, exhibited key interactions and favorable electronic properties were identified as possible inhibitors for chymase. This study not only elucidates inhibitory mechanism of chymase inhibitors but also provides key structural insights which will aid in the rational design of novel potent inhibitors of the enzyme. In general, the strategy applied in the current study could be a promising computational approach and may be generally applicable to drug design for other enzymes.

  4. Diarréia em bezerros da raça Nelore criados extensivamente: estudo clínico e etiológico Diarrhea in Nelore calves: Clinical and etiologic study

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    José P. Oliveira Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A diarréia é considerada uma das principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade de bezerros neonatos. Foram colhidas 100 amostras fecais diarréicas e 30 amostras não diarréicas (grupo controle, de bezerros Nelore com até nove semanas de idade com o objetivo de detectar os enteropatógenos Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, rotavírus, coronavírus, Cryptosporidium spp. e ovos de helmintos. Enteropatógenos foram detectados em 79,0% das amostras diarréicas e em 70,0% das amostras não-diarréicas. No grupo de bezerros com diarréia, E. coli (69,0% foi o agente mais freqüentemente isolado, seguido de Cryptosporidium spp. (30,0%, coronavírus (16,0% e rotavírus (11,0%. No grupo controle, E. coli, Cryptosporidium spp. e coronavírus foram detectados, respectivamente, em 66,7%, 10,0% e 3,3% das amostras. Salmonella spp. e ovos de estrongilídeos não foram encontrados nos dois grupos avaliados. A fímbria K99 foi identificada exclusivamente nas linhagens de E. coli isoladas de bezerros com diarréia (5,8%. Entre os antimicrobianos avaliados "in vitro" a enrofloxacina, a norfloxacina e a gentamicina foram os mais efetivos. O peso dos bezerros aos 210 dias de idade não apresentou diferença significativa entre os animais com e sem diarréia.Diarrhea is considered as one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in neonates calves. Fecal samples from 100 diarrheic and 30 non-diarrheic (control group Nelore calves less than 9 weeks old were collected for Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium spp., and for helminth eggs investigation. Enteropathogens were detected in 79.0% diarrheic samples and 70.0% non-diarrheic samples. Among diarrheic calves, Escherichia coli (69.0% was the most common agent found, following by Cryptosporidium spp. (30.0%, coronavirus (16.0%, and rotavirus (11.0%. In the control group, E. coli, Cryptosporidium spp. and coronavirus were detected in 66.7%, 10.0% and 3.3% of the samples

  5. Strategic control of acute diarrhea of newborn calves

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    Siti Chotiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance of beef cattle operations can be severely hampered by acute calfhood diarrhea. Accordingly, a study was conducted at Bbalitvet to identify the causal agents, reduce clinical incidence, and increase body weight gain of newborn calves. One potential control is application of suitable vaccines to pregnant cows. The study was begun by identifying cases of diarrhea followed by isolation and identification of the causal agents in 12 beef cattle farms in West Java. A field trial was then designed for controlling calf diarrhea in such farms. Inactive vaccines Ecoli-Closvak polivalen were administered to pregnant cows to increase specific resistance of the newborn calves. At 2 months prepartum, 12 pregnant cows were assigned either to a vaccination or a placebo group, with a booster vaccination 3 weeks prior to parturition. Strict hygenic management was provided to both groups, and all calves were provided adequately with colostrum. Subjects were observed for 5 months, starting from the time of initial vaccination until the calves were 3 months of age. In the initial farm surveys, entero-pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli serotype K99 and Clostridium perfringens type A and C were isolated and identified in fecal samples from 4 beef cattle farms in 3 districts (Garut, Tasikmalaya, Ciamis and 2 beef cattle farms in 2 districts (Tasikmalaya and Ciamis of West Java. In the vaccination trial, good immune responses to E. coli and C. perfringens alpha toxin measured by ELISA were observed. Application of effective control of calf diarrhea including vaccination and good livestock management showed good results. No death or signs of diarrhea were found in the new born calves up to 3 months of age. The rate of body weight gain was significantly higher in calves of vaccinated dams than in calves of non-vaccinated dams.

  6. Nutrient distribution and accumulation patterns of natural secondary forests in the Loess Plateau of Shanxi Province, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojuan ZHANG; Tianxing WEI; Libo JING; Na YIN; Yanhui LIU

    2009-01-01

    We studied the biomass and its allocation in natural secondary forests, as well as the amounts, accumulation and distribution of nutrient elements (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in sample plots established in the Loess Plateau in Shanxi Province, northern China. The results show that biomass in natural secondary forests amounted to 36.09 t/hm2,. of which the tree layer accounted for 46%, the shrub layer for 29%, the herb layer for 13% and the litter layer for 12%. The total storage of the five nutrient elements is 1089.82 kg/hm2. Nutrient storage in the tree layer is the largest, at 41%. The sequence of storage of the elements varied among different layers and is given as follows: shrub layer 31.27%, herb layer 12.55% and litter layer 15.36%. The accumulation of nutrient elements in the tree layer, ordered from high to low, is: branches > roots > stems > bark > leaves. The total storage of the five nutrient elements in the soil is 634.97 t/hm2, where the accumulation of the nutrients accounts for 95.32% (N), 99.64% (P), 99.91% (K), 99.84% (Ca) and 99.95% (Mg) of the total amounts. The accumulation coefficients of different organs in the tree layer are, from high to low: leaves > branches > roots > bark > stems. The accumulation coefficients in the different layers are listed as follows: shrub layer > tree layer > herb layer and for the elements as: N > P > Ca > K > Mg.

  7. Is Marathon Training Harder than the Ironman Training? An ECO-method Comparison.

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    Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Moreno-Pérez, Diego; Cardona, Claudia A; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Muñoz, Iker; Sellés, Sergio; Cejuela, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the absolute and relative training load of the Marathon (42k) and the Ironman (IM) training in recreational trained athletes. Methods: Fifteen Marathoners and Fifteen Triathletes participated in the study. Their performance level was the same relative to the sex's absolute winner at the race. No differences were presented neither in age, nor in body weight, height, BMI, running VO2max max, or endurance training experience (p > 0.05). They all trained systematically for their respective event (IM or 42k). Daily training load was recorded in a training log, and the last 16 weeks were compared. Before this, gas exchange and lactate metabolic tests were conducted in order to set individual training zones. The Objective Load Scale (ECOs) training load quantification method was applied. Differences between IM and 42k athletes' outcomes were assessed using Student's test and significance level was set at p Training Weekly Avg Time (IM 12.9 h ± 2.6 vs. 42k 5.2 ± 0.9), and Average Weekly ECOs (IM 834 ± 171 vs. 42k 526 ± 118) were significantly higher in IM (p Training Load and Training Time was superior for 42k runners when comparing ECOs (IM 65.8 ± 11.8 vs. 42k 99.3 ± 6.8) (p training time or load vs. Competition Time were superior for 42k (p Training Time/Race Time: IM 1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 42k 1.7 ± 0.5), (ECOs Training Load/Race Time: IM 1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 42k 2.9 ± 1.0). Conclusions: In spite of IM athletes' superior training time and total or weekly training load, when comparing the ratios between training load and training time, and training time or training load vs. competition time, the preparation of a 42k showed to be harder.

  8. Exploring structure and interactions of the bacterial adaptor protein YjbH by crosslinking mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Yusra; Ib Rasmussen, Morten; Kjellström, Sven; Højrup, Peter; Emanuelsson, Cecilia; von Wachenfeldt, Claes

    2016-09-01

    Adaptor proteins assist proteases in degrading specific proteins under appropriate conditions. The adaptor protein YjbH promotes the degradation of an important global transcriptional regulator Spx, which controls the expression of hundreds of genes and operons in response to thiol-specific oxidative stress in Bacillus subtilis. Under normal growth conditions, the transcription factor is bound to the adaptor protein and therefore degraded by the AAA+ protease ClpXP. If this binding is alleviated during stress, the transcription factor accumulates and turns on genes encoding stress-alleviating proteins. The adaptor protein YjbH is thus a key player involved in these interactions but its structure is unknown. To gain insight into its structure and interactions we have used chemical crosslinking mass spectrometry. Distance constraints obtained from the crosslinked monomer were used to select and validate a structure model of YjbH and then to probe its interactions with other proteins. The core structure of YjbH is reminiscent of DsbA family proteins. One lysine residue in YjbH (K177), located in one of the α-helices outside the thioredoxin fold, crosslinked to both Spx K99 and Spx K117, thereby suggesting one side of the YjbH for the interaction with Spx. Another lysine residue that crosslinked to Spx was YjbH K5, located in the long and presumably very flexible N-terminal arm of YjbH. Our crosslinking data lend support to a model proposed based on site-directed mutagenesis where the YjbH interaction with Spx can stabilize and present the C-terminal region of Spx for protease recognition and proteolysis. Proteins 2016; 84:1234-1245. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Dose-Dependent Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on Serum Interleukin-17 Production and Intestinal T-Cell Responses in Pigs Challenged with Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yao-Hong; Li, Xiao-Qiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Dong; Liu, Hao-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the dose effect of probiotics on ameliorating diarrhea has not been fully elucidated. Here, low (1 × 109 CFU/ml) or high (1 × 1011 CFU/ml) doses of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 were administered orally to piglets for 1 week before F4 (K88)-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4+ ETEC) challenge. Administration of a low, but not a high, dose of L. rhamnosus decreased the percentage of CD3+ CD4+ CD8− T cells in the peripheral blood. Notably, transiently increased serum concentrations of interleukin-17A (IL-17A) were observed after F4+ ETEC challenge in pigs pretreated with a high dose of L. rhamnosus. Administration of L. rhamnosus increased the percentage of the small intestinal lamina propria CD3+ CD4+ CD8− cells and Peyer's patch CD3+ CD4− CD8− and CD3− CD4− CD8+ cells. The percentage of ileal intraepithelial CD3+ CD4− CD8+ cells increased only in the high-dose piglets. Administration of L. rhamnosus downregulated expression of ileal IL-17A after F4+ ETEC challenge but had no effect on expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-12, IL-4, and FOXP3 mRNA in the small intestine. Expression of jejunal IL-2, ileal transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), and ileal IL-10 was upregulated in the low-dose piglets after F4+ ETEC challenge. Our findings suggest that amelioration of infectious diarrhea in piglets by L. rhamnosus is associated with the generation of lamina propria CD3+ CD4+ CD8− T cells, the expansion of Peyer's patch CD3+ CD4− CD8− and CD3− CD4− CD8+ cells, and the attenuation of F4+ ETEC-induced increase in CD3+ CD4+ CD8+ T cells in the small intestine. However, consumption of high doses of L. rhamnosus may increase levels of serum IL-17A after F4+ ETEC challenge, thus eliciting a strong proinflammatory response. PMID:24389928

  10. Risks Associated with High-Dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus in an Escherichia coli Model of Piglet Diarrhoea: Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Imbalances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Cai, Zheng-Xing; Lu, Qing-Ping; Zhang, Lu; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Zhang, Fan-Jian; Zhou, Dong; Yang, Jin-Cai; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic could be a promising alternative to antibiotics for the prevention of enteric infections; however, further information on the dose effects is required. In this study, weanling piglets were orally administered low- or high-dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus ACTT 7469 (1010 CFU/d or 1012 CFU/d) for 1 week before F4 (K88)-positive Escherichia coli challenge. The compositions of faecal and gastrointestinal microbiota were recorded; gene expression in the intestines was assessed by real-time PCR; serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations and intestinal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were detected by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Unexpectedly, high-dose administration increased the incidence of diarrhoea before F4+ETEC challenge, despite the fact that both doses ameliorated F4+ETEC-induced diarrhoea with increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts accompanied by reduced coliform shedding in faeces. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus administration reduced Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts in the colonic contents, and the high-dose piglets also had lower Lactobacillius and Bacteroides counts in the ileal contents. An increase in the concentration of serum TNF-α induced by F4+ETEC was observed, but the increase was delayed by L. rhamnosus. In piglets exposed to F4+ETEC, jejunal TLR4 expression increased at the mRNA and protein levels, while jejunal interleukin (IL)-8 and ileal porcine β-defensins 2 (pBD2) mRNA expression increased; however, these increases were attenuated by administration of L. rhamnosus. Notably, expression of jejunal TLR2, ileal TLR9, Nod-like receptor NOD1 and TNF-α mRNA was upregulated in the low-dose piglets after F4+ETEC challenge, but not in the high-dose piglets. These findings indicate that pretreatment with a low dose of L. rhamnosus might be more effective than a high dose at ameliorating diarrhoea. There is a risk that high-dose L. rhamnosus pretreatment may negate the preventative effects, thus

  11. Dietary N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation Boosts Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Escherichia coli Challenged Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengrui; Zeng, Xiangfang; Yang, Fengjuan; Huang, Zhimin; Liu, Hong; Ma, Xi; Qiao, Shiyan

    2013-01-01

    N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) has been shown to enhance performance in neonatal piglets. However, few studies have demonstrated the effect of NCG on the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary NCG supplementation on intestinal mucosal immunity in neonatal piglets after an Escherichia coli (E. coli) challenge. New-born piglets (4 d old) were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (n = 7), including (I) sham challenge, (II) sham challenge +50 mg/kg NCG, (III) E. coli challenge, and (IV) E. coli challenge +50 mg/kg NCG. On d 8, pigs in the E. coli challenge groups (III and IV) were orally challenged with 5 mL of E. coli K88 (10(8) CFU/mL), whereas pigs in the sham challenge groups (I and II) were orally dosed with an equal volume of water. On d 13, all piglets were sacrificed, and samples were collected and examined. The results show that average daily gain in the E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV) was decreased (PE.coli<0.05). However, it tended to be higher in the NCG treated piglets (II and IV). Ileum secretory IgA, as well as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in ileal homogenates, were increased in E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV). Similarly, ileum SIgA and IL-10 levels, and CD4(+) percentage in NCG treated piglets (II and IV) were higher than no-NCG treated piglets (PNCG<0.05). However, the IL-2 level was only decreased in the piglets of E. coli challenge + NCG group (IV) compared with E. coli challenge group (III) (P<0.05). No change in the IL-2 level of the sham challenged piglets (III) was observed. In conclusion, dietary NCG supplementation has some beneficial effects on intestinal mucosal immunity in E. coli challenged piglets, which might be associated with stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine synthesis. Our findings have an important implication that NCG may be used to reduce diarrhea in neonatal piglets.

  12. Effect of dietary protein level on growth performance, indicators of enteric health, and gastrointestinal microbial ecology of weaned pigs induced with postweaning colibacillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opapeju, F O; Krause, D O; Payne, R L; Rademacher, M; Nyachoti, C M

    2009-08-01

    The effect of dietary CP level on performance, enteric health, and gastrointestinal microbial ecology of weaned pigs challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 was investigated in a 14-d study. Forty weaned pigs (BW = 5.32 +/- 0.24 kg, mean +/- SD), housed 4 per pen, were randomly assigned to 2 diets (5 pens/diet): 1) 22.5% CP or 2) 17.6% CP supplemented with AA. Diets contained the same amount of ME and standardized ileal digestible Lys, Met + Cys, Thr, and Trp based on the ideal protein ratio. Isoleucine and Val were added to the 17.6% CP diet up to the level in the 22.5% CP diet. On d 8 postweaning, pigs were challenged with 6 mL of ETEC suspension (10(10) cfu/mL) by gavage. Feed disappearance and BW were measured on d 7, 9, 10, 12, and 14 for determination of ADG, ADFI, and G:F. One pig from each pen was serially slaughtered on -1, 3, and 7 d postchallenge (10 pigs/d of slaughter) to evaluate gut morphology, and gut microbial ecology and metabolites. Pigs fed the 22.5% CP diet had greater (P pigs fed the 17.6% CP diet but was detected in the ileal digesta of 80% of pigs fed the 22.5% CP diet (5.22 +/- 1.07 cfu/g, mean +/- SD). Pigs fed the 17.6% CP diet had a greater (P pigs fed the 17.6% CP diet than in those fed the 22.5% CP diet at -1, 3, and 7 d postchallenge. Pigs fed the 22.5% CP diet had greater (P Pigs fed the 22.5% CP diet had deeper (P dietary CP level of weaned pigs from 22.5 to 17.6% with AA supplementation impaired growth performance before, but not after, the ETEC challenge and increased the relative composition of butyrate producing bacteria in the colon digesta after ETEC challenge.

  13. Dietary N-Carbamylglutamate Supplementation Boosts Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Escherichia coli Challenged Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengrui Zhang

    Full Text Available N-carbamylglutamate (NCG has been shown to enhance performance in neonatal piglets. However, few studies have demonstrated the effect of NCG on the intestinal mucosal barrier. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary NCG supplementation on intestinal mucosal immunity in neonatal piglets after an Escherichia coli (E. coli challenge. New-born piglets (4 d old were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (n = 7, including (I sham challenge, (II sham challenge +50 mg/kg NCG, (III E. coli challenge, and (IV E. coli challenge +50 mg/kg NCG. On d 8, pigs in the E. coli challenge groups (III and IV were orally challenged with 5 mL of E. coli K88 (10(8 CFU/mL, whereas pigs in the sham challenge groups (I and II were orally dosed with an equal volume of water. On d 13, all piglets were sacrificed, and samples were collected and examined. The results show that average daily gain in the E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV was decreased (PE.coli<0.05. However, it tended to be higher in the NCG treated piglets (II and IV. Ileum secretory IgA, as well as IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 in ileal homogenates, were increased in E. coli challenged piglets (III and IV. Similarly, ileum SIgA and IL-10 levels, and CD4(+ percentage in NCG treated piglets (II and IV were higher than no-NCG treated piglets (PNCG<0.05. However, the IL-2 level was only decreased in the piglets of E. coli challenge + NCG group (IV compared with E. coli challenge group (III (P<0.05. No change in the IL-2 level of the sham challenged piglets (III was observed. In conclusion, dietary NCG supplementation has some beneficial effects on intestinal mucosal immunity in E. coli challenged piglets, which might be associated with stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine synthesis. Our findings have an important implication that NCG may be used to reduce diarrhea in neonatal piglets.

  14. Risks associated with high-dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus in an Escherichia coli model of piglet diarrhoea: intestinal microbiota and immune imbalances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiong Li

    Full Text Available Probiotic could be a promising alternative to antibiotics for the prevention of enteric infections; however, further information on the dose effects is required. In this study, weanling piglets were orally administered low- or high-dose Lactobacillus rhamnosus ACTT 7469 (10(10 CFU/d or 10(12 CFU/d for 1 week before F4 (K88-positive Escherichia coli challenge. The compositions of faecal and gastrointestinal microbiota were recorded; gene expression in the intestines was assessed by real-time PCR; serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α concentrations and intestinal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 were detected by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Unexpectedly, high-dose administration increased the incidence of diarrhoea before F4(+ETEC challenge, despite the fact that both doses ameliorated F4(+ETEC-induced diarrhoea with increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts accompanied by reduced coliform shedding in faeces. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus administration reduced Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium counts in the colonic contents, and the high-dose piglets also had lower Lactobacillius and Bacteroides counts in the ileal contents. An increase in the concentration of serum TNF-α induced by F4(+ETEC was observed, but the increase was delayed by L. rhamnosus. In piglets exposed to F4(+ETEC, jejunal TLR4 expression increased at the mRNA and protein levels, while jejunal interleukin (IL-8 and ileal porcine β-defensins 2 (pBD2 mRNA expression increased; however, these increases were attenuated by administration of L. rhamnosus. Notably, expression of jejunal TLR2, ileal TLR9, Nod-like receptor NOD1 and TNF-α mRNA was upregulated in the low-dose piglets after F4(+ETEC challenge, but not in the high-dose piglets. These findings indicate that pretreatment with a low dose of L. rhamnosus might be more effective than a high dose at ameliorating diarrhoea. There is a risk that high-dose L. rhamnosus pretreatment may negate the preventative

  15. Pathotyping and antibiotic resistance of porcine enterovirulent Escherichia coli strains from Switzerland (2014-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, P; Gobeli, S; Perreten, V

    2017-07-01

    A total of 131 porcine E. coli were isolated in 2014 and 2015 from the gut of 115 pigs raised in Switzerland and suffering from diarrhea. The isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance, serotypes, virulence factors and genetic diversity. Serotypes were assigned by agglutination tests and virulence genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the measurement of the MIC of 14 antibiotics and by the detection of the corresponding genes using microarray and PCR approaches. Genetic diversity was determined by repetitive palindromic PCR (rep- PCR) revealing a heterogenous population. Half of the E. coli isolates possessing virulence factors could not be assigned to any of the 19 serotypes tested, but contained toxins and adhesins similarly to the sero-typable E. coli isolates. The most prevalent E. coli serotypes found were K88ac (18%), O139:K82 (6%), O141:K85ac (5%), O108:K`V189` (5%), O119:K`V113` (3%) and O157:K`V17` (2%). The combination of toxins EAST-1, STb and LT-I and adhesin F4 characterizing ETEC was the most frequent. The shigatoxin Stx2e (STEC) and intimin Eae (EPEC) were also detected, but less frequently. Seventy percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 29% were resistant to more than 3 antibiotics. Isolates exhibited resistance to tetracycline (50%) associated to resistance genes tet(A), tet(B) and tet(C), sulfamethoxazole (49%) [sul1, sul2 and sul3], trimethoprim (34%) [dfr], nalidixic acid (29%), ampicillin (26%) [blaTEM-1], gentamicin (17%) [aac(3) -IIc, aac(3) -IVa and aac(3) -VIa], chloramphenicol (17%) [catAI and catAIII], and ciprofloxacin (8%) [mutations in GyrA (S83L) and ParC (S80I)]. All isolates were susceptible to 3rd generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, colistin and tigecycline. Pathogenic E. coli isolates from pigs in Switzerland could frequently not be assigned to a known serotype even if they contained diarrhea-causing virulence factors. They

  16. 合生元组合筛选及对仔猪生产性能和腹泻的影响%Screening of lactic acid bacteria and prebiotics for synbiotics and their effects on piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴兆来; 董红军; 林勇; 黄瑞华; 朱伟云

    2008-01-01

    利用体外法对4种化学益生素和4株乳酸菌(S1、L7、L17和L18)进行了合生元组合的筛选,并在仔猪上进行了饲养试验.结果表明:4株乳酸菌均能利用菊粉(inulin)和果寡糖(FOS)产生乳酸,只有S1和L18能利用低聚木糖(XOS),低聚异麦芽糖(IMO)只能被S1利用.当以果寡糖和菊粉混合物(FOS+inulin,质量比为2∶ 8)为底物时,各株乳酸菌生长良好,产乳酸量高,其次为果寡糖和低聚木糖混合物(FOS+XOS,质量比为1∶ 1).当以FOS+inulin为底物,4株乳酸菌混合培养时,24 h产乳酸量最高,为(23.49±0.67)mmol·L-1.以FOS+inulin为底物时,S1和混合乳酸菌均能很好地抑制肠毒素大肠杆菌K88和混合大肠杆菌的生长,混合乳酸菌的抑菌效果优于单菌S1.饲养试验结果表明,添加乳酸菌、化学益生素或合生元均可降低哺乳期、断奶期仔猪腹泻率,增加断奶后仔猪平均日增重,降低料重比,其中合生元作用效果最优,其次为混合化学益生素,最后为乳酸菌,混合乳酸菌组优于单独使用S1 组.结果提示,混合乳酸菌与FOS+inulin组合以及与FOS+XOS组合具有减少腹泻,提高生长性能的作用,可用于断奶期仔猪饲料.

  17. Prevalence of adhesin and toxin genes in E. coli strains isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic pigs from smallholder herds in northern and eastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikwap, Kokas; Larsson, Jenny; Jacobson, Magdalena; Owiny, David Okello; Nasinyama, George William; Nabukenya, Immaculate; Mattsson, Sigbrit; Aspan, Anna; Erume, Joseph

    2016-08-05

    Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) significantly contribute to diarrhea in piglets and weaners. The smallholder pig producers in Uganda identified diarrhea as one of the major problems especially in piglets. The aim of this study was to; i) characterize the virulence factors of E. coli strains isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic suckling piglets and weaners from smallholder herds in northern and eastern Uganda and ii) identify and describe the post-mortem picture of ETEC infection in severely diarrheic piglets. Rectal swab samples were collected from 83 piglets and weaners in 20 herds and isolated E. coli were characterized by PCR, serotyping and hemolysis. The E. coli strains carried genes for the heat stable toxins STa, STb and EAST1 and adhesins F4 and AIDA-I. The genes for the heat labile toxin LT and adhesins F5, F6, F18 and F41 were not detected in any of the E. coli isolates. Where the serogroup could be identified, E. coli isolates from the same diarrheic pig belonged to the same serogroup. The prevalence of EAST1, STb, Stx2e, STa, AIDA-I, and F4 in the E. coli isolates from suckling piglets and weaners (diarrheic and non-diarrheic combined) was 29, 26.5, 2.4, 1.2, 16, and 8.4 %, respectively. However the prevalence of F4 and AIDA-I in E. coli from diarrheic suckling piglets alone was 22.2 and 20 %, respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the individual virulence factors in E. coli from the diarrheic and non-diarrheic pigs (p > 0.05). The main ETEC strains isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic pigs included F4/STb/EAST1 (7.2 %), F4/STb (1.2 %), AIDA/STb/EAST1 (8 %) and AIDA/STb (8 %). At post-mortem, two diarrheic suckling piglets carrying ETEC showed intact intestinal villi, enterocytes and brush border but with a layer of cells attached to the brush border, suggestive of ETEC infections. This study has shown that the F4 fimbriae is the most predominant in E. coli from diarrheic piglets in the study area and

  18. Tassi di cambio fluttuanti, deprezzamento valutario e domanda effettiva: un commento (Floating exchange rates, currency depreciation and effective demand: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sarcinelli

    2012-04-01

    exception  of the exchange rate is certainly possible.  JEL Codes: F33;F41Keywords: tasso di cambio, equilibrio di piena occupazione, banca centrale,

  19. Consumption of Milk-Protein Combined with Green Tea Modulates Diet-Induced Thermogenesis

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    Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea and protein separately are able to increase diet-induced thermogenesis. Although their effects on long-term weight-maintenance were present separately, they were not additive. Therefore, the effect of milk-protein (MP in combination with green tea on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT was examined in 18 subjects (aged 18–60 years; BMI: 23.0 ± 2.1 kg/m2. They participated in an experiment with a randomized, 6 arms, crossover design, where energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ were measured. Green tea (GT vs. placebo (PL capsules were either given in combination with water or with breakfasts containing milk protein in two different dosages: 15 g (15 MP (energy% P/C/F: 15/47/38; 1.7 MJ/500 mL, and 3.5 g (3.5 MP (energy% P/C/F: 41/59/0; 146.4 kJ/100 mL. After measuring resting energy expenditure (REE for 30 min, diet-induced energy expenditure was measured for another 3.5 h after the intervention. There was an overall significant difference observed between conditions (p < 0.001. Post-hoc, areas under the curve (AUCs for diet-induced energy expenditure were significantly different (P ≤ 0.001 for GT + water (41.11 [91.72] kJ·3.5 h vs. PL + water (10.86 [28.13] kJ·3.5 h, GT + 3.5 MP (10.14 [54.59] kJ·3.5 h and PL + 3.5 MP (12.03 [34.09] kJ·3.5 h, but not between GT + 3.5 MP, PL + 3.5 MP and PL + water, indicating that MP inhibited DIT following GT. DIT after GT + 15 MP (167.69 [141.56] kJ·3.5 h and PL + 15 MP (168.99 [186.56] kJ·3.5 h was significantly increased vs. PL + water (P < 0.001, but these were not different from each other indicating that 15 g MP stimulated DIT, but inhibited the GT effect on DIT. No significant differences in RQ were seen between conditions for baseline and post-treatment. In conclusion, consumption of milk-protein inhibits the effect of green tea on DIT.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Mixed Anxiety and Depressive Disorder: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study in Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Torres-Prieto, Yazmin Elizabeth; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Ortiz-Jurado, Maria Nalleli; Molotla-de-Leon, Gabriel; Beristain Garcia, Isabel; Rabago-Sanchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background The parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) may invade the brain and might induce behavioral changes. We sought to determine the association of T. gondii infection and mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. Methods Through an age- and gender-matched case-control seroprevalence study, we examined 65 patients suffering from mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (WHO ICD-10 code: F41.2) attending in a public hospital of mental health and 260 control subjects without this disorder from the general population. Sera of participants were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results Fifteen (23.1%) of the 65 patients and 18 (6.9%) of the 260 controls had anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies (odds ratio (OR): 4.03; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.90 - 8.53; P 150 IU/mL) anti-T. gondii IgG levels was similar in cases and controls (OR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.05 - 1.06; P = 0.05). Seroprevalence was similar in male cases and controls (P = 1.0); however, seroprevalence was significantly higher in female cases than in female controls (OR: 7.08; 95% CI: 2.83 - 17.67; P < 0.00001). Patients aged 31 - 50 years old had a significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than controls of the same age group (OR: 21.04; 95% CI: 5.22 - 84.80; P < 0.00001). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in four (26.7%) of the 15 anti-T. gondii IgG seropositive cases and in 10 (55.6%) of the 18 anti-T. gondii IgG seropositive controls (P = 0.15). Conclusions Results support for the first time an association between seropositivity to T. gondii and mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. Further research to confirm this association and to determine the seroepidemiology of T. gondii infection in patients with this disorder is needed. PMID:27298660

  1. Aptitud combinatoria general y especifica de líneas tropicales de maiz usando probadores

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    Mauro Sierra

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptitud combinatoria general y específica de líneas tropicales de maíz usando probadores. Durante el ciclo O - I 1996/97 fueron evaluados en el Campo Experimental Cotaxtla mestizos de líneas sobresalientes y provenientes de varias fuentes de germoplasma como son : a Líneas recicladas de H-513 X VS-536, b Líneas derivadas de un compuesto de amplia base genética, c Líneas élite de programa de maíz de Cotaxtla (LTs y d Líneas de CIMMYT (CMLs. Como probadores se usaron las líneas LT-154 y LT-155 progenitores del híbrido H-513 y las líneas CML247 y CML254 cuya cruza es un patrón heterótico definido por CIMMYT para el trópico. Hubo líneas con buen comportamiento per-se tanto en rendimiento como en características agronómicas y que se encuentran formando mestizos sobresalientes con uno o varios probadores. Con relación a la Aptitud combinatoria, se encontró que las líneas F31XF30-4-3-1, F41XF40-1-2-1, CABG3’-12-2-1-2-1-1, LT174 y CML15 registraron los máximos valores con el probador 2 (LT155; F4XF3-5-2-1 y CML15 con el probador 4 (CMl254. Así también, las líneas F4XF5-5-1-1, y CABG3’-12-2-1-2-1-1, LT174, CML13 y CML15 con buena ACG. Con relación a los probadores, se encontró que para el grupo de líneas Recicladas , los probadores 1(LT154 y 4 (CML254 registraron los coeficientes de regresión más altos, lo que indica que permiten identificar líneas sobresalientes. Para líneas CABG fué el probador 2 (LT155 el que registró el mejor valor y en líneas Élite , los probadores 2(LT155, y 3(CML247 identificaron mejor a las líneas sobresalientes. Para las líneas del CIMMYT el mejor valor fué para el probador 4(CML254

  2. Can New Ultrasound Signs Help in Identifying Follicular Variant of Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid? – A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, C.; Manipadam, M. T.; Asha, H. S.; Dukhabandhu, N.; Abraham, D.; Paul, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To describe two new ultrasound signs for thyroid nodules – “nodule in nodule” and “hypoechoic internal septae” and assess their usefulness in differentiating follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) from benign thyroid nodules (BTN). Methodology: Ultrasound findings of 210 patients with histopathologically proven FVPTC (68 nodules, M:F=13:47 with mean age of 39.5±11.9 years) and BTN (165 nodules, (M:F=41:109 with mean age of 44±11.3 years) were retrospectively reviewed from PACS by a single radiologist blinded to the final diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the best predictors of FVPTC and their diagnostic performance was assessed. Results: The “nodule in nodule” sign was seen in 80.9% of FVPTC and only 12.1% of BTN. The “hypoechoic internal septae” sign was seen in 44.1% of FVPTC and 17% of BTN. Younger patients, heterogeneous echotexture, nodule in nodule sign, thick incomplete non-uniform halo and presence of significant nodes were the best predictors of FVPTC (p<0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and relative risk for FVPTC given as odds ratio (95% CI) for heterogeneous echotexture and nodule in nodule sign which were the best 2 predictors of FVPTC were 91.2%, 81.8%, 67.3%, 95.7%, 84.5%, 46.5 (18.5–117.4) and 80.9%, 87.7%, 74.3%, 91.2%, 86.2%, 32.5 (15.04–70.2), respectively. There was improvement in the specificity (91.5%) and accuracy (86.6%) when a combined criterion of heterogeneous echotexture and nodule in nodule sign was applied to predict FVPTC. Conclusion: The “nodule in nodule” sign is common in FVPTC and when combined with heterogeneous echotexture can differentiate FVPTC and BTN with high specificity. PMID:27689170

  3. PRIMARY STUDY ON CODA Q VALUE IN LONGGANG VOLCANO AREA%龙岗火山区尾波Q值的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁国经; 李仲巍; 郑双凤; 刘俊清; 刘达峰; 綦伟

    2011-01-01

    基于sato单次散射模型,利用2007年5月至2010年2月龙岗火山测震台网记录到的发生在火山区及邻近地区内的41次Mt.≥1.6地震的波形资料,计算了龙岗火山区的尾波Q值,得出尾波Q值与频率的关系为Q(f)=(42.65±7.53)f(0.845 9+0.164 2),具有以低Q值高η值为特征的火山构造活跃地区的尾波性质.火山区尾波Q值的空间分布显示,金龙顶子火山附近的金川台尾波Q0值为31.98.明显低于其它台站.结合深地震探测和垂直形变资料成果,佐证了龙岗火山岩浆囊的位置可能在金龙顶子火山附近.%According to Sato( 1977) single scattering model and using 41 earthquakes with ML ≥ 1. 6 in the Longgang volcano and the nearby regions recorded by Longgang volcano digital seismic network from 2007 to February 2010, the coda Q value in the Longgang volcanic region was determined. All of events used in this paper occurred at depths from 6 to 1Okm,with the epicentral distances less than 75km. The results show that the coda Q has a dependence with frequency as Q (f) = (41. 65±11. 74)f(O.8459±0.1642) ,which is characteristic of coda in active volcanic regions as low Q value and high η value. Compared to other volcanic areas in the world , the average Qc of the Longgang volcanic area is obviously lower. Distribution of coda Q value on Longgang volcano shows that coda Q0 value at Jinchuan seismic station near Jinlongdingzi volcano is 31. 98 , significantly lower than other stations',which,in combination with the deep seismic sounding data and vertical deformation data,proves that the magma chambers probably locate in the vicinity of Jinlongdingzi volcano. For the lower coda Q0 value ,we interpret the strong attenuation of coda waves near the Longgang volcano is possibly related to high temperature medium caused by magma chambers.

  4. Fire disaster following LPG tanker explosion at Chala in Kannur (Kerala, India): August 27, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod

    2013-11-01

    A fire disaster following LPG tanker explosion occurred at Chala bypass, Kannur, Kerala, India on August 27, 2012. The three chambered tanker with total 16tonnes (162.57 quintal) LPG collided with a road divider and exploded thrice. A total of 41 people became victims during first blast; out of which 20 died in various hospitals. Five people remained inside the house after first blast and escaped unhurt from the zone of accident before second blast. All the victims were transferred to various hospitals; of these, six were transferred to the burns unit of the Kasturba Hospital, Manipal (320km from Chala). Five (5/6) were transferred within 1-5 days at our burns unit suffered 31-72% total body surface area (TBSA) burn, none had external injuries. One (1/6) was transferred on 20th day as a follow up case of 15% TBSA burn with 4% residual raw area and diabetes mellitus. Except one, all were managed conservatively using Limited access dressings (LAD; Negative Pressure Wound Therapy). One of the patient wound bed prepared under LAD and on 41 post burn day underwent split skin grafting under LAD. Out of the six patients admitted at the burns unit, two (2/6) admitted patients expired (one due to inhalation injury and another due to sepsis with multiple organ failure). One survivor (1/4) developed sepsis related liver dysfunction with hepatomegaly but recovered well. The total hospital stay of survivors at the burns unit varied from 8 to 60 days (mean hospital stay 36.5 days). All the victims who developed psychological symptoms were treated by psychiatrists and counselled before discharge. Three of survivors developed psychological symptoms. Two of them (2/3) developed mixed anxiety-depression disorder (ICD 10 code F41.8) and one of these two showed grief reaction too (ICD 10 code F43.23). One victim (1/3) developed non-organic insomnia (ICD 10 code F51.0) and responded to counselling. The article describes the incident, mechanism of the incident, injuries sustained

  5. Influence of SiC surface polarity on the wettability and reactivity in an Al/SiC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Ping, E-mail: shenping@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China); Wang, Yi [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China); Ren, Lihua; Li, Shixin [Nuclear and radiation safety center, No. 54 Hongliannancun, Haidian District, Beijing 100082 (China); Liu, Yuhua; Jiang, Qichuan [Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The wettability and reactivity are sensitive to the surface polarity of SiC. • In comparison, the reaction at the Si-terminated surface is much stronger and faster. • The intrinsic wettability between clean Al and clean SiC could be fairly good. • The formation of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} might not essentially promote the wettability. - Abstract: The wetting of (0 0 0 1) 6H-SiC single crystals by molten Al was investigated using a dispensed sessile drop method in a high vacuum at 973–1173 K. The wettability and reactivity in this system are sensitive to the surface polarity of SiC. The interfacial reaction on the Si-terminated surface is rapid. The formation of a continuous Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} product layer at the interface leads to an equilibrium contact angle of 56 ± 1° at 1173 K. In comparison, the interfacial reaction on the C-terminated surface is sluggish. The interface is only partially covered by discrete Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} platelets even after dwelling at 1173 K for 2 h. The final wettability, however, is much better (θ{sub F} = 41 ± 1°) than that of the Si-terminated surface which was covered by a dense Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} layer, suggesting that the formation of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} should not always contribute to the wetting in the Al/SiC system. A plausible explanation is that the clean (i.e., deoxidized) C-terminated surface should be well wetted by molten Al in nature, owing to the strong chemical interactions between liquid Al and the surface atoms of the C-terminated SiC. It is likely that the presence of the oxide film at the surface of the molten Al drop or the SiC substrate and the rapid formation of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}, which prevent the establishment of a real Al/SiC interface, conceal the intrinsic wettability of this system.

  6. Temporal distribution and behaviour of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus of the Kani Tribe settlements in the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, R; Jambulingam, P; Kumar, N Pradeep; Selvakumar, M; Edwin, B; Kumar, T Dilip

    2015-08-01

    The temporal distribution of sand flies in relation to environmental factors was studied in the Kani tribe settlements located on the southernmost part of the Western Ghats, Kerala, India, between June 2012 and May 2013. This area is known for occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases. Employing hand-held aspirator, light trap and sticky-trap collection methods, a total of 7874 sand fly specimens, comprising 19 species was collected. Sergentomyia baghdadis was predominant species, followed by Phlebotomus argentipes. Sand fly abundance was significantly higher indoors (χ(2)=9241.8; p=0.0001) than outdoors. Mean density of P. argentipes in human dwellings, cattle sheds and outdoors was 7.2±2.9, 27.33±21.1 and 0.64±0.2 females/per man-hour (MHR), respectively. No sand fly species other than P. argentipes was obtained from cattle sheds. Although, sand fly populations were prevalent throughout the year, their abundance fluctuated with seasonal changes. Multiple regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that the increase in precipitation and relative humidity contributed to a significant positive association with the increase in sand fly abundance, while the increase in temperature showed no association. Fully engorged female sand flies tested for blood meal source showed multiple host-blood feeding. Analysis of resting populations of sand flies collected from human shelters indicated that the populations were found maximum on interior walls at 6-8 and >8 ft height, including ceiling during summer (F=83.7, df=6, p=0.001) and at the lower half of the wall at 0 and 0-2 ft height, during monsoon season (F=41.4, df=6, p=0.001). In cooler months, no preference to any height level (F=1.67, df=6, p=0.2) was observed. Proportion of females sand flies with Sella's classification of abdominal stages, namely full-fed, half-gravid and gravid females did not vary significantly (t=1.98, p=0.13827) indoors, confirming their endophilic behaviour. Risk of CL

  7. Effects of A Thai Traditional Music Listening Program on Acute Pain Alleviation and Early Ambulation among Patients during the First 48 hours after Open Abdominal Surgery

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    Phanicha Phosida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study the effects of listening to a Thai traditional music program on acute pain alleviation among patients during the first 48 hours after open abdominal surgery. Objective: A cross over research design in adult patients’ aged 18-60 years at Siriraj Hospital. Methods: The sample was selected by purposive sampling based on inclusion criteria and assigned into the following two groups by simple random sampling: the group receiving the Thai traditional music program (experimental group and the group receiving routine care (control group. This study employed a cross over design with 44 samples in a private surgical ward at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok. Pain was assessed before and after the intervention. Data were collected by the following three sets of instruments: 1 the demographic and treatment background form; 2 the Thai Short - Form McGill Pain Questionnaire with the vital sign form and 3 the post abdominal surgery early ambulation form. Results: The patients in the experimental group had lower mean pain descriptor scores, mean present pain intensity scores and mean Visual Analog Scale scores after the Thai traditional music program than before the intervention at 48 hours after abdominal surgery with statistical significance (t = 14.11, t = 17.41 and t = 16.47 (p < .001, respectively. When compared between groups, the patients in the experimental group had lower mean pain descriptor scores, mean present pain intensity scores and mean Visual Analog Scale scores than the control group at 48 hours with statistical significance (F = 138.71, F = 170 and F = 298.97 (p < .001, respectively. Furthermore, on the first and second postoperative days as well as the sum of both days, the experimental group was also found to have better early ambulation mean scores than the control group with statistical significance (F = 10.67, p < .002, F = 41.36, p < .001, F = 44.47, p < .001, respectively. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a Thai

  8. Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance in treatment naïve HIV-infected persons in London in 2011 to 2013

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    Katie McFaul

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previously published UK data on HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR shows that it ranges between 3 and 9.4% [1,2]. However, there are no recent data from populations where HIV transmission rates are increasing. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of TDR in untreated HIV-infected individuals attending three HIV specialist clinics under the HIV Directorate, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital and based throughout London – the Kobler Clinic, 56 Dean Street and West London Centre for Sexual Health. Methods: We included all patients with a HIV diagnosis, no history of antiretroviral therapy (ART intake, attending one of the three clinics (Kobler (K, 56 Dean Street (DS and West London (WL, between 2011 and 2013 who started antiretrovirals. Reverse transcriptase (RT and protease region sequencing was performed using Vircotype virtual phenotype resistance analysis. Drug resistance mutations were identified according to Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database (http://hivdb.stanford.edu/. Results: Among 1705 HIV-1-infected patients enrolled in the study, 1252 were males (919 were MSM, 107 were females and 346 had no gender recorded. Ethnicity was 51.1% white British/Irish/other, 6.1% African, 2.1% Caribbean, 2.8% Asian, 1.3% Indian/Pakistani/Bangladeshi, 4.2%, other, 3.2% not stated, and 29.2% unknown. 547 were from K (84.3% males, 48.3% MSM, 826 were from DS (84.3% males, 71.9% MSM, and 109 from WL (87.2% males, 56.0% MSM, 223 from other sites not specified. 77.5% (1321 of 1705 of patients had baseline viral resistance testing performed. Prevalence of primary resistance in those with a baseline viral resistance test was 13.5% overall: 19.3% in K, 14.9% in DS, and 14.7% in WL. The most common mutations detected were: NRTI: 184V, 215F, 41L; NNRTI 103N, 179D, 90I; PI 90M, 46I, and 82A. Among patients who tested with TDR, 79.1% had one single mutation, 18.7% and 2.2% exhibited dual or triple class-resistant viruses

  9. TU-A-9A-05: First Experimental Demonstration of the Anisotropic Detection Principle in X-Ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M; Bazalova, M; Fahrig, R; Xing, L [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    -ray source, which is an important step toward clinical XFCT molecular imaging. This work was supported by the NCI fellowship grant R25T-CA118681 and by the NIH (1R01-EB016777) and NIBIB (1K99-EB016059)

  10. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors in Escherichia coli from swedish dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Verdier Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Sweden, knowledge about the role of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in neonatal calf diarrhea and the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli from young calves is largely unknown. This has therapeutic concern and such knowledge is also required for prudent use of antimicrobials. Methods In a case control study Esherichia coli isolated from faecal samples from dairy calves were phenotyped by biochemical fingerprinting and analyzed for virulence genes by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Farm management data were collected and Fisher's exact test and univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Of 95 E. coli tested for antimicrobial susceptibility 61% were resistant to one or more substances and 28% were multi-resistant. The virulence gene F5 (K99 was not found in any isolate. In total, 21 out of 40 of the investigated virulence genes were not detected or rarely detected. The virulence genes espP, irp, and fyuA were more common in resistant E. coli than in fully susceptible isolates (P terZ was associated with calf diarrhea (P ≤ 0.01. The participating 85 herds had a median herd size of 80 lactating cows. Herds with calf diarrhea problems were larger (> 55 cows; P P There was no association between calf diarrhea and diversity of enteric E. coli. Conclusions Antimicrobial resistance was common in E. coli from pre-weaned dairy calves, occurring particularly in calves from herds experiencing calf diarrhea problems. The results indicate that more factors than use of antimicrobials influence the epidemiology of resistant E. coli. Enteropathogenic E. coli seems to be an uncommon cause of neonatal calf diarrhea in Swedish dairy herds. In practice, calf diarrhea should be regarded holistically in a context of infectious agents, calf immunity, management practices etc. We therefore advice against routine

  11. Investigation of disease spectrum of children psychological outpatient in general hospital during 2001-2010%综合医院儿童心理门诊2001-2010年疾病谱构成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖利军; 骆利; 张倩; 安育林; 封志纯

    2011-01-01

    [目的]分析综合医院心理科门诊儿童青少年的病种分布特征与变化趋势,为临床心理工作提供参考依据.[方法]选取2001-2010年间某综合医院儿童青少年心理门诊首诊资料完整者共1666例,对年度病例数、年龄、性别等一般资料进行统计分析,以国际疾病分类标准ICD-10进行诊断分类,并列出各类别中前5位单病种及其构成比.[结果]精神类疾病前5位分别是F32(抑郁发作)170例(占本类病例数17.7,占总病例数10.2%,下同)、F98(通常起病于童年和少年期的其它行为与情绪障碍)123例(12.8%,7.4%)、F31(双相情感障碍)116例(10.8%,7.0%)、F41(其它焦虑障碍)104例(10.8%,6.2%)、F20(精神分裂症)100例(10.4%,6.0%);心理问题前5位依次为抑郁情绪133例(18.9%,8.0%)、焦虑情绪112例(15.9%,6.7%)、家庭关系不良87例(12.4%,5.2%)、厌学81例(11.5%,4.9%)、网络成瘾75例(10.7%,4.5%).[结论]心理门诊量呈上升趋势,16~18岁是重点人群.抑郁、焦虑仍是防治重点,家庭问题解决是减少儿童青少年心理行为问题发生率的有效路径.%[Objective] To investigate the features of disease spectrum of children and juvenile psychological outpatient in general hospital, and to supply important theory basis of mental health work. [Methods] General information of 1 666 first-visit case files in Bayi Children's Hospital during 2001-2010 were statistically analyzed in terms of annual distribution tendency of case number, patients' age and sex. Disease-type was classified according to The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision(ICD-10) based on the first diagnose, and the top 5 mono disease and proportions were screen out from two categories. [ Results] 170 cases( 17.7 % of the classificatory cases, 10. 2% of total cases, the same below)of F32(depressive episode), 123 cases(12.8% ,7.4%)of F98(behavioral and emotional disorders with onset usually

  12. Zinc influences on brain development, pituitary an thyroidfunction iniodine-deficient pregnant and neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoxia Yang; Jianchao Bian; Xin Wang; Haiming Wang; Yongping Liu; Shuzhen Wang; Zhichun Mu; Xinluan Li

    2008-01-01

    experimental study of neonatal rats, the animals normally gave birth at day 21. At day 45 after birth of the neonatal rats, thyroid and pituitary gland weights were measured, and protein, DNA, and RNA concentrations were measured. RESULTS: Pregnant rats in the iodine group exhibited decreased urine iodine and body mass (F= 7.37, P and FT (F = 7.01, 29.32, P and FT3 (F = 41.20, 5.94, P < 0.01 ). Gonadotrupic and sexual liorrnones were abnormal. The pregnant rats displayed decreased weight gain, and the rates of malformation, dead, and absorbed fetuses were increased. Compared with the control group, the neonatal rats with iodine deficiency exhibited lower brain weights (P < 0.01 ). Brain protein, DNA, and RNA, concentrations were decreased, with a rate of RNA/DNA (F = 5.70, 55.86, 25.65, 5.44, P < 0.01 ). Body mass was gradually increased (F= 6.74, P< 0.01), and the thyroid glands were enlarged (F= 50.01, 76.13, P< 0.01). Following Zn administration, thyroid gland weight was decreased in pregnant rats (P < 0.01 ). Thyroid hormone, gonadotropic hormones, and sexual hormones were restored to some degree. Fetal weight was increased, and the rates of malformation, dead, and absorbed fetuses were decreased. At the same time, neonatal rats gained body weight, displayed decreased thyroid gland weight, as well as increased protein, DNA, and RNA concentrations in the brain. The ratio of RNA/DNA and protein/DNA increased following Zn administration (P < 0.01 ). CONCLUSION: Zn supplementation may decrease the degree of goiter, ameliorate thyroid hormone disorder, as well as gonadotropic and sexual hormone disorders, and increase protein, DNA, and RNA content. Zn supplementation antagonized reproductive abnormalities in pregnant rats, decreased fetal growth,

  13. [Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging investigation in the central auditory pathway of the cat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Zeng, R; Wang, X X; Xian, J F

    2016-04-19

    To compare enhancement of the central auditory pathway in cats receiving auditory stimulation between manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) with intraperitoneal manganese injection route and MEMRI with intratympanic manganese injection route, and investigate the optimal method for displaying enhancement of the central auditory pathway. Twenty-seven normal hearing adult cats were randomly divided into three groups, receiving intraperitoneal manganese injection, left intratympanic manganese injection or left intratympanic gadolinium injection respectively.All cats received white noise stimulation of 80 dB in twenty-four hours after injection.Three dimensionally coronal T1-weighted imaging of the cat brain was obtained with an animal dedicated MRI scanner.The signal noise ratios (SNRs) of bilateral cochlear nuclei (CN), dorsal nuclei of the trapezoid bodies (DNTB), caudal colliculi (CC) and auditory cortices (AC) were measured on reconstructed images and compared. Obvious increased SNRs on both sides were shown in intraperitoneal mangasese injection group while left predilection was shown in intratympanic manganese injection group: left CN 45.7±6.0, 37.4±11.9, 23.9±2.7, F=17.694, P=0.000; left DNTB 50.5±11.2, 37.1±11.2, 27.6±7.3, F=11.781, P=0.000; left CC 37.6±3.9, 22.6±3.1, 17.9±0.7, F=111.898, P=0.000; left AC 27.7±2.5, 17.3±2.3, 14.5±1.0, F=105.132, P=0.000; right CN 42.7±8.3, 23.9±3.0, 22.7±2.1, F=41.492, P=0.000; right DNTB 44.1±8.3, 21.9±3.0, 23.9±4.0, F=27.862, P=0.000; right CC 38.0±4.0, 21.9±3.0, 17.6±0.9, F=120.032, P=0.000; right AC 26.7±3.4, 17.1±2.9, 14.9±1.3, F=64.587, P=0.000.Compared with the left intratympanic gadolinium injection group, the intraperitoneal manganese injection group showed higher SNRs in bilateral CN and CC (Pmanganese injection group showed higher SNRs in left CN, AC and bilateral CC.The SNRs of right CN, bilateral DNTB, CC and AC were significantly higher in the intraperitoneal manganese

  14. Identificación de las variables de influencia en los tiempos de espera en atención especializada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cano J.G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar, mediante análisis de regresión múltiple, las variables de influencia en el tiempo de acceso a atención especializada (listas de espera, y analizar las zonas de salud con tiempo de acceso elevado, en función de las mencionadas variables. Diseño: Estudio descriptivo transversal, retrospectivo, del tiempo de acceso a atención especializada, durante los años 1997 y 1998. Emplazamiento: Área 20 de la Conselleria de Sanitat de la Comunidad Valenciana; 12 zonas de salud; 204.424 habitantes. Intervenciones: Se recogen variables de demanda (tipo de municipio, envejecimiento e índices de dependencia poblacional, porcentaje de pensionistas, de oferta (edad, sexo, formación y situación laboral del médico, tamaño del cupo y de consumo (porcentaje de derivación a especializada por mil habitantes, tiempo medio de acceso a especializada (en días naturales por zona y año, frecuentación y presión asistencial. Se construye un modelo de regresión múltiple por eliminación (hacia atrás, tomando como variable dependiente el tiempo medio de espera (TE y como independiente el resto. La ecuación resultante permitió calcular el TE esperado por zona de salud y la desviación de su TE real sobre el esperado. Se consideró zona con TE elevado cuando su desviación superaba la media más una desviación estándar de dicha distribución. Resultados: El tiempo de espera medio para acceder a especializada fue de 37 días en 1997 y 34 días en 1998. Existe una correlación significativa (p < 0,005 entre el TE y el porcentaje de población menor de 14 años (r = -0,693, el porcentaje de población entre 14 y 65 años (r = 0,517, la frecuentación (r = 0,689 y la población de costa (r = 0,470. Nuestro modelo final incluyó: el porcentaje de población menor de 14 años, la frecuentación y la población de costa (F = 41,803; p < 0,000; r = 0,945; r² = 0,893. Se identificaron tres zonas (37,5% con TE elevado. Conclusiones: La

  15. Kasatkinite, Ba2Ca8B5Si8O32(OH)3 · 6H2O6, a new mineral from the Bazhenovskoe deposit, the Central Urals, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekov, I. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Filinchuk, Ya. E.; Zadov, A. E.; Kononkova, N. N.; Epanchintsev, S. G.; Kaden, P.; Kutzer, A.; Göttlicher, J.

    2013-12-01

    A new mineral, kasatkinite, Ba2Ca8B5Si8O32(OH)3 · 6H2O, has been found at the Bazhenovskoe chrysotile asbestos deposit, the Central Urals, Russia in the cavities in rhodingite as a member of two assemblages: (l) on prehnite, with pectolite, calcite, and clinochlore; and (2) on grossular, with diopside and pectolite. Kasatkinite occurs as spherulites or bunches up to 3 mm in size, occasionally combined into crusts. Its individuals are acicular to hair-like, typically split, with a polygonal cross section, up to 0.5 mm (rarely, to 6 mm) in length and to 20 μm in thickness. They consist of numerous misoriented needle-shaped subindividuals up to several dozen μm long and no more than 1 μm thick. Kasatkinite individuals are transparent and colorless; its aggregates are snow white. The luster is vitreous or silky. No cleavage was observed; the fracture is uneven or splintery for aggregates. Individuals are flexible and elastic. The Mohs' hardness is 4-4.5. D meas = 2.95(5), D calc = 2.89 g/cm3. Kasatkinite is optically biaxial (+), α = 1.600(5), β = 1.603(2), γ = 1.626(2), 2 V meas = 30(20)°, 2 V calc = 40°. The IR spectrum is given. The 11B MAS NMR spectrum shows the presence of BO4 in the absence of BO3 groups. The chemical composition of kasatkinite (wt %; electron microprobe, H2O by gas chromatography) is as follows: 0.23 Na2O, 0.57 K2O, 28.94 CaO, 16.79 BaO, 11.57 B2O3, 0.28 Al2O3, 31.63 SiO2, 0.05 F, 9.05 H2O, -0.02 -O=F2; the total is 99.09. The empirical formula (calculated on the basis of O + F = 41 apfu, taking into account the TGA data) is: Na0.11K0.18Ba1.66Ca7.84B5.05Al0.08Si8.00O31.80(OH)3.06F0.04 · 6.10H2O. Kasatkinite is monoclinic, space group P21/ c, P2/ c, or Pc; the unit-cell dimensions are a = 5.745(3), b = 7.238(2), c = 20.79 (1) Å, β = 90.82(5)°, V = 864(1) Å3, Z = 1. The strongest reflections ( d Å- I[ hkl]) in the X-ray powder diffractions pattern are: 5.89-24[012], 3.48-2.1[006], 3.36-24[114]; 3.009-100[, 121, ], 2

  16. Association between Global Assessment of Functioning scores and indicators of functioning, severity, and prognosis in first-time schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köhler O

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ole Köhler,1 Henriette Thisted Horsdal,2 Lone Baandrup,3,4 Ole Mors,1,5 Christiane Gasse2 1Psychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov, 2National Centre for Register‑based Research, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 3Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, Mental Health Center Glostrup, 4Mental Health Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 5iPSYCH, The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Background: Assessment of psychosocial functioning in people with schizophrenia is important. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF-F scale represents a widely applied, easy, and quick tool, but its validity and reliability have been debated. The aim was to investigate whether GAF-F scores are associated with other indicators of functioning, severity, and hospitalization.Methods: A Danish population-based cohort study of adults (≥18 years with a recorded GAF-F score at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis during 2004–2011 was performed. The internal validity of GAF-F was evaluated by assessing its association with other baseline measures of functioning and illness severity. Risk of schizophrenia hospitalization within 2 years was evaluated using Cox regression stratified by sex and adjusted for age, year of diagnosis, and inpatient/outpatient status at diagnosis.Results: We identified 2,837 cases of schizophrenia with a GAF-F score at first-time diagnosis (73.0% inpatients; 62.6% males. GAF-F was associated with several baseline measures of functioning and illness severity, such as female sex, being in work, and a longer baseline hospitalization. Lower GAF-F scores were associated with higher hospitalization risk among males (reference GAF-F 61–100: GAF-F 51–60: hazard rate ratio (HRR =1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.89–1.75; GAF-F 41–50: HRR =1.31 (95% CI =0.97–1.77; GAF-F 31–40: HRR =1.36 (95% CI =1.01–1

  17. 5种商品化解脲脲原体培养基质量评价研究%Evaluation research of five kinds of commercially available culture media for detecting ureaplasma urealyticum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭飞; 陆春; 赖维; 陈传杰; 朱国兴; 冯佩英; 马寒

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the quality of commercially available culture medium for detecting ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu). Methods The sensitivities of 5 culture media (M,K,L,H and A) with standard strains Uu4 and Uul4 were compared, and the comparison result of solid culture media was performed as the gold standard. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the 5 culture media with the gold standard were compared by clinical bacterium Un so as to determine the consistency. Results According to the comparison results,the sensitivities of culture media M and K were the highest. The sensitivities of culture media M, K,L and H were >90.00% ,while the specificities of culture media M, K and A were 100. 00%. The positive predictive values of culture media M, K and A were 100. 00%. The negative predictive values of culture media M and K (99.24%) were the highest. The comparison of culture medium M,K,L and H with the solid culture media had a satisfactory consistency,while culture medium A had a comparative satisfactory consistency. Conclusions The qualities of culture media M and K are good. Since the culture media designed for Uu detection in the market are largely different in quality, the Uu culture media should be re-evaluated before being applied for clinical diagnosis.%目的 评价商品化解脲脲原体(Uu)培养基的质量.方法 应用标准菌株Uu4和Uu14比较5种培养基(M、K、L、H、A)的敏感性;以固体培养基的结果 作为金标准,应用Uu临床菌株比较5种培养基的敏感性、特异性、阳性预测值、阴性预测值及和金标准的一致度.结果 M和K培养基敏感性最高;M、K、L和H培养基的敏感性>90.00%;M、K、A培养基特异性达到100.00%;M、K、A阳性预测值为100.00%,而M、K阴性预测值最高,均为99.24%;M、K、L和H培养基与固体培养基一致度满意,而A培养基一致度仅相对满意.结论 M、K培养基质量最佳.市场上检

  18. 急性肺损伤大鼠肺组织神经导向因子Slit2及Robo4的表达%Expression of axon guidance cues Slit2 and Robo4 in lung tissue of rat with acute lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霖; 卿国忠; 杨靖; 唐卓; 彭正良; 张克娜; 丁灿

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察神经导向因子Slit2及Robo4在肺组织的表达并探讨二者在ALI发病中的作用.方法 在南华大学实验动物部将48只SD雄性大鼠随机(随机数字法)分为对照组(n=24)与ALI组(n=24).ALI组采用盲肠结扎穿孔术复制急性肺损伤模型,对照组只开腹关腹,不行盲肠结扎穿孔术,以血清炎症因子浓度、动脉血氧分压(PaO2)、组织水肿、肺部特征性病理改变作为ALI模型成功主要指标.两组又分为术后12、24、48 h3个组,每组8只.取大鼠动脉血测定PaO2;取肺组织测定湿/干质量(W/D)比值,并观察肺毛细血管通透性及组织病理学改变;ELISA检测血清TNF-α水平;RT-PCR测定肺组织Slit2及Robo4mRNA表达,免疫组织化学法观察蛋白表达情况.采用SPSS13.0统计软件行单因素方差分析,P<0.05为差异具有统计学意义.结果 与对照组比较,ALI组致伤后各时间点PaO2均降低,肺W/D比值、肺毛细血管通透性、血清TNF-α水平均升高(P<0.05),病理观察显示肺组织受损;RT-PCR结果显示ALI组12 h,24h,48 h肺组织Slit2mRNA表达量较同期对照组下降[(0.56±0.13) vs.(0.87 ±0.05),F=41.39,P<0.05,(0.42±0.10)vs.(0.85±0.07),F=93.54P<0.05,(0.26±0.08)vs.(0.89±0.09),F=227.05,P<0.05];ALI组肺组织Robo4 mRNA表达量与同期对照组比较,差异无统计学意义[(0.86±0.07) vs.(0.83±0.05),F=0.695,P>0.05,(0.82±0.05) vs.(0.89±0.08),F=2.061,P>0.05,(0.85 ±0.08) vs.(0.86±0.05),F=0.035,P>0.05];免疫组织化学研究显示Slit2主要表达于内皮细胞膜上,亦可表达于肺上皮细胞胞核及胞浆,Robo4则只表达于内皮细胞膜上;ALI组3个时间点肺组织Slit2蛋白表达量较同期对照组下降[(0.37±0.05) vs.(0.45±0.07),F=6.82,P<0.05,(0.32±0.06) vs.(0.47±0.09),F=23.54,P<0.05,(0.28±0.07) vs.(0.46±0.06),F=28.01,P<0.05];与对照组比较,ALI组肺组织Robo4蛋白表达量差异无统计学意义[(0.53±0.04)vs.(0.52±0.05),F=0.155,P>0.05,(0.53 ±0

  19. الفائق التوصيل الكهربائي SmBa2Cu3O7-δ على خواص المركب Eu و Sn و Zn - تأثير التعويض الجزئي للعناصر

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    أحمد محمد كاظم

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available تمت دراسة تأثير التعويض الجزئي لعناصرEu  و Sr و Zn في كل من العناصرSm و Ba و Cu  على الترتيب على خواص المركب SmBa2Cu3O7-d ذي التوصيلية الكهربائيةالفائقة في درجات الحرارة العالية. أظهرت النتائج أن التعويض الجزئي لعنصر اليوروبيوم Eu في عنصر السماريوم Sm  أبقى المركب محافظا على هيئة تركيب المعيني القائم بينما أدى إلى زيادة درجة الحرارة الحرجة من K 88 الى 107 K عندما تزداد قيمة التعويض من 0 الى 0.2. أما التعويض الجزئي لعنصر السترونتيوم Sr في عنصر الباريومBa بنسب  0 و 0.1 و 0.2 و 0.3 و 0.4  و 0.5 قد اظهر تشوها في التركيب البلوري و انخفاض في قيم حجم وحدة الخلية و درجة الحرارة الحرجة. أما التعويض الجزئي لعنصر الخارصين Zn في عنصر النحاسCu  بنسبة 0.3 قد أدى إلى تشوه كبير جدا في التركيب البلوري و فقدان لخاصية التوصيل الكهربائي الفائق.

  20. Mid-long term efficacy of osteo-periosteal turned over orthotopically for chondromalacia patellae%骨-骨膜原位翻转修复髌软骨软化症的中长期疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲海; 张霄雁; 张飞; 武宇赤; 郭永强

    2011-01-01

    70(60.0±7.0)分,术后3年55~82(64.1±5.9)分,术后5年60~90(70.1±3.2)分,术后7年50~85(63.1±4.1)分,术后9年50~75(57.3±2.9)分.Lysholm膝关节功能评分:术前34~48(37.2±1.5)分,术后1年为45~65 (54.0±5.5)分,术后3年55~70(60.1±3.7)分,术后5年55~80(67.1±2.4)分,术后7年55~70(62.5±1.8)分,术后9年50~70(58.5±3.1)分.两种评分术前与术后各随访时间点差异均有统计学意义(HSS评分:F=32.816,P=0.000;Lysholm评分:F=41.793,P=0.000).骨-骨膜移植组织与缺损周围组织完全愈合,功能恢复良好.1例患者因膝内翻畸形于术后13年行人工膝关节置换术,术中见髌骨软骨表面光滑,白色且质韧,修复区域与周围软骨无界限.结论 原位翻转的骨-骨膜具有成软骨能力,修复手术后髌骨关节面恢复良好,疗效满意.此原位翻转术仅可以修复髌骨关节软骨,对膝关节畸形不具有矫形作用.

  1. Risk factors for severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy%不同病程糖尿病增殖型视网膜病变危险因素对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王月欣; 陈松; 段红涛; 孔佳慧; 董蒙; 李泽东; 王昀

    2015-01-01

    眼部生物学结构.方法 临床病例对照研究.回顾性分析2010年3月至2014年5月在天津市眼科医院就诊的186例严重PDR患者住院资料,按DM病程分为两组,A组:DM病程<10年,B组:DM病程≥10年,采用t检验、x2检验统计学方法分析两组患者全身资料、实验室检查结果之间的差异;同时以100例无明显DR的2型DM患者(C组)的临床资料进行对比,采用单因素方差分析PDR患者眼轴、前房深度、晶状体厚度的变化.将P<0.05的指标纳入多因素Logistic回归分析.结果 186例PDR患者中,男性96例(51.6%),女性90例(48.4%);A组61例(32.8%),B组125例(67.2%),两组患者全身因素比较年龄、DM发病年龄、空腹血糖、餐后2h血糖、血糖波动值、胰岛素使用差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);A组患者收缩压、舒张压均较B组患者偏高,但差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).眼部各变量因素分析显示,A组、B组患者与C组患者眼轴长度,前房深度,晶状体厚度差异均有统计学意义(F =41.797,7.449,19.271,P<0.05).PDR患者组间比较,A组患者眼轴明显短于B组患者眼轴,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).多因素Logistic回归分析显示DM发病年龄、短眼轴是10年内2型DM患者并发严重PDR的独立危险因素(OR =0.366,2.909,P<0.05).结论 不同病程2型DM患者并发严重PDR的DM发病年龄和眼轴存在差异,DM发病年龄晚、眼轴较短是2型DM患者10年内并发严重PDR中的独立危险因素.

  2. Identificación de las variables de influencia en los tiempos de espera en atención especializada Identification of variables influencing waiting times for specialized care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Cano

    2003-10-01

    consisting of 12 health districts with 204,424 inhabitants. Interventions: The following variables were gathered: variables influencing demand: type of municipality, aging and indexes of dependent population, and percentage of pensioners; variables influencing supply: age, sex, training and professional stability of the doctor, and size of the patient list; variables influencing resource consumption: percentage of referrals to specialized care per thousand inhabitants, mean WT for access to specialized care (in natural days by district and year, number of consultations, and workload. A multiple regression model was constructed through (backward elimination, taking the mean WT as the dependent variable and the remaining variables as independent variables. The resulting equation enabled calculation of the «expected» WT per health district and the deviation of the real WT from the expected WT. A district was considered to have a high WT when its deviation was above the mean plus one standard deviation of the distribution. Results: The mean WT for access to specialized care was 37 days in 1997 and 34 days in 1998. A significant correlation (p < 0.005 was found between WT and the percentage of the population aged less than 14 years (r = -0.693, the percentage of the population aged between 14-65 years (r = 0.517, the number of consultations (r = 0.689, and coastal population (r = 0.470. Our final model included: percentage of the population aged less than 14 years, number of consultations, and coastal population (F = 41.803; p < 0.000; r = 0.945; r² = 0.893. Three districts (37.5% with high WTs were identified. Conclusions: The number of consultations, the percentage of the pediatric population, and proximity to the coast were closely correlated with WT for specialized care, with a consequent influence on waiting lists.

  3. Neuroprotective effects of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway on intracra-nial hemorrhage in rats%Wnt/β-catenin通路对大鼠脑出血的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李治华; 陈曦; 臧卫东; 郭付有

    2015-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the neuroprotective effect of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway on intracranial hemor-rhage(ICH) in rats.Methods:A total of 96 adult SD rats were allocated into sham-operation group,ICH group,ICH+ve-hicle-treated group,and ICH+siDkk-1 group.The mRNA expressions of Wnt-1 and GSK-3βwere assessed by Real-time PCR at 24 and 72 h after ICH respectively .The expression of β-catenin was evaluated by Western blot analysis .Behavioral test was performed by the vibrissae-elicited forelimb-placing test in different groups .Results:There were remarkably down-regulated expression of Wnt-1 mRNA following ICH at 24 and 72 h, and the mRNA level of Wnt-1 was elevated after siDkk-1 administration(F=9.040 and 26.400, P<0.05).Increased GSK-3βmRNA expression was observed at 24 and 72 h af-ter ICH, and the mRNA level of GSK-3βwere reversed after siDkk-1 administration ( F =41.100 and 17.800, P <0.001).Western blot analysis showed that β-catenin protein was increased at 24 h and 72 h after ICH respectively, and the level of β-catenin was further up-regulated after being treated by siDkk-1 compared with ICH +vehicle-treated group (F=15.100 and 14.000, P<0.05).Meanwhile, decreased behavior scores regarding forelimb use asymmetry was found in the ICH group .However , the behavior scores regarding forelimb use asymmetry was improved after siDkk-1 administra-tion than those in the ICH+vehicle-treated group at 24 and 72 h after ICH(F=2 450.000 and 2 230.000, P<0.001). Conclusion:Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has neuroprotective effects against secondary brain injury following ICH , which may be associated with activation of Wnt-1, inhibition of GSK-3βresulting in β-catenin aggregation in the cyto-plasm,subsequent nuclear translocation and the downstream neuroprotective gene transcription .%目的:探讨Wnt/β-连环蛋白(β-catenin )通路对大鼠脑出血的保护作用机制。方法:96只成年SD雄性大鼠随机分为假手术组、脑出血组、

  4. Analysis of the factors affecting the choice of profession of the first and last students at nursing department in school of healthSağlık yüksekokulu hemşirelik bölümü ilk ve son sınıf öğrencilerinin meslek seçimini etkileyen faktörlerin incelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Ergün

    2016-03-01

    çimini etkileyen faktörlerini belirlemek amacıyla tanımlayıcı olarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma bir üniversitenin sağlık yüksekokulu hemşirelik bölümü ilk ve son sınıf öğrencilerin katılımı ile mart ayında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın evrenini sağlık yüksekokulu hemşirelik bölümü ilk ve son sınıf öğrencileri oluşturmuştur (140 birinci sınıf; 87 son sınıf olmak üzere, toplam 227 öğrenci. Örneklem evren olarak belirlenmiştir. Araştırmanın verileri orijinali Zysberg ve Berry tarafından geliştirilen, Türkçe geçerlilik ve güvenilirliği Önler ve Saraçoğlu (2010 tarafından yapılan ‘‘Hemşirelikte Meslek Seçim Ölçeği (HMSÖ’’ ve araştırmacılar tarafından literatür taraması yapılarak oluşturulan sosyodemografik özellikleri belirlemeye yönelik anket soruları (13 soru aracılığıyla toplanmıştır. Veriler, SPSS 15 paket programında yüzdelik, frekans ve ortalama ile analiz edilmiştir. Araştırmaya katılan öğrencilerin 132'si kız, 58'i erkektir. Öğrencilerin %58.4'ü birinci sınıf, %41.6'sı dördüncü sınıftır. Mesleğin tercih edilmesinde “Her zaman insanlara yardım etmek istemişimdir.” maddesinin puan ortalamaları birinci sınıflarda (x=87.928 dördüncü sınıflarda ise (x=80.886 olarak bulunmuştur. Hemşirelikte işsiz kalınmayacağını düşünüyorum.” Maddesi her iki grupta yüksek oranda puan almıştır (birinci sınıflar; x=82.883, dördüncü sınıflar. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; örneklem grubunun hemşirelik mesleğini tercih etme nedenleri mezuniyet sonrası işsiz kalınmayacağı düşüncesi ve insanlara yardım etme fırsatı sağlayan bir meslek olması olarak bulunmuştur.

  5. Distribution of T helper 17 and regulatory T cells in the different TNM stages of non-small cell lung cancer and the relationship between the level of T helper 17 and regulatory T cells and the progress of non-small cell lung cancer%辅助性T细胞17和调节性T细胞在非小细胞型肺癌中的分布及其与肿瘤进展的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦伟; 王志斌

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the percentage of T helper 17(Th17)and regulatory T cells(Treg)in the different TNM stages of non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC),and to research the relationship between the level of Th17 and Treg cells and the development of NSCLC.Methods Th17 and Treg cells in blood samples from 95 patients with NSCLC and 20 normal controls were evaluated with flow cytometry(FCM).Statistical analysis was performed using the software SPSS 17.0.Results Th17 and Treg cells in 95 patients with NSCLC were increased as compared with control group[(4.496±0.181)%,(3.187±0.053)%,P<0.01;(8.001±0.240)%,(4.607±0.040)%,P<0.01;1.781±0.051,1.446±0.031,P<0.01].Thl7 and Treg cells displayed a positive linear correlation(r=0.621,P<0.01).The percentage of Th17 and Treg cells had a positive correlation with the TNM stage[(4.138±0.065)%,(4.504±0.162)%,(4.575±0.022)%,(4.625±0.018)%,F=41.896,P<0.01;(7.625±0.031)%,(7.892±0.050)%,(8.161±0.063)%,(8.423±0.032)%,F=704.212,P<0.01].The percentage of Th17 and Treg cells in NSCLC with advanced stage was significantly higher than that in early stage(LSD,P<0.01;Bonferroni,P<0.01).Conclusion The percentage of Th 17 and Treg cells was in a positive linear correlation,and had a positive correlation with the TNM stage.%目的 观察辅助性T细胞17(Th17)和调节性T细胞(Treg)在不同分期非小细胞型肺癌(NSCLC)患者中的表达,探讨Th17细胞和Treg细胞与非小细胞肺癌进展的关系.方法 采用流式细胞仪分析的方法分别测定95例NSCLC患者及20例健康对照组外周血中Th17细胞和Treg细胞的比例分布,应用SPSS 17.0统计学软件分析.结果95例NSCLC患者外周血标本中Th17、Treg数量及Treg/Th17明显高于正常对照组[(4.496±0.181)%,(3.187土0.053)%,P<0.01;(8.001±0.240)%,(4.607土0.040)%,P<0.01;1.781±0.051,1.446±0.031,P<0.01],其差异有统计学意义;Th17细胞与Treg细胞呈正向直线关系(r=0.621,P<0

  6. [Liquid-based cervical cytology ThinPrep screening in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Mihály; Séberné Éll, Mária; Bóka, Melinda; Veleczki, Zsuzsanna; Nyári, Tibor; Pete, Imre; Szentirmay, Zoltán

    2014-05-04

    Bevezetés: A hagyományos Papanicolaou-cervixkenetet világszerte az úgynevezett folyadékalapú (liquid-based) citológia váltotta fel. Egyértelműen bizonyított, hogy a folyadékalapú citológia alternatív módszer. Célkitűzés: A dolgozat célja a folyadékalapú méhnyakrákszűrés magyarországi eredményeinek, diagnózisainak követése, citohisztológiai összehasonlítása, illetve minőségbiztosítása volt. Módszer: 4573 folyadékalapú citológiai cervixkenetet a Bethesda (2001) beosztás szerint klasszifikálták. A humán papillomavírus tipizálását valós idejű polimeráz láncreakció módszerével határozták meg. Eredmények: A diagnózisok megoszlása: negatív 2323 (50,8%), egyéb, nem neoplasticus 2017 (44,1%) és kóros, neoplasticus 233 (5,1%). A nem értékelhető kenetek száma 43 (0,9%) volt, mérsékelt fokú intraepithelialis laesiót 87 esetben (1,9%), kifejezett fokú intraepithelialis laesiót 24 esetben (0,5%), carcinomát 23 esetben (0,5%) észleltek. A citológiai és hisztológiai leletek közötti korreláció alapján a módszer szenzitivitása 93,2%, specificitása 100%, pozitív prediktív értéke 100%-nak bizonyult. A folyadékalapú citológiai módszerrel a mérsékelt és kifejezett fokú intraepithelialis laesiót mutató kenetek aránya az előző évek azonos időtartamához viszonyítva 0,82%-ról 2,51%-ra emelkedett. Humán papillomavírus-DNS-meghatározást 81 esetben végeztek (pozitív prediktív érték 99%). Az 51 kóros hámelváltozás kapcsán 50 (98%) esetben igazolódott humán papillomavírus-fertőzés, ezek közül 20 (24,7%) alacsony, 46 (56,8%) pedig magas kockázatú volt. Következtetések: A szerzők megállapították, hogy tanulmányukban a folyadékalapú cervixcitológiai vizsgálat minőségbiztosítási eredményei megfelelnek a nemzetközileg elvártaknak. A folyadékalapú vizsgálat alternatív cervixcitológiai módszer, és hatékonysága, valamennyi paramétert tekintve

  7. 酵母β-葡聚糖和杆菌肽锌对早期断奶犊牛生长性能和胃肠道发育的影响%Effects of Yeast β-glucan and Bacitracin Zinc on Growth Performance and Gastrointestinal Development of Early-weaned Calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周怿; 刁其玉; 屠焰; 云强

    2011-01-01

    neonatal calves were randomly allotted to 4 groups with 5 replicates per group and 1 calf per replicate. The control group (group A) was fed with a basal diet, groups B and C were fed with the basal diet supplemented with 75 mg/kg yeastβ-glucan, and group D was fed with the basal diet supplemented with 60 mg/kg bacitracin zinc. The experiment lasted for 2.8 days. Feed intake (FI) was recorded every day, body weight was measured every two weeks and average daily gain (ADG) was calculated every two weeks. On day 21, the calves of groups A, B and D were challenged orally with Escherichia coli culture medium ( O141: K99 ),while group C was fed normally. The rectal content was collected after the challenge and diluted for microorganism counts. On day 28, calves were slaughtered and tissues from saccus cranialis, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were obtained and used in tissue slice. The results showed as follows: 1 ) compared with group A, the ADG of calves in group B was increased by 26.17% and 24.93% in the two phases before the Escherichia coli challenge ( P < 0.05 ), and the ADG of calves in groups B and D were increased by 30.38% and 30.81% after the Escherichia coli challenge ( P < 0.05 ); the F/G in groups B and D were significantly lower than that in group A ( P < 0.05). 2 ) Compared with group A, the amounts of Escherichia coli in rectum at 12 h and 24 h in groups B and D were significantly decreased ( P < 0.05 ), the amount of Lactobacillus in rectum in group D was significantly decreased ( P < 0.05 ), and the amount of Lactobacillus in rectum in group C was significantly higher than that in group A. 3 ) Compared with group A, the rumen papilla height and width of groups B and D were significantly increased ( P < 0.05 ). The crypt depth of duodenum in groups C and D were significantly lower than that in groups A and D ( P < 0.05 ). The villus height/crypt depth ( V/C ) in groups B, C and D were higher than that in group A (P < 0.05). In conclusion

  8. Clinical effect of continuous intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside combined with dopamine in the treatment of the elderly patients with refractory heart failure%硝普钠联合多巴胺持续静脉泵入治疗老年顽固性心力衰竭临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国华; 陈位成

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect and safety of continuous intravenous pumping of sodium nitroprusside and dopamine on treating elderly patients with refractory heart failure. Methods Two hundred and seventy elderly patients with refractory heart failure were selected as our subjects and they were randomly divided into sodium nitroprusside group,dopamine group and the combined group( 90 cases for each group). All the patients were given the corresponding symptomatic treatment,including oxygen,diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors,digitalis,aldosterone receptor antagonist,etc. Patients in sodium nitroprusside group,dopamine group were treated sodium nitroprusside or dopamine respectively,and patients in combined group were given both of sodium nitroprusside and dopamine by continuous intravenous pumping. Serum brain natriuretic peptide( BNP ),left ventricular ejection fraction( LVEF ),LV end systolic volume index(LVESVI),left ventricular end diastolic volume index(LVEDVI),left ventricular diastolic early, late filling velocity ratio( E/A ),mean arterial pressure and heart rate( HR ) level were measured or recorded. Results The levels of BNP,LVEF,LVESV,LVEDV,E/A,mean arterial pressure and the level of HR among three group before treatment were no significant differences( F =4. 000,1. 434,0. 503,3. 622,3. 589, 4. 135,2. 752;P﹥0. 05). After treatment,the levels of BNP,LVEF,LVESV,LVEDV and HR in combined group were(201. 6 ±66. 8)pg/L,(45 ± 4)%,(29. 8 ± 4. 8)ml/m2,(45. 1 ± 7. 3)ml/m2,(73. 2 ± 11. 2)times/min,in sodium nitroprusside group were( 298. 6 ± 75. 3 ) pg/L,( 37 ± 4 )%,( 35. 5 ± 4. 6 ) ml/m2 ,( 51. 8 ±7.5)ml/m2,(92.9 ±11.5)times/min,and in dopamine group were(293.7 ±78.2)pg/L,(37 ±3)%, (35. 6 ± 5. 8)ml/m2,(52. 1 ± 7. 3)ml/m2,(93. 6 ± 12. 3)times/min respectively,and the differences were significant(F=41. 683,129. 400,43. 600,28. 800,328. 600;P﹤0. 05). The total effective rate in combination group was 97. 8%( 88

  9. A dose-effect relationship study of gouty arthritis chicken model built by high-protein diet%基于高蛋白饮食建立鸡痛风性关节炎模型的量效关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐新宇; 向黎黎; 熊辉; 李腾龙; 周彪; 郭玉星; 陆小龙

    2015-01-01

    after the beginning of modeling(F=115.172,P=0.162;F=124.445,P=0.014;F=121.237,P=0.002;F=119.881,P=0.002).The ankle circumference of control group were less than that of model group 1,model group 2 and model group 3 at 7,14 and 21 days after the beginning of modeling(P=0.033,P=0.024,P=0.022;P=0.012,P=0.010,P=0.011;P=0.001,P=0.000,P=0.001);and the ankle circumference of model group 2 were greater than that of model group 1 and model group 3(P=0.032,P=0.027;P=0.012,P=0.011;P=0.001,P=0.001);there was no statistical difference in ankle circumference between model group 1 and model group 3(P=0.141,P=0.126,P=0.134).There was statistical difference in blood uric acid levels be-tween the 4 groups except at one day after the beginning of modeling(F=35.361,P=0.273;F=52.371,P=0.021;F=56.734,P=0.004;F=48.336,P=0.003).The blood uric acid levels of control group were lower than that of model group 1,model group 2 and model group 3 at 7,14 and 21 days after the beginning of modeling(P=0.021,P=0.022,P=0.019;P=0.011,P=0.004,P=0.010;P=0.003,P=0.001,P=0.003);and the blood uric acid levels of model group 2 were higher than that of model group 1 and model group 3 (P=0.031,P=0.033;P=0.011,P=0.011;P=0.002,P=0.001);there was no statistical difference in blood uric acid levels between model group 1 and model group 3(P=0.138,P=0.220,P=0.341).There was statistical difference in the number of blood vessels in sy-novium between the 4 groups except at one day after the beginning of modeling(F=26.772,P=0.183;F=32.176,P=0.022;F=33.672,P=0.003;F=41.351,P=0.001).The number of blood vessels in synovium of control group was fewer than that of model group 1,model group 2 and model group 3 at 7,14 and 21 days after the beginning of modeling(P=0.022,P=0.022,P=0.020;P=0.016,P=0.011,P=0.014;P=0.005,P=0.001,P=0.003);and the number of blood vessels in synovium of model group 2 was more than that of model group 1 and model group 3(P=0.016,P=0.012;P=0.010,P=0.011;P=0.001,P=0.001);there was no statistical difference