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Sample records for k086 solvent wash

  1. Comparison of methanol and isopropanol as wash solvents for determination of hair cortisol concentration in grizzly bears and polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshko, Thomas; Kapronczai, Luciene; Cattet, Marc R L; Macbeth, Bryan J; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Obbard, Martyn E; Janz, David M

    2017-01-01

    Methodological differences among laboratories are recognized as significant sources of variation in quantification of hair cortisol concentration (HCC). An important step in processing hair, particularly when collected from wildlife, is the choice of solvent used to remove or "wash" external hair shaft cortisol prior to quantification of HCC. The present study systematically compared methanol and isopropanol as wash solvents for their efficiency at removing external cortisol without extracting internal hair shaft cortisol in samples collected from free-ranging grizzly bears and polar bears. Cortisol concentrations in solvents and hair were determined in each of one to eight washes of hair with each solvent independently. •There were no significant decreases in internal hair shaft cortisol among all eight washes for either solvent, although methanol removed detectable hair surface cortisol after one wash in grizzly bear hair whereas hair surface cortisol was detected in all eight isopropanol washes.•There were no significant differences in polar bear HCC washed one to eight times with either solvent, but grizzly bear HCC was significantly greater in hair washed with isopropanol compared to methanol.•There were significant differences in HCC quantified using different commercial ELISA kits commonly used for HCC determinations.

  2. Dermal versus total uptake of benzene from mineral spirits solvent during parts washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Kenneth T; Sheehan, Patrick J

    2014-07-01

    Quantitative approaches to assessing exposure to, and associated risk from, benzene in mineral spirits solvent (MSS), used widely in parts washing and degreasing operations, have focused primarily on the respiratory pathway. The dermal contribution to total benzene uptake from such operations remains uncertain because measuring in vivo experimental dermal uptake of this volatile human carcinogen is difficult. Unprotected dermal uptake involves simultaneous sustained immersion events and transient splash/wipe events, each yielding residues subject to evaporation as well as dermal uptake. A two-process dermal exposure framework to assess dermal uptake to normal and damaged skin was applied to estimate potential daily dermal benzene dose (Dskin ) to workers who used historical or current formulations of recycled MSS in manual parts washers. Measures of evaporation and absorption of MSS dermally applied to human subjects were modeled to estimate in vivo dermal uptake of benzene in MSS. Uncertainty and interindividual variability in Dskin was characterized by Monte Carlo simulation, conditioned on uncertainty and/or variability estimated for each model input. Dermal exposures are estimated to average 33% of total (inhalation + dermal) benzene parts washing dose, with approximately equal predicted portions of dermal dose due to splash/wipe and to continuous contact with MSS. The estimated median (95th percentile) dermal and total daily benzene doses from parts washing are: 0.0069 (0.024) and 0.025 (0.18) mg/day using current, and 0.027 (0.085) and 0.098 (0.69) mg/day using historical, MSS solvents, respectively. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Efficient Extraction of Astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with Polar and Non-polar Solvents after Acid Washing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Chunhua; YANG Shuzhen; LIU Xiaolu; YAN Hai

    2013-01-01

    method of extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma with various solvents after acid washing was investigated.The extraction efficiency was distinctly increased after acid washing of P.rhodozyma cells.When the concentration of HCl was 0.4 mol·L-,the highest extraction efficiency of astaxanthin was achieved which was about three times higher than the control.Acetone or benzene as single polar or non-polar solvent was the most effective solvent in our research.With a combination of isopropanol and n-hexane (volume ratio of 2 ∶ 1),the maximal extraction efficiency was achieved,approximately 60% higher than that obtained with a single solvent.The liquid-solid ratio and the extracting time were also optimized.Under the optimum extraction conditions,the extraction yield of astaxanthin exceeded 98%.

  4. Assessment and optimization of an ultrasound-assisted washing process using organic solvents for polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezama, Alberto; Flores, Alejandra; Araneda, Alberto; Barra, Ricardo; Pereira, Eduardo; Hernández, Víctor; Moya, Heriberto; Konrad, Odorico; Quiroz, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate a washing process that uses organic solutions for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil, and includes an ultrasound pre-treatment step to reduce operational times and organic solvent losses. In a preliminary trial, the suitability of 10 washing solutions of different polarities were tested, from which three n-hexane-based solutions were selected for further evaluation. A second set of experiments was designed using a three-level Taguchi L27 orthogonal array to model the desorption processes of seven different PCB congeners in terms of the variability of their PCB concentration levels, polarity of the washing solution, sonication time, the ratio washing solution/soil, number of extraction steps and total washing time. Linear models were developed for the desorption processes of all congeners. These models provide a good fit with the results obtained. Moreover, statistically significant outcomes were achieved from the analysis of variance tests carried out. It was determined that sonication time and ratio of washing solution/soil were the most influential process parameters. For this reason they were studied in a third set of experiments, constructed as a full factorial design. The process was eventually optimized, achieving desorption rates of more than 90% for all congeners, thus obtaining concentrations lower than 5 ppb in all cases. The use of an ultrasound-assisted soil washing process for PCB-contaminated soils that uses organic solvents seems therefore to be a viable option, especially with the incorporation of an extra step in the sonication process relating to temperature control, which is intended to prevent the loss of the lighter congeners.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF CAUSTIC WASH TANK AND SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLES FROM MCU FROM AUGUST TO SEPTEMBER 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2012-08-01

    During processing of Salt Batches 3 and 4 in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the decontamination efficiency for cesium declined from historical values and from expectations based on laboratory testing. This report documents efforts to analyze samples of solvent and process solutions from MCU in an attempt to understand the cause of the reduced performance and to recommend mitigations. CWT Solutions from MCU from the time period of variable decontamination factor (DF) performance which covers from April 2011 to September 2011 (during processing of Salt Batch 4) were examined for impurities using chromatography and spectroscopy. The results indicate that impurities were found to be of two types: aromatic containing impurities most likely from Modifier degradation and aliphatic type impurities most likely from Isopar{reg_sign} L and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) degradation. Caustic washing the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) solution with 1M NaOH improved its extraction ability as determined from {sup 22}Na uptake tests. Evidence from this work showed that pH variance in the aqueous solutions within the range of 1M nitric acid to 1.91M NaOH that contacted the solvent samples does not influence the analytical determination of the TOA concentration by GC-MS.

  6. Solvent

    OpenAIRE

    Hamida Y. Mostafa; Ebaa A. El-Shamy; Amal S. Farag; Nadia G. Kandile

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethylacetoacetate (EAA) and its mixtures with a co-solvent and an anti-solvent have been studied for refining of heavy wax distillate fraction to produce substantially non-carcinogenic base oil. The co-solvent and anti-solvent used are dipropylene glycol (DPG) and ethylene glycol (EG) respectively. The solubility characteristics of the main solvent and its mixed solvent systems were studied. Selection of the optimum solvent mixture and extraction variables has been studied. The effect of...

  7. Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts Prepared by Solvent-Deficient Precipitation (SDP: Effects of Washing, Promoter Addition Step, and Drying Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle M. Brunner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel, solvent-deficient precipitation (SDP method for catalyst preparation in general and for preparation of iron FT catalysts in particular is reported. Eight catalysts using a 23 factorial design of experiments to identify the key preparation variables were prepared. The catalysts were characterized by electron microprobe, N2 adsorption, TEM, XRD, and ICP. Results show that the morphology of the catalysts, i.e., surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, crystallite sizes, and promoter distribution are significantly influenced by (1 whether or not the precursor catalyst is washed, (2 the promoter addition step, and (3 the drying condition (temperature. Consequently, the activity, selectivity, and stability of the catalysts determined from fixed-bed testing are also affected by these three variables. Unwashed catalysts prepared by a one-step method and dried at 100 °C produced the most active catalysts for FT synthesis. The catalysts of this study prepared by SDP compared favorably in activity, productivity, and stability with Fe FT catalysts reported in the literature. It is believed that this facile SDP approach has promise for development of future FT catalysts, and also offers a potential alternate route for the preparation of other catalysts for various other applications.

  8. An Alternative Paper Based Tissue Washing Method for Mass Spectrometry Imaging: Localized Washing and Fragile Tissue Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amstalden van Hove, Erika R; Smith, Donald F; Fornai, Lara; Glunde, Kristine; Heeren, Ron M. A

    2011-01-01

    .... Here, we present a new surface washing procedure for mass spectrometry imaging. This procedure uses solvent wetted fiber-free paper to enable local washing of tissue sections for mass spectrometry imaging and tissue profiling experiments...

  9. Ultrasonic washing of textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Junhee; Kim, Tae-Hong; Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Wonjung

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of experimental investigation of ultrasonic washing of textiles. The results demonstrate that cavitation bubbles oscillating in acoustic fields are capable of removing soils from textiles. Since the washing performance is mitigated in a large washing bath when using an ultrasonic transducer, we propose a novel washing scheme by combining the ultrasonic vibration with a conventional washing method utilizing kinetic energy of textiles. It is shown that the hybrid washing scheme achieves a markedly enhanced performance up to 15% in comparison with the conventional washing machine. This work can contribute to developing a novel laundry machine with reduced washing time and waste water.

  10. Enhanced soil washing process for the remediation of PBDEs/Pb/Cd-contaminated electronic waste site with carboxymethyl chitosan in a sunflower oil-water solvent system and microbial augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Wan, Jinzhong; Fang, Guodong; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Jiang, Xin; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-02-01

    An innovative ex situ soil washing technology was developed to remediate polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals in an electronic waste site. Elevated temperature (50 °C) in combination with ultrasonication (40 kHz, 20 min) at 5.0 mL L(-1) sunflower oil and 2.5 g L(-1) carboxymethyl chitosan were found to be effective in extracting mixed pollutants from soil. After two successive washing cycles, the removal efficiency rates for total PBDEs, BDE28, BDE47, BDE209, Pb, and Cd were approximately 94.1, 93.4, 94.3, 99.1, 89.3, and 92.7 %, respectively. Treating the second washed soil with PBDE-degrading bacteria (Rhodococcus sp. strain RHA1) inoculation and nutrient addition for 3 months led to maximum biodegradation rates of 37.3, 52.6, 23.9, and 1.3 % of the remaining total PBDEs, BDE28, BDE47, BDE209, respectively. After the combined treatment, the microbiological functions of washed soil was partially restored, as indicated by a significant increase in the counts, biomass C, N, and functioning diversity of soil microorganisms (p remediated soil was limited. Therefore, the proposed combined cleanup strategy is an environment-friendly technology that is important for risk assessment and management in mixed-contaminated sites.

  11. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B.

    2014-01-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 6 have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The Pu, Sr, and Cs results from the current Macrobatch 6 samples are similar to those from comparable samples in previous Macrobatch 5. In addition the SEHT and DSSHT heel samples (i.e. ‘preliminary’) have been analyzed and reported to meet NGS Demonstration Plan requirements. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous samples. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST has increased in ARP at the higher free hydroxide concentrations in the current feed.

  12. Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-08

    This video shows kids how to properly wash their hands, one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.  Created: 3/8/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/8/2010.

  13. Wash Your Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don't have soap and clean, running water? Washing hands with soap and water is the best way to get rid of germs in most situations. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer [423 KB] that contains at least 60% alcohol. ...

  14. Soil washing treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS.

  15. Please wash your hands often

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This poster advises washing hands "before and after using the toilet, handling food, touching animals, eating, drinking, or smoking." It advocates "always use clean water / never wash your hands in used wash water!" The purpose is to protect self and others from diseases. LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  16. The Importance of Hand Washing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨昌寿

    2004-01-01

    Medical experts say the most effective way to prevent the spread of diseases is for people to wash their hands with soap and water. The Word Bank and the United Nations carried out a study to urge hand washing around the world. They say programmes to increase hand washing with

  17. Responsibility and hand washing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jasmine; Purdon, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that compulsions persist due to a self-perpetuating mechanism of poor memory confidence and repetition. However, most of this work has examined checking compulsions and findings may not generalize well to washing compulsions. This study examined the role of responsibility in the persistence of washing behaviour. Hand washing was examined in undergraduates (n = 80) high and low in contamination fears (CF) under conditions of high or low responsibility (RL). Wash duration and number of visits to objects/locations key to the wash (e.g., soap) were examined. Overvalued responsibility predicted washing duration across groups. Neither wash duration nor number of visits was associated with memory for the wash. Wash duration predicted post-wash certainty that the wash had prevented harm, but only in the high CF group, and that effect varied according to RL: longer wash duration predicted greater certainty under conditions of low RL but predicted less certainty under conditions of high RL. Greater repetition predicted poorer sensory confidence, but only in the high CF group under high RL conditions. The data were collected in an analogue sample of modest size. Replication in a clinical sample is required. Self-perpetuating mechanisms identified in perseverative checking seem to also be present in perseverative washing, but only under conditions of high responsibility. Sensory confidence may be more important to perseverative washing than memory confidence. More research is required to understand self-perpetuating mechanisms at play when washing to under conditions of high responsibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2009-01-06

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  19. Pore structure and surface area of silica SBA-15: influence of washing and scale-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg P. Thielemann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The removal of the surfactant (EO20PO70EO20 by washing before final calcination is a critical step in the synthesis of silica SBA-15. In contrast to washing with pure water or ethanol, washing with water and ethanol may, depending on the quantity of solvent used, alter the homogeneity and order of the pores, but also lead to an increase of the surface area of SBA-15. A reduction of solvent volume and a controlled washing protocol allow the synthesis of high surface area SBA-15 materials with a narrow monomodal pore size distribution. For larger batch sizes the influence of the quantity of solvent on the quality of the SBA-15 is reduced.

  20. Exposure to organic solvents during cosmetic finishing of cars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bråtveit, M; Moen, B E

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the exposure to organic solvents during degreasing, washing and polishing of cars, and to obtain information about acute health symptoms in car-finishing workers...

  1. Demonstration and Validation of a Replacement Alternative to the Chromate Wash Primer DOD-P-15328D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    system. The current wash primer is a low-solids, solvent-based polyvinyl butyral that contains phosphoric acid and zinc chromate that promotes adhesion...prior to the application of an epoxy primer/polyurethane topcoat CARC system. The current wash primer is a low-solids, solvent-based polyvinyl ... butyral that contains phosphoric acid and zinc chromate that promotes adhesion and minimizes corrosion. This coating contains large amounts of volatile

  2. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  3. 27 CFR 19.328 - Wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 19.328 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production Chemical By-Products § 19.328 Wash water. Water used in washing chemicals to remove spirits therefrom may be run into a wash tank or a distilling...

  4. Enhanced sludge washing evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, R.D.

    1994-09-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford Site waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium/cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. The scope of the TWRS Waste Pretreatment Program is to treat tank waste and separate that waste into HLW and LLW fractions and provide additional treatment as required to feed LLW and HLW immobilization facilities. Enhanced sludge washing was chosen as the baseline process for separating Hanford tank waste sludge. Section 1.0 briefly discusses the purpose of the evaluation plan and provides the background that led to the choice of enhanced sludge washing as the baseline process. Section 2.0 provides a brief summary of the evaluation plan details. Section 3.0 discusses, in some detail, the technical work planned to support the evaluation of enhanced sludge washing. Section 4.0 briefly discusses the potential important of policy issues to the evaluation. Section 5.0 discusses the methodology to be used in the evaluation process. Section 6.0 summarizes the milestones that have been defined to complete the enhanced sludge washing evaluation and provides a summary schedule to evaluate the performance of enhanced sludge washing. References are identified in Section 7.0, and additional schedule and milestone information is provided in the appendices.

  5. NGAWANG JIGME'S MODERN WASH PAINTINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KELZANG; DORJE

    2007-01-01

    Having received a thorough college education.Ngawang Jigme naturally expresses his academic knowledge and skills through his washing paintings.Though he grew up on the plateau cating Tsampa and yak flesh,drinking yak buttered tea,living in the clear atmosphere,sunny sky and mountain scenery,he would hardly be expected to tolerate the monotone world of wash painting,which adopts black and white as its principal theme and acknow ledges"blur impression"as the ultimate aim.He strives for total absorption int...

  6. 21 CFR 1250.87 - Wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wash water. 1250.87 Section 1250.87 Food and Drugs... Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.87 Wash water. Where systems installed on vessels for wash water, as defined in § 1250.3(n), do not comply with the requirements of a potable water...

  7. 7 CFR 58.429 - Washing machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washing machine. 58.429 Section 58.429 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....429 Washing machine. When used, the washing machine for cheese cloths and bandages shall be...

  8. Alternative antimicrobial commercial egg washing procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures ...

  9. Wash resistance of insecticide-treated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez González, José; Kroeger, Axel; Aviña, Ana Isabel; Pabón, Eulides

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of insecticide-treated materials (ITMs) for malaria control is reduced by washing them. This research in Colombia and Bolivia investigated the resistance of different insecticide formulations and, in particular, a commercially available impregnated bednet (PermaNet) which provides chemical protection for the insecticide. The fabrics studied were all polyester; the pyrethroids used for impregnation were deltamethrin (tablet and suspension concentrate both at 25 mg/m2 target dose), lambdacyhalothrin (capsule suspension at 15 mg/m2; laboratory study only), alphacypermethrin (suspension concentrate at 40 mg/m2) and, in the case of PermaNet, deltamethrin (55 mg/m2). The indicator of wash resistance was Anopheles spp. mortality (using the bioassay cone method) before and after different numbers and intensities of washing. When the fabrics were washed under controlled conditions, gently with water and a bar of soap, the wash resistance of all formulations was good (100% Anopheles mortality after 3 washes). However, when the impregnated nets were soaked for 30-60 min and washed with soap powder and tap water by local women in the usual way, the mortality after 4 washes declined considerably (43.5% and 41.3% for deltamethrin tablets and liquid respectively when washing every second day). Alphacypermethrin showed slightly better results after 3 washes every 7th day compared to deltamethrin tablets (63.8% and 43.3% mortality, respectively). The wash resistance offered by PermaNet was much better and longer lasting: Anopheles mortality after 4 washes was 92.6%, after 10 washes 83.7% and after 20 washes 87.1%. The limitations of commercially available wash-resistant nets are, however, their limited accessibility and the difficulty of replacing all existing bednets with a new product.

  10. Wastewater washing screens out solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.G. [Hycor Corp., Lake Bluff, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Screening, as practiced by most municipal wastewater treatment plants, involves the manual or mechanical separation of all undesirable solids that flow into the sewer system. This consists of putresible or rotting material and inert solids such as paper, food, leaves, plastics, rubber, rocks, glass, metal and cigarette butts. These constituents, if not removed, clog downstream equipment and put a heavy load on aeration basins, dissolved air flotation equipment and digesters. Screenings washing is just entering the U.S. market with numerous benefits including increased efficiency, economics, safer work environment, and the ability to meet more stringent regulations.

  11. Postoperative washing of sutured wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad Harrison

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A best evidence topic was written according to the structured protocol. The three part question addressed was: [In patients undergoing closure of surgical wounds with sutures] does [keeping the wound dry for the first 48 h after closure] [reduce the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs]? 4 relevant papers were culled from the literature and appraised. The authors, date, country, population, study type, main outcomes, key results and study weaknesses were tabulated. Current NICE guidelines recommend cleaning surgical wounds with sterile saline only for the first 48 h following skin closure. We found no evidence that washing wounds with tap water during this period increases the incidence of SSIs compared to keeping them dry. Further randomised controlled trials will enable the construction of conclusive systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

  12. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  13. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Solids Washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, David L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Toth, James J.; Huckaby, James L.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. Two operating scenarios were evaluated for the ultrafiltration process (UFP) and leaching operations. The first scenario has caustic leaching performed in the UFP-VSL-T01A/B ultrafiltration feed vessels, identified as Integrated Test A. The second scenario has caustic leaching conducted in the UFP-VSL-T02A ultrafiltration feed preparation vessel, identified as Integrated Test B. Washing operations in PEP Integrated Tests A and B were conducted successfully as per the approved run sheets. However, various minor instrumental problems occurred, and some of the process conditions specified in the run sheet were not met during the wash operations, such as filter-loop flow-rate targets not being met. Five analytes were selected based on full solubility and monitored in the post-caustic-leach wash as successful indicators of washing efficiency. These were aluminum, sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, and free hydroxide. Other analytes, including sodium, oxalate, phosphate, and total dissolved solids, showed indications of changing solubility; therefore, they were unsuitable for monitoring washing efficiency. In the post-oxidative-leach wash, two analytes with full solubility were selected as suitable indicators of washing

  14. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  15. A fresh look at preoperative body washing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Judith; Gould, Dinah; Jenkins, Philip; Hilliam, Rachel; Mistry, Neetesh; Walsh, Susannah

    2012-01-01

    National guidelines do not support preoperative body washing to reduce surgical site infections, instead recommending bathing or showering with soap. Yet preoperative body washing continues to be widely used in many hospitals across Europe. This paper suggests that existing trials of preoperative body washing, upon which guidelines are based, are dated and proposes a new investigation of preoperative body washing using modern definitions of surgical site infection with standardised patient follow up, modern surgical techniques and well designed trials. This paper provides a critique of existing guidelines and describes a randomised trial with 60 participants to compare the effect of soap and two antiseptic washing products on colony forming units (CFUs) for up to six hours. Chlorhexidine gluconate and octenidine were significantly more effective than soap in reducing CFUs in the underarm, and chlorhexidine was significantly more effective than soap in reducing CFUs in the groin. PMID:22448182

  16. Radionuclide content of Las Vegas wash sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Johnson, W.H.; Meyers, A.M. [University of Nevada-Las Vegas (United States). Dept. of Health Physics

    1997-12-31

    The Las Vegas Wash is an excavated waterway channel which drains all surface water and effluent discharge from sewage-treatment facilitates from the greater Las Vegas Metropolitan Area to Lake Mead. Fine and coarse sediment samples were collected at 100-m intervals and analyzed to determine the distribution of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the lower 5,500 m of the Las Vegas Wash. Results indicate depletion of long-lived fission products in upstream Wash sediments. However, trace levels of {sup 137}Cs measured in downstream sediments suggest the resuspension and transport of radioactive fallout within the Wash. Levels of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U found in Wash sediments were consistent with levels typically found in southeast Nevada soils. (author).

  17. SOLVENT EXTRACTION FOR URANIUM MOLYBDENUM ALLOY DISSOLUTION FLOWSHEET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, A; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-06-07

    H-Canyon Engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform two solvent extraction experiments using dissolved Super Kukla (SK) material. The SK material is an uranium (U)-molybdenum (Mo) alloy material of 90% U/10% Mo by weight with 20% 235U enrichment. The first series of solvent extraction tests involved a series of batch distribution coefficient measurements with 7.5 vol % tributylphosphate (TBP)/n-paraffin for extraction from 4-5 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), using 4 M HNO{sub 3}-0.02 M ferrous sulfamate (Fe(SO3NH2)2) scrub, 0.01 M HNO3 strip steps with particular emphasis on the distribution of U and Mo in each step. The second set of solvent extraction tests determined whether the 2.5 wt % sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) solvent wash change frequency would need to be modified for the processing of the SK material. The batch distribution coefficient measurements were performed using dissolved SK material diluted to 20 g/L (U + Mo) in 4 M HNO{sub 3} and 5 M HNO{sub 3}. In these experiments, U had a distribution coefficient greater than 2.5 while at least 99% of the nickel (Ni) and greater than 99.9% of the Mo remained in the aqueous phase. After extraction, scrub, and strip steps, the aqueous U product from the strip contains nominally 7.48 {micro}g Mo/g U, significantly less than the maximum allowable limit of 800 {micro}g Mo/g U. Solvent washing experiments were performed to expose a 2.5 wt % Na2CO3 solvent wash solution to the equivalent of 37 solvent wash cycles. The low Mo batch distribution coefficient in this solvent extraction system yields only 0.001-0.005 g/L Mo extracted to the organic. During the solvent washing experiments, the Mo appears to wash from the organic.

  18. 49 CFR 230.60 - Time of washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.60 Time of washing. (a) Frequency of washing. All boilers shall thoroughly be washed... inspection. The date of the boiler wash shall be noted on the FRA Form No. 1 or FRA Form No. 3. (See...

  19. Effect of wash bulk on the accuracy of polyvinyl siloxane putty-wash impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, J; Gross, M; Shifman, A; Assif, D

    2002-04-01

    Variations in the bulk of wash in a putty-wash impression technique can result in dimensional changes proportional to the thickness of the wash material during setting. The purpose of the study was to determine the amount of wash necessary to achieve accurate stone models while using a two-step putty-wash impression technique with polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impression material. A total of 45 impressions were made of a stainless steel master model, 15 impressions for each wash thickness (1, 2 and 3 mm). The model contained three full-crown abutment preparations, which were used as the positive control. Accuracy was assessed by measuring six dimensions (occlusogingival and interabutments) on stone dies poured from impressions of the master model. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed statistically significant differences amongst the three wash bulk groups, for all occlusogingival and interabutment measurements (P 2 mm was inadequate to obtain accurate stone dies.

  20. Bauxite washing for the removal of clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ishaq Ahmad; Ernst-Ulrich Hartge; Joachim Werther; and Reiner Wischnewski

    2014-01-01

    Clay impurities associated with bauxite negatively affect the Bayer process for alumina production. These impurities should be removed as far as possible by a beneficiation technique before the ore is used as feed for the Bayer process. In this current investigation, bauxite washing was conducted in the laboratory. Bauxite washing is a physical process that causes the disintegration and deagglomeration of the clay matrix, and bauxite is liberated from the clay (mainly rich in silica). Subsequently, separation occurs with the assistance of wet screening at a predetermined cut size. Three techniques were investigated in the laboratory: drum washing, water-jet washing, and ultrasonic washing. Various operating parameters were investigated for drum washing and water-jet washing, including materials retention time, drum rotation speed, solid concentration, water-jet spray duration, pressure, and height. We concluded that the retention time of bauxite inside the drum at a solid concentration of 55wt% and a drum rotation speed of 31 r/min is the dominant parameter for the removal of clay from the bauxite surface.

  1. Bauxite washing for the removal of clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ishaq; Hartge, Ernst-Ulrich; Werther, Joachim; Wischnewski, Reiner

    2014-11-01

    Clay impurities associated with bauxite negatively affect the Bayer process for alumina production. These impurities should be removed as far as possible by a beneficiation technique before the ore is used as feed for the Bayer process. In this current investigation, bauxite washing was conducted in the laboratory. Bauxite washing is a physical process that causes the disintegration and deagglomeration of the clay matrix, and bauxite is liberated from the clay (mainly rich in silica). Subsequently, separation occurs with the assistance of wet screening at a predetermined cut size. Three techniques were investigated in the laboratory: drum washing, water-jet washing, and ultrasonic washing. Various operating parameters were investigated for drum washing and water-jet washing, including materials retention time, drum rotation speed, solid concentration, water-jet spray duration, pressure, and height. We concluded that the retention time of bauxite inside the drum at a solid concentration of 55wt% and a drum rotation speed of 31 r/min is the dominant parameter for the removal of clay from the bauxite surface.

  2. Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs.

  3. Hand washing frequency in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meengs, M R; Giles, B K; Chisholm, C D; Cordell, W H; Nelson, D R

    1994-06-01

    Objectives Previous studies, conducted mainly in ICUs, have shown low compliance with hand-washing recommendations, with failure rates approaching 60%. Hand washing in the emergency department has not been studied. We examined the frequency and duration of hand washing in one emergency department and the effects of three variables: level of training, type of patient contact (clean, dirty, or gloved), and years of staff clinical experience. Design Observational. Setting ED of a 1100-bed tertiary referral, central city, private teaching hospital. Participants Emergency nurses, faculty, and resident physicians. Participants were informed that their activities were being monitored but were unaware of the exact nature of the study. Interventions An observer recorded the number of patient contacts and activities for each participant during 3-hour observation periods. Activities were categorized as either clean or dirty according to a scale devised by Fulkerson. The use of gloves was noted and hand-washing technique and duration were recorded. A hand-washing break in technique was defined as failure to wash hands after a patient contact and before proceeding to another patient or activity. Results Eleven faculty, 11 resident physicians, and 13 emergency nurses were observed. Of 409 total contacts, 272 were clean, 46 were dirty, and 91 were gloved. Hand washing occurred after 32.3% of total contacts (SD, 2.31%). Nurses washed after 58.2% of 146 contacts (SD, 4.1%), residents after 18.6% of 129 contacts (SD, 3.4%), and faculty after 17.2% of 134 contacts (SD, 3.3%). Nurses had a significantly higher hand washing frequency than either faculty (p < 0.0001) or resident physicians (p < 0.0001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Alternative Antimicrobial Commercial Egg Washing Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Lauren K; Harrison, Mark A; Berrang, Mark E; Jones, Deana R

    2016-07-01

    Commercial table eggs are washed prior to packaging. Standard wash procedures use an alkaline pH and warm water. If a cool water method could be developed that would still provide a microbiologically safe egg, the industry may save energy costs associated with water heating. Four wash procedures were evaluated for Salmonella reduction: pH 11 at 48.9°C (industry standard), pH 11 at ambient temperature (∼20°C), pH 6 at 48.9°C, and pH 6 at ambient temperature. Alkaline washes contained potassium hydroxide-based detergent, while pH 6 washes contained approximately 200 ppm of chlorine and a proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128). When eggs were inoculated by immersion in a cell suspension of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, all treatments resulted in a slight and similar reduction of Salmonella numbers (approximately 0.77 log CFU/ml of shell emulsion reduction). When eggs were inoculated by droplet on the shell surface, Salmonella counts were reduced by approximately 5 log CFU when washed with chlorine plus the chlorine stabilizer at both temperatures and with the alkaline wash at the high temperature. The reductions in Salmonella by these treatments were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from each other but were significantly (P < 0.05) more than the reduction observed for the 20°C alkaline treatment and 20°C control water treatments. Ambient temperature acidic washes reduced Salmonella contamination to the same degree as the standard pH 11 warm water wash and may be a viable option to reduce cost, increase shelf life, and slow pathogen growth in and on shell eggs.

  5. Wash Flats Management Plan Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wash Flats impoundments comprise an area of approximately 1,200 acres. Prior to 1963, the Wash Flats was subject to periodic wash-over during extremely high...

  6. TANK 7 CHARACTERIZATION AND WASHING STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.

    2010-02-04

    A 3-L PUREX sludge sample from Tank 7 was characterized and then processed through a series of inhibited water washes to remove oxalate, sodium, and other soluble ions. Current plans use Tank 7 as one of the feed sources for Sludge Batch 7 (SB7). Tank 7 is high in oxalate due to the oxalic acid cleaning of the sludge heels from Tanks 5 and 6 and subsequent transfer to Tank 7. Ten decant and nine wash cycles were performed over a 47 day period at ambient temperature. Initially, seven decants and seven washes were completed based on preliminary estimates of the number of wash cycles required to remove the oxalate in the sludge. After reviewing the composition data, SRNL recommended the completion of 2 or 3 more decant/wash cycles to ensure all of the sodium oxalate had redissolved. In the first 7 washes, the slurry oxalate concentration was 12,300 mg/kg (69.6% oxalate removal compared to 96.1% removal of the other soluble ions). After all ten decants were complete, the slurry oxalate concentration was 3,080 mg/kg (89.2% oxalate removal compared to 99.0% of the other soluble ions). The rate of dissolution of oxalate increased significantly with subsequent washes until all of the sodium oxalate had been redissolved after seven decant/wash cycles. The measured oxalate concentrations agreed very well with LWO predictions for washing of the Tank 7 sample. Highlights of the analysis and washing of the Tank 7 sample include: (1) Sodium oxalate was detected in the as-received filtered solids. 95% of the oxalate was insoluble (undissolved) in the as-received slurry. (2) No sodium oxalate was detected in the post-wash filtered solids. (3) Sodium oxalate is the last soluble species that redissolves during washing with inhibited water. In order to significantly reduce the sodium oxalate concentration, the sludge must be highly washed, leaving the other soluble anions and cations (including sodium) very low in concentration. (4) The post-wash slurry had 1% of the soluble anions

  7. Environmental diagnosis of the washing machine motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne K. Linnet

    1997-01-01

    An environmental diagnosis of the washing machine focusing on the motor is performed. The goal of the diagnosis is to designate environmental focus points in the product. The LCA of the washing machine showed impact potentials from the life cycle of the product (see: LCA of a washing machine......). The diagnosis points to which of the impact potentials are considered to be problematic, and locates where in the product the problems are situated.The diagnosis is also used for showing which effects ideas for changes in the motor have on the environment. The ideas which are looked upon are: motor efficiency...... up 2%, Manually disassembling and recycling of metals, Reuse of motor in a new washing machine, aluminium wire instead of copper wire in the motor....

  8. Environmental diagnosis of the washing machine motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Hanne K. Linnet

    1997-01-01

    An environmental diagnosis of the washing machine focusing on the motor is performed. The goal of the diagnosis is to designate environmental focus points in the product. The LCA of the washing machine showed impact potentials from the life cycle of the product (see: LCA of a washing machine......). The diagnosis points to which of the impact potentials are considered to be problematic, and locates where in the product the problems are situated.The diagnosis is also used for showing which effects ideas for changes in the motor have on the environment. The ideas which are looked upon are: motor efficiency...... up 2%, Manually disassembling and recycling of metals, Reuse of motor in a new washing machine, aluminium wire instead of copper wire in the motor....

  9. Wash water waste pretreatment system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The use of real wash water had no adverse effect on soap removal when an Olive Leaf soap based system was used; 96 percent of the soap was removed using ferric chloride. Numerous chemical agents were evaluated as antifoams for synthetic wash water. Wash water surfactants used included Olive Leaf Soap, Ivory Soap, Neutrogena and Neutrogena Rain Bath Gel, Alipal CO-436, Aerosol 18, Miranol JEM, Palmeto, and Aerosol MA-80. For each type of soapy wash water evaluated, at least one antifoam capable of causing nonpersistent foam was identified. In general, the silicones and the heavy metal ions (i.e., ferric, aluminum, etc.) were the most effective antifoams. Required dosage was in the range of 50 to 200 ppm.

  10. Teaching hand-washing with pictorial cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Saloviita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied behavior analysis has been shown to be an effective means to teach daily living skills to individuals with intellectual disability. In the present study pictorial cues based on task analysis, system of least prompts, and social reinforcement were used to teach a man with mild intellectual disability to wash his hands correctly. An ABAB reversal design was used with follow-up after two weeks. The results show a rapid increase in hand-washing skills.

  11. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  12. Radionuclide content of Las Vegas wash sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Meyers, A.M.; Johnson, W.H. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The Las Vegas Wash is an excavated waterway channel which drains all surface water and effluent discharge from sewage-treatment facilities from the greater Las Vegas Metropolitan Area to Lake Mead. Runoff and erosion processes are expected to transport man-made radioactivity that was deposited over the past several decades in the Las Vegas Valley. Additionally, radionuclides disposed of via the city`s sanitary system are expected to accumulate in the Wash sediments. Fine and coarse sediment samples were collected at 100 m intervals and analyzed to determine the distribution of alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides in the lower 5,500 in of the Las Vegas Wash. Results indicate little accumulation of long-lived fission products in upstream Wash sediments. However, trace amounts of fission products measured in downstream sediments suggest the resuspension and transport of radioactive particulate matter within the Wash. Levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides found in Wash sediments were found to be consistent with levels typically found in southeast Nevada soils.

  13. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency

  14. Using GC-FID to Quantify the Removal of 4-sec-Butylphenol from NGS Solvent by NaOH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloop, Jr., Frederick V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moyer, Bruce A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    A caustic wash of the solvent used in the Next-Generation Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (NG-CSSX) process was found to remove the modifier breakdown product 4-sec-butylphenol (SBP) with varying efficiency depending on the aqueous NaOH concentration. Recent efforts at ORNL have aimed at characterizing the flowsheet chemistry and reducing the technical uncertainties of the NG-CSSX process. One technical uncertainty has been the efficacy of caustic washing of the solvent for the removal of lipophilic anions, in particular, the efficient removal of SBP, an important degradation product of the solvent modifier, Cs-7SB. In order to make this determination, it was necessary to develop a sensitive and reliable analytical technique for the detection and quantitation of SBP. This report recounts the development of a GC-FID-based (Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detection) technique for analyzing SBP and the utilization of the technique to subsequently confirm the ability of the caustic wash to efficiently remove SBP from the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) used in NG-CSSX. In particular, the developed technique was used to monitor the amount of SBP removed from a simple solvent and the full NGS by contact with sodium hydroxide wash solutions over a range of concentrations. The results show that caustic washing removes SBP with effectively the same efficiency as it did in the original Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process.

  15. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  16. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  17. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by § 133.136...

  18. Miscellaneous hydrocarbon solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat; DeWitt, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    The solvents discussed in this article are common solvents not categorized as halogenated, aromatic, or botanical. The solvents discussed are categorized into two groups: hydrocarbon mixtures and single agents. The hydrocarbon mixtures discussed are Stoddard solvent, naphtha, and kerosene. The remaining solvents described are n-hexane, methyl n-butyl ketone, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and butyl mercaptans. Effects common to this group of agents and their unique effects are characterized. Treatment of exposures and toxic effects of these solvents is described, and physiochemical properties and occupational exposure levels are listed.

  19. Washing the citizen: Washing, cleanliness and citizenship in mental health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Pols

    2006-01-01

    Participation in the community and citizenship for patients are common ideals that inspire improvements in mental health care. But what is meant by citizenship? Here an analysis is made of washing practices in psychiatric nursing in long-term mental health institutions. Four repertoires of washing a

  20. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scherman, Carl [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Martin, David [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Suggs, Patricia [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  1. Study on pyrolysis gas in thermal extraction of Bai Yinhua lignite with industrial washing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y. M.; Lian, X. P.; Zhao, F. Y.; Xu, Y. Q.; Hu, Y. Q.; Yuan, Z. K.; Hao, X. R.

    2016-08-01

    Industrial washing oil as solvent, pyrolysis gas produced from Bai Yinhua lignite during thermal extraction was studied by gas chromatography. The effects of temperature and solvent coal ration on coal pyrolysis gas were investigated. The results showed that: Pyrolysis gas produced mainly in CO, CO2, O2, H2, CH4, and so on, in which the total amount of oxygen containing compounds nearly 40%, significant effects of deoxidation was achieved. The increase of heat extraction temperature can significantly increase the degree of bond breaking and the gas formation rate, the gas yield and the rate of oxygen increase significantly, while the gas yield increases with the decrease of the solvent coal ration.

  2. PYROLYSIS KINETICS OF WASHED PRECIPITATED LIGNIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gustafsson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the pyrolysis behavior of precipitated washed lignin in a Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor between 700 and 1000°C and at different residence times. Lignin was precipitated by acidification of softwood black liquor using CO2. After acid washing, the solid material was dried and sieved (80-100 μm. This material was then fed into the reactor at a rate of about 0.1 g/min. The formed gases were analyzed with respect to CO, CO2, and CH4, and char was collected and weighed. A traditional first order Arrhenius kinetic expression, based on the temperature of the particles with respect to residence time, was adapted to the experimental results. The activation energy was found to be 32.1 kJ/mol. The low ash content in the washed lignin gave a very low solid material residue after the reactor.

  3. Solvent resistant nanofiltration membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutczak, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes preparation and characterization of membranes for organic solvent filtration (OSF). The main aim was developing membranes for solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) with molecular weight cut-off below 500 g mol-1.

  4. Solvents in novolak synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobodacha, Chet J.; Lynch, Thomas J.; Durham, Dana L.; Paradis, Valerie R.

    1993-09-01

    Novolac resins may be prepared with or without a solvent present. We have found that solvent power greatly affects the properties of the finished resin and thus gives the resist chemist another variable with which to `fine-tune' resist properties. Using designed experiments, we investigated the effect of solvent power, as measured by Hansen's Solubility Parameters, of a number of solvents and solvent mixtures on the final properties of the novolac resin. We found that the relative molecular weight (RMW) and dissolution rate of a novolac resin can be varied by selection of a solvent or solvent mixture with the appropriate polarity and hydrogen- bonding characteristics. The solvent polarity and hydrogen-bonding characteristics may affect the stability of the cresol/formaldehyde transition state, thus causing the observed changes in RMW and dissolution rate.

  5. Hand washing compliance among retail food establishment workers in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Paul B; Jenkins, Timothy; Paulus, Colleen; Johnson, Lars; Hedberg, Craig W

    2004-12-01

    Inadequate hand washing by food workers is an important contributing factor to foodborne disease outbreaks in retail food establishments (RFEs). We conducted a survey of RFEs to investigate the effect of hand washing training, availability of hand washing facilities, and the ability of the person in charge (PIC) to describe hand washing according to the Minnesota Food Code (food code) on workers' ability to demonstrate food code-compliant hand washing. Only 52% of the PICs could describe the hand washing procedure outlined in the food code, and only 48% of workers could demonstrate code-compliant hand washing. The most common problems observed were failure to wash for 20 s and failure to use a fingernail brush. There was a strong positive association between the PIC being a certified food manager and being able to describe the food code hand washing procedure (odds ratio [OR], 5.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 13.7), and there was an even stronger association between the PIC being able to describe hand washing and workers being able to demonstrate code-compliant hand washing (OR, 15; 95% CI, 6 to 37). Significant associations were detected among correct hand washing demonstration, physical infrastructure for hand washing, and the hand washing training methods used by the establishment. However, the principal determinant of successful hand washing demonstration was the PIC's ability to describe proper hand washing procedure. These results suggest that improving hand washing practices among food workers will require interventions that address PIC knowledge of hand washing requirement and procedure and the development and implementation of effective hand washing training methods.

  6. Solvent-Responsive Behavior of Inclusion Complexes Between Amylose and Polytetrahydrofuran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachmawati, R; Woortman, Albert J.J.; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Highly crystalline amylose–polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF) complexes can be obtained by employing organic solvents as washing agents after complex formation. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the washed complexes appear sharp at 12.9°–13.2° and 19.6°–20.1°, clear signs of the presence of V6I-amylose. Other

  7. Use of green washing fluids in a washing process for dioxin contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwalee Yotapukdee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High levels of dioxin contamination in soil have significant environmental challenges. Soil washing is a successful remediation process that is primarily used to treat coarse soils. Several literature studies have used various kinds of chemical washing liquids to remove dioxins from soils, though there are secondary environmental effects. This study intends to develop environmentally friendly soil washing methods that are effective in dioxin removal at an acceptable cost. Sugarcane wine, compost leachate, and ground fish broth were chosen as potential washing liquids. Each washing liquid was analyzed to determine its content of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. These compounds are related to their bio-surfactant content. Several of the identified compounds had properties to help remove dioxins from contaminated soil. In the experiments, high removal efficiencies were observed, up to 70%~95% after five to six washes. Although effective removal was observed, a significant amount of wastewater was produced and the problems were not completely resolved. Thus, the optimal washing conditions are necessary to minimize the overall costs, while improving the process effectiveness. Moreover, an appropriate treatment method is required for wastewater containing dioxins.

  8. Environmental control during steam boiler washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Marcio A.B.; Abreu Pereira, Vera L. de [Companhia Petroquimica do Nordeste (COPENE), Camacari, BA (Brazil). Div. de Engenharia Ambiental; Ringler, Ulrich E.S. [PROMON Engenharia Ltda., Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The washing and chemical cleaning of boilers, activities of a high polluting potential, are responsible for the generation of wastewater of high contents of heavy metals, suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD). This paper describes the actions carried out by COPENE - Petroquimica do Nordeste S/A - in order to reduce this problem. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Hand wash and manual skin wipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Boeniger, M.F.; Hemmen, J. van

    2000-01-01

    Hand wash and skin wipes are major techniques that have been used for dermal exposure sampling. Both techniques remove chemicals either deposited on or transferred to the skin contaminant layer by a combination of chemical and mechanical actions. The paper overviews identified methods and

  10. Hand wash and manual skin wipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Boeniger, M.F.; Hemmen, J. van

    2000-01-01

    Hand wash and skin wipes are major techniques that have been used for dermal exposure sampling. Both techniques remove chemicals either deposited on or transferred to the skin contaminant layer by a combination of chemical and mechanical actions. The paper overviews identified methods and techniques

  11. What Happens at a Car Wash?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A class of 3- to 5-year-old children in a child care center in the midwestern United States chose to study a car wash as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teachers' reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project and children's sketches are…

  12. Hand wash and manual skin wipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Boeniger, M.F.; Hemmen, J. van

    2000-01-01

    Hand wash and skin wipes are major techniques that have been used for dermal exposure sampling. Both techniques remove chemicals either deposited on or transferred to the skin contaminant layer by a combination of chemical and mechanical actions. The paper overviews identified methods and techniques

  13. SOIL-WASHING TECHNOLOGY AND PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil washing in the United States has been studied and evaluated with increasing thoroughness during the last 15 to 20 years. It is now entering a phase of actual use and acceptance as its applicability and economics become clearer. This paper reviews the principles behind soil...

  14. Washing of the AW-101 entrained solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta

    2000-03-31

    BNFL Inc. (BNFL) is under contract with the US Department of Energy, River Protection Project (DOE-RPP) to design, construct, and operate facilities for treating wastes stored in the single-shell and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The DOE-BNFL RPP contract identifies two feeds to the waste treatment plant: (1) primarily liquid low-activity waste (LAW) consisting of less than 2 wt% entrained solids and (2) high-level waste (HLW) consisting of 10 to 200 g/L solids slurry. This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AW-101 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AW-101 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-9, Rev. 0, LAW Entrained Solids Water Wash and Caustic Leach Testing. The test went according to plan, with no deviations from the test plan. Based on the results of the 0.01 M NaOH washing, a decision was made by BNFL to not proceed with the caustic leaching test. The composition of the washed solids was such that caustic leaching would not result in significant reduction in the immobilized HLW volume.

  15. SOIL-WASHING TECHNOLOGY AND PRACTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil washing in the United States has been studied and evaluated with increasing thoroughness during the last 15 to 20 years. It is now entering a phase of actual use and acceptance as its applicability and economics become clearer. This paper reviews the principles behind soil...

  16. Solvent abuse: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G E

    1979-01-01

    The literature on solvent abuse is reviewed. Methods of use, symptoms of use, and effects of long-term solvent abuse are discussed. Several surveys on solvent use are summarized. The highest prevalence of solvent abuse seems to occur in native peoples undergoing periods of cultural change. Environmental conditions which are postulated as leading to psychological vulnerability and solvent abuse include: low social assets, parental drug use, peer and sibling influence, and acculturative stress. Solvent abuse seems to provide a pharmacological way out of a stressful environment for people who feel helpless to improve their situation in other ways. Methods of intervention that have been proposed for dealing with solvent abuse are discussed. Methods of intervention thus far employed generally have not been evaluated in any systematic fashion. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  17. [A nationwide survey on the hand washing behavior and awareness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Sim; Choi, Jun Kil; Jeong, Ihn Sook; Paek, Kyong Ran; In, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ki Dong

    2007-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the public's awareness of the importance of hand washing and to compare perceptions on the habit of hand washing with actual hand washing behavior. Data were collected by observing 2,800 participants washing their hands after using public restrooms in seven cities nationwide and by surveying 1,000 respondents (age>14 years) through telephone interviews using a structured questionnaire. Although 94% of the survey respondents claimed to mostly or always wash their hands after using public restrooms, only 63.4% of the observed participants did wash their hands after using public restrooms. Significant factors related to increased adherence to hand washing were female gender, approximate ages of 20 to 39 years by their appearance, and the presence of other people from the observation. About 79% of the survey respondents always washed their hands after using bathrooms at home, 73% washed their hands before handling food, and 67% washed their hands upon returning to their home. However, 93.2% and 86.3% of the survey respondents did not wash their hands after coughing or sneezing and after handling money, respectively. Although most of the survey respondents (77.6%) were aware that hand washing is helpful in preventing communicable diseases, 39.6% of the survey respondents did not do so because they were 'not accustomed' to washing their hands and 30.2% thought that washing their hands is 'annoying'. This is the first comprehensive report on hand washing behavior and awareness of the general population in Korea. The result of this study in terms of individual behavior and awareness of hand washing are comparable with similar studies conducted in other countries. However adherence to hand washing is still low and needs to be increased. The results of this study can be used as a baseline in setting up strategies and activities to promote adherence to hand washing.

  18. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a Late Wash' facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  19. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Jamie; Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = −0.73), rash (−0.56), itch (−0.927), tightness (−0.585), and all eczema (−0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

  20. Influence of washing and quenching in profiling the metabolome of adherent mammalian cells: a case study with the metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoore, Rahul Vijay; Coyle, Rachael; Staton, Carolyn A; Brown, Nicola J; Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman

    2017-06-07

    Metabolome characterisation is a powerful tool in oncology. To obtain a valid description of the intracellular metabolome, two of the preparatory steps are crucial, namely washing and quenching. Washing must effectively remove the extracellular media components and quenching should stop the metabolic activities within the cell, without altering the membrane integrity of the cell. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the efficiency of the washing and quenching solvents. In this study, we employed two previously optimised protocols for simultaneous quenching and extraction, and investigated the effects of a number of washing steps/solvents and quenching solvent additives, on metabolite leakage from the adherent metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. We explored five washing protocols and five quenching protocols (including a control for each), and assessed for effectiveness by detecting ATP in the medium and cell morphology changes through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Furthermore, we studied the overall recovery of eleven different metabolite classes using the GC-MS technique and compared the results with those obtained from the ATP assay and SEM analysis. Our data demonstrate that a single washing step with PBS and quenching with 60% methanol supplemented with 70 mM HEPES (-50 °C) results in minimum leakage of intracellular metabolites. Little or no interference of PBS (used in washing) and methanol/HEPES (used in quenching) on the subsequent GC-MS analysis step was noted. Together, these findings provide for the first time a systematic study into the washing and quenching steps of the metabolomics workflow for studying adherent mammalian cells, which we believe will improve reliability in the application of metabolomics technology to study adherent mammalian cell metabolism.

  1. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-09-03

    Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (148 participants).Hand washing promotion (education activities, sometimes with

  2. Organic fragments from graphene oxide: Isolation, characterization and solvent effects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravula Thirupathi; Y Jayasubba Reddy; Erode N Prabhakaran; Hanudatta S Atreya

    2014-05-01

    As-prepared graphene oxide (GO) contains oxidative debris which can be washed using basic solutions. We present the isolation and characterization of these debris. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is used to monitor the separation of the debris in various solvents in the presence of different protic and aprotic alkylamino bases. The study reveals that the debris are rich in carbonyl functional groups and water is an essential component for separation and removal of the debris from GO under oxidative reaction conditions.

  3. Influence of Solvent-Solvent and Solute-Solvent Interaction Properties on Solvent-Mediated Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shi-Qi

    2005-01-01

    A recently proposed universal calculational recipe for solvent-mediated potential is applied to calculate excess potential of mean force between two large Lennard-Jones (LJ) or hard core attractive Yukawa particles immersed in small LJ solvent bath at supercritical state. Comparison between the present prediction with a hypernetted chain approximation adopted for solute-solute correlation at infinitely dilute limit and existing simulation data shows high accuracy for the region with large separation, and qualitative reliability for the solute particle contact region. The calculational simplicity of the present recipe allows for a detailed investigation on the effect of the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interaction details on the excess potential of mean force. The resultant conclusion is that gathering of solvent particles near a solute particle leads to repulsive excess PMF, while depletion of solvent particles away from the solute particle leads to attractive excess PMF, and minor change of the solvent-solvent interaction range has large influence on the excess PMF.

  4. Continuous concentration and constant volume washing of tetraphenylborate slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, J.L.

    1999-12-08

    SRTC has completed filtration testing of tetraphenylborate (TPB) slurries with and without sludge. These tests were slightly different from previous SRS tests in that they used continuous mode concentration and constant volume washing evolutions. The extent of TPB recovery during washing was measured. The resulting washed precipitate slurry, with sludge, was stored at ambient temperature and under a nitrogen-inerted atmosphere to study TPB stability. Samples of both unwashed and washed slurries were submitted for rheology measurements.

  5. Self-Contained Automated Vehicle Washing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    military personnel from harmful contaminants are the impetus for designing a closed loop vehicle washing system. Systems Specification Development This...I I I " I I EACH CONTAINMENT PAD HAS SELf -CONTAINED STORAGE TO MINIMIZ[ THE FOOTPRINT DURI NG TRANSPORT . I ~ ,’"j PIVOTING ELBOWS LOCK ...shipped to Dugway, UT in August 2013 and travel plans were confirmed only to encounter the government shutdown which would delay travel until 2014

  6. Washing of the AN-107 entrained solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; FV Hoopes

    2000-03-31

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing on the composition of the entrained solids in the diluted AN-107 low-activity waste (LAW) sample. The objective of this work was to gather data on the solubility of the AN-107 entrained solids in 0.01 M NaOH, so that BNFL can evaluate whether these solids require caustic leaching.

  7. Bacterial Exchange in Household Washing Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Chris; Van Nevel, Sam; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Granitsiotis, Michael S.; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Household washing machines (WMs) launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household WMs. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the WM effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin-, and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the WM. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering. PMID:26696989

  8. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation: WARRP Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This activity demonstrated, on a practical scale, the primary unit operations for building a containment structure for radioactive wash waters, washing down a hypothetically radioactively contaminated vehicle, collecting the hypothetically radioactive slurry waste water, filtering the hypothetically radioactive wash waters, disassembling the containment, and transporting the materials for final disposition.

  9. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  10. An assessment of acid wash and bioleaching pre-treating options to remove mercury from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura C. Dronen; April E. Moore; Evguenii I. Kozliak; Wayne S. Seames [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is expected to begin regulating the release of vapor-phase mercury from coal-fired power plants in the year 2007. Chemical pre-treatment methods were investigated for mercury removal effectiveness from pulverized low-sulfur North Dakota lignite coal. More limited results were obtained for a pulverized high-sulfur Blacksville bituminous coal. A two-step acid wash treatment showed removal rates of 60 90%, compared to one-step treatments with concentrated HCl, which yielded removals of 30 38%. Removal effectiveness is similar for first step solvents of water, pH 5.0 acid, or pH 2.0 acid followed by concentrated HCl as the second step solvent, and is independent of first step incubation time. Neither of two bacterial strains, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and T. thiooxidans, was found effective for mercury removal. 23 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. Annatto Polymeric Microparticles: Natural Product Encapsulation by the Emulsion-Solvent Evaporation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Zaine; Duran, Nelson; Guterres, Silvia S.

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, the extract from annatto seeds was encapsulated in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) particles by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The particles were washed and centrifuged to remove excess stabilizer and then freeze-dried. The main compound of annatto seeds, bixin, has antioxidant properties as well…

  12. Annatto Polymeric Microparticles: Natural Product Encapsulation by the Emulsion-Solvent Evaporation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Zaine; Duran, Nelson; Guterres, Silvia S.

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, the extract from annatto seeds was encapsulated in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) particles by the emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The particles were washed and centrifuged to remove excess stabilizer and then freeze-dried. The main compound of annatto seeds, bixin, has antioxidant properties as well…

  13. Selective Removal of Uranium from the Washing Solution of Uranium-Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Soo; Han, G. S.; Kim, G. N.; Koo, D. S.; Jeong, J. W.; Choi, J. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This study examined selective removal methods of uranium from the waste solution by ion exchange resins or solvent extraction methods to reduce amount of the 2{sup nd} waste. Alamine-336, known as an excellent extraction reagent of uranium from the leaching solution of uranium ore, did not remove uranium from the acidic washing solution of soil. Uranyl ions in the acidic waste solution were sorbed on ampholyte resin with a high sorption efficiency, and desorbed from the resin by a washing with 0.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution at 60 .deg. C. However, the uranium dissolved in the sulfuric acid solution was not sorbed onto the strong anion exchanger resins. A great amount of uranium-contaminated (U-contaminated) soil had been generated from the decommissioning of a uranium conversion plant. Our group has developed a decontamination process with washing and electrokinetic methods to decrease the amount of waste to be disposed of. However, this process generates a large amount of waste solution containing various metal ions.

  14. Extensive separations (CLEAN) processing strategy compared to TRUEX strategy and sludge wash ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, B.J.; Jansen, G.; Zimmerman, B.D.; Seeman, S.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Lauerhass, L.; Hoza, M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Numerous pretreatment flowsheets have been proposed for processing the radioactive wastes in Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks. The CLEAN Option is examined along with two other flowsheet alternatives to quantify the trade-off of greater capital equipment and operating costs for aggressive separations with the reduced waste disposal costs and decreased environmental/health risks. The effect on the volume of HLW glass product and radiotoxicity of the LLW glass or grout product is predicted with current assumptions about waste characteristics and separations processes using a mass balance model. The prediction is made on three principal processing options: washing of tank wastes with removal of cesium and technetium from the supernatant, with washed solids routed directly to the glass (referred to as the Sludge Wash C processing strategy); the previous steps plus dissolution of the solids and removal of transuranic (TRU) elements, uranium, and strontium using solvent extraction processes (referred to as the Transuranic Extraction Option C (TRUEX-C) processing strategy); and an aggressive yet feasible processing strategy for separating the waste components to meet several main goals or objectives (referred to as the CLEAN Option processing strategy), such as the LLW is required to meet the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Class A limits; concentrations of technetium, iodine, and uranium are reduced as low as reasonably achievable; and HLW will be contained within 1,000 borosilicate glass canisters that meet current Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant glass specifications.

  15. Influence of Successive Washing on Porous Structure of Pseudoboehmite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuefeng Yan; Jianping Zhi; Gaoyong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The effect of successive washing instead of traditional intermittent washing on the porous structure of pseudoboehmite was investigated by mercury porosimetry,N2 adsorption and thermal analysis,while the stabilities of different types of crystals were investigated by X-ray diffractometer. Experimental results show that successive washing is a continuation of the aging process of intermittent washing. After a successive washing,the pore types showed no difference with the intermittent washing. During successive washing,the characteristics of the pores in the range of 2-15 nm changed only very little. However,the distributions of the pore radius for pores of 20-50 and 300-1000 nm were obviously influenced. It was shown that the volume of larger pores decreased only to a smaller extent after the successive washing,as compared with that of the intermittent washing,and the pore size was affected by the condition of the successive washing. The roles of physisorbed water,intermicellar liquid,weakly bonded water,as well as the role of stirring,have been discussed.

  16. Aqueous treatment of water-sensitive paper objects: capillary unit, blotter wash or paraprint wash?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Schalkx; P. Iedema; B. Reissland; B. van Velzen

    2011-01-01

    Blotter washing andwashing with the capillary unit are both methods used for aqueoustreatment of water-sensitive paper objects. The challenge of thistreatment is to remove water-soluble products while keeping thewater-sensitive medium in its place. In this article the two methodsare compared, along

  17. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  18. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  19. Solvent selection methodology for pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    A method for the selection of appropriate solvents for the solvent swap task in pharmaceutical processes has been developed. This solvent swap method is based on the solvent selection method of Gani et al. (2006) and considers additional selection criteria such as boiling point difference, volati...

  20. Standard of Electrical Washing Machine for Household and Similar Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Background With further improvement of people's living,the household washing machine industry has entered a new stage of development.However,some indicators of GB/T 4288-2003 have become no longer suitable for the development of household washing machine products at present.Particularly,with an increasing number of basic functions and auxiliary functions,many aspects are not covered by the existing standard.In order to further improve the overall quality of China's household washing machines and enhance their competitiveness in the international market,guide manufacturers to produce household washing machines in line with the demands of consumers and instruct consumers to properly purchase and use household washing machines,it is imperative to revise the GB/T 4288-2003 Household Electric Washing Machine.

  1. Application of ultrasound to textiles washing in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Keiko; Harayama, Kokoro

    2013-03-01

    The ultrasound was applied to textile washing as a mechanical action for soil removal. The polyester fabric was soiled with carbon black or oleic acid as a model contaminant, and washed with the original fabric in aqueous solutions without and with alkali or surfactant by applying ultrasound, shaking or stirring action. The detergency and soil redeposition were evaluated from the change in the surface reflectance of artificially soiled fabrics and the original fabric due to washing. In comparison with shaking and stirring actions, ultrasound was found to remove the particulate and oily soils efficiently in a short time and at low bath ratio. With increasing ultrasound power, the detergency of both soils increased and exceeded that obtained with Wascator, a horizontal axis drum type washer. Using three standard fabrics for determining mechanical action during washing, it was shown that ultrasound washing caused little mechanical damage to the fabric. However, the soil redeposition was frequently observed for ultrasonic washing, especially at low bath ratio.

  2. Coal washing scenario in India and future prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Venugopal; J.P.Patel; C.Bhar

    2016-01-01

    Coal Washing Exploration in India dates back to 1900s;though,first coking coal washeries in India were installed after independence.At present,most of the coking coal washeries are owned by Public Sector Companies;whereas,most of the non-coking coal washeries are owned by Private Sector.Even after six decades of coal washing practices,there has not been significant development in the coal washing intelligentsia.Indian Coal Washing industry is still dependent on imported equipment,which has been designed to treat coal that is significantly different from Indian coal of drift origin.In this paper,authors have ventured into evolution of Indian Coal Washing Industry (with a focus on coking coal washing sector),its present condition and future prospect for growth.The paper emphasizes need for developing indigenous solutions to industrial challenges and highlights importance of increased coordination among academia-research institutions and coal industry.

  3. Chelant-enhanced washing of CCA-contaminated soil: Coupled with selective dissolution or soil stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Lau, Abbe Y T; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhang, Weihua; Kao, Chih-Ming; Baek, Kitae; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-09-09

    Remediation of CCA-contaminated soil (Cr, Cu, and As) by biodegradable chelant-enhanced washing (EDDS, S,S-ethylene-diamine-disuccinic-acid) needs further enhancement. This study investigated the effectiveness of coupling with pre-treatment by selective dissolution and post-treatment by soil amendments, respectively. Three groups of reagents (reductants, alkaline solvents, and organic ligands) were adopted in the pre-treatment to dissolve the oxide minerals before EDDS extraction. In the post-treatment, soil amendments (coal fly ash (CFA), acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS), green waste compost (GWC)), and their mixtures) were used for a 2-month stabilization after 2-h EDDS washing. Multi-endpoint evaluation was performed by assessing the chemical state, leachability, mobility, bioaccessibility, and plant-availability of residual metal(loid)s as well as the cytotoxicity, enzyme activities, and available nutrients of the treated soils. Pre-treatment by dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate significantly enhanced extraction efficiency, but also increased the leachability of As and Cr and bioaccessibility of Cr in the treated soils. While sodium hydroxide removed the majority of As without increasing its leachability and bioaccessibility, it increased the cytotoxicity and inhibited the acid phosphatase activity. Post-treatment with AMDS and CFA effectively controlled the mobility and leachability of residual As and Cr after EDDS washing. However, destabilized Cu was only marginally immobilized by GWC due to strong Cu-EDDS complexation. The bioaccessibility and phytoavailability of Cu was primarily reduced by EDDS washing, while those of As and Cr could be attenuated by AMDS and CFA. This study indicates that coupling chemical extraction with subsequent soil amendment plays complementary roles in mitigating effects of residual metal(loid)s and improving environmental quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fabric focus: advice on refreshing garments without washing them

    OpenAIRE

    Whitson-Smith, Jade; Love Your Clothes

    2016-01-01

    Washing your clothes is important – we all recognise that.\\ud \\ud But sometimes it's not always necessary, costing you money and over washing can damage your clothes.\\ud \\ud We've come up with some brilliant tips to keep your clothes fresh and out of the laundry, from freezing (yes, freezing!) items to kill off bacteria to making your own fabric deodoriser using vodka.\\ud \\ud Tap into our wash-free hacks by watching the video.

  5. Durable titania films for solar treatment of biomethanated spent wash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarzadeh, Rokhsareh; S. Ghole, Vikram; Javadpour, Sirus

    2016-10-01

    The use of TiO2 films for treatment of biomethanated spent wash is reported. The films of TiO2 were formed and photocatalytic performance of the prepared films in degradation of methylene blue and biomethanated spent wash were studied. Photocatalytic use of these films was found to be effective for degradation of biomethanated spent wash. The photocatalyst was used up for 20 cycles without significant reduction in activities showing long life of the catalyst.

  6. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Solids Washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, David L.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Toth, James J.; Huckaby, James L.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  7. Purex process solvent: literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables.

  8. Halogenated solvent remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Kent S.

    2004-08-31

    Methods for enhancing bioremediation of ground water contaminated with nonaqueous halogenated solvents are disclosed. A preferred method includes adding a composition to the ground water wherein the composition is an electron donor for microbe-mediated reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated solvents and enhances mass transfer of the halogenated solvents from residual source areas into the aqueous phase of the ground water. Illustrative compositions effective in these methods include surfactants such as C.sub.2 -C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, salts thereof, esters of C.sub.2 -C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, and mixtures thereof. Especially preferred compositions for use in these methods include lactic acid, salts of lactic acid, such as sodium lactate, lactate esters, and mixtures thereof. The microbes are either indigenous to the ground water, or such microbes can be added to the ground water in addition to the composition.

  9. Safe battery solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  10. To wash or not to wash the hands? Reasons for a nursing team.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    A qualitative study was performed by asking the nursing team at an emergency care hospital about the reasons that lead them to wash their hands or not, since this is an important measure to control cross infection in hospitals. The data, obtained by using the focus groups technique were submitted to enunciation analysis, resulting in emerging topics. It was found out that the supply of material and environmental resources is essential but does not solve all problems. The procedure is performe...

  11. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  12. 7 CFR 2902.51 - Parts wash solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parts wash solutions. 2902.51 Section 2902.51... Items § 2902.51 Parts wash solutions. (a) Definition. Products that are designed to clean parts in manual or automatic cleaning systems. Such systems include, but are not limited to, soak vats and tanks...

  13. Hygienic hand washing among nursing students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sevim; Koçaşli, Sema

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the application status of hand-washing information given within the context of infection control measures in practice areas among nursing students. This descriptive study was conducted with 430 students. A questionnaire was filled out by the students. In the statistical analysis, frequency, percentage, and chi(2) values were measured for all the questions in the hand-washing questionnaire. We determined that students wash their hands before and after each clinical procedure at a rate of 80.2%. Most of the students (71.9%) reported that they wash their hands for 1 minute or longer. The students' answers showed that the nursing education program, including hand-washing applications within the context of infection control measures, is updated but that the students neither practice what they have learned nor give adequate attention to the subject.

  14. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  15. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  16. Ultrasonic coal-wash for de-ashing and de-sulfurization. Experimental investigation and mechanistic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambedkar, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2012-07-01

    This study focuses on the physical aspects of ultrasonic de-ashing and de-sulfurization, such as cavitation, streaming and their combined effects. Ambedkar Balraj proposes an ultrasound-assisted coal particle breakage mechanism and explores aqueous and solvent-based ultrasonic techniques for de-ashing and de-sulfurization. Ambedkar designs a Taguchi L-27 fractional-factorial matrix to assess the individual effects of key process variables. In this volume he also describes process optimization and scale-up strategies. The author provides a mechanism-based model for ultrasonic reagent-based coal de-sulfurization, proposes a flow diagram for ultrasonic methods of high-throughput coal-wash and discusses the benefits of ultrasonic coal-wash. Coal will continue to be a major fuel source for the foreseeable future and this study helps improve its use by minimising ash and sulfur impurities.

  17. Gas turbine cleaning upgrade (compressor wash)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, P. [Gas Turbine Efficiency, Jarfalla (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of gas turbine degradation on operating costs is high. Gas turbine cleaning is one of many actions taken for power recovery and is to consider as preventive maintenance. It is generally performed within the industrial field and occasionally within the aero sector. In order to meet the gas turbine development win high blade loads and ever-increasing temperatures, together with emission Aces and environmental regulations, more efficient and careful cleaning methods are needed. Following a survey about potentials for cost reduction in gas turbine operation a new man-hour and water saving cleaning method has been evaluated for a standard process. Compared with traditional cleaning methods, the new method is water,- cost,- weight and space saving due to a new washing technique. Traditional methods are based on using different nozzles for ON and OFF-line cleaning, which rise the demand for complicated systems. In the new method the same nozzle installation, same liquid flow and pressure is used for both ON and OFF-line cleaning. This gives a cost reduction of appr. 20.000 - 30.000 USD per gas turbine depending on installation and size. Evaluation of the new method shows significantly improved ON -line cleaning performance and thus OFF -line cleaning is required only during scheduled stops. (orig.) 10 refs.

  18. Solvent exchange using hollow fiber prior to separation and determination of some antioxidants by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Jönsson, Jan Ake

    2007-06-26

    This study presents a simple and rapid solvent exchange procedure using a hollow fiber. Antioxidants (Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076 and Irgafos 168) and solvents such as tetrahydrofuran (THF), carbon tetrachloride and toluene were selected as model compounds and sample solvents, respectively. After injection of the sample solution into the hollow fiber and solvent evaporation, the precipitated analytes in lumen and pores of the fiber were washed with methanol (the mobile phase for separation and determination by HPLC-diode array detection) and good chromatographic peaks were obtained. The effect of different parameters such as fiber length, volumes of sample and washing solvents were investigated and the optimum conditions were selected. The repeatability of the method was tested and it was found that the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was less than 10% for all analytes. Also enrichment factors of 3.03, 2.21 and 1.19 times were obtained for Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076 and Irgafos 168, respectively, when 200 microL sample and 50 microL methanol (washing solvent) were used.

  19. Design and optimisation of purification procedure for biodiesel washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Glišić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost complete methanolysis of triglycerides is usually not enough to fulfil the strict standards of biodiesel quality. A key step in this process is neutralization of alkali (catalyst followed by the washing procedure necessary for removing different impurities such as traces of catalyst and methanol and removal of soaps and glycerol from esters phase. The washing with hot water is still widely used in many industrial units for the biodiesel production. In this study, different procedures of biodiesel washing using hot water were investigated. The orto-phosphoric acid was suggested as the best compound for alkali catalyst (sodium hydroxide neutralization. The main goal of the performed analysis was to minimize the water usage in the washing-neutralization step during the biodiesel production. Such solution would make the process of biodiesel synthesis more economical taking into account the decrease of energy consumed for evaporation of water during the final product purification, as well as more acceptable procedure related to the impact on environment (minimal waste water release. Results of the performed simulation of the washing process supported by original experimental data suggested that neutralization after the optimized washing process of the methyl ester layer could be the best solution. The proposed washing procedure significantly decreases the amount of waste water giving at the same time the desired purity of final products (biodiesel and glycerol. The simulation of the process was performed using ASPEN plus software supported by ELCANTREL and UNIQUAC procedure of required properties calculation

  20. Investigation of the washing conditions of domestic types of wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Mihailo B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The wool fibers that are obtained in the Republic of Serbs have not been systematically analyzed. Also, they are only used in domestic crafts production, not for industrial means. This study is the beginning of a project with the aim of determining how to replace a quantity of imported wool by domestic wool in the process of industrial manufacturing.The washing of two types of domestic wool was investigated, namely pramen-ka and polumerino. The parameters used to wash this wool were varied, such as materials for washing (from clean water to surfactants and additives, as well as the temperature and length of the washing process.The effects of washing the wool were tested with respect to the content of clean wool, the content of organic materials soluble in ethanol, the content of herbal components insoluble in sodium-hydroxide solutions and mineral substances represented as ash quantities. The optimal conditions for washing wool were defined, as well as recommendations for the more economic usage of materials used in washing.

  1. [To wash or not to wash the hands? Reasons for a nursing team].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Angela Conte; Dall'Agnol, Clarice Maria

    2005-04-01

    A qualitative study was performed by asking the nursing team at an emergency care hospital about the reasons that lead them to wash their hands or not, since this is an important measure to control cross infection in hospitals. The data, obtained by using the focus groups technique were submitted to enunciation analysis, resulting in emerging topics. It was found out that the supply of material and environmental resources is essential but does not solve all problems. The procedure is performed mainly because of visible dirt and it is a neglected and undervalued practice with predominant focus on protecting the professionals.

  2. Selective dissolution followed by EDDS washing of an e-waste contaminated soil: Extraction efficiency, fate of residual metals, and impact on soil environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Valix, Marjorie; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-01-01

    To enhance extraction of strongly bound metals from oxide minerals and organic matter, this study examined the sequential use of reductants, oxidants, alkaline solvents and organic acids followed by a biodegradable chelating agent (EDDS, [S,S]-ethylene-diamine-disuccinic-acid) in a two-stage soil washing. The soil was contaminated by Cu, Zn, and Pb at an e-waste recycling site in Qingyuan city, China. In addition to extraction efficiency, this study also examined the fate of residual metals (e.g., leachability, bioaccessibility, and distribution) and the soil quality parameters (i.e., cytotoxicity, enzyme activities, and available nutrients). The reductants (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride) effectively extracted metals by mineral dissolution, but elevated the leachability and bioaccessibility of metals due to the transformation from Fe/Mn oxides to labile fractions. Subsequent EDDS washing was found necessary to mitigate the residual risks. In comparison, prior washing by oxidants (persulphate, hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide) was marginally useful because of limited amount of soil organic matter. Prior washing by alkaline solvents (sodium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate) was also ineffective due to metal precipitation. In contrast, prior washing by low-molecular-weight organic acids (citrate and oxalate) improved the extraction efficiency. Compared to hydroxylamine hydrochloride, citrate and oxalate induced lower cytotoxicity (Microtox) and allowed higher enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and urease) and soil nutrients (available nitrogen and phosphorus), which would facilitate reuse of the treated soil. Therefore, while sequential washing proved to enhance extraction efficacy, the selection of chemical agents besides EDDS should also include the consideration of effects on metal leachability/bioaccessibility and soil quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Konopka, Allan; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Chang, M. T.

    2014-06-21

    The mechanism of polymer disolution was explored for polymer microsystem prototyping, including microfluidics and optofluidics. Polymer films are immersed in a solvent, imprinted and finally brought into contact with a non-modified surface to permanently bond. The underlying polymer-solvent interactions were experimentally and theoretically investigated, and enabled rapid polymer microsystem prototyping. During imprinting, small molecule integration in the molded surfaces was feasible, a principle applied to oxygen sensing. Polystyrene (PS) was employed for microbiological studies at extreme environmental conditions. The thermophile anaerobe Clostridium Thermocellum was grown in PS pore-scale micromodels, revealing a double mean generation lifetime than under ideal culture conditions. Microsystem prototyping through directed polymer dissolution is simple and accessible, while simultaneous patterning, bonding, and surface/volume functionalization are possible in less than one minute.

  4. Role of solvent/non-solvent ratio on microsphere formation using the solvent removal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, J; Scott, E; Pattamunuch, P; Chen, S; Mathiowitz, E

    2004-03-01

    The importance of good solvent concentration in the non-solvent mixture and the non-solvent viscosity on the ability to form microspheres using solvent removal process was investigated. The higher the viscosity of the polymer solutions, the higher the concentration of good solvent needed in the nonsolvent mixture to produce microspheres. This finding was due to faster precipitation of the polymer phase. Also, the addition of a model drug, fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated-labelled bovine serum albumin, to the polymer solution (10% poly-L-lactic acid:poly(fumaric-co-sebacic) anhydride in methylene chloride) resulted in an overall lower polymer solution viscosity (15.5 cP with fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated-labelled bovine serum albumin as compared with 18.25 cP for blank polymer at 25 degrees C). Additionally, the effect of good solvent concentration on non-solvent viscosity was evaluated, and the viscosity decreased as the concentration of good solvent increased. The effect of good solvent concentration on the non-solvent mixture on sphere formation was of great importance. Microspheres would not form when the good polymer solvent (methylene chloride) in the non-solvent phase was too low (below 175 ml for poly-L-lactic acid or 150 ml for poly(D,L-lactidco-glycolid)) or was replaced by another good solvent such as ethyl acetate, even though the same viscosity was achieved. It was shown that the concentration of the good solvent in the non-solvent mixture was more of a controlling factor than the viscosity of the non-solvent mixture in microsphere formation and the findings support the conclusion that diffusion is the main controlling parameter in solvent removal.

  5. Effects of soap-water wash on human epidermal penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanjiang; Jung, Eui-Chang; Phuong, Christina; Hui, Xiaoying; Maibach, Howard

    2016-08-01

    Skin decontamination is a primary interventional method used to decrease dermal absorption of hazardous contaminants, including chemical warfare agents, pesticides and industrial pollutants. Soap and water wash, the most common and readily available decontamination system, may enhance percutaneous absorption through the "wash-in effect." To understand better the effect of soap-water wash on percutaneous penetration, and provide insight to improving skin decontamination methods, in vitro human epidermal penetration rates of four C(14) -labeled model chemicals (hydroquinone, clonidine, benzoic acid and paraoxon) were assayed using flow-through diffusion cells. Stratum corneum (SC) absorption rates of these chemicals at various hydration levels (0-295% of the dry SC weights) were determined and compared with the results of the epidermal penetration study to clarify the effect of SC hydration on skin permeability. Results showed accelerated penetration curves of benzoic acid and paraoxon after surface wash at 30 min postdosing. Thirty minutes after washing (60 min postdosing), penetration rates of hydroquinone and benzoic acid decreased due to reduced amounts of chemical on the skin surface and in the SC. At the end of the experiment (90 min postdosing), a soap-water wash resulted in lower hydroquinone penetration, greater paraoxon penetration and similar levels of benzoic acid and clonidine penetration compared to penetration levels in the non-wash groups. The observed wash-in effect agrees with the enhancement effect of SC hydration on the SC chemical absorption rate. These results suggest SC hydration derived from surface wash to be one cause of the wash-in effect. Further, the occurrence of a wash-in effect is dependent on chemical identity and elapsed time between exposure and onset of decontamination. By reducing chemical residue quantity on skin surface and in the SC reservoir, the soap-water wash may decrease the total quantity of chemical absorbed in the

  6. Cytology of benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma in peritoneal washings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaly, M; Bongiovanni, M; Kumar, N; Egger, J-F; Pelte, M-F; Genevay, M; Finci, V; Tschanz, E; Pache, J-C

    2008-08-01

    To describe the cytological aspect of peritoneal washings in benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (BMPM). Three peritoneal washing specimens stained by standard cytological and histological procedures and analysed by light microscopy. The specimens showed an abundance of monomorphous mesothelial cells devoid of atypia or mitoses. The mesothelial cells were calretinin positive. They also showed numerous squamous metaplastic cells arranged in flat sheets or isolated cells. The background contained some inflammatory cells. The combination of cytology of the peritoneal washing, histology (cell block and surgical specimen) and clinical history allow differentiation of BMPM from other cystic lesions (cystic lymphangioma and malignant mesothelioma).

  7. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-01-01

    .... The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report...

  8. Diamex solvent regeneration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, C.; Cames, B.; Margot, L.; Ramain, L. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification, DRRV, 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2000-07-01

    The CEA has undertaken the development of the DIAMEX process as the first step in the strategy aiming at recovering minor actinides which could then be transmuted or separately conditioned. The scientific feasibility of this process was demonstrated during counter current hot tests operated in 1993. Then experimental works were conducted, on one hand to optimise the extractant formula, on the other hand to improve the flowsheet. Reference extractant and flowsheet were then chosen, respectively in 1995 and 1996. The next step, still in progress, is the demonstration of the DIAMEX technical feasibility (in 2002); this means that the flowsheet should include solvent regeneration treatments. In this aim, degradation studies were performed to quantify main degradation products, and identify those which could be disturbing in the process. This paper deals with experimental studies performed with intend to propose a regeneration treatment, included in the flowsheet, so that the solvent could be recycled. It comprises: - Quantification of the main degradation products issued from radiolysis or hydrolysis, which are methyl octyl amine (MOA) and carboxylic acids; - Effects of these products on extracting and hydrodynamics performances of the process; - Study of methods able to remove mainly disturbing degradation products. Acidic scrubbing, which are performed in the scrubbing and stripping sections of the DIAMEX process, should allow the quantitative removal of methyl octyl amine. Then basic scrubbings, which were more especially studied, should eliminate at least 80% of carboxylic acids, and part of the cations remaining in the solvent. (authors)

  9. Lipase and biosurfactant from Ochrobactrum intermedium strain MZV101 isolated by washing powder for detergent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarinviarsagh, Mina; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Sadeghi, Hossein

    2017-09-18

    Alkaline thermostable lipase and biosurfactant producing bacteria are very interested at detergent applications, not only because of their eco-friendly characterize, but alsoproduction lipase and biosurfactant by using cheap materials. Ochrobactrum intermedium strain MZV101 was isolated as washing powder resistant, alkaline thermostable lipase and biosurfactant producing bacterium in order to use at detergent applications. O. intermedium strain MZV101 produces was lipase and biosurfactant in the same media with pH 10 and temperature of 60 °C. Washing test and some detergent compatibility character of lipase enzyme and biosurfactant were assayed. The antimicrobial activity evaluated against various bacteria and fungi. Lipase and biosurfactant produced by O. intermedium strain MZV101 exhibited high stability at pH 10-13 and temperature of 70-90 °C, biosurfactant exhibits good stability at pH 9-13 and thermostability in all range. Both lipase and biosurfactant were found to be stable in the presence of different metal ions, detergents and organic solvents. The lipase enzyme extracted using isopropanol with yield of 69.2% and biosurfactant with ethanol emulsification index value of 70.99% and yield of 9.32 (g/l). The single band protein after through from G-50 Sephadex column on SDS-PAGE was calculated to be 99.42 kDa. Biosurfactant O. intermedium strain MZV101 exhibited good antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria and against various bacterial pathogens. Based upon washing test biosurfactant and lipase O. intermedium strain MZV101considered being strong oil removal. The results of this study indicate that isolated lipase and biosurfactant with strong oil removal, antimicrobial activity and good stability could be useful for detergent applications.

  10. Percutaneous penetration and pharmacodynamics: Wash-in and wash-off of sunscreen and insect repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jocelyn; Maibach, Howard I

    2016-01-01

    Increased awareness of skin cancer and mosquito-transmitted diseases has increased use of insect repellents and sunscreens. The challenge in setting recommendations for use and reapplication, especially when used concomitantly, lies in finding the balance between applying a durable product effective in withstanding natural and physical factors such as water, sweat, temperature and abrasion, while limiting percutaneous absorption and decreasing risk of potential dermal and systemic toxicity. Inorganic sunscreens show no or little percutaneous absorption or toxic effects in comparison to organic sunscreens, which show varying levels of dermal penetration and cutaneous adverse effects. An alternative to N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the traditional gold standard compound in insect repellents, picaridin appears as efficacious, has lower risk of toxicity, and when used simultaneously with sunscreen may decrease percutaneous absorption of both compounds. Conversely, combined use of DEET and sunscreen results in significantly higher absorption of both compounds. It is important to increase consumer awareness of "washing in" of various compounds leading to increased risk of toxicity, as well as differences in reapplication need due to "washing off" caused by water, sweat and abrasion. Although much remains to be studied, to maximize efficacy and decrease toxicity, contemporary research tools, including dermatopharmokinetics, should aid these prospective advances.

  11. A new synthesis route to high surface area sol gel bioactive glass through alcohol washing

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Mukundan, Lakshmi; Nirmal, Remya; Vaikkath, Dhanesh; Nair, Prabha D.

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive glass is one of the widely used bone repair material due to its unique properties like osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity and biodegradability. In this study bioactive glass is prepared by the sol gel process and stabilized by a novel method that involves a solvent instead of the conventional calcinations process. This study represents the first attempt to use this method for the stabilization of bioactive glass. The bioactive glass stabilized by this ethanol washing process was characterized for its physicochemical and biomimetic property in comparison with similar composition of calcined bioactive glass. The compositional similarity of the two stabilized glass powders was confirmed by spectroscopic and thermogravimetric analysis. Other physicochemical characterizations together with the cell culture studies with L929 fibroblast cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells proved that the stabilization was achieved with the retention of its inherent bioactive potential. However an increase in the surface area of the glass powder was obtained as a result of this ethanol washing process and this add up to the success of the study. Hence the present study exhibits a promising route for high surface area bioactive glass for increasing biomimicity. PMID:23512012

  12. Documentation of a decision framework to support enhanced sludge washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brothers, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    This document describes a proposed decision model that, if developed to its fullest, can provide a wide range of analysis options and insights to pretreatment/sludge washing alternatives. A recent decision has been made to terminate this work

  13. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bucher, Joshua; Donovan, Colleen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; McCoy, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS...

  14. Washing off intensification of cotton and wool fabrics by ultrasounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, R; Actis Grande, G; Giansetti, M; Rehman, S; Sicardi, S; Rovero, G

    2015-03-01

    Wet textile washing processes were set up for wool and cotton fabrics to evaluate the potential of ultrasound transducers (US) in improving dirt removal. The samples were contaminated with an emulsion of carbon soot in vegetable oil and aged for three hours in fan oven. Before washing, the fabrics were soaked for 3 min in a standard detergent solution and subsequently washed in a water bath. The dirt removal was evaluated through colorimetric measurements. The total color differences ΔE of the samples were measured with respect to an uncontaminated fabric, before and after each washing cycle. The percentage of ΔE variation obtained was calculated and correlated to the dirt removal. The results showed that the US transducers enhanced the dirt removal and temperature was the parameter most influencing the US efficiency on the cleaning process. Better results were obtained at a lower process temperature.

  15. Being washed by someone is therapeutic... and a treat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterflood, Florence

    2014-08-26

    When in Istanbul, I visited a hamam, a traditional Turkish bath. I'm familiar with other bathing rituals--steam room, sauna, Jacuzzi--but suspected being washed by someone in front of others was not very British.

  16. Hand Washing Practices among School Children in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steiner-Asiedu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The high incidence of diarrhoeal diseases and other communicable diseases among children due to poor personal hygiene and sanitation remains a concern on the public health agenda in most countries. To address the problem efficiently, an understanding of the knowledge and practices among target populations is needed to plan and design behavioural interventions. It is against this background that the present study was carried out to determine the hand washing practices among children in private and public school in the Metropolis in the Greater-Accra region of Ghana, with both private and public schools. A total of 295 school children were randomly recruited into the study. The study was cross-sectional in design and used qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographics. A check list was used during the observation of hand washing practices and an interview guide was used for the focus group discussions. The results showed that, most school children observed did not practice proper hand washing with soap, both in school and at home due to the unavailability and inaccessibility of hand washing facilities such as soap, towel and clean running water. However, majority (90.2% of those who used the school toilet practiced hand washing with soap after defecation. Private schools were found to be 63% (p = 0.02 less likely to wash their hands after using the toilet, 51% (p = 0.03 less likely to wash their hands before eating and 77% (p<0.001 less likely to wash their hands with soap after eating compared to their public school counterparts. Parents reported the presence of hand washing facilities at home but structured observations during home visits proved otherwise. The need to extend the hand washing campaigns to private schools cannot be overemphasised. It will be useful for the Ghana Education Service to collaborate with all stakeholders; such as Ghana Health Services, National

  17. Direct Evidence of Washing out of Nuclear Shell Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, A; Banerjee, K; Bhattacharya, S; Sadhukhan, Jhilam; Bhattacharya, C; Kundu, S; Meena, J K; Mukherjee, G; Pandey, R; Rana, T K; Roy, P; Roy, T; Srivastava, V; Bhattacharya, P

    2015-01-01

    Constraining excitation energy at which nuclear shell effect washes out has important implications on the production of super heavy elements and many other fields of nuclear physics research. We report the fission fragment mass distribution in alpha induced reaction on an actinide target for wide excitation range in close energy interval and show direct evidence that nuclear shell effect washes out at excitation energy ~40 MeV. Calculation shows that second peak of the ?fission barrier also vanishes around similar excitation energy.

  18. Semiactive Vibration Control for Horizontal Axis Washing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Can Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A semiactive vibration control method is developed to cope with the dynamic stability problem of a horizontal axis washing machine. This method is based on adjusting the maximum force values produced by the semiactive suspension elements considering a washing machine’s vibration data (three axis angular position and three axis angular acceleration values in time. Before actuation signals are received by the step motors of the friction dampers, vibration data are evaluated, and then, the step motors start to narrow or expand the radius of bracelets located on the dampers. This changes the damping properties of the damper in the suspension system, and thus, the semiactive suspension system absorbs unwanted vibrations and contributes to the dynamic stability of the washing machine. To evaluate the vibration data, the angular position and angular acceleration values in three axes are defined in a function, and the maximum forces produced by semiactive suspension elements are calculated according to the gradient of this function. The relation between the dynamic stability and the walking stability is also investigated. A motion (gyroscope and accelerometer sensor is installed on the top-front panel of the washing machine because a mathematical model of a horizontal axis washing machine suggests that the walking behavior starts around this location under some assumptions, and therefore, calculating the vibrations occurring there is crucial. Semiactive damping elements are located under the left and right sides of the tub. The proposed method is tested during the spinning cycle of washing machine operation, increasing gradually from 200 rpm to 900 rpm, which produces the most challenging vibration patterns for dynamic stability. Moreover, the sound power levels produced by the washing machine are measured to evaluate the noise performance of the washing machine while the semiactive suspension system is controlled. The effectiveness of the

  19. Immunotoxicity of washing soda in a freshwater sponge of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumalya; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2015-03-01

    The natural habitat of sponge, Eunapius carteri faces an ecotoxicological threat of contamination by washing soda, a common household cleaning agent of India. Washing soda is chemically known as sodium carbonate and is reported to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Domestic effluent, drain water and various human activities in ponds and lakes have been identified as the major routes of washing soda contamination of water. Phagocytosis and generation of cytotoxic molecules are important immunological responses offered by the cells of sponges against environmental toxins and pathogens. Present study involves estimation of phagocytic response and generation of cytotoxic molecules like superoxide anion, nitric oxide and phenoloxidase in E. carteri under the environmentally realistic concentrations of washing soda. Sodium carbonate exposure resulted in a significant decrease in the phagocytic response of sponge cells under 4, 8, 16 mg/l of the toxin for 96h and all experimental concentrations of the toxin for 192h. Washing soda exposure yielded an initial increase in the generation of the superoxide anion and nitric oxide followed by a significant decrease in generation of these cytotoxic agents. Sponge cell generated a high degree of phenoloxidase activity under the experimental exposure of 2, 4, 8, 16 mg/l of sodium carbonate for 96 and 192 h. Washing soda induced alteration of phagocytic and cytotoxic responses of E. carteri was indicative to an undesirable shift in their immune status leading to the possible crises of survival and propagation of sponges in their natural habitat.

  20. Occupational solvent exposure and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, E.L.; Glymour, M.M.; Berr, C.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Chronic occupational solvent exposure is associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Cognitive reserve may protect solvent-exposed workers from cognitive impairment. We tested whether the association between chronic solvent exposure and cognition varied by educational attainment, a proxy for cognitive reserve. Methods: Data were drawn from a prospective cohort of French national gas and electricity (GAZEL) employees (n = 4,134). Lifetime exposure to 4 solvent types (chlorinated solvents, petroleum solvents, benzene, and nonbenzene aromatic solvents) was assessed using a validated job-exposure matrix. Education was dichotomized at less than secondary school or below. Cognitive impairment was defined as scoring below the 25th percentile on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at mean age 59 (SD 2.8; 88% of participants were retired at testing). Log-binomial regression was used to model risk ratios (RRs) for poor cognition as predicted by solvent exposure, stratified by education and adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results: Solvent exposure rates were higher among less-educated patients. Within this group, there was a dose-response relationship between lifetime exposure to each solvent type and RR for poor cognition (e.g., for high exposure to benzene, RR = 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.09–1.41), with significant linear trends (p < 0.05) in 3 out of 4 solvent types. Recency of solvent exposure also predicted worse cognition among less-educated patients. Among those with secondary education or higher, there was no significant or near-significant relationship between any quantification of solvent exposure and cognition. Conclusions: Solvent exposure is associated with poor cognition only among less-educated individuals. Higher cognitive reserve in the more-educated group may explain this finding. PMID:22641403

  1. Slurry filtration and cake washing after the HCl-leach of magnesite and serpentine—continuous washing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Denis; Nagamori, Meguru

    1994-06-01

    Four different ores of magnesite and serpentine were leached with hydrochloric acid to produce concentrated magnesium chloride liquors. The neutralized slurries were filtered at a constant pressure, and the cakes were washed with water. As for filtration, the mass balance was calculated based on magnesium analyses, while the Darcy-Ruth equation was used to investigate the kinetics and assess the specific resistance of cakes. As for washing, the mass balance and kinetics were accounted for in terms of a continuous mathematical model, which is compatible with the Moncrieff equation. This new model explains well the washing test results. Washing operations can be optimized only in economical terms, and a complete set of mathematical formulae was presented for the optimization procedure.

  2. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  3. Hand washing in operating room: a procedural comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Stilo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hand washing has been considered a measure of personal hygiene for centuries and it is known that an improper hand hygiene by healthcare workers is responsible for about 40% of nosocomial infections. Therefore, surgical hand preparation is a critical element for healthcare safety in order to reduce microbial contamination of  surgical wound in case of non detected break of the gloves. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy three antiseptics: Povi-iodine scrub; EPG (Ethanol, Hydrogen Peroxide, Glycerol, recommended by WHO, and common marseille soap type in a liquid formulation. METHODS It was designed a randomized, double-blind, single-center study conducted in the University Hospital of Messina, from January to June 2013. We asked operators to put the fingertips of their right hand (if not left-handed for one minute on the PCA medium, before washing with the three types of antiseptics, and after washing and drying. Drying was made using sterile gauzes or disposable wipes. Then, we measured the number of colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL and calculated the percentage of microbial load reduction. RESULTS 211 samples have been considered for statistical analysis: in 42 samples, in fact, initial microbial load was lower than after washing. Washing with EPG reduced CFU/ml from  a mean of 38,9 to 4,1 (86,5% reduction, washing with povi-iodine scrub from 59,55 to 12,9 (75,9% reduction and washing with Marseille soap from 47,26 to 12,7 (64,3% reduction. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that washing with EPG has superior efficacy in CFU reduction. Antiseptic hand washing, however, cannot be considered the only measure to reduce infections: the anomaly of some results (initial microbial load lower than after washing  demonstrates that drying is an essential phase in the presurgical preparation. Therefore, hand hygiene must be part of a more complex strategy of surveillance and control of nosocomial infections

  4. Washing technology development for gravel contaminated with uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Uk Ryang; Kim, Gye Nam; Kim, Seung Soo; Kim, Wan Suk; Moon, Jai Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The soil washing method has a short decontamination time and is economical. In addition, methods including phytoremediation, solidification/stabilization and bioremediation exist. Phytoremediation and bioremediation are economical, but have low remedial efficiency. In addition, bioremediation causes washing wastewater because it requires a washing process for the separation of microorganisms from the soils. In addition, solidification/stabilization is a commonly used methods, but eventually increases the volume of wastes. As mentioned above, many researches involved in the decontamination of radioactively contaminated soils have been actively processed. On the other hand, researches for decontaminating radioactively contaminated gravels are not being currently processed. In this study, we performed basic experiments using decontamination methods to decontaminate radioactively contaminated gravel. First, we measured the concentration of uranium in gravel included in uranium-contaminated soils and performed a washing experiment to monitor the tendency of uranium removal. In addition, when managing gravel with a low uranium-decontamination rate, we tried to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal in the wastes (0.4Bq/g or less) by performing a washing experiment after only a physical crushing process. We performed washing experiments to satisfy the radioactivity concentration criteria for self-disposal (0.4 Bq/g or less) in gravel included in radioactively contaminated soil. We performed washing experiments for gravel whose initial average concentration of uranium was 1.3Bq/g. In addition, the average concentration of uranium was 0.8Bq/g. Too increase the decontamination rate, we crushed the gravel with a jaw crusher and performed the washing experiments. The results were similar to the results without crushing. In addition, it was determined that the smaller the size of the gravel particles, the more efficient the uranium decontamination

  5. Use of Organic Solvents to Extract Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) from Aged Contaminated Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Mao; JIN Xin; JIANG Xin; YANG Xing-Lun; SUN Ming-Ming; BIAN Yong-Rong; WANG Fang; GU Cheng-Gang; WEI Hai-Jiang; SONG Yang; WANG Lei

    2013-01-01

    Problems associated with organochlorine pesticide (OCP)-contaminated sites in China have received wide attention.To solve such problems,innovative ex-situ methods of site remediation are urgently needed.We investigated the feasibility of the extraction method with different organic solvents,ethanol,1-propanol,and three fractions of petroleum ether,using a soil collected from Wujiang (WJ),China,a region with long-term contamination of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs).We evaluated different influential factors,including organic solvent concentration,washing time,mixing speed,solution-to-soil ratio,and washing temperature,on the removal of DDTs from the WJ soil.A set of relatively better parameters were selected for extraction with 100 mL L-1 petroleum ether (60-90 ℃):washing time of 180 min,mixing speed of 100 r min-1,solution-to-soil ratio of 10:1,and washing temperature of 50 ℃.These selected parameters were also applied on three other seriously OCP-polluted soils.Results demonstrated their broad-spectrum effectiveness and excellent OCP extraction performance on the contaminated soils with different characteristics.

  6. Technical bases DWPF Late Washing Facility. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fish, D.L.; Landon, L.F.

    1992-08-10

    A task force recommended that the technical feasibility of a ``Late Wash` facility be assessed [1]. In this facility, each batch of tetraphenylborate slurry from Tank 49 would be given a final wash to reduce the concentrations of nitrite and radiolysis products to acceptable levels. Laboratory-scale studies have demonstrated that d the nitrite content of the slurry fed to DWPF is reduced to 0.01 M or less (and at least a 4X reduction in concentration of the soluble species is attained), (1) the need for HAN during hydrolysis is eliminated (eliminating the production of ammonium ion during hydrolysis), (2) hydrolysis may be done with a catalyst concentration that will not exceed the copper solubility in glass and (3) the non-polar organic production during hydrolysis is significantly reduced. The first phase of an aggressive research and development program has been completed and all test results obtained to date support the technical feasibility of Late Washing. Paralleling this research and development effort is an aggressive design study directed by DWPF to scope and cost retrofitting the Auxiliary Pump Pit (APP) to enable performing a final wash of each batch of precipitate slurry before R is transferred into the DWPF Soft Processing Cell (SPC). An initial technical bases for the Late Wash Facility was transmitted to DWPF on June 15, 1992. Research and development activities are continuing directed principally at optimization of the cross-f low fitter decontamination methodology and pilot-scale validation of the recommended benzene stripping metodology.

  7. Wash-Out in N_2-dominated leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn-Woernle, Florian

    2009-01-01

    We study the wash-out of a cosmological baryon asymmetry produced via leptogenesis by subsequent interactions. Therefore we focus on a scenario in which a lepton asymmetry is established in the out-of-equilibrium decays of the next-to-lightest right-handed neutrino. We apply the full classical Boltzmann equations without the assumption of kinetic equilibrium and including all quantum statistical factors to calculate the wash-out of the lepton asymmetry by interactions of the lightest right-handed state. We include scattering processes with top quarks in our analysis. This is of particular interest since the wash-out is enhanced by scatterings and the use of mode equations with quantum statistical distribution functions. In this way we provide a restriction on the parameter space for this scenarios.

  8. Increasing hand washing compliance with a simple visual cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric W; Boyer, Brian T; Menachemi, Nir; Huerta, Timothy R

    2014-10-01

    We tested the efficacy of a simple, visual cue to increase hand washing with soap and water. Automated towel dispensers in 8 public bathrooms were set to present a towel either with or without activation by users. We set the 2 modes to operate alternately for 10 weeks. Wireless sensors were used to record entry into bathrooms. Towel and soap consumption rates were checked weekly. There were 97,351 hand-washing opportunities across all restrooms. Towel use was 22.6% higher (P=.05) and soap use was 13.3% higher (P=.003) when the dispenser presented the towel without user activation than when activation was required. Results showed that a visual cue can increase hand-washing compliance in public facilities.

  9. Gravity and magnetic study of Yucca Wash, southwest Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.; Oliver, H.W.; Sikora, R.F. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Gravity and ground magnetic data were collected along five traverses across and one traverse along Yucca Wash in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site. Two additional ground magnetic profiles were collected approximately 100 m to either side of the longitudinal profile. These data do not indicate major vertical offsets greater than 100 m using a density contrast of 0.2 to 0.3 g/cm{sup 3} along the proposed Yucca Wash fault. A broad magnetic high coincides with the location of the hydrologic gradient. Density profiling, a technique used to determine the average density of small topographic features, suggests that the density of near-surface material in the vicinity of Yucca Wash is about 2.0 g/cm{sup 3}.

  10. Design, development and demonstration of an improved bird washing machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Monsef, H; Moghadami, M; Zare, M; Armandei, A

    2014-07-01

    Since oil was first extracted, pollution of the seas and oceans or adjacent coasts has been an obstacle for the oil industry and environmental activists. The major concern is oil discharge into the water which may lead to birds' affliction or death, besides putting marine life in jeopardy. This paper presents the first description of the design and implementation of a new bird washing machine that can be utilized for cleaning of oil-coated birds with the minimum of stress. The machine is equipped with a pneumatic system comprised of 19 moving nozzles which evenly cover the bird's body and is designed to be used in contaminated environments where a vast number of birds are affected. Experimental trials show an improvement in operation efficiency compared to other methods in a reduction in washing time, energy consumption and a decrease in fatality rate of washed birds.

  11. Hand-Washing Practices of Women; a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Hisar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was carried out as a qualitative research in order to determine hand-washing practices of women living a Health Center in the town of Golbasi, Ankara. METHOT: The population of the research was made up of married women living in Number 2 Health Care Center in the town of Golbasi, Ankara. The current study is a qualitative research and carried out through purposive sampling method. Data was collected through in-depth interview method for the descriptive statistics, number, percentile frequency and mean were used for the descriptive statistics and content analysis was used for the analysis of qualitative data. RESULTS: The mean age of the women included in the research was =29.86. It was found that 40% of the women were graduates of a primary school and 86.7% had a nuclear family structure. Almost half of the families experienced frequent diarrhea, and almost all of the families often had a common cold / flu. Eighty percent of the women thought that hand washing protected them against common cold, and 66.7% reported that it protected urinary tract and genital area against diseases. On the other hand, 66.7% of the women reported that they did not know anything about the fact that using a towel commonly causes infections. Forty percent of the women expressed that they were able to make the family members wash their hands before meals, 73% did it after toilet while 40% was able to make them wash their hands when they came home. CONCLUSION: In this study it was determined that women do not pay enough attention to hand-washing. Depending on these results, it is suggested that in this first step, educational studies about the hand-washing should be made widespread. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(5.000: 537-544

  12. Characterization of wastewaters from vehicle washing companies and environmental impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The car wash business has developed rapidly in recent years due to the increased number of cars, thus, it can cause serious environmental problems considering its potential source of pollution. The aim of this study was to characterize the wastewater from car washing companies in the city of Campina Grande, in Paraiba state, and to analyze the environmental impacts generated. A survey was conducted from November 2009 to July 2010. The first step we present a survey of car wash businesses in the city, and identified 20 licensed companies in which we evaluated the number of vehicles washed per week, the existence of a system of pre-treatment of wastewater generated and infrastructure that would allow the realization of the collection of samples of the effluent, the second step was carried out chemical and physical characterization of wastewater from five 20 companies surveyed in the previous step, and third stage were measured pollution loads of wastewater from washing of vehicles in the city, from the results obtained in previous steps. The characterization parameters were analyzed: oil and grease, COD, heavy metals, TS, TSS, turbidity, TKN, total P, pH and color. The results demonstrated that the wastewater from the car wash establishments shows high concentrations of organic matter, oils and grease, heavy metals and solids, and as such did not conform with the specific environmental legislation. Evaluation of pollutant loads demonstrated that if releases without proper treatment, it can cause serious environmental problems. It is therefore essential that these establishments are properly monitored.

  13. Improving protein array performance: focus on washing and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Nidhi; Hurst, Robin; Hook, Brad; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Zhao, Kate Q; Nassif, Nadine; Bulleit, Robert F; Storts, Douglas R

    2008-10-01

    For protein microarrays, maintaining protein stability during the slide processing steps of washing, drying, and storage is of major concern. Although several studies have focused on the stability of immobilized antibodies in antibody microarrays, studies on protein-protein interaction arrays and enzyme arrays are lacking. In this paper we used five bait-prey protein interaction pairs and three enzymes to optimize the washing, drying, and storage conditions for protein arrays. The protein arrays for the study were fabricated by combining HaloTag technology and cell-free protein expression. The HaloTag technology, in combination with cell-free expression, allowed rapid expression and immobilization of fusion proteins on hydrogel-coated glass slides directly from cell extracts without any prior purification. Experimental results indicate enzyme captured on glass slides undergoes significant loss of activity when washed and spin-dried using only phosphate buffer, as is typically done with antibody arrays. The impact of washing and spin-drying in phosphate buffer on protein-protein interaction arrays was minimal. However, addition of 5% glycerol to the wash buffer helps retain enzyme activity during washing and drying. We observed significant loss of enzyme activity when slides were stored dry at 4 degrees C, however immobilized enzymes remained active for 30 days when stored at -20 degrees C in 50% glycerol. We also found that cell-free extract containing HaloTag-fused enzymes could undergo multiple freeze/thaw cycles without any adverse impact on enzyme activity. The findings indicate that for large ongoing studies, proteins of interest expressed in cell-free extract can be stored at -70 degrees C and repeatedly used to print small batches of protein array slides to be used over a few weeks.

  14. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Fenfen, E-mail: zhu@hse.gcoe.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl{sub 2} decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.CaCl{sub 2}) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl{sub 2}. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl{sub 2}.

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  16. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  17. Washing the patient: dignity and aesthetic values in nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pols, Jeannette

    2013-07-01

    Dignity is a fundamental concept, but its meaning is not clear. This paper attempts to clarify the term by analysing and reconnecting two meanings of dignity: humanitas and dignitas. Humanitas refers to citizen values that protect individuals as equal to one another. Dignitas refers to aesthetic values embedded in genres of sociality that relate to differences between people. The paper explores these values by way of an empirical ethical analysis of practices of washing psychiatric patients in nursing care. Nurses legitimate the washing of reluctant patients with reference to dignity. The analysis shows the intertwinement of humanitas and dignitas that gives dignity its fundamental meaning.

  18. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  19. Effectiveness of a nonrinse, alcohol-free antiseptic hand wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moadab, A; Rupley, K F; Wadhams, P

    2001-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel surfactant, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride hand sanitizer using the US Food and Drug Administration's method for testing antiseptic hand washes that podiatric physicians and other health-care personnel use. The alcohol-free product, HandClens, was compared with an alcohol-based product, Purell. Independent researchers from the California College of Podiatric Medicine conducted the study using 40 volunteer students from the class of 2001. The results show that HandClens outperformed Purell and met the regulatory requirements for a hand sanitizer. Purell failed as an antimicrobial hand wash and was less effective than a control soap used in the study.

  20. Selection and design of solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    . With increasing interest on issues such as waste, sustainability, environmental impact and green chemistry, the selection and design of solvents have become important problems that need to be addressed during chemical product-process design and development. Systematic methods and tools suitable for selection......Solvents are liquid solutions consisting of one or more chemicals. They have a very wide use and their use is not necessarily restricted to the process industries. This lecture will discuss the different roles and uses of solvents in chemical products and processes that manufacture them...... and design of solvents will be presented together with application examples. The selection problem is defined as finding known chemicals that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. The design problem is defined as finding the molecular structure (or mixture of molecules...

  1. Solvent degradation products in nuclear fuel processing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shook, H.E. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    The Savannah River Plant uses a modified Purex process to recover enriched uranium and separate fission products. This process uses 7.5% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in normal paraffin hydrocarbons for the solvent extraction of a nitric acid solution containing the materials to be separated. Periodic problems in product decontamination result from solvent degradation. A study to improve process efficiency has identified certain solvent degradation products and suggested mitigation measures. Undecanoic acid, lauric acid, and tridecanoic acid were tentatively identified as diluent degradation products in recycle solvent. These long-chain organic acids affect phase separation and lead to low decontamination factors. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to concentrate the organic acids in solvent prior to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). SPE and HPLC methods were optimized in this work for analysis of decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, and lauric acid in solvent. Accelerated solvent degradation studies with 7.5% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons showed that long-chain organic acids and long-chain alkyl butyl phosphoric acids are formed by reactions with nitric acid. Degradation of both tributyl phosphate and hydrocarbon can be minimized with purified normal paraffin replacing the standard grade presently used. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  2. Switchable Polarity Solvents: Are They Green?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaumann, Heinz

    2017-03-01

    Solvents play an incredibly important role in large scale chemical reactions. Switchable polarity solvents may prove to be a class of solvent that offers energy and material efficiencies greater than existing solvents. This paper examines such solvents and their potential in a variety of chemical reactions.

  3. Investigation of the Reuse of Immobilized Lipases in Biodiesel Synthesis: Influence of Different Solvents in Lipase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguieiras, Erika C G; Ribeiro, Douglas S; Couteiro, Pedro P; Bastos, Caenam M B; de Queiroz, Danielle S; Parreira, Juliana M; Langone, Marta A P

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel production catalyzed by immobilized lipases offers the possibility of easy reuse of the catalyst, which is very important to minimize costs and to make this process economically feasible. In this study, the reuse of three commercial immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM IM, and Lipozyme TL IM) was investigated in ethanolysis of soybean oil. The effect of the use of solvents (ethanol, butanol, and hexane) to wash the immobilized lipases before the enzyme reuse was evaluated, as well as the lipase reuse without solvent washing. The washing with butanol and ethanol led to the lowest decrease in ester yield after the first batch and allowed the highest glycerol removal (>85 %) from biocatalysts. The biocatalysts were incubated at 50 °C for 2 h in these three solvents. Esterification activities of the enzyme preparations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses of the beads, and protein content in organic phase were evaluated before and after incubation in the solvent. SEM analysis showed a significant change in beads morphology of Novozym 435 after contact with hexane. For Lipozyme TL IM lipase, this effect was visualized with ethanol.

  4. This is the way we wash our hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R

    Infection control nurses have a professional, ethical and legal duty to promote effective infection control practices throughout their trusts. This article describes a pilot study set up to observe hand-washing and glove use at Royal United Hospital Bath and sets out its recommendations for improvements in practice.

  5. 30 CFR 206.458 - Determination of washing allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may elect to use either a straight-line depreciation method based on the life of equipment or on the... depreciation and a return on undepreciated capital investment in accordance with paragraph (b)(2)(iv)(A) of... section. After a lessee has elected to use either method for a wash plant, the lessee may not later...

  6. Cultivation of freshwater microalgae in biodiesel wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Patrícia Giulianna Petraglia; Calixto, Clediana Dantas; da Silva Santana, Jordana Kaline; Sassi, Roberto; Costa Sassi, Cristiane Francisca; Abrahão, Raphael

    2017-06-21

    Biodiesel wash water is a contaminating industrial effluent that must be treated prior to disposal. The use of this effluent as a low-cost alternative cultivation medium for microalgae could represent a viable supplementary treatment. We cultivated 11 microalgae species with potential use for biodiesel production to assess their growth capacities in biodiesel industrial washing waters. Only Monoraphidium contortum, Ankistrodesmus sp., Chlorococcum sp., and one unidentified Chlorophyceae species grew effectively in that effluent. M. contortum showed the highest growth capacity and had the second highest fatty acid content (267.9 mg g(-1) of DW), predominantly producing palmitic (20.9%), 7,10,13-hexadecatrienoic (14%), oleic (16.2%), linoleic (10.5%), and linolenic acids (23.2%). In the second phase of the experiment, the microalgae were cultivated in biodiesel wash water at 75% of its initial concentration as well as in WC (control) medium. After 21 days of cultivation, 25.8 and 7.2% of the effluent nitrate and phosphate were removed, respectively, and the chemical oxygen demand was diminished by 31.2%. These results suggest the possibility of cultivating biodiesel producing microalgae in industrial wash water effluents.

  7. Removal of uranium from gravel using soil washing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ilgook; Kim, Kye-Nam; Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Jong-Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The development of nuclear technology has led to increasing radioactive waste containing uranium being released and disposed in the nuclear sites. Fine grained soils with a size of less than 4 mm are normally decontaminated using soil washing and electro-kinetic technologies. However, there have been few studies on the decontamination of gravels with a size of more than 4 mm. Therefore, it is necessary to study the decontamination of gravel contaminated with radionuclides. The main objective of the present study on soil washing was to define the optimal condition for acid treatment of uranium-polluted gravel. In this study, soil washing method was applied to remove uranium from gravel. The gravel was crushed and classified as particle sizes. The gravel particles were treated with sulfuric acid in a shaking incubator at 60 .deg. C and 150 rpm for 3 h. The optimal particle size of gravel for soil washing in removal of uranium was between 0.45 and 2.0 mm.

  8. Ultrasonic system for continuous washing of textiles in liquid layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A; Riera, Enrique; Acosta, Victor; Rodríguez, Germán; Blanco, Alfonso

    2010-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic energy for washing of textiles has been tried several times without achieving practical development. In fact, the softness of the fibres makes the cavitation to produce small erosion effect and the reticulate structure of the fabric favours the formation of air bubble layers which obstruct wave penetration. In addition, a high proportion of water with respect to the wash load and a certain water degassing is required to assure efficiency and homogeneity in the wash performance. Such requirements have hindered the commercial development of the ultrasonic washing machines for domestic purposes. For specific industrial applications, a great part of these limitations may be overcome. This article deals with a new process in which the fabric is exposed to the ultrasonic field in a flat format. Such process has been implemented at laboratory and at semi-industrial stage by using specially designed power ultrasonic transducers with rectangular plate radiators. The cleaning effect is produced by the intense cavitation field generated by the plate radiator within a thin layer of liquid where the fabric is introduced. The homogeneity of such effect is achieved by the successive exposure of all the fabric areas to the intense acoustic field. In this paper the structure and performance of the developed system are shown.

  9. WASHING STUDIES FOR PCP AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to evaluate the feasibility of washing pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote from the soil at an abandoned wood-treatment Superfund site in Pensacola, FL. The high sand content and lo...

  10. All You Have to Do is Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-26

    This CDC Kidtastics podcast teaches children how and when to wash their hands properly.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  11. Frequency of biofilm formation in toothbrushes and wash basin junks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulazeez A Abubakar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biofilms are known to be resistant to several antibiotics once they are allowed to form on any surface. Aim: To investigate the biofilm forming ability of some bacterial isolates in toothbrushes and wash basin junks. Materials and Methods: A total of 606 students of Federal University of Technology, Yola were provided with new toothbrushes, which were collected after 1 month of usage and screened for biofilm formation. Another 620 swabs were collected from the wash basins of Federal Medical Centre, Specialist Hospital, Federal University of Technology, and students′ hostels in Yola and from some residence in Jimeta, Yola Metropolis; they were all screened for biofilm formation. Results: A total of 38.3% biofilm formation rate was recorded. Three types of bacterial isolates were identified in the biofilms of toothbrushes and wash basin junks, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at the prevalence rate of 48.0%, 29.1%, and 22.6%, respectively. Overall, 83.3% of the toothbrush biofilm were identified from female students, while 16.7% were from their male counterparts. Statistically, the frequency of biofilm formation showed a significant difference by gender (X 2 = 10.242, P 0.05. Conclusion: This study identified three microorganisms namely S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa that were involved in wash basin junk biofilm formation. The findings also showed that occurrence of biofilm in females′ toothbrushes were significantly higher than in males′ (X 2 = 10.242, P < 0.05.

  12. Radioactive demonstration of the ``late wash`` Precipitate Hydrolysis Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Ha, B.C.

    1992-06-30

    This report presents results of the radioactive demonstration of the DWPF Precipitate Hydrolysis Process as it would occur in the ``late wash`` flowsheet in the absence of hydroxylamine nitrate. Radioactive precipitate containing Cs-137 from the April, 1983, in-tank precipitation demonstration in Tank 48 was used for these tests.

  13. Ink and Wash Painting for Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Ming; Chao, Hsin-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Five children with visual impairments received instruction in drawing, using ink and wash painting and calligraphy techniques. A special system developed by a blind Taiwanese Chinese calligrapher, Tsann-Cherng Liaw, was used to help the children orient and refine their work. Children's performance on simple drawing tasks was compared before and…

  14. Distillery spent wash: treatment technologies and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohana, Sarayu; Acharya, Bhavik K; Madamwar, Datta

    2009-04-15

    Distillery spent wash is the unwanted residual liquid waste generated during alcohol production and pollution caused by it is one of the most critical environmental issue. Despite standards imposed on effluent quality, untreated or partially treated effluent very often finds access to watercourses. The distillery wastewater with its characteristic unpleasant odor poses a serious threat to the water quality in several regions around the globe. The ever-increasing generation of distillery spent wash on the one hand and stringent legislative regulations of its disposal on the other has stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process this effluent efficiently and economically. A number of clean up technologies have been put into practice and novel bioremediation approaches for treatment of distillery spent wash are being worked out. Potential microbial (anaerobic and aerobic) as well as physicochemical processes as feasible remediation technologies to combat environmental pollution are being explored. An emerging field in distillery waste management is exploiting its nutritive potential for production of various high value compounds. This review presents an overview of the pollution problems caused by distillery spent wash, the technologies employed globally for its treatment and its alternative use in various biotechnological sectors.

  15. Distillery spent wash: Treatment technologies and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohana, Sarayu [BRD School of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120, Gujarat (India)], E-mail: sarayu124@yahoo.com; Acharya, Bhavik K. [BRD School of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120, Gujarat (India)], E-mail: acharyabhavik@yahoo.com; Madamwar, Datta [BRD School of Biosciences, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120, Gujarat (India)], E-mail: datta_madamwar@yahoo.com

    2009-04-15

    Distillery spent wash is the unwanted residual liquid waste generated during alcohol production and pollution caused by it is one of the most critical environmental issue. Despite standards imposed on effluent quality, untreated or partially treated effluent very often finds access to watercourses. The distillery wastewater with its characteristic unpleasant odor poses a serious threat to the water quality in several regions around the globe. The ever-increasing generation of distillery spent wash on the one hand and stringent legislative regulations of its disposal on the other has stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process this effluent efficiently and economically. A number of clean up technologies have been put into practice and novel bioremediation approaches for treatment of distillery spent wash are being worked out. Potential microbial (anaerobic and aerobic) as well as physicochemical processes as feasible remediation technologies to combat environmental pollution are being explored. An emerging field in distillery waste management is exploiting its nutritive potential for production of various high value compounds. This review presents an overview of the pollution problems caused by distillery spent wash, the technologies employed globally for its treatment and its alternative use in various biotechnological sectors.

  16. Rinsing Processes in Open-width Washing Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroezen, A.B.J.; Linden, van der H.J.L.J.; Groot Wassink, J.

    1986-01-01

    A simulator is described for rinsing processes carried out on open-width washing machines. In combination with a theoretical model, a simple method is given for testing rinsing processes. The method has been used to investigate the extraction of caustic soda from a cotton fabric, varying the tempera

  17. 'If an Eye Is Washed Properly, It Means It Would See Clearly': A Mixed Methods Study of Face Washing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Rural Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Aiemjoy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Face cleanliness is a core component of the SAFE (Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental improvements strategy for trachoma control. Understanding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to face washing may be helpful for designing effective interventions for improving facial cleanliness.In April 2014, a mixed methods study including focus groups and a quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted in the East Gojjam zone of the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Participants were asked about face washing practices, motivations for face washing, use of soap (which may reduce bacterial load, and fly control strategies.Overall, both knowledge and reported practice of face washing was high. Participants reported they knew that washing their own face and their children's faces daily was important for hygiene and infection control. Although participants reported high knowledge of the importance of soap for face washing, quantitative data revealed strong variations by community in the use of soap for face washing, ranging from 4.4% to 82.2% of households reporting using soap for face washing. Cost and forgetfulness were cited as barriers to the use of soap for face washing. Keeping flies from landing on children was a commonly cited motivator for regular face washing, as was trachoma prevention.Interventions aiming to improve facial cleanliness for trachoma prevention should focus on habit formation (to address forgetfulness and address barriers to the use of soap, such as reducing cost. Interventions that focus solely on improving knowledge may not be effective for changing face-washing behaviors.

  18. Handbook of organic solvent properties

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The properties of 72 of the most commonly used solvents are given, tabulated in the most convenient way, making this book a joy for industrial chemists to use as a desk reference. The properties covered are those which answer the basic questions of: Will it do the job? Will it harm the user? Will it pollute the air? Is it easy to handle? Will it pollute the water? Can it be recovered or incinerated? These are all factors that need to be considered at the early stages of choosing a solvent for a new product or process.A collection of the physical properties of most commonly used solvents, their

  19. Environmental Impacts Of Zirab Coal Washing Plant, Mazandaran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F.; Esmaeili, A.

    2009-04-01

    Extraction and beneficiation operations associated with coal mining increase the rate of chemical reaction of waste material to air and water media. Zirab coal washing plant is located on the bank of the Cherat stream in Mazandaran province, Iran. coal Mined from central Alborz coalfield mines is not suitable for use in Iranian Steel Corporation. Hence, coal ash content is reduced by physical and chemical processes in this plant. These processes leave a large quantity of liquid and solid wastes that accumulate in waste dump and tailing dam. sediment and water samples taken from Sheshrudbar and Cherat streams and also from Talar river show high concentration of Cd, Mo and As in water samples of coal washing plant and the associated drainage. Eh-pH diagrams revealed the chemical species of elements in water. The enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index show that Cd, Hg, Mo and V are enriched in bottom sediments of the coal washing plant and decrease with increasing distance from the plant. Sequential extraction analysis Results of three sediment samples of Cherat stream show that silicate bound is the major phase in samples taken before and after the plant, but adjacent to the plant, organic bound is dominant. The high concentration of Cd and Mo in the water soluble phase, is noticeable and may result in high mobility and bioavailability of these elements. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests on six samples, before and after the coal washing plant support the obtained results. Keywords: Zirab; coal washing plant; Sequential extraction analysis; Mann-whitney; Wilcoxon; Enrichment factor; Geoaccumulation index.

  20. The Solvent Selection framework: solvents for organic synthesis, separation processes and ionic-organic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sansonetti, Sascha; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    problems are presented: 1) solvent selection and design for organic synthesis, 2) solvent screening and design of solvent mixtures for pharmaceutical applications and 3) ionic liquids selection and design as solvents. The application of the framework is highlighted successfully through case studies...... focusing on solvent replacement problem in organic synthesis and solvent mixture design for ibuprofen respectively....

  1. Washing the guilt away: Effects of personal versus vicarious cleansing on guilty feelings and prosocial behavior

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    For centuries people have washed away their guilt by washing their hands. Do people need to wash their own hands, or is it enough to watch other people wash their hands? To induce guilt, we had participants write about a past wrong they had committed. Next, they washed their hands, watched a washing-hands video, or watched a typing-hands video. After the study was over, participants could help a Ph.D. student complete her dissertation by taking some questionnaires home and returning them with...

  2. Washing the guilt away: effects of personal versus vicarious cleansing on guilty feelings and prosocial behavior

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    For centuries people have washed away their guilt by washing their hands. Do people need to wash their own hands, or is it enough to watch other people wash their hands? To induce guilt, we had participants write about a past wrong they had committed. Next, they washed their hands, watched a washing-hands video, or watched a typing-hands video. After the study was over, participants could help a Ph.D. student complete her dissertation by taking some questionnaires home and returning them with...

  3. Practical Approaches to Green Solvents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph M. DeSimone

    2002-01-01

    Solvents are widely used in commercial manufacturing and service industries. Despite abundant precaution, they inevitably contaminate our air, land, and water because they are difficult to contain and recycle...

  4. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline  precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015. We plan to develop  a new...

  5. Applied biotransformations in green solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernáiz, María J; Alcántara, Andrés R; García, José I; Sinisterra, José V

    2010-08-16

    The definite interest in implementing sustainable industrial technologies has impelled the use of biocatalysts (enzymes or cells), leading to high chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivities under mild conditions. As usual substrates are not soluble in water, the employ of organic solvents is mandatory. We will focus on different attempts to combine the valuable properties of green solvents with the advantages of using biocatalysts for developing cleaner synthetic processes.

  6. Comparison of hand hygiene monitoring using the 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method versus a wash in-wash out method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkesula, Venkata C K; Meranda, David; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Zabarsky, Trina F; McKee, Melissa; Macinga, David R; Donskey, Curtis J

    2015-01-01

    One strategy to promote improved hand hygiene is to monitor health care workers' adherence to recommended practices and give feedback. For feasibility of monitoring, many health care facilities assess hand hygiene practices on room entry and exit (wash in-wash out). It is not known if the wash in-wash out method is comparable with a more comprehensive approach, such as the World Health Organization's My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method. During a 1-month period, a surreptitious observer monitored hand hygiene compliance simultaneously using the wash in-wash out and My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene methods. For 283 health care worker room entries, the methods resulted in similar rates of hand hygiene compliance (70% vs 72%, respectively). The wash in-wash out method required 148 hand hygiene events not required by the My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene method (ie, before and after room entry with no patient or environmental contact) while not providing monitoring for 89 hand hygiene opportunities in patient rooms. The monitoring methods resulted in similar overall rates of hand hygiene compliance. Use of the wash in-wash out method should include ongoing education and intermittent assessment of hand hygiene before clean procedures and after body fluid exposure in patient rooms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Validation of acid washes as critical control points in hazard analysis and critical control point systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormedy, E S; Brashears, M M; Cutter, C N; Burson, D E

    2000-12-01

    A 2% lactic acid wash used in a large meat-processing facility was validated as an effective critical control point (CCP) in a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan. We examined the microbial profiles of beef carcasses before the acid wash, beef carcasses immediately after the acid wash, beef carcasses 24 h after the acid wash, beef subprimal cuts from the acid-washed carcasses, and on ground beef made from acid-washed carcasses. Total mesophilic, psychrotrophic, coliforms, generic Escherichia coli, lactic acid bacteria, pseudomonads, and acid-tolerant microorganisms were enumerated on all samples. The presence of Salmonella spp. was also determined. Acid washing significantly reduced all counts except for pseudomonads that were present at very low numbers before acid washing. All other counts continued to stay significantly lower (P HACCP plans and can significantly reduce the total number of microorganisms present on the carcass and during further processing.

  8. Human subtelomeric WASH genes encode a new subclass of the WASP family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V Linardopoulou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Subtelomeres are duplication-rich, structurally variable regions of the human genome situated just proximal of telomeres. We report here that the most terminally located human subtelomeric genes encode a previously unrecognized third subclass of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein family, whose known members reorganize the actin cytoskeleton in response to extracellular stimuli. This new subclass, which we call WASH, is evolutionarily conserved in species as diverged as Entamoeba. We demonstrate that WASH is essential in Drosophila. WASH is widely expressed in human tissues, and human WASH protein colocalizes with actin in filopodia and lamellipodia. The VCA domain of human WASH promotes actin polymerization by the Arp2/3 complex in vitro. WASH duplicated to multiple chromosomal ends during primate evolution, with highest copy number reached in humans, whose WASH repertoires vary. Thus, human subtelomeres are not genetic junkyards, and WASH's location in these dynamic regions could have advantageous as well as pathologic consequences.

  9. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lukwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up to 20 washes, declining to 90% after 25 washes. Untreated AU blankets did not cause any mortality on mosquitoes. However, mosquito repellence was 96%, 94%, 97.9%, 87%, 85% and 80.7% for treated AU blankets washed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 times, respectively. Mosquito repellence was consistently above 80% from 0-25 washes. In conclusion, AU blankets washed 25 times were effective in repelling and killing An. gambiae sl mosquitoes under laboratory conditions.

  10. Solvent/Non-Solvent Sintering To Make Microsphere Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Cato T.; Brown, Justin L.; Nair, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    A solvent/non-solvent sintering technique has been devised for joining polymeric microspheres to make porous matrices for use as drug-delivery devices or scaffolds that could be seeded with cells for growing tissues. Unlike traditional sintering at elevated temperature and pressure, this technique is practiced at room temperature and pressure and, therefore, does not cause thermal degradation of any drug, protein, or other biochemical with which the microspheres might be loaded to impart properties desired in a specific application. Also, properties of scaffolds made by this technique are more reproducible than are properties of comparable scaffolds made by traditional sintering. The technique involves the use of two miscible organic liquids: one that is and one that is not a solvent for the affected polymer. The polymeric microspheres are placed in a mold having the size and shape of the desired scaffold, then the solvent/non-solvent mixture is poured into the mold to fill the void volume between the microspheres, then the liquid mixture is allowed to evaporate. Some of the properties of the resulting scaffold can be tailored through choice of the proportions of the liquids and the diameter of the microspheres.

  11. Wash-out of ambient air contaminations for breath measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Fink, T; Rittershofer, B; Heim, N; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2014-06-01

    In breath analysis, ambient air contaminations are ubiquitous and difficult to eliminate. This study was designed to investigate the reduction of ambient air background by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. The reduction of the initial ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) intensity was investigated in the breath of 20 volunteers inhaling synthetic air via a sealed full face mask in comparison to inhaling ambient air. Over a period of 30 minutes, breath analysis was conducted using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a multi-capillary column. A total of 68 VOCs were identified for inhaling ambient air or inhaling synthetic air. By treatment with synthetic air, 39 VOCs decreased in intensity, whereas 29 increased in comparison to inhaling ambient air. In total, seven VOCs were significantly reduced (P-value ambient air contaminations from the airways by a lung wash-out with synthetic air.

  12. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  13. Particle size separation via soil washing to obtain volume reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R; Rasor, E; Van Ryn, F

    1999-04-23

    A pilot-plant study was performed using a soil washing pilot plant originally designed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to demonstrate scale-up and potential full-scale remediation. This pilot plant named VORCE (Volume Reduction/Chemical Extraction) was modified to meet the specific requirements for treatment of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) and a Department of Energy site soils. After a series of tests on clean soils to develop operating parameters and system performance, the machine was used to treat soils, one contaminated with Thorium-232 and the other with Cesium-137. All indicate that soil washing is very promising for volume reduction treatment. In addition, cost data was generated and is given herein.

  14. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARRINGTON SJ

    2011-01-06

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  15. Patients' feelings about hand washing, MRSA status and patient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Christopher Paul; Dealey, Carol

    The purpose of this study was to explore patient opinion about asking healthcare professionals to wash their hands before a clinical procedure and to explore if methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) status and access to patient information about infection control would influence the patients' anxiety about asking. A descriptive survey was undertaken using a semi-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed to a randomized convenience sample of 185 inpatients across all departments of an acute NHS Trust hospital (response rate 58.9%). Spearman's rank order and Kendall Tau-b tests were used to analyse specific correlations. Respondents were more confident than anxious about being involved in a campaign that empowered patients to ask staff to wash their hands. Patients were more anxious to ask if their previous admission episodes were fewer, if their knowledge of MRSA was high and if there was less information about infection control available. Patients who had contracted MRSA in the past were less anxious, as they had a better understanding of the disease. In addition, more patients felt less anxious about asking staff to wash their hands if staff wore a badge saying 'It's OK to ask'.

  16. Food washing and placer mining in captive great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allritz, Matthias; Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep

    2013-10-01

    Sweet potato washing and wheat placer mining in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are among the most well known examples of local traditions in non-human animals. The functions of these behaviors and the mechanisms of acquisition and spread of these behaviors have been debated frequently. Prompted by animal caretaker reports that great apes [chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo abelii)] at Leipzig Zoo occasionally wash their food, we conducted a study of food washing behaviors that consisted of two parts. In the first part we assessed the current distribution of the behavior on the basis of caretaker reports. In the second (experimental) part, we provided subjects individually with a water basin and two types of food (apples and cereal) that was either clean or covered/mixed with sand. We found that subjects of all species (except gorillas) placed apples in the water before consumption, and that they did so more often when the apples were dirty than when they were clean. Several chimpanzees and orangutans also engaged in behaviors resembling wheat placer mining.

  17. Evaluation of soil washing for radiologically contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombert, D. II

    1994-03-01

    Soil washing has been applied internationally to decontaminate soils due to the widespread increase in environmental awareness manifested in the United States by promulgation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, yet we continue to lack understanding on why the technique works in one application and not in another. A soil washing process typically integrates a variety of modules, each designed to decontaminate the matrix by destroying a particular phase or segregating a particle size fraction in which the contaminants are concentrated. The more known about how the contaminants are fixed, the more likely the process will succeed. Much can be learned from bioavailability studies on heavy metals in soils. Sequential extraction experiments designed to destroy one fixation mechanism at a time can be used to determine how contaminants are bound. This knowledge provides a technical basis for designing a processing strategy to efficiently decontaminate soil while creating a minimum of secondary wastes. In this study, a soil from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was physically and chemically characterized, then sequentially extracted to determine if soil washing could be effectively used to remove cesium, cobalt and chromium.

  18. Hand Washing Practices Among Emergency Medical Services Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Bucher

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hand hygiene is an important component of infection control efforts. Our primary and secondary goals were to determine the reported rates of hand washing and stethoscope cleaning in emergency medical services (EMS workers, respectively. Methods: We designed a survey about hand hygiene practices. The survey was distributed to various national EMS organizations through e-mail. Descriptive statistics were calculated for survey items (responses on a Likert scale and subpopulations of survey respondents to identify relationships between variables. We used analysis of variance to test differences in means between the subgroups. Results: There were 1,494 responses. Overall, reported hand hygiene practices were poor among pre-hospital providers in all clinical situations. Women reported that they washed their hands more frequently than men overall, although the differences were unlikely to be clinically significant. Hygiene after invasive procedures was reported to be poor. The presence of available hand sanitizer in the ambulance did not improve reported hygiene rates but improved reported rates of cleaning the stethoscope (absolute difference 0.4, p=0.0003. Providers who brought their own sanitizer were more likely to clean their hands. Conclusion: Reported hand hygiene is poor amongst pre-hospital providers. There is a need for future intervention to improve reported performance in pre-hospital provider hand washing.

  19. Waste washing pre-treatment of municipal and special waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Raffaello; Lai, Tiziana; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    2012-03-15

    Long-term pollution potential in landfills is mainly related to the quality of leachate. Waste can be conveniently treated prior to landfilling with an aim to minimizing future emissions. Washing of waste represents a feasible pre-treatment method focused on controlling the leachable fraction of residues and relevant impact. In this study, non-recyclable plastics originating from source segregation, mechanical-biological treated municipal solid waste (MSW), bottom ash from MSW incineration and automotive shredder residues (ASR) were treated and the removal efficiency of washing pre-treatment prior to landfilling was evaluated. Column tests were performed to simulate the behaviour of waste in landfill under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The findings obtained revealed how waste washing treatment (WWT) allowed the leachability of contaminants from waste to be reduced. Removal rates exceeding 65% were obtained for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN). A percentage decrease of approximately 60% was reached for the leachable fraction of chlorides, sulphates, fluoride and metals, as proved by a reduction in electric conductivity values (70%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient and solvent-free synthesis of bis-indolylmethanes using silica gel supported aluminium chloride as a reusable catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaveh Parvanak Boroujeni; Kamran Parvanak

    2011-01-01

    Stable and non-hygroscopic silica gel supported aluminium chloride (SiO2-AlCl3), which is prepared easily from cheap and commercially available compounds was found to be an environmentally friendly heterogeneous catalyst for the condensation of indole with aldehydes and ketones to afford bis-indolylmethanes at room temperature under solvent-free conditions. The catalyst can be reused up to five times after simple washing with ether.

  1. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Sampers, I.; Haute, van S.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water dis

  2. Live-line insulator washing: Experimental investigation to assess safety and efficiency requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perin, D.; Pigini, A.; Visintainer, I. [CESI, Milano (Italy); Channakeshava; Ramamoorty, M. [CPRI, Bangalore (India)

    1994-12-31

    A laboratory investigation was carried out to study live-line washing of insulators, with special attention to the two washing procedures which adopt hand-held nozzles or helicopter mounted nozzles. The aspects related to safety and those related to efficiency and reliability were considered. On the basis of the results, safe working distances and indications to define optimal washing procedures were derived.

  3. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Sampers, I.; Haute, van S.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water

  4. 21 CFR 133.136 - Washed curd and soaked curd cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. 133.136... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.136 Washed curd and soaked curd cheese. (a) Description. (1) Washed curd, soaked curd cheese is the food prepared by the procedure set forth in paragraph (a)(3)...

  5. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Sampers, I.; Haute, van S.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water dis

  6. Washing of stored red blood cells by an autotransfusion device before transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vroege, R.; Wildevuur, W. R.; Muradin, J. A. G.; Graves, D.; van Oeveren, W.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives The use of an autotransfusion device to wash blood of the incision site is increasing. After washing, this blood is retransfused without side effects caused by activated plasma factors and cell release products. This procedure could be extended to washing of donor blood, wh

  7. 7 CFR 57.801 - Nest run or washed ungraded eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. 57.801 Section 57... Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 57.801 Nest run or washed ungraded eggs. Nest run or washed ungraded eggs are exempt from the labeling provisions in §...

  8. Automatic washing of hooves can help control digital dermatitis in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-01-01

    washed with a water and 0.4% soap solution. In experiment 2, hooves were washed with water only. In each experiment, DD was scored in a hoof-trimming chute approximately 60 d after the start of hoof washing. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The outcome was the DD status of each...

  9. Wash flow disturbance and summer wash flow in the Mojave Desert: Influence on dispersion, production, and physiological functioning of dominant shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlander, April

    In many Mojave Desert ecosystems, water infiltrates to root-zones in greatest proportion via washes. As such, washes have a pronounced effect on plant dispersion and size across these landscapes. Desert roads alter the natural spatial patterns of washes on alluvial fans (locally called bajadas) and potentially affect plant production and distribution. As a winter-rainfall dominated ecosystem, climate changes in the Mojave Desert that increase summer precipitation may also play an important role in altering vegetation processes influenced by washes. Road effects on the spatial distribution of desert plants on a Mojave Desert bajada were examined using remotely sensed LiDAR data and ground based measurements of plant size. Plant physiological responses to summer wash flow were also quantified by measuring gas exchange and water status of two dominant perennial species, Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa. Larrea and Ambrosia plants were nearly 7x and 4x larger where wash flow has been enhanced by road culverts, relative to undisturbed areas and areas where flow has been cut-off by the presence of a road/railroad. Clustering of large plants occurred along wash margins, with clustering most pronounced in areas of enhanced wash flow. No clustering was found where wash flow has been eliminated. For ecophysiological traits, both species showed pronounced responses to the pulse of water; however, these responses varied as a function of distance from wash. Larrea plants within 3 m and Ambrosia plants within ca. 2 m from the wash responded to the pulse of water. Leaf phenology dictated the timing of carbon gain as Larrea experienced a rapid but short-lived increase in stomatal conductance compared to a significant response for over a month following the pulse for Ambrosia. These results indicate that disturbance of desert washes has a pronounced impact on vegetation structure, and changing climatic conditions that impact plant function could potentially lead to even

  10. Handbook of green chemistry, green solvents, supercritical solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Anastas, Paul T; Jessop, Philip G

    2014-01-01

    Green Chemistry is a vitally important subject area in a world where being as green and environmentally sound as possible is no longer a luxury but a necessity. Its applications include the design of chemical products and processes that help to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. The Handbook of Green Chemistry comprises 12 volumes, split into subject-specific sets as follows: Set I: Green Catalysis Set II: Green Solvents Volume 4: Supercritical Solvents Volume 5: Reactions in Water Volume 6: Ionic Liquids

  11. DOE solvent handbook information sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Solvents and cleaners are used in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy-Defense Program (DOE-DP) maintenance facilities for removing wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold releases, and other contaminants before repairing or electroplating parts. Private industry also uses cleaners and degreasers for surface preparation of various metals. Growing environmental and worker safety concerns have brought attention to these solvents and cleaners, most of which are classified as toxic. Tightening government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals, and restrict the use of various halogenated hydrocarbons because of their atmospheric-ozone depleting effects, as well as their cancer-related risks. As a result, a program was established to develop an efficient, easily accessible, electronic solvent utilization handbook. This is being accomplished by: (1) identifying solvents (alternatives) that are not currently restricted by government regulations for use DOE-DP facilities, and private industry, (2) evaluating their cleaning performance, (3) evaluating their corrosivity, (4) evaluating their air emissions, (5) evaluating the possibility of recycling or recovering all or portions of the alternative degreasers, (6) testing substitute solvents compatibility with non-metallic materials, (7) inputting all of the data gathered (including previous biodegradability information) into a database, and (8) developing a methodology for efficient, widespread access to the data base information system.

  12. DOE solvent handbook information sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, A.A.

    1992-05-01

    Solvents and cleaners are used in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy-Defense Program (DOE-DP) maintenance facilities for removing wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold releases, and other contaminants before repairing or electroplating parts. Private industry also uses cleaners and degreasers for surface preparation of various metals. Growing environmental and worker safety concerns have brought attention to these solvents and cleaners, most of which are classified as toxic. Tightening government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals, and restrict the use of various halogenated hydrocarbons because of their atmospheric-ozone depleting effects, as well as their cancer-related risks. As a result, a program was established to develop an efficient, easily accessible, electronic solvent utilization handbook. This is being accomplished by: (1) identifying solvents (alternatives) that are not currently restricted by government regulations for use DOE-DP facilities, and private industry, (2) evaluating their cleaning performance, (3) evaluating their corrosivity, (4) evaluating their air emissions, (5) evaluating the possibility of recycling or recovering all or portions of the alternative degreasers, (6) testing substitute solvents compatibility with non-metallic materials, (7) inputting all of the data gathered (including previous biodegradability information) into a database, and (8) developing a methodology for efficient, widespread access to the data base information system.

  13. Computer Aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Conte, Elisa; Abildskov, Jens

    , millions of tons solvents have to be wasted every year [2]. Therefore, it becomes important to minimize and optimize the use of organic solvents as much as possible, to satisfy the “Green Chemistry Principles” [3]. Another challenge is that currently solvent selection relies very much on previous...... is to develop a systematic framework and implement it as software for selection and design of solvents for many applications including organic synthesis, complex reaction systems and solvent-based separations. The solvent selection framework is based on a combination of knowledge from industrial practice...... identification of solvent candidates using special software ProCAMD and ProPred, which are the implementations of computer-aided molecular techniques. The second consists of assigning the RS-indices following the reaction–solvent and then consulting the known solvent database and identifying the set of solvents...

  14. [On compulsive hand-washing--psychopathology of "touching"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, M

    1993-01-01

    Compulsive hand-washing has been well known to the psychiatrists, since Legrand du Saulle described this disorder by the name of "délire du toucher" (1866), which refers to mysophobia or contact-phobia. But its clinical significance seems to have been not fully examined, except from the psychoanalytical point of view, that has observed the repression of sexuality in its pathology. This report presents four cases of compulsive hand-washing, and explores why they exclusively wash their hands. In order to elucidate the reason for their hand-washing and its significance, this report aims to study the relation of following three elements; "Sexuality", "hand" and "touching". As the idioms using "hand" often represent the various modes of sexual life in Japanese language as well as in English, so the "touching by hand" is reasonably considered to evoke the sexual impulsions, which the hand-washers fear and wish to avoid. On the other hand, "touching" is, necessarily in nature, to be touched by the touched object. For example, one who touches the lover's hand is inevitably to be touched by hers. That is; one is forced to be an object of one's object, which becomes to be a subject. In this sense, the act of "touching" means to lose one's "being subject" and to melt oneself into the situation where the structural distinction of subject and object can disappear. So one's act of "touching" or vivid contact with the other can cause anxiety by means of losing one's ego, which may be also a critical point to introduce to create something new. A compulsive hand-washer fears and avoids this critical moment that can make him lose his "being subject", so he "washes his hands of (cuts off relation with)" the situation that can undermine his ego. This avoidance of having contact can be compared to "the lose of vivid contact with the reality (la perte du contact avec la réalité (Minkowski)" observed in schizophrenia. In their ways of life, many hand-washers are not less autistic than

  15. Reducing the content of carrier polymer in pectin nanofibers by electrospinning at low loading followed with selective washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Sisi; Yao, Bing; Sun, Xue; Hu, Junli; Zhou, Yifa; Liu, Yichun

    2016-02-01

    Nanofibers of natural polymers represent an essential class of materials in biomedicine. Pectin is a plant-sourced anionic polysaccharide widely used in food products and biomedicine owning to its abundance, biocompatibility and inherent bioactivity. However, current electrospun pectin nanofibers are suffered from high content of carrier polymer, which may lead to low integrity and mechanical strength as well as in vivo toxicity. We report here a strategy to reduce the content of carrier polymer, polyethylene oxide (PEO) in our study, in pectin nanofibers, via electrospinning at low loading followed with selective washing. With improved electrospinning condition, we first enabled electrospinning of pectin nanofibers at low PEO loading. Then the PEO was removed by washing with a selective solvent to give pectin nanofibers containing only 1.5% PEO. The strategy was versatile to pectins from various sources and of various degree of esterification. The pectin nanofibers exhibited Young's modulus as high as 358.5MPa. In view of their rich bioactivity, the pectin nanofibers of low content of carrier polymer are promising materials for a wide range of biomedical applications.

  16. A new synthesis route to high surface area sol gel bioactive glass through alcohol washing: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, Lakshmi M; Nirmal, Remya; Vaikkath, Dhanesh; Nair, Prabha D

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive glass is one of the widely used bone repair material due to its unique properties like osteoconductivity, osteoinductivity and biodegradability. In this study bioactive glass is prepared by the sol gel process and stabilized by a novel method that involves a solvent instead of the conventional calcinations process. This study represents the first attempt to use this method for the stabilization of bioactive glass. The bioactive glass stabilized by this ethanol washing process was characterized for its physicochemical and biomimetic property in comparison with similar composition of calcined bioactive glass. The compositional similarity of the two stabilized glass powders was confirmed by spectroscopic and thermogravimetric analysis. Other physicochemical characterizations together with the cell culture studies with L929 fibroblast cells and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells proved that the stabilization was achieved with the retention of its inherent bioactive potential. However an increase in the surface area of the glass powder was obtained as a result of this ethanol washing process and this add up to the success of the study. Hence the present study exhibits a promising route for high surface area bioactive glass for increasing biomimicity.

  17. Glycerol based solvents: synthesis, properties and applications

    OpenAIRE

    García, José I.; García-Marín, Héctor; Pires, Elísabet

    2014-01-01

    The most recent advances in the use of glycerol and glycerol derivatives as solvents are reviewed. There are an increasing number of examples of the use of glycerol itself as a reaction medium, solvent-reagent or a dispersive medium for a large variety of applications. In the case of glycerol derivatives, new synthetic methods, physico-chemical properties and application examples as solvents are revised. Recent studies in the field of solvent classification, as well as solvent substitution is...

  18. Characterization, Washing, Leaching, and Filtration of C-104 Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KP Brooks; PR Bredt; GR Golcar; SA Hartley; LK Jagoda; KG Rappe; MW Urie

    2000-06-09

    Approximately 1,400 g of wet Hanford Tank C-104 Sludge was evaluated by Battelle for the high-level waste (HLW) pretreatment processes of ultrafiltration, dilute caustic washing, and elevated-temperature caustic leaching. The filterability of diluted C-104 sludge was measured with a 0.1-{micro}m sintered metal Mott filter using a 24-inch-long, single-element, crossflow filtration system (cells unit filter [CUF]). While the filtrate was being recirculated prior to washing and leaching, a 6.9 wt% solids slurry was evaluated with a matrix of seven 1-hour conditions of varying trans-membrane pressure (30 to 70 psid) and axial velocity (9 to 15 ft/s). The filtrate flux and backpulse efficiency were determined for each condition. The slurry was concentrated to 23 wt% solids, a second matrix of six 1-hour conditions was performed, and data analogous to that recorded in the first matrix were obtained. The low-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.038 to 0.083 gpm/ft{sup 2}. The high-solids-concentration matrix produced filtrate flux rates that ranged from 0.0095 to 0.0172 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both cases, the optimum filtrate flux was at the highest axial velocity (15 ft/s) and transmembrane pressure had little effect. Nearly all of the measured filtrate fluxes were more than an order of magnitude greater than the required plant flux for C-104 of 0.00126 gpm/ft{sup 2}. In both matrices, the filtrate flux appeared to be proportional to axial velocity, and the permeability appeared to be inversely proportional to the trans-membrane pressure. The first test condition was repeated as the last test condition for each matrix. In both cases, there was a significant decrease in filtrate flux, indicating some filter fouling during the test matrix that could not be removed by backpulsing alone, although the backpulse number and duration were not optimized. Following testing of these two matrices, the material was washed within the CUF by

  19. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from......, and butchers. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, we observed no increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis among men presumed to be exposed to organic solvents. It was not possible to obtain data on potential confounders, and the study design has some potential for selection bias. Nevertheless......, the study does not support existing hypotheses regarding an association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis....

  20. Efficacy of alkaline washing for the decontamination of orange fruit surfaces inoculated with Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, S; Davis, C L; Kelsey, D F

    2000-07-01

    The effectiveness of washing treatments to decontaminate orange fruit surfaces inoculated with Escherichia coli was evaluated. Washing on roller brushes with fruit cleaners or sanitizers followed by potable water rinse reduced E. coli by 1.9 to 3.5 log cycles. Prewetting fruit for 30 s before washing provided no significant benefit in most cases. Additional sanitizing treatments either with chlorine or acid sanitizers did not enhance the results of alkaline washing. In general, high pH washing solutions (pH 11.8) applied with an adequate spray volume effectively reduced the surface contamination of fruit that lowered the microbial load of fresh juice as well.

  1. ‘If an Eye Is Washed Properly, It Means It Would See Clearly’: A Mixed Methods Study of Face Washing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors in Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiemjoy, Kristen; Stoller, Nicole E.; Gebresillasie, Sintayehu; Shiferaw, Ayalew; Tadesse, Zerihun; Sewnet, Tegene; Ayele, Bezuayehu; Chanyalew, Melsew; Callahan, Kelly; Stewart, Aisha; Emerson, Paul M.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Keenan, Jeremy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Face cleanliness is a core component of the SAFE (Surgery, Antibiotics, Facial cleanliness, and Environmental improvements) strategy for trachoma control. Understanding knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to face washing may be helpful for designing effective interventions for improving facial cleanliness. Methods In April 2014, a mixed methods study including focus groups and a quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted in the East Gojjam zone of the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Participants were asked about face washing practices, motivations for face washing, use of soap (which may reduce bacterial load), and fly control strategies. Results Overall, both knowledge and reported practice of face washing was high. Participants reported they knew that washing their own face and their children’s faces daily was important for hygiene and infection control. Although participants reported high knowledge of the importance of soap for face washing, quantitative data revealed strong variations by community in the use of soap for face washing, ranging from 4.4% to 82.2% of households reporting using soap for face washing. Cost and forgetfulness were cited as barriers to the use of soap for face washing. Keeping flies from landing on children was a commonly cited motivator for regular face washing, as was trachoma prevention. Conclusions Interventions aiming to improve facial cleanliness for trachoma prevention should focus on habit formation (to address forgetfulness) and address barriers to the use of soap, such as reducing cost. Interventions that focus solely on improving knowledge may not be effective for changing face-washing behaviors. PMID:27788186

  2. Washing the guilt away: Effects of personal versus vicarious cleansing on guilty feelings and prosocial behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanyi eXu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For centuries people have washed away their guilt by washing their hands. Do people need to wash their own hands, or is it enough to watch other people wash their hands? To induce guilt, we had participants write about a past wrong they had committed. Next, they washed their hands, watched a washing-hands video, or watched a typing-hands video. After the study was over, participants could help a Ph.D. student complete her dissertation by taking some questionnaires home and returning them within 3 weeks. Results showed that guilt and helping behavior were lowest among participants who washed their hands, followed by participants who watched a washing-hands video, followed by participants who watched a typing-hands video. Guilt mediated the effects of cleansing on helping. These findings suggest that washing one’s own hands, or even watching someone else wash their hands, can wash away one’s guilt and lead to more helpful behavior.

  3. Hand washing practices in two communities of two states of Eastern India: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sandip Kumar; Zaman, Forhad Akhtar; Laskar, Nasrin Banu

    2010-01-01

    Public health importance of hand washing as well as its importance in reduction of communicable diseases such as diarrhea and acute respiratory infections have been highlighted in many studies worldwide. This study was designed to study the hand washing practices followed in two urban slums as well as to assess and compare the status of different components of hand washing at the pre- and post-intervention phases. A community-based cross-sectional intervention study on hand washing practices was carried out at two urban slums situated in two states of Eastern India with similar sociocultural and linguistic background. The study was carried out by using an interview technique as well as observation of hand washing practices. Interpersonal communication for behavioural change was chosen as a method of intervention. The majority (>90%) practiced hand washing after defecation in both the study areas. However, hand washing following all six steps and for stipulated time period was seen to be poor before intervention. Significant improvement was observed in all the aspects of hand washing after intervention in both the areas. The poor practice of hand washing was observed in some situations and needed attention. Use of soap and clean material for drying hands after hand washing was poor initially followed by improvement after intervention. Based on the findings of the study, it could be suggested that Behaviour Change Communication program should be further planned with emphasis on different components of hand washing with a final objective to bring down the incidence of target diseases.

  4. Leaching Behavior of Circulating Fluidised Bed MSWI Air Pollution Control Residue in Washing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, air pollution control (APC residue is conducted with water washing process to reduce its chloride content. A novel electrical conductivily (EC measurement method is proposed to monitor the dynamic change of chloride concentrations in leachate as well as the chloride content of the residue. The method equally applies to various washing processes with different washing time, liquid/solid ratio and washing frequency. The results show that washing effectively extracts chloride salts from APC residues, including those from circulating fluidized bed (CFB municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI. The most appropriate liquid/solid ratio and washing time in the first washing are found to be around 4 L water per kg of APC residue and 30 min, respectively, and washing twice is required to obtain maximum dissolution. The pH value is the major controlling factor of the heavy metals speciation in leachate, while chloride concentration also affects the speciation of Cd. Water washing causes no perceptible transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs from the APC residue to leachate. The chloride concentration is strongly related with electrical conductivity (EC, as well as with the concentrations of calcium, sodium and potassium of washing water. Their regression analyses specify that soluble chloride salts and EC could act as an indirect indicator to monitor the change of chloride concentration and remaining chloride content, thus, contributing to the selection of the optimal washing conditions.

  5. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  7. Which solvent for olfactory testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, C M; Goodenough, P C; Wolstenholme, C R; Murty, G E

    2004-12-01

    The physical properties of any carrier can deteriorate over time and thus alter the results in any olfactory test. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically potential solvents as a clean odourless carrier for olfactory testing. Sweet almond oil, pure coconut oil, pure peach kernel oil, dipropylene glycol, monopropylene glycol, mineral oil and silicone oil were studied. The experimentation was conducted in two parts. First, an olfactory device was used to conduct air through the solvents on a weekly basis using a cohort of six volunteers to assess the perceived odour of each solvent at weekly intervals. Secondly a cross-reference test was performed using small bottled solutions of phenylethyl-alcohol and 1-butanol in 10-fold dilutions to compare any perceived difference in concentrations over a period of 8 weeks. We concluded that mineral oil is the most suitable carrier for the purpose of olfactory testing, possessing many desirable characteristics of an olfactory solvent, and that silicone oil may provide a suitable alternative for odorants with which it is miscible.

  8. Hand washing with soap and WASH educational intervention reduces under-five childhood diarrhoea incidence in Jigjiga District, Eastern Ethiopia: A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashi, Abdiwahab; Kumie, Abera; Gasana, Janvier

    2017-06-01

    Despite the tremendous achievement in reducing child mortality and morbidity in the last two decades, diarrhoea is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. Hand washing with soap promotion, water quality improvements and improvements in excreta disposal significantly reduces diarrhoeal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hand washing with soap and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) educational Intervention on the incidence of under-five children diarrhoea. A community-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in 24 clusters (sub-Kebelles) in Jigjiga district, Somali region, Eastern Ethiopia from February 1 to July 30, 2015. The trial compared incidence of diarrhoea among under-five children whose primary caretakers receive hand washing with soap and water, sanitation, hygiene educational messages with control households. Generalized estimating equation with a log link function Poisson distribution family was used to compute adjusted incidence rate ratio and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. The results of this study show that the longitudinal adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) of diarrhoeal diseases comparing interventional and control households was 0.65 (95% CI 0.57, 0.73) suggesting an overall diarrhoeal diseases reduction of 35%. The results are similar to other trials of WASH educational interventions and hand washing with soap. In conclusion, hand washing with soap practice during critical times and WASH educational messages reduces childhood diarrhoea in the rural pastoralist area.

  9. 解析一款新型光束电脑灯--Clay Paky Sharpy Wash 330%Clay Paky Sharpy Wash 330

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迈克·伍德[美; 姚涵春(译)

    2014-01-01

    According to the test , the composition, properties and characteristics of the new type beam light Clay Paky Sharpy Wash 330 were analyzed based on the test.%通过测试,解析一款新型光束电脑灯Clay Paky Sharpy Wash 330的构成、性能及特点。

  10. High-pressure saline washing of allografts reduces bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirn, M Y; Salmela, P M; Vuento, R E

    2001-02-01

    60 fresh-frozen bone allografts were contaminated on the operating room floor. No bacterial growth was detected in 5 of them after contamination. The remaining 55 grafts had positive bacterial cultures and were processed with three methods: soaking in saline, soaking in antibiotic solution or washing by high-pressure saline. After high-pressure lavage, the cultures were negative in three fourths of the contaminated allografts. The corresponding figures after soaking grafts in saline and antibiotic solution were one tenth and two tenths, respectively. High-pressure saline cleansing of allografts can be recommended because it improves safety by reducing the superficial bacterial bioburden.

  11. Development of a preprototype hyperfiltration wash water recovery subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The use of hyperfiltration as a mode of reclamation of waste water on board an extended mission spacecraft was investigated. Two basic approaches are considered with respect to hyperfiltration of wash water recovery. The initial approach involves the use of a hollow fiber permeator and a tubular module, operating at ambient temperature. In this system, relatively large doses of biocides are used to control microbial activity. Since biocides require a long contact time, and many have adverse dematological effects as well as many interact with membrane material, a second approach is considered which involves operating at pasturization temperature.

  12. Method for analyzing solvent extracted sponge core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellington, W.E.; Calkin, C.L.

    1988-11-22

    For use in solvent extracted sponge core measurements of the oil saturation of earth formations, a method is described for quantifying the volume of oil in the fluids resulting from such extraction. The method consists of: (a) separating the solvent/oil mixture from the water in the extracted fluids, (b) distilling at least a portion of the solvent from the solvent/oil mixture substantially without co-distillation or loss of the light hydrocarbons in the mixture, (c) determining the volume contribution of the solvent remaining in the mixture, and (d) determining the volume of oil removed from the sponge by substracting the determined remaining solvent volume.

  13. Improvements on water washing and alkali washing process for chlorobenzene production%氯化苯生产装置水碱洗工艺改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁方

    2015-01-01

    对氯化苯生产装置水碱洗工艺进行改造:将原一级水洗改为二级水洗,使水洗过程最大幅度地萃取出氯化液中的氯化氢、FeCl 3,减少碱洗过程耗碱量;在每一洗涤泵出口增加管道静态混合器,加强水碱洗混合分离效果;水碱洗废水循环利用,回收水洗废酸水中的FeCl3作为氯化反应催化剂,减少装置运行成本。%Water washing and alkali washing process for chlorobenzene production was improved .The original one-step water washing process was changed into a two-step process in order to extract the hydro-gen chloride and ferric trichloride to the greatest extent from chlorination liquor and in order to reduce al-kali consumption during alkali washing .Pipe static mixers were installed at the outlets of every washing pump to strengthen the mixing and separating effects during water washing and alkali washing .The waste water from water washing and alkali washing was used repeatedly , and ferric trichloride contained in waste acidic water formed during water washing was recovered and used as catalyst for chlorination to re -duce operation cost.

  14. Analysis of Helicobacter pylori genotypes in clinical gastric wash samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Shuichi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Oikawa, Ritsuko; Ono, Shoko; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Kudo, Takahiko; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Fumio; Kato, Mototsugu; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a key factor in the development of gastric cancer; indeed, clearance of H. pylori helps prevent gastric cancer. However, the relationship between gastric cancer and the abundance and diversity of H. pylori genotypes in the stomach remains unknown. Here, we present, for the first time, a quantitative analysis of H. pylori genotypes in gastric washes. A method was first developed to assess diversity and abundance by pyrosequencing and analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a gene associated with clarithromycin resistance. This method was then validated using arbitrarily mixed plasmids carrying 23S rRNA with single nucleotide polymorphisms. Multiple strains were detected in many of 34 clinical samples, with frequency 24.3 ± 24.2 and 26.3 ± 33.8 % for the A2143G and A2144G strains, respectively. Importantly, results obtained from gastric washes were similar to those obtained from biopsy samples. The method provides opportunities to investigate drug resistance in H. pylori and assess potential biomarkers of gastric cancer risk, and should thus be validated in large-scale clinical trials.

  15. Physical separations soil washing system cold test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, J.P.

    1993-07-28

    This test summary describes the objectives, methodology, and results of a physical separations soil-washing system setup and shakedown test using uncontaminated soil. The test is being conducted in preparation for a treatability test to be conducted in the North Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. It will be used to assess the feasibility of using a physical separations process to reduce the volume of contaminated soils in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The test is described in DOE-RL (1993). The setup test was conducted at an uncontrolled area located approximately 3.2 km northwest of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The material processed was free of contamination. The physical separation equipment to be used in the test was transferred to the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. On May 13, 1993, soil-washing equipment was moved to the cold test location. Design assistance and recommendation for operation was provided by the EPA.

  16. Reactions and Separations in Green Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Spronsen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Most chemical processes involve solvents in the reaction and the separation step. These solvents give rise to a heavy environmental and economical burden. Moreover, these solvents are based on non-sustainable resources like petroleum. The aim of this thesis has been to develop a number of alternativ

  17. Reactions and Separations in Green Solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Spronsen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Most chemical processes involve solvents in the reaction and the separation step. These solvents give rise to a heavy environmental and economical burden. Moreover, these solvents are based on non-sustainable resources like petroleum. The aim of this thesis has been to develop a number of

  18. The solvent component of macromolecular crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichenberger, Christian X. [European Academy of Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Viale Druso 1, Bozen/Bolzano, I-39100 Südtirol/Alto Adige (Italy); Afonine, Pavel V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), 1 Cyclotron Road, Mail Stop 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kantardjieff, Katherine [California State University, San Marcos, CA 92078 (United States); Rupp, Bernhard, E-mail: br@hofkristallamt.org [k.-k. Hofkristallamt, 991 Audrey Place, Vista, CA 92084 (United States); Medical University of Innsbruck, Schöpfstrasse 41, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-04-30

    On average, the mother liquor or solvent and its constituents occupy about 50% of a macromolecular crystal. Ordered as well as disordered solvent components need to be accurately accounted for in modelling and refinement, often with considerable complexity. The mother liquor from which a biomolecular crystal is grown will contain water, buffer molecules, native ligands and cofactors, crystallization precipitants and additives, various metal ions, and often small-molecule ligands or inhibitors. On average, about half the volume of a biomolecular crystal consists of this mother liquor, whose components form the disordered bulk solvent. Its scattering contributions can be exploited in initial phasing and must be included in crystal structure refinement as a bulk-solvent model. Concomitantly, distinct electron density originating from ordered solvent components must be correctly identified and represented as part of the atomic crystal structure model. Herein, are reviewed (i) probabilistic bulk-solvent content estimates, (ii) the use of bulk-solvent density modification in phase improvement, (iii) bulk-solvent models and refinement of bulk-solvent contributions and (iv) modelling and validation of ordered solvent constituents. A brief summary is provided of current tools for bulk-solvent analysis and refinement, as well as of modelling, refinement and analysis of ordered solvent components, including small-molecule ligands.

  19. The hype with ionic liquids as solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Werner; Häckl, Katharina

    2016-09-01

    In this mini review, we give our personal opinion about the present state of the art concerning Ionic Liquids, proposed as alternative solvents. In particular, we consider their different drawbacks and disadvantages and discuss the critical aspects of the research of Ionic Liquids as solvents. Finally, we point out some aspects on potentially promising Ionic Liquid solvents.

  20. How often do you wash your hands? A review of studies of hand-washing practices in the community during and after the SARS outbreak in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Isaac C-H; Cairncross, Sandy

    2007-06-01

    We reviewed evidence of hand-washing compliance in community settings during the 2003 SARS outbreak. Literature was searched through PubMed, Cochrane Library, Wan Fang database and Google. English and Chinese papers were reviewed. Studies containing data on hand-washing, self-reported or directly observed, in community settings were selected. Case-control studies and studies in healthcare settings were excluded. Fourteen studies were reviewed. Self-reported hand-washing compliance increased in the first phase of the SARS outbreak and maintained a high level 22 months after the outbreak. The decline of hand-washing in Hong Kong after SARS was relatively slow. A significant gender difference in hand-washing compliance (female > male) was found in eight studies. The importance of family support and 'significant female others' in hand hygiene promotion are noted. The impact of education is uncertain. Perceived susceptibility to and severity of SARS, and perceived efficacy of hand-washing in preventing SARS, also predicted self-reported hand-washing compliance.

  1. Changes in soil toxicity by phosphate-aided soil washing: effect of soil characteristics, chemical forms of arsenic, and cations in washing solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Eun Hea; Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Kim, Young-Jin; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-01-01

    This study was set to investigate the changes in the toxicity of arsenic (As)-contaminated soils after washing with phosphate solutions. The soil samples collected from two locations (A: rice paddy and B: forest land) of a former smelter site were contaminated with a similar level of As. Soil washing (0.5 M phosphate solution for 2 h) removed 24.5% As, on average, in soil from both locations. Regardless of soil washing, Location A soil toxicities, determined using Microtox, were greater than that of Location B and this could be largely attributed to different soil particle size distribution. With soils from both locations, the changes in As chemical forms resulted in either similar or greater toxicities after washing. This emphasizes the importance of considering ecotoxicological aspects, which are likely to differ depending on soil particle size distribution and changes in As chemical forms, in addition to the total concentration based remedial goals, in producing ecotoxicologically-sound soils for reuse. In addition, calcium phosphate used as the washing solution seemed to contribute more on the toxic effects of the washed soils than potassium phosphate and ammonium phosphate. Therefore, it would be more appropriate to use potassium or ammonium phosphate than calcium phosphate for phosphate-aided soil washing of the As-contaminated soils.

  2. Study of phase transformation and microstructure of alcohol washed titania nanoparticles for thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Gaganjot; Bimbraw, Keshav; Uniyal, Poonam

    2015-08-01

    Nanostructured titania have been successfully synthesized by hydrolysis of alkoxide at calcination temperatures 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C. As the calcination temperature increases, alcohol washed samples show lesser rutile content as compared to water washed samples. Morphology and Particle sizes was determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), while thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) was used to determine thermal stability. Alcohol washed samples undergo 30% weight loss whereas 16% in water washed samples was observed. The mean particle sizes were found to be increase from 37 nm to 100.9 nm and 35.3 nm to 55.2 nm for water and alcohol washed samples respectively. Hydrolysis of alkoxide was shown to be an effective means to prepare thermally stable titania by using alcohol washed samples as a precursor.

  3. Study of phase transformation and microstructure of alcohol washed titania nanoparticles for thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Manpreet, E-mail: manpreet.kaur@thapar.edu; Singh, Gaganjot; Bimbraw, Keshav; Uniyal, Poonam, E-mail: uniyalpoonam@gmail.com [School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala-147 004, Punjab (India)

    2015-08-28

    Nanostructured titania have been successfully synthesized by hydrolysis of alkoxide at calcination temperatures 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C. As the calcination temperature increases, alcohol washed samples show lesser rutile content as compared to water washed samples. Morphology and Particle sizes was determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), while thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) was used to determine thermal stability. Alcohol washed samples undergo 30% weight loss whereas 16% in water washed samples was observed. The mean particle sizes were found to be increase from 37 nm to 100.9 nm and 35.3 nm to 55.2 nm for water and alcohol washed samples respectively. Hydrolysis of alkoxide was shown to be an effective means to prepare thermally stable titania by using alcohol washed samples as a precursor.

  4. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2009-01-06

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  5. Live-line insulator washing: Experimental investigation to assess safety and efficiency requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perin, D.; Pigini, A.; Visintainer, I. [CESI, Milano (Italy); Ramamoorty, C.M. [CPRI, Bangalore (India)

    1995-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was carried out to study live-line washing of insulators, with special attention to the two washing procedures which adopt hand-held jet nozzles and helicopter mounted nozzles. The aspects related to safety and those related to efficiency and reliability were considered. On the basis of the results, site working distances and indications to define optimal washing procedures were derived.

  6. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lukwa; A. Makuwaza; T. Chiwade; Mutambu, S L; M. Zimba; P. Munosiyei

    2013-01-01

    The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU) mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes) and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites) properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up t...

  7. Effect of Nitrite/Nitrate concentrations on Corrosivity of Washed Precipitate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congdon, J.W.

    2001-03-28

    Cyclic polarization scans were performed using A-537 carbon steel in simulated washed precipitate solutions of various nitrite and nitrate concentrations. The results of this study indicate that nitrate is an aggressive anion in washed precipitate. Furthermore, a quantitative linear log-log relationship between the minimum effective nitrite concentration and the nitrate concentration was established for washed precipitate with other ions at their average compositions.

  8. Wash durability and optimal drying regimen of four brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets after repeated washing under tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieli Francis K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current study was undertaken to determine the optimal wash-drying regimen and the effects of different washing procedures on the efficacy, and durability of four brands of newly introduced long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs under tropical conditions. Methods In the current study, the following four LLINs were tested: Olyset®, PermaNet ®2.0, BASF® and TNT®. Nets were divided into three sets; one set was washed by hand rubbing and air-dried either hanging or spread on the ground in direct sunlight or hanging or spread on the ground under the shade. A second set was washed using the WHO protocol (machine and the third set was washed by beating the nets on rocks. The biological activities of the nets were assessed by a three-minute bioassay cone test and the residual insecticide contents were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure. Results Nets that were dried hanging under the shade retained more insecticide, 62.5% and recorded higher mortality compared to nets which were dried lying on the ground in direct sunlight 58.8%, nets dried under the shade spread on the ground 56.3%, and 57.8% for nets dried hanging in direct sunlight. It was also observed that nets washed by the standard WHO protocol, retained more insecticide and were more effective in killing mosquitoes compared to nets washed by local methods of hand rubbing and beating on rocks. There were significant differences between drying regimens (p ® and TNT there were no significant differences observed between the four drying regimens (p = 0.7944 and 0.4703 respectively. For BASF and Olyset, the differences were significant (p 0.0001. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that washing and drying regimen influence the insecticidal activity of LLINs. The standard WHOPES washing protocol underestimates the amount of insecticide washed from LLINs compared to the abrasive washing procedures that are used in the field

  9. Harmony: A Hand Wash Monitoring and Reminder System using Smart Watches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Sayeed Mondol

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hand hygiene compliance is extremely important in hospitals, clinics and food businesses. Caregivers' compliance with hand hygiene is one of the most effective tools in preventing healthcare associated infections (HAIs in hospitals and clinics. In food businesses, hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent food contamination, and thus food borne illness. Washing hands properly is the cornerstone of hand hygiene. However, the hand wash compliance rate by the workers (care givers, waiters, chefs, food processors and so on is not up to the mark. Monitoring hand wash compliance along with a reminder system increases the compliance rate significantly. Quality of a hand wash is also important which can be achieved by washing hands in accordance with standard guidelines. In this paper, we present Harmony, a hand wash monitoring and reminder system that monitors hand wash events and their quality, provides real time feedback, reminds the person of interest when he/she is required to wash hands, and stores related data in a server for further use. Worker worn smart watches are the key components of Harmony that can differentiate hand wash gestures from other gestures with an average accuracy of about 88%. Harmony is robust, scalable, and easy to install, and it overcomes most of the problems of existing related systems.

  10. [Strengthening Effects of Sodium Salts on Washing Kerosene Contaminated Soil with Surfactants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhao-lu; Chen, Quan-yuan; Zhou, Juan; Xie, Mo-han

    2015-05-01

    The impact of sodium salt on kerosene contaminated soil washing with surfactants was investigated. The results indicated that sodium silicate greatly enhanced the washing efficiency of SDS. Sodium tartrate can largely enhance the washing efficiency of SDBS and Brij35. Sodium salts can enhance the washing efficiency on kerosene contaminated with TX-100. No significant differences were observed between different sodium salts. Sodium salt of humic acid and sodium silicate had similar enhancement on kerosene contaminated soil washing with saponin. Sodium humate can be a better choice since its application can also improve soil quality. The enhancement of sodium silicate on kerosene contaminated soil washing with Tw-80 increased with the increase of Tw-80 dosage. However, the impact of sodium chloride and sodium tartrate was opposite to sodium silicate. Sodium salts can reduce surface tension and critical micelle concentration of ionic surfactants to enhance the washing. Sodium salts can also reduce re-adsorption of oil to soil with nonionic surfactants to enhance the washing. Kerosene contamination can increase the contact angle of soil, which indicated the increase of hydrophilicity of soil. Washing with surfactants can reduce the hydrophilicitiy of soil according to contact angle measurement, which indicated that kerosene contaminated soil remediation with surfactant can also benefit nutrient and water transportation in the contaminated soil.

  11. Coagulation-flocculation process applied to wastewaters generated in hydrocarbon-contaminated soil washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, L. g.; Belloc, C.; Iturbe, R.; Bandala, E.

    2009-07-01

    A wastewater produced in the contaminated soil washing was treated by means of coagulation-flocculation (CF) process. the wastewater treatment in this work continued petroleum hydrocarbons, a surfactant, i. e., sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as well as salts, humic acids and other constituents that were lixiviated rom the soil during the washing process. The aim of this work was to develop a process for treating the wastewaters generated when washing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in such a way that it could be recycled to the washing process, and at the end of the cleaning up, the waters could be disposed properly. (Author)

  12. Treatment of waste water from a colloid sulfur washing department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanenko, E.K.; Pivovarova, L.I.; Gumarova, M.M.; Kulik, G.I.; Khrapunova, G.G.

    1988-08-01

    Discusses a method for treatment of waste water from arsenic-sodium purification of coal gas in the Moscow gasworks. Waste water from sulfur washing is characterized: total content of various chemical compounds 90-120 g/l, pH value 8, arsenic content 300-500 mg/l, sulfur content 1.5-2.3 g/l. The flotation separation process used on a laboratory scale is evaluated: a 200 ml waste water sample was mixed intensively with 1 ml surfactants for 1.5-2.0 min. The mixture was then fed into a flotation column. Air supply rate of 20 m/h was used. Three flotation schemes are comparatively evaluated: without surfactants, with polyacrylamide and with polyvinyl alcohol with desulfurization efficiency of 86.7%, 87.5% and 96.6% respectively. Consumption rate of polyvinyl alcohol was 125 mg/l. 4 refs.

  13. Remediation of contaminated soil using soil washing-a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Karthika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn and Cd are heavy metals occur naturally as trace elements in many soils. The present paper reviews the remediation of heavy metals of contaminated soil by soil washing using different agents. It was noted that the contact time, pH, concentration of extract ant and agitation speed were affected the process while remediation, so accordingly select the conditions to obtain efficiency which is mainly depend upon the type of soil, contaminationtype, contamination period and metals present in it.EDTA is effective when compared with other chelating agents for heavy metals especially for lead but it has low biodegradation. Because of the nature of low biodegradability, EDTA can be reusedfurther by membrane separation and electrochemical treatment, or degraded by advanced oxidation processes.

  14. Effect of solvents on the characteristics of rosin walled microcapsules prepared by a solvent evaporation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheorey, D S; Dorle, A K

    1991-01-01

    Rosin microcapsules were prepared by a solvent evaporation technique using solvents with different rates of evaporation. Sulphadiazine was used as a model drug. The microcapsules were studied for their size, drug content, wall thickness, surface characteristics and in vitro release. The mean diameter increased and the drug content decreased as the rate of evaporation of the solvent increased. Fast evaporating solvents produced thick walled microcapsules with innumerable surface pores/cracks compared with slow evaporating solvents.

  15. Combining Solvent Extraction and Bioremediation for Removing Weathered Petroleum from Contaminated Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guo-Zhong; F.COULON; YANG Yue-Wei; LI Hong; SUI Hong

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy,practicality and sustainability of a combined approach based on solvent extraction and biodegradation to remediate the soils contaminated with high levels of weathered petroleum hydrocarbons.The soils used in this study were obtained from the Shengli Oilfield in China,which had a long history of contamination with high concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons.The contaminated soils were washed using a composite organic solvent consisting of hexane and pentane (4:1,v/v) and then bioremediated in microcosms which were bioaugmentated with Bacillus subtilis FQ06 strains and/or rhamnolipid.The optimal solvent extraction conditions were determined as extraction for 20 min at 25 ℃ with solvent-soil ratio of 6:1 (v/w).On this basis,total petroleum hydrocarbon was decreased from 140000 to 14000 mg kg-1,which was further reduced to < 4000 mg kg-1 by subsequent bioremediation for 132 d.Sustainability assessment of this integrated technology showed its good performance for both short-and long-term effectiveness.Overall the results encouraged its application for remediating contaminated sites especially with high concentration weathered hydrocarbons.

  16. Pipette-tip solid-phase extraction based on deep eutectic solvent modified graphene for the determination of sulfamerazine in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingling; Tang, Weiyang; Tang, Baokun; Han, Dandan; Row, Kyung Ho; Zhu, Tao

    2017-05-01

    A green and novel deep eutectic solvent modified graphene was prepared and used as a neutral adsorbent for the rapid determination of sulfamerazine in a river water sample by pipette-tip solid-phase extraction. Compared with conventional graphene, deep eutectic solvent modified graphene can change the surface of graphene with wrinkled structure and higher selective extraction ability. The properties of deep eutectic solvent modified graphene and graphene were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Static adsorption showed deep eutectic solvent modified graphene had a higher adsorption ability (18.62 mg/g) than graphene. Under the optimum conditions, factors such as kinds of washing solvents and elution solvents and volume of elution solvent were evaluated. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.01 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. The method recoveries of sulfamerazine were in the range of 91.01-96.82% with associated intraday relative standard deviations ranging from 1.63 to 3.46% and interday relative standard deviations ranging from 0.68 to 3.84%. Deep eutectic solvent modified graphene showed satisfactory results (recovery was 95.38%) and potential for rapid purification of sulfamerazine in river water sample in combination with the pipette-tip solid-phase extraction method. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  18. Short communication: Automatic washing of hooves can help control digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Peter T; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and test a system for automatic washing of the hooves of dairy cows and to evaluate the effect of frequent automatic washing on the prevalence of digital dermatitis (DD). An automatic hoof washer was developed in an experimental dairy herd and tested in 6 commercial dairy herds in 2 experiments (1 and 2). In the experimental herd, automatic hoof washing resulted in cleaner hooves. In experiments 1 and 2, cows were washed after each milking on the left side only, leaving the right side unwashed as a within-cow control. In experiment 1, hooves were washed with a water and 0.4% soap solution. In experiment 2, hooves were washed with water only. In each experiment, DD was scored in a hoof-trimming chute approximately 60 d after the start of hoof washing. Data were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model. The outcome was the DD status of each leg (DD positive or DD negative). Herd and cow within herd were included as random effects, and treatment (washing or control) was included as a fixed effect. The statistical analyses showed that the odds ratio of having DD was 1.48 in the control leg compared with the washed leg in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the odds ratio of having DD was 1.27 in the control leg compared with the washed leg. We concluded that automatic washing of hooves with water and soap can help decrease the prevalence of DD in commercial dairy herds.

  19. Hand-washing practices amongst mothers of under-5 children in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Peace; Alex-Hart, Balafama; Okari, Tamunoiyowuna

    2017-02-01

    Hand-washing with soap and water (HWWS) can prevent a significant proportion of childhood diarrhoea and respiratory infections, the two main global causes of child mortality. However, good hand-washing practices are rare, especially in low-income countries, and findings suggest that hand-washing at critical times such as after defaecation or cleaning an infant's perineum are not common practice. The study explored hand-washing practices among mothers of children under-5 in Port Harcourt. This was a cross-sectional study of self-reported hand-washing practices among mothers of children under-5 presenting to the paediatric clinics of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Using a simple structured questionnaire, the data collected included biodata, perceptions, and self-reported behaviour concerning hand-washing at critical times. 154 mothers participated in the study. Sixty-four (41.6%) mothers usually washed their hands with soapy water in a container, 30 (19.5%) used soap and running water, and 60 (38.9%) used only water, either running or in a container. After cleaning an infant's perineal area, 60 (40.3%) and 39 (25.3%) used soap and running water and soapy water in a container, respectively, to wash their hands while 48 (31.2%) used plain water. Before feeding infants, 47 (30.5%) washed their hands with soap and running water. HWWS at critical times was significantly associated with mothers' level of education (P Hand-washing practices by mothers in Port Harcourt are poor. Extensive education of the public is required to reduce the risks of childhood infections associated with lack of hand-washing.

  20. Sustainable Soil Washing: Shredded Card Filtration of Potentially Toxic Elements after Leaching from Soil Using Organic Acid Solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ash

    Full Text Available Shredded card (SC was assessed for use as a sorbent of potentially toxic elements (PTE carried from contaminated soil in various leachates (oxalic acid, formic acid, CaCl2, water. We further assessed SC for retention of PTE, using acidified water (pH 3.4. Vertical columns and a peristaltic pump were used to leach PTE from soils (O and A/B horizons before passing through SC. Sorption onto SC was studied by comparing leachates, and by monitoring total PTE contents on SC before and after leaching. SC buffers against acidic soil conditions that promote metals solubility; considerable increases in solution pH (+4.49 were observed. Greatest differences in solution PTE content after leaching with/without SC occurred for Pb. In oxalic acid, As, Cd, Pb showed a high level of sorption (25, 15, and 58x more of the respective PTE in leachates without SC. In formic acid, Pb sorption was highly efficient (219x more Pb in leachate without SC. In water, only Pb showed high sorption (191x more Pb in leachate without SC. In desorption experiments, release of PTE from SC varied according to the source of PTE (organic/mineral soil, and type of solvent used. Arsenic was the PTE most readily leached in desorption experiments. Low As sorption from water was followed by fast release (70% As released from SC. A high rate of Cd sorption from organic acid solutions was followed by strong retention (~12% Cd desorption. SC also retained Pb after sorption from water, with subsequent losses of ≤8.5% of total bound Pb. The proposed use of this material is for the filtration of PTE from extract solution following soil washing. Low-molecular-mass organic acids offer a less destructive, biodegradable alternative to strong inorganic acids for soil washing.

  1. Dynamics around solutes and solute-solvent complexes in mixed solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyungwon; Park, Sungnam; Fayer, M D

    2007-09-04

    Ultrafast 2D-IR vibrational echo experiments, IR pump-probe experiments, and FT-IR spectroscopy of the hydroxyl stretch of phenol-OD in three solvents, CCl4, mesitylene (1, 3, 5 trimethylbenzene), and the mixed solvent of mesitylene and CCl4 (0.83 mole fraction CCl4), are used to study solute-solvent dynamics via observation of spectral diffusion. Phenol forms a complex with Mesitylene. In the mesitylene solution, there is only complexed phenol; in the CCl4 solution, there is only uncomplexed phenol; and in the mixed solvent, both phenol species are present. Dynamics of the free phenol in CCl4 or the mixed solvent are very similar, and dynamics of the complex in mesitylene and in the mixed solvent are very similar. However, there are differences in the slowest time scale dynamics between the pure solvents and the mixed solvents. The mixed solvent produces slower dynamics that are attributed to first solvent shell solvent composition variations. The composition variations require a longer time to randomize than is required in the pure solvents, where only density variations occur. The experimental results and recent MD simulations indicate that the solvent structure around the solute may be different from the mixed solvent's mole fraction.

  2. Factors Influencing Hand Washing Behaviour in Primary Schools: Process Evaluation within a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittleborough, Catherine R.; Nicholson, Alexandra L.; Basker, Elaine; Bell, Sarah; Campbell, Rona

    2012-01-01

    This article explores factors that may influence hand washing behaviour among pupils and staff in primary schools. A qualitative process evaluation within a cluster randomized controlled trial included pupil focus groups (n = 16, aged 6-11 years), semi-structured interviews (n = 16 teachers) and observations of hand washing facilities (n = 57).…

  3. Hand hygiene in the dermatologist's office: to wash or to rub?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Michael J; Brodell, Lindsey A; Brodell, Robert T; Mostow, Eliot N

    2008-12-01

    Hand hygiene is a central factor in preventing the spread of disease in the dermatologist's office. The role of hand washing and alcohol-based hand rubs is considered with emphasis on compliance, effectiveness, side effects, and cost. Specific recommendations highlight the importance of using alcohol-based hand rubs as an adjunct to traditional hand-washing methods.

  4. 40 CFR 429.110 - Applicability; description of the log washing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the log... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Log Washing Subcategory § 429.110 Applicability; description of the log washing subcategory. This subpart applies...

  5. Modeling losses of copper-based fungicide foliar sprays in wash-off under simulated rain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, P.; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Soto-Gómez, D.

    2015-01-01

    Wash-off experiments of three Cu-based fungicides were conducted with a single raindrop simulator with known drop size and fall height. Losses were quantified as total Cu (CuT), in solution (CuL), and particulate (CuP). Cu wash-off time course was modeled for two different drop sizes using a stoc...

  6. Using Olfaction and Unpleasant Reminders to Reduce the Intention-behavior Gap in Hand Washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Robert; Crandall, Philip G; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-06

    Lack of hand washing is a leading cause of food borne illnesses. To successfully increase hand hygiene compliance, interventions must have continual engagement with employees. This study used a real-time prospective memory (PM) scenario to measure the effectiveness of a control and sensory reminders of disgust to influence hand washing behavior and performance. First, a model of hand washing performance was built by having six participants' hands contaminated with GermGlo (a florescent micro-particle) and then washed their hands using predetermined protocols while monitored by an electronic hand hygiene verification (HHV) system. Next, eighty Hispanic/Latino participants, in a between-group experimental design, performed a PM experiment while one of four reminders were present (hand washing poster, disgusting image, disgusting sound, and disgusting odor) as the HHV recorded their hand washing performance. Visual cues, typical of hand washing campaigns, were not as effective at increasing hand hygiene compliance as disgust-induced sensory cues. Furthermore, olfactory disgust showed a significantly higher probability that individuals would engage in hand washing behaviors than all other conditions. This study provides new insight into the effectiveness of different senses and emotion to reduce the intention-behavior gap associated with modifying behaviors, and broadens current PM research to a real-time application.

  7. Many Parts of the World Lack Soap for Hand-Washing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 167056.html Many Parts of the World Lack Soap for Hand-Washing Areas with lowest rates are in Africa, research ... that they do without, a new study finds. Hand-washing with soap can help prevent the spread of diseases, especially ...

  8. Two cases of contact dermatitis resulting from use of body wash as a skin moisturizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael A; Borys, Doug; Riggins, Michele; Masneri, David C; Levsky, Marc E

    2008-02-01

    The use of liquid skin cleanser or body wash has become common in the United States. We report 2 cases of contact dermatitis secondary to the application of Dove Body Wash (Unilever US, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ) with the consumer misconception that the product was a skin moisturizing cream.

  9. Assessment and speciation of chlorine demand in fresh-cut produce wash water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of high quality, fresh-cut produce is a key driver for the produce industry. A critical area of concern is the chlorinated wash water used during post-harvest processing in large industrial processing facilities. Predominantly using a batch process, wash water is recycled over 8hr shift...

  10. Influence of EDTA washing on the species and mobility of heavy metals residual in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Huang, Hao; Tan, Fenfang; Wang, Hong; Qiu, Rongliang

    2010-01-15

    Aiming to estimate the potential risk of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-enhanced soil washing, the heavy metal species and their mobility in the washed soil under different combinations were investigated by batch leaching tests and the sequential extraction procedure. Results demonstrate that the metal removal efficiency was rather low (less than 12%), partially due to the significant Ca dissolution and strong bonding between metals and the soil as well as the insufficient EDTA dosage. The washing combination of 0.0005 M EDTA and half-an-hour washing can enhance the instant mobility of Ni, Zn and Pb possibly owing to the slow detachment of EDTA-destabilized metals. Metal fractionation also exhibits the corresponding increase in their labile exchangeable fractions. Therefore, a more concentrated EDTA solution for a longer duration often decreased their mobility. The increase in some fractions of a curtain metal implies the redistribution of this metal during the EDTA soil washing. The pathway of such a redistribution may vary for different metals, but the redistribution to organic matter is often a slow process, while that to carbonates or Fe/Mn oxides is a faster one and even may occur in a half hour washing with 0.0005 M EDTA solution. These redistribution processes may also increase the metal chemical availability. Therefore, we should prudently control the chelating reagent concentration and washing duration to finally minimize the mobility and availability of the remaining heavy metals when designing the soil washing for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils.

  11. Evaluating the Utility of Commercial Videotapes for Teaching Hand Washing to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Nancy E.; Schwartz, Ilene S.; Davis, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of using a commercially available video model to teach three preschoolers with autism to wash their hands. While one child learned 80% of the hand washing steps, 2 of the 3 children did not learn from the commercial model. All were subsequently exposed to a customized video model, which resulted in at least some…

  12. The results of experimental asbestos research into the washing of bituminized sandstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agalarov, M.S.; Mangasarova, A.G.; Zhirnov, B.I.

    1981-01-01

    Bituminized sandstone was exposed to washing by its removal at the Kirmak deposits under the operation of ''Leninneft''' of the National Mining Institute, and the National Mining Institutes Umbaki deposits under the operation of ''Karagandaneft'''. Various compositions were employed as washing agents including an oil-water mixture. The composition of bituminus oil is given and the method used in the preparation of the mixture is presented. Research has indicated that the coefficient for washing the bituminized sandstone hinges on the various compositions of the oil-water washing fluid and the types of bitumins when this process is undertaken at temperatures of 291-293 degrees Calvin. At temperatures of 358-363 degrees Calvin, this relationship disappears and the coefficient for washing aproaches one.

  13. Bio-oil extraction of Jatropha curcas with ionic liquid co-solvent: Fate of biomass protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severa, Godwin; Edwards, Melisa; Cooney, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    The fate of oil-seed biomass protein has been tracked through all steps of a multi-phase extraction process using an ionic liquid based co-solvent system previously demonstrated to extract bio-oil and phorbol esters and to recover fermentable sugars from Jatropha oil seed. These analyses, however, did not address the fate of biomass protein. This work demonstrated that the majority of protein (∼86%) tracked with the biomass with the balance lost to co-solvent (∼12%) and methanol (∼2%) washes. A significant portion of the ionic liquid remained with the treated biomass and required aggressive methanol washes to recover. A system analysis showed a net-positive energy balance and thus the potential of this system to produce both bio-oil and protein-rich toxin-free biomass. While these results further support Jatropha as an oil seed crop, the additional costs of solvent recovery will need to be addressed if commercialization is to be realized.

  14. Bacteriological Aspects of Hand Washing: A Key for Health Promotion and Infections Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataee, Ramezan Ali; Ataee, Mohammad Hosein; Mehrabi Tavana, Ali; Salesi, Mahmud

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this review is to show the historical aspects of hands washing for healthy life and explains how can reduce the transmission of community-acquired infectious agents by healthcare workers and patients. This review article is prepared based on available database. The key words used were hands washing, risk assessment, hands hygiene, bacterial flora, contamination, infection, nosocomial, tap water, sanitizer, bacterial resistance, hands bacterial flora, washing methods, antiseptics, healthcare workers, healthcare personnel, from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar. Data were descriptively analyzed. The insistence on hand washing has a history of 1400 years. The research results indicate that the bacteria released from the female washed hands in wet and dry condition was lower than from the male's hands with a significance level (3 CFU vs. 8 CFU; confidence interval 95%, P ≤ 0.001). The valuable results of the study indicated that released amount of bacterial flora from wet hands is more than 10 times in compared to dry hands. In addition, established monitoring systems for washing hands before and after patient's manipulation as well as after toilet were dominant indices to prevent the transfer of infectious agents to the patients. Increasing awareness and belief of the healthcare workers have shown an important role by about 30% reduction in the transfection. Hand washing could reduce the episodes of transmission of infectious agents in both community and healthcare settings. However, hand washing is an important key factor to prevent transmission of infectious agents to patients. There is no standard method for measuring compliance. Thus, permanent monitoring of hand washing to reduce the transmission of infections is crucial. Finally, the personnel must believe that hand washing is an inevitable approach to infection control.

  15. An evaluation of different soil washing solutions for remediating arsenic-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiwen; Ma, Fujun; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Changsheng; Wu, Bin; Li, Fasheng; Gu, Qingbao

    2017-04-01

    Soil washing is a promising way to remediate arsenic-contaminated soils. Most research has mostly focused on seeking efficient extractants for removing arsenic, but not concerned with any changes in soil properties when using this technique. In this study, the removal of arsenic from a heavily contaminated soil employing different washing solutions including H3PO4, NaOH and dithionite in EDTA was conducted. Subsequently, the changes in soil physicochemical properties and phytotoxicity of each washing technique were evaluated. After washing with 2 M H3PO4, 2 M NaOH or 0.1 M dithionite in 0.1 M EDTA, the soil samples' arsenic content met the clean-up levels stipulated in China's environmental regulations. H3PO4 washing decreased soil pH, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations but increased TN and TP contents. NaOH washing increased soil pH but decreased soil TOC, TN and TP contents. Dithionite in EDTA washing reduced soil TOC, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn and TP contents. A drastic color change was observed when the soil sample was washed with H3PO4 or 0.1 M dithionite in 0.1 M EDTA. After adjusting the soil pH to neutral, wheat planted in the soil sample washed by NaOH evidenced the best growth of all three treated soil samples. These results will help with selecting the best washing solution when remediating arsenic-contaminated soils in future engineering applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biological Treatment of Solvent-Based Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    solvent. In addition, hydrocarbon mixtures, aromatic hydrocarbon, and Medium Aliphatic Solvent Naphtha are descriptors used by the manufactures to...Enamel Aromatic Hydrocarbon 14 Mineral Spirits 10 Naphtha 10 Ethyl Benzene 0.21 Xylene 1.0 Sherwin Williams Co Enamel Mineral Spirits 49...Solvent Naphtha 31.5 Non-hazardous Ingredients 68 Parker Paints Enamel Mineral Spirits 17 Naphtha 7 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 3 1,2,4

  17. Evaluation of biosurfactants for crude oil contaminated soil washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urum, Kingsley; Pekdemir, Turgay

    2004-12-01

    An evaluation of the ability of aqueous biosurfactant solutions (aescin, lecithin, rhamnolipid, saponin and tannin) for possible applications in washing crude oil contaminated soil was carried out. The biosurfactants behaviour in soil-water, water-oil and oil-soil systems (such as foaming, solubilization, sorption to soil, emulsification, surface and interfacial tension) was measured and compared with a well-known chemical surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS) at varying concentrations. Results showed that the biosurfactants were able to remove significant amount of crude oil from the contaminated soil at different solution concentrations for instance rhamnolipid and SDS removed up to 80% oil and lecithin about 42%. The performance of water alone in crude oil removal was equally as good as those of the other biosurfactants. Oil removal was due to mobilization, caused by the reduction of surface and interfacial tensions. Solubilization and emulsification effects in oil removal were negligible due to the low crude oil solubilization of 0.11%. Therefore, these studies suggest that knowledge of surfactants' behaviour across different systems is paramount before their use in the practical application of oil removal.

  18. Patients' Hand Washing and Reducing Hospital-Acquired Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverstick, Stacy; Goodrich, Cara; Freeman, Regi; James, Shandra; Kullar, Rajkiran; Ahrens, Melissa

    2017-06-01

    Hand hygiene is important to prevent hospital-acquired infections. Patients' hand hygiene is just as important as hospital workers' hand hygiene. Hospital-acquired infection rates remain a concern across health centers. To improve patients' hand hygiene through the promotion and use of hand washing with soap and water, hand sanitizer, or both and improve patients' education to reduce hospital-acquired infections. In August 2013, patients in a cardiothoracic postsurgical step-down unit were provided with individual bottles of hand sanitizer. Nurses and nursing technicians provided hand hygiene education to each patient. Patients completed a 6-question survey before the intervention, at hospital discharge and 1, 2, and 3 months after the intervention. Hospital-acquired infection data were tracked monthly by infection prevention staff. Significant correlations were found between hand hygiene and rates of infection with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (P = .003) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (P = .01) after the intervention. After the implementation of hand hygiene interventions, rates of both infections declined significantly and patients reported more staff offering opportunities for and encouraging hand hygiene. This quality improvement project demonstrates that increased hand hygiene compliance by patients can influence infection rates in an adult cardiothoracic step-down unit. The decreased infection rates and increased compliance with hand hygiene among the patients may be attributed to the implementation of patient education and the increased accessibility and use of hand sanitizer. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  19. [Microbiological characteristics of selected liquid soaps for hands washing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyski, Stefan; Bocian, Ewa; Zawistowska, Anna; Mrówka, Agnieszka; Kruszewska, Hanna; Grzybowska, Wanda; Zareba, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    According to common belief, supported by the authority of the World Health Organization - WHO, the common (social) hand washing is the simplest, cheapest and the most effective way of reduction the hospital-acquired infections. For this purpose products of"liquid soaps", present in a large number on the market, are most often applied. Microbiological status (microbiological purity and antimicrobial activity) of"liquid soaps" available on the Polish market is not known, because relevant routinely studies have not been performed. Only the antibacterial and / or antifungal activity of certain formulations is sometimes assessed, especially when the manufacturer suggests the standardized application of the products for surgical or hygienic procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality, especially microbiological purity and antimicrobial activity of the selected hands washing products, presents on the Polish market. The 12 selected commercial products, available on the market in Poland, dedicated for hands washing were included into study. Microbiological purity test was carried out in accordance with the Polish Pharmacopoeia (FP) monograph (FP monograph numbers correspond to numbers of the European Pharmacopoeia monograph- Ph. Eur.) No 2.6.12 "Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: microbial enumaration tests", and the monograph of FP No. 2.6.13 "Microbiological examination of non-sterile products: test for specified microorganisms". The following physico-chemical properties of soaps were examined: the pH of the formulations was measured according to the monograph FP No. 2.2.3. "Potentiometric determination of pH", the density of products was assayed according to the monograph FPNo. 2.2.5. "Relative density" and determination the water activity was performed by monograph FP No 2.9.39 "Water-solid interactions: determination of sorption-desorption isotherms and of water activity". Next, antibacterial and antifungal

  20. CO2 Removal from Biogas by Water Washing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Xiao; Hairong Yuan; Yunzhi Pang; Shulin Chen; Baoning Zhu; Dexun Zou; Jingwei Ma; Liang Yu; Xiujin Li

    2014-01-01

    CO2 removal from biogas by water washing system was investigated with various parameters, including liquid/gas ratio, pressure, temperature, and CO2 content. The results indicate that CO2 removal ratio could reach 34.6%-94.2%as liquid/gas ratio increased from 0.14 to 0.50. Increasing pressure (from 0.8 to 1.2 MPa) could improve gas purification with a constant inflow rate of gas. Temperature played a key role in the process and lower temper-ature in absorption tower was beneficial for reducing CO2 content. CO2 removal ratio could reach 24.4%-83.2%when CO2 content in the simulated gas was 25%-45%. The lowest CO2 content after absorption was 2.6%at 1.2 MPa with 400 L·h-1 gas flow and 200 L·h-1 water flow, which meets the requirement of CO2 content in natural gas for vehicle fuel.

  1. Reverse osmosis for wash water recovery in space vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R. W.; Saltonstall, C. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were carried out on both synthetic and real wash water derived from clothes laundry to determine the utility of reverse osmosis in recovering the water for recycle use. A blend membrane made from cellulose di- and triacetates, and a cross-linked cellulose acetate/methacrylate were evaluated. Both were found acceptable. A number of detergents were evaluated, including a cationic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulfate, potassium palmitate, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. The tests were all made at a temperature of 165 F to minimize microbial growth. Long-term (15 to 30 day) runs were made at 600 and 400 psi on laundry water which was pretreated either by alum addition and sand filtration or by filtration only through 0.5 micron filters. A 30-day run was made using a 2-in. diameter by 22-in. long spiral module at 400 psig with filtering as the pretreatment. The membrane fouling by colloidal matter was found to be controllable. The unit produced initially 55 gal/day and 27 gal/day after 30 days.

  2. [Characterization of Pollutant Wash-off in the Urban Stormwater].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-liang; Ren, Yu-fen; Wang, Xue-mei; Wang, Xiao-ke; Chein, Li-ding; Liu, Gang-cai

    2015-10-01

    To understand the pollution character of urban road runoff, the concentrations of TSS, EC, N and P in the ring road runoff of Beijing from June to September 2013 were evaluated, the correlations among pollutants were examined, and the load of TSS, N and P were estimated. Result showed that the small particulates in the range of 1-10 μm consisted of 60% TSS in the road runoff. Totally 89 percent of the nitrogen (N) was dissolved phase state in the road runoff, 80 percent of the phosphorus (P) was particular phase state in the road runoff. Based on the characteristics of correlations between EC, TSS and TN, TP, EC and TSS were the surrogate indexes of pollution degree assessment for the dissolved N and particulate P in the urban road runoff, respectively. Based on our results, the SS, N and P year load per unit area in Beijing ring road runoff were 16 725.69, 1777.91 and 24.23 mg x (m2 x a)(-1), respectively. Our findings described the polutant wash off character in urban road runoff, which provide a scientific basis for management of nonpoint pollution in a city and an alternative method for controlling pollution.

  3. Chelant soil-washing technology for metal-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate here, in a pilot-scale experiment, the feasibility of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)based washing technology for soils contaminated with potentially toxic metals. Acid precipitation coupled to initial alkaline toxic metal removal and an electrochemical advanced oxidation process were used for average recovery of 76 +/- 2% of EDTA per batch and total recycle of water in a closed process loop. No waste water was generated; solid wastes were efficiently bitumen-stabilized before disposal. The technology embodiment, using conventional process equipment, such as a mixer for soil extraction, screen for soil/gravel separation, filter chamber presses for soil/liquid and recycled EDTA separation and soil rinsing, continuous centrifuge separator for removal of precipitated metals and electrolytic cells for process water cleansing, removed up to 72%, 25% and 66% of Pb, Zn and Cd from garden soil contaminated with up to 6960, 3797 and 32.6 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, in nine 60kg soil batches. Concentrations of Pb and Zn remaining in the remediated soil and bioaccessible from the simulated human intestinal phase soil were reduced by 97% and 96% and were brought under the level of determination for Cd. In the most cost-effective operation mode, the material and energy costs of remediation amounted to 50.5 Euros ton(-1) soil and the total cost to 299 Euros ton(-1).

  4. Wash Primer Replacement Based on the Superprimer Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    DoD­P­15328D wash primer. Figure 51. FTIR  spectra  of ECO­008 and ECO5­1. viii Figure 52. FTIR  spectra  of ECO5­1 with different drying conditions. Figure 53...MIL­ PRF­85582 primers, in which  strontium  chromate is used as the major corrosion inhibitor.  The MIL­DTL­53030B primer contains zinc phosphate as...is obtained through the use of the silane. 5.2.5. FTIR characterization FTIR  spectra  of DoD­P­15328D, ECO­008 and ECO5­1 are shown in Figures 50­52

  5. Multiphasic strain differentiation of atypical mycobacteria from elephant trunk wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kok-Gan; Loke, Mun Fai; Ong, Bee Lee; Wong, Yan Ling; Hong, Kar Wai; Tan, Kian Hin; Kaur, Sargit; Ng, Hien Fuh; Abdul Razak, Mfa; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2015-01-01

    Background. Two non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains, UM_3 and UM_11, were isolated from the trunk wash of captive elephants in Malaysia. As they appeared to be identical phenotypes, they were investigated further by conventional and whole genome sequence-based methods of strain differentiation. Methods. Multiphasic investigations on the isolates included species identification with hsp65 PCR-sequencing, conventional biochemical tests, rapid biochemical profiling using API strips and the Biolog Phenotype Microarray analysis, protein profiling with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, repetitive sequence-based PCR typing and whole genome sequencing followed by phylogenomic analyses. Results. The isolates were shown to be possibly novel slow-growing schotochromogens with highly similar biological and genotypic characteristics. Both strains have a genome size of 5.2 Mbp, G+C content of 68.8%, one rRNA operon and 52 tRNAs each. They qualified for classification into the same species with their average nucleotide identity of 99.98% and tetranucleotide correlation coefficient of 0.99999. At the subspecies level, both strains showed 98.8% band similarity in the Diversilab automated repetitive sequence-based PCR typing system, 96.2% similarity in protein profiles obtained by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and a genomic distance that is close to zero in the phylogenomic tree constructed with conserved orthologs. Detailed epidemiological tracking revealed that the elephants shared a common habitat eight years apart, thus, strengthening the possibility of a clonal relationship between the two strains.

  6. Molecular Thermodynamic Modeling of Mixed Solvent Solubility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2010-01-01

    A method based on statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of activity coefficients is employed for estimating dilute solubilities of 11 solid pharmaceutical solutes in nearly 70 mixed aqueous and nonaqueous solvent systems. The solvent mixtures range from...... nearly ideal to strongly nonideal. The database covers a temperature range from 293 to 323 K. Comparisons with available data and other existing solubility methods show that the method successfully describes a variety of observed mixed solvent solubility behaviors using solute−solvent parameters from...

  7. A solvent tolerant isolate of Enterobacter aerogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anshu; Singh, Rajni; Khare, S K; Gupta, M N

    2006-01-01

    A solvent tolerant strain of Enterobacter aerogenes was isolated from soil by cyclohexane enrichment. Presence of cyclohexane (20%) in culture media prolonged the lag phase and caused reduction in biomass. Transmission electron micrographs showed convoluted cell membrane and accumulation of solvent in case of the cells grown in cyclohexane. The Enterobacter isolate was able to grow in the range of organic solvents having log P above 3.2 and also in presence of mercury, thus showing potential for treatment of solvent rich wastes.

  8. Organic solvent use in enterprises in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yasuhiro; Ukai, Hirohiko; Okamoto, Satoru; Samoto, Hajime; Itoh, Kenji; Moriguchi, Jiro; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Ohashi, Fumiko; Takada, Shiro; Kawakami, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    This study was initiated to elucidate possible changes in types of organic solvents (to be called solvents in short) used in enterprises in Japan through comparison of current solvent types with historical data since 1983. To investigate current situation in solvent use in enterprises, surveys were conducted during one year of 2009 to 2010. In total, workroom air samples in 1,497 unit workplaces with solvent use were analyzed in accordance with regulatory requirements. Typical use pattern of solvents was as mixtures, accounting for >70% of cases. Adhesives spreading (followed by adhesion) was relatively common in small-scale enterprises, whereas printing and painting work was more common in middle-scale ones, and solvent use for testing and research purpose was basically in large-scaled enterprises. Through-out printing, painting, surface coating and adhesive application, toluene was most common (being detected in 49 to 82% of workplaces depending on work types), whereas isopropyl alcohol was most common (49%) in degreasing, cleaning and wiping workplaces. Other commonly used solvents were methyl alcohol, ethyl acetate and acetone (33 to 37%). Comparison with historical data in Japan and literature-retrieved data outside of Japan all agreed with the observation that toluene is the most commonly used solvent. Application of trichloroethylene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, once common in 1980s, has ceased to exist in recent years.

  9. Extractive Distillation with Salt in Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Extractive distillation with salt in solvent is a new process for producing anhydrous ethanol by combining the principle of "salt effect" and some traditional extractive distillation methods. Compared with the common extractive distillation the performance of solvent is improved, the recycling amount of solvent is reduced to 1/4-1/5, and the number of theoretical plates is reduced to 1/3. Energy consumption and cost of equipment are also reduced and continuous production is realized. High efficiency and low solvent wastage make this technique feasible.

  10. OCCUPATIONAL SOLVENT EXPOSURE ASSOCIATED WITH DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Costina LUCA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic solvent is a broad term that applies to many classes of chemicals. The solvent (benzene, toluene etc. aspects of occupational exposure are reviewed via the examination of the use, occurrence, and disposition as well as population’s potential of risk. The general public can be exposed to solvent in ambient air as a result of its occurrence in paint process. Solvents are primarily irritants to the skin and mucous membranes and have narcotic properties at high concentrations. Published epidemiological data identified various types of birth defects in certain occupations.

  11. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (< 1 mg0.1 m2), especially flammable residue. Traditionally chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been used in the precision cleaning of LOX systems, specifically CFC 113 (C2Cl3F3). CFCs have been known to cause the depletion of ozone and in 1987, were banned by the Montreal Protocol due to health, safety and environmental concerns. This has now led to the development of new processes in the precision cleaning of aerospace components. An ideal solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the

  12. Protective Effect of Hand-Washing and Good Hygienic Habits Against Seasonal Influenza: A Case-Control Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Mingbin; Ou, Jianming; Zhang, Lijie; Shen, Xiaona; Hong, Rongtao; Ma, Huilai; Zhu, Bao-Ping; Fontaine, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Previous observational studies have reported protective effects of hand-washing in reducing upper respiratory infections, little is known about the associations between hand-washing and good hygienic...

  13. Water washes and caustic leaches of sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 and water washes of sludge from Hanford Tank C-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.; Collins, J.L.; Chase, C.W.

    1998-07-01

    In 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the enhanced sludge washing (ESW) process as the baseline for pretreatment of Hanford tank sludges. The ESW process uses a series of water washes and caustic leaches to separate nonradioactive components such as aluminum, chromium, and phosphate from the high-level waste sludges. If the ESW process is successful, the volume of immobilized high-level waste will be significantly reduced. The tests on the sludge from Hanford Tank S-101 focused on the effects of process variables such as sodium hydroxide concentration (1 and 3 M), temperature (70 and 95 C), and leaching time (5, 24, 72, and 168 h) on the efficacy of the ESW process with realistic liquid-to-solid ratios. Another goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of water washes on a sludge sample from hanford Tank C-103. The final objective of this study was to test potential process control monitors during the water washes and caustic leaches with actual sludge. Both {sup 137}Cs activity and conductance were measured for each of the water washes and caustic leaches. Experimental procedures, a discussion of results, conclusions and recommendations are included in this report.

  14. Effect of intensive hand washing education on hand washing behaviors in thai households with an influenza-positive child in urban Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewchana, Suchada; Simmerman, Mark; Somrongthong, Ratana; Suntarattiwong, Piyarat; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Chotipitayasunondh, Tawee

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the effect of intensive education on self-reported frequency of hand washing (FHW), measured quality of hand washing (QHW), and measured scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) after 7 days and 90 days home-based intensive education of participants (aged >7 years) in households with a influenza-positive child. The authors provided intensive hand washing education using interactive participation including individual training, self-monitoring diary, provision of soap, and so on. There were significant improvements on FHW and QHW on day 7, control group (n(1) = 135) reported 3.9 hand washing episodes/day, whereas the intervention group (n(2) = 140) reported 5.7 episodes/day; control group (n(1) = 164) obtained a 3.2 measured quality score, whereas the intervention group (n(2) = 166) obtained a score of 6.4. Pre-education and 90 days post-education, FHW significantly improved by 2 episodes/day and QHW increased by 3 scores/episode. Knowledge of influenza and hand washing following coughing/sneezing showed significant improvement, but attitude modification toward severity of influenza requires a more intensified and longer intervention.

  15. The survival of foodborne pathogens during domestic washing-up and subsequent transfer onto washing-up sponges, kitchen surfaces and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, Karen; Durham, Karen; Domingue, Gil; Jørgensen, Frieda; Sen, Mithu; Schaffner, Donald W; Humphrey, Tom

    2003-08-25

    In this study, the survival of Salmonella, Campylobacter and Escherichia coli O157: H7, when exposed to a range of constant temperatures (47-60 degrees C), in hard or soft water, in the presence/absence of detergent (0-0.3%) and organic matter, and during drying, was investigated. Further experiments used a washing-up process simulation, where soiled dishes contaminated with bacteria were washed in a bowl of warm water containing detergent. In addition, this study considered the risk of bacterial transfer onto (1) sterile dishes and sponges via contaminated water, (2) kitchen surfaces wiped with a contaminated sponge, (3) items placed in direct contact with a contaminated kitchen surface, (4) food placed on a contaminated dish or (5) dishes from contaminated food. A proportion of dishes remained contaminated with all pathogen types after a typical washing-up. Water hardness did not appear to affect survival. E. coli, and to a lesser extent Salmonella, survived towel- or air-drying on dishes and after towel-drying the cloth became contaminated on every occasion, regardless of the test organism. A proportion of sterile dishes washed after contaminated dishes became contaminated with pathogens but transfer from dishes onto food was rare. Washing-up sponges frequently became contaminated with pathogens. The results of this study highlight the potential for survival and cross contamination of food borne pathogens in the kitchen environment.

  16. Exploration of a ternary deep eutectic solvent of methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide/chalcone/formic acid for the selective recognition of rutin and quercetin in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wanwan; Tang, Baokun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2017-08-01

    Methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide/chalcone/formic acid, a green ternary deep eutectic solvent, was applied as a functional monomer and dummy template simultaneously in the synthesis of a new molecularly imprinted polymer. Ternary deep eutectic solvent based molecularly imprinted polymers are used as a solid-phase extraction sorbent in the separation and purification of rutin and quercetin from Herba Artemisiae Scopariae combined with high-performance liquid chromatography. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy were applied to characterize the deep eutectic solvent based molecularly imprinted polymers synthesized using different molar ratios of chalcone. The static and competitive adsorption tests were performed to examine the recognition ability of the molecularly imprinted polymers to rutin and quercetin. The ternary deep eutectic solvent consisting of formic acid/chalcone/methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (1:0.05:0.5) had the best molecular recognition effect. After optimization of the washing solvents (methanol/water, 1:9) and eluting solvents (acetonitrile/acetic acid, 9:1), a reliable analytical method was developed for strong recognition towards rutin and quercetin in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae with satisfactory extraction recoveries (rutin: 92.48%, quercetin: 94.23%). Overall, the chalcone ternary deep eutectic solvent-based molecularly imprinted polymer coupled with solid-phase extraction is an effective method for the selective purification of multiple bioactive compounds in complex samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Additive diffusion from LDPE slabs into contacting solvents as a function of solvent absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmroth, I.E.; Dekker, M.; Hankemeier, Th.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the simultaneous diffusion of a migrant and a solvent in low density polyethylene (LDPE). The migrant (Irganox 1076) moves out of the slab, while the solvent (isooctane, n-heptane or cyclohexane) moves inwards. Solvent absorption was measured separately by following the increa

  18. Additive Diffusion from LDPE Slabs into Contacting Solvents as a Function of Solvent Absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmroth, I.E.; Dekker, M.; Hankemeier, T.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the simultaneous diffusion of a migrant and a solvent in low density polyethylene (LDPE). The migrant (Irganox 1076) moves out of the slab, while the solvent (isooctane, n-heptane or cyclohexane) moves inwards. Solvent absorption was measured separately by following the increa

  19. Transfer of fibres on the hands of living subjects and their persistence during hand washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sungwook; Han, Aleum; Kim, Sojung; Son, Dasom; Min, Heewon

    2014-12-01

    Textile fibres were transferred to the hands of ten living subjects and their persistence was determined after hand washing. Average number of fibres transferred was 300 ± 133 (female 288 ± 92, male 311 ± 163) per 100 cm(2) hand area in the 100 experiments. However the number of fibres transferred was not gender dependent but individual dependent. The hand texture of subjects was compared with the number of fibres transferred but the relationship was not observed. The number of fibres transferred varied significantly for the 10 repeated experiments performed under the same conditions for the same subject. The subjects were then asked to wash their hands with water. One test group washed their hands with standing water, and the other with running tap water. Afterwards, the number of fibres remaining on the test subjects' hands were investigated. Migration of the fibres on the surface of the observed hands did occur but total loss of transferred fibre after hand washing did not occur. The average number of fibres remaining per 100 cm(2) hand area was 14 ± 10 (range=3-72) for hand washing with standing water, and 10 ± 12 (range=0-79) for washing with running tap water. The results of this study show the possibility of finding fibres on the hands of a person involved in a criminal case even after hand washing before fibre collection.

  20. Recycling of Organic Solvents in Laboratories of Forensic Drug Analysis%法医毒物实验室有机溶剂的回收利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑可芳; 张绍雨

    2013-01-01

    探讨了法医毒物实验室废有机溶剂的产生途径及收集、处理和利用.产生的途径主要有样品处理、样品配制、玻璃仪器清洗等.废溶剂一般要分类收集、混合溶剂单独收集.除了环保部门集中处理以外,实验室可以用萃取、蒸馏、旋转蒸发等方法处理.蒸馏出来的溶剂经气质联用评价后可用于玻璃仪器清洗、样品配制和样品萃取等目的.法医毒物实验室对有机溶剂的回收利用,可以保护实验人员,降低环境污染,减少实验室运行成本.%The production, collection, processing and application of used organic solvents in laboratories of forensic drug analysis were discussed in this paper. The used solvents were produced in sample pretreatment, sample preparation, and washing of glassware, etc. The used organic solvents were preferably collected according to categories, and mixed solvents were collected separately. Except for batch processing by agencies of environment protection, the used organic solvents can be cleared by extraction, distillation or vacuum distillation in laboratories. The distilled solvents can be utilized for washing of glassware, sample preparation and extraction, and for other purposes, after evaluation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Solvent recycling in laboratories of forensic drug analysis can protect analysts, lower environmental pollution, and decrease the cost in laboratories.

  1. OBSERVED HAND WASHING PRACTICES AMONG HEALTH WORKERS IN TWO CRITICAL PAEDIATRICS WARDS OF A SPECIALIST HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balafama Abinye Alex-Hart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand washing in between patient care by health workers is the single most important measure against occurrence and spread of nosocomial infections within health facilities. This study was done to observe health workers hand washing practices in two critical Paediatric wards of a specialist hospital. Trained observers observed and recorded health workers’ hand washing compliance while carrying out their routine patient care. Other information recorded included the time of observation and health workers’ occupation and rank. Data was fed in to excel spread sheet and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. A total of 150 health workers were observed in this study. There were 116 (77.3% females and 34 (22.7% males giving a male: Female ratio of 1: 3.4. There were 86 (57.3% doctors and 64 (42.7% nurses. During the period of observation, soap with running water was found in only 39 (26.0% occasions. Common cotton towel was found in 78.7% of the period of observation as the only available hand drying facility. Doctors’ hand washing rates before and after patients contact were 17.4 and 64.0% respectively. Doctors’ hand washing rates before and after simple procedures ranged from 0 to 56.5 and 60.6 to 100% respectively. Nurses’ hand washing rates before and after simple procedures ranged from 1.3 to 28.6% and 19.7 to 88.4% respectively. Health workers (doctors and nurses hand washing rates on entering the wards was 4%. Hand washing rate before leaving the wards was 74.7%. Majority of the health workers dried their hands with non-disposable common cotton towels on 72.0% of the occasions. Hand washing rates was very low before patient contact and before simple procedures.

  2. Is the wash-off process of road-deposited sediment source limited or transport limited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Chen, Xuefei; Hao, Shaonan; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Jiang; Zou, Changliang; Xie, Wenxia

    2016-09-01

    An in-depth understanding of the road-deposited sediments (RDS) wash-off process is essential to estimation of urban surface runoff pollution load and to designing methods to minimize the adverse impacts on the receiving waters. There are two debatable RDS wash-off views: source limited and transport limited. The RDS build-up and wash-off process was characterized to explore what determines the wash-off process to be source limited or transport limited based on twelve RDS sampling activities on an urban road in Beijing. The results showed that two natural rain events (2.0mm and 23.2mm) reduced the total RDS mass by 30%-40%, and that finer particles (transport limited, but that finer particles tend to be source limited. To further explore and confirm the results of the field experiment, a total of 40 simulated rain events were designed to observe the RDS wash-off with different particle size fractions. The finer particles have a higher wash-off percentage (Fw) than the coarser particles, and the Fw values provide a good view to characterize the wash-off process. The key conclusions drawn from the combined field and simulated experiments data are: (i) Finer and coarser particle wash-off processes tend to be source limited and transport limited, respectively. (ii) The source and transport limited processes occur during the initial period (the first flush) and later periods, respectively. (iii) The smaller and larger rain events tend to be transport limited and source limited, respectively. Overall, the wash-off process is generally a combination of source and transport limited processes.

  3. EBR-II Primary Tank Wash-Water Alternatives Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmer, R. L.; Heintzelman, J. B.; Merservey, R. H.; Squires, L. N.

    2008-05-01

    The EBR-II reactor at Idaho National Laboratory was a liquid sodium metal cooled reactor that operated for 30 years. It was shut down in 1994; the fuel was removed by 1996; and the bulk of sodium metal coolant was removed from the reactor by 2001. Approximately 1100 kg of residual sodium remained in the primary system after draining the bulk sodium. To stabilize the remaining sodium, both the primary and secondary systems were treated with a purge of moist carbon dioxide. Most of the residual sodium reacted with the carbon dioxide and water vapor to form a passivation layer of primarily sodium bicarbonate. The passivation treatment was stopped in 2005 and the primary system is maintained under a blanket of dry carbon dioxide. Approximately 670 kg of sodium metal remains in the primary system in locations that were inaccessible to passivation treatment or in pools of sodium that were too deep for complete penetration of the passivation treatment. The EBR-II reactor was permitted by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) in 2002 under a RCRA permit that requires removal of all remaining sodium in the primary and secondary systems by 2022. The proposed baseline closure method would remove the large components from the primary tank, fill the primary system with water, react the remaining sodium with the water and dissolve the reaction products in the wash water. This method would generate a minimum of 100,000 gallons of caustic, liquid, low level radioactive, hazardous waste water that must be disposed of in a permitted facility. On February 19-20, 2008, a workshop was held in Idaho Falls, Idaho, to look at alternatives that could meet the RCRA permit clean closure requirements and minimize the quantity of hazardous waste generated by the cleanup process. The workshop convened a panel of national and international sodium cleanup specialists, subject matter experts from the INL, and the EBR-II Wash Water Project team that organized the workshop. The

  4. Multiphasic strain differentiation of atypical mycobacteria from elephant trunk wash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Two non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains, UM_3 and UM_11, were isolated from the trunk wash of captive elephants in Malaysia. As they appeared to be identical phenotypes, they were investigated further by conventional and whole genome sequence-based methods of strain differentiation.Methods. Multiphasic investigations on the isolates included species identification with hsp65 PCR-sequencing, conventional biochemical tests, rapid biochemical profiling using API strips and the Biolog Phenotype Microarray analysis, protein profiling with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, repetitive sequence-based PCR typing and whole genome sequencing followed by phylogenomic analyses.Results. The isolates were shown to be possibly novel slow-growing schotochromogens with highly similar biological and genotypic characteristics. Both strains have a genome size of 5.2 Mbp, G+C content of 68.8%, one rRNA operon and 52 tRNAs each. They qualified for classification into the same species with their average nucleotide identity of 99.98% and tetranucleotide correlation coefficient of 0.99999. At the subspecies level, both strains showed 98.8% band similarity in the Diversilab automated repetitive sequence-based PCR typing system, 96.2% similarity in protein profiles obtained by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, and a genomic distance that is close to zero in the phylogenomic tree constructed with conserved orthologs. Detailed epidemiological tracking revealed that the elephants shared a common habitat eight years apart, thus, strengthening the possibility of a clonal relationship between the two strains.

  5. Solvent effect in the Walden inversion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaume, J.; Lluch, J. M.; Oliva, A.; Bertrán, J.

    1984-04-01

    The solvent effect on the fluoride exchange reaction has been studied by means of ab initio calculations using the 3-21G basis set. It is shown that the motion of the solvent molecules is an important part of the reaction coordinate.

  6. Solvation of rhodamine575 in some solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit

    2016-05-01

    FTIR spectra of Rhodamine575 dye in powder form and in different solvents are reported. Positions of some of the observed FTIR bands show noticeable change in solvents. The bands, which shift, have contributions from the vibrational motion of nitrogen atoms of the ethylamine groups, oxygen atom of the carboxylic group attached to the phenyl ring and oxygen atom of the Xanthene ring.

  7. Composite capillary membrane for solvent resistant nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutczak, S.M.; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Zwijnenberg, Harmen Jan; Bolhuis-Versteeg, Lydia A.M.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) is a membrane separation process allowing for an efficient separation of small molecules of 200–1000 g mol−1 from organic solvents. The application of SRNF in industry applications is currently hindered by a limited choice of SRNF membranes and configurations.

  8. Supercritical-Multiple-Solvent Extraction From Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W.; Fong, W.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P.; Lawson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Large and small molecules dissolve different constituents. Experimental apparatus used to test supercritical extraction of hydrogen rich compounds from coal in various organic solvents. In decreasing order of importance, relevant process parameters were found to be temperature, solvent type, pressure, and residence time.

  9. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  10. Solvent-vapor-assisted imprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voicu, Nicoleta E.; Ludwigs, Sabine; Crossland, Edward J. W.; Andrew, Piers; Steiner, Ullrich

    2007-01-01

    Sub-micrometer features are replicated into high-molecular-weight polymer resists by using solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography (see figure). By swelling the polymer in a controlled solvent-vapor atmosphere, millibar pressures and ambient temperatures are sufficient to achieve high-fidelity

  11. Relationship between Fermi Resonance and Solvent Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiu-Lan; LI Dong-Fei; SUN Cheng-Lin; LI Zhan-Long; YANG Guang; ZHOU Mi; LI Zuo-Wei; GAO Shu-Qin

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally study the relationship between Fermi resonance and solvent effects and investigate the Fermi resonance of p-benzoquinone and cyclopentanone in different solvents and the Fermi resonance of CS2 in C6H6 at different concentrations. Also, we investigate the Fermi resonance of C6H6 and CCl4 in their solution at different pressures. It is found that solvent effects can be utilized to search Fermi resonance parameters such as coupling coefficient and spectral intensity ratio, etc., on the other hand, the mechanism of solvent effects can be revealed according to Fermi resonance at high pressure.%@@ We theoretically and experimentally study the relationship between Fermi resonance and solvent effects and investigate the Fermi resonance of p-benzoquinone and cyclopentanone in different solvents and the Fermi resonance of CS2 in C6H6 at different concentrations.Also,we investigate the Fermi resonance of C6H6 and CCl4 in their solution at different pressures.It is found that solvent effects can be utilized to search Fermi resonance parameters such as coupling coefficient and spectral intensity ratio,etc.,on the other hand,the mechanism of solvent effects can be revealed according to Fermi resonance at high pressure.

  12. [Preparation and antimicrobial effect of aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Su-Hua; Zhao, Guo-Xiang; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ling-Ling

    2013-06-01

    To prepare the aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care and research the inhibition effect on the different bacteria and pathogenic fungus which cause dermatophytosis. It was prepared by using Sophoraflavescens and Dictamnus dasycarpus as materials with the addition of Aloe extract, essential oil, surfactant, etc. The antifungal and antibacterial activity was researched by the levitation liquid quantitative method. The foot wash smelled faintly scent. The use of this product can produce a rich foam. The inhibitory rate were all more than 90%. The preparation process of the foot wash was simple. It has obviously bacteriostatic and fungistatic effect.

  13. Dimensional accuracy of 2-stage putty-wash impressions: influence of impression trays and viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkenhol, Markus; Ferger, Paul; Wöstmann, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of the impression tray and viscosity of the wash material on the dimensional accuracy of impressions taken using a 2-stage putty-wash technique. Identically shaped metal stock trays (MeTs) and disposable plastic stock trays (DiTs) were used for taking impressions (n = 10) of a mandibular cast (4 abutments) with 2 different impression materials. Dies were poured and the relative diameter deviation was calculated after measurement. Zero viscosity of the materials was determined. Dimensional accuracy was significantly affected when DiTs were used. Lower-viscosity wash materials led to more precise impressions.

  14. Observation of everyday hand-washing behavior of Japanese, and effects of antibacterial soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshima, Y; Ojima, M; Yamada, H; Mori, H; Tonomura, M; Hioki, Y; Koya, E

    2001-08-15

    People wash their hands only for a short time outside the home and when preparing meals at home. This may not be sufficient for those who prepare meals because of possible secondary contamination from food. Although washing with a placebo soap for a short period (lathering 3 s and rinsing 8 s) cleansed from hands about 95% of the total coliforms transferred from ground meat, an antibacterial soap further reduced the coliform count significantly (p wash their hands, using an antibacterial soap on the areas that have been in contact with raw meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, vegetables and other foods.

  15. Washing and Laundering on Board I.N. Ships with Sea Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivas Rao

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the use of synthetic detergents for washing and laundering on board I.N. Ships using sea water. Soiled clothed were subjected to washing trials using various concentrations of detergents viz., Teepol and Lissapol N with sodium meta-silicate as builder. A sea water washing formula using Teepol as detergent and sodium meta-silicate as builder in equal proportions has been evolved by which fresh water can be economized to the extent of 66% when compared to ordinary soaps and fresh water.

  16. Evaluation of washing procedures for pollution analysis of Ailanthus altissima leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    A study of nine different washing procedures using Alconox, HCl and Na2 EDTA for use on Ailanthus altissima leaves in particulate pollutant analyses was conducted. Leaf mineral analyses of washed and unwashed samples were carried out for Ca, Mg, K, Na, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn by atomic absorption spectrometry, for Cl by a specific ion electrode and for Ti by a spectrophotometric procedure. The data showed that a procedure consisting of washing by hand with 1% Alconox, followed by 0.01M Na2 EDTA, was most effective in removing surface Fe, Cu, Zn and Ti and led to little change in lead K or Cl.

  17. Las Vegas Wash Monitoring and Characterization Study: Ecotoxicologic Screening Assessment of Selected Contaminants of Potential Concern in Sediment, Whole Fish, Bird Eggs, and Water, 2007-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since 1998, the Las Vegas Wash Coordination Committee has implemented long-term management strategies for the Las Vegas Wash (Wash). A series of projects was...

  18. Toxic hepatitis in occupational exposure to solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giulia Malaguarnera; Emanuela Cataudella; Maria Giordano; Giuseppe Nunnari; Giuseppe Chisari; Mariano Malaguarnera

    2012-01-01

    The liver is the main organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs and toxic chemicals,and so is the primary target organ for many organic solvents.Work activities with hepatotoxins exposures are numerous and,moreover,organic solvents are used in various industrial processes.Organic solvents used in different industrial processes may be associated with hepatotoxicity.Several factors contribute to liver toxicity; among these are:species differences,nutritional condition,genetic factors,interaction with medications in use,alcohol abuse and interaction,and age.This review addresses the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity.The main pathogenic mechanisms responsible for functional and organic damage caused by solvents are:inflammation,dysfunction of cytochrome P450,mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.The health impact of exposure to solvents in the workplace remains an interesting and worrying question for professional health work.

  19. Assessment of solvents for cellulose dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mohammad; Tsianou, Marina; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2017-03-01

    A necessary step in the processing of biomass is the pretreatment and dissolution of cellulose. A good solvent for cellulose involves high diffusivity, aggressiveness in decrystallization, and capability of disassociating the cellulose chains. However, it is not clear which of these factors and under what conditions should be improved in order to obtain a more effective solvent. To this end, a newly-developed phenomenological model has been applied to assess the controlling mechanism of cellulose dissolution. Among the findings, the cellulose fibers remain crystalline almost to the end of the dissolution process for decrystallization-controlled kinetics. In such solvents, decreasing the fiber crystallinity, e.g., via pretreatment, would result in a considerable increase in the dissolution rate. Such insights improve the understanding of cellulose dissolution and facilitate the selection of more efficient solvents and processing conditions for biomass. Specific examples of solvents are provided where dissolution is limited due to decrystallization or disentanglement.

  20. Preparation of coal slurry with organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2007-06-01

    In this study, various organic solvents were used to prepare coal slurries and the rheological and thermal properties of coal-organic solvent slurries were examined. Solvents with molecules containing unpaired electrons (high basicity) show high extraction power and cause swelling of coal. Therefore, coal-organic solvent slurries usually showed higher viscosities compared to coal-water slurry. In addition, coal slurries prepared by alcohols and cyclohexanone demonstrated lower settling rates but a high specific sedimentation volume presumably because these solvents swelled coal particles well and led to the formation of weak gel structures in the bulk. In addition, ethanol and cyclohexanone are capable of breaking a considerable amount of hydrogen bonds in coal and subsequently opening up the structures. Thus, more surface area is available for combustion and the combustion rate of coal slurries was increased.

  1. Efficient cellulose solvent: quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostag, Marc; Liebert, Tim; El Seoud, Omar A; Heinze, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Pure quaternary tetraalkylammonium chlorides with one long alkyl chain dissolved in various organic solvents constitute a new class of cellulose solvents. The electrolytes are prepared in high yields and purity by Menshutkin quaternization, an inexpensive and easy synthesis route. The pure molten tetraalkylammonium chlorides dissolve up to 15 wt% of cellulose. Cosolvents, including N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), may be added in large excess, leading to a system of decreased viscosity. Contrary to the well-established solvent DMA/LiCl, cellulose dissolves in DMA/quaternary ammonium chlorides without any pretreatment. Thus, the use of the new solvent avoids some disadvantages of DMA/LiCl and ionic liquids, the most extensively employed solvents for homogeneous cellulose chemistry.

  2. Green-solvent-processable organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processable organic photovoltaics (OPV has emerged as a promising clean energy-generating technology due to its potential for low-cost manufacturing with a high power/weight ratio. The state-of-the-art OPV devices are processed by hazardous halogenated solvents. Fabricating high-efficiency OPV devices using greener solvents is a necessary step toward their eventual commercialization. In this review, recent research efforts and advances in green-solvent-processable OPVs are summarized, and two basic strategies including material design and solvent selection of light-harvesting layers are discussed. In particular, the most recent green-solvent-processable OPVs with high efficiencies in excess of 9% are highlighted.

  3. Influence of alpha and gamma radiolysis on Pu retention in the solvent TBP/kerosene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of the issue of radiolysis of the solvent system in PUREX process, alpha and gamma radiation stability of tributyl phosphate (TBP/kerosene (OK have been studied in this paper, in which 238Pu dissolved in the organic phase and 60Co are selected as alpha and gamma irradiation sources, respectively. The amount of the degradation products not easily removed after the washing process has been measured by the plutonium retention. The effects of the absorbed dose, the TBP volume fraction, the cumulative absorbed dose and the presence of UO2 2+ and Zr4+ on the radiolysis of the solvents have been investigated. The results have indicated that the Pu retention increases with the increase of the absorbed dose after alpha or gamma irradiation, and is larger for the solvent containing less TBP. There is competition between UO2 2+ and Pu4+ to complex with the degradation products, and Zr4+ accelerates the radiolysis of the system.

  4. [Neurotoxicity of organic solvents--recent findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Masato

    2007-06-01

    In this review, the recent findings of central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS) dysfunction induced by occupational exposure to organic solvents are described. While acute, high-level exposure to almost all organic solvents causes the general, nonspecific depression of CNS, it is still not clear whether chronic, low-level occupational exposure causes the chronic neurological dysfunction which has been called "organic solvent syndrome", "painters syndrome", "psycho-organic syndrome" or "chronic solvent encephalopathy". At least at lower than occupational exposure limits, chronic and low-level organic solvent exposure does not appear to cause the "sy mptomatic" neurological dysfunction. The chronic, moderate- to high-level exposure to a few organic solvents (such as carbon disulfide, n-hexane and methyl n-butyl ketone) affects CNS or PNS specifically. The substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons, 2-bromopropane and 1-bromopropane were shown to have the peripheral nerve toxicity in the experimental animals. Shortly after these observations, human cases of 1-bromopropane intoxication with the dysfunction of CNS and PNS were reported in the United States. Neurological abnormalities in workers of a 1-bromopropane factory in China were also reported. Thus, the possible neurotoxicity of newly introduced substitutes for ozone-depleting solvents into the workplace must be considered. Enough evidences indicate that some common solvents (such as toluene and styrene) induce sensorineural hearing loss and acquired color vision disturbances in workers. In some studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebral atrophy, patchy periventricular hyperintensities and hypointensities in the basal ganglia were found in solvent-exposed workers as have been shown in toluene abusers (toluene leukoencephalopathy). Further studies using the neurobehavioral test batteries, neurophysiological measurements and advanced neuroimaging techniques are required to detect the

  5. The chemistry of nonaqueous solvents v.4 solution phenomena and aprotic solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Lagowski, J J

    1976-01-01

    The Chemistry of Nonaqueous Solvents, Volume IV: Solution Phenomena and Aprotic Solvents focuses on the chemistry of nonaqueous solvents, with emphasis on solution phenomena and aprotic solvents such as tetramethylurea, inorganic acid chlorides, cyclic carbonates, and sulfolane. This book is organized into seven chapters and begins with an overview of the theory of electrical conductivity and elementary experimental considerations, along with some of the interesting research on nonaqueous solvents. It then turns to a discussion on hydrogen bonding phenomena in nonaqueous systems as probed

  6. PARIS II: Computer Aided Solvent Design for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product is a summary of U.S. EPA researchers' work developing the solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). PARIS II finds less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures to replace more toxic solvents co...

  7. Re-fermentation of washed spent solids from batch hydrogenogenic fermentation for additional production of biohydrogen from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Páez, Karla M; Ríos-Leal, Elvira; Valdez-Vazquez, Idania; Rinderknecht-Seijas, Noemí; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor M

    2012-03-01

    In the first batch solid substrate anaerobic hydrogenogenic fermentation with intermittent venting (SSAHF-IV) of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), a cumulative production of 16.6 mmol H(2)/reactor was obtained. Releases of hydrogen partial pressure first by intermittent venting and afterward by flushing headspace of reactors with inert gas N(2) allowed for further hydrogen production in a second to fourth incubation cycle, with no new inoculum nor substrate nor inhibitor added. After the fourth cycle, no more H(2) could be harvested. Interestingly, accumulated hydrogen in 4 cycles was 100% higher than that produced in the first cycle alone. At the end of incubation, partial pressure of H(2) was near zero whereas high concentrations of organic acids and solvents remained in the spent solids. So, since approximate mass balances indicated that there was still a moderate amount of biodegradable matter in the spent solids we hypothesized that the organic metabolites imposed some kind of inhibition on further fermentation of digestates. Spent solids were washed to eliminate organic metabolites and they were used in a second SSAHF-IV. Two more cycles of H(2) production were obtained, with a cumulative production of ca. 2.4 mmol H(2)/mini-reactor. As a conclusion, washing of spent solids of a previous SSAHF-IV allowed for an increase of hydrogen production by 15% in a second run of SSAHF-IV, leading to the validation of our hypothesis.

  8. Predicting the Solubility of Pharmaceutical Cocrystals in Solvent/Anti-Solvent Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lange

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the solubilities of pharmaceutical cocrystals in solvent/anti-solvent systems were predicted using PC-SAFT in order to increase the efficiency of cocrystal formation processes. Modeling results and experimental data were compared for the cocrystal system nicotinamide/succinic acid (2:1 in the solvent/anti-solvent mixtures ethanol/water, ethanol/acetonitrile and ethanol/ethyl acetate at 298.15 K and in the ethanol/ethyl acetate mixture also at 310.15 K. The solubility of the investigated cocrystal slightly increased when adding small amounts of anti-solvent to the solvent, but drastically decreased for high anti-solvent amounts. Furthermore, the solubilities of nicotinamide, succinic acid and the cocrystal in the considered solvent/anti-solvent mixtures showed strong deviations from ideal-solution behavior. However, by accounting for the thermodynamic non-ideality of the components, PC-SAFT is able to predict the solubilities in all above-mentioned solvent/anti-solvent systems in good agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Distribution of multi-component solvents in solvent vapor extraction chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Marathon Oil Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Vapex process performance is sensitive to operating pressures, temperatures and the types of solvent used. The hydrocarbon solvents used in Vapex processes typically have between 5 and 10 per cent hydrocarbon impurities, and the accumulation of dense phases inside the vapor chamber reduces gravity drainage potential. This study investigated the partitioning of solvent compounds inside the vapor chamber during in situ Vapex processes.The aim of the study was to examine how the different components of the mixed solvent partitioned inside the extracted chamber during the oil and vapor phase. A 2-D homogenous reservoir model was used to simulate the Vapex process with a solvent mixture comprised of propane and methane at various percentages. The effect of injecting a hot solvent vapor was also investigated. The study showed that injected methane accumulated at both the top and the extraction interface. Accumulations near the top had a positive impact on solvent confinement in thin reservoirs. Diffusion of the solvent component was controlled by gas phase molecular diffusion, and was much faster than the diffusion of solvent molecules in the liquid phase. The use of hot solvent mixtures slowed the extraction process due to lower solvent solubility in the oil phase. It was concluded that the negative impact on viscosity reduction by dilution was not compensated by rises in temperature. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Acidogenic spent wash valorization through polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis coupled with fermentative biohydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amulya, K; Reddy, M Venkateswar; Mohan, S Venkata

    2014-04-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by Bacillus tequilensis biocatalyst using spent wash effluents as substrate was evaluated to increase the versatility of the existing PHA production process and reduce production cost. In this study, spent wash was used as a substrate for biohydrogen (H2) production and the resulting acidogenic effluents were subsequently employed as substrate for PHA production. Maximum H2 production of 39.8L and maximum PHA accumulation of 40% dry cell weight was attained. Good substrate removal associated with decrement in acidification (53% to 15%) indicates that the VFA generated were effectively utilized for PHA production. The PHA composition showed presence of copolymer [P (3HB-co-3HV)] with varying contents of hydroxybutyrate and hydroxyvalerate. The results obtained suggest that the use of spent wash effluents as substrate can considerably reduce the production cost of PHA with simultaneous waste valorization. PHA synthesis with B. tequilensis and spent wash effluents is reported for the first time.

  11. Utilization of washed MSWI fly ash as partial cement substitute with the addition of dithiocarbamic chelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbao; Wang, Wei; Ye, Tunmin; Wang, Feng; Lan, Yuxin

    2008-07-01

    The management of the big amount of fly ash as hazardous waste from the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) has encountered many problems in China. In this study, a feasibility research on MSWI fly ash utilization as partial cement substitute in cement mortars was therefore carried out. MSWI fly ash was subjected to washing process to reduce its chlorine content (from 10.16% to 1.28%). Consequently, it was used in cement mortars. Ten percent and 20% replacement of cement by washed ash showed acceptable strength properties. In TCLP and 180-day monolithic tests, the mortars with washed ash presented a little stronger heavy metal leachability, but this fell to the blank level (mortar without washed ash) with the addition of 0.25% chelate. Therefore, this method is proposed as an environment-friendly technology to achieve a satisfactory solution for MSWI fly ash management.

  12. Washing Habits and Machine with Intake of hot and cold Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bente Lis; Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    Domestic washing machines typically spend around 80% of the electricity on heating water. Most of this can be replaced by more appropriate heat sources like district heat from combined heat and power production, or gas heating system. In recent years some washing machine manufacturers have marketed...... machines which can take in both hot and cold water and mix it to the temperature wanted. Such one machine has been tested in daily household use over 5 months, with habits of very few hot water washes. The result is an electricity consumption corresponding to 67 kWh per year for an average household...... with slightly adapted washing habits, or 17% of normal today. If the heat is supplied from combined heat and power production as in the actual experiment, CO2-emission is reduced by 81%. With hot water from oil or gas heaters the reduction will be slightly lower, while with solar hot water it will be larger....

  13. Improving ethanol production from alfalfa stems via ambient-temperature acid pretreatment and washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengfei; Weimer, Paul J; Hatfield, Ronald D; Runge, Troy M; Digman, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The concept of co-production of liquid fuel (ethanol) along with animal feed on farm was proposed, and the strategy of using ambient-temperature acid pretreatment, ensiling and washing to improve ethanol production from alfalfa stems was investigated. Alfalfa stems were separated and pretreated with sulfuric acid at ambient-temperature after harvest, and following ensiling, after which the ensiled stems were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production. Ethanol yield was improved by ambient-temperature sulfuric acid pretreatment before ensiling, and by washing before SSF. It was theorized that the acid pretreatment at ambient temperature partially degraded hemicellulose, and altered cell wall structure, resulted in improved cellulose accessibility, whereas washing removed soluble ash in substrates which could inhibit the SSF. The pH of stored alfalfa stems can be used to predict the ethanol yield, with a correlation coefficient of +0.83 for washed alfalfa stems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Teaching a Young Autistic Boy How to Wash His Hands and Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenville, Pam

    1980-01-01

    Marked positive changes were observed in face and hand washing behavior over the 10 session behavior modification program which employed a chocolate milkshake as the major material reinforcer. (Author/DLS)

  15. Las Vegas wash water quality and implications to fish and wildlife

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Recent investigations have documented degraded water quality conditions in Las Vegas Wash and Las Vegas Bay of Lake Mead, Clark County, Nevada (Bureau of Reclamation...

  16. Removing pesticides from the hands with a simple washing procedure using soap and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Hans; Brouwer, Derk H; van Hemmen, Johannes J

    2002-11-01

    Crop activities lead to dermal exposure of workers to pesticides. The efficacy of hand washing as a control measure is unknown. The efficacy of water and soap was studied for some pesticides and exposure situations. Pre-washing contamination levels in field studies were calculated from foliar residues by models using transfer factors. Between 24.5% and 50.7% of the calculated prewashing contamination was removed in two field studies with three pesticides, with coefficients of variation between 43% and 72%. In a human volunteer study, on average 45.8% and 85.7% was removed for two pesticides (coefficients of variation 6% and 7%). No influence of 'washing vigour' was found and efficacy did not depend on pre-washing contamination levels. The combination of field studies and laboratory experiments was successful, partly compensating for weaknesses in both approaches.

  17. Self-reported hand washing behaviors and foodborne illness: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Verrill, Linda; Zhang, Yuanting

    2014-03-01

    Hand washing is a simple and effective but easily overlooked way to reduce cross-contamination and the transmission of foodborne pathogens. In this study, we used the propensity score matching methodology to account for potential selection bias to explore our hypothesis that always washing hands before food preparation tasks is associated with a reduction in the probability of reported foodborne illness. Propensity score matching can simulate random assignment to a condition so that pretreatment observable differences between a treatment group and a control group are homogenous on all the covariates except the treatment variable. Using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2010 Food Safety Survey, we estimated the effect of self-reported hand washing behavior on the probability of self-reported foodborne illness. Our results indicate that reported washing of hands with soap always before food preparation leads to a reduction in the probability of reported foodborne illness.

  18. Hair dyeing, hair washing and hair cortisol concentrations among women from the healthy start study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sheila K.; Larsen, Sofus C.; Olsen, Nanna J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) has been suggested as a promising marker for chronic stress. However, studies investigating the influence of hair dyeing and hair washing frequency on HCC have shown inconsistent results. Objective: To examine associations between HCC and hair dyeing...... status or weekly hair washing frequency among women. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on data from 266 mothers participating in the Healthy Start intervention study. HCC was measured in the proximal end of the hair (1–2 cm closest to the scalp) while hair dyeing status, frequency of hair...... washing and covariates were reported by the women. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess the associations between HCC and hair dyeing or weekly frequency of hair washing. Results: No statistically significant difference (p = 0.91) in HCC was found between women who dyed hair (adjusted mean...

  19. Semen characteristics in HIV-1 positive men and the effect of semen washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasheeb, A S; King, J; Ball, J K; Curran, R; Barratt, C L; Afnan, M; Pillay, D

    1997-08-01

    We have undertaken an analysis of semen from HIV infected men with regard to sperm counts and motility, non-spermatozoal cells, and viral nucleic acid. Regression analysis showed that sperm concentration and motility were positively associated with blood CD4 cell count. By contrast, non-spermatozoal cell concentration (round cells) was inversely related to CD4 count. Extracellular HIV RNA was detected in the majority of semen samples and proviral DNA in a minority. Percoll gradient washing of 12 semen samples yielded six samples containing adequate sperm concentration for analysis. This washing procedure reduced prewash extracellular RNA to below detectable limits in all cases; proviral DNA present in two of the six prewash samples was also reduced to below detectable limits after washing. We conclude that semen washing before artificial insemination may reduce the risk of HIV transmission from an infected man to an uninfected woman. However, further evidence from prospective analyses of such an approach is required.

  20. Internalization of Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupes during dump tank washing and hydrocooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent listeriosis outbreaks and recalls associated with cantaloupes urge for studies to understand the mechanisms of cantaloupe contamination by Listeria monocytogenes. Postharvest practices such as washing and hydrocooling were suggested to facilitate the contamination of fresh fruits by human pat...

  1. Ortho-phthalaldehyde-induced skin mucous membrane damage from inadequate washing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horikiri, Masaru; Park, Susam; Matsui, Takahiro; Suzuki, Komei; Matsuoka, Takanori

    2011-01-01

    .... The authors report a patient with widespread, severe skin and mucous membrane damage of the lip, tongue, pharynx and oesophagus areas that was attributed to inadequate washing after the sterilisation...

  2. The influence of sodium-polyacrilic macromolecular chain length to the powder detergents secondary washing performances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milojević Vladimir S; Nikolić Ljubiša B; Nikolić Goran; Stamenković Jakov

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of sodium-polyacrylate polymer as a co-builder in addition to the carbonate/zeolite builders in detergent builder system, secondary washing performances of powder...

  3. Analysis of extensively washed hair from cocaine users and drug chemists to establish new reporting criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Kukoski, Cynthia L; Montgomery, Madeline A; Hammer, Rena L

    2014-01-01

    Samples from a self-proclaimed cocaine (COC) user, from 19 drug users (postmortem) and from 27 drug chemists were extensively washed and analyzed for COC, benzoylecgonine, norcocaine (NC), cocaethylene (CE) and aryl hydroxycocaines by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Published wash criteria and cutoffs were applied to the results. Additionally, the data were used to formulate new reporting criteria and interpretation guidelines for forensic casework. Applying the wash and reporting criteria, hair that was externally contaminated with COC was distinguished from hair collected from individuals known to have consumed COC. In addition, CE, NC and hydroxycocaine metabolites were only present in COC users' hair and not in drug chemists' hair. When properly applied, the use of an extended wash, along with the reporting criteria defined here, will exclude false-positive results from environmental contact with COC.

  4. Washing our hands of the congenital cytomegalovirus disease epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannon Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year in the United States, an estimated 40,000 children are born with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infection, causing an estimated 400 deaths and leaving approximately 8000 children with permanent disabilities such as hearing or vision loss, or mental retardation. More children are affected by serious CMV-related disabilities than by several better-known childhood maladies, including Down syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and spina bifida. Discussion Congenital CMV is a prime target for prevention not only because of its substantial disease burden but also because the biology and epidemiology of CMV suggest that there are ways to reduce viral transmission. Because exposure to the saliva or urine of young children is a major cause of CMV infection among pregnant women, it is likely that good personal hygiene, especially hand-washing, can reduce the risk of CMV acquisition. Experts agree that such measures are likely to be efficacious (i.e., they will work if consistently followed and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that physicians counsel pregnant women about preventing CMV acquisition through careful attention to hygiene. However, because of concerns about effectiveness (i.e., Will women consistently follow hygienic practices as the result of interventions?, the medical and public health communities appear reluctant to embrace primary CMV prevention via improved hygienic practices, and educational interventions are rare. Current data on the effectiveness of such measures in preventing CMV infection are promising, but limited. There is strong evidence, however, that educational interventions can prevent other infectious diseases with similar transmission modes, suggesting that effective interventions can also be found for CMV. Until a CMV vaccine becomes available, effective educational interventions are needed to inform women about congenital CMV prevention. Summary Perhaps no single

  5. Organic Solvent Tolerant Lipases and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivika Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are a group of enzymes naturally endowed with the property of performing reactions in aqueous as well as organic solvents. The esterification reactions using lipase(s could be performed in water-restricted organic media as organic solvent(s not only improve(s the solubility of substrate and reactant in reaction mixture but also permit(s the reaction in the reverse direction, and often it is easy to recover the product in organic phase in two-phase equilibrium systems. The use of organic solvent tolerant lipase in organic media has exhibited many advantages: increased activity and stability, regiospecificity and stereoselectivity, higher solubility of substrate, ease of products recovery, and ability to shift the reaction equilibrium toward synthetic direction. Therefore the search for organic solvent tolerant enzymes has been an extensive area of research. A variety of fatty acid esters are now being produced commercially using immobilized lipase in nonaqueous solvents. This review describes the organic tolerance and industrial application of lipases. The main emphasis is to study the nature of organic solvent tolerant lipases. Also, the potential industrial applications that make lipases the biocatalysts of choice for the present and future have been presented.

  6. Polar Solvents Trigger Formation of Reverse Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnood, Atefeh; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2015-06-09

    We use molecular dynamics simulations and molecular thermodynamics to investigate the formation of reverse micelles in a system of surfactants and nonpolar solvents. Since the early observation of reverse micelles, the question has been whether the existence of polar solvent molecules such as water is the driving force for the formation of reverse micelles in nonpolar solvents. In this work, we use a simple coarse-grained model of surfactants and solvents to show that a small number of polar solvent molecules triggers the formation of large permanent aggregates. In the absence of polar molecules, both the thermodynamic model and molecular simulations show that small aggregates are more populated in the solution and larger ones are less frequent as the system evolves over time. The size and shape of reverse micelles depend on the size of the polar core: the shape is spherical for a large core and ellipsoidal for a smaller one. Using the coarse-grained model, we also investigate the effect of temperature and surfactant tail length. Our results reveal that the number of surfactant molecules in the micelle decreases as the temperature increases, but the average diameter does not change because the size of the polar core remains invariant. A reverse micelle with small polar core attracts fewer surfactants when the tail is long. The uptake of solvent particles by a micelle of longer surfactant tail is less than shorter ones when the polar solvent particles are initially distributed randomly.

  7. Auditory dysfunction associated with solvent exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuente Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have demonstrated that solvents may induce auditory dysfunction. However, there is still little knowledge regarding the main signs and symptoms of solvent-induced hearing loss (SIHL. The aim of this research was to investigate the association between solvent exposure and adverse effects on peripheral and central auditory functioning with a comprehensive audiological test battery. Methods Seventy-two solvent-exposed workers and 72 non-exposed workers were selected to participate in the study. The test battery comprised pure-tone audiometry (PTA, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE, Random Gap Detection (RGD and Hearing-in-Noise test (HINT. Results Solvent-exposed subjects presented with poorer mean test results than non-exposed subjects. A bivariate and multivariate linear regression model analysis was performed. One model for each auditory outcome (PTA, TEOAE, RGD and HINT was independently constructed. For all of the models solvent exposure was significantly associated with the auditory outcome. Age also appeared significantly associated with some auditory outcomes. Conclusions This study provides further evidence of the possible adverse effect of solvents on the peripheral and central auditory functioning. A discussion of these effects and the utility of selected hearing tests to assess SIHL is addressed.

  8. Solvent Effect on the Photolysis of Riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Anwar, Zubair; Ahmed, Sofia; Sheraz, Muhammad Ali; Bano, Raheela; Hafeez, Ambreen

    2015-10-01

    The kinetics of photolysis of riboflavin (RF) in water (pH 7.0) and in organic solvents (acetonitrile, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, ethyl acetate) has been studied using a multicomponent spectrometric method for the assay of RF and its major photoproducts, formylmethylflavin and lumichrome. The apparent first-order rate constants (k obs) for the reaction range from 3.19 (ethyl acetate) to 4.61 × 10(-3) min(-1) (water). The values of k obs have been found to be a linear function of solvent dielectric constant implying the participation of a dipolar intermediate along the reaction pathway. The degradation of this intermediate is promoted by the polarity of the medium. This indicates a greater stabilization of the excited-triplet states of RF with an increase in solvent polarity to facilitate its reduction. The rate constants for the reaction show a linear relation with the solvent acceptor number indicating the degree of solute-solvent interaction in different solvents. It would depend on the electron-donating capacity of RF molecule in organic solvents. The values of k obs are inversely proportional to the viscosity of the medium as a result of diffusion-controlled processes.

  9. Combined soil washing and CDEO for the removal of atrazine from soils

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Santos, Elisama; Saez, C.; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A.; Cañizares Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo Rodrigo, Manuel Andrés

    2015-01-01

    In this work, it is studied the removal of atrazine from spiked soils by soil washing using surfactant fluids, followed by the treatment of the resulting washing waste by electrolysis with boron doped diamond anode. Results confirm that combination of both technologies is efficient for the removal and total mineralization of atrazine. Ratio surfactant/soil is a key parameter for the removal of atrazine from soil and influences significantly in the characteristic of the wastewater produced, af...

  10. Evaluation of Resuspension from Propeller Wash in Pearl Harbor and San Diego Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    July 2014 Evaluation of Resuspension from Propeller Wash in Pearl Harbor and San Diego Bay P.F. Wang K. Richter I. D. Rivera -Duarte B...Technical Report 2036 July 2014 Evaluation of Resuspension from Propeller Wash in Pearl Harbor and San Diego Bay P.F. Wang...K. Richter I. D. Rivera -Duarte B. Davidson B. Wild R. Barua SSC Pacific Q. Liao University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee J. Germano Germano

  11. Ineffective hand washing and the contamination of carrots after using a field latrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, J M; Hutchison, M L

    2016-04-01

    A study was undertaken to simulate the likely effects of a field worker with poor hygienic practices that had returned to work too soon after recovering from an infection by an enteric pathogen. The studies simulated a variety of hand-washing practices from no washing to washing with soap and water followed by an application of alcohol gel after using a field latrine. The numbers of generic Escherichia coli isolated from workers' hands declined with increasing thoroughness of hand-washing treatments with unwashed hands > water > water and soap > water, soap and alcohol gel. Where gloves were worn the counts obtained for the treatments were significantly reduced, but it was observed that unwashed hands contaminated gloves during the process of putting them on. Hand contamination following the use of a field latrine transferred contamination to carrots. These results suggest that if no gloves are worn it would be best practice to wash hands with water and soap and apply alcohol gel after using a field latrine. Wearing gloves reduced the risk of contaminating handled produce but workers should still wash their hands after using a field latrine before applying gloves. This study shows that inadequate hand hygiene in the field following the use of a field latrine can transfer bacterial contamination to hand-harvested carrots. Where fresh produce crops are to be handled by workers, wearing gloves reduces the risk of contaminating produce but workers should still wash their hands after using a field latrine before applying gloves. If no gloves are worn it would be best practice to wash hands with water and soap and apply alcohol gel after using a field latrine. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Comparison of four methods of hand washing in situations of inadequate water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsola, F T; Adesiji, Y O

    2008-01-01

    Hand washing is the single most important means of preventing hospital acquired infections, but requires for effectiveness, a constant supply of running water and proper facilities. Most developing countries do not have constant running water facilities, so alternate methods have been developed and used in clinics and hospitals. To compare and validate alternate methods of hand washing developed for use in Nigeria. The hands of 12 volunteers were pre-contaminated with known isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The volunteers washed their hands as described by Ayliffe. The hands and equipment were cultured pre- and post-contamination and post-hand washing. The water used for the hand wash was also cultured pre-hand washing to control for water-based contamination. Each method was evaluated three times and various parts of the equipment were cultured to determine the areas contaminated by the hands during the hand wash. "Elbow-way" was shown to be the best and the gold standard Sink and Tap for promoting an effective hand washing, as there was no evidence of post-contamination. The worst was the single-bowl method in which the hands of all the 12 (100%) volunteers were contaminated from the bowl, followed by the two-bowl initiative 10 (83%) and the bucket and bowl 9 (75%). The bucket and bowl as well as the single-bowl methods most commonly used in hospitals result in gross contamination of the bowls and bucket and are therefore unsafe and should be discouraged. The elbow way on the other hand appears to be an easy and safe alternative in situations where there is no running water.

  13. Comparison of bronchial washing, brushing and biopsy for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palenque, E; Amor, E; Bernaldo de Quiros, J C

    1987-04-01

    The diagnostic yields of bronchial washings, bronchial brushings and lung biopsy specimens were compared in 50 patients with positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures. The number of positive results obtained with cultures of bronchial brushings was significantly higher than that with bronchial washings (p less than 0.001). The histological study of biopsy lung material improved the rate of immediate or rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (p less than 0.001).

  14. Ultrasonic and mechanical soil washing processes for the remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seulgi; Lee, Wontae; Son, Younggyu

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonic/mechanical soil washing process was investigated and compared with ultrasonic process and mechanical process using a relatively large lab-scale sonoreactor. It was found that higher removal efficiencies were observed in the combined processes for 0.1 and 0.3 M HCl washing liquids. It was due to the combination effects of macroscale removal for the overall range of slurry by mechanical mixing and microscale removal for the limited zone of slurry by cavitational actions.

  15. The influence of sodium-polyacrilic macromolecular chain length to the powder detergents secondary washing performances

    OpenAIRE

    Milojević Vladimir S.; Nikolić Ljubiša B.; Nikolić Goran; Stamenković Jakov

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of sodium-polyacrylate polymer as a co-builder in addition to the carbonate/zeolite builders in detergent builder system, secondary washing performances of powder laundry detergent containing equal percentage of sodium polyacrylate with the different weight average molar mass, Mw, have been examined. The value of the degree of whiteness, elongation at break, and total residue content are the most important secondary washing performances that signifi...

  16. EQUINE TRACHEOBRONCHIAL WASH FILTRATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNT

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Tracheobronchial wash (TBW) is a method to recover cell samples from the airways. The cytology of TBW fluid is an important technique for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases in horses. Excessive mucus in TBW may cause cell damage and morphological changes that hinder cell type recognition, resulting in a misdiagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare the results of differential cell count in a tracheobronchial wash of filtered and non-filtered samples. Endoscopy and TBW procedures were pe...

  17. Microfiber Masses Recovered from Conventional Machine Washing of New or Aged Garments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartline, Niko L; Bruce, Nicholas J; Karba, Stephanie N; Ruff, Elizabeth O; Sonar, Shreya U; Holden, Patricia A

    2016-11-01

    Synthetic textiles can shed numerous microfibers during conventional washing, but evaluating environmental consequences as well as source-control strategies requires understanding mass releases. Polyester apparel accounts for a large proportion of the polyester market, and synthetic jackets represent the broadest range in apparel construction, allowing for potential changes in manufacturing as a mitigation measure to reduce microfiber release during laundering. Here, detergent-free washing experiments were conducted and replicated in both front- and top-load conventional home machines for five new and mechanically aged jackets or sweaters: four from one name-brand clothing manufacturer (three majority polyester fleece, and one nylon shell with nonwoven polyester insulation) and one off-brand (100% polyester fleece). Wash water was filtered to recover two size fractions (>333 μm and between 20 and 333 μm); filters were then imaged, and microfiber masses were calculated. Across all treatments, the recovered microfiber mass per garment ranged from approximately 0 to 2 g, or exceeding 0.3% of the unwashed garment mass. Microfiber masses from top-load machines were approximately 7 times those from front-load machines; garments mechanically aged via a 24 h continuous wash had increased mass release under the same wash protocol as new garments. When published wastewater treatment plant influent characterization and microfiber removal studies are considered, washing synthetic jackets or sweaters as per this study would account for most microfibers entering the environment.

  18. Treatment techniques for the recycling of bottle washing water in the soft drinks industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camperos, E; Mijaylova Nacheva, P; Diaz Tapia, E

    2004-01-01

    The soft drink production is an important sector in the manufacturing industry of Mexico. Water is the main source in the production of soft drinks. Wastewater from bottle washing is almost 50% of the total wastewater generated by this industry. In order to reduce the consumption of water, the water of the last bottle rinse can be reused in to the bottle pre-rinse and pre-washing cycles. This work presents the characterization of the final bottle washing rinse discharge and the treatability study for the most appropriate treatment system for recycling. Average characteristics of the final bottle wash rinse were as follows: Turbidity 40.46 NTU, COD 47.7 mg/L, TSS 56 mg/L, TS 693.6 mg/L, electrical conductivity 1,194 microS/cm. The results of the treatability tests showed that the final rinse water can be used in the pre-rinse and pre-washing after removing the totality of the suspended solids, 80% of the COD and 75% of the dissolved solids. This can be done using the following treatment systems: filtration-adsorption-reverse osmosis, or filtration-adsorption-ion exchange. The installation of these treatment techniques in the soft drink industry would decrease bottle washing water consumption by 50%.

  19. Effectiveness of hand washing and disinfection methods in removing transient bacteria after patient nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojajärvi, J

    1980-10-01

    The effectiveness of various hand washing and disinfection methods in removing transient skin bacteria was studied in hospital after dry or moist contamination of the hands when nursing burn patients. The results were compared with those of laboratory tests with volunteers. A fairly good correlation of the bacterial reductions existed between hospital and laboratory tests. All other methods removed Staph. aureus from the hands more effectively than liquid soap. Gram-negative bacilli were more easily removed than staphylococci, even with soap wash alone. In hospital, none of the washing and disinfection methods always removed all patient-borne bacteria from the hands. After dry or moist contamination and subsequent washing with soap only, colonies of Staph. aureus were often detected in finger-print samples. Staphylococci were more often completely removed by a 4% chlorhexidine detergent scrub and alcoholic solutions (either with or without previous soap wash) than by liquid soap, hexachlorophene or iodophor preparations. Gram-negative bacilli were more easily removed by all the washing and disinfection methods. After moist contamination, Gram-negative bacilli were more often completely removed from the hands by ethanol than by other treatments. The results of the present study emphasize the importance of always using gloves when nursing a profuse spreader of bacteria or one who must be protected from infection.

  20. Washing older blood units before transfusion reduces plasma iron and improves outcomes in experimental canine pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Puch, Irene; Wang, Dong; Sun, Junfeng; Solomon, Steven B; Remy, Kenneth E; Fernandez, Melinda; Feng, Jing; Kanias, Tamir; Bellavia, Landon; Sinchar, Derek; Perlegas, Andreas; Solomon, Michael A; Kelley, Walter E; Popovsky, Mark A; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Klein, Harvey G; Natanson, Charles

    2014-02-27

    In a randomized controlled blinded trial, 2-year-old purpose-bred beagles (n = 24), with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, were exchanged-transfused with either 7- or 42-day-old washed or unwashed canine universal donor blood (80 mL/kg in 4 divided doses). Washing red cells (RBC) before transfusion had a significantly different effect on canine survival, multiple organ injury, plasma iron, and cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) levels depending on the age of stored blood (all, P blood improved survival rates, shock score, lung injury, cardiac performance and liver function, and reduced levels of non-transferrin bound iron and plasma labile iron. In contrast, washing fresh blood worsened all these same clinical parameters and increased CFH levels. Our data indicate that transfusion of fresh blood, which results in less hemolysis, CFH, and iron release, is less toxic than transfusion of older blood in critically ill infected subjects. However, washing older blood prevented elevations in plasma circulating iron and improved survival and multiple organ injury in animals with an established pulmonary infection. Our data suggest that fresh blood should not be washed routinely because, in a setting of established infection, washed RBC are prone to release CFH and result in worsened clinical outcomes.

  1. Optimal hand washing technique to minimize bacterial contamination before neuraxial anesthesia: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, N; Friedman, Z; McGeer, A; Yousefzadeh, A; Carvalho, J C; Davies, S

    2017-02-01

    Infectious complications related to neuraxial anesthesia may result in adverse outcomes. There are no best practice guidelines regarding hand-sanitizing measures specifically for these procedures. The objective of this study was to compare the growth of microbial organisms on the operator's forearm between five common techniques of hand washing for labor epidurals. In this single blind randomized controlled trial, all anesthesiologists performing labor epidurals in a tertiary care hospital were randomized into five study groups: hand washing with alcohol gel only up to elbows (Group A); hand washing with soap up to elbows, sterile towel to dry, followed by alcohol gel (Group B); hand washing with soap up to elbows, non-sterile towel to dry, followed by alcohol gel (Group C); hand washing with soap up to elbows, non-sterile towel to dry (Group D) or hand washing with soap up to elbows, sterile towel to dry (Group E). The number of colonies for each specimen/rate per 100 specimens on one or both arms per group was measured. The incidence of colonization was 2.5, 23.0, 18.5, 114.5, and 53.0 in Groups A, B, C, D and E, respectively. Compared to Group A, the odds ratio of bacterial growth for Group B was 1.52 (P=0.519), Group C 5.44 (P=0.003), Group D 13.82 (Phand-sanitizing practices among epidural practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbiologic effectiveness of hand washing with soap in an urban squatter settlement, Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, S P; Agboatwalla, M; Raza, A; Sobel, J; Mintz, E D; Baier, K; Hoekstra, R M; Rahbar, M H; Hassan, R; Qureshi, S M; Gangarosa, E J

    2001-10-01

    We conducted a study in a squatter settlement in Karachi, Pakistan where residents report commonly washing their hands to determine if providing soap, encouraging hand washing, and improving wash-water quality would improve hand cleanliness. We allocated interventions to 75 mothers and collected hand-rinse samples on unannounced visits. In the final model compared with mothers who received no hand-washing intervention, mothers who received soap would be expected to have 65% fewer thermotolerant coliform bacteria on their hands (95% CI 40%, 79%) and mothers who received soap, a safe water storage vessel, hypochlorite for water treatment, and instructions to wash their hands with soap and chlorinated water would be expected to have 74% fewer (95% CI 57%, 84%). The difference between those who received soap alone, and those who received soap plus the safe water vessel was not significant (P = 0.26). Providing soap and promoting hand washing measurably improved mothers' hand cleanliness even when used with contaminated water.

  3. The integration of innovative technologies into a physical-separation-based soil washing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krstich, M.A.

    1995-11-01

    An innovative system`s approach to the treatment of soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has been proposed to effectively and cost competitively treat a significant mass of soil. The use of an integrated soil treatment system to decontaminate FEMP soils is a unique application of the soil washing technology. Due to the unfavorable soil particle size distribution and the ubiquitous distribution of uranium among these particle size fractions, conventional soil washing processes commonly used on predominantly sandy soils alone may not achieve the desirable waste minimization level without the inclusion of innovative technologies. This objective of this paper is to briefly describe the physical separation and chemical extraction process commonly used in soil washing operation and to present the baseline soil washing approach used on FEMP soils. Noting the successful and not-so-successful processes within the soil washing operation at the FEMP, a proposed innovative system`s approach to treating FEMP soils will be described. This system`s approach will integrate a conventional soil washing operation with proposed innovative technologies.

  4. A review of diesel use in pressure wash guns in the upstream petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Oil-based drilling fluids are used in wash guns to clean downhole tools and equipment. Base oils such as diesel are used instead of water to limit potential impacts on mud systems. This study was conducted after a near-miss incident in which an employee using diesel fuel in a high-pressure wash gun experienced sensitization to the diesel fluid and its fumes. The employee's service company banned the use of diesel fuel in wash guns in all its Canadian operations as a result of the incident. This study investigated the potential fire and explosion hazards that may be caused by use of the fuel in wash guns, and evaluated the potential for adverse health effects in workers exposed to diesel fluid and vapours. The study summarized alternative products for use in the wash guns and provided a compilation of industry policies, procedures, and job safety and hazard assessments that have been developed in relation to diesel fuels and wash guns. A review of field tests and studies on the health and safety effects of diesel fuel was also conducted. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Characterization of the SRNL-Washed tank 51 sludge batch 9 qualification sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel have been requested to qualify the next sludge batch (Sludge Batch 9 – SB9) for processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To accomplish this task, Savannah River Remediation (SRR) sent SRNL a 3-L sample of Tank 51H slurry to be characterized, washed, and then used in a lab-scale demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet (after combining with Tank 40H sludge). SRNL has washed the Tank 51H sample per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. A part of the qualification process is extensive radionuclide and chemical characterization of the SRNL-washed Tank 51H slurry. This report documents the chemical characterization of the washed slurry; radiological characterization is in progress and will be documented in a separate report. The analytical results of this characterization are comparable to the Tank Farm projections. Therefore, it is recommended that SRNL use this washed slurry for the ongoing SB9 qualification activities.

  6. Detecting Wash Trade in Financial Market Using Digraphs and Dynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Sonya; Belatreche, Ammar; McGinnity, Thomas Martin

    2016-11-01

    A wash trade refers to the illegal activities of traders who utilize carefully designed limit orders to manually increase the trading volumes for creating a false impression of an active market. As one of the primary formats of market abuse, a wash trade can be extremely damaging to the proper functioning and integrity of capital markets. The existing work focuses on collusive clique detections based on certain assumptions of trading behaviors. Effective approaches for analyzing and detecting wash trade in a real-life market have yet to be developed. This paper analyzes and conceptualizes the basic structures of the trading collusion in a wash trade by using a directed graph of traders. A novel method is then proposed to detect the potential wash trade activities involved in a financial instrument by first recognizing the suspiciously matched orders and then further identifying the collusions among the traders who submit such orders. Both steps are formulated as a simplified form of the knapsack problem, which can be solved by dynamic programming approaches. The proposed approach is evaluated on seven stock data sets from the NASDAQ and the London Stock Exchange. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can effectively detect all primary wash trade scenarios across the selected data sets.

  7. Effect of Variations of Washing Solution Chemistry on Nanomaterial Physicochemical Changes in the Laundry Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrano, Denise M; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira; Nowack, Bernd

    2015-08-18

    Engineered nanoparticle (ENP) life cycles are strongly dependent on the life-cycle of the nanoenhanced products in which they are incorporated. An important phase for ENP associated with textiles is washing. Using a set of liquid and powdered commercially available detergents that span a wide range of different chemistries, washing studies were performed with one "standard" nanoparticle suspended in wash solution to systematically investigate (changes to) particle size distribution, dissolution, reprecipitation (i.e., "new" particle formation), and complexation to particulate matter. Au ENPs were used as a "tracer" through the system. TEM and EDX analysis were performed to observe morphological and chemical changes to the particles, and single-particle ICP-MS was used to build a size distribution of particles in solution. Varying the washing solution chemistry was found to dictate the extent and rate of dissolution, particle destruction, surface chemistry change(s), and new particle formation. Detergent chemistry, dominated by oxidizing agents, was a major factor. The detergent form (i.e., powder vs liquid) was the other decisive factor, with powder forms providing available surfaces for precipitation and sorption reactions. Control experiments with AgNO3 indicated metallic Ag particles formed during the washing process from dissolved Ag, implying not all Ag-NPs observed in a textile washing study are indicative of released Ag-ENPs but can also be the result of sequential dissolution/reduction reactions.

  8. Chemical reactions in solvents and melts

    CERN Document Server

    Charlot, G

    1969-01-01

    Chemical Reactions in Solvents and Melts discusses the use of organic and inorganic compounds as well as of melts as solvents. This book examines the applications in organic and inorganic chemistry as well as in electrochemistry. Organized into two parts encompassing 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general properties and the different types of reactions, including acid-base reactions, complex formation reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions. This text then describes the properties of inert and active solvents. Other chapters consider the proton transfer reactions in

  9. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  10. Modeling of Salt Solubilities in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiavone-Filho, O.; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A method to correlate and predict salt solubilities in mixed solvents using a UNIQUAC+Debye-Huckel model is developed. The UNIQUAC equation is applied in a form with temperature-dependent parameters. The Debye-Huckel model is extended to mixed solvents by properly evaluating the dielectric...... constants and the liquid densities of the solvent media. To normalize the activity coefficients, the symmetric convention is adopted. Thermochemical properties of the salt are used to estimate the solubility product. It is shown that the proposed procedure can describe with good accuracy a series of salt...

  11. Comparison of equi-minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane and isoflurane on bispectral index values during both wash in and wash out phases: A prospective randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Madhu; Shri, Iti; Sakia, Prashant; Govil, Deepika

    2015-02-01

    At equal minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), volatile agents may produce different bispectral index (BIS) values especially at low BIS levels when the effect is volatile agent specific. The present study was performed to compare the BIS values produced by sevoflurane and isoflurane at equal MAC and thereby assessing which is a better hypnotic agent. Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologists I and II patients undergoing elective mastoidectomy were divided into groups receiving either isoflurane or sevoflurane, and at equi-MAC. BIS value was measured during both wash in and wash out phase, keeping other parameters same. Statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman two-way analysis and Mann-Whitney U-test. A P MAC values as compared to isoflurane, except in the beginning and at MAC awake. However, both the drugs proved to be cardiostable. At equi-MAC sevoflurane produces lower BIS values during wash in as well as wash out phase as compared to isoflurane, reflecting probably an agent specific effect and a deficiency in BIS algorithm for certain agents and their interplay.

  12. Comparison of equi-minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane and isoflurane on bispectral index values during both wash in and wash out phases: A prospective randomised study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: At equal minimum alveolar concentration (MAC, volatile agents may produce different bispectral index (BIS values especially at low BIS levels when the effect is volatile agent specific. The present study was performed to compare the BIS values produced by sevoflurane and isoflurane at equal MAC and thereby assessing which is a better hypnotic agent. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologists I and II patients undergoing elective mastoidectomy were divided into groups receiving either isoflurane or sevoflurane, and at equi-MAC. BIS value was measured during both wash in and wash out phase, keeping other parameters same. Statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman two-way analysis and Mann-Whitney U-test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: BIS value was significantly lower with sevoflurane at all MAC values as compared to isoflurane, except in the beginning and at MAC awake. However, both the drugs proved to be cardiostable. Conclusion: At equi-MAC sevoflurane produces lower BIS values during wash in as well as wash out phase as compared to isoflurane, reflecting probably an agent specific effect and a deficiency in BIS algorithm for certain agents and their interplay.

  13. Salmonella population rebound and its prevention on spray washed and non-washed jalapeño peppers and roma tomatoes in humid storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Steven; Long, Wilbert; Kim, Chyer; Rafie, A Reza

    2012-04-01

    The potential of Salmonella population to rebound on non-washed and washed roma tomatoes and jalapeño peppers in humid storage at 4°C, 10°C, 15°C, 21°C, or 35°C for ≤12 days was investigated. The initial inoculation levels of Salmonella on peppers and tomatoes were 5.6 and 5.2 log CFU/cm(2), respectively. Air-drying of fruit surfaces resulted in contamination levels of 3.9 and 3.7 log CFU/cm(2) on inoculated peppers and tomatoes, respectively. At 21°C and 35°C, the levels of air-dried Salmonella inoculums on produce surfaces increased ≥2 log cycles, with the most rapid growth in the first 3 days. Mechanical washing on rollers (rinsing; R-treatment) or revolving brushes (rinsing and brushing; RB-treatment) with water decreased Salmonella counts by ≥2.5 log CFU/cm(2) on both peppers and tomatoes. After R- or RB-treatment, peppers stored at 21°C and 35°C permitted residual Salmonella (≤1.4 log CFU/cm(2)) to grow to 2.6-3.9 log CFU/cm(2). During storage, residual Salmonella (≤1.0 log CFU/cm(2)) on washed tomatoes increased to 3.1 log CFU/cm(2) at 35°C following R-treatment and 3.8 log CFU/cm(2) at 21°C following RB-treatment. Cold storage at 4°C and 10°C effectively prevented the proliferation of Salmonella on both washed and non-washed produce. The current study on jalapeño peppers and roma tomatoes demonstrated that Salmonella population can rebound on produce in humid storage before or after washing. The finding highlights the benefit of uninterrupted cold storage for safer produce operations.

  14. A Numerical Method for Predicting Wash Waves of SES%一种计算SES船尾波(Wash wave)的数值方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢楠; Andrzej JASIONOWSKI; Dracos VASSALOS

    2004-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for predicting wash waves of Surface Effect Ships (SES)at deep waters.The wash waves of the SES are represented by the wave-making of a moving rectangular pressure distribution over the air cushion. Basing on the linear potential theory, the wash waves can be analytically expressed as integrals whose integrands oscillate with high frequency.The numerical procedure involves transformation of the integral variables,such that the integrands are monotonic for different vessel speed,shape of the pressure patch and locations of the wave to be calculated,and easy to facilitate the numerical calculation.The singularities of the integral can be also removed. Numerical results show that the present method is of high computational efficiency and with good agreement with the published results. Some results of wash waves of SES are presented and discussed.The characters of local and non-local effect parts of the wash wave of SES are discussed. Attempt is also tried to apply the present method in predicting wash wave of conversional catamaran,the comparison between the prediction and the model test measurement shows fairly good agreement.%本文提出了一种无限深水中表面效应船(Surface Effect Ship,SES)尾波(Wash wave)数值方法.SES的尾波被表达成分布在气垫上的压力在静水中航行产生的兴波波浪场.在线性势流假设下,该尾波可解析地表示为积分形式,而其被积函数带有奇性并高频振荡.文中提出了一个变换,使变换后对不同的航速,SES船形(气垫形状)和所要计算的波浪场位置尾波计算中的被积函数是单调变化,因而易于数值计算.积分中的奇性也予以去除.数值计算结果表明本文提出的数值方法具有较高的计算效率而且结果与已发表的结果吻合良好.文中给出了一些SES船尾波(Wash wave)的计算结果,并进一步分析了SES尾波(Wash wave)中的局部和非局部波浪场成分.文中还尝试使用本

  15. Solvent-Free Synthesis of New Coumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redah I. Al-Bayati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A solvent-free synthesis of five series of coumarin derivatives using microwave assistant is presented herein. The synthesized compounds are fully characterized by UV-VIS, FT-IR, and NMR spectroscopy.

  16. "Solvent Effects" in 1H NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro, Jose A. S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a simple undergraduate experiment in chemistry dealing with the "solvent effects" in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Stresses the importance of having students learn NMR spectroscopy as a tool in analytical chemistry. (TW)

  17. Solvent Extraction Developments in Southern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The largest solvent-extraction plant in the world at the time, the Nchanga Copper Operation, was in Zambia. The first commercial process using solvent extraction for the refining of the platinum-group metals was in South Africa. More recently, the Southern African region has seen the implementation of solvent extraction for other base metals, precious metals, and specialty metals. These include the world firsts of primary production of zinc at Skorpion Zinc in Namibia and the large-scale refining of gold by Harmony Gold in South Africa. Several other flowsheets that use solvent-extraction technology are currently under commissioning, development, or feasibility study for implementation in this part of the world, including those for the recovery of copper, cobalt, nickel, tantalum, and niobium.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization and Printing Application of Solvent Dyes Based on 2-Hydroxy-4-n-octyloxybenzophenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat C. Dixit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solvent dyes have been prepared by the coupling of diazo solution of different aromatic amines with 2-hydroxy-4-n-octyloxybenzophenone. The resultant dyes were characterized by elemental analysis as well as IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The UV-Visible spectral data have also been discussed in terms of structure property relationship. The printing of all the dyes on cotton fiber was monitored. The result shows that better hue was obtained on printing on cotton fiber and it is resulted in yellow to reddish brown colorations which showed a good fastness to light, with poor to good fastness to washing, perspiration and sublimation, however it shows poor rubbing fastness.

  19. Water as a Solvent for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Pratt, Lawrence R.

    2015-01-01

    "Follow the water" is our basic strategy in searching for life in the universe. The universality of water as the solvent for living systems is usually justified by arguing that water supports the rich organic chemistry that seeds life, but alternative chemistries are possible in other organic solvents. Here, other, essential criteria for life that have not been sufficiently considered so far, will be discussed.

  20. Biofiltration of solvent vapors from air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Young-sook.

    1993-01-01

    For various industrial solvent vapors, biofiltration promises to offer a cost-effective emission control technology. Exploiting the full potential of this technology will help attain the goals of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Concentrating on large volumes of volatile industrial solvents, stable multicomponent microbial enrichments capable of growing a mineral medium with solvent vapors as their only source of carbon and energy were obtained from soil and sewage sludge. These consortia were immobilized on an optimized porous solid support (ground peat moss and perlite). The biofilter material was packed in glass columns connected to an array of pumps and flow meters that allowed the independent variation of superficial velocity and solvent vapor concentrations. In various experiments, single solvents, such as methanol, butanol, acetonitrile, hexane and nitrobenzene, and solvent mixtures, such as benzene-toluene-xylene (BTX) and chlorobenzene-o-dichlorobenzene (CB/DCB) were biofiltered with rates ranging from 15 to334 g solvent removed per m[sup 3] filter volume /h. Pressure drops were low to moderate (0-10 mmHg/m) and with periodic replacement of moisture, the biofiltration activity could be maintained for a period of several months. The experimental data on methanol biofiltration were subjected to mathematical analysis and modeling by the group of Dr. Baltzis at NJIT for a better understanding and a possible scale up of solvent vapor biofilters. In the case of chlorobenzenes and nitrobenzene, the biofilter columns had to be operated with water recirculation in a trickling filter mode. To prevent inactivation of the trickling filter by acidity during CB/DCB removal, pH control was necessary, and the removal rate of CB/DCB was strongly influenced by the flow rate of the recyling water. Nitrobenzene removal in a trickling filter did not require pH control, since the nitro group was reduced and volatilized as ammonia.

  1. Competitive solvent-molecule interactions govern primary processes of diphenylcarbene in solvent mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Johannes; Sokkar, Pandian; Schott, Sebastian; Costa, Paolo; Thiel, Walter; Sander, Wolfram; Sanchez-Garcia, Elsa; Nuernberger, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Photochemical reactions in solution often proceed via competing reaction pathways comprising intermediates that capture a solvent molecule. A disclosure of the underlying reaction mechanisms is challenging due to the rapid nature of these processes and the intricate identification of how many solvent molecules are involved. Here combining broadband femtosecond transient absorption and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics simulations, we show for one of the most reactive species, diphenylcarbene, that the decision-maker is not the nearest solvent molecule but its neighbour. The hydrogen bonding dynamics determine which reaction channels are accessible in binary solvent mixtures at room temperature. In-depth analysis of the amount of nascent intermediates corroborates the importance of a hydrogen-bonded complex with a protic solvent molecule, in striking analogy to complexes found at cryogenic temperatures. Our results show that adjacent solvent molecules take the role of key abettors rather than bystanders for the fate of the reactive intermediate.

  2. Solvent dependent photophysical properties of dimethoxy curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Atanu; Indira Priyadarsini, K.

    2013-03-01

    Dimethoxy curcumin (DMC) is a methylated derivative of curcumin. In order to know the effect of ring substitution on photophysical properties of curcumin, steady state absorption and fluorescence spectra of DMC were recorded in organic solvents with different polarity and compared with those of curcumin. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of DMC, like curcumin, are strongly dependent on solvent polarity and the maxima of DMC showed red shift with increase in solvent polarity function (Δf), but the above effect is prominently observed in case of fluorescence maxima. From the dependence of Stokes' shift on solvent polarity function the difference between the excited state and ground state dipole moment was estimated as 4.9 D. Fluorescence quantum yield (ϕf) and fluorescence lifetime (τf) of DMC were also measured in different solvents at room temperature. The results indicated that with increasing solvent polarity, ϕf increased linearly, which has been accounted for the decrease in non-radiative rate by intersystem crossing (ISC) processes.

  3. Solvent-responsive behavior of inclusion complexes between amylose and polytetrahydrofuran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Rachmawati; Woortman, Albert J J; Loos, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Highly crystalline amylose-polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF) complexes can be obtained by employing organic solvents as washing agents after complex formation. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the washed complexes appear sharp at 12.9°-13.2° and 19.6°-20.1°, clear signs of the presence of V6I -amylose. Other diffraction peaks correlate with V6II -amylose, which indicates that the complexed amylose helices are in the form of an intermediate or a mixture of V6I - and V6II -amylose. SEM imaging reveals that the amylose-PTHF complexes crystallize in the form of lamellae, which aggregate in a round shape on top of one another with a diameter around 4-8 μm. Some lamellas aggregate as flower-like or flat-surface spherulitic crystals. There is a visible matrix in between the aggregated lamellas which shows that a part of the amylose-PTHF complexes is amorphous.

  4. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Optimized Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-10-08

    This work was undertaken to optimize the solvent used in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process and to measure key chemical and physical properties related to its performance in the removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level salt waste stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site. The need to adjust the solvent composition arose from the prior discovery that the previous baseline solvent was supersaturated with respect to the calixarene extractant. The following solvent-component concentrations in Isopar{reg_sign} L diluent are recommended: 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) extractant, 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) phase modifier, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine (TOA) stripping aid. Criteria for this selection included BOBCalixC6 solubility, batch cesium distribution ratios (D{sub Cs}), calculated flowsheet robustness, third-phase formation, coalescence rate (dispersion numbers), and solvent density. Although minor compromises within acceptable limits were made in flowsheet robustness and solvent density, significant benefits were gained in lower risk of third-phase formation and lower solvent cost. Data are also reported for the optimized solvent regarding the temperature dependence of D{sub Cs} in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping (ESS); ESS performance on recycle; partitioning of BOBCalixC6, Cs-7SB, and TOA to aqueous process solutions; partitioning of organic anions; distribution of metals; solvent phase separation at low temperatures; solvent stability to elevated temperatures; and solvent density and viscosity. Overall, the technical risk of the CSSX process has been reduced by resolving previously identified issues and raising no new issues.

  5. Computer-aided tool for solvent selection in pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; K. Tula, Anjan; Gernaey, Krist V.

    In the pharmaceutical processes, solvents have a multipurpose role since different solvents can be used in different stages (such as chemical reactions, separations and purification) in the multistage active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) production process. The solvent swap and selection task......-aided framework with the objective to assist the pharmaceutical industry in gaining better process understanding. A software interface to improve the usability of the tool has been created also....

  6. Influence of solvent polarity on preferential solvation of molecular recognition probes in solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenta, Valeria; Cook, Joanne L; Hunter, Christopher A; Low, Caroline M R; Vinter, Jeremy G

    2012-12-13

    The association constants for formation of 1:1 complexes between a H-bond acceptor, tri-n-butylphosphine oxide, and a H-bond donor, 4-phenylazophenol, have been measured in a range of different solvent mixtures. Binary mixtures of n-octane and a more polar solvent (ether, ester, ketone, nitrile, sulfoxide, tertiary amide, and halogenated and aromatic solvents) have been investigated. Similar behavior was observed in all cases. When the concentration of the more polar solvent is low, the association constant is identical to that observed in pure n-octane. Once a threshold concentration of the more polar solvent in reached, the logarithm of the association constant decreases in direct proportion to the logarithm of the concentration of the more polar solvent. This indicates that one of the two solutes is preferentially solvated by the more polar solvent, and it is competition with this solvation equilibrium that determines the observed association constant. The concentration of the more polar solvent at which the onset of preferential solvation takes place depends on solvent polarity: 700 mM for toluene, 60 mM for 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, 20 mM for the ether, ester, ketone, and nitrile, 0.2 mM for the tertiary amide, and 0.1 mM for the sulfoxide solvents. The results can be explained by a simple model that considers only pairwise interactions between specific sites on the surfaces of the solutes and solvents, which implies that the bulk properties of the solvent have little impact on solvation thermodynamics.

  7. Suberization: inhibition by washing and stimulation by abscisic Acid in potato disks and tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliday, C L; Dean, B B; Kolattukudy, P E

    1978-02-01

    Wounding of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers results in suberization, apparently triggered by the release of some chemical factor(s) at the cut surface. Suberization, as measured by diffusion resistance of the tissue surface to water vapor, was inhibited by mm concentrations of indoleacetic acid, unaffected by mm concentrations of traumatic acid, severely inhibited at mum concentrations of cytokinin, but stimulated by abscisic acid (ABA) at 10(-4)m. Thorough washing of potato disks up to 3 to 4 days after cutting resulted in severe inhibition of suberization as measured both by diffusion resistance and by the amount of the octadecene diol generated by hydrogenolysis (LiAlH(4)) of the tissue. Disks washed after 4 days did not show any inhibition of suberization. High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of the wash from fresh potato disks showed that about 14 ng of ABA was released into the wash per g of tissue. The amount of ABA released increased with time up to 4 to 6 hours of washing. The maximal amount of ABA was washed out after aging for 24 hours and after 2 days of aging ABA could no longer be found in the surface wash of the disks. Addition of ABA to the media of potato tissue cultures resulted in suberin formation whereas control cultures contained little suberin. The effect of ABA on suberization in the tissue cultures was shown to be linearly concentration-dependent up to 10(-4)m and a linear increase in suberin formation was seen up to about 8 days of culture growth on the media containing 10(-4)m ABA. From these results it is proposed that during the early phase of wound-healing ABA plays a role in triggering a chain of biochemical processes which eventually (in about 3 to 4 days) result in the formation of a suberization-inducing factor, responsible for the induction of the enzymes involved in suberin biosynthesis.

  8. Adsorption and solvent desorption behavior of ion-exchanged modified Y zeolites for sulfur removal and for fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ligang; Zhang, Yuzhong; Zhang, Hongyu; Lu, Fuwei

    2011-08-15

    Typical ion-exchanged modified Y zeolites (AgY and CeY) were prepared for sulfur removal. The adsorption and desorption behavior of typical sulfur and hydrocarbon molecules in various Y zeolites has been investigated by the adsorption breakthrough and on site solvent washing experiments, as well as computer simulation. Breakthrough experiments showed that the adsorption capacity for thiophenic sulfur increased for the studied adsorbents as follows: CeY > AgY > NaY. The higher initial sulfur concentration accelerated the appearance of breakthrough, and the outlet sulfur concentration, in all cases, cannot reach the corresponding initial sulfur level. The concentration profile of washing solvent during desorption process showed that most of the sulfur compounds could be recovered at initial desorption stage. The desorption rates of typical Y zeolites follow the order: NaY > AgY > CeY, which is the reverse as that found in adsorption capacity. The distinct adsorption and desorption behavior of CeY, AgY, and NaY zeolites was markedly related with their various binding force (S-M coordination, π-complexation, and Van der Waals force) with sulfur compounds. The adsorption isotherms and density distribution snapshots study by computer simulation confirmed the preferential adsorption of thiophenic sulfur.

  9. The use of ultrasound-assisted anaerobic compost tea washing to remove poly-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) from highly contaminated field soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Weiteng; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Chitsan; Vu, Chi Thanh; Yotapukdee, Siwalee; Kaewlaoyoong, Acharee; Chen, Jenq-Renn; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2017-06-27

    The remediation of dioxin-contaminated soil of a specific coastal area previously employed for the manufacture of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in southern Taiwan's Tainan City has attracted much attention of researchers there. This work addresses the possibility of providing an effective and environmentally friendly option for removing PCDD/Fs from soil in that field. Soil screening/sieving was first conducted to assess particle distribution. Fine sand was observed to be the major component of the soil, accounting for more than 60% of the total mass. A combination of ultrasonification and mechanical double-blade agitation was used to facilitate the washing of the soil using the biosurfactant anaerobic compost tea. More than 85 and 95% of total removal efficiencies were achieved for moderately and highly contaminated soils after 6 and 10 washing cycles, respectively, under ambient temperature, a soil/liquid ratio 1:2.5, 700 rpm, and over a relatively short duration. These results were achieved through the collision and penetration effects of this combined treatment as well as PCDD/F partitioning between the particles and anaerobic compost tea. This study represents the first to report the use of anaerobic compost tea solvent to wash soil highly contaminated by dioxin. It was concluded that anaerobic compost tea, rich in non-toxic bio-surfactants (e.g., alcohols, humic acids), can be used to improve bioavailability and bioactivity of the soil making bio-attenuation and full remediation more efficient.

  10. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-12-08

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

  11. The use of environmentally sustainable bio-derived solvents in solvent extraction applications-A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li; Kathryn H. Smith; Geoffrey W. Stevens

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by greener or more environmental y sustainable solvents is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing health and environmental concerns as wel as economic pressures associated with VOCs. Solvents that are derived from biomass, namely bio-derived solvents, are a type of green solvent that have attracted intensive investigations in recent years because of their advantages over con-ventional VOCs, such as low toxicity, biodegradability and renewability. This review aims to summarize the use of bio-derived solvents in solvent extraction applications, with special emphasis given to utilization of biodiesels and terpenes. Compared with the conventional VOCs, the overall performance of these bio-derived solvents is comparable in terms of extraction yields and selectivity for natural product extraction and no difference was found for metal extraction. To date most researchers have focused on laboratory scale thermodynamics studies. Future work is required to develop and test new bio-derived solvents and understand the kinetic performance as well as solvent extraction pilot plant studies.

  12. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-12-08

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

  13. Influence of Energy on Solvent Diffusion in Polymer/Solvent Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUHuijun; JIANGWenhua; 等

    2002-01-01

    The Vrentas-Duda free-volume theory has been extensively used to correlate or predict the solvent diffusion coefficient of a polymer/solvent system.The energy term in the free volume diffusion equation is difficult to estimate,so the energy term was usually neglected in previous predictive versions of the free volume diffusion coefficient equation.Recent studies show that the energy effect is very important even above the glass transition temperature of the system. In this paper, a new evaluation method of the energy term is proposed,that is the diffusion energy at different solvent concentrations is assumed to be a linear function of the solvent diffusion energy in pure solvents and that in polymers under the condition that the solvent in infinite dilution.By taking consideration of the influence of energy on the solvent diffustion,the prediction of solvent diffusion coefficient was preformed for three polymer/solvent systems over a wide range of concentrations and temperatures.The results show an improvement on the predictive capability of the free volume diffusion theory.

  14. Stability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Solvent: Effect of High Nitrite on Solvent Nitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnesen, P.V.

    2002-06-26

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether nitrated organic compounds could be formed during operation of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process, and whether such compounds would present a safety concern. The CSSX process was developed to remove cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). The solvent is composed of the cesium extractant calix[4]arene-bis-(4-tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), a fluorinated alcohol phase modifier, tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and an isoparaffinic diluent (Iospar{reg_sign}). During the CSSX process, the solvent is expected to be exposed to high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite dissolved in the alkaline waste feed. The solvent will also be exposed to dilute (50 mM) nitric acid solutions containing low concentrations of nitrite during scrubbing, followed by stripping with 1 mM nitric acid. The solvent is expected to last for one year of plant operation, and the temperatures the solvent may experience during the process could range from as low as 15 C to as high as 35 C. Excursions from standard process conditions could result in the solvent experiencing higher temperatures, as well as concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and most importantly nitric acid, that exceed normal operating conditions. Accordingly, conditions may exist where nitration reactions involving the solvent components, possibly leading to other chemical reactions stemming from nitration reactions, could occur. To model such nitration reactions, the solvent was exposed to the types of nitrate- and nitrite-containing solutions that might be expected to be encountered during the process (even under off-normal conditions), as a function of time, temperature, and concentration of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric acid. The experiments conducted as part of this report were designed to examine the more specific effect that high nitrite concentrations could have on forming nitrated

  15. Effects of egg shell quality and washing on Salmonella Infantis penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah; Chousalkar, K K; Roberts, J R; Sexton, M; May, D; Kiermeier, A

    2013-07-15

    The vast majority of eggs in Australia are washed prior to packing to remove dirt and fecal material and to reduce the microbial contamination of the egg shell. The egg contents can be an ideal growth medium for microorganisms which can result in human illness if eggs are stored improperly and eaten raw or undercooked, and it is estimated that egg-related salmonellosis is costing Australia $44 million per year. Egg shell characteristics such as shell thickness, amount of cuticle present, and thickness of individual egg shell layers can affect the ease with which bacteria can penetrate the egg shell and washing could partially or completely remove the cuticle layer. The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of egg washing on cuticle cover and effects of egg shell quality and cuticle cover on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. A higher incidence of unfavorable ultrastructural variables of the mammillary layer such as late fusion, type B bodies, type A bodies, poor cap quality, alignment, depression, erosion and cubics were recorded in Salmonella penetrated areas of egg shells. The influence of egg washing on the ability of Salmonella Infantis on the egg shell surface to enter the egg internal contents was also investigated using culture-based agar egg penetration and real-time qPCR based experiments. The results from the current study indicate that washing affected cuticle cover. There were no significant differences in Salmonella Infantis penetration of washed or unwashed eggs. Egg shell translucency may have effects on Salmonella Infantis penetration of the egg shell. The qPCR assay was more sensitive for detection of Salmonella Infantis from egg shell wash and internal contents than traditional microbiological methods. The agar egg and whole egg inoculation experiments indicated that Salmonella Infantis penetrated the egg shells. Egg washing not only can be highly effective at removing Salmonella Infantis from the egg shell surface

  16. Lipase catalyzed esterification of glycidol in nonaqueous solvents: solvent effects on enzymatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J F; de Sampaio, T C; de Carvalho, I B; Barreiros, S

    1994-06-05

    We studied the effect of organic solvents on the kinetics of porcine pancreatic lipase (pp) for the resolution of racemic glycidol through esterification with butyric acid. We quantified ppl hydration by measuring water sorption isotherms for the enzyme in the solvents/mixtures tested. The determination of initial rates as a function of enzyme hydration revealed that the enzyme exhibits maximum apparent activity in the solvents/mixtures at the same water content (9% to 11% w/w) within the associated experimental error. The maximum initial rates are different in all the media and correlate well with the logarithm of the molar solubility of water in the media, higher initial rates being observed in the solvents/mixtures with lower water solubilities. The data for the mixtures indicate that ppl apparent activity responds to bulk property of the solvent. Measurements of enzyme particle sizes in five of the solvents, as function of enzyme hydration, revealed that mean particle sizes increased with enzyme hydration in all the solvents, differences between solvents being more pronounced at enzyme hydration levels close to 10%. At this hydration level, solvents having a higher water content lead to lower reaction rates; these are the solvents where the mean enzyme particle sizes are greater. Calculation of the observable modulus indicates there are no internal diffusion limitations. The observed correlation between changes in initial rates and changes in external surface area of the enzyme particles suggests that interfacial activation of ppl is only effective at the external surface of the particles. Data obtained for the mixtures indicate that ppl enantioselectivity depends on specific solvent-enzyme interactions. We make reference to ppl hydration and activity in supercritical carbon dioxide.

  17. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, Jennifer L; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine

    2015-07-23

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant's reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer's efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

  18. Effect of hand wash agents on controlling the transmission of pathogenic bacteria from hands to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischler, George E; Fuls, Janice L; Dail, Elizabeth W; Duran, Melani H; Rodgers, Nancy D; Waggoner, Andrea L

    2007-12-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of two hand wash regimens in reducing transient bacteria on the skin following a single hand wash and the subsequent transfer of the bacteria to a ready-to-eat food item, freshly cut cantaloupe melon. The number of bacteria recovered from hands and the quantity transferred to the melon were significantly less following the use of an antibacterial soap compared with plain soap. The antimicrobial soap achieved > 3-log reductions versus Escherichia coli and 3.31- and 2.83-log reductions versus Shigella flexneri. The plain soap failed to achieve a 2-log reduction against either organism. The bacteria recovered from the melon handled by hands treated with antimicrobial hand soap averaged 2 log. Melon handled following hand washing with plain soap had > 3 log bacteria in the experiments. Based on previously published feeding studies, an infection rate in the range of approximately 15 to 25% would be expected after ingesting melon containing 2 log CFU compared with ingesting greater than the 3 log transferred from hands washed with plain soap, which would result in a higher infection attack rate of 50 to 80%. The data thus demonstrate there is a greater potential to reduce the transmission and acquisition of disease through the use of an antimicrobial hand wash than through the use of plain soap.

  19. Guidelines To Validate Control of Cross-Contamination during Washing of Fresh-Cut Leafy Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombas, D; Luo, Y; Brennan, J; Shergill, G; Petran, R; Walsh, R; Hau, H; Khurana, K; Zomorodi, B; Rosen, J; Varley, R; Deng, K

    2017-02-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires food processors to implement and validate processes that will result in significantly minimizing or preventing the occurrence of hazards that are reasonably foreseeable in food production. During production of fresh-cut leafy vegetables, microbial contamination that may be present on the product can spread throughout the production batch when the product is washed, thus increasing the risk of illnesses. The use of antimicrobials in the wash water is a critical step in preventing such water-mediated cross-contamination; however, many factors can affect antimicrobial efficacy in the production of fresh-cut leafy vegetables, and the procedures for validating this key preventive control have not been articulated. Producers may consider three options for validating antimicrobial washing as a preventive control for cross-contamination. Option 1 involves the use of a surrogate for the microbial hazard and the demonstration that cross-contamination is prevented by the antimicrobial wash. Option 2 involves the use of antimicrobial sensors and the demonstration that a critical antimicrobial level is maintained during worst-case operating conditions. Option 3 validates the placement of the sensors in the processing equipment with the demonstration that a critical antimicrobial level is maintained at all locations, regardless of operating conditions. These validation options developed for fresh-cut leafy vegetables may serve as examples for validating processes that prevent cross-contamination during washing of other fresh produce commodities.

  20. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Banach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

  1. Observance of hand washing procedures performed by the medical personnel before patient contact. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Garus-Pakowska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as well as the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations, medical staff are obliged to decontaminate the skin of the hands before every single patient contact. Materials and Methods: The study was performed by quasi-observation among the group of 188 medical staff (nurses and physicians working in three selected hospitals of the Łódź province. The procedure of hand washing and disinfection performed directly before the patient contact according to the CDC and WHO recommendations were observed. The results was subject to statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Results: During 1544 hours of observation 4101 activities requiring hand washing were recorded. The medical staff obeyed the hand washing procedure before the patient contact only in 5.2% of the situations. There was no activity observed before which hand hygiene was maintained in 100% of cases. Observance of hand hygiene depended signifi cantly on the type of the performed activity, the professional group, and the workload index. A decrease in percentage observance of hand hygiene according to the time of the day was found to be of statistical signifi cance. The mean time of hand washing was 8.5 s for physicians and 6.6 s for nurses. Conclusion: The level of observance of hand washing procedures among the medical staff prior to the patient contact appears to be alarmingly below the expectations.

  2. Wastewater Treatment Model in Washing Stations for Vehicles Transporting Dangerous Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Muha

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Car washing is a task performed by every passenger carowner more or less frequently, mainly to achieve a finer appearanceof the vehicle rather than for the need for cleanness.In the transport business, the owner's concern is to presentclean and orderly vehicles on the road as a relevant external elementof order, implying good corporate image to customers. Onthe other hand, in dangerous goods transportation there areother reasons requiring special technology of washing, applicableto the transport means used, depending on the change oftype of goods in carriage, the preliminary preparation of a vehicleto load the cargo, or to undergo maintenance.Water applied in the technology of washing collects the residueof goods carried in the vehicle and is polluted to such an extentthat it cannot be discharged into sewers - nor directly into awatercourse - without previous treatment.The paper presents a solution model and a sequence oftechnological procedures involved in an efficient treatment ofthe polluted wastewater in tank wash stations, in which mostlyvehicles carrying ADR goods are washed.

  3. The effect of wash cleaning and demagnetization process on the fly ash physico-chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Problems related in this study concern the possibility of improving the physico-chemical properties of fly ash used as a base granular material in moulding mixtures. The investigations were carried out mainly to evaluate the process of the fly ash modification performed in order to stabilize its mineralogical and chemical composition. Changes in chemical composition, specific surface and helium density of fly ash after the process of its wash cleaning and demagnetization were examined. The analysis of the data has proved that the process of wash cleaning considerably reduces the content of sodium and potassium. Calcium and magnesium are washed out, too. The wash cleaning process of fly ash reduces also its true density. This fact can be due to the washing out of illite as well as some fractions of haematite (the grains weakly bonded to the glassy phase. The process of demagnetization allows removing about 25.7% of the magnetic phase calculated in terms of Fe2O3. The process of demagnetization is accompanied by a decrease in the content of aluminium, sodium, potassium and calcium, and a reduction in the size of the specific surface by over one half. The possible processes of transformation have also been discussed.

  4. Treatment of tunnel wash waters - experiments with organic sorbent materials. Part Ⅱ: Removal of toxic metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PARUCH Adam M; ROSETH Roger

    2008-01-01

    In the first part of the article, the column and the bag experiments concerning removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nonpolar oil (NPO) from tunnel wash waters using organic sorbent materials have been described. This part presents the results of removal of toxic metals. The metals of concern (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, and Zn) were selected based on the priority toxicant pollutants defined in surface water quality criteria. Concentrations of these metals in the collected effluents varied more than the concentrations of PAHs and NPO, and thus only metal contents were considered for statistical analyses. These analyses determined significant differences (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.001) between the mean metal concentrations in the column effluents and those in applied wash water of road tunnel. The results obtained during both experiments revealed that the organic sorbents, and in particular their combination, removed toxic metals more effectively from wash water of road tunnel than from wash water of tunnel electrostatic filters. Among the investigated toxicants, Al and Fe showed the highest levels of reduction in the column experiment, 99.7% and 99.6%, respectively. The lowest reduction levels of 66.0% and 76.2% were found for Pb and Mo, respectively. The results of the bag experiment showed that even one day treatment of wash waters from tunnel electrostatic filters could reduce concentration of some toxicants by more than 70% (Al and Fe) and 80% (Cu).

  5. Effect of various putty-wash impression techniques on marginal fit of cast crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Joseph; Rosner, Ofir; Bukhari, Mohammed Amin; Ghelfan, Oded; Pilo, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    Marginal fit is an important clinical factor that affects restoration longevity. The accuracy of three polyvinyl siloxane putty-wash impression techniques was compared by marginal fit assessment using the nondestructive method. A stainless steel master cast containing three abutments with three metal crowns matching the three preparations was used to make 45 impressions: group A = single-step technique (putty and wash impression materials used simultaneously), group B = two-step technique with a 2-mm relief (putty as a preliminary impression to create a 2-mm wash space followed by the wash stage), and group C = two-step technique with a polyethylene spacer (plastic spacer used with the putty impression followed by the wash stage). Accuracy was assessed using a toolmaker microscope to measure and compare the marginal gaps between each crown and finish line on the duplicated stone casts. Each abutment was further measured at the mesial, buccal, and distal aspects. One-way analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. P values and Scheffe post hoc contrasts were calculated. Significance was determined at .05. One-way analysis of variance showed significant differences among the three impression techniques in all three abutments and at all three locations (P < .001). Group B yielded dies with minimal gaps compared to groups A and C. The two-step impression technique with 2-mm relief was the most accurate regarding the crucial clinical factor of marginal fit.

  6. Comparison of traditional hand wash with alcoholic hand rub in ICU setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliekal Mona

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nosocomial infection rate are often higher for intensive care unit (ICU than other units of hospitals, and hands of health-care workers (HCWs play a major role in the transmission of the infections. Aim: To compare the efficacy of conventional hand wash with the hand rub in reducing the transient bacterial flora on the hands of nurses in ICU. Subject and Methods: The 34 nurses posted in our ICU during January-March 2003 were included. A total of 204 samples were collected for the residual bacterial flora on fingers using impression method on MacConkey agar plates. The subjects then used alcoholic hand rub or conventional hand wash and the residual bacterial flora rechecked by testing impression of fingers on MacConkey agar. Results: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., nonlactose fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, staphylococci, and streptococci formed the transient bacterial flora on the hands. Moderate to heavy bacterial density was seen in more than 92.2% of the hands before washing or hand rub application. Conventional hand wash resulted in drastic reduction in the transient bacterial flora on hands in 50% cases whereas alcoholic hand rub achieved the effect in 95% of the samples. Conclusion: Compared with conventional hand wash, alcoholic hand rub is far more efficient in reducing transient bacterial flora on the hands of HCWs and it is more convenient and time saving. It is recommended as a hand hygiene practice in critical areas such as ICU.

  7. Effects of water washing and torrefaction pretreatments on rice husk pyrolysis by microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuping; Dong, Qing; Zhang, Li; Xiong, Yuanquan; Liu, Xinzhi; Zhu, Shuguang

    2015-10-01

    The influences of water washing, torrefaction and combined water washing-torrefaction pretreatments on microwave pyrolysis of rice husk samples were investigated. The results indicated that the process of combined water washing-torrefaction pretreatment could effectively remove a large portion of inorganics and improve the fuel characteristics to a certain extent. The gas products were rich in combustible compositions and the syngas quality was improved by pretreatment process. The liquid products contained less moisture content, acids and furans, while more concentrated phenols and sugars from microwave pyrolysis of rice husk after pretreatments, especially after the combined water washing-torrefaction pretreatment. Biochar, produced in high yield, has the alkaline pH (pH 8.2-10.0) and high surface area (S(BET) 157.81-267.84 m(2)/g), they have the potential to be used as soil amendments. It is noteworthy that water washing increased the pore surface area of biochar, but torrefaction reduced the pore surface area.

  8. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development: making the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngure, Francis M; Reid, Brianna M; Humphrey, Jean H; Mbuya, Mduduzi N; Pelto, Gretel; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    There is scarce research and programmatic evidence on the effect of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions of the physical environment on early child cognitive, sensorimotor, and socioemotional development. Furthermore, many common WASH interventions are not specifically designed to protect babies in the first 3 years of life, when gut health and linear growth are established. We review evidence linking WASH, anemia, and child growth, and highlight pathways through which WASH may affect early child development, primarily through inflammation, stunting, and anemia. Environmental enteropathy, a prevalent subclinical condition of the gut, may be a key mediating pathway linking poor hygiene to developmental deficits. Current early child development research and programs lack evidence-based interventions to provide a clean play and infant feeding environment in addition to established priorities of nutrition, stimulation, and child protection. Solutions to this problem will require appropriate behavior change and technologies that are adapted to the social and physical context and conducive to infant play and socialization. We propose the concept of baby WASH as an additional component of early childhood development programs.

  9. Mammary ductoscopy and ductal washings for the evaluation of patients with pathologic nipple discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Aislinn; Crowe, Joseph P; Brainard, Jennifer; Dawson, Andrea; Kim, Julian; Dietz, Jill R

    2009-01-01

    The majority of breast diseases result from lesions of the ductal epithelium. Mammary ductoscopy allows for visualization of intraductal abnormalities, and ductoscopic lavage provides thousands of cells for analysis. We reviewed our experience of 89 cases of patients with pathologic nipple discharge (PND) undergoing ductoscopy-directed duct excision and collection of ductal washings. Patients undergoing ductoscopy-directed duct excision with ductal washings had an 88% abnormal pathology rate. Most abnormalities were benign (71% papillomas), but the atypia rate for this group was 62%. The combination of visualization and pathologic analysis of washings provided the highest predictive value for the diagnosis of papilloma. Cellular yields for this technique were excellent with most specimens yielding >5,000 epithelial cells per high powered field and with evaluable ductal cells in 82% of specimens. Mammary ductoscopy offers the advantage of a high lesion localization rates with intraoperative guidance. The most accurate tool was the combination of ductal washings and ductoscopic visualization, but preoperative use of these techniques is not helpful in most cases. Greater than 90% of patients with PND are found to have a lesion on pathologic examination when using this technique for directed duct excision. Of interest, ductal washings obtained from symptomatic patients with benign diseases are often atypical.

  10. Spent wash decolourization using nano-Al2O3/kaolin photocatalyst: Taguchi and ANN approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles David

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The intense colour of the spent wash effluent leads to crucial ecological issue when released untreated into the environment. The decolourization of distillery spent wash effluent is known to be a very challenging task. In this study, the degradation of organic pollutants in the form of colour was performed using nano photocatalyst prepared using aluminium oxide (Al2O3 nanoparticle and kaolin clay. As-synthesized nano-Al2O3/kaolin composites were used as photocatalyst for colour degradation of spent wash effluent. The process parameters such as dosage, pH, temperature and agitation were optimized to attain the maximum decolourization efficiency. The structural and the textural characteristics of the photocatalyst were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET surface area analysis, High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscope (HRSEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDAX. Optimization of the process parameters using Taguchi Orthogonal Array (OA design resulted in a maximum of 80% spent wash decolourization. Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN, a two layered feedforward backpropagation model resulted as the best performance and predictive model for spent wash decolourization. The experimental data were found to be in excellent agreement with the predicted results from the ANN model.

  11. Bacteriological quality of fabrics washed at lower-than-standard temperatures in a hospital laundry facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, R R; Manchester, J T; Mellor, M T

    1983-02-01

    We determined whether the bacteriological quality of fabrics cleaned in a hospital laundry could be maintained at wash temperatures lower than 75 degrees C by the use of economically reasonable formulas and wash conditions. Three groups of bacteria were examined to determine bacteriological quality: aerobic, nonexacting chemoorganotrophs, staphylococci, and total coliforms. The distribution of bacteria on soiled fabric was patchy, with staphylococci and total coliforms ranging from less than 0.1 to greater than 4 X 10(3) CFU/cm2 and chemoorganotrophs ranging from less than 0.1 to greater than 5 X 10(5) CFU/cm2. The washing process routinely produced fabric containing less than 1 CFU/cm2. Low-temperature (47.8 to 60.0 degrees C) wash procedures eliminated all bacterial groups at least as effectively as did high-temperature procedures. The effectiveness of bacterial density reduction at low temperature was augmented by increased concentrations of bleach. Successful low-temperature washing such as that shown here may save both energy and money for hospitals.

  12. Viscoelastic Properties of Extracellular Polymeric Substances Can Strongly Affect Their Washing Efficiency from Reverse Osmosis Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando Chavez, Diana Lila; Nejidat, Ali; Herzberg, Moshe

    2016-09-01

    The role of the viscoelastic properties of biofouling layers in their removal from the membrane was studied. Model fouling layers of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) originated from microbial biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 differentially expressing the Psl polysaccharide were used for controlled washing experiments of fouled RO membranes. In parallel, adsorption experiments and viscoelastic modeling of the EPS layers were conducted in a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). During the washing stage, as shear rate was elevated, significant differences in permeate flux recovery between the three different EPS layers were observed. According to the amount of organic carbon remained on the membrane after washing, the magnitude of Psl production provides elevated resistance of the EPS layer to shear stress. The highest flux recovery during the washing stage was observed for the EPS with no Psl. Psl was shown to elevate the layer's shear modulus and shear viscosity but had no effect on the EPS adhesion to the polyamide surface. We conclude that EPS retain on the membrane as a result of the layer viscoelastic properties. These results highlight an important relation between washing efficiency of fouling layers from membranes and their viscoelastic properties, in addition to their adhesion properties.

  13. Combined soil washing and CDEO for the removal of atrazine from soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira dos Santos, Elisama [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova CEP 59078-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Sáez, Cristina [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidad de Castilla – La Mancha, Enrique Costa Building, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto [Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova CEP 59078-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel Andres [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universidad de Castilla – La Mancha, Enrique Costa Building, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Sequential soil washing-waste electrolysis is an efficient treatment for removing atrazine. • Ratio surfactant/soil influences on the size of micelles and organic load. • Electrolysis with diamond anodes oxidizes pollutants from soils washing wastes. • Electrolysis of soil washing fluids promotes the reduction in size of micelles. • Sulphate ions release from the oxidation of SDS participates in the oxidation process. - Abstract: In this work, it is studied the removal of atrazine from spiked soils by soil washing using surfactant fluids, followed by the treatment of the resulting washing waste by electrolysis with boron doped diamond (BDD) anode. Results confirm that combination of both technologies is efficient for the removal and total mineralization of atrazine. Ratio surfactant/soil is a key parameter for the removal of atrazine from soil and influences significantly in the characteristic of the wastewater produced, affecting not only to the total organic load but also to the mean size of micelles. The higher the ratio surfactant soil, the lower is the size of the particles. Electrolyses of this type of waste attain the complete mineralization. TOC and COD are removed from the start of the treatment but the key of the treatment is the reduction in size of the micelles, which lead to a higher negative charge in the surface and to the faster depletion of the surfactant as compared with the pesticide.

  14. Results From The Salt Disposition Project Next Generation Solvent Demonstration Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B.; Fondeur, F. F.; Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L.

    2014-04-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples were taken throughout the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Demonstration Plan. These samples were analyzed and the results are reported. SHT: The solvent behaved as expected, with no bulk changes in the composition over time, with the exception of the TOA and TiDG. The TiDG depletion is higher than expected, and consideration must be taken on the required rate of replenishment. Monthly sampling of the SHT is warranted. If possible, additional SHT samples for TiDG analysis (only) would help SRNL refine the TiDG degradation model. CWT: The CWT samples show the expected behavior in terms of bulk chemistry. The 137Cs deposited into the CWT varies somewhat, but generally appears to be lower than during operations with the BOBCalix solvent. While a few minor organic components were noted to be present in the Preliminary sample, at this time these are thought to be artifacts of the sample preparation or may be due to the preceding solvent superwash. DSSHT: The DSSHT samples show the predicted bulk chemistry, although they point towards significant dilution at the front end of the Demonstration. The 137Cs levels in the DSSHT are much lower than during the BOBCalix operations, which is the expected observation. SEHT: The SEHT samples represent the most different output of all four of the outputs from MCU. While the bulk chemistry is as expected, something is causing the pH of the SEHT to be higher than what would be predicted from a pure stream of 0.01 M boric acid. There are several possible different reasons for this, and SRNL is in the process of investigating. Other than the pH issue, the SEHT is as predicted. In summary, the NGS Demonstration Plan samples indicate that the MCU system, with the Blend Solvent, is operating as expected. The only issue of concern regards the pH of the SEHT, and SRNL is in the process of investigating

  15. New Polymeric Membranes for Organic Solvent Nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Aburabie, Jamaliah

    2017-05-01

    The focus of this dissertation was the development, synthesis and modification of polymers for the preparation of membranes for organic solvent nanofiltration. High chemical stability in a wide range of solvents was a key requirement. Membranes prepared from synthesized polymers as well as from commercial polymers were designed and chemically modified to reach OSN requirements. A solvent stable thin-film composite (TFC) membrane is reported, which is fabricated on crosslinked polythiosemicarbazide (PTSC) as substrate. The membranes exhibited high fluxes towards solvents like THF, DMF and DMSO ranging around 20 L/m2 h at 5 bar with a MWCO of around 1000 g/mol. Ultrafiltration PTSC membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation and crosslinked with GPTMS. The crosslinking reaction was responsible for the formation of an inorganic-type-network that tuned the membrane pore size. The crosslinked membranes acquired high solvent stability in DMSO, DMF and THF with a MWCO above 1300 g/mol. Reaction Induced Phase Separation (RIPS) was introduced as a new method for the preparation of skinned asymmetric membranes. These membranes have two distinctive layers with different morphologies both from the same polymer. The top dense layer is composed of chemically crosslinked polymer chains while the bottom layer is a porous structure formed by non-crosslinked polymer chains. Such membranes were tested for vitamin B12 in solvents after either crosslinking the support or dissolving the support and fixing the freestanding membrane on alumina. Pebax® 1657 was utilized for the preparation of composite membranes by simple coating. Porous PAN membranes were coated with Pebax® 1657 which was then crosslinked using TDI. Crosslinked Pebax® membranes show high stability towards ethanol, propanol and acetone. The membranes were also stable in DMF once crosslinked PAN supports were used. Sodium alginate polymer was investigated for the preparation of thin film composite

  16. Assessment of Washing with Antioxidant on the Oxidative Stability of Fatty Fish Mince during Processing and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eymard, Sylvie; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Baron, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Fatty fish have been recognized as potential raw material for the production of surimi; however, they can easily oxidize. The ability of antioxidants added in the washing water to reduce oxidation during the washing and subsequent storage needs to be evaluated. Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus......) mince was washed three times with 3 volumes of cold water (W) or the antioxidant solutions caffeic acid (CA) or propyl gallate (PG), at concentrations of 100 mg/kg, or spermine (SP), at a concentration of 400 mg/kg. Accumulation of antioxidant in the mince at each washing step was evaluated...... performed. Results indicated that the antioxidants were accumulated differently, but all antioxidants tested were able to prevent lipid oxidation in fatty fish mince during washing and subsequent storage. The ranking in terms of oxidative stability of the washed minces was CA = PG > SP > W. The antioxidants...

  17. The orientation of solvent-dipoles at the surface of the pure solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedermeijer-Denessen, H.J.M.; Ligny, C.L. de

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for the assessment of the preferential orientation of solvent-dipoles at the surface of the solvent from the surface potential χ and its temperature coefficient, dχ/dT. The method is based on the model of Levine et al. of the Stern inner region at the mercury-water interface in

  18. The orientation of solvent-dipoles at the surface of the pure solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedermeijer-Denessen, H.J.M.; Ligny, C.L. de

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for the assessment of the preferential orientation of solvent-dipoles at the surface of the solvent from the surface potential χ and its temperature coefficient, dχ/dT. The method is based on the model of Levine et al. of the Stern inner region at the mercury-water interface in

  19. PSE For Solvent Applications: A Generic Computer-aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    Solvents are widely used across a number of industries in many applications such as separation agents, reaction mediums, cleaning agents and product carriers. Selection of optimal solvents in these applications is mostly based on previous experiences and experimental trial and error. A process sy...

  20. Solvent System Selection Strategies in Countercurrent Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Friesen, J. Brent; McAlpine, James B.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of applications in countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography, collectively known as countercurrent separation, are dedicated to medicinal plant and natural product research. In countercurrent separation, the selection of the appropriate solvent system is of utmost importance as it is the equivalent to the simultaneous choice of column and eluent in liquid chromatography. However, solvent system selection is often laborious, involving extensive partition and/or analytical trials. Therefore, simplified solvent system selection strategies that predict the partition coefficients and, thus, analyte behavior are in high demand and may advance both the science of countercurrent separation and its applications. The last decade of solvent system selection theory and applications are critically reviewed, and strategies are classified according to their data input requirements. This offers the practitioner an up-to-date overview of rationales and methods for choosing an efficient solvent system, provides a perspective regarding their accuracy, reliability, and practicality, and discusses the possibility of combining multiple methods for enhanced prediction power. PMID:26393937

  1. Otoneurologic disturbances caused by solvent pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odkvist, L M; Möller, C; Thuomas, K A

    1992-06-01

    Subjects exposed to industrial solvents may experience vertigo and nausea. Solvents are usually volatile hydrocarbon compounds, which are important parts of everyday life in a modern society. They may also cause neurastenia, personality changes, and reduced intellectual capacity. The syndrome that may develop was formerly named psycho-organic syndrome (POS), but in modern terminology it is called chronic toxic encephalopathy (CTE). The syndrome develops slowly, and during the first years no pathological findings will be found using various test batteries. Somewhat later, when the syndrome still might be reversible, psychometric, auditory, and otoneurologic testing may well unveil disturbances within the posterior fossa structures. Animal experiments suggest one site of effect for solvents to be within the cerebellum and brainstem regions with close relationship to the gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) transmission. In the otoneurologic test battery, visual suppression and smooth pursuit are of extreme value, as are some auditory tests such as discrimination of interrupted speech and cortical response audiometry using frequency glides as stimuli. Dynamic posturography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have recently proved valuable in the diagnosis. Research is needed concerning the most efficient test battery for early detection of solvent-induced lesions. During further research it is important to unveil other toxic agents, like heavy metals and alcohol, and their damage to the central nervous system and to make comparisons between these substances and the lesions caused by hydrocarbon solvents.

  2. Chlorinated solvent replacements recycle/recovery review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, M.; Hsu, D.; McAtee, R.E.; Weidner, J.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Berg, L.; McCandless, F.P.; Waltari, S.; Peterson, C. (Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-08-01

    This report is a literature review of waste solvents recycle/recovery methods and shows the results of solvent separations using membrane and distillation technologies. The experimental solvent recovery methods were conducted on solvent replacements for chlorinated solvents at Montana State University. The literature review covers waste solvents separation using distillation, membranes decantation, filtration, carbon adsorption, solvent extraction, and other vapor-phase separation techniques. The results of this study identify solvent distillation methods as the most common separation technique. The alternative separation methods typically supplement distillation. The study shows the need for industries to identify waste solvent disposal methods and investigate the economics of waste solvent recycling as a possible waste reduction method.

  3. Development of deep eutectic solvents applied in extraction and separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxia; Row, Kyung Ho

    2016-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents, as an alternative to ionic liquids, have greener credentials than ionic liquids, and have attracted considerable attention in related chemical research. Deep eutectic solvents have attracted increasing attention in chemistry for the extraction and separation of various target compounds from natural products. This review highlights the preparation of deep eutectic solvents, unique properties of deep eutectic solvents, and synthesis of deep-eutectic-solvent-based materials. On the other hand, application in the extraction and separation of deep eutectic solvents is also included in this report. In this paper, the available data and references in this field are reviewed to summarize the applications and developments of deep eutectic solvents. Based on the development of deep eutectic solvents, an exploitation of new deep eutectic solvents and deep eutectic solvents-based materials is expected to diversify into extraction and separation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Pilot scale application of ozonated water wash - effect on microbiological and sensory quality parameters of processed iceberg lettuce during self-life

    OpenAIRE

    Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Marjo; Leskinen, Marita; Ölmez, Hulya

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of ozonated water wash on the microbiological and sensory quality parameters of minimally processed iceberg lettuce in pilot scale in comparison to aqueous chlorine wash. Alternative solutions for chlorine are needed, since its use is prohibited in organic food processing. Iceberg lettuce samples were washed with three different ozone solutions and the water wash and the 100 ppm chlorine wash were used as control. Ozone generator based on corona d...

  5. Experimental study of variations in background radiation and the effect on Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Norman, E; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P

    2007-02-07

    Error rates in a cargo screening system such as the Nuclear Car Wash [1-7] depend on the standard deviation of the background radiation count rate. Because the Nuclear Car Wash is an active interrogation technique, the radiation signal for fissile material must be detected above a background count rate consisting of cosmic, ambient, and neutron-activated radiations. It was suggested previously [1,6] that the Corresponding negative repercussions for the sensitivity of the system were shown. Therefore, to assure the most accurate estimation of the variation, experiments have been performed to quantify components of the actual variance in the background count rate, including variations in generator power, irradiation time, and container contents. The background variance is determined by these experiments to be a factor of 2 smaller than values assumed in previous analyses, resulting in substantially improved projections of system performance for the Nuclear Car Wash.

  6. Evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off by soil erosion from various land uses using USLE plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Radiocaesium wash-off associated with soil erosion in different land use was monitored using USLE plots in Kawamata, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Parameters and factors relating to soil erosion and (137)Cs concentration in the eroded soil were evaluated based on the field monitoring and presented. The erosion of fine soil, which is defined as the fraction of soil overflowed along with discharged water from a sediment-trap tank, constituted a large proportion of the discharged radiocaesium. This indicated that the quantitative monitoring of fine soil erosion is greatly important for the accurate evaluation of radiocaesium wash-off. An exponential relationship was found between vegetation cover and the amount of eroded soil. Moreover, the radiocaesium concentrations in the discharged soil were greatly affected by the land use. These results indicate that radiocaesium wash-off related to vegetation cover and land use is crucially important in modelling radiocaesium migration.

  7. Electroless copper plating on 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane modified PET fabric challenged by ultrasonic washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yinxiang, E-mail: yxlu@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2009-07-30

    Electroless deposition of Cu on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric modified with 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane was investigated. Morphology, composition, structure, thermal decomposing behavior of copper coating PET fabric after ultrasonic washing in water for 1 h were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectrometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG), respectively. Copper plating on modified fabric has good adherence stability and high electric conductivity before and after ultrasonic washing, while copper coating fabric without modification is easily destroyed during the washing process, which leads to the textile changing from conductor to dielectric. As the copper weight on the treated fabric is 28 g/m{sup 2}, the shielding effectiveness (SE) is more than 54 dB at frequency ranging from 0.01 MHz to 18 GHz.

  8. Acupuncture plus Chinese Medicinal Fumigation and Washing for Edema of the Stroke-affected Limb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture plus Chinese medicinal fumigation and washing in treating edema of the affected limb in post-stroke hemiplegia. Methods: Two hundred patients with edema of the stroke-affected limb from our hospital were randomized into two groups according to their visiting sequence. In the observation group, 100 subjects were intervened by acupuncture plus Chinese medicinal fumigation and washing in addition to oral administration of diuretics, while the other 100 subjects in the control group were only given diuretics. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated after successive 2-week treatments. Results: The total effective rate was 90.0% in the observation group, significantly higher than 66.0% in the control group, indicating that there was a significant difference in comparing the overall therapeutic effect (P Conclusion: Acupuncture plus Chinese medicinal fumigation and washing in addition to oral administration of diuretics is effective in treating edema of the affected limb in post-stroke hemiplegia.

  9. A Capacitive Displacement Sensing Technique for Early Detection of Unbalanced Loads in a Washing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Tiruthani

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal axis washing machines are water and energy efficient and becoming popular in the USA. Unlike a vertical axis washer, these do not have an agitator and depend solely on tumbling for the agitation of laundry during the wash cycle. However, due to the constant shifting of laundry during washing, the load distribution is often unbalanced during the high speed spin cycle. We present a displacement-based sensing method to detect unbalance early while the spin rate (rpm is well below the resonance frequency so that corrective actions may be taken prior to the high speed spin cycle. Experimental and analytical characterizations of the sensor configuration are presented. Results show that the displacement sensor is more appropriate than an accelerometer for this application and offer the potential for a simple, reliable, low cost detection of unbalance.

  10. Mathematical evaluation of activated carbon adsorption for surfactant recovery in a soil washing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chi K; Lee, Min W; Lee, Dae S; Woo, Seung H; Park, Jong M

    2008-12-15

    The performances of various soil washing processes, including surfactant recovery by selective adsorption, were evaluated using a mathematical model for partitioning a target compound and surfactant in water/sorbent system. Phenanthrene was selected as a representative hazardous organic compound and Triton X-100 as a surfactant. Two activated carbons that differed in size (Darco 20-40 mesh and >100 mesh sizes) were used in adsorption experiments. The adsorption isotherms of the chemicals were used in model simulations for various washing scenarios. The optimal process conditions were suggested to minimize the dosage of activated carbon and surfactant and the number of washings. We estimated that the requirement of surfactant could be reduced to 33% of surfactant requirements (from 265 to 86.6g) with a reuse step using 9.1g activated carbon (>100 mesh) to achieve 90% removal of phenanthrene (initially 100mg kg-soil(-1)) with a water/soil ratio of 10.

  11. Impact of natural cleaning on the selection of a washing system for solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstein, A.

    1981-04-01

    The desired optical properties (reflectivity, transmissivity, etc.) of solar energy collector surfaces such as mirrors and photovoltaic surfaces are degraded over time by soiling. Cost benefit evaluation of alternative methods for washing the surface or retarding the optical degradation must take into account natural cleaning processes such as precipitation and frost, which impact the scheduling as well as the benefits of washing. A probabilistic method developed to address this question is used to compare truck-mounted versus mirror-mounted washing systems for central receiver plants. The comparison of these systems is shown to be sensitive to the seasonally-varying frequency and effectiveness of natural cleaning processes. The implications of this analysis for such diverse issues as cost/benefit evaluation of soil-retardant mirror coatings and formulation of plant site selection criteria are noted.

  12. Diagnostic use of PCR for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in oral wash samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Jensen, Jens Ulrik Stæhr; Benfield, T

    1998-01-01

    and was compared to a previously described PCR protocol (mitochondrial RNA) run in a research laboratory. Both PCR methods amplified a sequence of the mitochondrial rRNA gene of P. carinii. Paired bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and oral wash specimens from 76 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected...... persons undergoing a diagnostic bronchoscopy were included. The TD-PCR procedure was quicker than the mitochondrial PCR procedure (compared to microscopy, had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 89, 94, 93, and 91%, respectively, for oral wash......There is a need to develop noninvasive methods for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients unable to undergo bronchoscopy or induction sputum. Oral wash specimens are easily obtained, and P. carinii nucleic acid can be amplified and demonstrated by PCR. In routine clinical use...

  13. Suppression of deicing salt corrosion of weathering steel bridges by washing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Shuichi [Investigation and Research Division, Sumitomo Metal Technology Inc., 1-8 Fuso-cho, Amagasaki, Hyogo 660-0891 (Japan)]. E-mail: hara-shu@smt-co.com; Miura, Masazumi [Development Division, Yon-den Consultant Co., 1007-3 Mure-cho Kida-gun, Kagawa 761-0121 (Japan); Uchiumi, Yasushi [Bridge Division, Kawada Industries Inc., 1-3-11 Takinogawa, Kita-ku, Tokyo 114-8562 (Japan); Fujiwara, Toshiaki [Takamatsu Engineering Office, Shikoku Regional Bureau, Japan Highway Public Co., 4-1-3 Asahi-cho, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0065 (Japan); Yamamoto, Masataka [Takamatsu Engineering Office, Shikoku Regional Bureau, Japan Highway Public Co., 4-1-3 Asahi-cho, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0065 (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    To elucidate the influences of deicing salts and high pressure (2-4 MPa) washing on the characteristics of the rust formed on weathering steel bridges, washing experiments have been carried out for three years. The rust was characterized by means of ion chromatography, X-ray diffraction and adsorption of N{sub 2}. The rust thickness was measured, and also the rust weight per unit area of the steel surface was measured. It was found that water-soluble chloride accelerated the rate of corrosion because the rust particles grow by the chloride ions and micro-pore structure of the rust appeared by the chloride ions. Washing with water suppressed corrosion owing to the disappearance of chloride ions.

  14. Performance Study of Screen-Printed Textile Antennas after Repeated Washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazani I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The stability of wearable textile antennas after 20 reference washing cycles was evaluated by measuring the reflection coefficient of different antenna prototypes. The prototypes’ conductive parts were screen-printed on several textile substrates using two different silver-based conductive inks. The necessity of coating the antennas with a thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU coating was investigated by comparing coated with uncoated antennas. It is shown that covering the antennas with the TPU layer not only protects the screen-printed conductive area but also prevents delamination of the multilayered textile fabric substrates, making the antennas washable for up to 20 cycles. Furthermore, it is proven that coating is not necessary for maintaining antenna operation and this up to 20 washing cycles. However, connector detachment caused by friction during the washing process was the main problem of antenna performance degradation. Hence, other flexible, durable methods should be developed for establishing a stable electrical connection.

  15. Experimental study of the influence of acid wash on cellulose pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shurong; LIAO Yanfen; LIU Qian; LUO Zhongyang; CEN Kefa

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of microstructure and polymerization degree showed that acid wash altered the cellulose morphology and decreased the polymerization degree significantly.A series of experiments were done to study the effect of acid wash on cellulose rapid pyrolysis.Experimental results showed that under acid pretreatment,the yield of biooil decreased while the production of gas and char increased.With an increase in acid concentration,this trend would be further enhanced.Sulphuric acid limited the formation of bio-oil more effectively than hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid.According to the GC-MS analysis of bio-oil,high-concentration acid wash restrained the formation of levoglucosan by catalyzing dehydration process and cross linking reaction.

  16. A novel study on UV protection and antibacterial properties of washed denim garment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervez Md. Nahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On this planet, many investigations are applied to switch conventional chemical cloth techniques via eco-pleasant and economically attractive bioprocesses using enzymes. The present study offers an enzymatic washing system using enzyme (Cellzyme SPL H/C for boosting the ultraviolet and antimicrobial undertaking of denim garments. Experimental results showed that the 4.0% o.w.f enzyme awareness furnished a greater UPF than the other concentrations and before washed. Results divulge that enzyme (Cellzyme SPL H/C not handiest preserve the fabric surface from UV degradation but also performed extended degree of antibacterial endeavour in opposition to some species of bacteria that leading to act as a nice antibacterial agent on the denim materials. The enzyme washing healing diminished the skin hairiness and accelerated the skin evenness of the denim fibres as shown by means of SEM measurements.

  17. Effects of the space for wash materials on sulcus depth reproduction with addition-curing silicone using two-step putty-wash technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Maho; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Finger, Werner J; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate effects of space thickness and consistency of wash materials on sulcus depth reproduction with silicone impressions, low (L), medium (M), and very high consistency (VH), using two-step putty-wash technique. Impressions were taken from truncated cones with 50-, 100-, or 200-μm-wide sulci, using the combinations L+VH or M+VH and different space thickness for wash materials: 2 mm (ST2), 1 mm (ST1), and approximately 25 μm (ST0.025). Sulcus depth reproduction tended to increase with increasing sulcus width. Sulcus reproduction of ST0.025 was deeper than those of the other groups. At 100- and 200-μm sulcus widths, sulcus reproductions of ST1 and ST2 with L+HV were deeper than with M+HV. Regardless of consistency, the thin spacer produced deep reproduction. Adequate 0.5 mm sulcus reproductions were obtained with 100 and 200 μm wide sulci and 1- and 2-mm spacer widths, combined with low consistency impression material.

  18. Recommended methods for purification of solvents and tests for impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Coetzee, J F

    1982-01-01

    Recommended Methods for Purification of Solvents and Tests for Impurities is a compilation of recommended procedures for purification of solvents and tests for solvent impurities. Ten solvents are covered: acetonitrile, sulfolane, propylene carbonate, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethylformamide, hexamethylphosphoramide, pyridine, ethylenediamine, N-methylacetamide, and N-methylpropionamide. This book is comprised of 12 chapters and opens with an introduction to general aspects of impurity effects. The rationale for the selection of solvent is explained, and the relative reactivities of solutes in di

  19. Washing increases the susceptibility to exogenous oxidative stress in red deer spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rebolledo, A E; Fernández-Santos, M R; García-Alvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Garde, J J; Martínez-Pastor, F

    2009-11-01

    The effects of routine sperm work are often overlooked. We assessed the effect of washing cryopreserved epididymal spermatozoa from red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus, Helzheimer 1909). After thawing, epididymal samples (four stags) were diluted in TALP-HEPES. A split was left untouched, another was centrifuged (300 x g, 5 min) and resuspended, and a third was centrifuged and the supernatant substituted by fresh TALP-HEPES (washing). Each split was supplemented either with nothing, 1mM of the antioxidant Trolox, 100 microM of the oxidant Fe (with ascorbate), or both. The 3x4 treatments were incubated at 37 degrees C and assessed each hour up to 3h for motility (computer-aided sperm assessment) and viability/apoptosis plus mitochondrial status (YO-PRO-1, propidium iodide, Mitotracker Deep Red; flow cytometry). DNA damage at 4h was assessed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay. Centrifugation alone affected neither sperm quality nor DNA, and the oxidant had no effect in control or centrifuged samples. Washed samples were not different than control, but oxidant decreased motility, mitochondrial status and viability, and altered the motility subpopulation pattern, being partially suppressed by Trolox. Spermatozoa with damaged DNA dramatically increased in the washed-oxidized sample (from 22.30+/-3.52% to 67.94+/-5.07%), but not when antioxidant was present. Although samples from different males behaved similarly, male-to-male variability was detected regarding susceptibility to oxidative damage after washing. We concluded that, although red deer thawed spermatozoa seemed resilient to centrifugation, the vulnerability to oxidative stress after washing makes it advisable to supplement manipulation media with antioxidants, especially taking into account male-to-male variability.

  20. Remediation of metal polluted hotspot areas through enhanced soil washing--evaluation of leaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedje, Karin Karlfeldt; Yillin, Li; Strömvall, Ann-Margret

    2013-10-15

    Soil washing offers a permanent remediation alternative for metal polluted sites. In addition, the washed out metals can be recovered from the leachate and re-introduced into the social material cycle instead of landfilled. In this paper, soil, bark and bark-ash washing was tested on four different metal polluted soil and bark samples from hotspots at former industrial sites. Six different leaching agents; HCl, NH4Cl, lactic acid, EDDS and two acidic process waters from solid waste incineration, were tested, discussed and evaluated. For the soil washing processes, the final pH in the leachate strongly influences the metal leachability. The results show that a pH leaching yield, while metals were leached when the pH was higher than 2 or below 10. The acidic process waste waters were generally the most efficient at leaching metals from all the samples studied, and as much as 90-100 w% of the Cu was released from some samples. Initial experiments show that from one of these un-purified leachates, Cu metal (>99% purity) could be recovered. After a single leaching step, the metal contents of the soil residues still exceed the maximum limits according to the Swedish guidelines. An additional washing step is needed to reduce the contents of easy soluble metal compounds in the soil residues. The overall results from this study show that soil and bark-ash washing followed by metal recovery is a promising on-site permanent alternative to remediate metal polluted soils and to utilize non-used metal resources.

  1. Three kinds of psychological determinants for hand-washing behaviour in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Ranpura, Ashish; Coombes, Yolande; Maina, Peninnah Mukiri; Matiko, Carol Nkatha; Curtis, Valerie

    2010-02-01

    Washing hands with soap at the right times - primarily after contact with faeces, but also before handling food or feeding an infant - can significantly reduce the incidence of childhood infectious disease. Here, we present empirical results which substantiate a recent claim that washing hands can be the consequence of different kinds of psychological causes. Such causes can be divided into three kinds of control over behaviour: automatic or habitual responses, motivated or goal-driven behaviour to satisfy needs, and cognitive causes which reflect conscious concerns. Empirical results are based on 3-h-long structured observations of hand-washing behaviour in 802 nationally representative Kenyan households with children under five, and structured interviews with the primary female caretaker in these households, collected in March 2007. Factor analysis of questionnaire responses identified three psychological factors which are also significant predictors of observed hand-washing behaviour: having the habit of hand-washing at particular junctures during the day, the motivated need for personal or household cleanliness, and a lack of cognitive concern about the cost of soap use. These factors each represent a different kind of psychological cause. A perceived link between clean hands and sexual attractiveness also appeared in the factor analysis, but was not a determinant of actual behaviour. We also report evidence that those who express concern about the cost of soap use are those with relatively few economic resources. We suggest that those developing hygiene promotion programmes should consider the possible existence of multiple types of strategies for increasing hand-washing behaviour. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Heavy metal removal by GLDA washing: Optimization, redistribution, recycling, and changes in soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiyin; Zhang, Shirong; Xu, Xiaoxun; Zhong, Qinmei; Zhang, Chuer; Jia, Yongxia; Li, Ting; Deng, Ouping; Li, Yun

    2016-11-01

    Soil washing, an emerging method for treating soils contaminated by heavy metals, requires an evaluation of its efficiency in simultaneously removing different metals, the quality of the soil following remediation, and the reusability of the recycled washing agent. In this study, we employed N,N-bis (carboxymethyl)-l-glutamic acid (GLDA), a novel and readily biodegradable chelator to remove Cd, Pb, and Zn from polluted soils. We investigated the influence of washing conditions, including GLDA concentration, pH, and contact time on their removal efficiencies. The single factor experiments showed that Cd, Pb, and Zn removal efficiencies reached 70.62, 74.45, and 34.43% in mine soil at a GLDA concentration of 75mM, a pH of 4.0, and a contact time of 60min, and in polluted farmland soil, removal efficiencies were 69.12, 78.30, and 39.50%, respectively. We then employed response surface methodology to optimize the washing parameters. The optimization process showed that the removal efficiencies were 69.50, 88.09, and 40.45% in mine soil and 71.34, 81.02, and 50.95% in polluted farmland soil for Cd, Pb, and Zn, respectively. Moreover, the overall highly effective removal of Cd and Pb was connected mainly to their highly effective removal from the water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fractions. GLDA-washing eliminated the same amount of metals as EDTA-washing, while simultaneously retaining most of the soil nutrients. Removal efficiencies of recycled GLDA were no >5% lower than those of the fresh GLDA. Therefore, GLDA could potentially be used for the rehabilitation of soil contaminated by heavy metals.

  3. Removal of Pb and MDF from contaminated soils by EDTA- and SDS-enhanced washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Tsang, Daniel C W; Lo, Irene M C

    2007-02-01

    Heavy metal- and organic-contaminated sites are ubiquitous, but few studies have been conducted to address such an issue. EDTA- and SDS-enhanced washing was studied for remediation of Pb- and/or marine diesel fuel (MDF)-contaminated soils. The feasibility of recovery and reuse of EDTA and SDS, as well as the physicochemical interactions among the chemical agents, contaminants and soils were extensively investigated using batch experiments. The optimal washing sequence was then determined. The experimental results showed that EDTA could be recovered and reused for four cycles without significant loss of its chelating capacity, while the extraction capability of SDS was noticeably reduced after each reuse cycle. The free phase of marine diesel fuel (MDF) in soils physically isolated the sorbed Pb on soils and thus reducing its extraction by EDTA. The presence of SDS alone or together with low concentration of EDTA was found to enhance Pb removal probably via electrostatic interaction and dissolution of soil organic matter. However, it hindered Pb extraction by high concentration of EDTA, because of the potential formation of complexes between some strongly-bound Pb and SDS, that are more resistant to desorption. Therefore, EDTA washing followed by SDS achieved the highest Pb removal efficiency. On the other hand, MDF removal by SDS was significantly hindered by coexisting Pb in soils, probably because the formation of Pb-dodecyl sulfate (DS) complex would decrease the effective amount of SDS available for forming micelles in solution and enhance MDF sorption. EDTA alone or together with SDS could enhance MDF removal, but the residual MDF after EDTA-washing became more resistant to SDS removal. Consequently, SDS washing followed by EDTA is considered as the optimal washing sequence for MDF removal.

  4. Observance of hand washing procedures performed by the medical personnel after the patient contact. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Garus-Pakowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC as well as the World Health Organization (WHO state that adequate hand hygiene maintained by medical personnel is an indispensable prerequisite for controlling nosocomial infections. The recommendations of CDC and WHO emphasize the obligation to wash hands after each contact with a patient, after the exposure to a potentially infectious material or upon the contact with objects surrounding the patient. Materials and Methods: The study was performed by quasi-observation among the group of 188 medical staff members (nurses and physicians working in three selected hospitals of the Łódź Province. The procedure of hand washing/disinfection performed directly after the patient contact according to the recommendations of CDC and WHO was observed. The results were subject to statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Results: During 1544 h of observations, 4101 activities requiring hand washing were recorded. The medical personnel followed the hand hygiene procedures after the patient contact in 26.4% of the situations that require hygiene according to the guidelines. The level of observance of the hand washing procedures depended significantly on the type of performed activity, profession, degree of workload, index of activity, and time of duty hours. The mean time of hand washing after patient contact was 9.2 s for physicians and 6.7 s for nurses. Conclusion: Both the level of observance of hygienic procedures after the contact with patients as well as the time of hand washing are insufficient. There is an urgent need to work out educational programs on maintaining proper hand hygiene for medical personnel.

  5. Ultrasonic and mechanical soil washing processes for the removal of heavy metals from soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Beomguk; Son, Younggyu

    2017-03-01

    In order to determine the optimal operating conditions of full-scale soil washing processes for the removal of heavy metals, the effect of high-power ultrasound on the conventional mechanical soil washing process was investigated in a large lab-scale 28kHz sonoreactor. The soil samples were obtained from an abandoned railway station site in Seoul, Korea, which was contaminated with Cu (242.7±40.0mg/kg), Pb (441.3±49.8mg/kg), and Zn (358.0±35.7mg/kg). The treated concentrations of three heavy metal species in each process were compared with the regulation levels. It was found that higher performance, satisfying the regulation levels, was obtained in the ultrasonic/mechanical process due to the combined effects of macroscale mixing and microscale sonophysical effects. Moreover ultrasound played a more important role in less favorable conditions for the mechanical washing process (less acidic or less washing liquid conditions). Considering the application of the ultrasonic/mechanical soil washing process in real contaminated sites, the optimal conditions for the reactor with the bottom area of 15×15cm(2) and the input ultrasound power of 250W were determined as follows: (1) the amount of soil per an operation was a 300g; (2) the ratio of soil and liquid was 1:3; (3) the concentration of acidic washing liquid was 0.5M HCl. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Washing of Petroleum and Arsenic Contaminated Soil with Ultrasound and Alkali Phosphate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Hwa; Kim, Jae Gon; Cho, Yong-chan; Chon, Chul-Min; Nam, In-Hyun; Keum, Mi Jung

    2015-04-01

    Soil washing of fine textured soil has been a challenging remedial strategy due to its low remediation efficiency. We adapted ultrasound and dispersion solution to increase the remediation efficiency of the soil washing. The ultrasound and dispersion agent may enhance the dispersion of the aggregate into individual particles and may enhance release of contaminants from the aggregate. We collected the arsenic (As) contaminated silt loam soil from a smelting site, spiked with 1% of diesel and incubated for 6 months. We tested the dispersion rate and the release of diesel with the incubated soil at various pH and concentrations of orthophosphate, pyrophosphate and hexametaphosphate with or without the ultrasound of 28 kHz and 400 W. The As concentrations of coarse (> medium silt) and fine (soil washing was turned out to be pH 11_10 mM Na-hexametaphosphate with the ultrasound. The concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbon of the incubated soil reduced from 3101.3 mg kg-1 to 14.0 mg kg-1 after 10 minute washing at the optimum condition. The fine fraction had much higher As concentration than the coarse fraction: 44.4 mg kg-1 for the fine fraction and 14.4 mg kg-1 for the coarse fraction. The results of this study indicate that the ultrasound and alkali phosphate solution increase the soil washing efficiency and can be a promising technology for the remediation of fine textured contaminated soils. Key Words : Ultrasound, Phosphate solution, Soil washing, Mixed contaminants

  7. Immobilization of MSWI fly ash through geopolymerization: effects of water-wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lei; Wang, Chengwen; Wang, Wei; Shi, Yunchun; Gao, Xingbao

    2011-02-01

    The present research explored the role played by water-wash on geopolymerization for the immobilization and solidification of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash. The water-wash pretreatment substantially promoted the early strength of geopolymer and resulted in a higher ultimate strength compared to the counterpart without water-wash. XRD pattern of water-washed fly ash (WFA) revealed that NaCl and KCl were nearly eliminated in the WFA. Aside from geopolymer, ettringite (Ca(6)Al(2)(SO(4))(3)(OH)(12)·26H(2)O) was formed in MSWI fly ash-based geopolymer (Geo-FA). Meanwhile, calcium aluminate hydrate (Ca(2)Al(OH)(7)·3H(2)O), not ettringite, appeared in geopolymer that was synthesized with water-washed fly ash (Geo-WFA). Leached Geo-WFA (Geo-WFA-L) did not exhibit any signs of deterioration, while there was visual cracking on the surface of leached Geo-FA (Geo-FA-L). The crack may be caused by the migration of K(+), Na(+), and Cl(-) ions outside Geo-FA and the negative effect from crystallization of expansive compounds can not be excluded. Furthermore, transformation of calcium aluminate hydrate in Geo-WFA to ettringite in Geo-WFA-L allowed the reduction of the pore size of the specimen. IR spectrums suggested that Geo-WFA can supply more stable chemical encapsulation for heavy metals. Static monolithic leaching tests were conducted for geopolymers to estimate the immobilization efficiency. Heavy metal leaching was elucidated using the first-order reaction/diffusion model. Combined with the results from compressive strength and microstructure of samples, the effects of water-wash on immobilization were inferred in this study.

  8. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Meena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%, KMnO4 (0.02% and savlon (2.0% to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at −196°C semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM, non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST, total plate count (TPC and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  9. Bacterial burden of worn therapeutic silver textiles for neurodermitis patients and evaluation of efficacy of washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeschlein, G; Assadian, O; Arnold, A; Haase, H; Kramer, A; Jünger, M

    2010-01-01

    To reduce pruritus and colonization with Staphylococcus aureus, textiles containing silver are increasingly used as therapeutic option for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). While wearing such textiles, the contained silver is in close contact with the patient's skin. The silver serves two purposes: to reduce bacterial colonization of the skin, and to prevent contamination of the textile with ensuing growth of microorganisms. It is unknown whether the silver impregnation is able to reduce bacterial contamination of the textile during wearing and to prevent bacterial growth within the textile. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination in textiles containing silver versus placebo worn by patients with AD and to determine the efficacy of processing worn textiles by manual and machine-based washing. Additionally, the effect of silver textiles on S. aureus and total bacterial counts colonizing the skin of AD patients was analyzed. The reduction factor of silver textile compared to placebo was 0.5 log steps against S. aureus and 0.4 log steps against total bacteria. Silver textiles exhibited significantly less S. aureus as well as total bacterial colonization after 2 days of wearing without washing, as compared with a placebo textile. On placebo textiles 385.6 +/- 63.5 CFU total bacteria and 236.5 +/- 49.9 CFU S. aureus, and on silver textiles 279.9 +/- 78.7 CFU total bacteria and 119.3 +/- 39.4 CFU S. aureus were found on the inner side of the textiles facing the neurodermitis lesions. However, the unexpectedly high residual contamination despite the silver exposure represents a potential risk as recontamination source of S. aureus that could maintain the proinflammatory process in AD. This contamination is nearly completely eliminated by machine-based washing at 60 degrees C using conventional washing powder. AD patients wearing silver textiles should change their used clothes at least daily and wash them in a washing machine at 60 degrees

  10. Alternative Solvents through Green Chemistry Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Components in the aerospace industry must perform with accuracy and precision under extreme conditions, and surface contamination can be detrimental to the desired performance, especially in cases when the components come into contact with strong oxidizers such as liquid oxygen. Therefore, precision cleaning is an important part of a components preparation prior to utilization in aerospace applications. Current cleaning technologies employ a variety of cleaning agents, many of which are halogenated solvents that are either toxic or cause environmental damage. Thus, this project seeks to identify alternative precision cleaning solvents and technologies, including use of less harmful cleaning solvents, ultrasonic and megasonic agitation, low-pressure plasma cleaning techniques, and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. Please review all data content found in the Public Data tab located at: https:techport.nasa.govview11697public

  11. Enabling safe dry cake disposal of bauxite residue by deliquoring and washing with a membrane filter press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnarinen, Teemu; Lubieniecki, Boguslaw; Holliday, Lloyd; Helsto, Jaakko-Juhani; Häkkinen, Antti

    2015-03-01

    Dry cake disposal is the preferred technique for the disposal of bauxite residue, when considering environmental issues together with possible future utilisation of the solids. In order to perform dry cake disposal in an economical way, the deliquoring of the residue must be carried out efficiently, and it is also important to wash the obtained solids well to minimise the amount of soluble soda within the solids. The study presented in this article aims at detecting the most important variables influencing the deliquoring and washing of bauxite residue, performed with a horizontal membrane filter press and by determining the optimal washing conditions. The results obtained from pilot-scale experiments are evaluated by considering the properties of the solids, for instance, the residual alkali and aluminium content, as well as the consumption of wash liquid. Two different cake washing techniques, namely classic washing and channel washing, are also used and their performances compared. The results show that cake washing can be performed successfully in a horizontal membrane filter press, and significant improvements in the recovery of alkali and aluminium can be achieved compared with pressure filtration carried out without washing, or especially compared with the more traditionally used vacuum filtration.

  12. Research and Application of the Mathematic Model for the Washing Shrinkage of Woven Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Having analyzed the relationships between washing shrinkage and weaving technique, parameters, material properties of woven fabrics and studied the shrinkage mechanism and its mathematical model of the plain fabric,researchers set up a shrinkage model of the twills and satins and proposed a method for calculating the washing shrinkage based on weaving technique and parameters of fabrics. Shrinkage experiments of silk habotai, silk twill and silk satin fabrics were performed. The results were compared with those of the theoretical computations, and it has been proven that the theoretical method is reliable.

  13. Risk assessment of hand washing efficacy using literature and experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montville, Rebecca; Chen, Yuhuan; Schaffner, Donald W

    2002-03-01

    This study simulated factors that influence the levels of bacteria on foodservice workers' hands. Relevant data were collected from the scientific literature and from laboratory experiments. Literature information collected included: initial bacterial counts on hands and water faucet spigots, bacterial population changes during hand washing as effected by soap type, sanitizing agent, drying method, and the presence of rings. Experimental data were also collected using Enterobacter aerogenes as a surrogate for transient bacteria. Both literature and experimental data were translated into appropriate discrete or probability distribution functions. The appropriate statistical distribution for each phase of the hand washing process was determined. These distributions were: initial count on hands, beta (2.82, 2.32, 7.5); washing reduction using regular soap, beta (3.01, 1.91, -3.00, 0.60); washing reduction using antimicrobial soap, beta (4.19, 2.99, -4.50, 1.50); washing reduction using chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), triangular (-4.75, -1.00, 0); reductions from hot air drying, beta (3.52, 1.92, -0.20, 1.00); reduction from paper towel drying, triangular (-2.25, -0.75, 0); reduction due to alcohol sanitizer, gamma (-1.23, 4.42) -5.8; reduction due to alcohol-free sanitizer, gamma (2.22, 5.38) -5.00; and the effect of rings, beta (8.55, 23.35, 0.10, 0.45). Experimental data were fit to normal distributions (expressed as log percentage transfer rate): hand-to-spigot transfer, normal (-0.80, 1.09); spigot to hand, normal (0.36, 0.90). Soap with an antimicrobial agent (in particular, CHG) was observed to be more effective than regular soap. Hot air drying had the capacity to increase the amount of bacterial contamination on hands, while paper towel drying caused a slight decrease in contamination. There was little difference in the efficacy of alcohol and alcohol-free sanitizers. Ring wearing caused a slight decrease in the efficacy of hand washing. The experimental data

  14. The Effect of Washing and Inhibitor on Cathepsin Activity of Silver Carp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effect of washing and temperature on the activity of cathepsins of Silver carp was studied.The result showed that the activity of cathepsin L was higher than those of cathepsin B and H.The total catalysis activity of these three enzymes was the highest at 55℃ after washing.The inhibiting effect of soybean protein and potato starch on cathepsin L also had been studied,the results showed that soybean protein and potato starch could decrease activity of cathepsins L significantly.

  15. Hydraulic transport and washing of low grade coal. Transportul hidraulic si spalarea carbunilor inferior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, G.; Baran, N.; Marin, O.

    1992-01-01

    An efficient method to improve the calorific power of coal residues is the washing method used with a view to separate the waste from the coal. This method can be associated with the transportation of coal or waste and at the same time can be used in hydrocyclone-equipment offering constructive advantages and a low price. The washing of low coal in hydrocyclones has led to an improvement of its calorific power with about 600 kcal/kg. 6 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. C-104 high-level waste solids: Washing/leaching and solubility versus temperature studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; SK Fiskum; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-05-17

    This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the C-104 HLW solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-104 solids remaining after washing with 0.01 M NaOH or leaching with 3 M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of the C-104 solids as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8, Rev. 0, ``Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids.

  17. Comparison of energy consumptions between ultrasonic, mechanical, and combined soil washing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Younggyu; Nam, Sanggeon; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2012-05-01

    Vigorous physical effects including micro-jet and micro-streaming can be induced in heterogeneous systems by acoustic cavitation. This can be useful for the removal of pollutants from contaminated soil particles. In this study, the diesel removal efficiencies in ultrasonic, mechanical, and combined soil washing processes have been compared considering the electrical energy consumptions for these processes. The combined process showed synergistic effects for both removal efficiency and effective volume also has the advantage of a short operation time compared to the sequential processes. Thus the ultrasonic soil washing process with mechanical mixing is considered a promising technology for industrial use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of the dye transfer inhibitors for the washing of softened cotton fabric

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Fité, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    In this, work the performance of several dye transfer inhibitors (DTI) copolymers (PVP, PVNO and PVNO with PVP) was tested for use as DTIs in washing softened undyed cotton fabric, in the presence of a direct dye in the washing bath, with and without water hardness. Three direct dyes were tested: red, blue and yellow. The detergent used was composed of an LAS anionic surfactant and a non-ionic fatty alcohol ethoxylate surfactant with 7¿m. OE, both separately and in the different molar proport...

  19. An auto-balancer device for high spin-drying frequencies (LoWash Project)

    OpenAIRE

    Clerc Christian; Carbonelli Alexandre; Augez Romain

    2015-01-01

    Auto-balancing or active control balancing can be efficient solutions for high speed rotors with changing out-of-balance loads like washing machines in spin-drying mode. In the LoWash EU project, Vibratec is in charge to design, to build and to validate a balancing system for reducing the vibrations at high spin-drying speeds. The system is based on two trolleys rolling in a ring linked to the drum. The trolley shape allows a ring cross section optimization and they are equipped with a mechan...

  20. Diagnostic use of PCR for detection of Pneumocystis carinii in oral wash samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Jensen, Jens Ulrik Stæhr; Benfield, T;

    1998-01-01

    and was compared to a previously described PCR protocol (mitochondrial RNA) run in a research laboratory. Both PCR methods amplified a sequence of the mitochondrial rRNA gene of P. carinii. Paired bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and oral wash specimens from 76 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected...... specimens and 100, 91, 90, and 100%, respectively, for BAL specimens. Our results suggest that oral wash specimens are a potential noninvasive method to obtain a diagnostic specimen during P. carinii pneumonia infection and that it can be applied in a routine diagnostic laboratory....

  1. Enhanced removal of lead from contaminated soil by polyol-based deep eutectic solvents and saponin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Soumyadeep; Mukherjee, Sumona; Hayyan, Adeeb; Hayyan, Maan; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar

    2016-11-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are a class of green solvents analogous to ionic liquids, but less costly and easier to prepare. The objective of this study is to remove lead (Pb) from a contaminated soil by using polyol based DESs mixed with a natural surfactant saponin for the first time. The DESs used in this study were prepared by mixing a quaternary ammonium salt choline chloride with polyols e.g. glycerol and ethylene glycol. A natural surfactant saponin obtained from soapnut fruit pericarp, was mixed with DESs to boost their efficiency. The DESs on their own did not perform satisfactory due to higher pH; however, they improved the performance of soapnut by up to 100%. Pb removal from contaminated soil using mixture of 40% DES-Gly and 1% saponin and mixture of 10% DES-Gly and 2% saponin were above 72% XRD and SEM studies did not detect any major corrosion in the soil texture. The environmental friendliness of both DESs and saponin and their affordable costs merit thorough investigation of their potential as soil washing agents.

  2. Solvent-free fluidic organic dye lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Young; Mager, Loic; Cham, Tran Thi; Dorkenoo, Kokou D; Fort, Alain; Wu, Jeong Weon; Barsella, Alberto; Ribierre, Jean-Charles

    2013-05-06

    We report on the demonstration of liquid organic dye lasers based on 9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole (EHCz), so-called liquid carbazole, doped with green- and red-emitting laser dyes. Both waveguide and Fabry-Perot type microcavity fluidic organic dye lasers were prepared by capillary action under solvent-free conditions. Cascade Förster-type energy transfer processes from liquid carbazole to laser dyes were employed to achieve color-variable amplified spontaneous emission and lasing. Overall, this study provides the first step towards the development of solvent-free fluidic organic semiconducting lasers and demonstrates a new kind of optoelectronic applications for liquid organic semiconductors.

  3. NMR spectroscopy using liquid crystal solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Emsley, JW

    2013-01-01

    NMR Spectroscopy using Liquid Crystal Solvents covers the importance of using a liquid crystal solvent in NMR to derive nuclear dipolar spin-spin coupling constants. This book is composed of ten chapters, and begins with a brief description of the features and benefits of liquid crystal in NMR spectroscopic analysis. The succeeding chapters deal with the mode of operation of nuclear spin Hamiltonian for partially oriented molecules and the analysis of NMR spectra of partially oriented molecules, as well as the determination of rigid molecule structure. These topics are followed by discussions

  4. Solvent-resistant microporous polymide membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Warren K.; McCray, Scott B.; Friesen, Dwayne T.

    1998-01-01

    An asymmetric microporous membrane with exceptional solvent resistance and highly desirable permeability is disclosed. The membrane is made by a solution-casting or solution-spinning process from a copolyamic acid comprising the condensation reaction product in a solvent of at least three reactants selected from certain diamines and dianhydrides and post-treated to imidize and in some cases cross-link the copolyamic acid. The membrane is useful as an uncoated membrane for ultrafiltration, microfiltration, and membrane contactor applications, or may be used as a support for a permselective coating to form a composite membrane useful in gas separations, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, pervaporation, or vapor permeation.

  5. Occupational exposure to solvents and bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadkhale, Kishor; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Weiderpass, Elisabete;

    2017-01-01

    logistic regression model was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Increased risks were observed for trichloroethylene (HR 1.23, 95% 95% CI 1.12-1.40), toluene (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.38), benzene (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.31), aromatic hydrocarbon solvents (HR 1...... of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, aromatic hydrocarbon solvents, benzene and toluene and the risk of bladder cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  6. Assessing the effect of sodium dichloroisocyanurate concentration on transfer of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in wash water for production of minimally processed iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, D F; Sant'Ana, A S; Monteiro, G; Schaffner, D W; Franco, B D G M

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the impact of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 250 mg l(-1) ) in wash water on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from contaminated lettuce to wash water and then to other noncontaminated lettuces washed sequentially in the same water. Experiments were designed mimicking the conditions commonly seen in minimally processed vegetable (MPV) processing plants in Brazil. The scenarios were as follows: (1) Washing one inoculated lettuce portion in nonchlorinated water, followed by washing 10 noninoculated portions sequentially. (2) Washing one inoculated lettuce portion in chlorinated water followed by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially. (3) Washing five inoculated lettuce portions in chlorinated water sequentially, followed by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially. (4) Washing five noninoculated lettuce portions in chlorinated water sequentially, followed by washing five inoculated portions sequentially and then by washing five noninoculated portions sequentially in the same water. Salm. Typhimurium transfer from inoculated lettuce to wash water and further dissemination to noninoculated lettuces occurred when nonchlorinated water was used (scenario 1). When chlorinated water was used (scenarios 2, 3 and 4), no measurable Salm. Typhimurium transfer occurred if the sanitizer was ≥10 mg l(-1) . Use of sanitizers in correct concentrations is important to minimize the risk of microbial transfer during MPV washing. In this study, the impact of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in the wash water on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from inoculated lettuce to wash water and then to other noninoculated lettuces washed sequentially in the same water was evaluated. The use of chlorinated water, at concentration above 10 mg l(-1) , effectively prevented Salm. Typhimurium transfer under several different washing scenarios. Conversely, when nonchlorinated water was used, Salm. Typhimurium transfer occurred in

  7. TODGA Process Development: an Improved Solvent Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, Andreas [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Modolo, Giuseppe [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute for Energy Research, Safety Research and Reactor Technology, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Introduction: TODGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyl diglycolamide) is studied in the European ACSEPT project as a promising extractant for actinide separations. A mixture of TODGA and TBP in TPH (a kerosene) [1] was successfully used for spiked and hot continuous counter-current tests for the separation of actinides(III) and lanthanides(III) from PUREX raffinate [2, 3]. Furthermore this solvent composition is used for GANEX (group actinide extraction) process development, i.e., co-extraction of Np, Pu, Am, Cm, and Ln from PUREX raffinate with selective stripping of the actinides [4, 5]. We address two of this solvent's drawbacks by replacing TBP (which acts as phase modifier to prevent third phase formation) with 1-octanol: (1) The presence of a non-CHON compound (TBP); (2) The pronounced co-extraction of nitric acid (e.g., 0.2 M TODGA + 0.5 M TBP in TPH extracts approx. 0.6 M HNO{sub 3} from 4 M HNO{sub 3}). Results: When contacting 0.2 M TODGA in TPH with 0.1 M Nd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} in 5 M HNO{sub 3}, as little as 3 % vol. 1-octanol suppresses the formation of a third phase. Thus, the following solvent composition is used for further studies: 0.2 M TODGA + 5 % vol. 1-octanol in TPH. Due to the absence of TBP, the amount of HNO{sub 3} extraction is reduced to approx. 50 % as compared to the solvent consisting of 0.2 M TODGA + 0.5 M TBP in TPH. Am(III) and Eu(III) distribution ratios are similar to those with the TODGA + TBP solvent [1]. Loading the solvent by extracting from solutions of up to 0.2 M Nd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} in 3 M or 4 M HNO{sub 3} confirms a 1:3 stoichiometry of the extracted complex. Further investigations are under way. Conclusion: The improved solvent formulation reduces the HNO{sub 3} co-extraction which may be advantageous especially for GANEX process development. Furthermore, the solvent complies with the CHON principle. 1) G. Modolo, H. Asp, C. Schreinemachers, H. Vijgen, Development of a TODGA based process for partitioning of

  8. Factors affecting high-pressure solvent extraction (accelerated solvent extraction) of additives from polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburg, H J; Clifford, A A; Bartle, K D; Zhu, S A; Carroll, J; Newton, I D; Garden, L M

    1998-05-01

    Irganox 1010 (pentaerythritol tetrakis[3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)] propionate) is successfully extracted from polypropylene using solvents at high temperatures and pressures in a homemade accelerated solvent extraction system. For example, using freeze-ground polymer, 90% extraction is possible within 5 min with 2-propanol at 150 °C. Extraction curves for 2-propanol and acetone fit well to the "hot ball" model, previously developed for supercritical fluid extraction. Diffusion coefficients are determined for extractions with 2-propanol, acetone, and cyclohexane over a range of temperatures, and the activation energies for the diffusion are 134, 107, and 61 kJ mol(-)(1), respectively. The lower figure for acetone and cyclohexane indicates that these solvents swell the polymer more than does 2-propanol. The polymer dissolves in the solvent at too high a temperature, which causes blockage of the transfer lines. For maximum extraction rates, the highest temperature for each solvent that avoids dissolution of the polymer should be used. The use of mixed solvents is investigated and shows advantages in some cases, with the aim of producing a solvent that will swell the polymer but not dissolve it.

  9. Used Solvent Testing and Reclamation. Volume 2. Vapor Degreasing and Precision Cleaning Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Dependence of the 1,3-Dioxolane/AlCI 3 Reaction Using Arrhenius’ Law 88 36 Effect of 1,4-Dioxane on Reactor Pressure 91 67 Effect of 1,4-Dioxane on HCI...and spent solvent. This process was performed for all of the three solvents. Inhibitor Kinetic Studies Batch Reactions. Batch reactor kinetic studies...acceptor in chlorinated solvents. It is an 4 80. Levenspiel , Chemical Reaction Engineering, 2nd ed. (John Wiley and Sons, 1972), pp 41-86. 490

  10. Controlling Actinide Hydration in Mixed Solvent Systems: Towards Tunable Solvent Systems to Close the Fuel Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Sue B. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2016-10-31

    The goal of this project has been to define the extent of hydration the f-elements and other cations in mixed solvent electrolyte systems. Methanol-water and other mixed solvent systems have been studied, where the solvent dielectric constant was varied systematically. Thermodynamic and spectroscopic studies provide details concerning the energetics of complexation and other reactions of these cations. This information has also been used to advance new understanding of the behavior of these cations in a variety of systems, ranging from environmental studies, chromatographic approaches, and ionization processes for mass spectrometry.

  11. Solvent tuned single molecule dual emission in protic solvents: effect of polarity and H-bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreux, S; Allain, C; Wilbraham, L; Nakatani, K; Jacques, P; Ciofini, I; Lemercier, G

    2015-01-01

    Phen-PENMe2 has recently been proposed as a promising new molecule displaying solvent-tuned dual emission, highlighting an original and newly-described charge transfer model. The study of the photophysical behaviour of this molecule was extended to include protic solvents. The effects of polarity and hydrogen bonding lead to an even more evident dual emission associated with a large multi-emission band in some solvents like methanol, highlighting Phen-PENMe2 as a promising candidate for white light emission.

  12. Computer-Aided Solvent Screening for Biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Leeuwen, M.B. van; Boeriu, C.G.;

    2013-01-01

    . Esterification of acrylic acid with octanol is also addressed. Solvents are screened and candidates identified, confirming existing experimental results. Although the examples involve lipases, the method is quite general, so there seems to be no preclusion against application to other biocatalysts....

  13. Selective solvent absorption in coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, J.W.; Lapucha, A.; Lazarov, L.; Amui, J.

    1992-04-01

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to determine the importance of the presence of added hydrogen donor compounds within the coal in the first stage of direct liquefaction processes; and (2) to determine the composition of the solvent absorbed by and present within the coal in the first stage of direct coal liquefaction.

  14. Spherical polymer brushes under good solvent conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo Verso, Federica; Egorov, Sergei A.; Milchev, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    A coarse grained model for flexible polymers end-grafted to repulsive spherical nanoparticles is studied for various chain lengths and grafting densities under good solvent conditions by molecular dynamics methods and density functional theory. With increasing chain length, the monomer density...

  15. Organic solvents in electromembrane extraction: recent insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was invented in 2006 as a miniaturized sample preparation technique for the separation of ionized species from aqueous samples. This concept has been investigated in different areas of analytical chemistry by different research groups worldwide since the introduct......Electromembrane extraction (EME) was invented in 2006 as a miniaturized sample preparation technique for the separation of ionized species from aqueous samples. This concept has been investigated in different areas of analytical chemistry by different research groups worldwide since...... the introduction. Under the influence of an electrical field, EME is based on electrokinetic migration of the analytes through a supported liquid membrane (SLM), which is an organic solvent immobilized in the pores of the polymeric membrane, and into the acceptor solution. Up to date, close to 150 research...... articles with focus on EME have been published. The current review summarizes the performance of EME with different organic solvents and discusses several criteria for efficient solvents in EME. In addition, the authors highlight their personal perspective about the most promising organic solvents for EME...

  16. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all pr

  17. THE TRAVELLING SOLVENT METHOD OF CRYSTAL GROWTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    dicumene Electron beam melting of Cr on SiC Wetting studies of Cr on SiC in different ambients Etching studies in molten salts Zone movement studies Ga-GaAs System P-N junction formation by solvent doping

  18. Organic solvent nanofiltration: prospects and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, A V; Korneeva, G A; Tereshchenko, Gennadii F [A. V. Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-11-30

    The key lines of research in a new field of the membrane science and technology, viz., organic solvent nanofiltration, are considered. The prospects for its use in chemical, petrochemical and food industries are discussed. Attention is focused on membranes developed for this method.

  19. ESES: Software for Eulerian solvent excluded surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Beibei; Wang, Bao; Zhao, Rundong; Tong, Yiying; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2017-03-15

    Solvent excluded surface (SES) is one of the most popular surface definitions in biophysics and molecular biology. In addition to its usage in biomolecular visualization, it has been widely used in implicit solvent models, in which SES is usually immersed in a Cartesian mesh. Therefore, it is important to construct SESs in the Eulerian representation for biophysical modeling and computation. This work describes a software package called Eulerian solvent excluded surface (ESES) for the generation of accurate SESs in Cartesian grids. ESES offers the description of the solvent and solute domains by specifying all the intersection points between the SES and the Cartesian grid lines. Additionally, the interface normal at each intersection point is evaluated. Furthermore, for a given biomolecule, the ESES software not only provides the whole surface area, but also partitions the surface area according to atomic types. Homology theory is utilized to detect topological features, such as loops and cavities, on the complex formed by the SES. The sizes of loops and cavities are measured based on persistent homology with an evolutionary partial differential equation-based filtration. ESES is extensively validated by surface visualization, electrostatic solvation free energy computation, surface area and volume calculations, and loop and cavity detection and their size estimation. We used the Amber PBSA test set in our electrostatic solvation energy, area, and volume validations. Our results are either calibrated by analytical values or compared with those from the MSMS software. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Expanding solvent SAGD in heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, P.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Das, S.; Wheeler, T.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Srinivasan, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects have proven effective for the recovery of oil and bitumen. Expanding solvent (ES) SAGD pilot projects have also demonstrated positive results of improved performance. This paper presented the results of a simulation study that investigated several important factors of the ES-SAGD process, including solvent types; concentration; operating pressure; and injection strategy. The objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of the ES-SAGD process in terms of production acceleration and energy requirements; to optimize solvent selection; to understand the effect of dilation in unconsolidated oil sands and the directional impact on reservoir parameters and oil production rate in ES-SAGD; and to understand the impact of operating conditions such as pressure, solvent concentration, circulation preheating period and the role of conduction heating and grid size in this process. The advantages of ES-SAGD over SAGD were also outlined. The paper presented results of sensitivity studies that were conducted on these four factors. Conclusions and recommendations for operating strategy were also offered. It was concluded that dilation is an important factor for SAGD performance at high operating pressure. 8 refs., 15 figs.

  1. Solvent-Free Synthesis of Chalcones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palleros, Daniel R.

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of twenty different chalcones in the absence of solvent is presented. The results indicated that out of the twenty different chalcones investigated seventeen can be obtained in a matter of minutes by mixing the corresponding benzaldehyde and acetophenone in the presence of solid NaOH in a mortar with pestle.

  2. 78 FR 28577 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity: Whirlpool Corporation Subzone 8I; (Washing Machines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Notification of Proposed Production Activity: Whirlpool Corporation Subzone 8I; (Washing Machines): Clyde and Green Springs, Ohio Whirlpool Corporation (Whirlpool), operator of Subzone 8I, submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the FTZ Board for its facilities located...

  3. 78 FR 54449 - Subzone 8I, Authorization of Production Activity, Whirlpool Corporation (Washing Machines); Clyde...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Subzone 8I, Authorization of Production Activity, Whirlpool Corporation (Washing Machines); Clyde and Green Springs, Ohio On May 1, 2013, Whirlpool Corporation (Whirlpool) submitted a notification of proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board for its facility...

  4. Application of washed rumen technique for rapid determination of fasting heat production in steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a washed rumen technique as an alternative approach for determining fasting HP in cattle. In Exp. 1, 8 Holstein steers (322±30 kg) were adapted to a cubed alfalfa-based diet (1.5xNEm) for 10 d. After which steers were placed into individual hea...

  5. Effectiveness of hand washing on the removal of iron oxide nanoparticles from human skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinski, Nastassja A; Berthet, Aurélie; Maurizi, Lionel; Eisenbeis, Antoine; Hopf, Nancy B

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of washing with soap and water in removing nanoparticles from exposed skin was investigated. Dry, nanoscale hematite (α-Fe2O3) or maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) powder, with primary particle diameters between 20-30 nm, were applied to two samples each of fresh and frozen ex vivo human skin in two independent experiments. The permeation of nanoparticles through skin, and the removal of nanoparticles after washing with soap and water were investigated. Bare iron oxide nanoparticles remained primarily on the surface of the skin, without penetrating beyond the stratum corneum. Skin exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles for 1 and 20 hr resulted in removal of 85% and 90%, respectively, of the original dose after washing. In the event of dermal exposure to chemicals, removal is essential to avoid potential local irritation or permeation across skin. Although manufactured at an industrial scale and used extensively in laboratory experiments, limited data are available on the removal of engineered nanoparticles after skin contact. Our finding raises questions about the potential consequences of nanoparticles remaining on the skin and whether alternative washing methods should be proposed. Further studies on skin decontamination beyond use of soap and water are needed to improve the understanding of the potential health consequences of dermal exposure to nanoparticles.

  6. Incremental yield of bronchial washing for diagnosing smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Soto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the increased diagnostic yield for pulmonary tuberculosis using bronchial washing cultures compared with sputum cultures. METHODS Study conducted with 61 adults in Lima, Peru, from January 2006 to December 2007. The yield of sputum cultures was compared with the yield of acid-fast bacilli smears and cultures of bronchial washing for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in suspected cases of clinical tuberculosis with negative acid fast bacilli sputum smears. RESULTS Twenty seven (95%CI 32;58 of the cases were eventually diagnosed with smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis. Bronchial washing samples detected 23 (95%CI 72;99 of the smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis cases compared with 15 (95%CI 37;74 for sputum cultures (p = 0.02. The incremental diagnostic yield of acid fast bacilli smear and culture of bronchial washing specimens over sputum culture was 44% (95%CI 25;65. CONCLUSIONS In function of the epidemiological context and the resources available, bronchoscopy should be deployed as part of a comprehensive work up that optimizes smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis and minimizes risk and costs.

  7. Cost-consequence analysis of "washing without water" for nursing home residents: A cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, L.; Gaal, B.G. van; Teerenstra, S.; Adang, E.M.; Vleuten, C.J.M. van der; Achterberg, T. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No-rinse disposable wash gloves are increasingly implemented in health care to replace traditional soap and water bed baths without proper evaluation of (cost) effectiveness. OBJECTIVES: To compare bed baths for effects on skin integrity and resistance against bathing and costs. DESIGN:

  8. Sequential Washing with Electrolyzed Alkaline and Acidic Water Effectively Removes Pathogens from Metal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yuichiro; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Kazunori; Satoh, Katsuya; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Yoshiaki; Sugio, Tomomi; Sakai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Eiji; Ichimiya, Kazuko; Hamada, Masahisa; Nakayama, Takehisa; Fujita, Yuhzo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Removal of pathogenic organisms from reprocessed surgical instruments is essential to prevent iatrogenic infections. Some bacteria can make persistent biofilms on medical devices. Contamination of non-disposable equipment with prions also represents a serious risk to surgical patients. Efficient disinfection of prions from endoscopes and other instruments such as high-resolution cameras remains problematic because these instruments do not tolerate aggressive chemical or heat treatments. Herein, we develop a new washing system that uses both the alkaline and acidic water produced by electrolysis. Electrolyzed acidic water, containing HCl and HOCl as active substances, has been reported to be an effective disinfectant. A 0.15% NaCl solution was electrolyzed and used immediately to wash bio-contaminated stainless steel model systems with alkaline water (pH 11.9) with sonication, and then with acidic water (pH 2.7) without sonication. Two bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a fungus (Candida albicans) were effectively removed or inactivated by the washing process. In addition, this process effectively removed or inactivated prions from the stainless steel surfaces. This washing system will be potentially useful for the disinfection of clinical devices such as neuroendoscopes because electrolyzed water is gentle to both patients and equipment and is environmentally sound. PMID:27223116

  9. WASH drives early recycling from macropinosomes and phagosomes to maintain surface phagocytic receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Catherine M.; Gopaldass, Navin; Bosmani, Cristina; Johnston, Simon A.; Insall, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Macropinocytosis is an ancient mechanism that allows cells to harvest nutrients from extracellular media, which also allows immune cells to sample antigens from their surroundings. During macropinosome formation, bulk plasma membrane is internalized with all its integral proteins. It is vital for cells to salvage these proteins before degradation, but the mechanisms for sorting them are not known. Here we describe the evolutionarily conserved recruitment of the WASH (WASP and SCAR homolog) complex to both macropinosomes and phagosomes within a minute of internalization. Using Dictyostelium, we demonstrate that WASH drives protein sorting and recycling from macropinosomes and is thus essential to maintain surface receptor levels and sustain phagocytosis. WASH functionally interacts with the retromer complex at both early and late phases of macropinosome maturation, but mediates recycling via retromer-dependent and -independent pathways. WASH mutants consequently have decreased membrane levels of integrins and other surface proteins. This study reveals an important pathway enabling cells to sustain macropinocytosis without bulk degradation of plasma membrane components. PMID:27647881

  10. Sequential Washing with Electrolyzed Alkaline and Acidic Water Effectively Removes Pathogens from Metal Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yuichiro; Akamatsu, Norihiko; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Sano, Kazunori; Satoh, Katsuya; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Yoshiaki; Sugio, Tomomi; Sakai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Eiji; Ichimiya, Kazuko; Hamada, Masahisa; Nakayama, Takehisa; Fujita, Yuhzo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Nishida, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Removal of pathogenic organisms from reprocessed surgical instruments is essential to prevent iatrogenic infections. Some bacteria can make persistent biofilms on medical devices. Contamination of non-disposable equipment with prions also represents a serious risk to surgical patients. Efficient disinfection of prions from endoscopes and other instruments such as high-resolution cameras remains problematic because these instruments do not tolerate aggressive chemical or heat treatments. Herein, we develop a new washing system that uses both the alkaline and acidic water produced by electrolysis. Electrolyzed acidic water, containing HCl and HOCl as active substances, has been reported to be an effective disinfectant. A 0.15% NaCl solution was electrolyzed and used immediately to wash bio-contaminated stainless steel model systems with alkaline water (pH 11.9) with sonication, and then with acidic water (pH 2.7) without sonication. Two bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a fungus (Candida albicans) were effectively removed or inactivated by the washing process. In addition, this process effectively removed or inactivated prions from the stainless steel surfaces. This washing system will be potentially useful for the disinfection of clinical devices such as neuroendoscopes because electrolyzed water is gentle to both patients and equipment and is environmentally sound.

  11. Analysis of the effect of wash water reduction on bleached pulp characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigieri, Tânia Cristina; Ventorim, Gustavo; Savi, Antônio Francisco; Favaro, Jaqueline Silveira Comelato

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse cost reduction by reducing the use of fresh water in the cellulose bleaching process and to make it easier to obtain water in a closed circuit. Eucalyptus oxygen delignified industrial pulp was used. The pulp was bleached 10 times in the D(E+P)DP sequence in the same conditions. Counter current washing was used in the bleaching stages, and each sequence was carried out with different wash factors: 9, 6, 3, and 0 m³ of distilled water/ton of oven dry pulp. The goal was to reach brightness of 92±0.5% ISO. The results showed that there was a chemical oxygen demand (COD) increase and brightness reversion, but the kappa number and viscosity did not change. The apparent colour was increased by increasing COD in the effluent during the cycles and by decreasing the wash water. Up to 3 m³/t of water was tolerable and even recommended to wash pulp. Nine cubic metre per tonne of fresh water is most commonly used in the industry, so water savings make the implementation of the process possible.

  12. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation. Small-Scale Demonstration and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Irreversible Wash Aid Additive process has been under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). This process for radioactive cesium mitigation consists of a solution to wash down contaminated structures, roadways, and vehicles and a sequestering agent to bind the radionuclides from the wash water and render them environmentally immobile. The purpose of this process is to restore functionality to basic services and immediately reduce the consequences of a radiologically-contaminated urban environment. Research and development have resulted in a down-selection of technologies for integration and demonstration at the pilot-scale level as part of the Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) under the Department of Homeland Security and the Denver Urban Area Security Initiative. As part of developing the methods for performing a pilot-scale demonstration at the WARRP conference in Denver in 2012, Argonne conducted small-scale field experiments at Separmatic Systems. The main purpose of these experiments was to refine the wash water collection and separations systems and demonstrate key unit operations to help in planning for the large scale demonstration in Denver. Since the purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the operations of the system, we used no radioactive materials. After a brief set of experiments with the LAKOS unit to familiarize ourselves with its operation, two experiments were completed on two separate dates with the Separmatic systems.

  13. Electrodialytic versus acid extraction of heavy metals from soil washing residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille E.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Allard, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of electrodialytic remediation (EDR) for treatment of suspended sludge after soil washing is in focus in the present paper. Five industrially contaminated soils were treated in laboratory scale remediation experiments, and the toxic elements of the investigation were: As, Cd, Cu, Cr...

  14. Inspections of Hand Washing Supplies and Hand Sanitizer in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M.; Blea, Mary; Trujillo, Rebecca; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Hand washing and hand antisepsis are proven infection control measures in the school setting, yet barriers such as lack of soap, paper towels, and hand sanitizer can hinder compliance. This pilot study measured the prevalence of hand cleaning supplies in public schools. Ten school districts (93 schools) participated in school nurse inspections. In…

  15. The Effect of Washing and Peeling on Reduction of Dithiocarbamates Residues in Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dithiocarbamates, the main group of fungicides, are used to control about 400 pathogens in more than 70 crops. These pesticides are widely applied to crops including potato, cereal, apple, pear and leafy vegetables throughout the world since 1960. From the late 1980s, using these fungicides has caused much debate among regulators about their long-term effects on consumers and occupational users. Method: In this study the residues of Dithiocarbamates in cucumber and tomato using the colorimetric method (Keppel method was measured. Respectively 80 and 45 samples of greenhouse cucumber and tomato were collected from Zanjan vegetables center in autumns and winter 2013. The samples were analyzed in 4 treatments of: unwashed, washing with water, washing whit detergent and peeling. Result: The results showed that the average concentration of Dithiocarbamates residues in unwashed greenhouse cucumber and tomatoes were 384.5 µg/kg and 65 µg/kg respectively. 35% and 5% of unwashed and water washed cucumber and tomato samples (respectively had higher Dithiocarbamates residue than MRL recommended by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (0.5mg/kg. Conclusion: The treatments of washing and peeling had significant effect on the reduction of Dithiocarbamates residues in the all samples.

  16. Challenges and Opportunities for Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into WaSH Development Planning in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Climate change threatens water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) facilities and services, as these are intimately linked to the water cycle and are vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of available water resources. Floods and droughts, which pollute and reduce water delivery respectively, have now become a perennial issue to deal with in the northern regions of Ghana. This study aimed to assess the degree to which climate change adaptation measures are mainstreamed into the water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) development planning process in Ghana. Stakeholders from government and non-government agencies were interviewed to gain perspectives on the threat of climate change, the inclusion of climate change in WaSH planning and the barriers preventing mainstreaming. Despite awareness of climate change, adaptation measures have not been considered, and the immediate WaSH needs remain the priority. Overall, stakeholders felt the adaptive capacity of the Municipality was low and that mainstreaming has not yet occurred. Despite the lack of progress, there are great opportunities for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning through increasing awareness and capacity, legislative and institutional changes and the development of participatory systems to provide early warning systems and disaster risk analyses that will inform future planning. PMID:28698518

  17. Flexographic newspaper deinking : treatment of wash filtrate effluent by membrane technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Chabot; G.A. Krishnagopalan; S. Abubakr

    1999-01-01

    Ultrafiltration was investigated as a means to remove flexographic ink pigments from wash filtrate effluent generated from various mixtures of flexographic and offset old newspapers from deinking operations. Membrane separation efficiency was assessed from permeate flux, fouling rate, and ease of membrane regeneration (cleaning). Ultrafiltration was capable of...

  18. Remediation of nitrobenzene contaminated soil by combining surfactant enhanced soil washing and effluent oxidation with persulfate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchun Yan

    Full Text Available The combination of surfactant enhanced soil washing and degradation of nitrobenzene (NB in effluent with persulfate was investigated to remediate NB contaminated soil. Aqueous solution of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS, 24.0 mmol L-1 was used at a given mass ratio of solution to soil (20:1 to extract NB contaminated soil (47.3 mg kg-1, resulting in NB desorption removal efficient of 76.8%. The washing effluent was treated in Fe2+/persulfate and Fe2+/H2O2 systems successively. The degradation removal of NB was 97.9%, being much higher than that of SDBS (51.6% with addition of 40.0 mmol L-1 Fe2+ and 40.0 mmol L-1 persulfate after 15 min reaction. The preferential degradation was related to the lone pair electron of generated SO4•-, which preferably removes electrons from aromatic parts of NB over long alkyl chains of SDBS through hydrogen abstraction reactions. No preferential degradation was observed in •OH based oxidation because of its hydrogen abstraction or addition mechanism. The sustained SDBS could be reused for washing the contaminated soil. The combination of the effective surfactant-enhanced washing and the preferential degradation of NB with Fe2+/persulfate provide a useful option to remediate NB contaminated soil.

  19. Copper Recovery from Polluted Soils Using Acidic Washing and Bioelectrochemical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Karlfeldt Fedje

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Excavation followed by landfilling is the most common method for treating soils contaminated by metals. However, as this solution is not sustainable, alternative techniques are required. Chemical soil washing is one such alternative. The aim of this experimental lab-scale study is to develop a remediation and metal recovery method for Cu contaminated sites. The method is based on the washing of soil or ash (combusted soil/bark with acidic waste liquids followed by electrolytic Cu recovery by means of bioelectrochemical systems (BES. The results demonstrate that a one- or two-step acidic leaching process followed by water washing removes >80 wt. % of the Cu. Copper with 99.7–99.9 wt. % purity was recovered from the acidic leachates using BES. In all experiments, electrical power was generated during the reduction of Cu. This clearly indicates that Cu can also be recovered from dilute solutions. Additionally, the method has the potential to wash co-pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and oxy-PAHs.

  20. The influence of sodium-polyacrilic macromolecular chain length to the powder detergents secondary washing performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Vladimir S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the influence of sodium-polyacrylate polymer as a co-builder in addition to the carbonate/zeolite builders in detergent builder system, secondary washing performances of powder laundry detergent containing equal percentage of sodium polyacrylate with the different weight average molar mass, Mw, have been examined. The value of the degree of whiteness, elongation at break, and total residue content are the most important secondary washing performances that significantly depend on sodium polyacrylates efficiency used as crystal inhibitors, stabilizers for suspended soil, and agents for soil redisposition prevention on fabric surface. The values of the whiteness and elongation at break for cotton fabrics increase with the increase of average weight molecular mass, Mw, up to the value of 70000 g/mol, while in the case of further increase of weight average molar mass up to the 250000 g/mol value of these characteristics begin to decline. The values of the total residue content after combustion indicate an increase in its content with the increase of weight average molar mass of 3000 to 70000 g/mol, while the highest value has been reached in the sample of detergent containing sodiumpolyacrilic with the weight average molar mass of 250000 g/mol. All detergent samples show no significant dependence of the secondary washing characteristics on the number of washing cycles.