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Sample records for k-t impact event

  1. Large meteorite impacts: The K/T model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohor, B. F.

    1992-01-01

    The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary event represents probably the largest meteorite impact known on Earth. It is the only impact event conclusively linked to a worldwide mass extinction, a reflection of its gigantic scale and global influence. Until recently, the impact crater was not definitively located and only the distal ejecta of this impact was available for study. However, detailed investigations of this ejecta's mineralogy, geochemistry, microstratigraphy, and textures have allowed its modes of ejection and dispersal to be modeled without benefit of a source crater of known size and location.

  2. Bio-, Magneto- and event-stratigraphy across the K-T boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisinger, A.; Stradner, H.; Mauritsch, H. J.

    1988-01-01

    Determining the time and the time structure of rare events in geology can be accomplished by applying three different and independent stratigraphic methods: Biostratigraphy, magneto-stratigraphy and event-stratigraphy. The optimal time resolution of the two former methods is about 1000 years, while by means of event-stratigraphy a resolution of approximately one year can be achieved. For biostratigraphy across the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary micro- and nannofossils have been found best suited. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of minerals and trace elements across the K-T boundary show anomalies on a millimeter scale and permit conclusions regarding the time structure of the K-T event itself. The results of the analyses find a most consistent explanation by the assumption of an extraterrestrial impact. The main portion of the material rain from the atmosphere evidently was deposited within a short time. The long-time components consist of the finest portion of the material rain from the atmosphere and the transported and redeposited fall-out.

  3. First evidence for a massive extinction event affecting bees close to the K-T boundary.

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    Sandra M Rehan

    Full Text Available Bees and eudicot plants both arose in the mid-late Cretaceous, and their co-evolutionary relationships have often been assumed as an important element in the rise of flowering plants. Given the near-complete dependence of bees on eudicots we would expect that major extinction events affecting the latter would have also impacted bees. However, given the very patchy distribution of bees in the fossil record, identifying any such extinctions using fossils is very problematic. Here we use molecular phylogenetic analyses to show that one bee group, the Xylocopinae, originated in the mid-Cretaceous, coinciding with the early radiation of the eudicots. Lineage through time analyses for this bee subfamily show very early diversification, followed by a long period of seemingly no radiation and then followed by rapid diversification in each of the four constituent tribes. These patterns are consistent with both a long-fuse model of radiation and a massive extinction event close to the K-T boundary. We argue that massive extinction is much more plausible than a long fuse, given the historical biogeography of these bees and the diversity of ecological niches that they occupy. Our results suggest that events near the K-T boundary would have disrupted many plant-bee relationships, with major consequences for the subsequent evolution of eudicots and their pollinators.

  4. First evidence for a massive extinction event affecting bees close to the K-T boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan, Sandra M; Leys, Remko; Schwarz, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Bees and eudicot plants both arose in the mid-late Cretaceous, and their co-evolutionary relationships have often been assumed as an important element in the rise of flowering plants. Given the near-complete dependence of bees on eudicots we would expect that major extinction events affecting the latter would have also impacted bees. However, given the very patchy distribution of bees in the fossil record, identifying any such extinctions using fossils is very problematic. Here we use molecular phylogenetic analyses to show that one bee group, the Xylocopinae, originated in the mid-Cretaceous, coinciding with the early radiation of the eudicots. Lineage through time analyses for this bee subfamily show very early diversification, followed by a long period of seemingly no radiation and then followed by rapid diversification in each of the four constituent tribes. These patterns are consistent with both a long-fuse model of radiation and a massive extinction event close to the K-T boundary. We argue that massive extinction is much more plausible than a long fuse, given the historical biogeography of these bees and the diversity of ecological niches that they occupy. Our results suggest that events near the K-T boundary would have disrupted many plant-bee relationships, with major consequences for the subsequent evolution of eudicots and their pollinators.

  5. K/T boundary stratigraphy: Evidence for multiple impacts and a possible comet stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Izett, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    A critical set of observations bearing on the K/T boundary events were obtained from several dozen sites in western North America. Thin strata at and adjacent to the K/T boundary are locally preserved in association with coal beds at these sites. The strata were laid down in local shallow basins that were either intermittently flooded or occupied by very shallow ponds. Detailed examination of the stratigraphy at numerous sites led to the recognition of two distinct strata at the boundary. From the time that the two strata were first recognized, E.M. Shoemaker has maintained that they record two impact events. We report some of the evidence that supports this conclusion.

  6. Measurement of kT splitting scales in W→ℓν events at [Formula: see text] with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G; Abajyan, T; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdelalim, A A; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allison, L J; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Altheimer, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Angelidakis, S; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Astbury, A; Atkinson, M; Auerbach, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Axen, D; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Backus Mayes, J; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, S; Balek, P; Balli, F; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, V; Basye, A; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beale, S; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behar Harpaz, S; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Beloborodova, O; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Bertella, C; Bertin, A; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Bierwagen, K; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bittner, B; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boek, T T; Boelaert, N; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Bolnet, N M; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borri, M; Borroni, S; Bortfeldt, J; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boutouil, S; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Branchini, P; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brendlinger, K; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchholz, P; Buckingham, R M; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Bugge, L; Bulekov, O; Bundock, A C; Bunse, M; Buran, T; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Buttinger, W; Byszewski, M; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Caminada, L M; Caminal Armadans, R; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Cantero, J; Cantrill, R; Cao, T; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capriotti, D; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Cardarelli, R; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo-Montoya, G D; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cascella, M; Caso, C; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N F; Cataldi, G; Catastini, P; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Cattani, G; Caughron, S; Cavaliere, V; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chalupkova, I; Chan, K; Chang, P; Chapleau, B; Chapman, J D; Chapman, J W; Charlton, D G; Chavda, V; Chavez Barajas, C A; Cheatham, S; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, Y; Cheplakov, A; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Chernyatin, V; Cheu, E; Cheung, S L; Chevalier, L; Chiefari, G; Chikovani, L; Childers, J T; Chilingarov, A; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chislett, R T; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; Choudalakis, G; Chouridou, S; Chow, B K B; Christidi, I A; Christov, A; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chu, M L; Chudoba, J; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Ciftci, R; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Ciocio, A; Cirilli, M; Cirkovic, P; Citron, Z H; Citterio, M; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, P J; Clarke, R N; Cleland, W; Clemens, J C; Clement, B; Clement, C; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Coffey, L; Cogan, J G; Coggeshall, J; Colas, J; Cole, S; Colijn, A P; Collins, N J; Collins-Tooth, C; Collot, J; Colombo, T; Colon, G; Compostella, G; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Conidi, M C; Consonni, S M; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conti, G; Conventi, F; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cooper-Smith, N J; Copic, K; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Côté, D; Cottin, G; Courneyea, L; Cowan, G; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Crescioli, F; Cristinziani, M; Crosetti, G; Cuciuc, C-M; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Cummings, J; Curatolo, M; Curtis, C J; Cuthbert, C; Cwetanski, P; Czirr, H; Czodrowski, P; Czyczula, Z; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; D'Orazio, A; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M J; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W; Dafinca, A; Dai, T; Dallaire, F; Dallapiccola, C; Dam, M; Damiani, D S; Danielsson, H O; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darlea, G L; Darmora, S; Dassoulas, J A; Davey, W; Davidek, T; Davidson, N; Davidson, R; Davies, E; Davies, M; Davignon, O; Davison, A R; Davygora, Y; Dawe, E; Dawson, I; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R K; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Taille, C; De la Torre, H; De Lorenzi, F; De Nooij, L; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dearnaley, W J; Debbe, R; Debenedetti, C; Dechenaux, B; Dedovich, D V; Degenhardt, J; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delemontex, T; Deliyergiyev, M; Dell'Acqua, A; Dell'Asta, L; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M; Delsart, P A; Deluca, C; Demers, S; Demichev, M; Demirkoz, B; Denisov, S P; Derendarz, D; Derkaoui, J E; Derue, F; Dervan, P; Desch, K; Deviveiros, P O; Dewhurst, A; DeWilde, B; Dhaliwal, S; Dhullipudi, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Donato, C; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M A; Diehl, E B; Dietrich, J; Dietzsch, T A; Diglio, S; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, J; Dinut, F; Dionisi, C; Dita, P; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djobava, T; do Vale, M A B; Do Valle Wemans, A; Doan, T K O; Dobbs, M; Dobos, D; Dobson, E; Dodd, J; Doglioni, C; Doherty, T; Dohmae, T; Doi, Y; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Dolgoshein, B A; Donadelli, M; Donini, J; Dopke, J; Doria, A; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Doyle, A T; Dressnandt, N; Dris, M; Dubbert, J; Dube, S; Dubreuil, E; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duda, D; Dudarev, A; Dudziak, F; Duerdoth, I P; Duflot, L; Dufour, M-A; Duguid, L; Dührssen, M; Dunford, M; Duran Yildiz, H; Düren, M; Duxfield, R; Dwuznik, M; Ebenstein, W L; Ebke, J; Eckweiler, S; Edson, W; Edwards, C A; Edwards, N C; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eigen, G; Einsweiler, K; Eisenhandler, E; Ekelof, T; El Kacimi, M; Ellert, M; Elles, S; Ellinghaus, F; Ellis, K; Ellis, N; Elmsheuser, J; Elsing, M; Emeliyanov, D; Enari, Y; Engelmann, R; Engl, A; Epp, B; Erdmann, J; Ereditato, A; Eriksson, D; Ernst, J; Ernst, M; Ernwein, J; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Esch, H; Escobar, C; Espinal Curull, X; Esposito, B; Etienne, F; Etienvre, A I; Etzion, E; Evangelakou, D; Evans, H; Fabbri, L; Fabre, C; Facini, G; Fakhrutdinov, R M; Falciano, S; Fang, Y; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farilla, A; Farley, J; Farooque, T; Farrell, S; Farrington, S M; Farthouat, P; Fassi, F; Fassnacht, P; Fassouliotis, D; Fatholahzadeh, B; Favareto, A; Fayard, L; Federic, P; Fedin, O L; Fedorko, W; Fehling-Kaschek, M; Feligioni, L; Feng, C; Feng, E J; Fenyuk, A B; Ferencei, J; Fernando, W; Ferrag, S; Ferrando, J; Ferrara, V; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; Ferreira de Lima, D E; Ferrer, A; Ferrere, D; Ferretti, C; Ferretto Parodi, A; Fiascaris, M; Fiedler, F; Filipčič, A; Filthaut, F; Fincke-Keeler, M; Fiolhais, M C N; Fiorini, L; Firan, A; Fischer, J; Fisher, M J; Fitzgerald, E A; Flechl, M; Fleck, I; Fleischmann, P; Fleischmann, S; Fletcher, G T; Fletcher, G; Flick, T; Floderus, A; Flores Castillo, L R; Florez Bustos, A C; Flowerdew, M J; Fonseca Martin, T; Formica, A; Forti, A; Fortin, D; Fournier, D; Fowler, A J; Fox, H; Francavilla, P; Franchini, M; Franchino, S; Francis, D; Frank, T; Franklin, M; Franz, S; Fraternali, M; Fratina, S; French, S T; Friedrich, C; Friedrich, F; Froidevaux, D; Frost, J A; Fukunaga, C; Fullana Torregrosa, E; Fulsom, B G; Fuster, J; Gabaldon, C; Gabizon, O; Gadatsch, S; Gadfort, T; Gadomski, S; Gagliardi, G; Gagnon, P; Galea, C; Galhardo, B; Gallas, E J; Gallo, V; Gallop, B J; Gallus, P; Gan, K K; Gandrajula, R P; Gao, Y S; Gaponenko, A; Garay Walls, F M; Garberson, F; García, C; García Navarro, J E; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gardner, R W; Garelli, N; Garonne, V; Gatti, C; Gaudio, G; Gaur, B; Gauthier, L; Gauzzi, P; Gavrilenko, I L; Gay, C; Gaycken, G; Gazis, E N; Ge, P; Gecse, Z; Gee, C N P; Geerts, D A A; Geich-Gimbel, Ch; Gellerstedt, K; Gemme, C; Gemmell, A; Genest, M H; Gentile, S; George, M; George, S; Gerbaudo, D; Gerlach, P; Gershon, A; Geweniger, C; Ghazlane, H; Ghodbane, N; Giacobbe, B; Giagu, S; Giangiobbe, V; Gianotti, F; Gibbard, B; Gibson, A; Gibson, S M; Gilchriese, M; Gillam, T P S; Gillberg, D; Gillman, A R; Gingrich, D M; Ginzburg, J; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M P; Giordano, R; Giorgi, F M; Giovannini, P; Giraud, P F; Giugni, D; Giunta, M; Gjelsten, B K; Gladilin, L K; Glasman, C; Glatzer, J; Glazov, A; Glonti, G L; Goddard, J R; Godfrey, J; Godlewski, J; Goebel, M; Goeringer, C; Goldfarb, S; Golling, T; Golubkov, D; Gomes, A; Gomez Fajardo, L S; Gonçalo, R; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J; Gonella, L; González de la Hoz, S; Gonzalez Parra, G; Gonzalez Silva, M L; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; 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Schram, M; Schroeder, C; Schroer, N; Schultens, M J; Schultes, J; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schulz, H; Schumacher, M; Schumm, B A; Schune, Ph; Schwartzman, A; Schwegler, Ph; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R; Schwindling, J; Schwindt, T; Schwoerer, M; Sciacca, F G; Scifo, E; Sciolla, G; Scott, W G; Searcy, J; Sedov, G; Sedykh, E; Seidel, S C; Seiden, A; Seifert, F; Seixas, J M; Sekhniaidze, G; Sekula, S J; Selbach, K E; Seliverstov, D M; Sellden, B; Sellers, G; Seman, M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Serfon, C; Serin, L; Serkin, L; Serre, T; Seuster, R; Severini, H; Sfyrla, A; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shan, L Y; Shank, J T; Shao, Q T; Shapiro, M; Shatalov, P B; Shaw, K; Sherwood, P; Shimizu, S; Shimojima, M; Shin, T; Shiyakova, M; Shmeleva, A; Shochet, M J; Short, D; Shrestha, S; Shulga, E; Shupe, M A; Sicho, P; Sidoti, A; Siegert, F; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O; Silva, J; Silver, Y; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S B; Simak, V; Simard, O; Simic, Lj; Simion, S; Simioni, E; Simmons, B; Simoniello, R; Simonyan, M; Sinervo, P; Sinev, N B; Sipica, V; Siragusa, G; Sircar, A; Sisakyan, A N; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sjölin, J; Sjursen, T B; Skinnari, L A; Skottowe, H P; Skovpen, K; Skubic, P; Slater, M; Slavicek, T; Sliwa, K; Smakhtin, V; Smart, B H; Smestad, L; Smirnov, S Yu; Smirnov, Y; Smirnova, L N; Smirnova, O; Smith, B C; Smith, K M; Smizanska, M; Smolek, K; Snesarev, A A; Snidero, G; Snow, S W; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Sobie, R; Sodomka, J; Soffer, A; Soh, D A; Solans, C A; Solar, M; Solc, J; Soldatov, E Yu; Soldevila, U; Solfaroli Camillocci, E; Solodkov, A A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Soni, N; Sood, A; Sopko, V; Sopko, B; Sosebee, M; Soualah, R; Soueid, P; Soukharev, A; South, D; Spagnolo, S; Spanò, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiwoks, R; Spousta, M; Spreitzer, T; Spurlock, B; St Denis, R D; Stahlman, J; Stamen, R; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staszewski, R; Staude, A; Stavina, P; Steele, G; Steinbach, P; Steinberg, P; Stekl, I; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stern, S; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoerig, K; Stoicea, G; Stonjek, S; Strachota, P; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strang, M; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Strong, J A; Stroynowski, R; Stugu, B; Stumer, I; Stupak, J; Sturm, P; Styles, N A; Su, D; Subramania, Hs; Subramaniam, R; Succurro, A; Sugaya, Y; Suhr, C; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, Y; Svatos, M; Swedish, S; Swiatlowski, M; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Tackmann, K; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A; Tam, J Y C; Tamsett, M C; Tan, K G; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, S; Tanasijczuk, A J; Tani, K; Tannoury, N; Tapprogge, S; Tardif, D; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tassi, E; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, C; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, W; Teinturier, M; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thoma, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thong, W M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tic, T; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Y A; Timoshenko, S; Tiouchichine, E; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tonoyan, A; Topfel, C; Topilin, N D; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Tran, H L; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Triplett, N; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; True, P; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiakiris, M; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tua, A; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuggle, J M; Turala, M; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Tzanakos, G; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ughetto, M; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Urbaniec, D; Urquijo, P; Usai, G; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Vahsen, S; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Berg, R; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Poel, E; van der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinek, E; Vinogradov, V B; Virzi, J; Vitells, O; Viti, M; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; Volpini, G; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorwerk, V; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahlen, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walch, S; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Walsh, B; Wang, C; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, X; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watanabe, I; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, A T; Waugh, B M; Weber, M S; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Weydert, C; Whalen, K; White, A; White, M J; White, S; Whitehead, S R; Whiteson, D; Whittington, D; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilhelm, I; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, E; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, W; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, M G; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winkelmann, S; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wittig, T; Wittkowski, J; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wong, W C; Wooden, G; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wraight, K; Wright, M; Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xie, S; Xu, C; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yen, A L; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zevi Della Porta, G; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, L; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhou, Y; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhuravlov, V; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimin, N I; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Živković, L; Zmouchko, V V; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    A measurement of splitting scales, as defined by the k T clustering algorithm, is presented for final states containing a W boson produced in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The measurement is based on the full 2010 data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb -1 which was collected using the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Cluster splitting scales are measured in events containing W bosons decaying to electrons or muons. The measurement comprises the four hardest splitting scales in a k T cluster sequence of the hadronic activity accompanying the W boson, and ratios of these splitting scales. Backgrounds such as multi-jet and top-quark-pair production are subtracted and the results are corrected for detector effects. Predictions from various Monte Carlo event generators at particle level are compared to the data. Overall, reasonable agreement is found with all generators, but larger deviations between the predictions and the data are evident in the soft regions of the splitting scales.

  7. Economic impact of cultural events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saayman

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of events can hardly be described as a new one.  The aim of this paper is to determine the economic benefits of three major cultural events in South Africa to the host community.  Measuring the economic impact normally entails some estimation of the cash injection into a region by visitors and applying the relevant multiplier to arrive at a monetary estimate of the economic impact.  But few regions or municipal areas have detailed economic data to construct a type of input-output model and derive a multiplier.  The purpose of the methods used in this research were firstly to determine the estimated cash injection, secondly to estimate the size of leakages in the local economy and thirdly to derive an appropriate multiplier to estimate the economic impact of the event.

  8. Dinosaur bone beds and mass mortality: Implications for the K-T extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Mass accumulations of fossilized large terrestrial vertebrate skeletons (bone beds: BB) provide a test for K-T catastrophic extinction hypotheses. The two major factors contributing to BB formation are mode of death and sedimentation rate. Catastrophic mass mortality (CMM) is the sudden death of numerous individuals where species, age, health, gender, or social ranking offer no survivorship advantage. Noncatastrophic mass mortality (NCMM) occurs over time and is strongly influenced by species, age, or gender. In addition to cause of death, sedimentation rate is also important in BB formation. Models of BBs can be made. The CMM drops all individuals in their tracks, therefore, the BB should reflect the living population with respect to species, age, or gender. The NCMM results in monospecific BBs skewed in the direction of the less fit, usually the very young or very old, or towards a specific gender. The NCMM and AM BBs may become more similar the more spread out over time NCMM deaths occur because carcasses are widely scattered requiring hydraulic accumulation, and the greater time allows for more disarticulation and weathering. The CMM and NCMM BB appear to be dominated by social animals. Applying this and the characteristics of mortality patterns to the uppermost Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation indicates that only NCMM and AM BB occur. Furthermore, NCMM BB are rare in the upper third of the Hell Creek. Near the K-T boundary, only AM BB are known. The absence of CMM and NCMM BB appears to be real reflecting a decrease in population levels of some dinosaurs prior to the K-T event. The absence of CMM suggests that the K-T event did not lead to an instantaneous extinction of dinosaurs. Nor was there a protracted die-off due to an asteroid impact winter, because no NCMM BB are known at or near the K-T boundary.

  9. Explosive volcanism, shock metamorphism and the K-T boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desilva, S.L.; Sharpton, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of whether shocked quartz can be produced by explosive volcanic events is important in understanding the origin of the K-T boundary constituents. Proponents of a volcanic origin for the shocked quartz at the K-T boundary cite the suggestion of Rice, that peak overpressures of 1000 kbars can be generated during explosive volcanic eruptions, and may have occurred during the May, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Attention was previously drawn to the fact that peak overpressures during explosive eruptions are limited by the strength of the rock confining the magma chamber to less than 8 kbars even under ideal conditions. The proposed volcanic mechanisms for generating pressures sufficient to shock quartz are further examined. Theoretical arguments, field evidence and petrographic data are presented showing that explosive volcanic eruptions cannot generate shock metamorphic features of the kind seen in minerals at the K-T boundary

  10. Sequential combination of k-t principle component analysis (PCA) and partial parallel imaging: k-t PCA GROWL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haikun; Huang, Feng; Zhou, Hongmei; Chen, Huijun

    2017-03-01

    k-t principle component analysis (k-t PCA) is a distinguished method for high spatiotemporal resolution dynamic MRI. To further improve the accuracy of k-t PCA, a combination with partial parallel imaging (PPI), k-t PCA/SENSE, has been tested. However, k-t PCA/SENSE suffers from long reconstruction time and limited improvement. This study aims to improve the combination of k-t PCA and PPI on both reconstruction speed and accuracy. A sequential combination scheme called k-t PCA GROWL (GRAPPA operator for wider readout line) was proposed. The GRAPPA operator was performed before k-t PCA to extend each readout line into a wider band, which improved the condition of the encoding matrix in the following k-t PCA reconstruction. k-t PCA GROWL was tested and compared with k-t PCA and k-t PCA/SENSE on cardiac imaging. k-t PCA GROWL consistently resulted in better image quality compared with k-t PCA/SENSE at high acceleration factors for both retrospectively and prospectively undersampled cardiac imaging, with a much lower computation cost. The improvement in image quality became greater with the increase of acceleration factor. By sequentially combining the GRAPPA operator and k-t PCA, the proposed k-t PCA GROWL method outperformed k-t PCA/SENSE in both reconstruction speed and accuracy, suggesting that k-t PCA GROWL is a better combination scheme than k-t PCA/SENSE. Magn Reson Med 77:1058-1067, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. A g-factor metric for k-t SENSE and k-t PCA based parallel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binter, Christian; Ramb, Rebecca; Jung, Bernd; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2016-02-01

    To propose and validate a g-factor formalism for k-t SENSE, k-t PCA and related k-t methods for assessing SNR and temporal fidelity. An analytical gxf -factor formulation in the spatiotemporal frequency domain is derived, enabling assessment of noise and depiction fidelity in both the spatial and frequency domain. Using pseudoreplica analysis of cardiac cine data the gxf -factor description is validated and example data are used to analyze the performance of k-t methods for various parameter settings. Analytical gxf -factor maps were found to agree well with pseudoreplica analysis for 3x, 5x, and 7x k-t SENSE and k-t PCA. While k-t SENSE resulted in lower average gxf values (gx (avg) ) in static regions when compared with k-t PCA, k-t PCA yielded lower gx (avg) values in dynamic regions. Temporal transfer was better preserved with k-t PCA for increasing undersampling factors. The proposed gxf -factor and temporal transfer formalism allows assessing noise performance and temporal depiction fidelity of k-t methods including k-t SENSE and k-t PCA. The framework enables quantitative comparison of different k-t methods relative to frame-by-frame parallel imaging reconstruction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. k-t PCA: temporally constrained k-t BLAST reconstruction using principal component analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Kozerke, Sebastian; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    in applications exhibiting a broad range of temporal frequencies such as free-breathing myocardial perfusion imaging. We show that temporal basis functions calculated by subjecting the training data to principal component analysis (PCA) can be used to constrain the reconstruction such that the temporal resolution...... is improved. The presented method is called k-t PCA....

  13. Composition of 298 Baptistina: Implications for the K/T impactor link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V.; Emery, J. P.; Gaffey, M. J.; Bottke, W. F.; Cramer, A.; Kelley, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    Bottke et al. (2007) suggested that the breakup of the Baptistina asteroid family (BAF) 160+30 /-20 Myr ago produced an “asteroid shower” that increased by a factor of 2-3 the impact flux of kilometer-sized and larger asteroids striking the Earth over the last ~120 Myr. This result led them to propose that the impactor that produced the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) mass extinction event 65 Myr ago also may have come from the BAF. This putative link was based both on collisional/dynamical modeling work and on physical evidence. For the latter, the available broadband color and spectroscopic data on BAF members indicate many are likely to be dark, low albedo asteroids. This is consistent with the carbonaceous chondrite-like nature of a 65 Myr old fossil meteorite (Kyte 1998)and with chromium from K/T boundary sediments with an isotopic signature similar to that from CM2 carbonaceous chondrites. To test elements of this scenario, we obtained near-IR and thermal IR spectroscopic data of asteroid 298 Baptistina using the NASA IRTF in order to determine surface mineralogy and estimate its albedo. We found that the asteroid has moderately strong absorption features due to the presence of olivine and pyroxene, and a moderately high albedo (~20%). These combined properties strongly suggest that the asteroid is more like an S-type rather than Xc-type (Mothé-Diniz et al. 2005). This weakens the case for 298 Baptistina being a CM2 carbonaceous chondrite and its link to the K/T impactor. We also observed several bright (V Mag. ≤16.8) BAF members to determine their composition.

  14. Creating social impact with side-events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hover, Paul; Dijk, Bake; Breedveld, Koen; van Eekeren, Frank; Slender, Hans

    All over the world, sport events are seen as significant tools for creating positive social impact. This is understandable, as sport events have the power to attract enthusiastic participants, volunteers and to reach large audiences of visitors and followers via (social) media. Outbursts of

  15. Creating social impact with sport events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hover, P.; Dijk, B.; Breedveld, K.; Eekeren, F.J.A. van; Slender, H.

    2016-01-01

    All over the world, sport events are seen as significant tools for creating positive social impact. This is understandable, as sport events have the power to attract enthusiastic participants, volunteers and to reach large audiences of visitors and followers via (social) media. Outbursts of

  16. Studying the impact of academic events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Trøst; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2018-01-01

    of scholarly work, to increase collaboration with non-academic partners and to achieve a broad range of socio-economic benefits. Impact assessment frameworks are occupied with documenting the effects of science on a large number of variables. However, the participation and hosting of academic events have......Demands that publicly funded scientific research should demonstrate its academic and societal impact have been commonplace for some time. Research communities, university administrators and policy-makers are looking to impact assessments and impact toolkits to better communicate the value...... not been included in most frameworks. In this scoping review, we demonstrate that academic events are an important vehicle for academic and societal value-creation that should be integrated in future impact studies. The review presents the main trends in the literature by categorizing the impact...

  17. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the K/T boundary deposit in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.; Dhondt, S.; Espindola, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The K/T boundary sequence is exposed in uplifted carbonate sediments of the southwest peninsula of Haiti. It is found at 15 localities within the Beloc formation, a sequence of limestone and marls interpreted as a monoclinal nappe structure thrust to the north. This tectonic deformation has affected the K/T boundary deposit to varying degrees. In some cases the less competent K/T deposit has acted as a slip plane leading to extensive shearing of the boundary layer, as well as duplication of the section. The presence of glassy tektites, shocked quartz, and an Ir anomaly directly link the deposit to a bolide impact. Stratigraphic and sedimentological features of the tripartite sequence indicate that it was formed by deposition from ballistic fallout of coarse tektites, emplacement of particle gravity flows and fine grained fallout of widely dispersed impact ejecta.

  18. A numerical estimate of the small-kT region in the BFKL pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.

    1995-11-01

    A computer study is performed to estimate the influence of the small-k T region in the BFKL evolution equation. We consider the small-x region of the deep inelastic structure function F 2 and show that the magnitude of the small-k T region depends on Q 2 and x B . We suggest that the width of the log k T 2 -distribution in the final state may serve as an additional footprint of BFKL-dynamics. For diffractive dissociation it is shown that the contribution of the infrared region is large - event for large Q 2 . This contribution becomes smaller only if restrictions on the final state are imposed. (orig.)

  19. Silicon Carbide Found in K/T Boundary Layer: Implication for Asteroid Collision with Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, I. S.; Tsao, C.

    2016-12-01

    An event at the end of the Cretaceous Period 65.5 m.y. ago produced an impact structure 300 km in diameter designated the Chicxulub Crater, located partly on the Yucatan Peninsula and the Caribbian Sea floor. Mass extinction following that event killed 75% of Earth's living species, including dinosaurs. To this date, the killer space object has not been identified, but it was frequently conjectured to be a comet or an asteroid. The goal of our study was to search for evidence which might implicate the culprit. The Chicxulub impact caused extensive wildfires producing Ir-rich dust fallouts in worldwide localities, among which the least contaminated by land-derived sediments may be situated on deep ocean floors. Our study is based on a sample of pelagic clay from the giant piston core LL44-GPC3 taken from the Pacific Plate, north of the Hawaiian Islands (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution). The 1-cm thick Ir-rich layer was located at a downcore depth of 1055-1056 cm below sea floor. From a 5 cubic cm sample provided by Jim Broda, we found 29 impact glass spherules and 4 silicon carbide (SiC) crystals. SiC has been reported in carbonaceous meteorites. Our findings of SiC in the K/T boundary layer seem to implicate that an asteroid having composition akin to that of carbonaceous chondrites might have been the killer projectile during the Chicxulub event. However, impact by a comet cannot be ruled out, since the mineralogy of cometary dust is as yet unknown.

  20. Impacts of Floods Events on Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporali, E.; Pacetti, T.; Rulli, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    The analysis of the interactions among natural disasters and food security is particularly significant for developing countries where food availability (one of the four pillars of food security together with access, utilization and stability) can be highly jeopardize by extreme events that damage the primary access to food, i.e. the agriculture. The main objective of this study is to analyze the impact of flood events on food security for two disastrous flood events in Bangladesh on 2007 and in Pakistan on 2010, selected here as case studies based on the existing literature related to extreme floods.The adopted methodology integrates remote sensing data, agricultural statistics, and water footprint values in order to (i) evaluating the potentially affected agricultural areas; (ii) converting the affected areas into crop loss; (iii) estimating the associated calories and water footprint losses. In Bangladesh, the estimated lost rice is around 12.5% of the total potential production, which implies a 5.3% calories loss with respect to the total potential energy provided by rice and 4.4% of total WF associated to national food supply. In Pakistan, the results show a crops loss of 19% for sugarcane and 40% for rice, with a related calories loss of 8.5% and a WF loss of 13.5%.The results highlight the countries vulnerability to flood, being both countries strongly dependent on local agricultural production. The 2007 flood event reflected critically upon Bangladeshi food security, almost doubling the existing food deficit. The same happened in Pakistan where an already scarce food supply has been worsened by the 2010 flood.Method results are fully repeatable; whereas, for remote sensed data the sources of data are valid worldwide and the data regarding land use and crops characteristics are strongly site specific, which need to be carefully evaluated.These case studies stress the importance of integrating different analysis approaches to carry out an assessment of the

  1. The environmental impacts of beach sport tourism events: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durban has several established beach sport events. One of the many events is the Mr Price Pro, an internationally recognised surfi ng event, which takes place during the Vodacom Beach Africa festival, held annually during the July holiday season. This article examines the environmental impact of beach tourism events by ...

  2. Palaeoenvironment and Shark Evolution across the K/T-boundary on Southern Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolfssen, Jan Schulz

    The chondrichthyan faunal evolution across the Cretaceous/Tertiary-boundary, have been analysed from collected fossil shark teeth from Stevns Klint, Faxe Kalkbrud and a few other localities in Denmark. The teeth have been collected from the upper Maastrichtian Chalk, the K/T-boundary clay Fiskeler...... isotopes extracted from the shark teeth have revealed that the sea surface temperature fell slightly prior to the boundary and may have declined almost four degrees centigrade across the K/T-boundary. Subsequently the temperature rose during the deposition the upper layer of Fiskeler and the Cerithium...... Limestone. The striking fall in shark diversity prior to the boundary cannot be explained by a bolide impact and must have another explanation. This could have been caused by a sudden change in bathymetry. The calculated temperature range between sea surface and bottom water temperatures could suggest so...

  3. Late Eocene impact events recorded in deep-sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B. P.

    1988-01-01

    Raup and Sepkoski proposed that mass extinctions have occurred every 26 Myr during the last 250 Myr. In order to explain this 26 Myr periodicity, it was proposed that the mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in cometary impacts. One method to test this hypothesis is to determine if there were periodic increases in impact events (based on crater ages) that correlate with mass extinctions. A way to test the hypothesis that mass extinctions were caused by periodic increases in impact cratering is to look for evidence of impact events in deep-sea deposits. This method allows direct observation of the temporal relationship between impact events and extinctions as recorded in the sedimentary record. There is evidence in the deep-sea record for two (possibly three) impact events in the late Eocene. The younger event, represented by the North American microtektite layer, is not associated with an Ir anomaly. The older event, defined by the cpx spherule layer, is associated with an Ir anomaly. However, neither of the two impact events recorded in late Eocene deposits appears to be associated with an unusual number of extinctions. Thus there is little evidence in the deep-sea record for an impact-related mass extinction in the late Eocene.

  4. Acceleration of tissue phase mapping by k-t BLAST: a detailed analysis of the influence of k-t-BLAST for the quantification of myocardial motion at 3T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienhaus G Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of myocardial motion with tissue phase mapping (TPM provides high spatiotemporal resolution and quantitative motion information in three directions. Today, whole volume coverage of the heart by TPM encoding at high spatial and temporal resolution is limited by long data acquisition times. Therefore, a significant increase in imaging speed without deterioration of the quantitative motion information is required. For this purpose, the k-t BLAST acceleration technique was combined with TPM black-blood functional imaging of the heart. Different k-t factors were evaluated with respect to their impact on the quantitative assessment of cardiac motion. Results It is demonstrated that a k-t BLAST factor of two can be used with a marginal, but statistically significant deterioration of the quantitative motion data. Further increasing the k-t acceleration causes substantial alteration of the peak velocities and the motion pattern, but the temporal behavior of the contraction is well maintained up to an acceleration factor of six. Conclusions The application of k-t BLAST for the acceleration of TPM appears feasible. A reduction of the acquisition time of almost 45% could be achieved without substantial loss of quantitative motion information.

  5. Improved k-t PCA Algorithm Using Artificial Sparsity in Dynamic MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiran; Chen, Zhifeng; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Lixia; Xia, Ling; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The k - t principal component analysis ( k - t PCA) is an effective approach for high spatiotemporal resolution dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. However, it suffers from larger residual aliasing artifacts and noise amplification when the reduction factor goes higher. To further enhance the performance of this technique, we propose a new method called sparse k - t PCA that combines the k - t PCA algorithm with an artificial sparsity constraint. It is a self-calibrated procedure that is based on the traditional k - t PCA method by further eliminating the reconstruction error derived from complex subtraction of the sampled k - t space from the original reconstructed k - t space. The proposed method is tested through both simulations and in vivo datasets with different reduction factors. Compared to the standard k - t PCA algorithm, the sparse k - t PCA can improve the normalized root-mean-square error performance and the accuracy of temporal resolution. It is thus useful for rapid dynamic MR imaging.

  6. Measurement of $k_T$ splitting scales in $W \\to l\

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; 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Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Matthew; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fowler, Andrew; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Göpfert, Thomas; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jared, Richard; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Keener, Paul; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koenig, Sebastian; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Losty, Michael; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madar, Romain; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Mayuko; Maeno, Tadashi; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Donald, Jeffrey; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meehan, Samuel; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molfetas, Angelos; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Möser, Nicolas; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Müller, Thomas; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newcomer, Mitchel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raas, Marcel; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaelicke, Andreas; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Christopher; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherwood, Peter; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tamsett, Matthew; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Berg, Richard; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Michele; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yen, Andy L; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-05-15

    A measurement of splitting scales, as defined by the $k_T$ clustering algorithm, is presented for final states containing a W boson produced in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The measurement is based on the full 2010 data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb$^{-1}$ which was collected using the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Cluster splitting scales are measured in events containing W bosons decaying to electrons or muons. The measurement comprises the four hardest splitting scales in a $k_T$ cluster sequence of the hadronic activity accompanying the W boson, and ratios of these splitting scales. Backgrounds such as multi-jet and top-quark-pair production are subtracted and the results are corrected for detector effects. Predictions from various Monte Carlo event generators at particle level are compared to the data. Overall, reasonable agreement is found with all generators, but larger deviations between the predictions and the data are ...

  7. Impact of sport events on local communities : dimensions and measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slender, Hans; Straatmeijer, Jerzy; Hover, Paul; Cevaal, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Abstract for the European Association of Sociology for Sport conference in Dublin on the development over time of social impact evaluations in the Netherlands. In total 33 sport events were included that were held between 1980-2015 in the Netherlands. The events were selected to vary in fixed vs.

  8. Sport events and their socio-economic impact: residents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport events have become big business as countries as well as cities are competing fi ercely to host major events. The purpose of this article is to determine the economic impact of visitor spending during the annual Cape Argus Pick 'n Pay Cycle Tour. Direct spending was determined based on a survey consisting of 583 ...

  9. Geochemistry of K/T-boundary Chicxulub ejecta of NE-Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, M.; Deutsch, A.; Rickers, K.

    2003-12-01

    Many K/T sections all over the world contain impact spherules supposed related to the Chicxulub event. This study focus on ejecta layers in NE-Mexican profiles. We carried out systematic XRF and synchrotron radiation measurements on such spherules at the HASYLAB and ANKA facilities as well as microprobe analyses (CAMECA SX50). Area scans on tektite-like material of the Bochil section reveal a pronounced zonation in the inner part, dominated by Ba and Sr whereas secondary CaCO3 dominates in the altered margin. The composition of the spherules from the Mesa-Juan Perez section differ significantly from the Beloc (Haiti) and Bochil tektite glasses. At Mesa-Juan Perez, spherules are either extremely rich in Fe and Ca or consist of smectite, some of those carry carbonate inclusions. Yttrium, La and Ce are zoned within the smectite with concentrations below the detection limit and up to 20 æg/g The Ca-rich inclusions are enriched in Y (up to 35 æg/g) and La (18 æg/g) and, compared to the surrounding smectite, also in Ce (up to 34 æg/g). The Ce enrichment in spherules from the Mesa-Juan Perez section indicates impact-melted carbonates of the Yucatan carbonate platform as possible precursor rocks. Recent investigations focus on the chemistry of melt rock samples from the PEMEX wells Yucatan-6 and Chicxulub-1: Their average composition (mean of 250 data points in wt-percent ) is 61.6 for SiO2, 0.16 for TiO2, 18.07 for Al2O3, 0.01 for Cr2O3, 1.98 for Na2O, 1.5 for FeO, 0.05 for MnO, 0.01 for NiO, 0.31 for MgO, 9.14 for K2O, 3.44 for CaO, and 0.01 for SO2. These results are in some cases comparable to the geochemistry of ejecta glasses, e.g. from Beloc (Haiti).

  10. Economics of extreme weather events: Terminology and regional impact models

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Malte

    2015-01-01

    Impacts of extreme weather events are relevant for regional (in the sense of subnational) economies and in particular cities in many aspects. Cities are the cores of economic activity and the amount of people and assets endangered by extreme weather events is large, even under the current climate. A changing climate with changing extreme weather patterns and the process of urbanization will make the whole issue even more relevant in the future. In this paper, definitions and terminology in th...

  11. Economic impact profiling of CBRN events: focusing on biological incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Simona; Bisogni, Fabio; Mastroianni, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) incidents, both caused accidentally by human error or natural/technological events and determined intentionally as criminal/malicious/terroristic acts, have consequences that could be differently characterized. In the last years many efforts to analyze the economic impact of terrorist threat have been carried out, while researches specifically concerning CBRN events have not been extensively undertaken. This paper in particular aims at proposing a methodological approach for studying macro-level economic impact profiles of biological incidents caused by weaponized and non-weaponized materials. The suggested approach investigates the economic consequences of biological incidents according to two main dimensions: type of large-scale effect and persistence of effect. Biological incident economic impacts are analyzed taking into account the persistence of effect during time as short-term impact (i.e. immediately after the incident), medium-term impact (i.e. by a month) and long-term impact (i.e. by years). The costs due to preventive countermeasure against biological threats (e.g. prevention, protection and preparedness expenses) are not taken into account. To this purpose, information on the key features of past biological incidents can be used as case studies to try to build impact profiles taking into account the proposed two main dimensions. Consequence management and effect mitigation of CBRN emergencies and disasters may benefit from an ex ante definition of the impact profiling related to this kind of incidents. The final goal of this paper is to define an approach to organize information on possible biological events according to their impact profile for supporting more effective and efficient first responders' prompt actions and policy makers' strategic decisions after the event occurrence.

  12. Evaluation of climate change impact on extreme hydrological event ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Changes in hydrological extremes will have implications on the design of future hydraulic structures, flood plain development, and water resource management. This study assesses the potential impact of climate change on extreme hydrological events in the Akaki River catchment area in and around Addis Ababa city.

  13. Impact of secondary cardiovascular events on health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stel, Henk F.; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam; Buskens, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Estimates regarding the impact of secondary cardiovascular events on health status in patients treated for cardiovascular disease are scarce and of limited accuracy. Methods: We obtained individual patient data on health status (EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire) and secondary

  14. Chart links solar, geophysical events with impacts on space technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, George R.

    While developing a Space Weather Training Program for Air Force Space Command and the 50th Weather Squadron, both based in Colorado, ARINC Incorporated produced a flowchart that correlates solar and geophysical events with their impacts on Air Force systems.Personnel from both organizations collaborated in the development of the flowchart and provided many comments and suggestions. The model became the centerpiece of the Space Environment Impacts Reference Pamphlet, as well as the formal Space Weather Training Program. Although it is not a numerical or computer model, the flowchart became known as the “Space Environmental Impacts Model.”

  15. NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE 2009 IMPACT EVENT ON JUPITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, Jarrad W. T.; Palotai, Csaba; Gabriel, Travis; Harrington, Joseph; Rebeli, Noemi [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Korycansky, Donald G., E-mail: jarradpond@gmail.com [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We have investigated the 2009 July impact event on Jupiter using the ZEUS-MP 2 three-dimensional hydrodynamics code. We studied the impact itself and the following plume development. Eight impactors were considered: 0.5 km and 1 km porous ({rho} = 1.760 g cm{sup -3}) and non-porous ({rho} = 2.700 g cm{sup -3}) basalt impactors, and 0.5 km and 1 km porous ({rho} = 0.600 g cm{sup -3}) and non-porous ({rho} = 0.917 g cm{sup -3}) ice impactors. The simulations consisted of these bolides colliding with Jupiter at an incident angle of {theta} = 69 Degree-Sign from the vertical and with an impact velocity of v = 61.4 km s{sup -1}. Our simulations show the development of relatively larger, faster plumes created after impacts involving 1 km diameter bodies. Comparing simulations of the 2009 event with simulations of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) events reveals a difference in plume development, with the higher incident angle of the 2009 impact leading to a shallower terminal depth and a smaller and slower plume. We also studied the amount of dynamical chaos present in the simulations conducted at the 2009 incident angle. Compared to the chaos of the SL9 simulations, where {theta} Almost-Equal-To 45 Degree-Sign , we find no significant difference in chaos at the higher 2009 incident angle.

  16. Validation of an "Intelligent Mouthguard" Single Event Head Impact Dosimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Adam; Samorezov, Sergey; Benzel, Edward; Miele, Vincent; Brett, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Dating to Colonel John Paul Stapp MD in 1975, scientists have desired to measure live human head impacts with accuracy and precision. But no instrument exists to accurately and precisely quantify single head impact events. Our goal is to develop a practical single event head impact dosimeter known as "Intelligent Mouthguard" and quantify its performance on the benchtop, in vitro and in vivo. In the Intelligent Mouthguard hardware, limited gyroscope bandwidth requires an algorithm-based correction as a function of impact duration. After we apply gyroscope correction algorithm, Intelligent Mouthguard results at time of CG linear acceleration peak correlate to the Reference Hybrid III within our tested range of pulse durations and impact acceleration profiles in American football and Boxing in vitro tests: American football, IMG=1.00REF-1.1g, R2=0.99; maximum time of peak XYZ component imprecision 3.6g and 370 rad/s2; maximum time of peak azimuth and elevation imprecision 4.8° and 2.9°; maximum average XYZ component temporal imprecision 3.3g and 390 rad/s2. Boxing, IMG=1.00REF-0.9 g, R2=0.99, R2=0.98; maximum time of peak XYZ component imprecision 3.9 g and 390 rad/s2, maximum time of peak azimuth and elevation imprecision 2.9° and 2.1°; average XYZ component temporal imprecision 4.0 g and 440 rad/s2. In vivo Intelligent Mouthguard true positive head impacts from American football players and amateur boxers have temporal characteristics (first harmonic frequency from 35 Hz to 79 Hz) within our tested benchtop (first harmonic frequencyIntelligent Mouthguard qualifies as a single event dosimeter in American football and Boxing.

  17. Radial k-t SPIRiT: autocalibrated parallel imaging for generalized phase-contrast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santelli, Claudio; Schaeffter, Tobias; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    To extend SPIRiT to additionally exploit temporal correlations for highly accelerated generalized phase-contrast MRI and to compare the performance of the proposed radial k-t SPIRiT method relative to frame-by-frame SPIRiT and radial k-t GRAPPA reconstruction for velocity and turbulence mapping in the aortic arch. Free-breathing navigator-gated two-dimensional radial cine imaging with three-directional multi-point velocity encoding was implemented and fully sampled data were obtained in the aortic arch of healthy volunteers. Velocities were encoded with three different first gradient moments per axis to permit quantification of mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy. Velocity and turbulent kinetic energy maps from up to 14-fold undersampled data were compared for k-t SPIRiT, frame-by-frame SPIRiT, and k-t GRAPPA relative to the fully sampled reference. Using k-t SPIRiT, improvements in magnitude and velocity reconstruction accuracy were found. Temporally resolved magnitude profiles revealed a reduction in spatial blurring with k-t SPIRiT compared with frame-by-frame SPIRiT and k-t GRAPPA for all velocity encodings, leading to improved estimates of turbulent kinetic energy. k-t SPIRiT offers improved reconstruction accuracy at high radial undersampling factors and hence facilitates the use of generalized phase-contrast MRI for routine use. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Measuring the impact of major life events upon happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballas, Dimitris; Dorling, Danny

    2007-12-01

    In recent years there have been numerous attempts to define and measure happiness in various contexts and pertaining to a wide range of disciplines, ranging from neuroscience and psychology to philosophy, economics and social policy. This article builds on recent work by economists who attempt to estimate happiness regressions using large random samples of individuals in order to calculate monetary 'compensating amounts' for different life 'events'. We estimate happiness regressions using the 'major life event' and 'happiness' data from the British Household Panel Survey. The data and methods used in this article suggest that in contrast to living states such as 'being married', it is more events such as 'starting a new relationship' that have the highest positive effect on happiness. This is closely followed by 'employment-related gains' (in contrast to employment status). Also, women who become pregnant on average report higher than average levels of subjective happiness (in contrast to 'being a parent'). Other events that appear to be associated with happiness according to our analysis include 'personal education-related events' (e.g. starting a new course, graduating from University, passing exams) and 'finance/house related events' (e.g. buying a new house). On the other hand, the event that has the highest negative impact upon happiness according to our analysis is 'the end of my relationship' closely followed by 'death of a parent'. Adverse health events pertaining to the parents of the respondents also have a high negative coefficient and so does an employment-related loss. The analysis presented in this article suggests that what matters the most in people's lives in Britain is to have good dynamic interpersonal relationships and to be respected at work with that respect being constantly renewed. These 'goods' are as much reflected through dynamic events as static situations. Relationships at work appear to be of a similar order of importance to those at

  19. Impacts of Extreme Events on Human Health. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jesse E.; Herring, Stephanie C.; Jantarasami, Lesley; Adrianopoli, Carl; Benedict, Kaitlin; Conlon, Kathryn; Escobar, Vanessa; Hess, Jeremy; Luvall, Jeffrey; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; hide

    2016-01-01

    Increased Exposure to Extreme Events Key Finding 1: Health impacts associated with climate-related changes in exposure to extreme events include death, injury, or illness; exacerbation of underlying medical conditions; and adverse effects on mental health[High Confidence]. Climate change will increase exposure risk in some regions of the United States due to projected increases in the frequency and/or intensity of drought, wildfires, and flooding related to extreme precipitation and hurricanes [Medium Confidence].Disruption of Essential Infrastructure Key Finding 2: Many types of extreme events related to climate change cause disruption of infrastructure, including power, water, transportation, and communication systems, that are essential to maintaining access to health care and emergency response services and safeguarding human health [High Confidence].Vulnerability to Coastal Flooding Key Finding 3: Coastal populations with greater vulnerability to health impacts from coastal flooding include persons with disabilities or other access and functional needs, certain populations of color, older adults, pregnant women and children, low-income populations, and some occupational groups [High Confidence].Climate change will increase exposure risk to coastal flooding due to increases in extreme precipitation and in hurricane intensity and rainfall rates, as well as sea level rise and the resulting increases in storm surge.

  20. Estimating the impact of extreme events on crude oil price. An EMD-based event analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xun; Wang, Shouyang; Yu, Lean; Lai, Kin Keung

    2009-01-01

    The impact of extreme events on crude oil markets is of great importance in crude oil price analysis due to the fact that those events generally exert strong impact on crude oil markets. For better estimation of the impact of events on crude oil price volatility, this study attempts to use an EMD-based event analysis approach for this task. In the proposed method, the time series to be analyzed is first decomposed into several intrinsic modes with different time scales from fine-to-coarse and an average trend. The decomposed modes respectively capture the fluctuations caused by the extreme event or other factors during the analyzed period. It is found that the total impact of an extreme event is included in only one or several dominant modes, but the secondary modes provide valuable information on subsequent factors. For overlapping events with influences lasting for different periods, their impacts are separated and located in different modes. For illustration and verification purposes, two extreme events, the Persian Gulf War in 1991 and the Iraq War in 2003, are analyzed step by step. The empirical results reveal that the EMD-based event analysis method provides a feasible solution to estimating the impact of extreme events on crude oil prices variation. (author)

  1. Estimating the impact of extreme events on crude oil price. An EMD-based event analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xun; Wang, Shouyang [Institute of Systems Science, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Mathematical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yu, Lean [Institute of Systems Science, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lai, Kin Keung [Department of Management Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (China)

    2009-09-15

    The impact of extreme events on crude oil markets is of great importance in crude oil price analysis due to the fact that those events generally exert strong impact on crude oil markets. For better estimation of the impact of events on crude oil price volatility, this study attempts to use an EMD-based event analysis approach for this task. In the proposed method, the time series to be analyzed is first decomposed into several intrinsic modes with different time scales from fine-to-coarse and an average trend. The decomposed modes respectively capture the fluctuations caused by the extreme event or other factors during the analyzed period. It is found that the total impact of an extreme event is included in only one or several dominant modes, but the secondary modes provide valuable information on subsequent factors. For overlapping events with influences lasting for different periods, their impacts are separated and located in different modes. For illustration and verification purposes, two extreme events, the Persian Gulf War in 1991 and the Iraq War in 2003, are analyzed step by step. The empirical results reveal that the EMD-based event analysis method provides a feasible solution to estimating the impact of extreme events on crude oil prices variation. (author)

  2. Provenance of the K/T boundary layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, A.R.; Boynton, W.V.

    1988-01-01

    An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively

  3. Identifying events that impact self-efficacy in physics learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vashti Sawtelle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a method of analyzing the development of self-efficacy in real time using a framework of self-efficacy opportunities (SEOs. Considerable research has shown a connection between self-efficacy, or the confidence in one’s own ability to perform a task, and success in science fields. Traditional methods of investigating the development of self-efficacy have required participants to recollect past events. This reliance on participant memory makes it difficult to understand what impact particular events may have on developing self-efficacy in the moment. We use video recordings of three undergraduate Modeling Instruction students solving a physics problem to characterize SEOs in a moment-by-moment analysis. We then validate these characterizations of the development of self-efficacy by reviewing the problem-solving session with the participants and find evidence that the SEOs identified are taken up and impact self-efficacy. This characterization and validation of SEOs in the moment represents a first step towards establishing a methodology for analyzing the development of self-efficacy in real time.

  4. A Numerical Investigation into Low-Speed Impact Cratering Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen; Richardson, D. C.; Michel, P.

    2012-10-01

    Impact craters are the geological features most commonly observed on the surface of solid Solar System bodies. Crater shapes and features are crucial sources of information regarding past and present surface environments, and can provide indirect information about the internal structures of these bodies. In this study, we consider the effects of low-speed impacts into granular material. Studies of low-speed impact events are suitable for understanding the cratering process leading, for instance, to secondary craters. In addition, upcoming asteroid sample return missions will employ surface sampling strategies that use impacts into the surface by a projectile. An understanding of the process can lead to better sampling strategies. We use our implementation of the Soft-Sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) (Schwartz et al. 2012, Granular Matter 14, 363-380) into the parallel N-body code PKDGRAV (cf. Richardson et al. 2011, Icarus 212, 427-437) to model the impact cratering process into granular material. We consider the effects of boundary conditions on the ejecta velocity profile and discuss how results relate to the Maxwell Z-Model during the crater growth phase. Cratering simulations are compared to those of Wada et al. 2006 (Icarus 180, 528-545) and to impact experiments performed in conjunction with Hayabusa 2. This work is supported in part by grants from the National Science Foundation under grant number AST1009579 and from the Office of Space Science of NASA under grant number NNX08AM39G. Part of this study resulted from discussions with the International Team (#202) sponsored by ISSI in Bern (Switzerland). Some simulations were performed on the YORP cluster administered by the Center for Theory and Computation of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Maryland in College Park and on the SIGGAM computer cluster hosted by the Côte d'Azur Observatory in Nice (France).

  5. Impacts of extreme weather events on transport infrastructure in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenfelder, Regula; Solheim, Anders; Isaksen, Ketil; Romstad, Bård; Dyrrdal, Anita V.; Ekseth, Kristine H. H.; Gangstø Skaland, Reidun; Harbitz, Alf; Harbitz, Carl B.; Haugen, Jan E.; Hygen, Hans O.; Haakenstad, Hilde; Jaedicke, Christian; Jónsson, Árni; Klæboe, Ronny; Ludvigsen, Johanna; Meyer, Nele K.; Rauken, Trude; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Kjetil

    2016-04-01

    With the latest results on expected future increase in air temperature and precipitation changes reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the climate robustness of important infrastructure is of raising concern in Norway, as well as in the rest of Europe. Economic consequences of natural disasters have increased considerably since 1950. In addition to the effect of demographic changes such as population growth, urbanization and more and more concentration of valuable assets, this increase is also related to an augmenting frequency of extreme events, such as storms, flooding, drought, and landslides. This change is also observable in Norway, where the increased frequency of strong precipitation has led to frequent flooding and landslide events during the last 20 years. A number of studies show that climate change causes an increase in both frequency and intensity of several types of extreme weather, especially when it comes to precipitation. Such extreme weather events greatly affect the transport infrastructure, with numerous and long closures of roads and railroads, in addition to damage and repair costs. Frequent closures of railroad and roads lead to delay or failure in delivery of goods, which again may lead to a loss of customers and/or - eventually - markets. Much of the Norwegian transport infrastructure is more than 50 years old and therefore not adequately dimensioned, even for present climatic conditions. In order to assess these problems and challenges posed to the Norwegian transport infrastructure from present-day and future extreme weather events, the project "Impacts of extreme weather events on infrastructure in Norway (InfraRisk)" was performed under the research Council of Norway program 'NORKLIMA', between 2009 and 2013. The main results of the project are: - Moderate to strong precipitation events have become more frequent and more intense in Norway over the last 50 years, and this trend continues throughout the 21st

  6. Impact of solar proton events on noctilucent clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahpoe, Nabiz; Savigny, Christian von; Robert, Charles E.; Burrows, John P. [IEP, University of Bremen (Germany); DeLand, M. [Science Systems and Applications, Inc. (SSAI), Maryland (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The impact of SPEs (solar proton events) on NLCs (noctilucent clouds) is studied using the 23-year NLC data set based on measurements with SBUV instruments on NIMBUS 7 and the NOAA 9-17 satellites. We analyzed the GOES proton flux and NLC time series in order to find significant anti-correlations between proton fluxes and NLC occurrence rates and albedo. We focused on the analysis of the years when SPEs occurred during the core NLC season. For several cases anti-correlations of NLC and proton fluxes were found. For an increase of the proton flux of several orders of magnitude (with proton energies E>5 MeV) during the NLC season we find a NLC reduction in NLC occurence rate or albedo of up to 50 % (relative to maximum).

  7. Expected impacts of climate change on extreme climate events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planton, S.; Deque, M.; Chauvin, F.; Terray, L.

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the expected change of climate extremes during this century due to greenhouse gases and aerosol anthropogenic emissions is presented. The most commonly used methodologies rely on the dynamical or statistical down-scaling of climate projections, performed with coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. Either of dynamical or of statistical type, down-scaling methods present strengths and weaknesses, but neither their validation on present climate conditions, nor their potential ability to project the impact of climate change on extreme event statistics allows one to give a specific advantage to one of the two types. The results synthesized in the last IPCC report and more recent studies underline a convergence for a very likely increase in heat wave episodes over land surfaces, linked to the mean warming and the increase in temperature variability. In addition, the number of days of frost should decrease and the growing season length should increase. The projected increase in heavy precipitation events appears also as very likely over most areas and also seems linked to a change in the shape of the precipitation intensity distribution. The global trends for drought duration are less consistent between models and down-scaling methodologies, due to their regional variability. The change of wind-related extremes is also regionally dependent, and associated to a poleward displacement of the mid-latitude storm tracks. The specific study of extreme events over France reveals the high sensitivity of some statistics of climate extremes at the decadal time scale as a consequence of regional climate internal variability. (authors)

  8. Inclusive-jet cross sections in NC DIS at HERA and a comparison of the kT, anti-kT and SIScone jet algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.

    2010-03-01

    For the first time, differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering using the anti-k T and SIScone algorithms. The measurements were made for boson virtualities Q 2 > 125 GeV 2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 82 pb -1 and the jets were identified in the Breit frame. The performance and suitability of the jet algorithms for their use in hadron-like reactions were investigated by comparing the measurements to those performed with the k T algorithm. Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements. Measurements of the ratios of cross sections using different jet algorithms are also presented; the measured ratios are well described by calculations including up to O(α s 3 ) terms. Values of α s (M Z ) were extracted from the data; the results are compatible with and have similar precision to the value extracted from the k T analysis. (orig.)

  9. Economic impact and market analysis of a special event: The Great New England Air Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic; Atul Sheel; Apurv Mather; Deepak Ninan

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a post-event evaluation for the Great New England Air Show to assess its general economic impact and to refine economic estimates where possible. In addition to the standard economic impact variables, we examined travel distance, purchase decision involvement, event satisfaction, and frequency of attendance. Graphic mapping of event visitors' home ZIP...

  10. Environmental impact assessment of abnormal events: a follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Lee, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Impact analyses included in environmental assessments for a selected nuclear power plant, petroleum storage facility, crude oil pipeline, and geopressure well that have experienced operational, abnormal events are compared with the data quantifying the environmental impacts of the events. Comparisons of predicted vs actual impacts suggests that prediction of the types of events and associated impacts could be improved; in some instances, impacts have been underestimated. Analysis of abnormal events is especially important in environmental assessment documents addressing a technology that is novel or unique to a particular area. Incorporation of abnormal event impact analysis into project environmental monitoring and emergency response plans can help improve these plans and can help reduce the magnitude of environmental impacts resulting from said events

  11. Impact of Selection Bias on Estimation of Subsequent Event Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Yi Juan; Schmidt, Amand F.; Dudbridge, Frank; Holmes, Michael V; Brophy, James M.; Tragante, Vinicius; Li, Ziyi; Liao, Peizhou; Quyyumi, Arshed A.; McCubrey, Raymond O.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Hingorani, Aroon D; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Patel, Riyaz S.; Long, Qi; Åkerblom, Axel; Algra, Ale; Allayee, Hooman; Almgren, Peter; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Andreassi, Maria G.; Anselmi, Chiara V.; Ardissino, Diego; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Baranova, Ekaterina V.; Behloui, Hassan; Bergmeijer, Thomas O; Bezzina, Connie R; Bjornsson, Eythor; Body, Simon C.; Boeckx, Bram; Boersma, Eric H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bogaty, Peter; Braund, Peter S; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Briguori, Carlo; Brugts, Jasper J.; Burkhardt, Ralph; Cameron, Vicky A.; Carlquist, John F.; Carpeggiani, Clara; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Casu, Gavino; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Cresci, Sharon; Danchin, Nicolas; de Faire, Ulf; Deanfield, John; Delgado, Graciela; Deloukas, Panos; Direk, Kenan; Doughty, Robert N.; Drexel, Heinz; Duarte, Nubia E.; Dubé, Marie Pierre; Dufresne, Line; Engert, James C; Eriksson, Niclas; Fitzpatrick, Natalie; Foco, Luisa; Ford, Ian; Fox, Keith A; Gigante, Bruna; Gijsberts, Crystel M.; Girelli, Domenico; Gong, Yan; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Hagström, Emil; Hartiala, Jaana; Hazen, Stanley L.; Held, Claes; Helgadottir, Anna; Hemingway, Harry; Heydarpour, Mahyar; Hoefer, Imo E.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; James, Stefan; Johnson, Julie A; Jukema, J Wouter; Kaczor, Marcin P.; Kaminski, Karol A.; Kettner, Jiri; Kiliszek, Marek; Kleber, Marcus; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kofink, Daniel; Kohonen, Mika; Kotti, Salma; Kuukasjärvi, Pekka; Lagerqvist, Bo; Lambrechts, Diether; Lang, Chim C; Laurikka, Jari O.; Leander, Karin; Lee, Vei Vei; Lehtimäki, Terho; Leiherer, Andreas; Lenzini, Petra A.; Levin, Daniel; Lindholm, Daniel; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Mahmoodi, B. Khan; Maitland-Van Der Zee, Anke H.; Martinelli, Nicola; März, Winfried; Marziliano, Nicola; McPherson, Ruth; Melander, Olle; Mons, Ute; Muehlschlegel, Jochen D.; Muhlestein, Joseph B.; Nelson, Cristopher P.; Cheh, Chris Newton; Olivieri, Oliviero; Opolski, Grzegorz; Palmer, Colin Na; Pare, Guillaume; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Pepine, Carl J; Pepinski, Witold; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Pilbrow, Anna P.; Pilote, Louise; Pitha, Jan; Ploski, Rafal; Richards, A. Mark; Saely, Christoph H.; Samani, Nilesh J; Samman-Tahhan, Ayman; Sanak, Marek; Sandesara, Pratik B.; Sattar, Naveed; Scholz, Markus; Siegbahn, Agneta; Simon, Tabassome; Sinisalo, Juha; Smith, J. Gustav; Spertus, John A.; Stefansson, Kari; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Stott, David J.; Szczeklik, Wojciech; Szpakowicz, Anna; Tanck, Michael W.T.; Tang, Wilson H.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Ten Berg, Jur M.; Teren, Andrej; Thanassoulis, George; Thiery, Joachim; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Timmis, Adam; Trompet, Stella; Van de Werf, Frans; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Van Der Haarst, Pim; van der Laan, Sander W; Vilmundarson, Ragnar O.; Virani, Salim S.; Visseren, Frank L J; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Wallentin, Lars; Waltenberger, Johannes; Wauters, Els; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2017-01-01

    Background - Studies of recurrent or subsequent disease events may be susceptible to bias caused by selection of subjects who both experience and survive the primary indexing event. Currently, the magnitude of any selection bias, particularly for subsequent time-to-event analysis in genetic

  12. Measurements of jet rates with the anti-$k_T$ and SiScone algorithms at LEP with the OPAL detector

    CERN Document Server

    Verbytskyi, A

    2016-01-01

    We study jet production in $e^+e^−$ annihilation to hadrons with data recorded by the OPAL experiment at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 90 GeV and 207 GeV. The jet $e^+e^−$ production rates were measured for the first time with the anti-$k_T$ and SiScone jet clustering algorithms. We compare the data with predictions by modern Monte Carlo event generators.

  13. Impact of external events on site evaluation: a probabilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaccarino, E.; Giuliani, P.; Zaffiro, C.

    1975-01-01

    A probabilistic method is proposed for definition of the reference external events of nuclear sites. The external events taken into account are earthquakes, floods and tornadoes. On the basis of the available historical data for each event it is possible to perform statistical analyses to determine the probability of occurrence on site of events of given characteristics. For earthquakes, the method of analysis takes into consideration both the annual frequency of seismic events in Italy and the probabilistic distribution of areas stricken by each event. For floods, the methods of analysis of hydrological data and the basic criteria for the determination of design events are discussed and the general lines of the hydraulic analysis of a nuclear site are shown. For tornadoes, the statistical analysis has been performed for the events which occurred in Italy during the last 40 years; these events have been classified according to an empirical intensity scale. The probability of each reference event should be a function of the potential radiological damage associated with the particular type of plant which must be installed on the site. Thus the reference event could be chosen such that for the whole of the national territory the risk for safety and environmental protection is the same. (author)

  14. Climate change impacts on extreme events in the United States: an uncertainty analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extreme weather and climate events, such as heat waves, droughts and severe precipitation events, have substantial impacts on ecosystems and the economy. However, future climate simulations display large uncertainty in mean changes. As a result, the uncertainty in future changes ...

  15. Impact of High-Reliability Education on Adverse Event Reporting by Registered Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Diane M; Doucette, Jeffrey N

    Adverse event reporting is one strategy to identify risks and improve patient safety, but, historically, adverse events are underreported by registered nurses (RNs) because of fear of retribution and blame. A program was provided on high reliability to examine whether education would impact RNs' willingness to report adverse events. Although the findings were not statistically significant, they demonstrated a positive impact on adverse event reporting and support the need to create a culture of high reliability.

  16. Forecasting with quantitative methods the impact of special events in time series

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Quantitative methods are very successful for producing baseline forecasts of time series; however these models fail to forecast neither the timing nor the impact of special events such as promotions or strikes. In most of the cases the timing of such events is not known so they are usually referred as shocks (economics) or special events (forecasting). Sometimes the timing of such events is known a priori (i.e. a future promotion); but even then the impact of the forthcom...

  17. Should Budapest Bid for the Olympics? - Measuring the Economic Impacts of Larger Sporting Events

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce L. Jaffee

    2002-01-01

    The article deals with both the general economic impact of large sporting events and the likely economic impact of having the Olympics held in Budapest. The author describes the general economic theory of economic impact and the spending patterns at major sporting events. He finds that a considerable part of the money spent in a community at the time of such an event cannot be viewed as “new money”that will stimulate the local economy. A large economic impact of such an event requires that it...

  18. Interactive Adjustment of Regularization in SENSE and k-t SENSE Using Commodity Graphics Hardware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Schacht; Atkinson, David; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild

    2008-01-01

    This project demonstrates that modern commodity graphics cards (GPUs) can be used to perform fast Cartesian SENSE and k-t SENSE reconstruction. Specifically, the SENSE inversion is accelerated by up to two orders of magnitude and is no longer the time-limiting step. The achieved reconstruction...

  19. TERMINATION PROCESS AND THE TERMINATION PARAMETER k_t OF METHYL METHACRYLATE BULK RADICAL POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈家骢; 田元; 王国斌; 杨梅林

    1990-01-01

    In this work the exact k_t data during the whole process of MMA bulk radical polymerization have been determined under unsteady state by using the post effect technique and ESR method. The effect of the micro-environment of radicals on the termination is discussed.

  20. From event to impact: International Exhibition and urban mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The realization of a mega event mainly affects the city life. On the one hand, the exceptional event represents a factor which speeds up urban transformations, that could not be realized otherwise. This characteristic has been defined as “pulsar effect” to explicate the impulse given to normal course of urban living by the mega events. On the other hand, mega events ask for actions aimed at managing the intense displacements due to their organizations and attractive capacity. Among the different types of events, this study considers the Universal Expositions, as they have been defined by the Bureau International des Expositions (the non-governmental organization having the decision power about great exposition. Universal or International Expo’s realization affects specific urban areas, interested by important transformations, especially referred to realization of infrastructure (mobility or dedicated to the event. While the management of urban mobility requires to define specific actions aimed at traffic congestion minimization. Increasing transport demand (visitors and tourists + residents and city-users is one of mega event effects. This work deals with individuations of mega event effects on city organization by analysing some case studies of Expos cities. Particularly referred to transformations occurred in transport infrastructures this articles sketches out the contemporary Expos profile and theirs effects on city.

  1. The Impact of Life Events on Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgellis, Yannis; Lange, Thomas; Tabvuma, Vurain

    2012-01-01

    Employing fixed effects regression techniques on longitudinal data, we investigate how life events affect employees' job satisfaction. Unlike previous work-life research, exploring mostly contemporaneous correlations, we look for evidence of adaptation in the years following major life events. We find evidence of adaptation following the first…

  2. Relationships between High Impact Tropical Rainfall Events and Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, C.; Varble, A.; Zipser, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    While rainfall increases as moisture and vertical motion increase, relationships between regional environmental conditions and rainfall event characteristics remain more uncertain. Of particular importance are long duration, heavy rain rate, and significant accumulation events that contribute sizable fractions of overall precipitation over short time periods. This study seeks to establish relationships between observed rainfall event properties and environmental conditions. Event duration, rain rate, and rainfall accumulation are derived using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 3-hourly, 0.25° resolution rainfall retrieval from 2002-2013 between 10°N and 10°S. Events are accumulated into 2.5° grid boxes and matched to monthly mean total column water vapor (TCWV) and 500-hPa vertical motion (omega) in each 2.5° grid box, retrieved from ERA-interim reanalysis. Only months with greater than 3 mm/day rainfall are included to ensure sufficient sampling. 90th and 99th percentile oceanic events last more than 20% longer and have rain rates more than 20% lower than those over land for a given TCWV-omega condition. Event duration and accumulation are more sensitive to omega than TCWV over oceans, but more sensitive to TCWV than omega over land, suggesting system size, propagation speed, and/or forcing mechanism differences for land and ocean regions. Sensitivities of duration, rain rate, and accumulation to TCWV and omega increase with increasing event extremity. For 3B42 and ERA-Interim relationships, the 90th percentile oceanic event accumulation increases by 0.93 mm for every 1 Pa/min change in rising motion, but this increases to 3.7 mm for every 1 Pa/min for the 99th percentile. Over land, the 90th percentile event accumulation increases by 0.55 mm for every 1 mm increase in TCWV, whereas the 99th percentile increases by 0.90 mm for every 1 mm increase in TCWV. These changes in event accumulation are highly correlated with changes in event

  3. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Giltay, E. J.; Wiersma, J. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    Hovens JGFM, Giltay EJ, Wiersma JE, Spinhoven P, Penninx BWJH, Zitman FG. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Objective: Data on the impact of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the clinical course of depressive and anxiety

  4. Supplement to the paper by Mr K.T. Brown: a review of nuclear power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    In the paper by Mr K.T. Brown a comprehensive review of the present status of nuclear power technology and its diverse aspects are given. The factual background and technical information regarding the various types of power reactors, as set out in chapters 2 to 8 are not re-iterated in Dr Hugo's supplement. Dr Hugo gives a somewhat closer consideration of the nuclear fuel cycle (uranium resources, uranium enrichment) and ESCOM's program and safety requirements

  5. Heavy-quark hadroproduction in kT-factorization approach with unintegrated gluon distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabelski, Yu.M.; Shuvaev, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The processes of heavy-quark production using the unintegrated gluon distributions are considered. The numerical predictions for high-energy nucleon-nucleon and photon-nucleon collisions of the k T -factorization approach (semihard theory) are compared with the experimental data from Tevatron collider and HERA. The total production cross sections and p T distributions are considered and they are in reasonable agreement with the data for reasonable values of QCD scale [ru

  6. Impact of tornadoes on hospital admissions for acute cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Palacios, Federico; Casanegra, Ana Isabel; Shapiro, Alan; Phan, Minh; Hawkins, Beau; Li, Ji; Stoner, Julie; Tafur, Alfonso

    2015-11-01

    There is a paucity of data describing cardiovascular events after tornado outbreaks. We proposed to study the effects of tornadoes on the incidence of cardiovascular events at a tertiary care institution. Hospital admission records from a single center situated in a tornado-prone area three months before and after a 2013 tornado outbreak were abstracted. To control for seasonal variation, we also abstracted data from the same period of the prior year (control). Hospital admissions for cardiovascular events (CVEs) including acute myocardial infarction, stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE) were summated by zip codes, and compared by time period. There were 22,607 admissions analyzed, of which 6,705 (30%), 7,980 (35%), and 7,922 (35%) were during the pre-tornado, post-tornado, and control time frames, respectively. There were 344 CVE in the controls, 317 CVE in pre-tornado and 364 CVEs in post tornado periods. There was no difference in the prevalence of CVE during the post-tornado season compared with the control (PPR=1.05 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.21, p=0.50) or the pre-tornado season (PPR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.21, p=0.63). In conclusion, tornado outbreaks did not increase the prevalence of cardiovascular events. In contrast to the effect of hurricanes, implementation of a healthcare policy change directed toward the early treatment and prevention of cardiovascular events after tornadoes does not seem warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Large impact events and atmospheric evolution on the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinspoon, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The first task undertaken is the characterization of the impact rates in the inner solar system during the present time, and during the first billion years of Solar System history when the flux was changing rapidly. Once defined, these fluxes are used to model the long term cumulative effect of multiple impacts on planetary atmospheres. The implications of cometary impacts on evolution of the water and deuterium abundances on Venus are examined. The short lifetime of water on Venus suggests that the water abundance is in quasi-steady-state balance between loss by escape and replenishment by infall. In addition, the observed deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio on Venus is consistent with a steady state and does not necessarily imply a past water excess. Results are presented of a model incorporating a stochastic cometary source and nonthermal escape of hydrogen that produces the observed water abundance and D/H ratio. The stochastic variability of each of these quantities is shown to be large. Water on Venus is likely to be in a near steady state mediated by large comet impacts. The early history of water on the planet has been obscured by a history of random impacts. A study of the effects of impact-generated dust clouds on the primitive Earth leads to the conclusion that such clouds were significant perturbers of the early climate. The Earth was shrouded by an optically-thick dust cloud for ∼150-250 m.y.. During this time the surface temperature was equal to the planetary equilibrium temperature unless significant heating by impacts or surface heat flow existed beneath the dust cloud. The epoch of continuous dust shrouding was followed by a period of stochastically intermittent dust clouds occurring at greater intervals as the early intense bombardment subsided towards the present day flux

  8. Studying the impacts of event tourism on the host communities in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toneva Petya Ivanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research interest is directed towards assessing the impacts of event tourism in Bulgaria as a popular and dynamic element of the tourism supply and demand, which is has a potential for combinations, development and creation. The article outlines the main theoretical and methodological principles of assessing the impacts of event tourism. Based on the existing achievements in the specialized literature, the study offers a model for assessing these effects. The developed instrument is applied empirically and the collected data is analysed. The impacts of the contemporary event tourism on destination Bulgaria are assessed at the aggregate level.

  9. Effects of Sex and Event Type on Head Impact in Collegiate Soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Bryson B.; Patrie, James; Henry, Erich J.; Goodkin, Howard P.; Broshek, Donna K.; Wintermark, Max; Druzgal, T. Jason

    2017-01-01

    Background: The effects of head impact in sports are of growing interest for clinicians, scientists, and athletes. Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, but the burden of head impact in collegiate soccer is still unknown. Purpose: To quantify head impact associated with practicing and playing collegiate soccer using wearable accelerometers. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Mastoid patch accelerometers were used to quantify head impact in soccer, examining differences in head impact as a function of sex and event type (practice vs game). Seven female and 14 male collegiate soccer players wore mastoid patch accelerometers that measured head impacts during team events. Data were summarized for each athletic exposure, and statistical analyses evaluated the mean number of impacts, mean peak linear acceleration, mean peak rotational acceleration, and cumulative linear and rotational acceleration, each grouped by sex and event type. Results: There were no differences in the frequency or severity of head impacts between men’s and women’s soccer practices. For men’s soccer, games resulted in 285% more head impacts than practices, but there were no event-type differences in mean impact severity. Men’s soccer games resulted in more head impacts than practices across nearly all measured impact severities, which also resulted in men’s soccer games producing a greater cumulative impact burden. Conclusion: Similar to other sports, men’s soccer games have a greater impact burden when compared with practices, and this effect is driven by the quantity rather than severity of head impacts. In contrast, there were no differences in the quantity or severity of head impacts in men’s and women’s soccer practices. These data could prompt discussions of practical concern to collegiate soccer, such as understanding sex differences in head impact and whether games disproportionately contribute to an athlete’s head impact burden. PMID:28491885

  10. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  11. Combat Helmet-Headform Coupling Characterized from Blunt Impact Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Testing was completed on a monorail drop tower to analyze the effect of helmet/headform coupling on the blunt impact behavior of ACH helmets using FMVSS...designates its own methods and test equipment: a drop tower ( monorail or twin- wire), headform (DOT, ISO, NOCSAE), headform CG accelerometer (single or...the more anthropomorphic International Standard Organization (ISO) half headform. Testing was completed on a monorail drop tower to analyze the effect

  12. Sport tourism event impacts on the host community – a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and ... Sport tourism event impacts on the host community – a case study of Red Bull Big Wave Africa ... and direct observations were carried out as methods of obtaining data.

  13. Gastrointestinal symptoms among swimmers following rain events at a beach impacted by urban runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal symptoms among swimmers following rain events at a beach impacted by urban runoff Timothy J. Wade, Reagan R. Converse, Elizabeth A. Sams, Ann H. Williams, Edward Hudgens, Alfred P. Dufour Gastrointestinal symptoms among swimmers have been associated with fecal ...

  14. The Impact of the Financial Crisis on Business Events at Natural Spas – The Slovenian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Janez Mekinc; Maša Budnar Radilovic; Boštjan Bizjak

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of the economic downturn that officially hit Slovenia in 2009 on the number, purpose, type and budgets of business events held at Slovenian natural spas. The study’s aim is to develop guidelines in the field of business events management at Slovenian natural spas. The research was carried out among key representatives from Slovenian natural spas who play an active role in managing events. Data were via a questionnaire that collected information about the purpose, numbe...

  15. Impact of climate change on extreme rainfall events and flood risk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The analysis of the frequency of rainy days, rain days and heavy rainfall days as well as one-day extreme rainfall and return period has been carried out in this study to observe the impact of climate change on extreme rainfall events and flood risk in India. The frequency of heavy rainfall events are decreasing in major parts ...

  16. Regional economic impact of an event: the case of the Rotterdam Marathon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willem, Jan; Goedknegt, Bart; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The Rotterdam Marathon is an annual sports event in Rotterdam. This biggest one-day event in the Netherlands attracted around 925,000 visitors in 2014. This paper aims at evaluating its regional economic impact by way of input output analysis in terms of number of jobs.

  17. Micropaleontological and Paleomagnetic Characterization of La Ceiba K/T Boundary Section, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2007-05-01

    We report results of a micropaleontological and magnetostratigraphic study of the La Ceiba section that spans the K/T boundary. La Ceiba is located in central Mexico (20o 19.8' N, 97o 41.0' W) within the Tampico-Mizantla basin. The K/T boundary is marked by a clastic unit of about one-meter thickness intercalated between the carbonate hemipelagic marls of the Cretaceous Mendez Formation and the Paleocene Velasco Formation. The clastic unit can be divided into four sub-units, according to their texture and architectural characteristics following Arenillas et al. (2002). The basal sub-unit is formed by calcareous marls and is rich in shocked quartz and millimeter size spherules with microtektites and bioclasts of shallow water origin. The second sub-unit is formed by medium-grained sandstones, with clasts and quartz fragments, feldspars, metamorphic and calcareous fragments and re-worked benthic and planktic foraminifera. The third sub-unit is composed by a single body of medium- to fine-grained sandstones with tabular geometry. In this sub-unit, cross- and parallel-lamination trough cross-stratification, current ripples and climbing ripples have been observed. The top sub-unit is a tabular body of fine-grained sandstones, showing parallel-lamination and low-angle cross-lamination, with asymmetric ripples and burrow traces to the top. For the paleontologic and paleomagnetic study we collected twenty-five oriented samples across the section. We measured the low-field susceptibility, intensity and direction of the NRM. The vectorial composition and stability of NRM were analyzed by progressive thermal and alternating field demagnetization. Vectorial orthogonal diagrams and vector subtraction and principal component analysis were used to determine the characteristic magnetization and secondary components for each sample. The characteristic NRM negative inclination and southward declination in the K/T clastic sediments indicate a reverse polarity, which is correlated to

  18. Magnetic properties and Moessbauer analyses of glass from the K-T boundary, Beloc, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senftle, F. E.; Thorpe, A. N.; May, L.; Barkatt, A.; Adel-Hadadi, M. A.; Marbury, G. S.; Izett, G.; Sigurdsson, H.; Maurasse, F. J.-M. R.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental magnetic susceptibility, the temperature-independent component of the magnetic susceptibility, the magnetization, and the Curie constant have been measured for a number of specimens of glass from the K-T boundary found at Beloc, Haiti, and the results are compared with those of similar measurements of tektites. Because the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratio is needed to calculate the magnetic parameters, Moessbauer spectroscopic measurements were also made. The data were consistent with the classification of the Beloc glasses as tektites.

  19. Long-Term Impacts Faced by Patients and Families After Harmful Healthcare Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosen, Madelene J; Sedlock, Emily W; Aigbe, Aitebureme O; Bell, Sigall K; Gallagher, Thomas H; Thomas, Eric J

    2018-01-17

    Patients and families report experiencing a multitude of harms from medical errors resulting in physical, emotional, and financial hardships. Little is known about the duration and nature of these harms and the type of support needed to promote patient and family healing after such events. We sought to describe the long-term impacts (LTIs) reported by patients and family members who experienced harmful medical events 5 or more years ago. We performed a content analysis on 32 interviews originally conducted with 72 patients or family members about their views of the factors contributing to their self-reported harmful event. Interviews selected occurred 5 or more years after the harmful event and were grouped by time since event, 5 to 9 years (22 interviews) or 10 or more years (10 interviews) for analysis. We analyzed these interviews targeting spontaneous references of ongoing impacts experienced by the participants. Participants collectively described the following four LTIs: psychological, social/behavioral, physical, and financial. Most cited psychological impacts with half-reporting ongoing anger and vivid memories. More than half reported ongoing physical impacts and one-third experienced ongoing financial impacts. Long-term social and behavioral impacts such as alterations in lifestyle, self-identity, and healthcare seeking behaviors were the most highly reported. These patients and families experienced many profound LTIs after their harmful medical event. For some, these impacts evolved into secondary harms ongoing 10 years and more after the event. Our results draw attention to the persistent impacts patients and families may experience long after harmful events and the need for future research to understand and support affected patients and families.

  20. Rapidity and kT dependence of HBT correlations in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV with PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Burt; the PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    Two-particle correlations of identical charged pion pairs from Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_NN} = 200 GeV were measured by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. Data for the most central (0-15%) events were analysed with Bertsch-Pratt (BP) and Yano-Koonin-Podgoretskii (YKP) parametrizations using pairs with rapidities of 0.4 < y < 1.3 and transverse momenta 0.1 < kT < 1.4 GeV/c. The Bertsch-Pratt radii decrease as a function of pair transverse momentum. The pair rapidity Yππ roughly scales with the source rapidity YYKP, indicating strong dynamical correlations.

  1. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on health impacts of extreme weather events in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, G; McGeehin, M; Bernard, S M; Trtanj, J; Riad, J; Engelberg, D

    2001-05-01

    Extreme weather events such as precipitation extremes and severe storms cause hundreds of deaths and injuries annually in the United States. Climate change may alter the frequency, timing, intensity, and duration of these events. Increases in heavy precipitation have occurred over the past century. Future climate scenarios show likely increases in the frequency of extreme precipitation events, including precipitation during hurricanes, raising the risk of floods. Frequencies of tornadoes and hurricanes cannot reliably be projected. Injury and death are the direct health impacts most often associated with natural disasters. Secondary effects, mediated by changes in ecologic systems and public health infrastructure, also occur. The health impacts of extreme weather events hinge on the vulnerabilities and recovery capacities of the natural environment and the local population. Relevant variables include building codes, warning systems, disaster policies, evacuation plans, and relief efforts. There are many federal, state, and local government agencies and nongovernmental organizations involved in planning for and responding to natural disasters in the United States. Future research on health impacts of extreme weather events should focus on improving climate models to project any trends in regional extreme events and as a result improve public health preparedness and mitigation. Epidemiologic studies of health effects beyond the direct impacts of disaster will provide a more accurate measure of the full health impacts and will assist in planning and resource allocation.

  2. Periodic Impact Cratering and Extinction Events Over the Last 260 Million Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The claims of periodicity in impact cratering and biological extinction events are controversial. Anewly revised record of dated impact craters has been analyzed for periodicity, and compared with the record of extinctions over the past 260 Myr. A digital circular spectral analysis of 37 crater ages (ranging in age from 15 to 254 Myr ago) yielded evidence for a significant 25.8 +/- 0.6 Myr cycle. Using the same method, we found a significant 27.0 +/- 0.7 Myr cycle in the dates of the eight recognized marine extinction events over the same period. The cycles detected in impacts and extinctions have a similar phase. The impact crater dataset shows 11 apparent peaks in the last 260 Myr, at least 5 of which correlate closely with significant extinction peaks. These results suggest that the hypothesis of periodic impacts and extinction events is still viable.

  3. Highly-Accelerated Real-Time Cardiac Cine MRI Using k-t SPARSE-SENSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Srichai, Monvadi B.; Lim, Ruth P.; Harrison, Alexis; King, Wilson; Adluru, Ganesh; Dibella, Edward VR.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Otazo, Ricardo; Kim, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    For patients with impaired breath-hold capacity and/or arrhythmias, real-time cine MRI may be more clinically useful than breath-hold cine MRI. However, commercially available real-time cine MRI methods using parallel imaging typically yield relatively poor spatio-temporal resolution due to their low image acquisition speed. We sought to achieve relatively high spatial resolution (~2.5mm × 2.5mm) and temporal resolution (~40ms), to produce high-quality real-time cine MR images that could be applied clinically for wall motion assessment and measurement of left ventricular (LV) function. In this work, we present an 8-fold accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI pulse sequence using a combination of compressed sensing and parallel imaging (k-t SPARSE-SENSE). Compared with reference, breath-hold cine MRI, our 8-fold accelerated real-time cine MRI produced significantly worse qualitative grades (1–5 scale), but its image quality and temporal fidelity scores were above 3.0 (adequate) and artifacts and noise scores were below 3.0 (moderate), suggesting that acceptable diagnostic image quality can be achieved. Additionally, both 8-fold accelerated real-time cine and breath-hold cine MRI yielded comparable LV function measurements, with coefficient of variation cine MRI with k-t SPARSE-SENSE is a promising modality for rapid imaging of myocardial function. PMID:22887290

  4. Highly accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI using k-t SPARSE-SENSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Srichai, Monvadi B; Lim, Ruth P; Harrison, Alexis; King, Wilson; Adluru, Ganesh; Dibella, Edward V R; Sodickson, Daniel K; Otazo, Ricardo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    For patients with impaired breath-hold capacity and/or arrhythmias, real-time cine MRI may be more clinically useful than breath-hold cine MRI. However, commercially available real-time cine MRI methods using parallel imaging typically yield relatively poor spatio-temporal resolution due to their low image acquisition speed. We sought to achieve relatively high spatial resolution (∼2.5 × 2.5 mm(2)) and temporal resolution (∼40 ms), to produce high-quality real-time cine MR images that could be applied clinically for wall motion assessment and measurement of left ventricular function. In this work, we present an eightfold accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI pulse sequence using a combination of compressed sensing and parallel imaging (k-t SPARSE-SENSE). Compared with reference, breath-hold cine MRI, our eightfold accelerated real-time cine MRI produced significantly worse qualitative grades (1-5 scale), but its image quality and temporal fidelity scores were above 3.0 (adequate) and artifacts and noise scores were below 3.0 (moderate), suggesting that acceptable diagnostic image quality can be achieved. Additionally, both eightfold accelerated real-time cine and breath-hold cine MRI yielded comparable left ventricular function measurements, with coefficient of variation cine MRI with k-t SPARSE-SENSE is a promising modality for rapid imaging of myocardial function. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Impact of a natural catastrophe on life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, J G; Masuda, M; Holmes, T H

    1977-06-01

    A major earthquake struck Peru in May 1970. This post-quake study compares the impact of this natural catastrophe on the residents of two different cities; one was 90 percent levelled by the quake and one was untouched. A relatively homogeneous population of Peruvians obtained from the two cities completed two paper-and-pencil tests, the Social Readjustment Rating Questionnaire (SRRQ) and the Schedule of Recent Experience (SRE). Both questionnaires were adapted from the SRRQ which had been translated for studies in Spain and EL Salvador. The data from the SRRQ generated two Peruvian Social Readjustment Rating Scales (SRRS), one for each of the cities studied. The differences in the two scales were striking. The lowest intra-cultural correlation yet observed on four studies was obtained. Comparison with a United States population yielded no significant relationships (rs = 0.15), the first time this has occurred in nine intercultural studies. A comparison of the profile of items generated by their subjective magnitude estimations indicated striking qualitative and quantitative differences between the two populations. The SRE generated frequency of occurrence of items and life change magnitudes in five proscribed time intervals. Significant differences in these two quantitative indices (including the health change items) were observed in the two populations in some of the time intervals and not in others. The data formulated suggest that the occurrence of a natural catastrophe--an earthquake which devastated one city--accounted for much of the difference observed between the populations of the two cities.

  6. Performance of the NOνA Data Acquisition and Trigger Systems for the full 14 kT Far Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, A.; Ding, P.F.; Rebel, B.; Shanahan, P.; Davies, G.S.; Niner, E.; Dukes, E.C.; Frank, M.J.; Group, R.C.; Henderson, W.; Mina, R.; Oksuzian, Y.; Duyan, H.; Habig, A.; Moren, A.; Tomsen, K.; Mualem, L.; Sheshukov, A.; Tamsett, M.; Vinton, L.

    2015-01-01

    The NOvA experiment uses a continuous, free-running, dead-timeless data acquisition system to collect data from the 14 kT far detector. The DAQ system readouts the more than 344,000 detector channels and assembles the information into an raw unfiltered high bandwidth data stream. The NOvA trigger systems operate in parallel to the readout and asynchronously to the primary DAQ readout/event building chain. The data driven triggering systems for NOvA are unique in that they examine long contiguous time windows of the high resolution readout data and enable the detector to be sensitive to a wide range of physics interactions from those with fast, nanosecond scale signals up to processes with long delayed coincidences between hits which occur at the tens of milliseconds time scale. The trigger system is able to achieve a true 100% live time for the detector, making it sensitive to both beam spill related and off-spill physics. (paper)

  7. WeChat Addiction Suppresses the Impact of Stressful Life Events on Life Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bi; Wu, Yan; Jiang, Shengyi; Zhai, Huizhen

    2018-03-01

    The current study examined the influences of stressful life events and WeChat addiction on life satisfaction, and investigated the mediating role of WeChat addiction on the relationship between the two research variables. A total of 463 undergraduates completed self-reported scales for stressful life events, WeChat addiction, and life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the questionnaire data. The results showed the suppressing effect of WeChat addiction on the negative impact of stressful life events on life satisfaction. Stressful life events affect life satisfaction both directly and indirectly. Stressful life events are positively associated with WeChat addiction, which exerts positive impact on life satisfaction. The contributions of the findings are discussed.

  8. Changes in extreme events and the potential impacts on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jesse E; Brown, Claudia Langford; Conlon, Kathryn; Herring, Stephanie; Kunkel, Kenneth E; Lawrimore, Jay; Luber, George; Schreck, Carl; Smith, Adam; Uejio, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    Extreme weather and climate-related events affect human health by causing death, injury, and illness, as well as having large socioeconomic impacts. Climate change has caused changes in extreme event frequency, intensity, and geographic distribution, and will continue to be a driver for change in the future. Some of these events include heat waves, droughts, wildfires, dust storms, flooding rains, coastal flooding, storm surges, and hurricanes. The pathways connecting extreme events to health outcomes and economic losses can be diverse and complex. The difficulty in predicting these relationships comes from the local societal and environmental factors that affect disease burden. More information is needed about the impacts of climate change on public health and economies to effectively plan for and adapt to climate change. This paper describes some of the ways extreme events are changing and provides examples of the potential impacts on human health and infrastructure. It also identifies key research gaps to be addressed to improve the resilience of public health to extreme events in the future. Extreme weather and climate events affect human health by causing death, injury, and illness, as well as having large socioeconomic impacts. Climate change has caused changes in extreme event frequency, intensity, and geographic distribution, and will continue to be a driver for change in the future. Some of these events include heat waves, droughts, wildfires, flooding rains, coastal flooding, surges, and hurricanes. The pathways connecting extreme events to health outcomes and economic losses can be diverse and complex. The difficulty in predicting these relationships comes from the local societal and environmental factors that affect disease burden.

  9. Inducement of heterochronic variation in a species of planktic foraminifera by a Late Eocene impact event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, N.; Kitchell, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    While it is well known that the cosmic impact event at or near the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary coincides with an interval of mass extinction, a similar impact (or series of impacts) near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary presents a more complex picture, in terms of associated fluctuations in marine biotic diversity. Tektites, microtektites, and mineral grains exhibiting features of shock metamorphism found in Eocene sediments of the western N. Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico (comprising the North American microtektite strewn field) offer compelling evidence for a catastrophic impact event. Despite the magnitude of this event, however, few extinctions in the planktic marine fauna are known to have occurred coincident with this event. Instead, changes in relative abundance, morphology, and development occurred. Cosmic impacts generally have been interpreted as influencing the course of evolution through the wholesale elimination of significant portions of standing biotic diversity. Indeed, extinction traditionally has been viewed as the negative side of evolution. In some instances, it is suggested such impact events can serve instead to increase, rather than decrease, morphological and ecological diversity, by altering the developmental programs within species at the level of the local population.

  10. Changes in Extreme Events and the Potential Impacts on National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme weather and climate events affect human health by causing death, injury, and illness, as well as having large socio-economic impacts. Climate change has caused changes in extreme event frequency, intensity and geographic distribution, and will continue to be a driver for changes in the future. Some of the extreme events that have already changed are heat waves, droughts, wildfires, flooding rains, coastal flooding, storm surge, and hurricanes. The pathways connecting extreme events to health outcomes and economic losses can be diverse and complex. The difficulty in predicting these relationships comes from the local intricacies of societal and environmental factors that influences the level of exposure. The goal of this presentation is to discuss the national security implications of changes in extreme weather events and demonstrate how changes in extremes can lead to a host cascading issues. To illustrate this point, this presentation will provide examples of the various pathways that extreme events can increase disease burden and cause economic stress.

  11. Impacts of European drought events: insights from an international database of text-based reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Kerstin; Kohn, Irene; Blauhut, Veit; Urquijo, Julia; De Stefano, Lucia; Acácio, Vanda; Dias, Susana; Stagge, James H.; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Kampragou, Eleni; Van Loon, Anne F.; Barker, Lucy J.; Melsen, Lieke A.; Bifulco, Carlo; Musolino, Dario; de Carli, Alessandro; Massarutto, Antonio; Assimacopoulos, Dionysis; Van Lanen, Henny A. J.

    2016-03-01

    Drought is a natural hazard that can cause a wide range of impacts affecting the environment, society, and the economy. Providing an impact assessment and reducing vulnerability to these impacts for regions beyond the local scale, spanning political and sectoral boundaries, requires systematic and detailed data regarding impacts. This study presents an assessment of the diversity of drought impacts across Europe based on the European Drought Impact report Inventory (EDII), a unique research database that has collected close to 5000 impact reports from 33 European countries. The reported drought impacts were classified into major impact categories, each of which had a number of subtypes. The distribution of these categories and types was then analyzed over time, by country, across Europe and for particular drought events. The results show that impacts on agriculture and public water supply dominate the collection of drought impact reports for most countries and for all major drought events since the 1970s, while the number and relative fractions of reported impacts in other sectors can vary regionally and from event to event. The analysis also shows that reported impacts have increased over time as more media and website information has become available and environmental awareness has increased. Even though the distribution of impact categories is relatively consistent across Europe, the details of the reports show some differences. They confirm severe impacts in southern regions (particularly on agriculture and public water supply) and sector-specific impacts in central and northern regions (e.g., on forestry or energy production). The protocol developed thus enabled a new and more comprehensive view on drought impacts across Europe. Related studies have already developed statistical techniques to evaluate the link between drought indices and the categorized impacts using EDII data. The EDII is a living database and is a promising source for further research on

  12. Off-gas treatment system Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP) k-t evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedahl, T.G.; Cargo, C.H.; Ayers, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    The scope of work for this task involves a systems' evaluation, using the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) decision analysis methodology, of off-gas treatment alternatives for a Process Experimental Pilot Plant (PREPP). Two basic systems were evaluated: (1) a wet treatment system using a quencher and scrubber system; and (2) a dry treatment system using a spray dryer and baghouse arrangement. Both systems would neutralize acidic off-gases (HCL and SO 2 ) and remove radioactive particulates prior to release to the environment. The K-T analysis results provided a numerical comparison of the two basic off-gas treatments systems for PREPP. The overall ratings for the two systems differ by only 7%. The closeness of the evaluation indicates that either system is capable of treating the off-gases from PREPP. Based on the analysis, the wet treatment system design is slightly more favorable for PREPP. Technology development, expected operability, total costs, and safety aspects were determined to be more advantageous for the wet system design. Support technology was the only major category that appears less favorable for using the wet off-gas system for PREPP. When considering the two criteria considered most important for PREPP (capital cost and major accident prevention - both rated 10), the wet treatment system received maximum ratings. Space constraints placed on the design by the existing TAN-607 building configuration also are more easily met by the wet system design. Lastly, the level of development for the wet system indicates more applicable experience for nuclear waste processing

  13. Technology and economic impacts of mega-sports events: A key issue? Exploratory insights from literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanaron Jean Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mega-sport events such as Olympic Games or Football World Cup are always presented as providing the hosting nation and/or city with huge benefits. Supporters of such events quote economic, social and cultural impacts for the region as well as contributions to scientific and technological progress and innovation. obviously, they need to politically justify the impressive and growing financial investment required by organizing Olympic Games or World Cup. The article aims at looking at a quite abundant academic literature with the objectives of defining the various potential impacts and the methods used for their assessment. It concludes that there is no universal and scientifically valid model for evaluating the benefits of mega-sport events and that organizers should be very cautious when arguing in favor of deciding to host such events.

  14. Detecting impacts of extreme events with ecological in situ monitoring networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Mahecha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extreme hydrometeorological conditions typically impact ecophysiological processes on land. Satellite-based observations of the terrestrial biosphere provide an important reference for detecting and describing the spatiotemporal development of such events. However, in-depth investigations of ecological processes during extreme events require additional in situ observations. The question is whether the density of existing ecological in situ networks is sufficient for analysing the impact of extreme events, and what are expected event detection rates of ecological in situ networks of a given size. To assess these issues, we build a baseline of extreme reductions in the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR, identified by a new event detection method tailored to identify extremes of regional relevance. We then investigate the event detection success rates of hypothetical networks of varying sizes. Our results show that large extremes can be reliably detected with relatively small networks, but also reveal a linear decay of detection probabilities towards smaller extreme events in log–log space. For instance, networks with  ≈  100 randomly placed sites in Europe yield a  ≥  90 % chance of detecting the eight largest (typically very large extreme events; but only a  ≥  50 % chance of capturing the 39 largest events. These findings are consistent with probability-theoretic considerations, but the slopes of the decay rates deviate due to temporal autocorrelation and the exact implementation of the extreme event detection algorithm. Using the examples of AmeriFlux and NEON, we then investigate to what degree ecological in situ networks can capture extreme events of a given size. Consistent with our theoretical considerations, we find that today's systematically designed networks (i.e. NEON reliably detect the largest extremes, but that the extreme event detection rates are not higher than would

  15. Modelling of risk events with uncertain likelihoods and impacts in large infrastructure projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    to prevent future budget overruns. One of the central ideas is to introduce improved risk management processes and the present paper addresses this particular issue. A relevant cost function in terms of unit prices and quantities is developed and an event impact matrix with uncertain impacts from independent......This paper presents contributions to the mathematical core of risk and uncertainty management in compliance with the principles of New Budgeting laid out in 2008 by the Danish Ministry of Transport to be used in large infrastructure projects. Basically, the new principles are proposed in order...... uncertain risk events is used to calculate the total uncertain risk budget. Cost impacts from the individual risk events on the individual project activities are kept precisely track of in order to comply with the requirements of New Budgeting. Additionally, uncertain likelihoods for the occurrence of risk...

  16. Life Cycle Assessment to support the quantification of the environmental impacts of an event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toniolo, Sara; Mazzi, Anna; Fedele, Andrea; Aguiari, Filippo; Scipioni, Antonio, E-mail: scipioni@unipd.it

    2017-03-15

    In recent years, several tools have been used to define and quantify the environmental impacts associated with an event; however, a lack of uniform approaches for conducting environmental evaluations has been revealed. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether the Life Cycle Assessment methodology, which is rarely applied to an event, can be an appropriate tool for calculating the environmental impacts associated with the assembly, disassembly, and use phase of an event analysing in particular the components and the displays used to establish the exhibits. The aim is also to include the issues reported by ISO 20121:2012 involving the interested parties that can be monitored but also affected by the event owner, namely the event organiser, the workforce and the supply chain. A small event held in Northern Italy was selected as the subject of the research. The results obtained show that the main contributors are energy consumption for lighting and heating and the use of aluminium materials, such as bars for supporting the spotlights, carpet and the electronic equipment. A sensitivity analysis for estimating the effects of the impact assessment method chosen has also been conducted and an uncertainty analysis has been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. This study highlighted the importance of the energy consumed by heating and lighting on the environmental implications, and indicated that the preparation and assembly should always be considered when quantifying the environmental profile of an event. - Highlights: • LCA methodology, developed for products and services, is applied to an event. • A small event held in Northern Italy is analysed. • The main contributors are energy consumption and the use of aluminium and carpet. • Exhibition site preparation can have important environmental implications. • This study demonstrates the importance of the assembly, disassembly and use phase.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment to support the quantification of the environmental impacts of an event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toniolo, Sara; Mazzi, Anna; Fedele, Andrea; Aguiari, Filippo; Scipioni, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, several tools have been used to define and quantify the environmental impacts associated with an event; however, a lack of uniform approaches for conducting environmental evaluations has been revealed. The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether the Life Cycle Assessment methodology, which is rarely applied to an event, can be an appropriate tool for calculating the environmental impacts associated with the assembly, disassembly, and use phase of an event analysing in particular the components and the displays used to establish the exhibits. The aim is also to include the issues reported by ISO 20121:2012 involving the interested parties that can be monitored but also affected by the event owner, namely the event organiser, the workforce and the supply chain. A small event held in Northern Italy was selected as the subject of the research. The results obtained show that the main contributors are energy consumption for lighting and heating and the use of aluminium materials, such as bars for supporting the spotlights, carpet and the electronic equipment. A sensitivity analysis for estimating the effects of the impact assessment method chosen has also been conducted and an uncertainty analysis has been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. This study highlighted the importance of the energy consumed by heating and lighting on the environmental implications, and indicated that the preparation and assembly should always be considered when quantifying the environmental profile of an event. - Highlights: • LCA methodology, developed for products and services, is applied to an event. • A small event held in Northern Italy is analysed. • The main contributors are energy consumption and the use of aluminium and carpet. • Exhibition site preparation can have important environmental implications. • This study demonstrates the importance of the assembly, disassembly and use phase.

  18. Evaluating the impact of child safety seat check-up events on parental knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Ashley B; Jones, Ches; Nunez, Casandra

    2002-12-01

    Riding unrestrained is the greatest risk factor for death and injury among children in motor vehicles. Restraining a child can reduce the risk of death for that child by up to 71%. However, despite increased awareness, child safety seat usage rates are still disturbingly low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact that child safety seat check-up events have on parental knowledge on child safety seats and installation. The subjects for this study were 101 parents/caregivers who attended child safety seat check-up events in northwest Arkansas from May 2000 through June 2001. A 20-item survey was conducted via the telephone. Results showed that the check-up events in northwest Arkansas have had an impact on self-efficacy. The participants of the events were primarily Caucasian and females in the 30-34 age group. Nine of 10 subjects scored in the high knowledge category. Conclusions are that check-up events do have an impact on parental knowledge and are accepted by the target group. Additionally, participants believed that car seats are of great importance and do protect their children in the event of a crash.

  19. A sequence of events across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Romein, A.J.T.

    1985-01-01

    The lithological and biological sequence of events across the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T), as developed in thick and complete landbased sections and termed the standard K/T event sequence, is also found in many DSDP cores from all over the globe. Microtektite-like spherules have been found in

  20. [Assessing the economic impact of adverse events in Spanish hospitals by using administrative data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allué, Natalia; Chiarello, Pietro; Bernal Delgado, Enrique; Castells, Xavier; Giraldo, Priscila; Martínez, Natalia; Sarsanedas, Eugenia; Cots, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and costs of adverse events registered in an administrative dataset in Spanish hospitals from 2008 to 2010. A retrospective study was carried out that estimated the incremental cost per episode, depending on the presence of adverse events. Costs were obtained from the database of the Spanish Network of Hospital Costs. This database contains data from 12 hospitals that have costs per patient records based on activities and clinical records. Adverse events were identified through the Patient Safety Indicators (validated in the Spanish Health System) created by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality together with indicators of the EuroDRG European project. This study included 245,320 episodes with a total cost of 1,308,791,871€. Approximately 17,000 patients (6.8%) experienced an adverse event, representing 16.2% of the total cost. Adverse events, adjusted by diagnosis-related groups, added a mean incremental cost of between €5,260 and €11,905. Six of the 10 adverse events with the highest incremental cost were related to surgical interventions. The total incremental cost of adverse events was € 88,268,906, amounting to an additional 6.7% of total health expenditure. Assessment of the impact of adverse events revealed that these episodes represent significant costs that could be reduced by improving the quality and safety of the Spanish Health System. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparing for what might happen: An episodic specificity induction impacts the generation of alternative future events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Helen G; Madore, Kevin P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-12-01

    A critical adaptive feature of future thinking involves the ability to generate alternative versions of possible future events. However, little is known about the nature of the processes that support this ability. Here we examined whether an episodic specificity induction - brief training in recollecting details of a recent experience that selectively impacts tasks that draw on episodic retrieval - (1) boosts alternative event generation and (2) changes one's initial perceptions of negative future events. In Experiment 1, an episodic specificity induction significantly increased the number of alternative positive outcomes that participants generated to a series of standardized negative events, compared with a control induction not focused on episodic specificity. We also observed larger decreases in the perceived plausibility and negativity of the original events in the specificity condition, where participants generated more alternative outcomes, relative to the control condition. In Experiment 2, we replicated and extended these findings using a series of personalized negative events. Our findings support the idea that episodic memory processes are involved in generating alternative outcomes to anticipated future events, and that boosting the number of alternative outcomes is related to subsequent changes in the perceived plausibility and valence of the original events, which may have implications for psychological well-being. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Video Analysis Verification of Head Impact Events Measured by Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Nelson; Lincoln, Andrew E; Myer, Gregory D; Hepburn, Lisa; Higgins, Michael; Putukian, Margot; Caswell, Shane V

    2017-08-01

    Wearable sensors are increasingly used to quantify the frequency and magnitude of head impact events in multiple sports. There is a paucity of evidence that verifies head impact events recorded by wearable sensors. To utilize video analysis to verify head impact events recorded by wearable sensors and describe the respective frequency and magnitude. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Thirty male (mean age, 16.6 ± 1.2 years; mean height, 1.77 ± 0.06 m; mean weight, 73.4 ± 12.2 kg) and 35 female (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.3 years; mean height, 1.66 ± 0.05 m; mean weight, 61.2 ± 6.4 kg) players volunteered to participate in this study during the 2014 and 2015 lacrosse seasons. Participants were instrumented with GForceTracker (GFT; boys) and X-Patch sensors (girls). Simultaneous game video was recorded by a trained videographer using a single camera located at the highest midfield location. One-third of the field was framed and panned to follow the ball during games. Videographic and accelerometer data were time synchronized. Head impact counts were compared with video recordings and were deemed valid if (1) the linear acceleration was ≥20 g, (2) the player was identified on the field, (3) the player was in camera view, and (4) the head impact mechanism could be clearly identified. Descriptive statistics of peak linear acceleration (PLA) and peak rotational velocity (PRV) for all verified head impacts ≥20 g were calculated. For the boys, a total recorded 1063 impacts (2014: n = 545; 2015: n = 518) were logged by the GFT between game start and end times (mean PLA, 46 ± 31 g; mean PRV, 1093 ± 661 deg/s) during 368 player-games. Of these impacts, 690 were verified via video analysis (65%; mean PLA, 48 ± 34 g; mean PRV, 1242 ± 617 deg/s). The X-Patch sensors, worn by the girls, recorded a total 180 impacts during the course of the games, and 58 (2014: n = 33; 2015: n = 25) were verified via video analysis (32%; mean PLA, 39 ± 21 g; mean PRV, 1664

  3. Preface: Impacts of extreme climate events and disturbances on carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingfeng; Liu, Shuguang; Stoy, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    The impacts of extreme climate events and disturbances (ECE&D) on the carbon cycle have received growing attention in recent years. This special issue showcases a collection of recent advances in understanding the impacts of ECE&D on carbon cycling. Notable advances include quantifying how harvesting activities impact forest structure, carbon pool dynamics, and recovery processes; observed drastic increases of the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved methane in thermokarst lakes in western Siberia during a summer warming event; disentangling the roles of herbivores and fire on forest carbon dioxide flux; direct and indirect impacts of fire on the global carbon balance; and improved atmospheric inversion of regional carbon sources and sinks by incorporating disturbances. Combined, studies herein indicate several major research needs. First, disturbances and extreme events can interact with one another, and it is important to understand their overall impacts and also disentangle their effects on the carbon cycle. Second, current ecosystem models are not skillful enough to correctly simulate the underlying processes and impacts of ECE&D (e.g., tree mortality and carbon consequences). Third, benchmark data characterizing the timing, location, type, and magnitude of disturbances must be systematically created to improve our ability to quantify carbon dynamics over large areas. Finally, improving the representation of ECE&D in regional climate/earth system models and accounting for the resulting feedbacks to climate are essential for understanding the interactions between climate and ecosystem dynamics.

  4. Is Overweight a Risk Factor for Adverse Events during Removal of Impacted Lower Third Molars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Wathson Feitosa de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight is recognised as a significant risk factor for several morbidities; however, the experience of the dentistry faculties focusing on this population is still low. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of adverse events during removal of impacted lower third molars in overweight patients. A prospective cohort study was carried out involving overweight patients subjected to surgical removal of impacted lower third molar as part of a line of research on third molar surgery. Predictor variables indicative of the occurrence of adverse events during surgery were classified by their demographic, clinical, radiographic, and surgical aspects. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed. In total, 140 patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria, and 280 surgeries were performed. Patients’ mean age was 25.1 ± 2.2  years, and the proportion of women to men was 3 : 1. Eight different adverse events during surgery were recorded. These events occurred in approximately 29.3% of cases and were significantly associated with predictor variables (P < 0.05. Excess weight is recognised as a risk factor for the high rate of adverse events in impacted third molar surgery. The study suggests that overweight patients are highly likely to experience morbidities.

  5. The impact of shifting vantage perspective when recalling and imagining positive events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Nicholas C; Moulds, Michelle L

    2014-01-01

    The vantage perspective from which memories are recalled influences their emotional impact. To date, however, the impact of vantage perspective on the emotions elicited by positive memories and images of positive future events has been minimally explored. We experimentally manipulated the vantage perspective from which a sample of undergraduate students (n =80) recalled positive memories and imagined positive future events. Participants who naturally recalled their positive memories from a field perspective reported decreased vividness and positive affect (i.e., happiness, optimism, hopefulness) when they were instructed to shift to an observer perspective. The same pattern of emotionality ratings was observed when participants' vantage perspective of imagined future events was manipulated. In contrast, shifting participants from observer to field perspective recall of positive memories did not result in changes in ratings of memory-related emotion, although we found an unexpected trend towards reduced vividness. For positive future events, shifting from an observer to a field perspective resulted in decreased vividness but did not lead to any changes in positive emotion. Our findings confirm that vantage perspective plays a key role in determining the emotional impact of positive memories, and demonstrate that this relationship is also evident for images of future positive events.

  6. Proactive modeling of water quality impacts of extreme precipitation events in a drinking water reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeznach, Lillian C; Hagemann, Mark; Park, Mi-Hyun; Tobiason, John E

    2017-10-01

    Extreme precipitation events are of concern to managers of drinking water sources because these occurrences can affect both water supply quantity and quality. However, little is known about how these low probability events impact organic matter and nutrient loads to surface water sources and how these loads may impact raw water quality. This study describes a method for evaluating the sensitivity of a water body of interest from watershed input simulations under extreme precipitation events. An example application of the method is illustrated using the Wachusett Reservoir, an oligo-mesotrophic surface water reservoir in central Massachusetts and a major drinking water supply to metropolitan Boston. Extreme precipitation event simulations during the spring and summer resulted in total organic carbon, UV-254 (a surrogate measurement for reactive organic matter), and total algae concentrations at the drinking water intake that exceeded recorded maximums. Nutrient concentrations after storm events were less likely to exceed recorded historical maximums. For this particular reservoir, increasing inter-reservoir transfers of water with lower organic matter content after a large precipitation event has been shown in practice and in model simulations to decrease organic matter levels at the drinking water intake, therefore decreasing treatment associated oxidant demand, energy for UV disinfection, and the potential for formation of disinfection byproducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Artistic Creativity and Extreme Events: The Heterogeneous Impact of War on Composers’ Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between extreme events and creativity is rather ambiguous and yet of significance across several disciplines. The following study adds to the debate by analyzing the impact of war on individual artistic output by building on a global sample of 115 prominent composers born after...

  8. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mons, Ute; Müezzinler, Aysel; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological...... 60 and older were included in this study, of whom 37 952 died from cardiovascular disease. Random effects meta-analysis of the association of smoking status with cardiovascular mortality yielded a summary hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.82 to 2.36) for current smokers and 1.37 (1.25 to 1......, and decreased continuously with time since smoking cessation in former smokers. Relative risk estimates for acute coronary events and for stroke events were somewhat lower than for cardiovascular mortality, but patterns were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Our study corroborates and expands evidence from previous studies...

  9. Impact of environmental factors on the distribution of extreme scouring (gouging) event, Canadian Beaufort shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco, Steve [Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth (Canada); Carr, Erin; Campbell, Patrick [Canadian Seabed Research Ltd., Porters Lake (Canada); Shearer, Jim [Shearer Consulting, Ottawa (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    A knowledge of the presence of scours, their dimensions and their return frequencies is highly important in the development of hydrocarbon offshore structures. Mapping surveys have identified 290 extreme scour events across the Canadian Beaufort shelf. This paper investigated the impact of environmental factors on the distribution of extreme scouring events in the Canadian Beaufort shelf. This study used the NEWBASE database of new ice scours to perform an analysis of the scours appearance mechanisms. The geotechnical zonation, the bathymetry and the shelf gradient were evaluated using these data. Estimation of the surficial sediment type, the surficial sediment thickness and sea ice regime were also made. It was found that the spatial distribution of extreme scour events is controlled by sea-ice regime, bathymetry and geotechnical zonation. The results obtained from mapping surveys suggested that the key controlling environmental factors may combine to limit the depth of extreme scour events to 5 meters.

  10. Inclusive Higgs boson production at the LHC in the kT-factorization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulov, N.A.; Malyshev, M.A.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the inclusive Higgs boson production in proton-proton collisions at the CERN LHC conditions using the k T -factorization approach. Our analysis is based on the dominant off-shell gluon-gluon fusion subprocess (where the transverse momenta of initial gluons are taken into account) and covers H→γγ, H→ZZ * →4l (where l=e,μ) and H→W + W - →e ± μ -+ ν anti ν decay channels. The transverse momentum dependent (or unintegrated) gluon densities in a proton were derived from Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini equation or, alternatively, were chosen in accordance with Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. We estimate the theoretical uncertainties of our calculations and compare our results with next-to-next-to-leading-order plus next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic ones obtained using collinear QCD factorization. Our predictions agree well with the latest experimental data taken by the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations at √(s)=8 and 13 TeV.

  11. Inclusive Higgs boson production at the LHC in the kT -factorization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulov, N. A.; Lipatov, A. V.; Malyshev, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the inclusive Higgs boson production in proton-proton collisions at the CERN LHC conditions using the kT-factorization approach. Our analysis is based on the dominant off-shell gluon-gluon fusion subprocess (where the transverse momenta of initial gluons are taken into account) and covers H →γ γ , H →Z Z*→4 l (where l =e , μ ) and H →W+W-→e±μ∓ν ν ¯ decay channels. The transverse momentum dependent (or unintegrated) gluon densities in a proton were derived from Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini equation, which resums large logarithmic terms proportional to ln s ˜ln 1 /x , important at high energies. As an alternative choice, we apply the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription, where the transverse momentum dependent gluon density is constructed from the known conventional parton distributions. We estimate the theoretical uncertainties of our calculations and compare our results with next-to-next-to-leading-order plus next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic ones obtained using collinear QCD factorization. Our predictions agree well with the latest experimental data taken by the CMS and ATLAS Collaborations at √{s }=8 and 13 TeV.

  12. Nonlinear impacts of small-scale natural events on Nineteenth Century human decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, S. M.; Schlichting, K. M.; Urbanova, T.; Allen, T. L.; Ruffing, C. M.; Hermans, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    Natural climatological events that occurred throughout the Nineteenth Century, such as floods, droughts and hurricanes had long-lived, far-reaching consequences on the human decision-making processes occurring in the northeast United States. These events impacted the hydrological cycle, both directly -though the building of various structures- and indirectly - through an increased understanding of science; and the changing relationship between humans and their environment. This paper examines these events and associated processes through: 1) identifying specific natural events throughout the time period, occurring globally, with initial conditions conducive to long-lived consequences; 2) examining the relationship between scientific enquiry, natural events and the proliferation of dams in the northeast landscape; and 3) the growth of public health concerns, awareness of bacteriology, and municipal water supply systems. Results of this research indicate that the relationship between knowledge systems, natural events and subsequent engineering or technological fixes is complex and highly dependent on initial conditions. It highlights the time period where humans became increasingly dependent on engineered solutions to environmental problems, many of which still hold fast in our contemporary landscape. It is relevant to natural, social and governance structures in place today. The principles behind the occurrence of the natural phenomena and subsequent research and design have not changed; and understanding key events or stages in the past is tantamount to making predictions for the future.

  13. Impact of extreme weather events and climate change for health and social care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Sarah; Fair, Alistair; Wistow, Jonathan; Val, Dimitri V; Oven, Katie

    2017-12-05

    This review, commissioned by the Research Councils UK Living With Environmental Change (LWEC) programme, concerns research on the impacts on health and social care systems in the United Kingdom of extreme weather events, under conditions of climate change. Extreme weather events considered include heatwaves, coldwaves and flooding. Using a structured review method, we consider evidence regarding the currently observed and anticipated future impacts of extreme weather on health and social care systems and the potential of preparedness and adaptation measures that may enhance resilience. We highlight a number of general conclusions which are likely to be of international relevance, although the review focussed on the situation in the UK. Extreme weather events impact the operation of health services through the effects on built, social and institutional infrastructures which support health and health care, and also because of changes in service demand as extreme weather impacts on human health. Strategic planning for extreme weather and impacts on the care system should be sensitive to within country variations. Adaptation will require changes to built infrastructure systems (including transport and utilities as well as individual care facilities) and also to institutional and social infrastructure supporting the health care system. Care sector organisations, communities and individuals need to adapt their practices to improve resilience of health and health care to extreme weather. Preparedness and emergency response strategies call for action extending beyond the emergency response services, to include health and social care providers more generally.

  14. Impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events on soil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges, Aritz; Epelde, Lur; Garbisu, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Most frequently, soil metal pollution results from the occurrence of repeated single-metal and, above all, multi-metal pollution events, with concomitant adverse consequences for soil quality. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) pollution events on soil quality, as reflected by the values of a variety of soil microbial parameters with potential as bioindicators of soil functioning. Specifically, parameters of microbial activity (potentially mineralizable nitrogen, β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase activity) and biomass (fungal and bacterial gene abundance by RT-qPCR) were determined, in the artificially metal-polluted soil samples, at regular intervals over a period of 26 weeks. Similarly, we studied the evolution over time of CaCl2-extractable metal fractions, in order to estimate metal bioavailability in soil. Different metals showed different values of bioavailability and relative bioavailability ([metal]bio/[metal]tot) in soil throughout the experiment, under both repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events. Both repeated Zn-pollution and multi-metal pollution events led to a significant reduction in the values of acid phosphatase activity, and bacterial and fungal gene abundance, reflecting the negative impact of these repeated events on soil microbial activity and biomass, and, hence, soil quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring the Human Ecology of the Younger Dryas Extraterrestrial Impact Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, D. J.; Erlandson, J. M.; Braje, T. J.; Culleton, B. J.

    2007-05-01

    Several lines of evidence now exist for a major extraterrestrial impact event in North America at 12.9 ka (the YDB). This impact partially destabilized the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets, triggered abrupt Younger Dryas cooling and extensive wildfires, and contributed to megafaunal extinction. This event also occurred soon after the well established colonization of the Americas by anatomically modern humans. Confirmation of this event would represent the first near-time extraterrestrial impact with significant effects on human populations. These likely included widespread, abrupt human mortality, population displacement, migration into less effected or newly established habitats, loss of cultural traditions, and resource diversification in the face of the massive megafaunal extinction and population reductions in surviving animal populations. Ultimately, these transformations established the context for the special character of plant and animal domestication and the emergence of agricultural economies in North America. We explore the Late Pleistocene archaeological record in North America within the context of documented major biotic changes associated with the YDB in North America and of the massive ecological affects hypothesized for this event.

  16. Thromboembolic events in Fabry disease and the impact of factor V Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, Malte; Karabul, Nesrin; Duning, Thomas; Schmitz, Boris; Schelleckes, Michael; Mesters, Rolf; Hense, Hans-Werner; Beck, Michael; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Brand, Eva

    2015-03-10

    Although several reports suggest an increased thromboembolic event rate, especially regarding strokes and TIAs at early age in patients with Fabry disease (FD), the risk for patients with FD to experience these events, the clinical relevance of additional risk factors including the concurrence of factor V Leiden (FVL), and the benefit of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) regarding these events remain unclear. Three hundred four consecutively recruited patients with FD were evaluated for their lifetime occurrence of thromboembolic events such as stroke, TIA, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. The thromboembolic risk was determined in patients with FD and concurrent FVL, and the impact of ERT was assessed. The 304 patients with FD had a median age of 41 years and 53 (17.4%) had experienced at least one thromboembolic event during their lifetime. Among 226 patients with FD screened for FVL, 16 gene carriers were identified (7.1%). The occurrence of thromboembolic events in patients with FD and concurrent FVL was significantly increased compared to those without FVL (hazard ratio = 5.45, 95% confidence interval 2.29-12.99; p risk of thromboembolic events compared to those without ERT (hazard ratio = 0.362, 95% confidence interval 0.132-0.992; p = 0.0422). This observational study confirms that patients with FD have a high risk of clinically relevant thromboembolic events, which could be aggravated by a concurrence of FVL. ERT might be of benefit in preventing vascular events in patients with FD. The latter observation needs confirmation, however, by randomized and controlled clinical trials. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Attributing anthropogenic impact on regional heat wave events using CAM5 model large ensemble simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, S. H.; Chen, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme heat waves have serious impacts on society. It was argued that the anthropogenic forcing might substantially increase the risk of extreme heat wave events (e.g. over western Europe in 2003 and over Russia in 2010). However, the regional dependence of such anthropogenic impact and the sensitivity of the attributed risk to the definition of heat wave still require further studies. In our research framework, the change in the frequency and severity of a heat wave event under current conditions is calculated and compared with the probability and magnitude of the event if the effects of particular external forcing, such as due to human influence, had been absent. In our research, we use the CAM5 large ensemble simulation from the CLIVAR C20C+ Detection and Attribution project (http://portal.nersc.gov/c20c/main.html, Folland et al. 2014) to detect the heat wave events occurred in both historical all forcing run and natural forcing only run. The heat wave events are identified by partial duration series method (Huth et al., 2000). We test the sensitivity of heat wave thresholds from daily maximum temperature (Tmax) in warm season (from May to September) between 1959 and 2013. We consider the anthropogenic effect on the later period (2000-2013) when the warming due to human impact is more evident. Using Taiwan and surrounding area as our preliminary research target, We found the anthropogenic effect will increase the heat wave day per year from 30 days to 75 days and make the mean starting(ending) day for heat waves events about 15-30 days earlier(later). Using the Fraction of Attribution Risk analysis to estimate the risk of frequency of heat wave day, our results show the anthropogenic forcing very likely increase the heat wave days over Taiwan by more than 50%. Further regional differences and sensitivity of the attributed risk to the definition of heat wave will be compared and discussed.

  18. Serious reportable events within the inpatient mental health care: Impact on physicians and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, J; Van Gerven, E; Lannoy, K; Panella, M; Euwema, M; Sermeus, W; De Hert, M; Vanhaecht, K

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of physicians and nurses involved in an adverse event within mental health. A quantitative, cross-sectional study was performed. Six Flemish psychiatric hospitals (Belgium) participated in this exploratory cross-sectional study. All psychiatrists and nurses working in these hospitals were invited to complete an online questionnaire in March 2013. 28 psychiatrists and 252 nurses completed the survey. 205 (73%) of the 280 respondents were personally involved at least once in an adverse event within their entire career. Respondents reported that the adverse event with the greatest impact was related to suicide in almost 64% of the cases. About one in eight respondents considered quitting their job because of it. Almost 18% declared that due to the impact of the event, they believed that the quality of the administered care was affected for longer than one month. Respondents stated that they received much support of colleagues (95%), the chief nurse (86%) and the partner (71%). Colleagues seemed to be most supportive in the recovery process. Physicians and nurses working in inpatient mental health care may be at high risk to being confronted with an adverse event at some point in their career. The influence on health professionals involved in an adverse event on their work is particularly important in the first 4-24h. Professionals at those moments had higher likelihood to be involved in another adverse event. Institutions should seriously consider giving support almost at that time. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of NBTI Aging on the Single-Event Upset of SRAM Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Bagatin, M; Gerardin, Simone; Paccagnella, Alessandro; Bagatin, Marta

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the impact of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) on the single-event upset rate of SRAM cells through experiments and SPICE simulations. We performed critical charge simulations introducing different degradation patterns in the cells, in three technology nodes, from 180 to 90 nm. The simulations results were checked with alpha-particle and heavy-ion irradiations on a 130-nm technology. Both simulations and experimental results show that NBTI degradation does not significantly affect the single-event upset SRAM cell rate as long as the parametric drift induced by aging is within 10\\%.

  20. Impact of climate change on heavy precipitation events of the Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricard, D.; Beaulant, A.L.; Deque, M.; Ducrocq, V.; Joly, A.; Joly, B.; Martin, E.; Nuissier, O.; Quintana Segui, P.; Ribes, A.; Sevault, F.; Somot, S.; Boe, J.

    2009-01-01

    A second topic covered by the CYPRIM project aims to characterize the evolution of heavy precipitation events in Mediterranean in the context of climate change. To this end, a continuous climate simulation from 1960 to 2099 has been run using a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model under IPCC A2 emission scenario. Various techniques of down-scaling, down to the very fine 2 km scale, and methods to highlight synoptic environments favourable to heavy rain, have been used to estimate the impact of climate change on precipitation and hydrology over South-East France, both for the whole autumn season and the heavy rain events. (authors)

  1. The Impact of Warm Pool El Nino Events on Antarctic Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Margaret M.; Newman, P. A.; Song, In-Sun; Frith, Stacey M.

    2011-01-01

    Warm pool El Nino (WPEN) events are characterized by positive sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific in austral spring and summer. Previous work found an enhancement in planetary wave activity in the South Pacific in austral spring, and a warming of 3-5 K in the Antarctic lower stratosphere during austral summer, in WPEN events as compared with ENSO neutral. In this presentation, we show that weakening of the Antarctic vortex during WPEN affects the structure and magnitude of high-latitude total ozone. We use total ozone data from TOMS and OMI, as well as station data from Argentina and Antarctica, to identify shifts in the longitudinal location of the springtime ozone minimum from its climatological position. In addition, we examine the sensitivity of the WPEN-related ozone response to the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). We then compare the observed response to WPEN events with Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry-climate model, version 2 (GEOS V2 CCM) simulations. Two, 50-year time-slice simulations are forced by annually repeating SST and sea ice climatologies, one set representing observed WPEN events and the second set representing neutral ENSO events, in a present-day climate. By comparing the two simulations, we isolate the impact of WPEN events on lower stratospheric ozone, and furthermore, examine the sensitivity of the WPEN ozone response to the phase of the QBO.

  2. Measurement of the k(T) distribution of particles in jets produced in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burke, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Chwalek, T; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lucchesi, D; Luci, C; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlok, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neubauer, S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Pagan Griso, S; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Peiffer, T; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Renz, M; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Saltó, O; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Trovato, M; Tsai, S-Y; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vallecorsa, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, M; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Weinelt, J; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Wynne, S M; Xie, S; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2009-06-12

    We present a measurement of the transverse momentum with respect to the jet axis (k(t)) of particles in jets produced in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV. Results are obtained for charged particles in a cone of 0.5 radians around the jet axis in events with dijet invariant masses between 66 and 737 GeV/c(2). The experimental data are compared to theoretical predictions obtained for fragmentation partons within the framework of resummed perturbative QCD using the modified leading log and next-to-modified leading log approximations. The comparison shows that trends in data are successfully described by the theoretical predictions, indicating that the perturbative QCD stage of jet fragmentation is dominant in shaping basic jet characteristics.

  3. Antecedent occipital alpha band activity predicts the impact of oculomotor events in perceptual switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori eNakatani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oculomotor events such as blinks and saccades transiently interrupt the visual input and, even though this mostly goes undetected, these brief interruptions could still influence the percept. In particular, both blinking and saccades facilitate switching in ambiguous figures such as the Necker cube. To investigate the neural state antecedent to these oculomotor events during the perception of an ambiguous figure, we measured the human scalp electroencephalogram (EEG. When blinking led to perceptual switching, antecedent occipital alpha band activity exhibited a transient increase in amplitude. When a saccade led to switching, a series of transient increases and decreases in amplitude was observed in the antecedent occipital alpha band activity. Our results suggest that the state of occipital alpha band activity predicts the impact of oculomotor events on the percept.

  4. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mons, Ute; Müezzinler, Aysel; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological...... 60 and older were included in this study, of whom 37 952 died from cardiovascular disease. Random effects meta-analysis of the association of smoking status with cardiovascular mortality yielded a summary hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.82 to 2.36) for current smokers and 1.37 (1.25 to 1...... in showing that smoking is a strong independent risk factor of cardiovascular events and mortality even at older age, advancing cardiovascular mortality by more than five years, and demonstrating that smoking cessation in these age groups is still beneficial in reducing the excess risk....

  5. The impact of continuity editing in narrative film on event segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Joseph P; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2011-01-01

    Filmmakers use continuity editing to engender a sense of situational continuity or discontinuity at editing boundaries. The goal of this study was to assess the impact of continuity editing on how people perceive the structure of events in a narrative film and to identify brain networks that are associated with the processing of different types of continuity editing boundaries. Participants viewed a commercially produced film and segmented it into meaningful events, while brain activity was recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We identified three degrees of continuity that can occur at editing locations: edits that are continuous in space, time, and action; edits that are discontinuous in space or time but continuous in action; and edits that are discontinuous in action as well as space or time. Discontinuities in action had the biggest impact on behavioral event segmentation, and discontinuities in space and time had minor effects. Edits were associated with large transient increases in early visual areas. Spatial-temporal changes and action changes produced strikingly different patterns of transient change, and they provided evidence that specialized mechanisms in higher order perceptual processing regions are engaged to maintain continuity of action in the face of spatiotemporal discontinuities. These results suggest that commercial film editing is shaped to support the comprehension of meaningful events that bridge breaks in low-level visual continuity, and even breaks in continuity of spatial and temporal location. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  6. Assessing potential impacts associated with contamination events in water distribution systems : a sensitivity analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M. J.; Janke, R.; Taxon, T. N. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS); (EPA)

    2010-11-01

    An understanding of the nature of the adverse effects that could be associated with contamination events in water distribution systems is necessary for carrying out vulnerability analyses and designing contamination warning systems. This study examines the adverse effects of contamination events using models for 12 actual water systems that serve populations ranging from about 104 to over 106 persons. The measure of adverse effects that we use is the number of people who are exposed to a contaminant above some dose level due to ingestion of contaminated tap water. For this study the number of such people defines the impact associated with an event. We consider a wide range of dose levels in order to accommodate a wide range of potential contaminants. For a particular contaminant, dose level can be related to a health effects level. For example, a dose level could correspond to the median lethal dose, i.e., the dose that would be fatal to 50% of the exposed population. Highly toxic contaminants may be associated with a particular response at a very low dose level, whereas contaminants with low toxicity may only be associated with the same response at a much higher dose level. This report focuses on the sensitivity of impacts to five factors that either define the nature of a contamination event or involve assumptions that are used in assessing exposure to the contaminant: (1) duration of contaminant injection, (2) time of contaminant injection, (3) quantity or mass of contaminant injected, (4) population distribution in the water distribution system, and (5) the ingestion pattern of the potentially exposed population. For each of these factors, the sensitivities of impacts to injection location and contaminant toxicity are also examined. For all the factors considered, sensitivity tends to increase with dose level (i.e., decreasing toxicity) of the contaminant, with considerable inter-network variability. With the exception of the population distribution (factor 4

  7. Modeling the impact of wintertime rain events on the thermal regime of permafrost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Westermann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present field measurements and numerical process modeling from western Svalbard showing that the ground surface temperature below the snow is impacted by strong wintertime rain events. During such events, rain water percolates to the bottom of the snow pack, where it freezes and releases latent heat. In the winter season 2005/2006, on the order of 20 to 50% of the wintertime precipitation fell as rain, thus confining the surface temperature to close to 0 °C for several weeks. The measured average ground surface temperature during the snow-covered period is −0.6 °C, despite of a snow surface temperature of on average −8.5 °C. For the considered period, the temperature threshold below which permafrost is sustainable on long timescales is exceeded. We present a simplified model of rain water infiltration in the snow coupled to a transient permafrost model. While small amounts of rain have only minor impact on the ground surface temperature, strong rain events have a long-lasting impact. We show that consecutively applying the conditions encountered in the winter season 2005/2006 results in the formation of an unfrozen zone in the soil after three to five years, depending on the prescribed soil properties. If water infiltration in the snow is disabled in the model, more time is required for the permafrost to reach a similar state of degradation.

  8. Computer-aided event tree analysis by the impact vector method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.E.P.

    1984-01-01

    In the development of the Probabilistic Risk Analysis of Angra I, the ' large event tree/small fault tree' approach was adopted for the analysis of the plant behavior in an emergency situation. In this work, the event tree methodology is presented along with the adaptations which had to be made in order to attain a correct description of the safety system performances according to the selected analysis method. The problems appearing in the application of the methodology and their respective solutions are presented and discussed, with special emphasis to the impact vector technique. A description of the ETAP code ('Event Tree Analysis Program') developed for constructing and quantifying event trees is also given in this work. A preliminary version of the small-break LOCA analysis for Angra 1 is presented as an example of application of the methodology and of the code. It is shown that the use of the ETAP code sigmnificantly contributes to decreasing the time spent in event tree analyses, making it viable the practical application of the analysis approach referred above. (author) [pt

  9. The health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events: systematic review (1978-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sian; Thomson, Hilary; Scott, John; Hamilton, Val; Hanlon, Phil; Morrison, David S; Bond, Lyndal

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of major multi-sport events on health and socioeconomic determinants of health in the population of the city hosting the event. Design Systematic review. Data sources We searched the following sources without language restrictions for papers published between 1978 and 2008: Applied Social Science Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), British Humanities Index (BHI), Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Econlit database, Embase, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) database, Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC) database, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS), Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Sportdiscus, Web of Knowledge, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, and the grey literature. Review methods Studies of any design that assessed the health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events on the host population were included. We excluded studies that used exclusively estimated data rather than actual data, that investigated host population support for an event or media portrayals of host cities, or that described new physical infrastructure. Studies were selected and critically appraised by two independent reviewers. Results Fifty four studies were included. Study quality was poor, with 69% of studies using a repeat cross-sectional design and 85% of quantitative studies assessed as being below 2+ on the Health Development Agency appraisal scale, often because of a lack of comparison group. Five studies, each with a high risk of bias, reported health related outcomes, which were suicide, paediatric health service demand, presentations for asthma in children (two studies), and problems related to illicit drug use. Overall, the data did not indicate clear negative or positive health impacts of major multi-sport events on host populations. The most frequently reported outcomes were economic outcomes (18 studies). The outcomes used were similar enough to allow us to perform a

  10. The health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events: systematic review (1978-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Gerry; Thomas, Sian; Thomson, Hilary; Scott, John; Hamilton, Val; Hanlon, Phil; Morrison, David S; Bond, Lyndal

    2010-05-20

    To assess the effects of major multi-sport events on health and socioeconomic determinants of health in the population of the city hosting the event. Systematic review. We searched the following sources without language restrictions for papers published between 1978 and 2008: Applied Social Science Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), British Humanities Index (BHI), Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Econlit database, Embase, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) database, Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC) database, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS), Medline, PreMedline, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Sportdiscus, Web of Knowledge, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts, and the grey literature. Review methods Studies of any design that assessed the health and socioeconomic impacts of major multi-sport events on the host population were included. We excluded studies that used exclusively estimated data rather than actual data, that investigated host population support for an event or media portrayals of host cities, or that described new physical infrastructure. Studies were selected and critically appraised by two independent reviewers. Fifty four studies were included. Study quality was poor, with 69% of studies using a repeat cross-sectional design and 85% of quantitative studies assessed as being below 2+ on the Health Development Agency appraisal scale, often because of a lack of comparison group. Five studies, each with a high risk of bias, reported health related outcomes, which were suicide, paediatric health service demand, presentations for asthma in children (two studies), and problems related to illicit drug use. Overall, the data did not indicate clear negative or positive health impacts of major multi-sport events on host populations. The most frequently reported outcomes were economic outcomes (18 studies). The outcomes used were similar enough to allow us to perform a narrative synthesis, but the overall

  11. Saharan Dust Event Impacts on Cloud Formation and Radiation over Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, M.; Nenes, A.; Vogel, B.; Vogel, H.; Barahona, D.; Karydis, V. A.; Kumar, P.; Kottmeier, C.; Blahak, U.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the impact of mineral dust particles on clouds, radiation and atmospheric state during a strong Saharan dust event over Europe in May 2008, applying a comprehensive online-coupled regional model framework that explicitly treats particle-microphysics and chemical composition. Sophisticated parameterizations for aerosol activation and ice nucleation, together with two-moment cloud microphysics are used to calculate the interaction of the different particles with clouds depending on their physical and chemical properties. The impact of dust on cloud droplet number concentration was found to be low, with just a slight increase in cloud droplet number concentration for both uncoated and coated dust. For temperatures lower than the level of homogeneous freezing, no significant impact of dust on the number and mass concentration of ice crystals was found, though the concentration of frozen dust particles reached up to 100 l-1 during the ice nucleation events. Mineral dust particles were found to have the largest impact on clouds in a temperature range between freezing level and the level of homogeneous freezing, where they determined the number concentration of ice crystals due to efficient heterogeneous freezing of the dust particles and modified the glaciation of mixed phase clouds. Our simulations show that during the dust events, ice crystals concentrations were increased twofold in this temperature range (compared to if dust interactions are neglected). This had a significant impact on the cloud optical properties, causing a reduction in the incoming short-wave radiation at the surface up to -75Wm-2. Including the direct interaction of dust with radiation caused an additional reduction in the incoming short-wave radiation by 40 to 80Wm-2, and the incoming long-wave radiation at the surface was increased significantly in the order of +10Wm-2. The strong radiative forcings associated with dust caused a reduction in surface temperature in the order of -0

  12. Saharan dust event impacts on cloud formation and radiation over Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bangert

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of mineral dust particles on clouds, radiation and atmospheric state during a strong Saharan dust event over Europe in May 2008, applying a comprehensive online-coupled regional model framework that explicitly treats particle microphysics and chemical composition. Sophisticated parameterizations for aerosol activation and ice nucleation, together with two-moment cloud microphysics are used to calculate the interaction of the different particles with clouds depending on their physical and chemical properties.

    The impact of dust on cloud droplet number concentration was found to be low, with just a slight increase in cloud droplet number concentration for both uncoated and coated dust. For temperatures lower than the level of homogeneous freezing, no significant impact of dust on the number and mass concentration of ice crystals was found, though the concentration of frozen dust particles reached up to 100 l−1 during the ice nucleation events. Mineral dust particles were found to have the largest impact on clouds in a temperature range between freezing level and the level of homogeneous freezing, where they determined the number concentration of ice crystals due to efficient heterogeneous freezing of the dust particles and modified the glaciation of mixed phase clouds.

    Our simulations show that during the dust events, ice crystals concentrations were increased twofold in this temperature range (compared to if dust interactions are neglected. This had a significant impact on the cloud optical properties, causing a reduction in the incoming short-wave radiation at the surface up to −75 W m−2. Including the direct interaction of dust with radiation caused an additional reduction in the incoming short-wave radiation by 40 to 80 W m−2, and the incoming long-wave radiation at the surface was increased significantly in the order of +10 W m−2.

    The

  13. The hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia: social impacts and triggering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Zêzere, José L.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Vaquero, José M.

    2015-04-01

    According to the Disaster database (Zêzere et al., 2014), a Disaster event is a set of flood and landslide cases sharing the same trigger, which may have a widespread spatial extension and a certain magnitude. The Disaster event with the highest number of floods and landslides cases occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 was registered between 20 and 28 December 1909. This event also caused important socioeconomic impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro basin and in the northern section of the Tagus basin. Despite such widespread impact in western Iberia there is no scientific publication addressing the triggering conditions and the social consequences of this disastrous event. Therefore, this work aims to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic event over Iberia. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20 Century Reanalysis dataset from NOAA and rainfall data from Iberian meteorological stations. The historical data source used to analyse the event of December 1909 in Portugal is the Disaster Database (Zêzere et al., 2014). This database contains detailed data on the spatial location and social impacts (fatalities, injuries, missing people, evacuated and homeless people) of hydro-geomorphologic disasters (flood and landslide cases) occurred in Portugal (1865-2010) and referred in newspapers. In Spain the data collection process was supported by the systematic analysis of daily newspapers and using the same entry criteria of the Disaster database, to ensure data integrity and enable comparison with Portuguese records. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning between Lisbon, Santarém, Porto and Guarda (in Portugal), until Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León, Palencia (in Spain). The social and economic impacts of the December 1909 disaster event were higher on the

  14. Asymptomatic and symptomatic embolic events in infective endocarditis: associated factors and clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Thaíssa S; Correia, Marcelo G; Golebiovski, Wilma F; Barbosa, Giovanna Ianini F; Weksler, Clara; Lamas, Cristiane C

    Embolic complications of infective endocarditis are common. The impact of asymptomatic embolism is uncertain. To determine the frequency of emboli due to IE and to identify events associated with embolism. Retrospective analysis of an endocarditis database, prospectively implemented, with a post hoc study driven by analysis of data on embolic events. Data was obtained from the International Collaboration Endocarditis case report forms and additional information on embolic events and imaging reports were obtained from the medical records. Variables associated with embolism were analyzed by the statistical software R version 3.1.0. In the study period, 2006-2011, 136 episodes of definite infective endocarditis were included. The most common complication was heart failure (55.1%), followed by embolism (50%). Among the 100 medical records analyzed for emboli in left-sided infective endocarditis, 36 (36%) were found to have had asymptomatic events, 11 (11%) to the central nervous system and 28 (28%) to the spleen. Cardiac surgery was performed in 98/136 (72%). In the multivariate analysis, splenomegaly was the only associated factor for embolism to any site (pinfective endocarditis of the mitral valve (p<0.05, OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.23-10) and male gender (p<0.05, OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.04-10). Splenectomy and cardiac surgery did not impact on in-hospital mortality. Asymptomatic embolism to the central nervous system and to the spleen were frequent. Splenomegaly was consistently associated with embolic events. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrating Urban Infrastructure and Health System Impact Modeling for Disasters and Mass-Casualty Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, J. M.; Kirsch, T.; Mitrani-Reiser, J.

    2017-12-01

    Over recent decades, natural disasters and mass-casualty events in United States have repeatedly revealed the serious consequences of health care facility vulnerability and the subsequent ability to deliver care for the affected people. Advances in predictive modeling and vulnerability assessment for health care facility failure, integrated infrastructure, and extreme weather events have now enabled a more rigorous scientific approach to evaluating health care system vulnerability and assessing impacts of natural and human disasters as well as the value of specific interventions. Concurrent advances in computing capacity also allow, for the first time, full integration of these multiple individual models, along with the modeling of population behaviors and mass casualty responses during a disaster. A team of federal and academic investigators led by the National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) is develoing a platform for integrating extreme event forecasts, health risk/impact assessment and population simulations, critical infrastructure (electrical, water, transportation, communication) impact and response models, health care facility-specific vulnerability and failure assessments, and health system/patient flow responses. The integration of these models is intended to develop much greater understanding of critical tipping points in the vulnerability of health systems during natural and human disasters and build an evidence base for specific interventions. Development of such a modeling platform will greatly facilitate the assessment of potential concurrent or sequential catastrophic events, such as a terrorism act following a severe heat wave or hurricane. This presentation will highlight the development of this modeling platform as well as applications not just for the US health system, but also for international science-based disaster risk reduction efforts, such as the Sendai Framework and the WHO SMART hospital project.

  16. An impact of deforestation by extreme weather events on Sphagnum peatland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowinski, M. M.; Łuców, D.; Kołaczek, P.; Tjallingii, R.; Lane, C. S.; Slowinska, S.; Tyszkowski, S.; Łokas, E.; Theuerkauf, M.; Brauer, A.; Lamentowicz, M.

    2017-12-01

    An increase in extreme weather phenomena has been observed over the last decades as a result of global climate warming. Terrestrial ecosystems are influenced by different types of disturbances such as e.g. deforestation, land-use, fragmentation, fire, floods or storms. Disturbance triggers may be natural or anthropogenic, but usually we observe negative feedback loops and interconnected causal factors. Here we investigate the effects of a tornado event on the peatland ecosystem of the Tuchola Pinewoods, Northern Poland. Deforestation by tornado events can cause severe perturbations of the hydrology and erosion that, in turn, affects adjacent lakes and peatlands. Martwe peatland provide an exceptional opportunity to study the impact of such extreme events, as it was struck by a tornado in 2012. Our research is focused on lake-peatland ecosystems that were directly affected by this tornado, and we consider the general transformation of the vegetation (mainly forests) over the last 150 years. Extensive clearing of the forest occurred in the nineteenth century due to human activity, and we compare this with the impact of the 2012 tornado. Accurate reconstructions will rely on a broad range of palaeoecological techniques such as pollen, macro-remains and testate amoebae, but also on geochemistry, i.e. μXRF scanning. The chronology of the records is based on 210Pb and radiocarbon dating and will incorporate correlations using (crypto)tephra markers of the Eyjafjöll (2010) and Askja (1875) eruptions. We expect to observe that disturbance (tornado-induced deforestation) affects the short-term changes in peatland productivity and biodiversity, through a cascading "top-down" effect. This research addresses the emerging issue of the impact of extreme phenomena and more general climate changes on peatland ecosystems, which will potentially help to inform adaptations to the environmental consequences of extreme events in the future. This project is funded by the Polish

  17. The impact of occupational hazards and traumatic events among Belgian emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somville, Francis J; De Gucht, Véronique; Maes, Stan

    2016-04-27

    Emergency Physicians (EPs) are regularly confronted with work related traumatic events and hectic work conditions. Several studies mention a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychosomatic complaints in EP. The main objective of this study is to examine the contribution of demographics, traumatic events, life events, the occurrence of occupational hazards and social support to post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), psychological distress, fatigue, somatic complaints and job satisfaction in Emergency Physicians. For this study questionnaires were distributed to Belgian Emergency Physicians, These include, as determinants socio-demographic characteristics, traumatic events, life events, the occurrence of physical hazards, occurrences of violence, occurrence of situations that increase the risk of burnout and social support by supervisors and colleagues (LQWQ-Med), and as outcomes PTSS (IES), psychological distress (BSI), somatic complaints (PHQ 15), perceived fatigue (CIS20 R) and job satisfaction (LQWQ-MD). The response rate was 52.3 %. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the determinants and each of the outcomes. Emergency Physicians are particularly vulnerable to post-traumatic and chronic stress consequences due to repetitive exposure to work related traumatic incidents such as serious injuries or death of a child/adolescent. One out of three Emergency Physicians met sub-clinical levels of anxiety and 14.5 % met a clinical level of PTSD, short for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Levels of fatigue were high but not directly related to traumatic events and occupational hazards. Social support from colleagues was found to have a beneficial effect on these complaints. Job satisfaction seems to have a protective factor. All of these not only affect the Emergency Physicians themselves, but can also have an adverse impact on patient care. EPs are, according to our and other studies

  18. Persistent impacts to the deep soft-bottom benthos one year after the Deepwater Horizon event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Paul A; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Cooksey, Cynthia; Hyland, Jeffrey L

    2017-03-01

    In fall 2010, several months after the Deepwater Horizon blowout was capped, zones of moderate and severe impacts to deep-sea, soft-bottom benthos were identified that together extended over an area of 172 km 2 . A subset of stations sampled in 2010 was resampled in May and June 2011, 10 to 11 months after the event, to determine whether the identified adverse effects were persisting. The design compared 20 stations from the combined moderate and severe impact zone to 12 stations in the reference zone that were sampled in both years. There were no statistically significant differences in contaminant concentrations between the impact and nonimpact zones from 2010 to 2011, which indicates contaminants persisted after 1 y. Whereas there were some signs of recovery in 2011 (particularly for the meiofauna abundance and diversity), there was evidence of persistent, statistically significant impacts to both macrofauna and meiofauna community structure. Macrofaunal taxa richness and diversity in 2011 were still 22.8% and 35.9% less, respectively, in the entire impact zone than in the surrounding nonimpact area, and meiofaunal richness was 28.5% less in the entire impact zone than in the surrounding area. The persistence of significant biodiversity losses and community structure change nearly 1 y after the wellhead was capped indicates that full recovery had yet to have occurred in 2011. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:342-351. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  19. Air quality impacts of a CicLAvia event in Downtown Los Angeles, CA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Shi; Batteate, Christina; Cole, Brian; Froines, John; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-01-01

    CicLAvia in Los Angeles, CA is the open streets program that closes streets to motorized vehicles and invites people to walk, run, play or ride their bicycles on these streets, allowing them to experience the city in a new way and get exercise at the same time. Since the events reduce the motorized traffic flow, which is a significant source of air pollution, on the streets, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the CicLAvia events can reduce the concentrations of traffic-emitted air pollutants during the road closure. This study is the first experiment to test this hypothesis. The on-road and community-wide ultrafine particle (UFP) and PM_2_._5 were measured on the Event-Sunday (October 5th, 2014) and the Pre- and Post- Sundays (September 28"t"h and October 12"t"h, 2014). Data analysis results showed the on-road UFP and PM_2_._5 reduction was 21% and 49%, respectively, and the community-wide PM_2_._5 reduction was 12%. - Highlights: • A natural experiment on air quality impacts of one CicLAvia event was conducted. • The CicLAvia event reduced traffic flow from 1,100 vehicles h"−"1 to zero. • On-road ultrafine particle and PM_2_._5 reduction was 21% and 49% respectively. • Community-wide PM_2_._5 reduction was 12%. - This study showed the CicLAvia event on October 5th, 2014 had reduced the on-road and community-wide concentrations of ultrafine particles and PM_2_._5.

  20. Shattering world assumptions: A prospective view of the impact of adverse events on world assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Eric R; Boals, Adriel

    2016-05-01

    Shattered Assumptions theory (Janoff-Bulman, 1992) posits that experiencing a traumatic event has the potential to diminish the degree of optimism in the assumptions of the world (assumptive world), which could lead to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Prior research assessed the assumptive world with a measure that was recently reported to have poor psychometric properties (Kaler et al., 2008). The current study had 3 aims: (a) to assess the psychometric properties of a recently developed measure of the assumptive world, (b) to retrospectively examine how prior adverse events affected the optimism of the assumptive world, and (c) to measure the impact of an intervening adverse event. An 8-week prospective design with a college sample (N = 882 at Time 1 and N = 511 at Time 2) was used to assess the study objectives. We split adverse events into those that were objectively or subjectively traumatic in nature. The new measure exhibited adequate psychometric properties. The report of a prior objective or subjective trauma at Time 1 was related to a less optimistic assumptive world. Furthermore, participants who experienced an intervening objectively traumatic event evidenced a decrease in optimistic views of the world compared with those who did not experience an intervening adverse event. We found support for Shattered Assumptions theory retrospectively and prospectively using a reliable measure of the assumptive world. We discuss future assessments of the measure of the assumptive world and clinical implications to help rebuild the assumptive world with current therapies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report - Extended Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The effects of space weather on modern technological systems are well documented in both the technical literature and popular accounts. Most often cited perhaps is the collapse within 90 seconds of northeastern Canada's Hydro-Quebec power grid during the great geomagnetic storm of March 1989, which left millions of people without electricity for up to 9 hours. This event exemplifies the dramatic impact that severe space weather can have on a technology upon which modern society critically depends. Nearly two decades have passed since the March 1989 event. During that time, awareness of the risks of severe space weather has increased among the affected industries, mitigation strategies have been developed, new sources of data have become available, new models of the space environment have been created, and a national space weather infrastructure has evolved to provide data, alerts, and forecasts to an increasing number of users. Now, 20 years later and approaching a new interval of increased solar activity, how well equipped are we to manage the effects of space weather? Have recent technological developments made our critical technologies more or less vulnerable? How well do we understand the broader societal and economic impacts of severe space weather events? Are our institutions prepared to cope with the effects of a 'space weather Katrina,' a rare, but according to the historical record, not inconceivable eventuality? On May 22 and 23, 2008, a one-and-a-half-day workshop held in Washington, D.C., under the auspices of the National Research Council's (NRC's) Space Studies Board brought together representatives of industry, the federal government, and the social science community to explore these and related questions. The key themes, ideas, and insights that emerged during the presentations and discussions are summarized in 'Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report' (The National Academies Press, Washington, D

  2. Reliability and validity of the Impact of Event Scale (IES): version for Brazilian burn victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria-Guanilo, Maria E; Dantas, Rosana A S; Farina, Jayme A; Alonso, Jordi; Rajmil, Luis; Rossi, Lídia A

    2011-06-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the internal reliability (internal consistency), construct validity, sensitivity and ceiling and floor effects of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Impact of Event Scale (IES). Methodological research design. The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the IES was applied to a group of 91 burned patients at three times: the first week after the burn injury (time one), between the fourth and the sixth months (time two) and between the ninth and the 12th months (time three). The internal consistency, construct validity (convergent and dimensionality), sensitivity and ceiling and floor effects were tested. Cronbach's alpha coefficients showed high internal consistency for the total scale (0·87) and for the domains intrusive thoughts (0·87) and avoidance responses (0·76). During the hospitalisation (time one), the scale showed low and positive correlations with pain measures immediately before (r=0·22; pnegative correlations with self-esteem (r=-0·52; plow and negative with the Bodily pain (r=-0·24; pimpact of the event in the group of patients under analysis. The Impact of Event Scale can be used in research and clinical practice to assess nursing interventions aimed at decreasing stress during rehabilitation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Multimodal interaction in the perception of impact events displayed via a multichannel audio and simulated structure-borne vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, William L.; Woszczyk, Wieslaw

    2005-09-01

    For multimodal display systems in which realistic reproduction of impact events is desired, presenting structure-borne vibration along with multichannel audio recordings has been observed to create a greater sense of immersion in a virtual acoustic environment. Furthermore, there is an increased proportion of reports that the impact event took place within the observer's local area (this is termed ``presence with'' the event, in contrast to ``presence in'' the environment in which the event occurred). While holding the audio reproduction constant, varying the intermodal arrival time and level of mechanically displayed, synthetic whole-body vibration revealed a number of other subjective attributes that depend upon multimodal interaction in the perception of a representative impact event. For example, when the structure-borne component of the displayed impact event arrived 10 to 20 ms later than the airborne component, the intermodal delay was not only tolerated, but gave rise to an increase in the proportion of reports that the impact event had greater power. These results have enabled the refinement of a multimodal simulation in which the manipulation of synthetic whole-body vibration can be used to control perceptual attributes of impact events heard within an acoustic environment reproduced via a multichannel loudspeaker array.

  4. Life stress versus traumatic stress: The impact of life events on psychological functioning in children with and without serious illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Victoria W; Long, Alanna; Phipps, Sean

    2016-01-01

    To determine the differential impact of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and other stressful life events on psychological functioning in 2 groups of children: those with cancer and those without history of serious illness. Children with cancer age 8-17 (n = 254) and age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched controls (n = 142) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and psychological functioning. Stressful life events included those that may meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) A1 criteria (PTEs; 9 events) and others that would likely not (other events; 21 events). Children with cancer endorsed significantly more PTEs than control children. There were no differences between groups in number of other events experienced. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that number of other events accounted for significant variance in psychological functioning, above and beyond group status, demographic factors (age and socioeconomic status), and number of PTEs. The number of cumulative other events experienced is a significant predictor of psychological functioning in both youth with serious illness and controls. In contrast, cumulative PTEs appear to have a minor (albeit significant) impact on children's psychological functioning. Assessment of psychological functioning would benefit from a thorough history of stressful life events, regardless of their potential traumatic impact. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Tying Extinction Events to Comet Impacts Large Enough to Cause an Extinction in Themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgener, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Comets over 35 km in size impacting Earth will create vast fireballs, and will boil large parts of the oceans, causing extinction events in themselves. They will likely provide enough energy to shatter the crust and eject large masses of molten rock from the mantle, forming traps. Traps are clearly associated with extinction events, but are not expected to cause extinctions. While Chicxulub is recognized to have occurred at the time of the K/Pg boundary layer, it is recognized as being too small in itself to cause an extinction. Are large comet impacts likely? The Kuiper belt has more than 100,000 objects over 100 km in diameter and millions over 10 km. Typically their orbits are less stable than asteroid orbits due to large bodies such as Pluto moving through the belt. The asteroid belt has only 10,000 objects over 10 km diameter. Comet impacts should be more common than asteroid impacts, yet none of the recognized craters are expected to be due to comets. There are many features on Earth that are poorly explained by Plate Tectonics that would be well explained if they were considered to be comet impact craters. A consideration of the Black Sea and the Tarim Basin will show that impact interpretations are a better fit than the present Plate Tectonics' explanations. Both basins are in the midst of mountain building from plate collisions, but are themselves not being disturbed by the plate collisions. Both are ellipses angled at 23.4 degrees to the equator, matching the angle expected for a low angle impact from a comet traveling in the ecliptic. Both are too deep at 15 km depths to be standard oceans (typically 5 km deep). Both are filled with horizontal layers of sediments, undisturbed by the mountain building occurring at the edges. Both have thin crusts and high Moho boundaries. Both have thin lithosphere. Yet both show GPS movement of the land around them moving away from them, as though they were much thicker and stronger than the surrounding land. The Tarim

  6. Discrete event simulation model of sudden cardiac death predicts high impact of preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Victor P; Head, Trajen; Johnson, Neil; Deo, Sapna K; Daunert, Sylvia; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J

    2013-01-01

    Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) is responsible for at least 180,000 deaths a year and incurs an average cost of $286 billion annually in the United States alone. Herein, we present a novel discrete event simulation model of SCD, which quantifies the chains of events associated with the formation, growth, and rupture of atheroma plaques, and the subsequent formation of clots, thrombosis and on-set of arrhythmias within a population. The predictions generated by the model are in good agreement both with results obtained from pathological examinations on the frequencies of three major types of atheroma, and with epidemiological data on the prevalence and risk of SCD. These model predictions allow for identification of interventions and importantly for the optimal time of intervention leading to high potential impact on SCD risk reduction (up to 8-fold reduction in the number of SCDs in the population) as well as the increase in life expectancy.

  7. Bounding the Resource Availability of Partially Ordered Events with Constant Resource Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    We compare existing techniques to bound the resource availability of partially ordered events. We first show that, contrary to intuition, two existing techniques, one due to Laborie and one due to Muscettola, are not strictly comparable in terms of the size of the search trees generated under chronological search with a fixed heuristic. We describe a generalization of these techniques called the Flow Balance Constraint to tightly bound the amount of available resource for a set of partially ordered events with piecewise constant resource impact We prove that the new technique generates smaller proof trees under chronological search with a fixed heuristic, at little increase in computational expense. We then show how to construct tighter resource bounds but at increased computational cost.

  8. Impact of Service Quality of House Wedding Events on the Service Value and Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Soungyeon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the current popularity of the newly emerged house wedding events (HWE, this study aims to investigate the impact of service quality of house wedding events on service value and satisfaction of customers. Based on literature review, two main components of HWE service quality attributes were selected: physical service and human service. For service value, three components were chosen: social, aesthetic, and monetary value. The study conducted self-administered questionnaire survey from July 1st to August 31st 2013 targeting 300 male and female over age 20 with experiences of participating in HWE held in Seoul metropolitan areas. The final valid samples were 267 copies. Frequency analysis, exploratory factor analysis, reliability analysis and regression analysis were conducted on the collected data. The result of this study showed a significant positive impact of HWE’s service quality, which in turn influence satisfaction. In addition, the study found the direct impact of HWE’s service quality on customer satisfaction. Based on the results, this study also discussed practical implications.

  9. Below Regulatory Conern Owners Group: Radiologic impact of accidents and unexpected events from disposal of BRC waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, D.A.; Dolan, M.M.; Rish, W.R.; Rossi, A.J.; McCourt, J.E.

    1989-07-01

    This report determines the radiological impact of accidents and unexpected events in the disposal of Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) waste. The accident analysis considers the transportation, incineration, and disposal of BRC waste as municipal solid waste. The potential greatest radiological impact for each type of accident is identified through the use of event trees. These accident events are described in terms of the generic waste property(ies) (e.g., flammability, dispersibility, leachability, and solubility) that cause the greatest radiological impact. 7 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Focused process improvement events: sustainability of impact on process and performance in an academic radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Lawson, Kirk; Ally, Rosina; Chen, David; Donno, Frank; Rittberg, Steven; Rodriguez, Joan; Recht, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate sustainability of impact of rapid, focused process improvement (PI) events on process and performance within an academic radiology department. Our department conducted PI during 2011 and 2012 in CT, MRI, ultrasound, breast imaging, and research billing. PI entailed participation by all stakeholders, facilitation by the department chair, collection of baseline data, meetings during several weeks, definition of performance metrics, creation of an improvement plan, and prompt implementation. We explore common themes among PI events regarding initial impact and durability of changes. We also assess performance in each area pre-PI, immediately post-PI, and at the time of the current study. All PI events achieved an immediate improvement in performance metrics, often entailing both examination volumes and on-time performance. IT-based solutions, process standardization, and redefinition of staff responsibilities were often central in these changes, and participants consistently expressed improved internal leadership and problem-solving ability. Major environmental changes commonly occurred after PI, including a natural disaster with equipment loss, a change in location or services offered, and new enterprise-wide electronic medical record system incorporating new billing and radiology informatics systems, requiring flexibility in the PI implementation plan. Only one PI team conducted regular post-PI follow-up meetings. Sustained improvement was frequently, but not universally, observed: in the long-term following initial PI, measures of examination volume showed continued progressive improvements, whereas measures of operational efficiency remained stable or occasionally declined. Focused PI is generally effective in achieving performance improvement, although a changing environment influences the sustainability of impact. Thus, continued process evaluation and ongoing workflow modifications are warranted. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology

  11. Women's financial planning for retirement: the impact of disruptive life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orel, Nancy A; Ford, Ruth A; Brock, Charlene

    2004-01-01

    Providing care for an aged parent has immediate financial, emotional, psychological, and physical consequences for the primary caregiver. This pilot study of 138 middle aged and older females analyzes the long term financial consequences of providing care to aged relatives for female caregivers. The impact of this disruptive life event (e.g., caring for an aged relative) on retirement planning among middle aged and older adult women was analyzed using quantitative data collected from women residing in the Midwest region of the United States.

  12. The impact of extreme flooding events and anthropogenic stressors on the macrobenthic communities’ dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, P. G.; Raffaelli, D.; Lillebø, A. I.; Verdelhos, T.; Pardal, M. A.

    2008-02-01

    Marine and coastal environments are among the most ecologically and socio-economically important habitats on Earth. However, climate change associated with a variety of anthropogenic stressors (e.g. eutrophication) may interact to produce combined impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, which in turn will have profound implications for marine ecosystems and the economic and social systems that depend upon them. Over period 1980-2000, the environment of the Mondego estuary, Portugal, has deteriorated through eutrophication, manifested in the replacement of seagrasses by opportunistic macroalgae, degradation of water quality and increased turbidity, and the system has also experienced extreme flood events. A restoration plan was implemented in 1998 which aimed to reverse the eutrophication effects, especially to restore the original natural seagrass ( Zostera noltii) community. This paper explores the interactions between extreme weather events (e.g. intense floods) and anthropogenic stressors (e.g. eutrophication) on the dynamics of the macrobenthic assemblages and the socio-economic implications that follow. We found that during the previous decade, the intensification of extreme flooding events had significant effects on the structure and functioning of macrobenthic communities, specifically a decline in total biomass, a decline in species richness and a decline in suspension feeders. However, the earlier eutrophication process also strongly modified the macrobenthic community, seen as a decline in species richness, increase in detritivores and a decline in herbivores together with a significant increase in small deposit-feeding polychaetes. After the implementation of the management plan, macrobenthic assemblages seemed to be recovering from eutrophication, but it is argued here that those earlier impacts reduced system stability and the resilience of the macrobenthic assemblages, so that its ability to cope with other stressors was compromised. Thus

  13. Identifying evidence of climate change impact on extreme events in permeable chalk catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. P.; Nubert, S.

    2009-12-01

    The permeable chalk catchments of southern England are vital for the economy and well being of the UK. Not only important as a water resource, their freely draining soils support intensive agricultural production, and the rolling downs and chalk streams provide important habitants for many protected plant and animal species. Consequently, there are concerns about the potential impact of climate change on such catchments, particularly in relation to groundwater recharge. Of major concern are possible changes in extreme events, such as groundwater floods and droughts, as any increase in the frequency and/or severity of these has important consequences for water resources, ecological systems and local infrastructure. Studies of climate change impact on extreme events for such catchments have indicated that, under medium and high emissions scenarios, droughts are likely to become more severe whilst floods less so. However, given the uncertainties in such predictions and the inherent variability in historic data, producing definitive evidence of changes in flood/drought frequency/severity poses a significant challenge. Thus, there is a need for specific extreme event statistics that can be used as indicators of actual climate change in streamflow and groundwater level observations. Identifying such indicators that are sufficiently robust requires catchments with long historic time series data. One such catchment is the River Lavant, an intermittent chalk stream in West Sussex, UK. Located within this catchment is Chilgrove House, the site of the UK’s longest groundwater monitoring well (with a continuous record of water level observations of varying frequency dating back to 1836). Using a variety of meteorological datasets, the behaviour of the catchment has been modelled, from 1855 to present, using a 'leaky aquifer' conceptual model. Model calibration was based on observed daily streamflow, at a gauging station just outside the town of Chichester, from 1970. Long

  14. Developing research about extreme events and impacts to support international climate policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike; James, Rachel; Parker, Hannah; Boyd, Emily; Jones, Richard; Allen, Myles; Mitchell, Daniel; Cornforth, Rosalind

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have some of its most significant impacts through changes in the frequency and severity of extreme events. There is a pressing need for policy to support adaptation to changing climate risks, and to deal with residual loss and damage from climate change. In 2013, the Warsaw International Mechanism was established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to address loss and damage in developing countries. Strategies to help vulnerable regions cope with losses from extreme events will presumably require information about the influence of anthropogenic forcing on extreme weather. But what kind of scientific evidence will be most useful for the Warsaw Mechanism? And how can the scientific communities working on extreme events and impacts develop their research to support the advance of this important policy? As climate scientists conducting probabilistic event attribution studies, we have been working with social scientists to investigate these questions. Our own research seeks to examine the role of external drivers, including greenhouse gas emissions, on the risk of extreme weather events such as heatwaves, flooding, and drought. We use large ensembles of climate models to compute the probability of occurrence of extreme events under current conditions and in a world which might have been without anthropogenic interference. In cases where the models are able to simulate extreme weather, the analysis allows for conclusions about the extent to which climate change may have increased, decreased, or made no change to the risk of the event occurring. These results could thus have relevance for the UNFCCC negotiations on loss and damage, and we have been communicating with policymakers and observers to the policy process to better understand how we can develop our research to support their work; by attending policy meetings, conducting interviews, and using a participatory game developed with the Red Cross

  15. Impact of political and legislative events on the front end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines recent political and legislative events in the U.S. which could impact the supply of natural uranium, uranium hexafluoride, conversion services, and uranium enrichment services. While the industry has been clouded with continuing uncertainty resulting from the ongoing miners vs. DOE litigation and a number of legislative proposals to embargo the import of uranium, very little attention was being paid to the free trade agreement discussions which were taking place between the U.S. and Canada. However, with a draft agreement now being fact and its ratification a possibility by mid-1988, the front end of the fuel cycle may finally begin to achieve some normalcy within the next year. The impact of these factors on the industry are addressed

  16. The impact of inpatient boarding on ED efficiency: a discrete-event simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Aaron E; Song, Wheyming T; Chen, Yi-Chun; Morris, Beth A

    2010-10-01

    In this study, a discrete-event simulation approach was used to model Emergency Department's (ED) patient flow to investigate the effect of inpatient boarding on the ED efficiency in terms of the National Emergency Department Crowding Scale (NEDOCS) score and the rate of patients who leave without being seen (LWBS). The decision variable in this model was the boarder-released-ratio defined as the ratio of admitted patients whose boarding time is zero to all admitted patients. Our analysis shows that the Overcrowded(+) (a NEDOCS score over 100) ratio decreased from 88.4% to 50.4%, and the rate of LWBS patients decreased from 10.8% to 8.4% when the boarder-released-ratio changed from 0% to 100%. These results show that inpatient boarding significantly impacts both the NEDOCS score and the rate of LWBS patient and this analysis provides a quantification of the impact of boarding on emergency department patient crowding.

  17. A tool to determine financial impact of adverse events in health care: healthcare quality calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Wendell G; Sewell, Andrew; Tickle, Erin; Rhinehardt, Eric; Harkleroad, Rod; Bennett, Marc; Johnson, Deborah; Wen, Li; Pfeiffer, Matthew; Benegas, Manny; Morath, Julie

    2014-12-01

    Hospital leaders lack tools to determine the financial impact of poor patient outcomes and adverse events. To provide health-care leaders with decision support for investments to improve care, we created a tool, the Healthcare Quality Calculator (HQCal), which uses institution-specific financial data to calculate impact of poor patient outcomes or quality improvement on present and future margin. Excel and Web-based versions of the HQCal were based on a cohort study framework and created with modular components including major drivers of cost and reimbursement. The Healthcare Quality Calculator (HQCal) compares payment, cost, and profit/loss for patients with and without poor outcomes or quality issues. Cost and payment information for groups with and without quality issues are used by the HQCal to calculate profit or loss. Importantly, institution-specific payment and cost data are used to calculate financial impact and attributable cost associated with poor patient outcomes, adverse events, or quality issues. Because future cost and reimbursement changes can be forecast, the HQCal incorporates a forward-looking component. The flexibility of the HQCal was demonstrated using surgical site infections after abdominal surgery and postoperative surgical airway complications. The Healthcare Quality Calculator determines financial impact of poor patient outcomes and the benefit of initiatives to improve quality. The calculator can identify quality issues that would provide the largest financial benefit if improved; however, it cannot identify specific interventions. The calculator provides a tool to improve transparency regarding both short- and long-term financial consequences of funding, or failing to fund, initiatives to close gaps in quality or improve patient outcomes.

  18. Financial impact of inaccurate Adverse Event recording post Hip Fracture surgery: Addendum to 'Adverse event recording post hip fracture surgery'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew J; Doody, Kevin; Mohamed, Khalid M S; Butler, Audrey; Street, John; Lenehan, Brian

    2018-02-15

    A study in 2011 by (Doody et al. Ir Med J 106(10):300-302, 2013) looked at comparing inpatient adverse events recorded prospectively at the point of care, with adverse events recorded by the national Hospital In-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) System. In the study, a single-centre University Hospital in Ireland treating acute hip fractures in an orthopaedic unit recorded 39 patients over a 2-month (August-September 2011) period, with 55 adverse events recorded prospectively in contrast to the HIPE record of 13 (23.6%) adverse events. With the recent change in the Irish hospital funding model from block grant to an 'activity-based funding' on the basis of case load and case complexity, the hospital financial allocation is dependent on accurate case complexity coding. A retrospective assessment of the financial implications of the two methods of adverse incident recording was carried out. A total of €39,899 in 'missed funding' for 2 months was calculated when the ward-based, prospectively collected data was compared to the national HIPE data. Accurate data collection is paramount in facilitating activity-based funding, to improve patient care and ensure the appropriate allocation of resources.

  19. [Medication adverse events: Impact of pharmaceutical consultations during the hospitalization of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santucci, R; Levêque, D; Herbrecht, R; Fischbach, M; Gérout, A C; Untereiner, C; Bouayad-Agha, K; Couturier, F

    2014-11-01

    The medication iatrogenic events are responsible for nearly one iatrogenic event in five. The main purpose of this prospective multicenter study is to determine the effect of pharmaceutical consultations on the occurrence of medication adverse events during hospitalization (MAE). The other objectives are to study the impact of age, of the number of medications and pharmaceutical consultations on the risk of MAE. The pharmaceutical consultation is associated to a complete reassessment done by both a physician and a pharmacist for the home medication, the hospital treatment (3days after admission), the treatment during chemotherapy, and/or, the treatment when the patient goes back home. All MAE are subject to an advice for the patient, additional clinical-biological monitoring and/or prescription changes. Among the 318 patients, 217 (68%) had 1 or more clinically important MAE (89% drug-drug interaction, 8% dosing error, 2% indication error, 1% risk behavior). The patients have had 1121 pharmaceutical consultations (3.2±1.4/patient). Thus, the pharmaceutical consultations divided by 2.34 the risk of MAE (unadjusted incidence ratio, P≤0.05). Each consultation decreased by 24% the risk of MAE. Moreover, adding one medication increases from 14 to 30% as a risk of MAE on the population. Pharmaceutical consultations during the hospital stay could reduce significantly the number of medication adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutrient losses from manure and fertilizer applications as impacted by time to first runoff event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Owens, P.R.; Leytem, A.B.; Warnemuende, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient losses to surface waters following fertilization contribute to eutrophication. This study was conducted to compare the impacts of fertilization with inorganic fertilizer, swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure or poultry (Gallus domesticus) litter on runoff water quality, and how the duration between application and the first runoff event affects resulting water quality. Fertilizers were applied at 35 kg P ha -1 , and the duration between application and the first runoff event varied between 1 and 29 days. Swine manure was the greatest risk to water quality 1 day after fertilization due to elevated phosphorus (8.4 mg P L -1 ) and ammonium (10.3 mg NH 4 -N L -1 ) concentrations; however, this risk decreased rapidly. Phosphorus concentrations were 2.6 mg L -1 29 days after fertilization with inorganic fertilizer. This research demonstrates that manures might be more environmentally sustainable than inorganic fertilizers, provided runoff events do not occur soon after application. - Fertilization with manures results in lower nutrient runoff than inorganic fertilizers, especially if at least one week passes between fertilization and runoff

  1. Predicting extreme rainfall events over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Impact of data assimilation with conventional and satellite observations

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Srinivas, C.V.; Langodan, Sabique; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The impact of variational data assimilation for predicting two heavy rainfall events that caused devastating floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia is studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. On 25 November 2009 and 26 January 2011

  2. Tsunami Source Identification on the 1867 Tsunami Event Based on the Impact Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    The 1867 Keelung tsunami event has drawn significant attention from people in Taiwan. Not only because the location was very close to the 3 nuclear power plants which are only about 20km away from the Taipei city but also because of the ambiguous on the tsunami sources. This event is unique in terms of many aspects. First, it was documented on many literatures with many languages and with similar descriptions. Second, the tsunami deposit was discovered recently. Based on the literatures, earthquake, 7-meter tsunami height, volcanic smoke, and oceanic smoke were observed. Previous studies concluded that this tsunami was generated by an earthquake with a magnitude around Mw7.0 along the Shanchiao Fault. However, numerical results showed that even a Mw 8.0 earthquake was not able to generate a 7-meter tsunami. Considering the steep bathymetry and intense volcanic activities along the Keelung coast, one reasonable hypothesis is that different types of tsunami sources were existed, such as the submarine landslide or volcanic eruption. In order to confirm this scenario, last year we proposed the Tsunami Reverse Tracing Method (TRTM) to find the possible locations of the tsunami sources. This method helped us ruling out the impossible far-field tsunami sources. However, the near-field sources are still remain unclear. This year, we further developed a new method named 'Impact Intensity Analysis' (IIA). In the IIA method, the study area is divided into a sequence of tsunami sources, and the numerical simulations of each source is conducted by COMCOT (Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami Model) tsunami model. After that, the resulting wave height from each source to the study site is collected and plotted. This method successfully helped us to identify the impact factor from the near-field potential sources. The IIA result (Fig. 1) shows that the 1867 tsunami event was a multi-source event. A mild tsunami was trigged by a Mw7.0 earthquake, and then followed by the submarine

  3. The Impact of Negative Life Events on Attempted Suicide in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanzheng; Zhang, Jie

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to explore the impact of negative life events (NLEs) on attempted suicide in a Chinese cultural setting. The sample comprised 791 suicide attempters and an equal number of controls matched on age, sex, and location from selected rural counties in China. Conditional logistic regression model was used to examine the association between NLEs and suicide risk. The impact of NLEs on attempted suicide was further examined using regression-based method to explore its mediation effect. The types of NLEs that were most likely to precede a suicide attempt in rural sample included the events in marriage/love, family/home, and friend/relationship. Rural women were more likely to experience more interpersonal conflicts than rural men. Approximately 75.6% of suicide attempters had experienced at least one NLE, and NLEs were strongly associated with attempted suicide. Total effect (0.676), direct effect (0.501), and the total indirect effect (0.301) of NLEs on suicide attempts were significantly mediated by hopelessness and depression. NLEs play a crucial role in predicting suicidal attempt in rural China, and they are mediated by depression and hopelessness.

  4. THE IMPACT OF STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS ON RELAPSE OF GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jennifer L.; Moitra, Ethan; Dyck, Ingrid; Keller, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Stressful life events (SLEs) are associated with the onset of psychiatric disorders but little is known about the effects of SLEs on individuals already diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, particularly generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in which worry about life events is a defining characteristic. This study examined the impact of SLEs on relapse in adults already diagnosed with GAD. Methods Data are obtained from the Harvard/Brown Anxiety Research Project (HARP), a naturalistic longitudinal study of adults with a current or past history of anxiety disorders. One hundred and twelve adults recovered from an episode of GAD and 27 subsequently relapsed during the study. Eight categories of SLEs were assessed via interview and were examined as predictors of GAD relapse. Results An increased total number of SLEs was associated with a higher cumulative probability of relapse into episode of GAD and there was a nonsignificant statistical trend indicating specific categories of SLEs including health, death, and family/friends/household were related to an increased probability of relapse into episodes of GAD. Conclusions SLEs impact the course of GAD and certain types of stressors may be more relevant to symptomatology than others. The change and uncertainty associated with SLEs may exacerbate existing worry tendencies even among those who have recovered from GAD. PMID:22431499

  5. Impact of adverse events of antiretroviral treatment on regimen change and mortality in Ugandan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntambwe Malangu

    2010-06-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of the adverse events of antiretroviral treatment, their impact on mortality and the change in regimens prescribed to children treated at Mildway Centre in Uganda. Method: A retrospective chart review was performed for children younger than 6 years, treated since the Mildway Centre was opened in 1999. In order to achieve a larger sample, the records of children treated from January 2000 to July 2005 were included in the study. A pre-tested data collection form was used to collate socio-demographic and clinical data of the patients. These included the documented adverse events, causes of death, stage of infection, duration of treatment, regimen prescribed, year of enrolment into the treatment program, as well as whether or not they were still alive. Descriptive statistics were used in the analysis of data. Results: Of the 179 children, the majority were males and had a median age of 4 years. The majority (58.8% of children had suffered from severe immune depression since they met the WHO clinical stage III and IV, 73.8% had a baseline CD4T of less than 15%. Four regimens were prescribed to the children. The most common was a regimen containing zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine (34.6%, followed by a regimen containing stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine (27.9%. Eleven children (6.1% had their regimen changed, of which six (54.5% were due to adverse events. The prevalence of adverse events was 8%; of the 14 documented adverse events, the most common were severe anaemia (3, vomiting (3, and skin rashes (3. After 12 months on treatment, 8% of the patients had died. The most common causes of death were infectious diseases (28.6%, severe anaemia (21.4%, and severe dehydration (21.4%. Conclusion: The prevalence of adverse events was 8%; they were responsible for 54.5% of regimen changes and 21.4% of deaths in children treated at the study site. These findings suggest the need for incorporating

  6. Impacts of extreme events of drought and flood on local communities of Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borma, L. D.; Roballo, S.; Zauner, M.; Nascimento, V. F.

    2013-05-01

    contingent of about 50% of rural homeless during this event. On the ther side, during the extreme droughts, crops and cattle are likely to perish due to drought. The prolonged dry season threatens local ichthyofauna, promoting an increase in fish mortality. In 1997/98 and 2005 episodes were recorded about 3 months of negative anomalies of discharge, while in 2010, there were about 4 months of negative anomalies during the low water period. According to the data obtained from the Civil Defense, flood events would be more impactful to the local community than the drought ones. However, the absence of quantitative indicators hinders a more precise analysis of the real impacts of drought and flood events in the region. In fact, during the dry season two aspects of extreme importance need to be better addressed: i) the fact that the population of one of the wettest regions of the planet does not have a good water supply for human being, and ii) what are the impacts of extreme drought on the cycle of reproduction of species of local fish fauna?

  7. The Case for the Younger Dryas Extraterrestrial Impact Event: Mammoth, Megafauna and Clovis Extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    The onset of >1000 years of Younger Dryas cooling, broad-scale extinctions, and the disappearance of the Clovis culture in North America simultaneously occurred 12,900 years ago followed immediately by the appearance of a carbon-rich black layer at many locations. In situ bones of extinct megafauna and Clovis tools occur only beneath this black layer and not within or above it. At the base of the black mat at 9 Clovis-age sites in North America and a site in Belgium numerous extraterrestrial impact markers were found including magnetic grains highly enriched in iridium, magnetic microspherules, vesicular carbon spherules enriched in cubic, hexagonal, and n-type nanodiamonds, glass-like carbon containing Fullerenes and nanodiamonds, charcoal, soot, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The same impact markers were found mixed throughout the sediments of 15 Carolina Bays, elliptical depressions along the Atlantic coast, whose parallel major axes point towards either the Great Lakes or Hudson Bay. The magnetic grains and spherules have an unusual Fe/Ti composition similar to lunar Procellarum KREEP Terrane and the organic constituents are enriched in 14C leading to radiocarbon dates often well into the future. These characteristics are inconsistent with known meteorites and suggest that the impact was by a previous unobserved, possibly extrasolar body. The concentration of impact markers peaks near the Great Lakes and their unusually high water content suggests that a 4.6 km-wide comet fragmented and exploded over the Laurentide Ice Sheet creating numerous craters that now persist at the bottom of the Great Lakes. The coincidence of this impact, the onset of Younger Dryas cooling, extinction of the megafauna, and the appearance of a black mat strongly suggests that all these events are directly related. These results have unleashed an avalanche of controversy which I will address in this paper.

  8. The Strong Wind event of 24th January 2009 in Catalonia: a social impact analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, J.; Aran, M.; Barberia, L.; Llasat, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    Although strong winds are frequent in Catalonia, one of the events with the strongest impact in recent years was on January 24th 2009. An explosive cyclogenesis process took place in the Atlantic: pressure fell 30 hPa in less than 24 hours. The strong wind storm pounded the northern of Spain and the south of France with some fatalities and important economic losses in these regions. Several automatic weather stations recorded wind gusts higher than 100 km/h in Catalonia. Emergency services received more than 20.000 calls in 24 hours and there were 497 interventions in only 12 hours. As a consequence of fallen and uprooted trees railway and road infrastructures got damages and more than 30.000 customers had no electricity during 24 hours. Unfortunately there were a total of 6 fatalities, two of them because of fallen trees and the other ones when a sports centre collapsed over a group of children. In Spain, insurance policies cover damages due to strong winds when fixed thresholds are overcome and, according to the Royal Decree 300/2004 of 20th February, extraordinary risk are assumed by the Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros. Subsequently, Public Weather Services (PWS) had an increased on the number of requests received from people affected by this event and from insurance companies, for the corresponding indemnity or not. As an example, during the first month after the event, in the Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya (SMC) more than 600 requests were received only related to these damages (as an average PWS of SMC received a total of 400 requests per month). Following the research started by the Social Impact Research Group of MEDEX project, a good vulnerability indicator of a meteorological risk can be the number of requests reported. This study uses the information received in the PWS of the SMC during the six months after the event, according the criteria and methodology established in Gayà et al (2008). The objective is to compare the vulnerability with the

  9. The impact of relay chatter on the availability of plant systems following a seismic event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.G.K.; Su, Y.J.

    1985-01-01

    In performing a risk analysis of a nuclear power plant, one of the most important factors in determining the availability of those systems required to safely shut down the plant is the impact of common cause failures resulting from such events as fire, flooding or earthquakes. In the latter case it is particularly important to do a thorough analysis of the effects of the earthquake for plants built in zones of high seismicity such as the western United States, Japan or Taiwan. Much work has been done on the susceptibility of components to gross failure but little on the possibilities of relay chatter leading to the unavailability of many systems as the result of lock out of pumps or the changed status of valves. In this paper the authors look at the potential for electrical breaker failure and found that it is possible for a significant number of breakers supplying emergency pumps to be locked out following earthquakes such that the only other failure may well have been a loss of offsite power due to failure of switchyard insulators. They also identified the potential for individual valve operation within a system as the result of relay chatter, and the impact on the overall system availability. Finally they show how this can be incorporated into the quantification of the overall impact of the earthquake

  10. The Impact of Explicit Instruction and Metalinguistic Awareness on Crosslinguistic Interference: Path Framing in Motion Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahaman KİLİMCİ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the influence of the cross-linguistic variation on the construction of boundarycrossing motion events in the translation production of the Turkish speakers of L2 English and to measure the impact of explicit instruction and metalinguistic awareness on the learners’ understanding of typological differences and hence their development of L2 ways of expressing motion events. To this aim, the study followed a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental research design, involving a treatment and a control group. A total of 46 second-year university students participated in the study. They were all majoring in English at the English Language Teaching Department, at a state university in Turkey. The control (18 females and 5 males and the treatment group (14 females and 9 males received a two-week instructional treatment, the first group receiving an implicit instruction, and the second an explicit instruction of the boundary-crossing motion event constructions. Prior to the instructional intervention, a pre-test was administered to the participants. Mann-Whitney U test run on the mean scores obtained from the pre-tests indicated no significant differences between the control and the treatment group, U = 282.5, z = .416, p = .678. Within-group analysis based on post-test results after the termination of the instructional treatment revealed that while the implicit instruction had no effect on learners’ acquisition of motion events, z = 1.842, p = .066., the explicit instruction had a significant effect on L1 Turkish learners’ development of their knowledge of L2-like English patterns in construing motion events. Similarly, between-group analysis revealed that the treatment group (Mdn = 4.00, who received an explicit instruction significantly outperformed the control group (Mdn = 2.00, who received implicit instruction, U = 410.5, z = 3.257, p = .001. The study concluded with the implications of findings for English

  11. The impact of event vividness, event severity, and prior paranormal belief on attributions towards a depicted remarkable coincidence experience: Two studies examining the misattribution hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Paul; Qualter, Pamela; Wood, Dave

    2016-11-01

    Two studies examine the impact event vividness, event severity, and prior paranormal belief has on causal attributions for a depicted remarkable coincidence experience. In Study 1, respondents (n = 179) read a hypothetical vignette in which a fictional character accurately predicts a plane crash 1 day before it occurs. The crash was described in either vivid or pallid terms with the final outcome being either severe (fatal) or non-severe (non-fatal). Respondents completed 29 causal attribution items, one attribution confidence item, nine scenario perception items, a popular paranormal belief scale, and a standard demographics questionnaire. Principal axis factoring reduced the 29 attribution items to four attribution factors which were then subjected to a 2 (event vividness) × 2 (event severity) × 2 (paranormal belief) MANCOVA controlling for respondent gender. As expected, paranormal believers attributed the accurate crash prediction less to coincidence and more to both paranormal and transcendental knowing than did paranormal sceptics. Furthermore, paranormal (psychokinesis) believers deemed the prediction more reflective of paranormal knowing to both (1) a vivid/non-fatal and (2) a pallid/fatal crash depiction. Vividness, severity, and paranormal belief types had no impact on attribution confidence. In Study 2, respondents (also n = 179) generated data that were a moderately good fit to the previous factor structure and replicated several differences across attributional pairings albeit for paranormal non-believers only. Corresponding effects for event severity and paranormal belief were not replicated. Findings are discussed in terms of their support for the paranormal misattribution hypothesis and the impact of availability biases in the form of both vividness and severity effects. Methodological issues and future research ideas are also discussed. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  12. An automated thermal relaxation calorimeter for operation at low temperature (0.5K<10K)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.; Prins, M.W.J.; Rajeev, K.P.; Raychaudhuri, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    An automated calorimeter for measurement of specific heat in the temperature range 10K>T>0.5K. It uses sample of moderate size (100-1000 mg), has a moderate precision and accuracy (2%-5%) is easy to operate and the measurements can be done quickly with 3 He economy is described. The accuracy of this calorimeter was checked by measurement of specific heat of copper and that of aluminium near its superconducting transition temperature. (author). 12 refs., 11 figs

  13. Signatures of natural catastrophic events and anthropogenic impact in an estuarine environment, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chague-Goff, C.; Nichol, S.L.; Jenkinson, A.V.; Heijnis, H.

    2000-01-01

    The sedimentary record of known natural catastrophic events and human activity in the Ahuriri Estuary, Hawke's Bay, is assessed using sedimentological, chemical and geochronological techniques. Evidence for the 1931 Hawke's Bay earthquake, which resulted in an uplift of one to two metres in the Napier area, is given by a change from silt- to sand-dominated sediment in the lower estuary, which is consistent with a shift toward higher energy depositional conditions following uplift. Post-European settlement impact is mainly restricted to the lower estuary, where increased concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb and Cu are attributed to industrial discharges. Chemical data (Cl and S) suggest a change in the depositional environment in the upper estuary due to increased freshwater influx and/or decrease in seawater influence. Dating by 210 Pb suggests that this occurred around the middle of the 19th century, and might be attributed to river flooding at that time. 50 refs., 9 figs

  14. Impact of post-event avoidance behavior on commercial facilities sector venues-literature review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsa, M. E.; Baldwin, T. E.; Berry, M. S.; Guzowski, L. B.; Martinez-Moyano, I.; Nieves, A. L.; Ramarasad, A. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2011-03-24

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), focused a great deal of interest and concern on how individual and social perceptions of risk change behavior and subsequently affect commercial sector venues. Argonne conducted a review of the literature to identify studies that quantify the direct and indirect economic consequences of avoidance behaviors that result from terrorist attacks. Despite a growing amount of literature addressing terrorism impacts, relatively little is known about the causal relationships between risk perception, human avoidance behaviors, and the economic effects on commercial venues. Nevertheless, the technical and academic literature does provide some evidence, both directly and by inference, of the level and duration of post-event avoidance behaviors on commercial venues. Key findings are summarized in this Executive Summary. Also included as an appendix is a more detailed summary table of literature findings reproduced from the full report.

  15. Radiation Fields in High Energy Accelerators and their impact on Single Event Effects

    CERN Document Server

    García Alía, Rubén; Wrobel, Frédéric; Brugger, Markus

    Including calculation models and measurements for a variety of electronic components and their concerned radiation environments, this thesis describes the complex radiation field present in the surrounding of a high-energy hadron accelerator and assesses the risks related to it in terms of Single Event Effects (SEE). It is shown that this poses not only a serious threat to the respective operation of modern accelerators but also highlights the impact on other high-energy radiation environments such as those for ground and avionics applications. Different LHC-like radiation environments are described in terms of their hadron composition and energy spectra. They are compared with other environments relevant for electronic component operation such as the ground-level, avionics or proton belt. The main characteristic of the high-energy accelerator radiation field is its mixed nature, both in terms of hadron types and energy interval. The threat to electronics ranges from neutrons of thermal energies to GeV hadron...

  16. The Impact of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Post Event Processing Among Those with Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment. PMID:21159328

  17. Exploring the impact of the side-chain length on peptide/RNA binding events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbicca, Lola; González, Alejandro López; Gresika, Alexandra; Di Giorgio, Audrey; Closa, Jordi Teixido; Tejedor, Roger Estrada; Andréola, Marie-Line; Azoulay, Stéphane; Patino, Nadia

    2017-07-19

    The impact of the amino-acid side-chain length on peptide-RNA binding events has been investigated using HIV-1 Tat derived peptides as ligands and the HIV-1 TAR RNA element as an RNA model. Our studies demonstrate that increasing the length of all peptide side-chains improves unexpectedly the binding affinity (K D ) but reduces the degree of compactness of the peptide-RNA complex. Overall, the side-chain length appears to modulate in an unpredictable way the ability of the peptide to compete with the cognate TAR RNA partner. Beyond the establishment of non-intuitive fundamental relationships, our results open up new perspectives in the design of effective RNA ligand competitors, since a large number of them have already been identified but few studies report on the modulation of the biological activity by modifying in the same way the length of all chains connecting RNA recognition motives to the central scaffold of a ligand.

  18. Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Lewis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Water isotope records such as speleothems provide extensive evidence of past tropical hydrological changes. During Heinrich events, isotopic changes in monsoon regions have been interpreted as implying a widespread drying through the Northern Hemisphere tropics and an anti-phased precipitation response in the south. Here, we examine the sources of this variability using a water isotope-enabled general circulation model, Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. We incorporate a new suite of vapour source distribution tracers to help constrain the impact of precipitation source region changes on the isotopic composition of precipitation and to identify nonlocal amount effects. We simulate a collapse of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation with a large freshwater input to the region as an idealised analogue to iceberg discharge during Heinrich events. An increase in monsoon intensity, defined by vertical wind shear, is modelled over the South American domain, with small decreases simulated over Asia. Simulated isotopic anomalies agree well with proxy climate records, with lighter isotopic values simulated over South America and enriched values across East Asia. For this particular abrupt climate event, we identify which climatic change is most likely linked to water isotope change – changes in local precipitation amount, monsoon intensity, water vapour source distributions or precipitation seasonality. We categorise individual sites according to the climate variability that water isotope changes are most closely associated with, and find that the dominant isotopic controls are not consistent across the tropics – simple local explanations, in particular, fall short of explaining water isotope variability at all sites. Instead, the best interpretations appear to be site specific and often regional in scale.

  19. Ascertaining the impact of catastrophic events on dengue outbreak: The 2014 gas explosions in Kaohsiung, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Infectious disease outbreaks often occur in the aftermath of catastrophic events, either natural or man-made. While natural disasters such as typhoons/hurricanes, flooding and earthquakes have been known to increase the risk of infectious disease outbreak, the impact of anthropogenic disasters is less well-understood. Kaohsiung City is located in southern Taiwan, where most dengue outbreaks had occurred in the past two decades. It is also the center of petrochemical industry in Taiwan with pipelines running underneath city streets. Multiple underground gas explosions occurred in Kaohsiung in the evening of July 31, 2014 due to chemical leaks in the pipelines. The explosions caused 32 deaths, including five firefighters and two volunteer firefighters, and injured 321 persons. Historically, dengue outbreaks in southern Taiwan occurred mostly in small numbers of around 2000 cases or less, except in 2002 with over 5000 cases. However, in the months after the gas explosions, the city reported 14528 lab-confirmed dengue cases from August to December. To investigate the possible impact, if any, of the gas explosions on this record-breaking dengue outbreak, a simple mathematical model, the Richards model, is utilized to study the temporal patterns of the spread of dengue in the districts of Kaohsiung in the proximity of the explosion sites and to pinpoint the waves of infections that had occurred in each district in the aftermath of the gas explosions. The reproduction number of each wave in each district is also computed. In the aftermath of the gas explosions, early waves occurred 4–5 days (which coincides with the minimum of human intrinsic incubation period for dengue) later in districts with multiple waves. The gas explosions likely impacted the timing of the waves, but their impact on the magnitude of the 2014 outbreak remains unclear. The modeling suggests the need for public health surveillance and preparedness in the aftermath of future disasters. PMID:28520740

  20. Limitations on K-T mass extinction theories based upon the vertebrate record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, J. David; Bryant, Laurie J.

    1988-01-01

    Theories of extinction are only as good as the patterns of extinction that they purport to explain. Often such patterns are ignored. For the terminal Cretaceous events, different groups of organisms in different environments show different patterns of extinction that to date cannot be explained by a single causal mechanism. Several patterns of extinction (and/or preservational bias) can be observed for the various groups of vertebrates from the uppermost Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation and lower Paleocene Tullock Formation in eastern Montana. The taxonomic level at which the percentage of survivals (or extinctions) is calculated will have an effect upon the perception of faunal turnover. In addition to the better known mammals and better publicized dinosaurs, there are almost 60 additional species of reptiles, birds, amphibians, and fish in the HELL Creek Formation. Simple arithmetic suggests only 33 percent survival of these vertebrates from the Hell Creek Fm. into the Tullock Fm. A more critical examination of the data shows that almost all Hell Creek species not found in the Tullock are represented in one of the following categories; extremely rare forms, elasmobranch fish that underwent rapid speciation taxa that although not known or rare in the Tullock, are found elsewhere. Each of the categories is largely the result of the following biases: taphonomy, ecological differences, taxonomic artifact paleogeography. The two most important factors appear to be the possible taphonomic biases and the taxonomic artifacts. The extinction patterns among the vertebrates do not appear to be attributable to any single cause, catastrophic or otherwise.

  1. Impact of Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 on chronic hepatitis B infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Wiesen, Eric; Diorditsa, Sergey; Toda, Kohei; Duong, Thi Hong; Nguyen, Lien Huong; Nguyen, Van Cuong; Nguyen, Tran Hien

    2016-02-03

    Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 led to substantial reductions in hepatitis B vaccination coverage (both the birth dose and the three-dose series). In order to estimate the impact of the reduction in vaccination coverage on hepatitis B transmission and future mortality, a widely-used mathematical model was applied to the data from Viet Nam. Using the model, we estimated the number of chronic infections and deaths that are expected to occur in the birth cohort in 2013 and the number of excessive infections and deaths attributable to the drop in immunization coverage in 2013. An excess of 90,137 chronic infections and 17,456 future deaths were estimated to occur in the 2013 birth cohort due to the drop in vaccination coverage. This analysis highlights the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage and swiftly responding to reported Adverse Events Following Immunization in order to regain consumer confidence in the hepatitis B vaccine. Copyright © 2015 World Health Organization; licensee Elsevier. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The impact of resilience and subsequent stressful life events on MDD and GAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheerin, Christina M; Lind, Mackenzie J; Brown, Emily A; Gardner, Charles O; Kendler, Kenneth S; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2018-02-01

    There remains a dearth of research examining the "buffering" effect of resilience, wherein resilience at one point in time would be expected to protect an individual against development of psychopathology following future adverse life events. Using longitudinal data from an epidemiological twin sample (N = 7463), this study tested whether resilience would act as a buffer for stressful life events (SLEs) against risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Resilience, demographics, and psychopathology were measured at Time 1 and recent SLEs and current MDD and GAD were measured at Time 2. Final models, controlling for demographic covariates and Time 1 diagnosis, examined the impact of Time 1 resilience, recent SLEs, their interaction, and a three-way interaction adding sex on MDD and GAD. The pattern of findings was the same for MDD and GAD, wherein main effects and two-way interactions of resilience and SLEs were significant, such that greater resilience was protective even in the context of high numbers of past-year SLEs. The three-way interaction was not significant, suggesting that the relationship between SLEs and resilience on psychopathology was the same for both men and women. Findings support the conceptualization of resilience as a buffer against the impact of future life stressors on common internalizing psychopathology. Longitudinal designs and trajectory-based studies that include recurring measures of SLEs could inform conceptualizations of resilience in the context of ongoing adversity and aid in developing interventions aimed at fostering healthy adaptation in the face of stressors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Vegaviidae, a new clade of southern diving birds that survived the K/T boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnolín, Federico L.; Egli, Federico Brissón; Chatterjee, Sankar; Marsà, Jordi Alexis Garcia; Novas, Fernando E.

    2017-12-01

    The fossil record of Late Cretaceous-Paleogene modern birds in the Southern Hemisphere includes the Maastrichtian Neogaeornis wetzeli from Chile, Polarornis gregorii and Vegavis iaai from Antarctica, and Australornis lovei from the Paleogene of New Zealand. The recent finding of a new and nearly complete Vegavis skeleton constitutes the most informative source for anatomical comparisons among Australornis, Polarornis, and Vegavis. The present contribution includes, for the first time, Vegavis, Polarornis, and Australornis in a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. This analysis resulted in the recognition of these taxa as a clade of basal Anseriformes that we call Vegaviidae. Vegaviids share a combination of characters related to diving adaptations, including compact and thickened cortex of hindlimb bones, femur with anteroposteriorly compressed and bowed shaft, deep and wide popliteal fossa delimited by a medial ridge, tibiotarsus showing notably proximally expanded cnemial crests, expanded fibular crest, anteroposterior compression of the tibial shaft, and a tarsometatarsus with a strong transverse compression of the shaft. Isolated bones coming from the Cretaceous and Paleogene of South America, Antarctica, and New Zealand are also referred to here to Vegaviidae and support the view that these basal anseriforms were abundant and diverse at high southern latitudes. Moreover, vegaviids represent the first avian lineage to have definitely crossed the K-Pg boundary, supporting the idea that some avian clades were not affected by the end Mesozoic mass extinction event, countering previous interpretations. Recognition of Vegaviidae indicates that modern birds were diversified in southern continents by the Cretaceous and reinforces the hypothesis indicating the important role of Gondwana for the evolutionary history of Anseriformes and Neornithes as a whole.

  4. TMD splitting functions in kT factorization. The real contribution to the gluon-to-gluon splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschinski, M.; Kusina, A.; Kutak, K.; Serino, M.

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the transverse momentum dependent gluon-to-gluon splitting function within k T -factorization, generalizing the framework employed in the calculation of the quark splitting functions in Hautmann et al. (Nucl Phys B 865:54-66, arXiv:1205.1759, 2012), Gituliar et al. (JHEP 01:181, arXiv:1511.08439, 2016), Hentschinski et al. (Phys Rev D 94(11):114013, arXiv:1607.01507, 2016) and demonstrate at the same time the consistency of the extended formalism with previous results. While existing versions of k T factorized evolution equations contain already a gluon-to-gluon splitting function i.e. the leading order Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) kernel or the Ciafaloni-Catani-Fiorani-Marchesini (CCFM) kernel, the obtained splitting function has the important property that it reduces both to the leading order BFKL kernel in the high energy limit, to the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) gluon-to-gluon splitting function in the collinear limit as well as to the CCFM kernel in the soft limit. At the same time we demonstrate that this splitting kernel can be obtained from a direct calculation of the QCD Feynman diagrams, based on a combined implementation of the Curci-Furmanski-Petronzio formalism for the calculation of the collinear splitting functions and the framework of high energy factorization. (orig.)

  5. A Novel Ice Storm Experiment for Evaluating the Ecological Impacts of These Extreme Weather Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, C. T.; Campbell, J. L.; Rustad, L.; Fahey, T.; Fahey, R. T.; Garlick, S.; Groffman, P.; Hawley, G. J.; Schaberg, P. G.

    2017-12-01

    Ice storms are among the most destructive natural disturbances in some regions of the world, and are an example of an extreme weather event that can profoundly disrupt ecosystem function. Despite potential dire consequences of ice storms on ecosystems and society, we are poorly positioned to predict responses because severe ice storms are infrequent and understudied. Since it is difficult to determine when and where ice storms will occur, most previous research has consisted of ad hoc attempts to characterize impacts in the wake of major icing events. To evaluate ice storm effects in a more controlled manner, we conducted a novel ice storm manipulation experiment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. Water was sprayed above the forest canopy in sub-freezing conditions to simulate a glaze ice event. Treatments included replicate plots that received three levels of radial ice thickness (6, 13, and 19 mm) and reference plots that were not sprayed. Additionally, two of the mid-level treatment plots received ice applications in back-to-back years to evaluate effects associated with ice storm frequency. Measures of the forest canopy, including hemispherical photography, photosynthetically active radiation, and ground-based LiDAR, indicated that the ice loads clearly damaged vegetation and opened up the canopy, allowing more light to penetrate. These changes in the canopy were reflected in measurements of fine and coarse woody debris that were commensurate with the level of icing. Soil respiration declined in the most heavily damaged plots, which we attribute to changes in root activity. Although soil solution nitrogen showed clear seasonal patterns, there was no treatment response. These results differ from the severe regional natural ice storm of 1998, which caused large leaching losses of nitrate in soil solutions and stream water during the growing season after the event, due to lack of uptake by damaged vegetation. It is not yet clear why there

  6. Subliminal Emotional Words Impact Syntactic Processing: Evidence from Performance and Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Jiménez-Ortega

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that syntactic processing can be affected by emotional information and that subliminal emotional information can also affect cognitive processes. In this study, we explore whether unconscious emotional information may also impact syntactic processing. In an Event-Related brain Potential (ERP study, positive, neutral and negative subliminal adjectives were inserted within neutral sentences, just before the presentation of the supraliminal adjective. They could either be correct (50% or contain a morphosyntactic violation (number or gender disagreements. Larger error rates were observed for incorrect sentences than for correct ones, in contrast to most studies using supraliminal information. Strikingly, emotional adjectives affected the conscious syntactic processing of sentences containing morphosyntactic anomalies. The neutral condition elicited left anterior negativity (LAN followed by a P600 component. However, a lack of anterior negativity and an early P600 onset for the negative condition were found, probably as a result of the negative subliminal correct adjective capturing early syntactic resources. Positive masked adjectives in turn prompted an N400 component in response to morphosyntactic violations, probably reflecting the induction of a heuristic processing mode involving access to lexico-semantic information to solve agreement anomalies. Our results add to recent evidence on the impact of emotional information on syntactic processing, while showing that this can occur even when the reader is unaware of the emotional stimuli.

  7. The Impact of Extreme Weather Events on Dissolved Organic Matter and Microbial Biomass of chernozem soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ann-Christin; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the impact of the extreme weather events freezing-thawing and drying-rewetting on C-, N- and P-dynamics in dissolved organic matter and microbial biomass. The three variants of a chernozem soil (Voronezh region, Russia) are (1) fertilized maize cropping, (2) unfertilized maize cropping and (3) a bare fallow. After both abiotic perturbations the respiration rates were generally lower in the freezing-thawing than in the drying-rewetting treatment, due to the lower temperature. The elevated respiration came along with the decay of organic matter, which was also manifested in increased mineralization of C, N and P immediately after rewetting. However, freezing-thawing had significantly less impact on C-, N- and P-mobilization. We conclude that drying-rewetting leads to an initially increased mobilization of C, N and P, which becomes obvious as increased amounts of DOM immediately after rewetting. Freezing-thawing does not affect mobilization in the same way. There, only an increased mobilization of C can be observed. Especially concerning N and P, the reaction is dependent on the form of use/cropping in both treatments.

  8. Possible Future Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrological Drought Events in the Weihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluation of future climate change impacts on hydrological drought characteristics is one of important measures for implementing sustainable water resources management and effective disaster mitigation in drought-prone regions under the changing environment. In this study, a modeling system for projecting the potential future climate change impacts on hydrological droughts in the Weihe River basin (WRB in North China is presented. This system consists of a large-scale hydrological model driven by climate outputs from three climate models (CMs for future streamflow projections, a probabilistic model for univariate drought assessment, and a copula-based bivariate model for joint drought frequency analysis under historical and future climates. With the observed historical climate data as the inputs, the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrological model projects an overall runoff reduction in the WRB under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B scenario. The univariate drought assessment found that although fewer hydrological drought events would occur under A1B scenario, drought duration and severity tend to increase remarkably. Moreover, the bivariate drought assessment reveals that future droughts in the same return period as the baseline droughts would become more serious. With these trends in the future, the hydrological drought situation in the WRB would be further deteriorated.

  9. Web processing service for climate impact and extreme weather event analyses. Flyingpigeon (Version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, Nils; Ehbrecht, Carsten; Alvarez-Castro, Carmen; Brockmann, Patrick; Falk, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Jörg; Kindermann, Stephan; Koziol, Ben; Nangini, Cathy; Radanovics, Sabine; Vautard, Robert; Yiou, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    Analyses of extreme weather events and their impacts often requires big data processing of ensembles of climate model simulations. Researchers generally proceed by downloading the data from the providers and processing the data files ;at home; with their own analysis processes. However, the growing amount of available climate model and observation data makes this procedure quite awkward. In addition, data processing knowledge is kept local, instead of being consolidated into a common resource of reusable code. These drawbacks can be mitigated by using a web processing service (WPS). A WPS hosts services such as data analysis processes that are accessible over the web, and can be installed close to the data archives. We developed a WPS named 'flyingpigeon' that communicates over an HTTP network protocol based on standards defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), to be used by climatologists and impact modelers as a tool for analyzing large datasets remotely. Here, we present the current processes we developed in flyingpigeon relating to commonly-used processes (preprocessing steps, spatial subsets at continent, country or region level, and climate indices) as well as methods for specific climate data analysis (weather regimes, analogues of circulation, segetal flora distribution, and species distribution models). We also developed a novel, browser-based interactive data visualization for circulation analogues, illustrating the flexibility of WPS in designing custom outputs. Bringing the software to the data instead of transferring the data to the code is becoming increasingly necessary, especially with the upcoming massive climate datasets.

  10. Impacts of The Future Changes in Extreme Events on Migration in The Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Nazan; Turp, M. Tufan; Ozturk, Tugba; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2016-04-01

    Natural hazards are defined as extreme events that threat people, their homes and their neighborhoods. They damage housing, food production system and other infrastructures. The frequency of natural hazards namely drought, floods can influence the residential decision-making and can cause substantial residential mobility by affecting relatively greater numbers of people in the region. Developing countries are more vulnerable to the impacts of natural hazards. Therefore, environmental migration can be associated with natural hazards especially in the developing countries. Limited water resources and demographic dynamics of the Middle East make the region one of the most affected domains from the impacts of natural hazards. In this study, we consider the relationship between migration as a demographic process and the frequency of natural hazards in the Middle East for the period of 2020 - 2045 with respect to 1980 - 2005 by performing the projection according to the scenario of IPCC, namely RCP8.5 through the RegCM4.4 and combining them with an econometric analysis. This research has been supported by Boǧaziçi University Research Fund Grant Number 10421.

  11. Peak wavelength interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensors during impact events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chun; Peters, Kara; Zikry, Mohammed; Haber, Todd; Schultz, Stephen; Selfridge, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we embed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in graphite fiber–epoxy woven composite laminates to detect evolving damage modes. The peak wavelengths of the FBG sensors are interrogated at 625 and 295 kHz, while the laminates are subjected to 11.0 J low-velocity impact events. It is demonstrated that 295 kHz interrogation is sufficient for accurately collecting the dynamic response of the sensors. The FBG sensors embedded at the laminate midplanes successfully reconstructed the global laminate response to impact. The maximum and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) for the relative strain histories demonstrated the same trends as the maximum and FWHM of the contact force histories measured from the impactor. More noise was present in the strain histories obtained from the FBG sensors than the contact force histories, as the embedded FBGs were sensitive to local perturbations in the stress state. The FBG sensors embedded below the midplane of the laminate were closer to the damage regions and measured complex strain histories. In one case, this strain history revealed the presence of delamination

  12. Impacts of the January 2005 solar particle events on middle atmospheric chlorine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Holger; Sinnhuber, Miriam; Notholt, Justus; Maik Wissing, Jan; Kallenrode, May-Britt; Santee, Michelle

    It is well established that solar particle events (SPEs) are sources of significant chemical dis-turbances in the Earth's polar atmosphere. The observed SPE effects on nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen compounds have been investigated in some detail in recent years, and they can be reproduced by atmospheric models using basic parametrizations for NOx and HOx produc-tion as a funtion of the particle impact ionisation. However, there are considerable differences between model predictions and measurements concerning several other trace gases including chlorine species. Two major SPEs occurred on January 17, and January 20, 2005. The latter had an exceptionally hard energy spectrum which caused maximum particle impact ionization at stratospheric altitudes. The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument on-board the Aura satellite has measured a short-term decrease of HCl in the northern polar region corresponding to January 2005 SPEs. The peak HCl depletion is ˜300 ppt at 35-40 km. This is comparable to the depletion of messopheric HCl observed by the HALOE instrument during the July 2000 SPE. We will present simulation results of the University of Bremen Ion Chemistry (UBIC) model for the SPEs in January 2005 focusing on chlorine species. The simulations indicate that the observed short-term decrease of middle atmospheric HCl is due to a conversion into active chlorine species such as Cl, ClO and HOCl. The magnitude of the observed HCl loss can only be reproduced if reactions of negative chlorine species and the production of O(1 D) from the reaction N(2 D) + O2 are taken into account. The model results will be compared to MLS/Aura data of HCl, HOCl and ClO. Additionally, the impacts of the observed chlorine activation, e.g. on ozone, will be assessed.

  13. Cognitive Personality Characteristics Impact the Course of Depression: A Prospective Test of Sociotropy, Autonomy and Domain-Specific Life Events

    OpenAIRE

    Iacoviello, Brian M.; Grant, David A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2009-01-01

    Prospective tests of the impact of sociotropy and autonomy on the course of depression are lacking. In a sample of 97 cognitive high-risk and 62 cognitive low-risk undergraduates who experienced at least one prospective depressive episode, the interactions of sociotropy and interpersonal life events and autonomy and achievement-related life events were examined as predictors of four indicators of the course of depression. Initial analyses failed to support the hypothesis that global scores fo...

  14. An experimental methodology to quantify the spray cooling event at intermittent spray impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Antonio L.N.; Carvalho, Joao; Panao, Miguel R.O.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes an experimental methodology devised to study spray cooling with multiple-intermittent sprays as those found in fuel injection systems of spark-ignition and diesel engines, or in dermatologic surgery applications. The spray characteristics and the surface thermal behaviour are measured by combining a two-component phase-Doppler anemometer with fast response surface thermocouples. The hardware allows simultaneous acquisition of Doppler and thermocouple signals which are processed in Matlab to estimate the time-varying heat flux and fluid-dynamic characteristics of the spray during impact. The time resolution of the acquisition system is limited by the data rate of validation of the phase-Doppler anemometer, but it has been shown to be accurate for the characterization of spray-cooling processes with short spurt durations for which the transient period of spray injection plays an important role. The measurements are processed in terms of the instantaneous heat fluxes, from which phase-average values of the boiling curves are obtained. Two of the characteristic parameters used in the thermal analysis of stationary spray cooling events, the critical heat flux (CHF) and Leidenfrost phenomenon, are then inferred in terms of operating conditions of the multiple-intermittent injections, such as the frequency, duration and pressure of injection. An integral method is suggested to describe the overall process of heat transfer, which accounts for the fluid-dynamic heterogeneities induced by multiple and successive droplet interactions within the area of spray impact. The method considers overall boiling curves dependant on the injection conditions and provides an empirical tool to characterize the heat transfer processes on the impact of multiple-intermittent sprays. The methodology is tested in a preliminary study of the effect of injection conditions on the heat removed by a fuel spray striking the back surface of the intake valve as in spark

  15. Water-Borne Diseases and Extreme Weather Events in Cambodia: Review of Impacts and Implications of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace I. Davies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

  16. Water-borne diseases and extreme weather events in Cambodia: review of impacts and implications of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Grace I; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol

    2014-12-23

    Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

  17. Vulnerability and impact assessment of extreme climatic event: A case study of southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Abdul Qayyum; Ahmad, Sajid R; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Hussain, Yawar; Hussain, Muhammad Sameem

    2017-02-15

    Understanding of frequency, severity, damages and adaptation costs of climate extremes is crucial to manage their aftermath. Evaluation of PRECIS RCM modelled data under IPCC scenarios in Southern Punjab reveals that monthly mean temperature is 30°C under A2 scenario, 2.4°C higher than A1B which is 27.6°C in defined time lapses. Monthly mean precipitation under A2 scenario ranges from 12 to 15mm and for A1B scenario it ranges from 15 to 19mm. Frequency modelling of floods and droughts via poisson distribution shows increasing trend in upcoming decades posing serious impacts on agriculture and livestock, food security, water resources, public health and economic status. Cumulative loss projected for frequent floods without adaptation will be in the range of USD 66.8-79.3 billion in time lapse of 40years from 2010 base case. Drought damage function @ 18% for A2 scenario and @ 13.5% for A1B scenario was calculated; drought losses on agriculture and livestock sectors were modelled. Cumulative loss projected for frequent droughts without adaptation under A2 scenario will be in the range of USD 7.5-8.5 billion while under A1B scenario it will be in the range of USD 3.5-4.2 billion for time lapse of 60years from base case 1998-2002. Severity analysis of extreme events shows that situation get worse if adaptations are not only included in the policy but also in the integrated development framework with required allocation of funds. This evaluation also highlights the result of cost benefit analysis, benefits of the adaptation options (mean & worst case) for floods and droughts in Southern Punjab. Additionally the research highlights the role of integrated extreme events impact assessment methodology in performing the vulnerability assessments and to support the adaptation decisions. This paper is an effort to highlight importance of bottom up approaches to deal with climate change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The current and future impacts of the 2007-2009 economic recession on the festival and event industry

    OpenAIRE

    Goldblatt, Joe J; Lee, Seung-won

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze and understand the impact of the global financial\\ud crisis during 2007-2009. Furthermore, the paper seeks to identiy critical impacts upon the festival and\\ud event industry as a result of this crisis and to identify strategies to help members of the industry\\ud positively advance in the future.\\ud Design/methodology/approach – Festival and event industry professionals were surveyed\\ud electronically about their business performance during th...

  19. Global patterns and impacts of El Niño events on coral reefs: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Claar, Danielle C.; Szostek, Lisa; McDevitt-Irwin, Jamie M.; Schanze, Julian J.; Baum, Julia K.

    2018-01-01

    Impacts of global climate change on coral reefs are being amplified by pulse heat stress events, including El Niño, the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Despite reports of extensive coral bleaching and up to 97% coral mortality induced by El Niño events, a quantitative synthesis of the nature, intensity, and drivers of El Niño and La Niña impacts on corals is lacking. Herein, we first present a global meta-analysis of studies quantifying the effects of El Niño/La Niña-wa...

  20. The initial impact of EU ETS verification events on stock prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwers, Roel; Schoubben, Frederiek; Van Hulle, Cynthia; Van Uytbergen, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of verified emissions publications in the European Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) on the market value of participating companies. Using event study methodology on a unique sample of 368 listed companies, we show that verified emissions only resulted in statistically significant market responses when the carbon price was high and allowance scarcity was anticipated. The cross-section analysis of abnormal returns surrounding the publication of verified emissions shows that share prices decrease when actual emissions relative to allocated emissions increase. This negative relationship between allocation shortfalls and firm value is only significant for firms that are either carbon-intensive, compared to sector peers, or are less likely to pass through carbon-related costs in their product prices. The results suggest that although the EU ETS has been deemed unsuccessful so far due to over-allocation and low carbon price, shareholders initially perceived allowance holdings as value relevant. Our results highlight that a significant carbon market price and addressing pass-through costing are essential for successful future reforms of the EU ETS and other analogous carbon cap-and-trade systems implemented or planned worldwide. - Highlights: •We study the impact of EU ETS verified emissions disclosure on firms' market value. •Disclosure is relevant if carbon price is high and permits scarcity is anticipated. •We find a negative relationship between allocation shortfalls and firm value. •Stronger relationship for carbon – intensive and no cost pass-through firms. •High carbon price and addressing cost pass-through are crucial for EU ETS reforms.

  1. Thinking back about a positive event: The impact of processing style on positive affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eNelis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The manner in which individuals recall an autobiographical positive life event has affective consequences. Two studies addressed the processing styles during positive memory recall in a non-clinical sample. Participants retrieved a positive memory which was self-generated (Study 1, n = 70 or experimenter-chosen (i.e., academic achievement, Study 2, n = 159, followed by the induction of one of three processing styles (between-subjects: In Study 1, a ‘concrete/imagery’ vs. ‘abstract/verbal’ processing style was compared. In Study 2, a ‘concrete/imagery’, ‘abstract/verbal’, and ‘comparative/verbal’ processing style were compared. The processing of a personal memory in a concrete/imagery-based way led to a larger increase in positive affect compared to abstract/verbal processing in Study 1, as well as compared to comparative/verbal thinking in Study 2. Results of Study 2 further suggest that it is making unfavourable verbal comparisons that may hinder affective benefits to positive memories (rather then general abstract/verbal processing per se. The comparative/verbal thinking style failed to lead to improvements in positive affect, and with increasing levels of depressive symptoms it had a more negative impact on change in positive affect. We found no evidence that participant’s tendency to have dampening thoughts in response to positive affect in daily life contributed to the affective impact of positive memory recall. The results support the potential for current trainings in boosting positive memories and mental imagery, and underline the search for parameters that determine at times deleterious outcomes of abstract/verbal memory processing in the face of positive information.

  2. [What are hospitals and primary care doing to mitigate the social impact of serious adverse events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, José Joaquín; Carrillo, Irene; Lorenzo, Susana

    To explore what hospitals and primary care (PC) are doing to reduce the negative social impact of a serious adverse event (AE). We surveyed 195 hospital (n=113) and PC (n=82) managers from eight autonomous communities to explore the level of implementation of five interventions recommended after an AE to protect the reputation of healthcare institutions. Most institutions (70, 45.2% PC, and 85, 54.8% hospitals) did not have a crisis plan to protect their reputation after an AE. Internal (p=0.0001) and external (p=0.012) communications were addressed better in PC than in hospitals. Very few institutions had defined the managers' role in case of an AE (10.7% hospitals versus 6.25% PC). A majority of healthcare institutions have not planned crisis intervention after an AE with severe consequences nor have they defined plans to recover citizens' trust after an AE. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Astronomical phenomena: events with high impact factor in teaching optics and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curticapean, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Astronomical phenomena fascinate people from the very beginning of mankind up to today. They have a enthusiastic effect, especially on young people. Among the most amazing and well-known phenomena are the sun and moon eclipses. The impact factor of such events is very high, as they are being covered by mass media reports and the Internet, which provides encyclopedic content and discussion in social networks. The principal optics and photonics topics that can be included in such lessons originate from geometrical optics and the basic phenomena of reflection, refraction and total internal reflection. Lenses and lens systems up to astronomical instruments also have a good opportunity to be presented. The scientific content can be focused on geometrical optics but also diffractive and quantum optics can be incorporated successfully. The author will present how live streams of the moon eclipses can be used to captivate the interest of young listeners for optics and photonics. The gathered experience of the last two moon eclipses visible from Germany (on Dec, 21 2010 and Jun, 15 2011) will be considered. In an interactive broadcast we reached visitors from more than 135 countries.

  4. Aerosols and their Impact on Radiation, Clouds, Precipitation & Severe Weather Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhanqing; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Fan, Jiwen

    2017-09-22

    Aerosols, the tiny particles suspended in the atmosphere, have been in the forefront of environmental and climate change sciences as the primary atmospheric pollutant and external force affecting Earth’s weather and climate. There are two dominant mechanisms by which aerosols affect weather and climate: aerosol-radiation interactions (ARI) and aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI). ARI arises from aerosol scattering and absorption, which alters the radiation budgets of the atmosphere and surface, while ACI is rooted to the fact that aerosols serve as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei. Both ARI and ACI are coupled with atmospheric dynamics to produce a chain of complex interactions with a large range of meteorological variables that influence both weather and climate. Elaborated here are the impacts of aerosols on the radiation budget, clouds (microphysics, structure, and lifetime), precipitation, and severe weather events (lightning, thunderstorms, hail, and tornados). Depending on environmental variables and aerosol properties, the effects can be both positive and negative, posing the largest uncertainties in the external forcing of the climate system. This has considerably hindered our ability in projecting future climate changes and in doing accurate numerical weather predictions.

  5. Validation of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised for adolescents experiencing the floods and mudslides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Sheng Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R for adolescents who had experienced the floods and mudslides caused by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan. The internal consistency, construct validity, and criteria validity of the instrument were examined. Principal component analysis followed by an oblique rotation was used to derive a three-factor solution. These factors were labeled intrusion, hyperarousal, and avoidance; all three factors together accounted for 58.1% of the variance. The total Cronbach’s alpha of 0.94 reflected the good internal consistency of the instrument. With reference to diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, the IES-R cutoff point for posttraumatic stress disorder was 19 of 20 with a sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 84.1%. In conclusion, the IES-R can be used as a reliable and valid instrument when evaluating psychological distress among adolescents who have experienced a natural disaster, such as flooding and mudslides.

  6. The impact of cognitive behavioral therapy on post event processing among those with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Anderson, Page L

    2011-02-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are prone to engage in post event processing (PEP), a post mortem review of a social interaction that focuses on negative elements. The extent that PEP is impacted by cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and the relation between PEP and change during treatment has yet to be evaluated in a controlled study. The current study used multilevel modeling to determine if PEP decreased as a result of treatment and if PEP limits treatment response for two types of cognitive behavioral treatments, a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention and individually based virtual reality exposure. These hypotheses were evaluated using 91 participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. The findings suggested that PEP decreased as a result of treatment, and that social anxiety symptoms for individuals reporting greater levels of PEP improved at a slower rate than those with lower levels of PEP. Further research is needed to understand why PEP attenuates response to treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of social characteristics on the treatment of patients with ischaemic events and patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurter, David; Braun, Julia; Jenni, Rolf; Van Der Loo, Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Percutaneous closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a technically simple and safe procedure. PFO is a common finding present in up to one third of the population. Although several conditions such as stroke, migraine, and sleep apnoea have been associated with a PFO, as underlined by observational studies, no causal relationship has been documented so far. As this setting may potentially leave more space for the involved physicians for the choice of treatment, we hypothesized that social characteristics of the patient with a PFO might play a role. We retrospectively analysed the data of 153 patients with a cerebrovascular and/or peripheral ischaemic event with the diagnosis of a PFO as documented in echocardiography from 2000 until 2005 at the University Hospital in Zurich, Switzerland. Forty-four patients (= 23%) underwent catheter-based PFO closure. There was no significant difference with respect to age ( or =60 years: P= 0.234, ns), gender (P = 0.356, ns) and insurance status (<40 years: P= 0.15, ns; 40-59 years: P= 0.37, ns; 60 years: P = 0.26, ns) between those who underwent percutaneous PFO closure and those who did not. We conclude from this single-centre experience that social characteristics of patients only have a marginal impact on the indication of percutaneous closure of a PFO, if at all.

  8. Impact of temperature on single event upset measurement by heavy ions in SRAM devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tianqi; Geng Chao; Zhang Zhangang; Gu Song; Tong Teng; Xi Kai; Hou Mingdong; Liu Jie; Zhao Fazhan; Liu Gang; Han Zhengsheng

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of single event upset (SEU) measurement both in commercial bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) static random access memories (SRAMs) has been investigated by experiment in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). For commercial bulk SRAM, the SEU cross section measured by 12 C ions is very sensitive to the temperature. The temperature test of SEU in SOI SRAM was conducted by 209 Bi and 12 C ions, respectively, and the SEU cross sections display a remarkable growth with the elevated temperature for 12 C ions but keep constant for 209 Bi ions. The impact of temperature on SEU measurement was analyzed by Monte Carlo simulation. It is revealed that the SEU cross section is significantly affected by the temperature around the threshold linear energy transfer of SEU occurrence. As the SEU occurrence approaches saturation, the SEU cross section gradually exhibits less temperature dependency. Based on this result, the experimental data measured in HIRFL was analyzed, and then a reasonable method of predicting the on-orbit SEU rate was proposed. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Drought impact on vegetation in pre and post fire events in Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, C. M.; Bastos, A.; Trigo, R. M.; DaCamara, C.

    2012-04-01

    In 2004/2005, the Iberian Peninsula was stricken by an exceptional drought that affected more than one third of Portugal and part of southern Spain during more than 9 months. This severe drought had a strong negative impact on vegetation dynamics, as it coincided with the period of high photosynthetic activity (Gouveia et al., 2009). Since water availability is a crucial factor in post-fire vegetation recovery, it is desirable to assess the impact that such water-stress conditions had on fire sensitivity and post-fire vegetation recovery. Fire events in the European Mediterranean areas have become a serious problem and a major ecosystem disturbance, increasing erosion and soil degradation. In Portugal, the years 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating. In 2003 it was registered the maximal burnt area since 1980, with more than 425000 ha burned, representing about 5% of Portuguese mainland. The 2005 fire season registered the highest number of fire occurrences in Portugal and the second year with the greatest number of fires in Spain. The high number of fire events observed during the summer 2005 in the Iberian Peninsula is linked, in part, to the extreme drought conditions that prevailed during the preceding winter and spring seasons of 2004/2005. Vegetation recovery after the 2003 and 2005 fire seasons was estimated using the mono-parametric model developed by Gouveia et al. (2010), which relies on monthly values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), from 1999 to 2009, at 1kmresolution, as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument.. This model was further used to evaluate the effect of drought in pre and post vegetation activity. Besides the standard NDVI, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the Normalized Difference Drought Index (NDDI) were computed in order to evaluate drought intensity. In the case of the burnt scars of 2003, when data corresponding to the months of drought are removed, recovery times are considerably shorter

  10. Impact of Three Bleaching Events on the Reef Resiliency of Kāne‘ohe Bay, Hawai‘i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisha D. Bahr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching events have been increasing in frequency and severity worldwide. The most prolonged global bleaching event began in 2014 and continued into 2017 impacting more reefs than any previous occurrence. Here we present the results of coral bleaching and mortality surveys conducted in Kāne‘ohe Bay O‘ahu, Hawai‘i and compare them to the only other widespread bleaching events to impact the main Hawaiian Islands in 1996 and 2014. Results from these surveys along with associated environmental factors were used to compare these events to gain a baseline understanding of the physical processes that influence localized bleaching dynamics under these extreme environmental conditions. Survey results show extensive variation in bleaching (1996–62%, 2014–45%, 2015–30% and cumulative mortality (1996— <1%, 2014–13%, 2015–22% between years. Bleaching prevalence was observed to decrease in certain reef areas across events, suggesting some acclimation and/or resilience, but possible increase susceptibility to mortality. Long-term monitoring sites show a similar temporal pattern of coral mortality and decline in coral cover, but revealed some reefs remained relatively un-impacted by consecutive high temperature events. Across the three bleaching events, we found that although circulation patterns can facilitate heating, the duration and magnitude of the high temperature event were the primary forcing functions for coral bleaching and mortality. Other localized primary drivers influencing water temperature such as irradiance, turbidity, and precipitation contributed to spatial variations. Recovery and resilience of this coral reef ecosystem is dependent on many factors including duration and magnitude of heating, resulting mortality levels, localized environmental factors in the bay, and coral species affected and their bleaching tolerances.

  11. Assessment of the Long Term Trends in Extreme Heat Events and the Associated Health Impacts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J.; Rennie, J.; Kunkel, K.; Herring, S.; Cullen, H. M.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface air temperature products have been essential for monitoring the evolution of the climate system. Before a temperature dataset is included in such reports, it is important that non-climatic influences be removed or changed so the dataset is considered homogenous. These inhomogeneities include changes in station location, instrumentation and observing practices. While many homogenized products exist on the monthly time scale, few daily products exist, due to the complication of removing breakpoints that are truly inhomogeneous rather than solely by chance (for example, sharp changes due to synoptic conditions). Recently, a sub monthly homogenized dataset has been developed using data and software provided by NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). Homogeneous daily data are useful for identification and attribution of extreme heat events over a period of time. Projections of increasing temperatures are expected to result in corresponding increases in the frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme heat events. It is also established that extreme heat events can have significant public health impacts, including short-term increases in mortality and morbidity. In addition, it can exacerbate chronic health conditions in vulnerable populations, including renal and cardiovascular issues. To understand how heat events impact a specific population, it will be important to connect observations on the duration and intensity of extreme heat events with health impacts data including insurance claims and hospital admissions data. This presentation will explain the methodology to identify extreme heat events, provide a climatology of heat event onset, length and severity, and explore a case study of an anomalous heat event with available health data.

  12. Cognitive Personality Characteristics Impact the Course of Depression: A Prospective Test of Sociotropy, Autonomy and Domain-Specific Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoviello, Brian M; Grant, David A; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2009-01-01

    Prospective tests of the impact of sociotropy and autonomy on the course of depression are lacking. In a sample of 97 cognitive high-risk and 62 cognitive low-risk undergraduates who experienced at least one prospective depressive episode, the interactions of sociotropy and interpersonal life events and autonomy and achievement-related life events were examined as predictors of four indicators of the course of depression. Initial analyses failed to support the hypothesis that global scores for sociotropy and autonomy interact with domain-congruent life events to predict the course indicators. The autonomy-achievement events interaction predicted less severe episodes, contrary to hypothesis. Then, factors hypothesized to underlie Sociotropy (Fear of Criticism and Rejection; Preference for Affiliation) and Autonomy were also analyzed. The puzzling autonomy-achievement life event interaction was explained by the underlying Independent Goal Attainment factor. Interactions between Fear of Criticism and Rejection and achievement events, and between Sensitivity to Others' Control and interpersonal events, significantly predicted chronicity, number and severity of episodes. The findings are discussed in terms of the event-congruency hypothesis.

  13. K T Kashyap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of Materials Science. Volume 23 Issue 1 February 2000 pp 39-45 Metallic Materials. Role of diffusional coherency strain theory in the discontinuous precipitation in Mg–Al alloy ... pp 405-411 Steels and Alloys. A model for two-step ageing.

  14. Influence of forest and rangeland management on anadromous fish habitat in Western North America: impacts of natural events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas N. Swanston

    1980-01-01

    Natural events affecting vegetative cover and the hydrology and stability of a stream and its parent watershed are key factors influencing the quality of anadromous fish habitat. High intensity storms, drought, soil mass movement, and fire have the greatest impacts. Wind, stream icing, and the influence of insects and disease are important locally...

  15. Accelerated time-resolved three-dimensional MR velocity mapping of blood flow patterns in the aorta using SENSE and k-t BLAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, Andreas; Riet, Wilma van der; Crelier, Gerard; Salomonowitz, Erich

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and potential limitations of the acceleration techniques SENSE and k-t BLAST for time-resolved three-dimensional (3D) velocity mapping of aortic blood flow. Furthermore, to quantify differences in peak velocity versus heart phase curves. Materials and methods: Time-resolved 3D blood flow patterns were investigated in eleven volunteers and two patients suffering from aortic diseases with accelerated PC-MR sequences either in combination with SENSE (R = 2) or k-t BLAST (6-fold). Both sequences showed similar data acquisition times and hence acceleration efficiency. Flow-field streamlines were calculated and visualized using the GTFlow software tool in order to reconstruct 3D aortic blood flow patterns. Differences between the peak velocities from single-slice PC-MRI experiments using SENSE 2 and k-t BLAST 6 were calculated for the whole cardiac cycle and averaged for all volunteers. Results: Reconstruction of 3D flow patterns in volunteers revealed attenuations in blood flow dynamics for k-t BLAST 6 compared to SENSE 2 in terms of 3D streamlines showing fewer and less distinct vortices and reduction in peak velocity, which is caused by temporal blurring. Solely by time-resolved 3D MR velocity mapping in combination with SENSE detected pathologic blood flow patterns in patients with aortic diseases. For volunteers, we found a broadening and flattering of the peak velocity versus heart phase diagram between the two acceleration techniques, which is an evidence for the temporal blurring of the k-t BLAST approach. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of SENSE and detected potential limitations of k-t BLAST when used for time-resolved 3D velocity mapping. The effects of higher k-t BLAST acceleration factors have to be considered for application in 3D velocity mapping.

  16. Spatial impact and triggering conditions of the exceptional hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S.; Ramos, A. M.; Zêzere, J. L.; Trigo, R. M.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    According to the DISASTER database the 20-28 December 1909 event was the hydro-geomorphologic event with the highest number of flood and landslide cases that occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 (Zêzere et al., 2014). This event also caused important social impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro Basin, having triggered the highest floods in more than 100 years at the river's mouth in the city of Oporto. This work has a dual purpose: (i) to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic DISASTER event over Portugal and Spain; (ii) to analyse the meteorological conditions that triggered the event and the spatial distribution of the precipitation anomalies. Social impacts that occurred in Portugal were obtained from the Disaster database (Zêzere et al., 2014) whereas the data collection for Spain was supported by the systematic analysis of Spanish daily newspapers. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20th Century Reanalysis data set from NOAA and precipitation data from Iberian meteorological stations. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning from Lisbon, Santarém, Oporto, and Guarda (in Portugal), to Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León, and Palencia (in Spain). In Iberia, 134 DISASTER cases were recorded (130 flood cases; 4 landslides cases) having caused 89 casualties (57 due to floods and 32 due to landslides) and a further total of 3876 affected people, including fatalities, injured, missing, evacuated, and homeless people. This event was associated with outstanding precipitation registered at Guarda (Portugal) on 22 December 1909 and unusual meteorological conditions characterized by the presence of a deep low-pressure system located over the NW Iberian Peninsula with a stationary frontal system striking the western Iberian Peninsula. The presence of an upper

  17. The impact of stressful life events on excessive alcohol consumption in the French population: findings from the GAZEL cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamers, Sara L; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Bohl, Alex A; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Major life changes may play a causative role in health through lifestyle factors, such as alcohol. The objective was to examine the impact of stressful life events on heavy alcohol consumption among French adults. Trajectories of excessive alcohol consumption in 20,625 employees of the French national gas and electricity company for up to 5 years before and 5 years after an event, with annual measurements from 1992. We used repeated measures analysis of time series data indexed to events, employing generalized estimating equations. For women, excessive alcohol use increased before important purchase (p = 0.021), children leaving home (pdivorce, widowhood, and death of loved one (all pchildren leaving home and retirement, where we observed an increase (all pdivorce and increased after (all pimpact alcohol intake temporarily while others have longer-term implications. Research should disentangle women's and men's distinct perceptions of events over time.

  18. Impact of extraneous mispositioned events on motion-corrected brain SPECT images of freely moving animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, Georgios I.; Ryder, William J.; Bashar, Rezaul; Meikle, Steven R.; Fulton, Roger R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain imaging of freely moving small animals would allow a wide range of important neurological processes and behaviors to be studied, which are normally inhibited by anesthetic drugs or precluded due to the animal being restrained. While rigid body motion of the head can be tracked and accounted for in the reconstruction, activity in the torso may confound brain measurements, especially since motion of the torso is more complex (i.e., nonrigid) and not well correlated with that of the head. The authors investigated the impact of mispositioned events and attenuation due to the torso on the accuracy of motion corrected brain images of freely moving mice. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of a realistic voxelized mouse phantom and a dual compartment phantom were performed. Each phantom comprised a target and an extraneous compartment which were able to move independently of each other. Motion correction was performed based on the known motion of the target compartment only. Two SPECT camera geometries were investigated: a rotating single head detector and a stationary full ring detector. The effects of motion, detector geometry, and energy of the emitted photons (hence, attenuation) on bias and noise in reconstructed brain regions were evaluated. Results: The authors observed two main sources of bias: (a) motion-related inconsistencies in the projection data and (b) the mismatch between attenuation and emission. Both effects are caused by the assumption that the orientation of the torso is difficult to track and model, and therefore cannot be conveniently corrected for. The motion induced bias in some regions was up to 12% when no attenuation effects were considered, while it reached 40% when also combined with attenuation related inconsistencies. The detector geometry (i.e., rotating vs full ring) has a big impact on the accuracy of the reconstructed images, with the full ring detector being more

  19. False alarms and missed events: the impact and origins of perceived inaccuracy in tornado warning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripberger, Joseph T; Silva, Carol L; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Carlson, Deven E; James, Mark; Herron, Kerry G

    2015-01-01

    Theory and conventional wisdom suggest that errors undermine the credibility of tornado warning systems and thus decrease the probability that individuals will comply (i.e., engage in protective action) when future warnings are issued. Unfortunately, empirical research on the influence of warning system accuracy on public responses to tornado warnings is incomplete and inconclusive. This study adds to existing research by analyzing two sets of relationships. First, we assess the relationship between perceptions of accuracy, credibility, and warning response. Using data collected via a large regional survey, we find that trust in the National Weather Service (NWS; the agency responsible for issuing tornado warnings) increases the likelihood that an individual will opt for protective action when responding to a hypothetical warning. More importantly, we find that subjective perceptions of warning system accuracy are, as theory suggests, systematically related to trust in the NWS and (by extension) stated responses to future warnings. The second half of the study matches survey data against NWS warning and event archives to investigate a critical follow-up question--Why do some people perceive that their warning system is accurate, whereas others perceive that their system is error prone? We find that subjective perceptions are--in part-a function of objective experience, knowledge, and demographic characteristics. When considered in tandem, these findings support the proposition that errors influence perceptions about the accuracy of warning systems, which in turn impact the credibility that people assign to information provided by systems and, ultimately, public decisions about how to respond when warnings are issued. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Hydrodynamic Based Decision Making Framework for Impact Assessment of Extreme Storm Events on Coastal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, R.; Miller, K.; Hurler, C.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal and inland flooding has been a problematic occurrence, specifically over the past century. Global warming has caused an 8 inch sea level rise since 1990, which made the coastal flood zone wider, deeper and more damaging. Additionally, riverine flooding is extremely damaging to the country's substructure and economy as well which causes river banks to overflow, inundating low-lying areas. New Jersey and New York are two areas at severe risk for flood hazard, sea level rise, land depletion and economic loss which are the main study area of this work. A decision making framework is being built to help mitigate the impacts of the environmental and economical dangers of storm surges, sea level rise, flashfloods and inland flooding. With vigorous research and the use of innovative hydrologic modeling software, this tool can be built and utilized to form resiliency for coastal communities. This will allow the individuals living in a coastal community to understand the details of climatic hazards in their area and risks associated to their communities. This tool will also suggest the best solution for the problem each community faces. Atlantic City and New York City has been modeled and compared using potential storm events and the outcomes have been analyzed. The tool offers all the possible solutions for the type of flooding that occurs. Green infrastructure such as rain gardens, detention basins and green roofs can be used as small scale solutions. Greater scale solutions such as removable flood barriers, concrete walls and height adjustable walls will also be displayed if that poses as the best solution. The results and benefits from the simulation and modeling techniques, will allow coastal communities to choose the most appropriate method for building a long lasting and sustainable resilience plan in the future.

  1. The impact of clustering of extreme European windstorm events on (re)insurance market portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Wallace, Kirsten; Alvarez-Diaz, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally the occurrence of windstorm loss events in Europe has been considered as independent. However, a number of significant losses close in space and time indicates that this assumption may need to be revised. Under particular atmospheric conditions multiple loss-causing cyclones can occur in succession, affecting similar geographic regions and, therefore, insurance markets. A notable example is of Lothar and Martin in France in December 1999. Although the existence of cyclone families is well-known by meteorologists, there has been limited research into occurrence of serial windstorms. However, climate modelling research is now providing the ability to explore the physical drivers of clustering, and to improve understanding of the hazard aspect of catastrophe modelling. While analytics tools, including catastrophe models, may incorporate assumptions regarding the influence of dependency through statistical means, the most recent research outputs provide a new strand of information with the potential to re-assess the probabilistic loss potential in light of clustering and to provide an additional view on probable maximum losses to windstorm-exposed portfolios across regions such as Northwest Europe. There is however, a need for the testing of these new techniques within operational (re)insurance applications, and this paper provide an overview of the most current clustering research, including the 2009 paper by Vitolo et. al., in relation to reinsurance risk modelling, and to assess the potential impact of such additional information on the overall risk assessment process. We examine the consequences of the serial clustering of extra-tropical cyclones demonstrated by Vitolo et al. (2009) from the perspective of a large European reinsurer, examining potential implications for: • Pricing • Accumulation And • Capital adequacy

  2. Exploration of the psychological impact and adaptation to cardiac events in South Asians in the UK: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Mimi; Stevenson, Fiona; Walters, Kate

    2016-07-08

    There is little research on how different ethnic groups adapt after an acute cardiac event. This qualitative study explores between-ethnicity and within-ethnicity variation in adaptation, and the psychological impact of an acute cardiac event among UK South Asian and white British people. We purposively sampled people by ethnic group from general practices in London who had a new myocardial infarction, angina or acute arrhythmia in the preceding 18 months. We conducted 28 semistructured interviews for exploring the psychological symptoms, experiences and adaptations following a cardiac event among South Asians (Indian and Bangladeshi) in comparison to white British people. Data were analysed using a thematic 'framework' approach. Findings showed heterogeneity in experiences of the cardiac event and its subsequent psychological and physical impact. Adaptation to the event related predominantly to life circumstances, personal attitudes and employment status. Anxiety and low mood symptoms were common sequelae, especially in the Bangladeshi group. Indian men tended to normalise symptoms and the cardiac event, and reported less negative mood symptoms than other groups. Fear of physical exertion, particularly heavy lifting, persisted across the groups. Some people across all ethnic groups indicated the need for more psychological therapy postcardiac event. Socioeconomic circumstances, age and prior work status appeared to be more important in relation to adaptation after a cardiac event than ethnic status. Heterogeneity in views and experiences related to the socioeconomic background, age and work status of the participants along with some cultural influences. Rehabilitation programmes should be flexibly tailored for individuals in particular and where relevant, specific support should be provided for returning to work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Exploration of the psychological impact and adaptation to cardiac events in South Asians in the UK: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Mimi; Stevenson, Fiona; Walters, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little research on how different ethnic groups adapt after an acute cardiac event. This qualitative study explores between-ethnicity and within-ethnicity variation in adaptation, and the psychological impact of an acute cardiac event among UK South Asian and white British people. Setting We purposively sampled people by ethnic group from general practices in London who had a new myocardial infarction, angina or acute arrhythmia in the preceding 18 months. Participants We conducted 28 semistructured interviews for exploring the psychological symptoms, experiences and adaptations following a cardiac event among South Asians (Indian and Bangladeshi) in comparison to white British people. Data were analysed using a thematic ‘framework’ approach. Results Findings showed heterogeneity in experiences of the cardiac event and its subsequent psychological and physical impact. Adaptation to the event related predominantly to life circumstances, personal attitudes and employment status. Anxiety and low mood symptoms were common sequelae, especially in the Bangladeshi group. Indian men tended to normalise symptoms and the cardiac event, and reported less negative mood symptoms than other groups. Fear of physical exertion, particularly heavy lifting, persisted across the groups. Some people across all ethnic groups indicated the need for more psychological therapy postcardiac event. Socioeconomic circumstances, age and prior work status appeared to be more important in relation to adaptation after a cardiac event than ethnic status. Conclusions Heterogeneity in views and experiences related to the socioeconomic background, age and work status of the participants along with some cultural influences. Rehabilitation programmes should be flexibly tailored for individuals in particular and where relevant, specific support should be provided for returning to work. PMID:27401355

  4. On the Impact of Anomalous Noise Events on Road Traffic Noise Mapping in Urban and Suburban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orga, Ferran; Alías, Francesc; Alsina-Pagès, Rosa Ma

    2017-12-23

    Noise pollution is a critical factor affecting public health, the relationship between road traffic noise (RTN) and several diseases in urban areas being especially disturbing. The Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC and the CNOSSOS-EU framework are the main instruments of the European Union to identify and combat noise pollution, requiring Member States to compose and publish noise maps and noise management action plans every five years. Nowadays, the noise maps are starting to be tailored by means of Wireless Acoustic Sensor Networks (WASN). In order to exclusively monitor the impact of RTN on the well-being of citizens through WASN-based approaches, those noise sources unrelated to RTN denoted as Anomalous Noise Events (ANEs) should be removed from the noise map generation. This paper introduces an analysis methodology considering both Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and duration of ANEs to evaluate their impact on the A-weighted equivalent RTN level calculation for different integration times. The experiments conducted on 9 h of real-life data from the WASN-based DYNAMAP project show that both individual high-impact events and aggregated medium-impact events bias significantly the equivalent noise levels of the RTN map, making any derived study about public health impact inaccurate.

  5. Are extreme hydro-meteorological events a prerequisite for extreme water quality impacts? Exploring climate impacts on inland and coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, A. M.; Balaji, V.; Del Giudice, D.; Sinha, E.; Zhou, Y.; Ho, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Questions surrounding water sustainability, climate change, and extreme events are often framed around water quantity - whether too much or too little. The massive impacts of extreme water quality impairments are equally compelling, however. Recent years have provided a host of compelling examples, with unprecedented harmful algal blooms developing along the West coast, in Utah Lake, in Lake Erie, and off the Florida coast, and huge hypoxic dead zones continuing to form in regions such as Lake Erie, the Chesapeake Bay, and the Gulf of Mexico. Linkages between climate change, extreme events, and water quality impacts are not well understood, however. Several factors explain this lack of understanding, including the relative complexity of underlying processes, the spatial and temporal scale mismatch between hydrologists and climatologists, and observational uncertainty leading to ambiguities in the historical record. Here, we draw on a number of recent studies that aim to quantitatively link meteorological variability and water quality impacts to test the hypothesis that extreme water quality impairments are the result of extreme hydro-meteorological events. We find that extreme hydro-meteorological events are neither always a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the occurrence of extreme water quality impacts. Rather, extreme water quality impairments often occur in situations where multiple contributing factors compound, which complicates both attribution of historical events and the ability to predict the future incidence of such events. Given the critical societal importance of water quality projections, a concerted program of uncertainty reduction encompassing observational and modeling components will be needed to examine situations where extreme weather plays an important, but not solitary, role in the chain of cause and effect.

  6. Impact of chronic kidney disease and stress myocardial perfusion imaging as a predictor of cardiovascular events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Tatsuhiko; Joki, Nobuhiko; Hase, Hiroki; Masai, Hirofumi; Kunimasa, Taeko; Nakazato, Ryo; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Sugi, Kaoru; Moroi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is an established means of predicting cardiovascular events and is suitable in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of CKD parameters and an abnormal stress MPI for cardiovascular events. A total of 495 patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) or history of CAD including 130 CKD patients not undergoing hemodialysis, underwent stress MPI (313 males, mean age 70 years) and were followed up for 14 months (mean period). CKD was defined as an estimated GFR of 2 and/or persistent proteinuria. Cardiovascular events were defined as sudden cardiac death, acute coronary syndrome and congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization. Cardiovascular events occurred in 41 (8.3%) patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that CKD [hazard ratio (HR) =3.76, p<0.001] and a stress MPI summed difference score (SDS) of ≥2 (HR=3.78, p<0.001) were independent predictors of cardiovascular events; CKD plus abnormal stress MPI was also a strong predictor of cardiovascular events (non-CKD and SDS <2 vs. CKD and SDS ≥2, HR=15.9, p<0.001). Both CKD and myocardial ischemia detected by stress MPI are independent predictors for cardiovascular events. Coexistence of CKD and myocardial ischemia detected by stress MPI is more useful for short-term risk stratification of cardiovascular events. (author)

  7. Impact of climate change on extreme rainfall events and flood risk in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    events and flood risk in India. P Guhathakurta∗. , O P Sreejith and P A Menon. India Meteorological Department, Shivajinagar, Pune 411 005, India. ∗ e-mail: pguhathakurta@rediffmail.com. The occurrence of exceptionally heavy rainfall events and associated flash floods in many areas during recent years motivate us to ...

  8. Estimation of the isothermal compressibility from event-by-event multiplicity fluctuation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Maitreyee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first estimation of the isothermal compressibility (kT of matter is presented for a wide range of collision energies from √sNN = 7.7 GeV to 2.76 TeV. kT is estimated with the help of event-byevent charged particle multiplicity fluctuations from experiment. Dynamical fluctuations are extracted by removing the statistical fluctuations obtained from the participant model. kT is also estimated from event generators AMPT, UrQMD, EPOS and a hadron resonance gas model. The values of isothermal compressibility are estimated for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC energies with the help of the event generators.

  9. Traditional folk event with national importance: The impact of visitors’ age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Solarová

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the cultural tourism, this paper focuses on the traditional folk event with national importance that is held in the Czech Republic and its name is Porta. The aim is to assess characteristic traits and satisfaction of two age categories of Porta´s visitors. Through the realised research among visitors, the importance of segmentation was proved. Hence, it is crucial to focus on getting to know the visitors and their motivation. In addition to that, cultural events are also important for local government. According to the officials of local government, where this event is held, such events are able to attract visitors to the particular locality. However, they have only limited opportunities how to support these events (especially from the financial viewpoint.

  10. Understanding the economic burden of nonsevere nocturnal hypoglycemic events: impact on work productivity, disease management, and resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Meryl; Wolden, Michael; Christensen, Torsten; Bushnell, Donald M

    2013-12-01

    Nonsevere hypoglycemic events are common and may occur in one-third of persons with diabetes as often as several times a week. This study's objective was to examine the economic burden of nonsevere nocturnal hypoglycemic events (NSNHEs). A 20-minute Web-based survey, with items derived from the literature, expert input, and patient interviews, assessing the impact of NSNHEs was administered in nine countries to 18 years and older patients with self-reported diabetes having an NSNHE in the past month. A total of 20,212 persons were screened, with 2,108 respondents meeting criteria and included in the analysis sample. The cost of lost work productivity per NSNHE was estimated to be between $10.21 (Germany) and $28.13 (the United Kingdom), representing 3.3 to 7.5 hours of lost work time per event. A reduction in work productivity (presenteeism) was also reported. Compared with respondents' usual blood sugar monitoring practice, on average, 3.6 ± 6.6 extra tests were conducted in the week following the event at a cost of approximately $87.1 per year. Additional costs were also incurred for doctor visits as well as medical care required because of falls or injuries incurred during the NSNHE for an annual cost of $2,111.3 per person per year. When taking into consideration the multiple impacts of NSNHEs for the total sample and the frequency that these events occur, the resulting total annual economic burden was $288,000 or $127 per person per event. NSNHEs have serious consequences for patients. Greater attention to treatments that reduce NSNHEs can have a major impact on reducing the economic burden of diabetes. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of floods induced by extreme precipitation events on public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroulis, Spyridon; Mavrouli, Maria; Lekkas, Efthymios; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2017-04-01

    Hydrometeorological disasters comprise the most reported type of natural disaster, and floods account for the majority of disasters in this category in both developed and developing countries. Flooding can lead to extensive morbidity and mortality and pose multiple risks to public health throughout the world. This study involved an extensive and systematic literature review of 124 research publications related to public health impact of 98 floods that occurred globally (Oceania 4, Africa 9, America 22, Europe 24, Asia 39) from 1942 to 2014. The inclusion criteria were literature type comprising journal articles and official reports, natural disaster type including floods induced after extreme precipitation events (accumulation of rainwater in poorly-drained environments, riverine and flash floods), population type including humans, and outcome measure characterized by infectious diseases (ID) incidence increase. The potential post-flood ID are classified into 13 groups including rodent-borne (reported in 38 of the total 98 events, 38.78%), water-borne (33, 33.67%), vector-borne (25, 25.51%), respiratory (19, 19.39%), fecal-oral (14, 14.29%), skin (9, 9.18%), blood-borne (4, 4.08%), eye (3, 3.06%), soil-related (3, 3.06%), ear (2, 2.04%), fungal (1, 1.02%) and wound-borne (1, 1.02%) ID. Based on available age and genre data, it is concluded that the most vulnerable population groups are predominantly young children (age ≤ 5 years) and male. The most fatal post-flood ID are leptospirosis and diarrhea followed by respiratory tract infections. The detected risk factors include (1) poor economic status and living in flood prone areas, (2) destruction of infrastructures, disruption of public utilities and interruption of basic public health services such as vector control programs, (3) direct physical exposure to sewage-polluted flood water, (4) lack of adequate potable water and water-supply from contaminated ponds and tube wells along with lack of distribution of

  12. How close to ideal is the photon gas? Corrections to Planck's laws at kT much-lt me

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, G.

    1991-01-01

    At temperatures well below the electron rest mass, the electron-positron concentrations in black-body radiation (BBR) are negligible, and deviations from Planck's laws are due to the photon-photon coupling described (in natural units) by the classic Euler-Heisenberg local interaction Lagrangean density (α 2 /360π 2 m e 4 )[(E 2 -B 2 ) 2 +7(E·B) 2 ]. Though unobservably small, these corrections answer the question in the title. They are best expressed in terms of the (frequency-independent) shift in the refractive index κ = (1+Δκ) of BBR, where Δκ = α 2 (kT/m e ) 4 44π 2 /2025 ∼ 7.5 x 10 -35 (T/300) 4 . There are fractional changes of 3 Δκ/2 in the free-energy density and the pressure; 7 Δκ/2 in the energy density; and 2 Δκ in the mean-square electric field in any frequency range, whence only the intensity of the Planck spectrum is shifted but not its shape. The dielectric constant var-epsilon = (1 + Δ var-epsilon) and magnetic susceptibility μ = (1 + Δμ) of BBR are equal, with Δ var-epsilon = Δμ = Δκ, whence the author compares the BBR shifts with those in an ordinary linear nondispersive medium having var-epsilon = μ = κ triple-bond √εμ

  13. A Simple Ensemble Simulation Technique for Assessment of Future Variations in Specific High-Impact Weather Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    To investigate future variations in high-impact weather events, numerous samples are required. For the detailed assessment in a specific region, a high spatial resolution is also required. A simple ensemble simulation technique is proposed in this paper. In the proposed technique, new ensemble members were generated from one basic state vector and two perturbation vectors, which were obtained by lagged average forecasting simulations. Sensitivity experiments with different numbers of ensemble members, different simulation lengths, and different perturbation magnitudes were performed. Experimental application to a global warming study was also implemented for a typhoon event. Ensemble-mean results and ensemble spreads of total precipitation, atmospheric conditions showed similar characteristics across the sensitivity experiments. The frequencies of the maximum total and hourly precipitation also showed similar distributions. These results indicate the robustness of the proposed technique. On the other hand, considerable ensemble spread was found in each ensemble experiment. In addition, the results of the application to a global warming study showed possible variations in the future. These results indicate that the proposed technique is useful for investigating various meteorological phenomena and the impacts of global warming. The results of the ensemble simulations also enable the stochastic evaluation of differences in high-impact weather events. In addition, the impacts of a spectral nudging technique were also examined. The tracks of a typhoon were quite different between cases with and without spectral nudging; however, the ranges of the tracks among ensemble members were comparable. It indicates that spectral nudging does not necessarily suppress ensemble spread.

  14. Air blasts generated by rockfall impacts: Analysis of the 1996 Happy Isles event in Yosemite National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, M. M.; Savage, W. Z.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    1999-10-01

    The July 10, 1996, Happy Isles rockfall in Yosemite National Park, California, released 23,000 to 38,000 m3 of granite in four separate events. The impacts of the first two events which involved a 550-m free fall, generated seismic waves and atmospheric pressure waves (air blasts). We focus on the dynamic behavior of the second air blast that downed over 1000 trees, destroyed a bridge, demolished a snack bar, and caused one fatality and several injuries. Calculated velocities for the air blast from a two-phase, finite difference model are compared to velocities estimated from tree damage. From tornadic studies of tree damage, the air blast is estimated to have traveled <108-120 m/s within 50 m from the impact and decreased to <10-20 m/s within 500 m from the impact. The numerical model simulates the two-dimensional propagation of an air blast through a dusty atmosphere with initial conditions defined by the impact velocity and pressure. The impact velocity (105-107 m/s) is estimated from the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program that simulates rockfall trajectories. The impact pressure (0.5 MPa) is constrained by the kinetic energy of the impact (1010-1012 J) estimated from the seismic energy generated by the impact. Results from the air blast simulations indicate that the second Happy Isles air blast (weak shock wave) traveled with an initial velocity above the local sound speed. The size and location of the first impact are thought to have injected <50 wt% dust into the atmosphere. This amount of dust lowered the local atmospheric sound speed to ˜220 m/s. The discrepancy between calculated velocity data and field estimated velocity data (˜220 m/s versus ˜110 m/s) is attributed to energy dissipated by the downing of trees and additional entrainment of debris into the atmosphere not included in the calculations.

  15. Shock-induced microdeformations in quartz and other mineralogical indications of an impact event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohor, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    The event terminating the Cretaceous period and the Mesozoic era caused massive extinctions of flora and fauna worldwide. Theories of the nature of this event can be classed as endogenic (volcanic, climatic, etc.) or exogenic (extraterrestrial causes). Mineralogical evidence from the boundary clays and claystones strongly favor the impact of an extraterrestrial body as the cause of this event. Nonmarine KT boundary claystones are comprised of two separate layers-an upper layer composed of high-angle ejecta material (shocked quartz, altered glass and spinel) and a basal kaolinitic layer containing spherules, clasts, and altered glass, together with some shocked grains. Recognition of this dual-layered nature of the boundary clay is important for the determination of the timing and processes involved in the impact event and in the assignment and interpretation of geochemical signatures. Multiple sets of shock-induced microdeformations (planar features) in quartz grains separated from KT boundary clays provide compelling evidence of an impact event. This mineralogical manifestation of shock metamorphism is associated worldwide with a large positive anomaly of iridium in these boundary clays, which has also been considered indicative of the impact of a large extraterrestrial body. Global distributions of maximum sizes of shocked quartz grains from the boundary clays and the mineralogy of the ejecta components favor an impact on or near the North American continent. Spinel crystals (magnesioferrite) occur in the boundary clays as micrometer-sized octahedra or skeletal forms. Their composition differs from that of spinels found in terrestrial oceanic basalts. Magnesioferrite crystals are restricted to the high-angle ejecta layer of the boundary clays and their small size and skeletal morphology suggest that they are condensation products of a vaporized bolide. Hollow spherules ranging up to 1 mm in size are ubiquitously associated with the boundary clays. In nonmarine

  16. How do foster youth experience the impact of adverse childhood events?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Anne; van der Steen, Steffie; Grietens, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Foster children have been disproportionately exposed to traumatic events (Turney & Wildeman, 2017), which are perceived as important factors contributing to problems and specific needs they experience (Berrick & Skivenes, 2012; Bruskas, 2008). Despite the growing interest in the stories of foster

  17. Extreme events in the Dudetes Mountains - Their long-term geomorphic impact and possible controlling factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Migon, P.; Hrádek, Mojmír; Parzoch, K.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 36 (2002), s. 29-49 ISSN 0081-6434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : extreme events * debris flow * landslide-floods Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  18. Defining a quantitative framework for evaluation and optimisation of the environmental impacts of mega-event projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Olga; Lettieri, Paola; Bogle, I David L

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a novel quantitative methodology for the evaluation and optimisation of the environmental impacts of the whole life cycle of a mega-event project: construction and staging the event and post-event site redevelopment and operation. Within the proposed framework, a mathematical model has been developed that takes into account greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from use of transportation fuel, energy, water and construction materials used at all stages of the mega-event project. The model is applied to a case study - the London Olympic Park. Three potential post-event site design scenarios of the Park have been developed: Business as Usual (BAU), Commercial World (CW) and High Rise High Density (HRHD). A quantitative summary of results demonstrates that the highest GHG emissions associated with the actual event are almost negligible compared to those associated with the legacy phase. The highest share of emissions in the legacy phase is attributed to embodied emissions from construction materials (almost 50% for the BAU and HRHD scenarios) and emissions resulting from the transportation of residents, visitors and employees to/from the site (almost 60% for the CW scenario). The BAU scenario is the one with the lowest GHG emissions compared to the other scenarios. The results also demonstrate how post-event site design scenarios can be optimised to minimise the GHG emissions. The overall outcomes illustrate how the proposed framework can be used to support decision making process for mega-event projects planning. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of an abrupt cooling event on interglacial methane emissions in northern peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zürcher

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in atmospheric methane (CH4, temperature and precipitation are documented by Greenland ice core data both for glacial times (the so called Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O events as well as for a cooling event in the early Holocene (the 8.2 kyr event. The onsets of D-O warm events are paralleled by abrupt increases in CH4 by up to 250 ppb in a few decades. Vice versa, the 8.2 kyr event is accompanied by an intermittent decrease in CH4 of about 80 ppb over 150 yr. The abrupt CH4 changes are thought to mainly originate from source emission variations in tropical and boreal wet ecosystems, but complex process oriented bottom-up model estimates of the changes in these ecosystems during rapid climate changes are still missing. Here we present simulations of CH4 emissions from northern peatlands with the LPJ-Bern dynamic global vegetation model. The model represents CH4 production and oxidation in soils and transport by ebullition, through plant aerenchyma, and by diffusion. Parameters are tuned to represent site emission data as well as inversion-based estimates of northern wetland emissions. The model is forced with climate input data from freshwater hosing experiments using the NCAR CSM1.4 climate model to simulate an abrupt cooling event. A concentration reduction of ~10 ppb is simulated per degree K change of mean northern hemispheric surface temperature in peatlands. Peatland emissions are equally sensitive to both changes in temperature and in precipitation. If simulated changes are taken as an analogy to the 8.2 kyr event, boreal peatland emissions alone could only explain 23% of the 80 ppb decline in atmospheric methane concentration. This points to a significant contribution to source changes from low latitude and tropical wetlands to this event.

  20. Impact of climate change on heavy precipitation events of the Mediterranean basin; Impact du changement climatique sur les evenements de pluie intense du bassin mediterraneen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard, D.; Beaulant, A.L.; Deque, M.; Ducrocq, V.; Joly, A.; Joly, B.; Martin, E.; Nuissier, O.; Quintana Segui, P.; Ribes, A.; Sevault, F.; Somot, S. [Meteo-France et CNRS, Groupe d' Etude de l' Atmosphere Meteorologique (GAME), 31 - Toulouse (France); Boe, J. [California Univ., Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-11-15

    A second topic covered by the CYPRIM project aims to characterize the evolution of heavy precipitation events in Mediterranean in the context of climate change. To this end, a continuous climate simulation from 1960 to 2099 has been run using a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model under IPCC A2 emission scenario. Various techniques of down-scaling, down to the very fine 2 km scale, and methods to highlight synoptic environments favourable to heavy rain, have been used to estimate the impact of climate change on precipitation and hydrology over South-East France, both for the whole autumn season and the heavy rain events. (authors)

  1. Magnetostratigraphy of the impact breccias and post-impact carbonates from borehole Yaxcopoil-1, Chicxulub impact crater, Yucatán, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2004-06-01

    We report the magnetostratigraphy of the sedimentary sequence between the impact breccias and the post-impact carbonate sequence conducted on samples recovered by Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1). Samples of impact breccias show reverse polarities that span up to ~56 cm into the postimpact carbonate lithologies. We correlate these breccias to those of PEMEX boreholes Yucatán-6 and Chicxulub-1, from which we tied our magnetostratigraphy to the radiometric age from a melt sample from the Yucatán-6 borehole. Thin section analyses of the carbonate samples showed a significant amount of dark minerals and glass shards that we identified as the magnetic carriers; therefore, we propose that the mechanism of magnetic acquisition within the carbonate rocks for the interval studied is detrital remanent magnetism (DRM). With these samples, we constructed the scale of geomagnetic polarities where we find two polarities within the sequence, a reverse polarity event within the impact breccias and the base of the post-impact carbonate sequence (up to 794.07 m), and a normal polarity event in the last ~20 cm of the interval studied. The polarities recorded in the sequence analyzed are interpreted to span from chron 29r to 29n, and we propose that the reverse polarity event lies within the 29r chron. The magnetostratigraphy of the sequence studied shows that the horizon at 794.11 m deep, interpreted as the K/T boundary, lies within the geomagnetic chron 29r, which contains the K/T boundary.

  2. Simple motion correction strategy reduces respiratory-induced motion artifacts for k-t accelerated and compressed-sensing cardiovascular magnetic resonance perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruixi; Huang, Wei; Yang, Yang; Chen, Xiao; Weller, Daniel S; Kramer, Christopher M; Kozerke, Sebastian; Salerno, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) stress perfusion imaging provides important diagnostic and prognostic information in coronary artery disease (CAD). Current clinical sequences have limited temporal and/or spatial resolution, and incomplete heart coverage. Techniques such as k-t principal component analysis (PCA) or k-t sparcity and low rank structure (SLR), which rely on the high degree of spatiotemporal correlation in first-pass perfusion data, can significantly accelerate image acquisition mitigating these problems. However, in the presence of respiratory motion, these techniques can suffer from significant degradation of image quality. A number of techniques based on non-rigid registration have been developed. However, to first approximation, breathing motion predominantly results in rigid motion of the heart. To this end, a simple robust motion correction strategy is proposed for k-t accelerated and compressed sensing (CS) perfusion imaging. A simple respiratory motion compensation (MC) strategy for k-t accelerated and compressed-sensing CMR perfusion imaging to selectively correct respiratory motion of the heart was implemented based on linear k-space phase shifts derived from rigid motion registration of a region-of-interest (ROI) encompassing the heart. A variable density Poisson disk acquisition strategy was used to minimize coherent aliasing in the presence of respiratory motion, and images were reconstructed using k-t PCA and k-t SLR with or without motion correction. The strategy was evaluated in a CMR-extended cardiac torso digital (XCAT) phantom and in prospectively acquired first-pass perfusion studies in 12 subjects undergoing clinically ordered CMR studies. Phantom studies were assessed using the Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). In patient studies, image quality was scored in a blinded fashion by two experienced cardiologists. In the phantom experiments, images reconstructed with the MC strategy had higher

  3. Impact of Damaging Geo-Hydrological Events and Population Development in Calabria, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Polemio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Damaging geo-Hydrogeological Events (DHEs are defined as the occurrence of destructive phenomena (such as landslides and floods that can cause damage to people and goods during periods of bad weather. These phenomena should be analyzed together as they actually occur because their interactions can both amplify the damage and obstruct emergency management. The occurrence of DHEs depends on the interactions between climatic and geomorphological features: except for long-term climatic changes, these interactions can be considered constant, and for this reason, some areas are systematically affected. However, damage scenarios can change; events that occurred in the past could presently cause different effects depending on the modifications that occurred in the geographical distribution of vulnerable elements. We analyzed a catastrophic DHE that in 1951 affected an area 3700 km2 wide, located in Calabria (southern Italy, with four-day cumulative rainfall exceeding 300 mm and return periods of daily rain exceeding 500 Y. It resulted in 101 victims and 4500 homeless individuals. The probability that a similar event will happen again in the future is assessed using the return period of the triggering rainfall, whereas the different anthropogenic factors are taken into account by means of the population densities at the time of the event and currently. The result is a classification of regional municipalities according to the probability that events such as the one analyzed will occur again in the future and the possible effects of this event on the current situation.

  4. Hosting mega sport events in a small country: The (real impact on the development - cases of Croatia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimić-Banović Ružica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of studies on the impact of the sports events on country's development are produced before the events take place and as such are in favour of the bidding process. When comparing these ex ante analyses to the ex post evidence, it has been in most cases obvious that they have been overly optimistic. This paper analyses the ex ante analysis provided by the Croatian bidding committee for the European Football Championship 2012. In addition to that, the ex ante study for the World Handball Championship 2009 in Croatia and (insufficient data for the handball championships that took place in Serbia were analysed as well. This paper contributes both to the debate on the realistic approach of several failed and won bids, and the debate on the future bids for the other sport events.

  5. Impacts of natural events and processes on groundwater flow conditions: a case study in the Horonobe Area, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizato, T.; Yasue, K.I.; Kurikami, H.

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the long-term stability of the geological environments for over several hundred thousand years, it is important to consider the influence of natural events and processes, such as uplift, subsidence, denudation and climate change, on the geological environments, especially in an active region such as Japan. This study presents a conceptual model related to the future natural events and processes which have potential impacts on the groundwater flow conditions in the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, northern Japan on the basis of the neo-tectonics, palaeogeography, palaeo-climate, historical development of landform, and present state of groundwater flow conditions. We conclude that it is important to consider interactions among natural events and processes on the describing of the best-possible approximation of the time-variation of geological environment. (authors)

  6. Assessing the Impacts of Flooding Caused by Extreme Rainfall Events Through a Combined Geospatial and Numerical Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, J. R.; Amora, A. M.; Makinano-Santillan, M.; Marqueso, J. T.; Cutamora, L. C.; Serviano, J. L.; Makinano, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present a combined geospatial and two dimensional (2D) flood modeling approach to assess the impacts of flooding due to extreme rainfall events. We developed and implemented this approach to the Tago River Basin in the province of Surigao del Sur in Mindanao, Philippines, an area which suffered great damage due to flooding caused by Tropical Storms Lingling and Jangmi in the year 2014. The geospatial component of the approach involves extraction of several layers of information such as detailed topography/terrain, man-made features (buildings, roads, bridges) from 1-m spatial resolution LiDAR Digital Surface and Terrain Models (DTM/DSMs), and recent land-cover from Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI images. We then used these layers as inputs in developing a Hydrologic Engineering Center Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC HMS)-based hydrologic model, and a hydraulic model based on the 2D module of the latest version of HEC River Analysis System (RAS) to dynamically simulate and map the depth and extent of flooding due to extreme rainfall events. The extreme rainfall events used in the simulation represent 6 hypothetical rainfall events with return periods of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 years. For each event, maximum flood depth maps were generated from the simulations, and these maps were further transformed into hazard maps by categorizing the flood depth into low, medium and high hazard levels. Using both the flood hazard maps and the layers of information extracted from remotely-sensed datasets in spatial overlay analysis, we were then able to estimate and assess the impacts of these flooding events to buildings, roads, bridges and landcover. Results of the assessments revealed increase in number of buildings, roads and bridges; and increase in areas of land-cover exposed to various flood hazards as rainfall events become more extreme. The wealth of information generated from the flood impact assessment using the approach can be very useful to the

  7. Global patterns and impacts of El Niño events on coral reefs: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claar, Danielle C; Szostek, Lisa; McDevitt-Irwin, Jamie M; Schanze, Julian J; Baum, Julia K

    2018-01-01

    Impacts of global climate change on coral reefs are being amplified by pulse heat stress events, including El Niño, the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Despite reports of extensive coral bleaching and up to 97% coral mortality induced by El Niño events, a quantitative synthesis of the nature, intensity, and drivers of El Niño and La Niña impacts on corals is lacking. Herein, we first present a global meta-analysis of studies quantifying the effects of El Niño/La Niña-warming on corals, surveying studies from both the primary literature and International Coral Reef Symposium (ICRS) Proceedings. Overall, the strongest signal for El Niño/La Niña-associated coral bleaching was long-term mean temperature; bleaching decreased with decreasing long-term mean temperature (n = 20 studies). Additionally, coral cover losses during El Niño/La Niña were shaped by localized maximum heat stress and long-term mean temperature (n = 28 studies). Second, we present a method for quantifying coral heat stress which, for any coral reef location in the world, allows extraction of remotely-sensed degree heating weeks (DHW) for any date (since 1982), quantification of the maximum DHW, and the time lag since the maximum DHW. Using this method, we show that the 2015/16 El Niño event instigated unprecedented global coral heat stress across the world's oceans. With El Niño events expected to increase in frequency and severity this century, it is imperative that we gain a clear understanding of how these thermal stress anomalies impact different coral species and coral reef regions. We therefore finish with recommendations for future coral bleaching studies that will foster improved syntheses, as well as predictive and adaptive capacity to extreme warming events.

  8. Global patterns and impacts of El Niño events on coral reefs: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C Claar

    Full Text Available Impacts of global climate change on coral reefs are being amplified by pulse heat stress events, including El Niño, the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Despite reports of extensive coral bleaching and up to 97% coral mortality induced by El Niño events, a quantitative synthesis of the nature, intensity, and drivers of El Niño and La Niña impacts on corals is lacking. Herein, we first present a global meta-analysis of studies quantifying the effects of El Niño/La Niña-warming on corals, surveying studies from both the primary literature and International Coral Reef Symposium (ICRS Proceedings. Overall, the strongest signal for El Niño/La Niña-associated coral bleaching was long-term mean temperature; bleaching decreased with decreasing long-term mean temperature (n = 20 studies. Additionally, coral cover losses during El Niño/La Niña were shaped by localized maximum heat stress and long-term mean temperature (n = 28 studies. Second, we present a method for quantifying coral heat stress which, for any coral reef location in the world, allows extraction of remotely-sensed degree heating weeks (DHW for any date (since 1982, quantification of the maximum DHW, and the time lag since the maximum DHW. Using this method, we show that the 2015/16 El Niño event instigated unprecedented global coral heat stress across the world's oceans. With El Niño events expected to increase in frequency and severity this century, it is imperative that we gain a clear understanding of how these thermal stress anomalies impact different coral species and coral reef regions. We therefore finish with recommendations for future coral bleaching studies that will foster improved syntheses, as well as predictive and adaptive capacity to extreme warming events.

  9. Stratospheric ozone intrusion events and their impacts on tropospheric ozone in the Southern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Greenslade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT provides an important natural source of ozone to the upper troposphere, but the characteristics of STT events in the Southern Hemisphere extratropics and their contribution to the regional tropospheric ozone budget remain poorly constrained. Here, we develop a quantitative method to identify STT events from ozonesonde profiles. Using this method we estimate the seasonality of STT events and quantify the ozone transported across the tropopause over Davis (69° S, 2006–2013, Macquarie Island (54° S, 2004–2013, and Melbourne (38° S, 2004–2013. STT seasonality is determined by two distinct methods: a Fourier bandpass filter of the vertical ozone profile and an analysis of the Brunt–Väisälä frequency. Using a bandpass filter on 7–9 years of ozone profiles from each site provides clear detection of STT events, with maximum occurrences during summer and minimum during winter for all three sites. The majority of tropospheric ozone enhancements owing to STT events occur within 2.5 and 3 km of the tropopause at Davis and Macquarie Island respectively. Events are more spread out at Melbourne, occurring frequently up to 6 km from the tropopause. The mean fraction of total tropospheric ozone attributed to STT during STT events is  ∼ 1. 0–3. 5 % at each site; however, during individual events, over 10 % of tropospheric ozone may be directly transported from the stratosphere. The cause of STTs is determined to be largely due to synoptic low-pressure frontal systems, determined using coincident ERA-Interim reanalysis meteorological data. Ozone enhancements can also be caused by biomass burning plumes transported from Africa and South America, which are apparent during austral winter and spring and are determined using satellite measurements of CO. To provide regional context for the ozonesonde observations, we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, which is too coarsely

  10. Dynamics of 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming event and its impact on cold weather over Eurasia: Role of planetary wave reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Debashis; Chen, Wen; Zelin, Cai; Pogoreltsev, Alexander Ivanovich; Wei, Ke

    2016-04-07

    In the present study, we investigate the impact of stratospheric planetary wave reflection on tropospheric weather over Central Eurasia during the 2013 Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) event. We analyze EP fluxes and Plumb wave activity fluxes to study the two and three dimensional aspects of wave propagation, respectively. The 2013 SSW event is excited by the combined influence of wavenumber 1 (WN1) and wavenumber 2 (WN2) planetary waves, which makes the event an unusual one and seems to have significant impact on tropospheric weather regime. We observe an extraordinary development of a ridge over the Siberian Tundra and the North Pacific during first development stage (last week of December 2012) and later from the North Atlantic in the second development stage (first week of January 2013), and these waves appear to be responsible for the excitation of the WN2 pattern during the SSW. The wave packets propagated upward and were then reflected back down to central Eurasia due to strong negative wind shear in the upper stratospheric polar jet, caused by the SSW event. Waves that propagated downward led to the formation of a deep trough over Eurasia and brought extreme cold weather over Kazakhstan, the Southern part of Russia and the Northwestern part of China during mid-January 2013.

  11. The impact of outpatient chemotherapy-related adverse events on the quality of life of breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachi, Tomoya; Teramachi, Hitomi; Tanaka, Kazuhide; Asano, Shoko; Osawa, Tomohiro; Kawashima, Azusa; Yasuda, Masahiro; Mizui, Takashi; Nakada, Takumi; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Tsuchiya, Teruo; Goto, Chitoshi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to clarify the impact of adverse events associated with the initial course of outpatient chemotherapy on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. We conducted a survey to assess the quality of life in 48 breast cancer patients before and after receiving their first course of outpatient chemotherapy at Gifu Municipal Hospital. Patients completed the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions and Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs before and after 1 course of outpatient chemotherapy. European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions utility value and Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs total score decreased significantly after chemotherapy (pQuality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs decreased significantly after chemotherapy (p = 0.003, pquality of life according to individual adverse events, the decrease in quality of life after chemotherapy in terms of the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions utility value and the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anticancer Drugs total score was greater in anorexic patients than in non-anorexic patients (p = 0.009 and pquality of life. Our findings reveal that anticancer drug-related adverse events, particularly anorexia, reduce overall quality of life following the first course of outpatient chemotherapy in current breast cancer patients. These findings are extremely useful and important in understanding the impact of anticancer drug-related adverse events on quality of life.

  12. Measuring the regional economic impact of mega-events: what are the benefits of the 2014 Olympics for Sochi?

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The economic benefits of mega-events such as the Olympic Games are much touted but little quantified. This paper first presents a systematisation of the money streams associated with hosting the Olympic Games and then introduces basic concepts from regional economics. On this basis it outlines a general model that could be employed to estimate the regional economic impact of tourism associated with the Olympic Winter Games in Sochi in 2014.

  13. Impact of whole-genome duplication events on diversification rates in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Jacob B; Soltis, Douglas E; Li, Zheng; Marx, Hannah E; Barker, Michael S; Tank, David C; Soltis, Pamela S

    2018-03-01

    Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication (WGD) pervades the evolutionary history of angiosperms. Despite extensive progress in our understanding of WGD, the role of these events in promoting diversification is still not well understood. We seek to clarify the possible association between WGD and diversification rates in flowering plants. Using a previously published phylogeny spanning all land plants (31,749 tips) and WGD events inferred from analyses of the 1000 Plants (1KP) transcriptome data, we analyzed the association of WGDs and diversification rates following numerous WGD events across the angiosperms. We used a stepwise AIC approach (MEDUSA), a Bayesian mixture model approach (BAMM), and state-dependent diversification analyses (MuSSE) to investigate patterns of diversification. Sister-clade comparisons were used to investigate species richness after WGDs. Based on the density of 1KP taxon sampling, 106 WGDs were unambiguously placed on the angiosperm phylogeny. We identified 334-530 shifts in diversification rates. We found that 61 WGD events were tightly linked to changes in diversification rates, and state-dependent diversification analyses indicated higher speciation rates for subsequent rounds of WGD. Additionally, 70 of 99 WGD events showed an increase in species richness compared to the sister clade. Forty-six of the 106 WGDs analyzed appear to be closely associated with upshifts in the rate of diversification in angiosperms. Shifts in diversification do not appear more likely than random within a four-node lag phase following a WGD; however, younger WGD events are more likely to be followed by an upshift in diversification than older WGD events. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Impacts of extreme winter warming events on plant physiology in a sub-Arctic heath community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst, Stef; Bjerke, Jarle W; Davey, Matthew P; Taulavuori, Kari; Taulavuori, Erja; Laine, Kari; Callaghan, Terry V; Phoenix, Gareth K

    2010-10-01

    Insulation provided by snow cover and tolerance of freezing by physiological acclimation allows Arctic plants to survive cold winter temperatures. However, both the protection mechanisms may be lost with winter climate change, especially during extreme winter warming events where loss of snow cover from snow melt results in exposure of plants to warm temperatures and then returning extreme cold in the absence of insulating snow. These events cause considerable damage to Arctic plants, but physiological responses behind such damage remain unknown. Here, we report simulations of extreme winter warming events using infrared heating lamps and soil warming cables in a sub-Arctic heathland. During these events, we measured maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII), photosynthesis, respiration, bud swelling and associated bud carbohydrate changes and lipid peroxidation to identify physiological responses during and after the winter warming events in three dwarf shrub species: Empetrum hermaphroditum, Vaccinium vitis-idaea and Vaccinium myrtillus. Winter warming increased maximum quantum yield of PSII, and photosynthesis was initiated for E. hermaphroditum and V. vitis-idaea. Bud swelling, bud carbohydrate decreases and lipid peroxidation were largest for E. hermaphroditum, whereas V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea showed no or less strong responses. Increased physiological activity and bud swelling suggest that sub-Arctic plants can initiate spring-like development in response to a short winter warming event. Lipid peroxidation suggests that plants experience increased winter stress. The observed differences between species in physiological responses are broadly consistent with interspecific differences in damage seen in previous studies, with E. hermaphroditum and V. myrtillus tending to be most sensitive. This suggests that initiation of spring-like development may be a major driver in the damage caused by winter warming events that are predicted to become more

  15. Economic Evaluations of the Health Impacts of Weather-Related Extreme Events: A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Laetitia H. M.; Graham, Hilary M.; White, Piran C. L.

    2016-01-01

    The frequency and severity of extreme events is expected to increase under climate change. There is a need to understand the economic consequences of human exposure to these extreme events, to underpin decisions on risk reduction. We undertook a scoping review of economic evaluations of the adverse health effects from exposure to weather-related extreme events. We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases with no restrictions to the type of evaluations. Twenty studies were included, most of which were recently published. Most studies have been undertaken in the U.S. (nine studies) or Asia (seven studies), whereas we found no studies in Africa, Central and Latin America nor the Middle East. Extreme temperatures accounted for more than a third of the pool of studies (seven studies), closely followed by flooding (six studies). No economic study was found on drought. Whilst studies were heterogeneous in terms of objectives and methodology, they clearly indicate that extreme events will become a pressing public health issue with strong welfare and distributional implications. The current body of evidence, however, provides little information to support decisions on the allocation of scarce resources between risk reduction options. In particular, the review highlights a significant lack of research attention to the potential cost-effectiveness of interventions that exploit the capacity of natural ecosystems to reduce our exposure to, or ameliorate the consequences of, extreme events. PMID:27834843

  16. The Impact of Sleep Disturbance on the Association Between Stressful Life Events and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Amanda; Burgard, Sarah; Zivin, Kara

    2016-01-01

    Sleep problems are common across the adult life span and may exacerbate depressive symptoms and the effect of common risk factors for depressive symptoms such as life stress. We examine sleep disturbance as a moderator of the association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms across five waves (25 years) of the nationally representative, longitudinal American Changing Lives Study. The sample includes 3,597 adults aged 25 years or older who were surveyed up to five times over 25 years. Multilevel models were run to examine between- and within-person variability in sleep disturbance and life event stress as predictors of depressive symptoms, and an interaction to test sleep disturbance as a moderator is included in a second step. Life events and sleep disturbance were associated with elevated depressive symptoms at the between- and within-person levels. A significant sleep disturbance by interaction of life events was found, indicating that when individuals experienced an above average number of life events and slept more restlessly than usual, they had a higher risk for depressive symptoms than individuals who experienced above average stress but slept well. Sleeping restfully may allow individuals the rejuvenation needed to manage stress adaptively and reduce depressive symptom burden. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Economic Evaluations of the Health Impacts of Weather-Related Extreme Events: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia H. M. Schmitt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and severity of extreme events is expected to increase under climate change. There is a need to understand the economic consequences of human exposure to these extreme events, to underpin decisions on risk reduction. We undertook a scoping review of economic evaluations of the adverse health effects from exposure to weather-related extreme events. We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases with no restrictions to the type of evaluations. Twenty studies were included, most of which were recently published. Most studies have been undertaken in the U.S. (nine studies or Asia (seven studies, whereas we found no studies in Africa, Central and Latin America nor the Middle East. Extreme temperatures accounted for more than a third of the pool of studies (seven studies, closely followed by flooding (six studies. No economic study was found on drought. Whilst studies were heterogeneous in terms of objectives and methodology, they clearly indicate that extreme events will become a pressing public health issue with strong welfare and distributional implications. The current body of evidence, however, provides little information to support decisions on the allocation of scarce resources between risk reduction options. In particular, the review highlights a significant lack of research attention to the potential cost-effectiveness of interventions that exploit the capacity of natural ecosystems to reduce our exposure to, or ameliorate the consequences of, extreme events.

  18. Coronary endothelial function assessment using self-gated cardiac cine MRI and k-t sparse SENSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerly, Jérôme; Ginami, Giulia; Nordio, Giovanna; Coristine, Andrew J; Coppo, Simone; Monney, Pierre; Stuber, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated cine MRI, paired with isometric handgrip exercise, can be used to accurately, reproducibly, and noninvasively measure coronary endothelial function (CEF). Obtaining a reliable ECG signal at higher field strengths, however, can be challenging due to rapid gradient switching and an increased heart rate under stress. To address these limitations, we present a self-gated cardiac cine MRI framework for CEF measurements that operates without ECG signal. Cross-sectional slices of the right coronary artery (RCA) were acquired using a two-dimensional golden angle radial trajectory. This sampling approach, combined with the k-t sparse SENSE algorithm, allows for the reconstruction of both real-time images for self-gating signal calculations and retrospectively reordered self-gated cine images. CEF measurements were quantitatively compared using both the self-gated and the standard ECG-gated approach. Self-gated cine images with high-quality, temporal, and spatial resolution were reconstructed for 18 healthy volunteers. CEF as measured in self-gated images was in good agreement (R 2  = 0.60) with that measured by its standard ECG-gated counterpart. High spatial and temporal resolution cross-sectional cine images of the RCA can be obtained without ECG signal. The coronary vasomotor response to handgrip exercise compares favorably with that obtained with the standard ECG-gated method. Magn Reson Med 76:1443-1454, 2015. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Impacts from urban water systems on receiving waters - How to account for severe wet-weather events in LCA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Eva; Gasperi, Johnny; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent; Roux, Philippe; Rosenbaum, Ralph K; Sinfort, Carole

    2018-01-01

    Sewage systems are a vital part of the urban infrastructure in most cities. They provide drainage, which protects public health, prevents the flooding of property and protects the water environment around urban areas. On some occasions sewers will overflow into the water environment during heavy rain potentially causing unacceptable impacts from releases of untreated sewage into the environment. In typical Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies of urban wastewater systems (UWS), average dry-weather conditions are modelled while wet-weather flows from UWS, presenting a high temporal variability, are not currently accounted for. In this context, the loads from several storm events could be important contributors to the impact categories freshwater eutrophication and ecotoxicity. In this study we investigated the contributions of these wet-weather-induced discharges relative to average dry-weather conditions in the life cycle inventory for UWS. In collaboration with the Paris public sanitation service (SIAAP) and Observatory of Urban Pollutants (OPUR) program researchers, this work aimed at identifying and comparing contributing flows from the UWS in the Paris area by a selection of routine wastewater parameters and priority pollutants. This collected data is organized according to archetypal weather days during a reference year. Then, for each archetypal weather day and its associated flows to the receiving river waters (Seine), the parameters of pollutant loads (statistical distribution of concentrations and volumes) were determined. The resulting inventory flows (i.e. the potential loads from the UWS) were used as LCA input data to assess the associated impacts. This allowed investigating the relative importance of episodic wet-weather versus "continuous" dry-weather loads with a probabilistic approach to account for pollutant variability within the urban flows. The analysis at the scale of one year showed that storm events are significant contributors to the impacts

  20. Informing Ex Ante Event Studies with Macro-Econometric Evidence on the Structural and Policy Impacts of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassios, Jason; Giesecke, James A

    2018-04-01

    Economic consequence analysis is one of many inputs to terrorism contingency planning. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are being used more frequently in these analyses, in part because of their capacity to accommodate high levels of event-specific detail. In modeling the potential economic effects of a hypothetical terrorist event, two broad sets of shocks are required: (1) physical impacts on observable variables (e.g., asset damage); (2) behavioral impacts on unobservable variables (e.g., investor uncertainty). Assembling shocks describing the physical impacts of a terrorist incident is relatively straightforward, since estimates are either readily available or plausibly inferred. However, assembling shocks describing behavioral impacts is more difficult. Values for behavioral variables (e.g., required rates of return) are typically inferred or estimated by indirect means. Generally, this has been achieved via reference to extraneous literature or ex ante surveys. This article explores a new method. We elucidate the magnitude of CGE-relevant structural shifts implicit in econometric evidence on terrorist incidents, with a view to informing future ex ante event assessments. Ex post econometric studies of terrorism by Blomberg et al. yield macro econometric equations that describe the response of observable economic variables (e.g., GDP growth) to terrorist incidents. We use these equations to determine estimates for relevant (unobservable) structural and policy variables impacted by terrorist incidents, using a CGE model of the United States. This allows us to: (i) compare values for these shifts with input assumptions in earlier ex ante CGE studies; and (ii) discuss how future ex ante studies can be informed by our analysis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene echinoderms and the K/T boundary in the southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium — Part 6: Conclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, J.W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The palaeobiology of echinoderms occurring in the Meerssen and Geulhem members is discussed and changes in diversity across the K/T boundary are documented. Using literature data on the ecology of extant faunas, the various echinoderm groups are considered. Naturally, such data can only be applied

  2. Minor impact of solar flare events accompanied with SRBT III to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamical behavior of the Sun exhibits a variety of physical phenomena, some of which are still not at all or only barely understood due to the complexity of the structure of the Sun. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation of solar flare event and solar radio bursts type III that happen on 23rd July 2017.

  3. The impact of founder events on chromosomal variability in multiply mating species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pool, John E; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    size reductions and recent bottlenecks leading to decreased X/A diversity ratios. Here we use theory and simulation to investigate a separate demographic effect-that of founder events involving multiply mated females-and find that it leads to much stronger reductions in X/A diversity ratios than...

  4. The emotional impact of loss narratives: event severity and narrative perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena

    2010-06-01

    Out of the complex influences of event, narrative and listener characteristics on narrative emotions, this paper focuses on event severity, narrative perspectives, mood, and dispositions for emotion regulation and empathy. Event severity and perspective representation were systematically varied in sad autobiographical narratives to study their influence on quantity and quality of readers' emotional response. Each of three stories were manipulated to contain elaborated perspectives, only the past protagonists' perspective (dramatic narration), and very little perspectives at all (impersonal narration). We predicted that event severity influences the quantity of emotional response, while degree of perspective representation influences plausibility and whether emotional responses are sympathetic or interactional, that is, directed against the narrator. Hypotheses were confirmed except for plausibility, and perspective representation had an effect only on anger against and dislike of the narrator. In a second study, impersonal narration evoked anger at and negative evaluations of the narrator which were related to blaming the narrator for showing too little emotional involvement. The generalizability of findings across emotions and implications for sharing of emotions in everyday and clinical settings are discussed.

  5. Impact of storm events on the structure of a stream microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial structural and/or functional state in a stream community is assumed to be in relative stasis until a perturbation (e.g., runoff event with entrained pollutants) affects the community structure and its functional state. Quantifying these changes and resolving the spe...

  6. Variable impact on mortality of AIDS-defining events diagnosed during combination antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Egger, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The extent to which mortality differs following individual acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining events (ADEs) has not been assessed among patients initiating combination antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: We analyzed data from 31,620 patients with no prior ADEs who started...... studies, and patient management....

  7. The Emotional Impact of Traditional and New Media in Social Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcudean, Minodora; Muresan, Raluca

    2017-01-01

    In past times, media were the sole vector to reflect in their entire complexity the events surrounding major world tragedies. Nowadays, social media are an essential component of the media process and classical press channels are connected to the social networking flow, where they can find information and, at the same time, tap into the emotional…

  8. The Impact of Computing Interpregnancy Intervals Without Accounting for Intervening Pregnancy Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conzuelo-Rodriguez, Gabriel; Naimi, Ashley I

    2018-03-01

    Short interpregnancy intervals (IPI) are associated with poor birth outcomes. Often, only livebirths are considered to estimate IPI. The objective of our work is to explore whether the associations between demographic, behavioural, and pregnancy variables and IPI change when events other than livebirth are included. We used data from the 2006-10 and 2011-13 period of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). We defined IPI using the conception date of the index pregnancy and the event date of the previous one ending in (i) livebirth; (ii) stillbirth; (iii) miscarriage; (iv) abortion; or (v) any of these events. Risk ratios (RR) were estimated for short IPI (definition, especially for unintended versus intended pregnancies (only livebirth risk ratio [RR] 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 1.5) versus livebirth and miscarriage RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.0, 1.3) and women older than 30 vs. younger than 20 at resolution of the previous pregnancy (only livebirth RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.0, 1.5 versus livebirth and miscarriage RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.2, 1.6). Including miscarriage as an intervening event in the calculation of IPI changes the association between several risk factors and short IPI. However, the association between short IPI and preterm birth does not vary when different IPI calculations are used. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Impact of sensor detection limits on protecting water distribution systems from contamination events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, Sean Andrew; Hart, David Blaine; Yarrington, Lane

    2006-01-01

    Real-time water quality sensors are becoming commonplace in water distribution systems. However, field deployable, contaminant-specific sensors are still in the development stage. As development proceeds, the necessary operating parameters of these sensors must be determined to protect consumers from accidental and malevolent contamination events. This objective can be quantified in several different ways including minimization of: the time necessary to detect a contamination event, the population exposed to contaminated water, the extent of the contamination within the network, and others. We examine the ability of a sensor set to meet these objectives as a function of both the detection limit of the sensors and the number of sensors in the network. A moderately sized distribution network is used as an example and different sized sets of randomly placed sensors are considered. For each combination of a certain number of sensors and a detection limit, the mean values of the different objectives across multiple random sensor placements are calculated. The tradeoff between the necessary detection limit in a sensor and the number of sensors is evaluated. Results show that for the example problem examined here, a sensor detection limit of 0.01 of the average source concentration is adequate for maximum protection. Detection of events is dependent on the detection limit of the sensors, but for those events that are detected, the values of the performance measures are not a function of the sensor detection limit. The results of replacing a single sensor in a network with a sensor having a much lower detection limit show that while this replacement can improve results, the majority of the additional events detected had performance measures of relatively low consequence.

  10. Incidence of major vascular events after cardiac surgery: impact of preoperative monitoring with troponin and electrocardiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandra M Quiroga; Juan C Villar; Luz X, Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Recent demographic changes have led to an increased risk of major vascular events among patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Troponin and electrocardiogram monitoring would further identify these major vascular events. Methods: we prospectively collected data on eligible patients (non-selected individuals aged 45 or older undergoing non-cardiac surgery under general or regional anesthesia in two hospitals in Bucaramanga, with expected length of stay longer than 24 hours) during a time-interrupted series,before and after postoperative diagnostic monitoring (blinded assessment of troponin T and electrocardiograms ignoring clinical data). For the period before the intervention (usual clinical care),two independent reviewers extracted clinical information from clinical histories (of all eligible patients from 3 randomly-selected months of 2005). For the period after diagnostic monitoring, we followed 100 consecutive eligible patients. Primary outcome was a composite of major vascular events within hospital, including myocardial infarction (defined as any troponin elevation associated with electrocardiographic changes suggesting ischemia, regardless of symptoms). Results: we included 534 clinical charts and 100 prospective surgical patients (mean age 62.2, SD 12.9 years; 56% women). The more frequent surgical procedures were orthopedics (26.8%) followed by abdominal (20.2%).The incidence of major vascular events recorded in clinical charts was 2.8%, compared with 7% among monitored patients (p=0,071). All four myocardial infarctions identified among the later group were silent. Conclusion: postoperative monitoring with troponin and electrocardiography identified a higher proportion of major vascular events, mainly silent myocardial infarctions.

  11. Community impacts of mid-May frost event during an anomalously warm spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufkens, K.; Sonnentag, O.; Keenan, T. F.; Richardson, A. D.; Melaas, E. K.; Bailey, A.; O'Keefe, J.; Friedl, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Global land and ocean surface temperatures of 2010 have gone on record as one of the warmest of the last 131 years. In the northeastern US extraordinarily warm spring temperatures were recorded, averaging +3 °C above the long term mean, causing very early leaf development. However, the entire northeastern US region was hit by a severe frost event. Leveraging the coincidence of an anomalously warm spring and a late spring frost event we assess species specific responses of these combined extremes for three northern hardwood species(sugar maple, American beech, yellow birch) across an elevational gradient. We integrated ground observations with satellite and near-surface remote sensing data to address the following questions: 1) How did different species respond to a gradient in altitude / freezing temperatures? 2) How does phenological strategy influence this response? 3) To what extent were regional effects measurable? 4) How did the late spring frost event alter the carbon balance of a northern hardwood forest? 5) Finally, what changes do we foresee in community ecology? Our results show an early onset for all species, triggered by the anomalously warm spring. However, the three species responded differently to a late spring frost event. Where both yellow birch and American beech remained largely unaffected by frost, by comparison, sugar maple showed severe frost damage with increasing altitude resulting in leaf loss and delayed canopy development. Conservative estimates of gross carbon exchange losses due to the frost event ranged from 63 g C m-2 to 156 g C m-2, or ~5% to ~13 % of the annual gross carbon exchange of a northern hardwood forest. Our results suggest that the additional pressure on forest succession at high altitude range margins due to late spring frost events may provide a competitive advantage for yellow birch and American beech, at the expense of sugar maple. Consequently, a late spring frost does not only affect the short term carbon balance

  12. Framework for Modeling High-Impact, Low-Frequency Power Grid Events to Support Risk-Informed Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeramany, Arun; Unwin, Stephen D.; Coles, Garill A.; Dagle, Jeffery E.; Millard, W. David; Yao, Juan; Glantz, Clifford S.; Gourisetti, Sri Nikhil Gup

    2015-12-03

    Natural and man-made hazardous events resulting in loss of grid infrastructure assets challenge the electric power grid’s security and resilience. However, the planning and allocation of appropriate contingency resources for such events requires an understanding of their likelihood and the extent of their potential impact. Where these events are of low likelihood, a risk-informed perspective on planning can be problematic as there exists an insufficient statistical basis to directly estimate the probabilities and consequences of their occurrence. Since risk-informed decisions rely on such knowledge, a basis for modeling the risk associated with high-impact low frequency events (HILFs) is essential. Insights from such a model can inform where resources are most rationally and effectively expended. The present effort is focused on development of a HILF risk assessment framework. Such a framework is intended to provide the conceptual and overarching technical basis for the development of HILF risk models that can inform decision makers across numerous stakeholder sectors. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) 2014 Standard TPL-001-4 considers severe events for transmission reliability planning, but does not address events of such severity that they have the potential to fail a substantial fraction of grid assets over a region, such as geomagnetic disturbances (GMD), extreme seismic events, and coordinated cyber-physical attacks. These are beyond current planning guidelines. As noted, the risks associated with such events cannot be statistically estimated based on historic experience; however, there does exist a stable of risk modeling techniques for rare events that have proven of value across a wide range of engineering application domains. There is an active and growing interest in evaluating the value of risk management techniques in the State transmission planning and emergency response communities, some of this interest in the context of

  13. An Integrated Approach to Evaluating the Environmental Impact Following a Radiological Dispersal Event

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, David A

    2006-01-01

    .... A terrorist act which could negatively impact both the ecology and human health is an ideal motivation for integration of the two approaches since the assessment must be done quickly and funds...

  14. Measuring workplace trauma response in Australian paramedics: an investigation into the psychometric properties of the Impact of Event Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Hogan,1 Shane Costello,1 Malcolm Boyle,2 Brett Williams2 1Faculty of Education, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Frankston, VIC, Australia Introduction: Investigation into the psychological effects of violence toward health care workers and its associated trauma is increasing. The Impact of Event Scale (IES provides a measure of current, subjective, emotional distress symptomatic of a specific traumatic event. However, its validity among paramedics is largely unknown. Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the IES with a sample of Australian paramedics. Methods: The study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of the 15-item IES with a sample of Australian paramedics using Exploratory Factor Analysis with model fit statistics as found in confirmatory analysis. Results: Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis with Varimax rotation supported the hypothesis that a two-factor solution would provide the best fit of the data. Procrustes rotation provided further support for this hypothesis indicating that the factors, labeled “Intrusion” and “Avoidance”, as well as the individual items of the 12-item final model, were a good fit to an ideal solution. Conclusion: The revision of the scale has improved its validity for use in the general population of paramedics, improving the potential for its use in trauma-related research. Keywords: impact of event scale, psychometrics, paramedics, occupational violence, PTSD

  15. The predictability of reported drought events and impacts in the Ebro Basin using six different remote sensing data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linés, Clara; Werner, Micha; Bastiaanssen, Wim

    2017-09-01

    The implementation of drought management plans contributes to reduce the wide range of adverse impacts caused by water shortage. A crucial element of the development of drought management plans is the selection of appropriate indicators and their associated thresholds to detect drought events and monitor the evolution. Drought indicators should be able to detect emerging drought processes that will lead to impacts with sufficient anticipation to allow measures to be undertaken effectively. However, in the selection of appropriate drought indicators, the connection to the final impacts is often disregarded. This paper explores the utility of remotely sensed data sets to detect early stages of drought at the river basin scale and determine how much time can be gained to inform operational land and water management practices. Six different remote sensing data sets with different spectral origins and measurement frequencies are considered, complemented by a group of classical in situ hydrologic indicators. Their predictive power to detect past drought events is tested in the Ebro Basin. Qualitative (binary information based on media records) and quantitative (crop yields) data of drought events and impacts spanning a period of 12 years are used as a benchmark in the analysis. Results show that early signs of drought impacts can be detected up to 6 months before impacts are reported in newspapers, with the best correlation-anticipation relationships for the standard precipitation index (SPI), the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and evapotranspiration (ET). Soil moisture (SM) and land surface temperature (LST) offer also good anticipation but with weaker correlations, while gross primary production (GPP) presents moderate positive correlations only for some of the rain-fed areas. Although classical hydrological information from water levels and water flows provided better anticipation than remote sensing indicators in most of the areas, correlations were

  16. Impact of delirium on postoperative frailty and long term cardiovascular events after cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Masato; Izawa, Kazuhiro P.; Satomi-Kobayashi, Seimi; Tsuboi, Yasunori; Komaki, Kodai; Gotake, Yasuko; Sakai, Yoshitada; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Okita, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Background Postoperative delirium (POD) is a common and critical complication after cardiac surgery. However, the relationship between POD and postoperative physical frailty and the effect of both on long-term clinical outcomes have not been fully explored. Objective We aimed to examine the associations among POD, postoperative frailty, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Design This was a prospective cohort study. Methods We studied 329 consecutive patients undergoing elective cardiac s...

  17. Estimation of the impact of climate change-induced extreme precipitation events on floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavčová, Kamila; Lapin, Milan; Valent, Peter; Szolgay, Ján; Kohnová, Silvia; Rončák, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In order to estimate possible changes in the flood regime in the mountainous regions of Slovakia, a simple physically-based concept for climate change-induced changes in extreme 5-day precipitation totals is proposed in the paper. It utilizes regionally downscaled scenarios of the long-term monthly means of the air temperature, specific air humidity and precipitation projected for Central Slovakia by two regional (RCM) and two global circulation models (GCM). A simplified physically-based model for the calculation of short-term precipitation totals over the course of changing air temperatures, which is used to drive a conceptual rainfall-runoff model, was proposed. In the paper a case study of this approach in the upper Hron river basin in Central Slovakia is presented. From the 1981-2010 period, 20 events of the basin's most extreme average of 5-day precipitation totals were selected. Only events with continual precipitation during 5 days were considered. These 5-day precipitation totals were modified according to the RCM and GCM-based scenarios for the future time horizons of 2025, 2050 and 2075. For modelling runoff under changed 5-day precipitation totals, a conceptual rainfall-runoff model developed at the Slovak University of Technology was used. Changes in extreme mean daily discharges due to climate change were compared with the original flood events and discussed.

  18. Air quality impacts of a CicLAvia event in Downtown Los Angeles, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shi; Batteate, Christina; Cole, Brian; Froines, John; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-01-01

    CicLAvia in Los Angeles, CA is the open streets program that closes streets to motorized vehicles and invites people to walk, run, play or ride their bicycles on these streets, allowing them to experience the city in a new way and get exercise at the same time. Since the events reduce the motorized traffic flow, which is a significant source of air pollution, on the streets, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the CicLAvia events can reduce the concentrations of traffic-emitted air pollutants during the road closure. This study is the first experiment to test this hypothesis. The on-road and community-wide ultrafine particle (UFP) and PM2.5 were measured on the Event-Sunday (October 5th, 2014) and the Pre- and Post- Sundays (September 28(th) and October 12(th), 2014). Data analysis results showed the on-road UFP and PM2.5 reduction was 21% and 49%, respectively, and the community-wide PM2.5 reduction was 12%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Extreme Events in China under Climate Change: Uncertainty and related impacts (CSSP-FOREX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Befort, Daniel J.; Hodges, Kevin I.

    2016-04-01

    Suitable adaptation strategies or the timely initiation of related mitigation efforts in East Asia will strongly depend on robust and comprehensive information about future near-term as well as long-term potential changes in the climate system. Therefore, understanding the driving mechanisms associated with the East Asian climate is of major importance. The FOREX project (Fostering Regional Decision Making by the Assessment of Uncertainties of Future Regional Extremes and their Linkage to Global Climate System Variability for China and East Asia) focuses on the investigation of extreme wind and rainfall related events over Eastern Asia and their possible future changes. Here, analyses focus on the link between local extreme events and their driving weather systems. This includes the coupling between local rainfall extremes and tropical cyclones, the Meiyu frontal system, extra-tropical teleconnections and monsoonal activity. Furthermore, the relation between these driving weather systems and large-scale variability modes, e.g. NAO, PDO, ENSO is analysed. Thus, beside analysing future changes of local extreme events, the temporal variability of their driving weather systems and related large-scale variability modes will be assessed in current CMIP5 global model simulations to obtain more robust results. Beyond an overview of FOREX itself, first results regarding the link between local extremes and their steering weather systems based on observational and reanalysis data are shown. Special focus is laid on the contribution of monsoonal activity, tropical cyclones and the Meiyu frontal system on the inter-annual variability of the East Asian summer rainfall.

  20. Psychological and Physical Impacts of Extreme Events on Older Adults: Implications for Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Erin; Amlôt, Richard; Rogers, M Brooke; Rubin, G James; Tesh, John; Pearce, Julia M

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, a series of large-scale, high-profile natural disasters and terrorist attacks have demonstrated the need for thorough and effective disaster preparedness. While these extreme events affect communities and societies as a whole, they also carry specific risks for particular population groups. Crises such as Hurricane Katrina and the 2011 earthquake and tsunami disaster in Japan have illustrated the risk of significant and disproportionate morbidity and mortality among older adults during disasters. Age does not necessarily equate to vulnerability, but many physical and psychological consequences of the aging process can increase the risk of adverse outcomes. As the older population grows, so too does the need to ensure that adequate, practical, and appropriate measures exist to offset the specific risks from extreme events associated with this subpopulation. Effective risk and crisis communication plays a key role in mitigating the extent to which older adults are differentially affected during extreme events. By identifying the specific issues affecting older adults, this review highlights important areas for action for practitioners and policy-makers, particularly in the realm of crisis communication. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:127-134).

  1. Environmental impacts of radiological consequences during the anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) events in nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kafas, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), is one of the (worst case) accidents could happen if the system that provides a highly reliable means of shutting down the reactor (scram system )fails to work during a reactor event (anticipated transient).It has two general characteristics: (1) Initiation by a transient anticipated to occur one or more times in the life of reactor and ,(2) Assumed to proceed without scram.The types of events considered are those used for designing the plant .The evaluation of the radiological consequences during the assessment of the nuclear events,especially ATWS in nuclear power reactors, is very essential for environmental studies and public safety. In this paper, the root cases for nuclear events and dose calculation are presented. Scenario of accident sequences together with radiological impacts is illustrated for loss of coolant accident (LOCA) for a typical pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant. Recommendations for mitigating or preventing the release of radiation and high radioactive materials to environment are presented.

  2. Physical and economic impacts of sea-level rise and low probability flooding events on coastal communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Prime

    Full Text Available Conventionally flood mapping typically includes only a static water level (e.g. peak of a storm tide in coastal flood inundation events. Additional factors become increasingly important when increased water-level thresholds are met during the combination of a storm tide and increased mean sea level. This research incorporates factors such as wave overtopping and river flow in a range of flood inundation scenarios of future sea-level projections for a UK case study of Fleetwood, northwest England. With increasing mean sea level it is shown that wave overtopping and river forcing have an important bearing on the cost of coastal flood events. The method presented converts inundation maps into monetary cost. This research demonstrates that under scenarios of joint extreme surge-wave-river events the cost of flooding can be increased by up to a factor of 8 compared with an increase in extent of up to a factor of 3 relative to "surge alone" event. This is due to different areas being exposed to different flood hazards and areas with common hazard where flood waters combine non-linearly. This shows that relying simply on flood extent and volume can under-predict the actual economic impact felt by a coastal community. Additionally, the scenario inundation depths have been presented as "brick course" maps, which represent a new way of interpreting flood maps. This is primarily aimed at stakeholders to increase levels of engagement within the coastal community.

  3. Physical and economic impacts of sea-level rise and low probability flooding events on coastal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Thomas; Brown, Jennifer M; Plater, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally flood mapping typically includes only a static water level (e.g. peak of a storm tide) in coastal flood inundation events. Additional factors become increasingly important when increased water-level thresholds are met during the combination of a storm tide and increased mean sea level. This research incorporates factors such as wave overtopping and river flow in a range of flood inundation scenarios of future sea-level projections for a UK case study of Fleetwood, northwest England. With increasing mean sea level it is shown that wave overtopping and river forcing have an important bearing on the cost of coastal flood events. The method presented converts inundation maps into monetary cost. This research demonstrates that under scenarios of joint extreme surge-wave-river events the cost of flooding can be increased by up to a factor of 8 compared with an increase in extent of up to a factor of 3 relative to "surge alone" event. This is due to different areas being exposed to different flood hazards and areas with common hazard where flood waters combine non-linearly. This shows that relying simply on flood extent and volume can under-predict the actual economic impact felt by a coastal community. Additionally, the scenario inundation depths have been presented as "brick course" maps, which represent a new way of interpreting flood maps. This is primarily aimed at stakeholders to increase levels of engagement within the coastal community.

  4. The Impact of Stressful Life Events on Alcohol Relapse: Findings from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Christina Delos; Pagano, Maria Elizabeth; Ronis, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    Alcohol relapse is impacted by a variety of environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal factors. We examined the interaction between stressful life events, personality disorder subtype, and alcohol relapse among individuals enrolled in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS). Negative life events predicted relapse in all subjects. In individuals with a history of an alcohol use disorder prior to study entry, positive life events also predicted alcohol relapse. Individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) were found to be twice as likely to relapse in response to life stressors compared to individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD), who were half as likely to relapse in response to life stressors. Further analysis revealed that individuals with OCPD and no history of an alcohol use disorder were almost 10 times more likely to relapse in the face of a stressful romantic problem, while those with ASPD and a history of an alcohol use disorder were six times more likely to relapse in response to a stressful financial event. These findings have implications for both the assessment and the treatment of individuals who present with co-morbid personality and alcohol use disorders.

  5. Pathways, Impacts, and Policies on Severe Aerosol Injections into the Atmosphere: 2011 Severe Atmospheric Aerosols Events Conference

    KAUST Repository

    Weil, Martin; Grassl, Hartmut; Hoshyaripour, Gholamali; Kloster, Silvia; Kominek, Jasmin; Misios, Stergios; Scheffran, Juergen; Starr, Steven; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Sudarchikova, Natalia; Timmreck, Claudia; Zhang, Dan; Kalinowski, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 severe atmospheric events conference, held on August 11-12, 2011, Hamburg, Germany, discussed climatic and environmental changes as a result of various kinds of huge injections of aerosols into the atmosphere and the possible consequences for the world population. Various sessions of the conference dealt with different aspects of large aerosol injections and severe atmospheric aerosol events along the geologic time scale. A presentation about radiative heating of aerosols as a self-lifting mechanism in the Australian forest fires discussed the question of how the impact of tropical volcanic eruptions depends on the eruption season. H.-F. Graf showed that cloud-resolving plume models are more suitable to predict the volcanic plume height and dispersion than one-dimensional models. G. Stenchikov pointed out that the absorbing smoke plumes in the upper troposphere can be partially mixed into the lower stratosphere because of the solar heating and lofting effect.

  6. Pathways, Impacts, and Policies on Severe Aerosol Injections into the Atmosphere: 2011 Severe Atmospheric Aerosols Events Conference

    KAUST Repository

    Weil, Martin

    2012-09-01

    The 2011 severe atmospheric events conference, held on August 11-12, 2011, Hamburg, Germany, discussed climatic and environmental changes as a result of various kinds of huge injections of aerosols into the atmosphere and the possible consequences for the world population. Various sessions of the conference dealt with different aspects of large aerosol injections and severe atmospheric aerosol events along the geologic time scale. A presentation about radiative heating of aerosols as a self-lifting mechanism in the Australian forest fires discussed the question of how the impact of tropical volcanic eruptions depends on the eruption season. H.-F. Graf showed that cloud-resolving plume models are more suitable to predict the volcanic plume height and dispersion than one-dimensional models. G. Stenchikov pointed out that the absorbing smoke plumes in the upper troposphere can be partially mixed into the lower stratosphere because of the solar heating and lofting effect.

  7. The human impact of tsunamis: a historical review of events 1900-2009 and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dick, Anna; Kirsch, Thomas D

    2013-04-16

    Introduction. Although rare, tsunamis have the potential to cause considerable loss of life and injury as well as widespread damage to the natural and built environments. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of tsunamis on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of tsunamis were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1900 to mid 2009 of tsunami events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review to October 2012 of publications. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between tsunami mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were 255,195 deaths (range 252,619-275,784) and 48,462 injuries (range 45,466-51,457) as a result of tsunamis from 1900 to 2009. The majority of deaths (89%) and injuries reported during this time period were attributed to a single event -the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Findings from the systematic literature review indicate that the primary cause of tsunami-related mortality is drowning, and that females, children and the elderly are at increased mortality risk. The few studies that reported on tsunami-related injury suggest that males and young adults are at increased injury-risk. Conclusions. Early warning systems may help mitigate tsunami-related loss of life.

  8. The events associated with the great tsunami of 26 December, 2004 sea level variation and impact on coastal region of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    -Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Satish R. Shetye National Institute of Oceanography, Goa The events associated with the Great Tsunami of 26 December 2004 Sea Level Variation and Impact on Coastal Region of India Tsunamis are shallow... in the region. The Great Tsunami, though an event with a low probability of occurrence, was a high-impact event. One cannot but compare this event with what happened in 1755 along the east coast of the North Atlantic, another low-probability location...

  9. Producing physically consistent and bias free extreme precipitation events over the Switzerland: Bridging gaps between meteorology and impact models

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Gómez-Navarro, Juan; Raible, Christoph C.; Blumer, Sandro; Martius, Olivia; Felder, Guido

    2016-04-01

    , a 20-yr high-resolution control simulation is carried out. The extreme events belong to this distribution, and can be mapped onto the distribution of precipitation obtained from a gridded product of precipitation provided by MeteoSwiss. This procedure yields bias-free extreme precipitation events which serve as input by hydrological models that eventually produce a simulated, yet physically consistent flooding event. Thereby, the proposed methodology guarantees consistency with the underlying physics of extreme events, and reproduces plausible impacts of up to one-in-five-centuries situations.

  10. Eosinophilia and biotoxin exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from a coastal area impacted by repeated mortality events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwacke, Lori H.; Twiner, Michael J.; De Guise, Sylvain; Balmer, Brian C.; Wells, Randall S.; Townsend, Forrest I.; Rotstein, David C.; Varela, Rene A.; Hansen, Larry J.; Zolman, Eric S.; Spradlin, Trevor R.

    2010-01-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico have been impacted by recurrent unusual mortality events over the past few decades. Several of these mortality events along the Florida panhandle have been tentatively attributed to poisoning from brevetoxin produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. While dolphins in other regions of the Florida coast are often exposed to K. brevis blooms, large-scale dolphin mortality events are relatively rare and the frequency and magnitude of die-offs along the Panhandle raise concern for the apparent vulnerability of dolphins in this region. We report results from dolphin health assessments conducted near St. Joseph Bay, Florida, an area impacted by 3 unusual die-offs within a 7-year time span. An eosinophilia syndrome, manifested as an elevated blood eosinophil count without obvious cause, was observed in 23% of sampled dolphins. Elevated eosinophil counts were associated with decreased T-lymphocyte proliferation and increased neutrophil phagocytosis. In addition, indication of chronic low-level exposure to another algal toxin, domoic acid produced by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp., was determined. Previous studies of other marine mammal populations exposed recurrently to Pseudo-nitzschia blooms have suggested a possible link between the eosinophilia and domoic acid exposure. While the chronic eosinophilia syndrome could over the long-term produce organ damage and alter immunological status and thereby increase vulnerability to other challenges, the significance of the high prevalence of the syndrome to the observed mortality events in the St. Joseph Bay area is unclear. Nonetheless, the unusual immunological findings and concurrent evidence of domoic acid exposure in this sentinel marine species suggest a need for further investigation to elucidate potential links between chronic, low-level exposure to algal toxins and immune health.

  11. Eosinophilia and biotoxin exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from a coastal area impacted by repeated mortality events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwacke, Lori H., E-mail: Lori.Schwacke@noaa.gov [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Center for Human Health Risks, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); Twiner, Michael J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); De Guise, Sylvain [University of Connecticut, Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, 61 North Eagleville Road, U-89, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Balmer, Brian C.; Wells, Randall S. [Chicago Zoological Society, c/o Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236 (United States); Townsend, Forrest I. [Bayside Hospital for Animals, 251 N.E. Racetrack Road, Fort Walton Beach, FL 32547 (United States); Rotstein, David C. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Varela, Rene A. [Ocean Embassy Inc, 6433 Pinecastle Blvd, Ste 2, Orlando, FL 32809 (United States); Hansen, Larry J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service Southeast Fisheries Science Center,101 Pivers Island Road, Beaufort, NC 28516 (United States); Zolman, Eric S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); Spradlin, Trevor R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected Resources, Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); and others

    2010-08-15

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico have been impacted by recurrent unusual mortality events over the past few decades. Several of these mortality events along the Florida panhandle have been tentatively attributed to poisoning from brevetoxin produced by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. While dolphins in other regions of the Florida coast are often exposed to K. brevis blooms, large-scale dolphin mortality events are relatively rare and the frequency and magnitude of die-offs along the Panhandle raise concern for the apparent vulnerability of dolphins in this region. We report results from dolphin health assessments conducted near St. Joseph Bay, Florida, an area impacted by 3 unusual die-offs within a 7-year time span. An eosinophilia syndrome, manifested as an elevated blood eosinophil count without obvious cause, was observed in 23% of sampled dolphins. Elevated eosinophil counts were associated with decreased T-lymphocyte proliferation and increased neutrophil phagocytosis. In addition, indication of chronic low-level exposure to another algal toxin, domoic acid produced by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp., was determined. Previous studies of other marine mammal populations exposed recurrently to Pseudo-nitzschia blooms have suggested a possible link between the eosinophilia and domoic acid exposure. While the chronic eosinophilia syndrome could over the long-term produce organ damage and alter immunological status and thereby increase vulnerability to other challenges, the significance of the high prevalence of the syndrome to the observed mortality events in the St. Joseph Bay area is unclear. Nonetheless, the unusual immunological findings and concurrent evidence of domoic acid exposure in this sentinel marine species suggest a need for further investigation to elucidate potential links between chronic, low-level exposure to algal toxins and immune health.

  12. Impact of spike train autostructure on probability distribution of joint spike events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipa, Gordon; Grün, Sonja; van Vreeswijk, Carl

    2013-05-01

    The discussion whether temporally coordinated spiking activity really exists and whether it is relevant has been heated over the past few years. To investigate this issue, several approaches have been taken to determine whether synchronized events occur significantly above chance, that is, whether they occur more often than expected if the neurons fire independently. Most investigations ignore or destroy the autostructure of the spiking activity of individual cells or assume Poissonian spiking as a model. Such methods that ignore the autostructure can significantly bias the coincidence statistics. Here, we study the influence of the autostructure on the probability distribution of coincident spiking events between tuples of mutually independent non-Poisson renewal processes. In particular, we consider two types of renewal processes that were suggested as appropriate models of experimental spike trains: a gamma and a log-normal process. For a gamma process, we characterize the shape of the distribution analytically with the Fano factor (FFc). In addition, we perform Monte Carlo estimations to derive the full shape of the distribution and the probability for false positives if a different process type is assumed as was actually present. We also determine how manipulations of such spike trains, here dithering, used for the generation of surrogate data change the distribution of coincident events and influence the significance estimation. We find, first, that the width of the coincidence count distribution and its FFc depend critically and in a nontrivial way on the detailed properties of the structure of the spike trains as characterized by the coefficient of variation CV. Second, the dependence of the FFc on the CV is complex and mostly nonmonotonic. Third, spike dithering, even if as small as a fraction of the interspike interval, can falsify the inference on coordinated firing.

  13. Investigating the impact of climate change on crop phenological events in Europe with a phenology model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shaoxiu; Churkina, Galina; Trusilova, Kristina

    2012-07-01

    Predicting regional and global carbon and water dynamics requires a realistic representation of vegetation phenology. Vegetation models including cropland models exist (e.g. LPJmL, Daycent, SIBcrop, ORCHIDEE-STICS, PIXGRO) but they have various limitations in predicting cropland phenological events and their responses to climate change. Here, we investigate how leaf onset and offset days of major European croplands responded to changes in climate from 1971 to 2000 using a newly developed phenological model, which solely relies on climate data. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) data measured with eddy covariance technique at seven sites in Europe were used to adjust model parameters for wheat, barley, and rapeseed. Observational data from the International Phenology Gardens were used to corroborate modeled phenological responses to changes in climate. Enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and a crop calendar were explored as alternative predictors of leaf onset and harvest days, respectively, over a large spatial scale. In each spatial model simulation, we assumed that all European croplands were covered by only one crop type. Given this assumption, the model estimated that the leaf onset days for wheat, barley, and rapeseed in Germany advanced by 1.6, 3.4, and 3.4 days per decade, respectively, during 1961-2000. The majority of European croplands (71.4%) had an advanced mean leaf onset day for wheat, barley, and rapeseed (7.0% significant), whereas 28.6% of European croplands had a delayed leaf onset day (0.9% significant) during 1971-2000. The trend of advanced onset days estimated by the model is similar to observations from the International Phenology Gardens in Europe. The developed phenological model can be integrated into a large-scale ecosystem model to simulate the dynamics of phenological events at different temporal and spatial scales. Crop calendars and enhanced vegetation index have substantial uncertainties in predicting phenological events of croplands. Caution

  14. Projected health impacts of heat events in Washington State associated with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Tania Busch; Yost, Michael; Hom, Elizabeth; Fenske, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and duration of extreme-heat events and associated health outcomes. This study used data from the historical heat-health outcome relationship, and a unique prediction model, to estimate mortality for 2025 and 2045. For each one degree change in humidex above threshold, we find a corresponding 1.83% increase in mortality for all ages, all non-traumatic causes of death in King County, Washington. Mortality is projected to increase significantly in 2025 and 2045 for the 85 and older age group (2.3-8.0 and 4.0-22.3 times higher than baseline, respectively).

  15. The Impact of Inpatient Boarding on ED Efficiency: A Discrete-Event Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bair, Aaron E.; Song, Wheyming T.; Chen, Yi-Chun; Morris, Beth A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a discrete-event simulation approach was used to model Emergency Department’s (ED) patient flow to investigate the effect of inpatient boarding on the ED efficiency in terms of the National Emergency Department Crowding Scale (NEDOCS) score and the rate of patients who leave without being seen (LWBS). The decision variable in this model was the boarder-released-ratio defined as the ratio of admitted patients whose boarding time is zero to all admitted patients. Our analysis sho...

  16. Evolutionary modelling of the macro-economic impacts of catastrophic flood events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safarzynska, K.E.; Brouwer, R.; Hofkes, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the possible contribution of evolutionary economics to macro-economic modelling of flood impacts to provide guidance for future economic risk modelling. Most macro-economic models start from a neoclassical economic perspective and focus on equilibrium outcomes, either in a static

  17. Social Anxiety and Post-Event Processing: The Impact of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D.; Dean, Kimberlye E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions, yet little attention has been paid to whether putative cognitive vulnerability factors related to social anxiety in predominantly White samples are related to social anxiety among historically underrepresented groups. Design We tested whether one such vulnerability factor, post-event processing (PEP; detailed review of social event that can increase state social anxiety) was related to social anxiety among African American (AA; n=127) persons, who comprise one of the largest underrepresented racial groups in the U.S. Secondarily, we tested whether AA participants differed from non-Hispanic White participants (n=127) on PEP and social anxiety and whether race moderated the relation between PEP and social anxiety. Method Data were collected online among undergraduates. Results PEP was positively correlated with social anxiety among AA participants, even after controlling for depression and income, pr=.30, p=.001. AA and White participants did not differ on social anxiety or PEP, β=−1.57, 95% C.I.: −5.11, 1.96. The relation of PEP to social anxiety did not vary as a function of race, β=0.00, 95% C.I.: −0.02, 0.02. Conclusions PEP may be an important cognitive vulnerability factor related to social anxiety among AA persons suffering from social anxiety. PMID:27576610

  18. Natural hazard events and social capital: the social impact of natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Frederike

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates if and to what extent natural disasters affect social capital. Twelve different events in Europe are examined in a quantitative analysis, using data derived from the European Social Survey and the EM-DAT International Disaster Database. The study uses social trust as an indicator of social capital and offers evidence that a change in social trust is a possible occurrence during or after a disaster, but that it is not an inevitable consequence of it. The results reveal that social trust decreases after a disaster with a death toll of at least nine. Changes in social capital, therefore, are found to be more probable as the severity of the event increases. National, rather than regional, disasters lead more frequently to significant shifts in social trust. This evaluation of 12 separate cases pinpoints several disasters that have had an effect on social trust, but it does not identify any general patterns, underlining the significance of contextual dependency. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  19. Payload charging events in the mesosphere and their impact on Langmuir type electric probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Bekkeng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Three sounding rockets were launched from Andøya Rocket Range in the ECOMA campaign in December 2010. The aim was to study the evolution of meteoric smoke particles during a major meteor shower. Of the various instruments onboard the rocket payload, this paper presents the data from a multi-Needle Langmuir Probe (m-NLP and a charged dust detector. The payload floating potential, as observed using the m-NLP instrument, shows charging events on two of the three flights. These charging events cannot be explained using a simple charging model, and have implications towards the use of fixed bias Langmuir probes on sounding rockets investigating mesospheric altitudes. We show that for a reliable use of a single fixed bias Langmuir probe as a high spatial resolution relative density measurement, each payload should also carry an additional instrument to measure payload floating potential, and an instrument that is immune to spacecraft charging and measures absolute plasma density.

  20. Lasting Impact of a Tsunami Event on Sediment-Organism Interactions in the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seike, Koji; Sassa, Shinji; Shirai, Kotaro; Kubota, Kaoru

    2018-02-01

    Although tsunami sedimentation is a short-term phenomenon, it may control the long-term benthic environment by altering seafloor surface characteristics such as topography and grain-size composition. By analyzing sediment cores, we investigated the long-term effect of the 2011 tsunami generated by the Tohoku Earthquake off the Pacific coast of Japan on sediment mixing (bioturbation) by an important ecosystem engineer, the heart urchin Echinocardium cordatum. Recent tsunami deposits allow accurate estimation of the depth of current bioturbation by E. cordatum, because there are no preexisting burrows in the sediments. The in situ hardness of the substrate decreased significantly with increasing abundance of E. cordatum, suggesting that echinoid bioturbation softens the seafloor sediment. Sediment-core analysis revealed that this echinoid rarely burrows into the coarser-grained (medium-grained to coarse-grained) sandy layer deposited by the 2011 tsunami; thus, the vertical grain-size distribution resulting from tsunami sedimentation controls the depth of E. cordatum bioturbation. As sandy tsunami layers are preserved in the seafloor substrate, their restriction on bioturbation continues for an extended period. The results demonstrate that understanding the effects on seafloor processes of extreme natural events that occur on geological timescales, including tsunami events, is important in revealing continuing interactions between seafloor sediments and marine benthic invertebrates.

  1. Impact of Sowing Date Induced Temperature and Management Practices on Development Events and Yield of Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSA Khan, MA Aziz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at the research field of the Agronomy Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI, Joydebpur, Gazipur, during rabi season of 2014-2015 to find out the relationship between different development events of mustard crop and sowing dates induced temperature as well as to minimize the yield reduction of the crop by adopting appropriate management practices. The mustard var. BARI Sarisha-15 was sown on 06, 25 November and 14 December 2014. Crop accumulated lower growing degree days (GDD i.e., 72.15, 521.10 and 1070 to 1154 °C were observed for the events of emergence, 50 % flowering and maturity on 14 December sowing. Late sown plants took minimum time from flowering to maturity (36 days due to increased temperature and high variability in both maximum and minimum temperature. The highest seed yield (1569 kg ha-1 was recorded from 06 November sowing with high management practices while the lowest seed yield (435 kg ha-1 from 14 December sowing with low management practices. At high management practices the crop yielded 1183 kg ha-1 at 14 December sowing. Yield reduction at late sowing condition was reduced to some extent with high management practices. The seed yield reductions at 14 December sowing as compared to high management practices at 06 November sowing were 72, 43 and 25% under low, medium and high management, respectively.

  2. Technical Meeting on Impact of Fukushima Event on Current and Future Fast Reactor Designs. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The overall purpose of the Technical Meeting was to recognize and analyse the implications of the accident occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station on current and future fast neutron systems design and operation. The aim was to provide a global forum for discussing the principal lessons learned from this event, and thus to review safety principles and characteristics of existing and future fast neutron concepts, especially in relation with extreme natural events which potentially may lead to severe accident scenarios. The participants also presented and discussed innovative technical solutions, design features and countermeasures for design extension conditions - including earthquakes, tsunami and other extreme natural hazards - which can enhance the safety level of existing and future fast neutron systems. Furthermore, the meeting gave the opportunity to present advanced methods for the evaluation of the robustness of plants against design extension conditions. Another important goal of this TM was to discuss how to harmonize safety approaches and goals for next generation’s fast reactors. Finally, the meeting was intended to identify areas where further research and development in nuclear safety, technology and engineering in the light of the Fukushima accident are needed. In the frame of the implementation of its Nuclear Safety Action Plan endorsed by all Member States, the IAEA will consider these areas as potential technical topics for new Coordinated Research Projects, to be launched in the near future

  3. Impacts of urban growth and heat waves events on the urban heat island in Bucharest city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Dida, Adrian I.

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the influences of urban growth and heat waves events on Urban Heat Island in relationship with several biophysical variables in Bucharest metropolitan area of Romania through satellite and in-situ monitoring data. Remote sensing data from Landsat TM/ETM+ and time series MODIS Terra/Aqua sensors have been used to assess urban land cover- temperature interactions over period between 2000 and 2016 years. Vegetation abundances and percent impervious surfaces were derived by means of linear spectral mixture model, and a method for effectively enhancing impervious surface has been developed to accurately examine the urban growth. The land surface temperature (Ts), a key parameter for urban thermal characteristics analysis, was also analyzed in relation with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at city level. Based on these parameters, the urban growth, urban heat island effect (UHI) and the relationships of Ts to other biophysical parameters (surface albedo, precipitations, wind intensity and direction) have been analyzed. Results show that in the metropolitan area ratio of impervious surface in Bucharest increased significantly during investigated period, the intensity of urban heat island and heat wave events being most significant. The correlation analyses revealed that, at the pixel-scale, Ts possessed a strong positive correlation with percent impervious surfaces and negative correlation with vegetation abundances at the regional scale, respectively. This analysis provided an integrated research scheme and the findings can be very useful for urban ecosystem modeling.

  4. Impacts of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Regional Climate: Extreme Events, Stagnation, and the United States Warming Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascioli, Nora R.

    Extreme temperatures, heat waves, heavy rainfall events, drought, and extreme air pollution events have adverse effects on human health, infrastructure, agriculture and economies. The frequency, magnitude and duration of these events are expected to change in the future in response to increasing greenhouse gases and decreasing aerosols, but future climate projections are uncertain. A significant portion of this uncertainty arises from uncertainty in the effects of aerosol forcing: to what extent were the effects from greenhouse gases masked by aerosol forcing over the historical observational period, and how much will decreases in aerosol forcing influence regional and global climate over the remainder of the 21st century? The observed frequency and intensity of extreme heat and precipitation events have increased in the U.S. over the latter half of the 20th century. Using aerosol only (AER) and greenhouse gas only (GHG) simulations from 1860 to 2005 in the GFDL CM3 chemistry-climate model, I parse apart the competing influences of aerosols and greenhouse gases on these extreme events. I find that small changes in extremes in the "all forcing" simulations reflect cancellations between the effects of increasing anthropogenic aerosols and greenhouse gases. In AER, extreme high temperatures and the number of days with temperatures above the 90th percentile decline over most of the U.S., while in GHG high temperature extremes increase over most of the U.S. The spatial response patterns in AER and GHG are significantly anti-correlated, suggesting a preferred regional mode of response that is largely independent of the type of forcing. Extreme precipitation over the eastern U.S. decreases in AER, particularly in winter, and increases over the eastern and central U.S. in GHG, particularly in spring. Over the 21 st century under the RCP8.5 emissions scenario, the patterns of extreme temperature and precipitation change associated with greenhouse gas forcing dominate. The

  5. Technical Meeting on Impact of Fukushima Event on Current and Future Fast Reactor Designs. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The overall purpose of the Technical Meeting was to recognize and analyse the implications of the accident occurred at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station on current and future fast neutron systems design and operation. The aim was to provide a global forum for discussing the principal lessons learned from this event, and thus to review safety principles and characteristics of existing and future fast neutron concepts, especially in relation with extreme natural events which potentially may lead to severe accident scenarios. The participants also presented and discussed innovative technical solutions, design features and countermeasures for design extension conditions - including earthquakes, tsunami and other extreme natural hazards - which can enhance the safety level of existing and future fast neutron systems. Furthermore, the meeting gave the opportunity to present advanced methods for the evaluation of the robustness of plants against design extension conditions. Another important goal of this TM was to discuss how to harmonize safety approaches and goals for next generation’s fast reactors. Finally, the meeting was intended to identify areas where further research and development in nuclear safety, technology and engineering in the light of the Fukushima accident are needed. In the frame of the implementation of its Nuclear Safety Action Plan endorsed by all Member States, the IAEA will consider these areas as potential technical topics for new Coordinated Research Projects, to be launched in the near future

  6. The impacts of racial group membership on people's distributive justice: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Deng, Yuqin

    2014-04-16

    How individuals and societies distribute benefits has long been studied by psychologists and sociologists. Previous work has highlighted the importance of social identity on people's justice concerns. However, it is not entirely clear how racial in-group/out-group relationship affects the brain activity in distributive justice. In this study, event-related potentials were recorded while participants made their decisions about donation allocation. Behavioral results showed that racial in-group factor affected participants' decisions on justice consideration. Participants were more likely to make relatively equity decisions when racial in-group factor was congruent with equity compared with the corresponding incongruent condition. Moreover, this incongruent condition took longer response times than congruent condition. Meanwhile, less equity decisions were made when efficiency was larger in the opposite side to equity than it was equal between the two options. Scalp event-related potential analyses revealed that greater P300 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited by the incongruent condition compared with the congruent condition. These findings suggest that the decision-making of distributive justice could be modulated by racial group membership, and greater attentional resources or cognitive efforts are required when racial in-group factor and equity conflict with each other.

  7. Satellite Collision Modeling with Physics-Based Hydrocodes: Debris Generation Predictions of the Iridium-Cosmos Collision Event and Other Impact Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, H.K.; Miller, W.O.; Levatin, J.L.; Pertica, A.J.; Olivier, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    Satellite collision debris poses risks to existing space assets and future space missions. Predictive models of debris generated from these hypervelocity collisions are critical for developing accurate space situational awareness tools and effective mitigation strategies. Hypervelocity collisions involve complex phenomenon that spans several time- and length-scales. We have developed a satellite collision debris modeling approach consisting of a Lagrangian hydrocode enriched with smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH), advanced material failure models, detailed satellite mesh models, and massively parallel computers. These computational studies enable us to investigate the influence of satellite center-of-mass (CM) overlap and orientation, relative velocity, and material composition on the size, velocity, and material type distributions of collision debris. We have applied our debris modeling capability to the recent Iridium 33-Cosmos 2251 collision event. While the relative velocity was well understood in this event, the degree of satellite CM overlap and orientation was ill-defined. In our simulations, we varied the collision CM overlap and orientation of the satellites from nearly maximum overlap to partial overlap on the outermost extents of the satellites (i.e, solar panels and gravity boom). As expected, we found that with increased satellite overlap, the overall debris cloud mass and momentum (transfer) increases, the average debris size decreases, and the debris velocity increases. The largest predicted debris can also provide insight into which satellite components were further removed from the impact location. A significant fraction of the momentum transfer is imparted to the smallest debris (< 1-5mm, dependent on mesh resolution), especially in large CM overlap simulations. While the inclusion of the smallest debris is critical to enforcing mass and momentum conservation in hydrocode simulations, there seems to be relatively little interest in their

  8. Deep Impact as a World Observatory Event: Synergies in Space, Time, and Wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Käufl, H.U; ESO/VUB Conference

    2009-01-01

    In the context of the NASA Deep Impact space mission, comet 9P/Tempel1 has been at the focus of an unprecedented worldwide long-term multi-wavelength observation campaign. The comet was also studied throughout its perihelion passage by various sources including the Deep Impact mission itself, the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer, Rosetta, XMM and all major ground-based observatories in a wavelength band from cm-wave radio astronomy to x-rays. This book includes the proceedings of a meeting that brought together an audience of theoreticians and observers - across the electromagnetic spectrum and from different sites and projects - to make full use of the massive ground-based observing data set. The coherent presentation of all data sets illustrates and examines the various observational constraints on modelling the cometary nucleus, cometary gas, cometary plasma, cometary dust, and the comet's surface and its activity.

  9. Assessment of impact of strong earthquakes to the global economy by example of Thoku event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatiana, Skufina; Peter, Skuf'in; Sergey, Baranov; Vera, Samarina; Taisiya, Shatalova

    2016-04-01

    We examine the economic consequences of strong earthquakes by example of M9 Tahoku one that occurred on March 11, 2011 close to the northeast shore of Japanese coast Honshu. This earthquake became the strongest in the whole history of the seismological observations in this part of the planet. The generated tsunami killed more than 15,700 people, damaged 332,395 buildings and 2,126 roads. The total economic loss in Japan was estimated at 309 billion. The catastrophe in Japan also impacted global economy. To estimate its impact, we used regional and global stock indexes, production indexes, stock prices of the main Japanese, European and US companies, import and export dynamics, as well as the data provided by the custom of Japan. We also demonstrated that the catastrophe substantially affected the markets and on the short run in some indicators it even exceeded the effect of the global financial crisis of 2008. The last strong earthquake occurred in Nepal (25.04.2015, M7.8) and Chile (16.09.2015, M8.3), both actualized the research of cost assessments of the overall economic impact of seismic hazard. We concluded that it is necessary to treat strong earthquakes as one very important factor that affects the world economy depending on their location. The research was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project 16-06-00056A).

  10. Diversity of basaltic lunar volcanism associated with buried impact structures: Implications for intrusive and extrusive events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Zhu, M.-H.; Bugiolacchi, R.; Huang, Q.; Osinski, G. R.; Xiao, L.; Zou, Y. L.

    2018-06-01

    Relatively denser basalt infilling and the upward displacement of the crust-mantle interface are thought to be contributing factors for the quasi-circular mass anomalies for buried impact craters in the lunar maria. Imagery and gravity observations from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and dual Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) missions have identified 10 partially or fully buried impact structures where diversity of observable basaltic mare volcanism exists. With a detailed investigation of the characteristics of associated volcanic landforms, we describe their spatial distribution relationship with respect to the subsurface tectonic structure of complex impact craters and propose possible models for the igneous processes which may take advantage of crater-related zones of weakness and enable magmas to reach the surface. We conclude that the lunar crust, having been fractured and reworked extensively by cratering, facilitates substance and energy exchange between different lunar systems, an effect modulated by tectonic activities both at global and regional scales. In addition, we propose that the intrusion-caused contribution to gravity anomalies should be considered in future studies, although this is commonly obscured by other physical factors such as mantle uplift and basalt load.

  11. Development of Computer Models for the Assessment of Foreign Body Impact Events on Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucinell, Ronald B.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project was to model the 5-3/4 inch pressure vessels used on the NASA RTOP program in an attempt to learn more about how impact damage forms and what are the residual effects of the resulting damage. A global-local finite element model was developed for the bottle and the states of stress in the bottles were determined down to the constituent level. The experimental data that was generated on the NASA RTOP program was not in a form that enabled the model developed under this grant to be correlated with the experimental data. As a result of this exercise it is recommended that an experimental program be designed using statistical design of experiment techniques to generate data that can be used to isolate the phenomenon that control the formation of impact damage. This data should include residual property determinations so that models for post impact structural integrity can be developed. It is also recommended that the global-local methodology be integrated directly into the finite element code. This will require considerable code development.

  12. Impact of unexpected events, shocking news, and rumors on foreign exchange market dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mark; Suleman, Omer; Williams, Stacy; Howison, Sam; Johnson, Neil F.

    2008-04-01

    The dynamical response of a population of interconnected objects, when exposed to external perturbations, is of great interest to physicists working on complex systems. Here we focus on human systems, by analyzing the dynamical response of the world’s financial community to various types of unexpected events—including the 9/11 terrorist attacks as they unfolded on a minute-by-minute basis. For the unfolding events of 9/11, our results show that there was a gradual collective understanding of what was happening, rather than an immediate realization. More generally, we find that for news items which are not simple economic statements—and hence whose implications for the market are not immediately obvious—there are periods of collective discovery during which opinions seem to vary in a remarkably synchronized way.

  13. Computation and analysis of the transverse current autocorrelation function, Ct(k,t), for small wave vectors: A molecular-dynamics study for a Lennard-Jones fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, R.; Hoheisel, C.

    1987-02-01

    Molecular-dynamics (MD) calculations are reported for three thermodynamic states of a Lennard-Jones fluid. Systems of 2048 particles and 105 integration steps were used. The transverse current autocorrelation function, Ct(k,t), has been determined for wave vectors of the range 0.5viscosities which showed a systematic behavior as a function of k. Extrapolation to the hydrodynamic region at k=0 gave shear viscosity coefficients in good agreement with direct Green-Kubo results obtained in previous work. The two-exponential model fit for the memory function proposed by other authors does not provide a reasonable description of the MD results, as the fit parameters show no systematic wave-vector dependence, although the Ct(k,t) functions are somewhat better fitted. Similarly, the semiempirical interpolation formula for the decay time based on the viscoelastic concept proposed by Akcasu and Daniels fails to reproduce the correct k dependence for the wavelength range investigated herein.

  14. Psychometric properties of the Children’s Revised Impact of Events Scale (CRIES with Bangladeshi children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Deeba

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Identification of possible cases suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD is important, especially in developing countries where traumatic events are typically prevalent. The Children’s Revised Impact of Events Scale is a reliable and valid measure that has two brief versions (13 items and 8 items to assess reactions to traumatic events among young people. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of both versions of the CRIES in a sample of 1,342 children and adolescents aged 9–17 years (M = 12.3 years, SD = 2.12 recruited from six districts of Bangladesh. A sub-group of 120 children from four schools was re-tested on the measures within 3.5 weeks. Confirmatory factor analysis supported factor structures similar to those found in other studies for both versions of the CRIES. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis showed gender and age-group differences within the sample, supporting established age and gender differences in prevalence of PTSD symptoms. Analyses also indicated moderate to excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability and clear discriminant and convergent validity. These data support use of both the CRIES-13 and CRIES-8 to provide quick and psychometrically sound assessment of symptoms of PTSD among children and adolescents from Bangla-speaking communities.

  15. Effective population size dynamics reveal impacts of historic climatic events and recent anthropogenic pressure in African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, J B A; Wittemyer, G; Rasmussen, H B; Arctander, P; Nyakaana, S; Douglas-Hamilton, I; Siegismund, H R

    2008-09-01

    Two hundred years of elephant hunting for ivory, peaking in 1970-1980s, caused local extirpations and massive population declines across Africa. The resulting genetic impacts on surviving populations have not been studied, despite the importance of understanding the evolutionary repercussions of such human-mediated events on this keystone species. Using Bayesian coalescent-based genetic methods to evaluate time-specific changes in effective population size, we analysed genetic variation in 20 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci from 400 elephants inhabiting the greater Samburu-Laikipia region of northern Kenya. This area experienced a decline of between 80% and 90% in the last few decades when ivory harvesting was rampant. The most significant change in effective population size, however, occurred approximately 2500 years ago during a mid-Holocene period of climatic drying in tropical Africa. Contrary to expectations, detailed analyses of four contemporary age-based cohorts showed that the peak poaching epidemic in the 1970s caused detectable temporary genetic impacts, with genetic diversity rebounding as juveniles surviving the poaching era became reproductively mature. This study demonstrates the importance of climatic history in shaping the distribution and genetic history of a keystone species and highlights the utility of coalescent-based demographic approaches in unravelling ancestral demographic events despite a lack of ancient samples. Unique insights into the genetic signature of mid-Holocene climatic change in Africa and effects of recent poaching pressure on elephants are discussed.

  16. The impact of interoperability of electronic health records on ambulatory physician practices: a discrete-event simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The effect of health information technology (HIT on efficiency and workload among clinical and nonclinical staff has been debated, with conflicting evidence about whether electronic health records (EHRs increase or decrease effort. None of this paper to date, however, examines the effect of interoperability quantitatively using discrete event simulation techniques.Objective To estimate the impact of EHR systems with various levels of interoperability on day-to-day tasks and operations of ambulatory physician offices.Methods Interviews and observations were used to collect workflow data from 12 adult primary and specialty practices. A discrete event simulation model was constructed to represent patient flows and clinical and administrative tasks of physicians and staff members.Results High levels of EHR interoperability were associated with reduced time spent by providers on four tasks: preparing lab reports, requesting lab orders, prescribing medications, and writing referrals. The implementation of an EHR was associated with less time spent by administrators but more time spent by physicians, compared with time spent at paper-based practices. In addition, the presence of EHRs and of interoperability did not significantly affect the time usage of registered nurses or the total visit time and waiting time of patients.Conclusion This paper suggests that the impact of using HIT on clinical and nonclinical staff work efficiency varies, however, overall it appears to improve time efficiency more for administrators than for physicians and nurses.

  17. Predicting extreme rainfall events over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Impact of data assimilation with conventional and satellite observations

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu

    2015-08-20

    The impact of variational data assimilation for predicting two heavy rainfall events that caused devastating floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia is studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. On 25 November 2009 and 26 January 2011, the city was deluged with more than double the annual rainfall amount caused by convective storms. We used a high resolution, two-way nested domain WRF model to simulate the two rainfall episodes. Simulations include control runs initialized with National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) data and 3-Dimensional Variational (3DVAR) data assimilation experiments conducted by assimilating NCEP prepbufr and radiance observations. Observations from Automated Weather Stations (AWS), synoptic charts, radar reflectivity and satellite pictures from the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia are used to assess the forecasting results. To evaluate the impact of the different assimilated observational datasets on the simulation of the major flooding event of 2009, we conducted 3DVAR experiments assimilating individual sources and a combination of all data sets. Results suggest that while the control run had a tendency to predict the storm earlier than observed, the assimilation of profile observations greatly improved the model\\'s thermodynamic structure and lead to better representation of simulated rainfall both in timing and amount. The experiment with assimilation of all available observations compared best with observed rainfall in terms of timing of the storm and rainfall distribution, demonstrating the importance of assimilating different types of observations. Retrospective experiments with and without data assimilation, for three different model lead times (48, 72 and 96-h), were performed to examine the skill of WRF model to predict the heavy rainfall events. Quantitative rainfall analysis of these simulations suggests that 48-h lead time runs with

  18. Extreme winter warming events more negatively impact small rather than large soil fauna: shift in community composition explained by traits not taxa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, S.F.; Phoenix, G.K.; Bjerke, J.W.; Callaghan, T.V.; Huyer-Brugman, F.A.; Berg, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Extreme weather events can have negative impacts on species survival and community structure when surpassing lethal thresholds. Extreme winter warming events in the Arctic rapidly melt snow and expose ecosystems to unseasonably warm air (2-10 °C for 2-14 days), but returning to cold winter climate

  19. Impact of El Niño events on pelagic fisheries in Peruvian waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ñiquen, Miguel; Bouchon, Marilú

    2004-03-01

    Using data from stock assesment surveys on pelagic resources during El Niño events of 1972/73, 1982/83, 1997/98, we analyze biological changes on pelagic ecosystems and pelagic fisheries during different stages of development of El Niño phenomenon: emergence, full, final and post-Niño. Results indicate changes in spatial distribution of resources, their concentration and size structure. In anchovy (Engraulis ringens) a decrease in biomass was observed, which was estimated at 1.2 million tons in September 1998, the lowest throughout the 1990s. This resource showed an asymmetric distribution towards the south of Peru. Other pelagic resources increased their biomass during or after Niño events, primarily sardine (Sardinops sagax), jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), and longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus). At the end of the El Niño phenomenon we found less productivity but more diversity in the pelagic ecosystem. During the 1997/98 El Niño, the diversity index (Manual de Ecologia, 1a Edition, Editorial Trillas, Mexico, 267pp) increased from 0.87 to 1.23-1.70. In both the emergence stage and fully developed stages of El Niño we found large numbers of sardine and longnose anchovy present simultaneously. Size structure of sardine, jack mackerel, and pacific mackerel showed an increase in juveniles. Anchovy during El Niño showed a single modal group composed of adults, but the post-Niño phase indicated an increase in juveniles with an average length of 6-7 cm. In El Niño conditions spawning among anchovy was low, but among sardine and pacific mackerel it was high. We observed, for the first time during full spawning, juvenile sardines with a total length of 18-20 cm. The anchovy spawning season during the post-Niño phase was considerably lengthened, from April to December 1998. Drastic change occurred in fisheries when monospecific fisheries, based on anchovy before El Niño, became multispecific fisheries based on sardine, jack

  20. Impacts of extreme weather events on highly eutrophic marine ecosystem (Rogoznica Lake, Adriatic coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciglenečki, I.; Janeković, I.; Marguš, M.; Bura-Nakić, E.; Carić, M.; Ljubešić, Z.; Batistić, M.; Hrustić, E.; Dupčić, I.; Garić, R.

    2015-10-01

    Rogoznica Lake is highly eutrophic marine system located on the Eastern Adriatic coast (43°32‧N, 15°58‧E). Because of the relatively small size (10,276 m2) and depth (15 m) it experiences strong natural and indirect anthropogenic influences. Dynamics within the lake is characterized by the extreme and highly variable environmental conditions (seasonal variations in salinity and temperature, water stratification and mixing, redox and euxinic conditions, concentrations of nutrients) which significantly influence the biology inside the lake. Due to the high phytoplankton activity, the upper part of the water column is well oxygenated, while hypoxia/anoxia usually occurs in the bottom layers. Anoxic part of the water column is characterized with high concentrations of sulfide (up to 5 mM) and nutrients (NH4+ up to 315 μM; PO43- up to 53 μM; SiO44- up to 680 μM) indicating the pronounced remineralization of the allochthonous organic matter, produced in the surface waters. The mixolimnion varies significantly within a season feeling effects of the Adriatic atmospheric and ocean dynamics (temperature, wind, heat fluxes, rainfall) which all affect the vertical stability and possibly induce vertical mixing and/or turnover. Seasonal vertical mixing usually occurs during the autumn/winter upon the breakdown of the stratification, injecting oxygen-rich water from the surface into the deeper layers. Depending on the intensity and duration of the vertical dynamics (slower diffusion and/or faster turnover of the water layers) anoxic conditions could developed within the whole water column. Extreme weather events such as abrupt change in the air temperature accompanied with a strong wind and consequently heat flux are found to be a key triggering mechanism for the fast turnover, introducing a large amount of nutrients and sulfur species from deeper parts to the surface. Increased concentration of nutrients, especially ammonium, phosphate, and silicates persisting for

  1. Impact of atmospheric blocking events on the decrease of precipitation in the Selenga River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antokhina, O.; Antokhin, P.; Devyatova, E.; Vladimir, M.

    2017-12-01

    The periods of prolonged deficiency of hydropower potential (HP) of Angara cascade hydroelectric plant related to low-inflow in Baikal and Angara basins threaten to energy sector of Siberia. Since 1901 was recorded five such periods. Last period began in 1996 and continues today. This period attracts the special attention, because it is the longest and coincided with the observed climate change. In our previous works we found that the reason of observed decrease of HP is low water content of Selenga River (main river in Baikal Basin). We also found that the variations of Selenga water-content almost totally depend of summer atmospheric precipitation. Most dramatic decrease of summer precipitation observed in July. In turn, precipitation in July depends on location and intensity of atmospheric frontal zone which separates mid-latitude circulation and East Asia monsoon system. Recently occur reduction this frontal zone and decrease of East Asia summer monsoon intensity. We need in the understanding of the reasons leading to these changes. In the presented work we investigate the influence of atmospheric blocking over Asia on the East Asian summer monsoon circulation in the period its maximum (July). Based on the analysis of large number of blocking events we identified the main mechanisms of blocking influence on the monsoon and studied the properties of cyclones formed by the interaction of air masses from mid latitude and tropics. It turned out that the atmospheric blockings play a fundamental role in the formation of the East Asia monsoon moisture transport and in the precipitation anomalies redistribution. In the absence of blockings over Asia East Asian monsoon moisture does not extend to the north, and in the presence of blockings their spatial configuration and localization completely determines the precipitation anomalies configuration in the northern part of East Asia. We also found that the weakening monsoon circulation in East Asia is associated with

  2. Interpretation of the microwave non-thermal radiation of the Moon during impact events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Grimalsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of recent observations of the non-thermal electromagnetic (EM emission at wavelengths of 2.5cm, 13cm, and 21cm are summarized. After strong impacts of meteorites or spacecrafts (Lunar Prospector with the Moon's surface, the radio emissions in various frequency ranges were recorded. The most distinctive phenomenon is the appearance of quasi-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of 3–10K during several hours. The mechanism concerning the EM emission from a propagating crack within a piezoactive dielectric medium is considered. The impact may cause the global acoustic oscillations of the Moon. These oscillations lead to the crackening of the Moon's surface. The propagation of a crack within a piezoactive medium is accompanied by the excitation of an alternative current source. It is revealed that the source of the EM emission is the effective transient magnetization that appears in the case of a moving crack in piezoelectrics. The moving crack creates additional non-stationary local mechanical stresses around the apex of the crack, which generate the non-stationary electromagnetic field. For the cracks with a length of 0.1–1µm, the maximum of the EM emission may be in the 1–10GHz range.

  3. The impact of lifecourse socioeconomic position on cardiovascular disease events in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreab, Samson Y; Diez Roux, Ana V; Brenner, Allison B; Hickson, DeMarc A; Sims, Mario; Subramanyam, Malavika; Griswold, Michael E; Wyatt, Sharon B; James, Sherman A

    2015-05-27

    Few studies have examined the impact of lifecourse socioeconomic position (SEP) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among African Americans. We used data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) to examine the associations of multiple measures of lifecourse SEP with CVD events in a large cohort of African Americans. During a median of 7.2-year follow-up, 362 new or recurrent CVD events occurred in a sample of 5301 participants aged 21 to 94. Childhood SEP was assessed by using mother's education, parental home ownership, and childhood amenities. Adult SEP was assessed by using education, income, wealth, and public assistance. Adult SEP was more consistently associated with CVD risk in women than in men: age-adjusted hazard ratios for low versus high income (95% CIs), 2.46 (1.19 to 5.09) in women and 1.50 (0.87 to 2.58) in men, P for interaction=0.1244, and hazard ratio for low versus high wealth, 2.14 (1.39 to 3.29) in women and 1.06 (0.62 to 1.81) in men, P for interaction=0.0224. After simultaneous adjustment for all adult SEP measures, wealth remained a significant predictor of CVD events in women (HR=1.73 [1.04, 2.85] for low versus high). Education and public assistance were less consistently associated with CVD. Adult SEP was a stronger predictor of CVD events in younger than in older participants (HR for high versus low summary adult SEP score 3.28 [1.43, 7.53] for participants ≤50 years, and 1.90 (1.36 to 2.66) for participants >50 years, P for interaction 0.0846). Childhood SEP was not associated with CVD risk in women or men. Adult SEP is an important predictor of CVD events in African American women and in younger African Americans. Childhood SEP was not associated with CVD events in this population. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  4. Convolutional neural networks for event-related potential detection: impact of the architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecotti, H

    2017-07-01

    The detection of brain responses at the single-trial level in the electroencephalogram (EEG) such as event-related potentials (ERPs) is a difficult problem that requires different processing steps to extract relevant discriminant features. While most of the signal and classification techniques for the detection of brain responses are based on linear algebra, different pattern recognition techniques such as convolutional neural network (CNN), as a type of deep learning technique, have shown some interests as they are able to process the signal after limited pre-processing. In this study, we propose to investigate the performance of CNNs in relation of their architecture and in relation to how they are evaluated: a single system for each subject, or a system for all the subjects. More particularly, we want to address the change of performance that can be observed between specifying a neural network to a subject, or by considering a neural network for a group of subjects, taking advantage of a larger number of trials from different subjects. The results support the conclusion that a convolutional neural network trained on different subjects can lead to an AUC above 0.9 by using an appropriate architecture using spatial filtering and shift invariant layers.

  5. Extreme climatic events in relation to global change and their impact on life histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan MORENO, Anders Pape Møller

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather conditions occur at an increasing rate as evidenced by higher frequency of hurricanes and more extreme precipitation and temperature anomalies. Such extreme environmental conditions will have important implications for all living organisms through greater frequency of reproductive failure and reduced adult survival. We review examples of reproductive failure and reduced survival related to extreme weather conditions. Phenotypic plasticity may not be sufficient to allow adaptation to extreme weather for many animals. Theory predicts reduced reproductive effort as a response to increased stochasticity. We predict that patterns of natural selection will change towards truncation selection as environmental conditions become more extreme. Such changes in patterns of selection may facilitate adaptation to extreme events. However, effects of selection on reproductive effort are difficult to detect. We present a number of predictions for the effects of extreme weather conditions in need of empirical tests. Finally, we suggest a number of empirical reviews that could improve our ability to judge the effects of extreme environmental conditions on life history [Current Zoology 57 (3: 375–389, 2011].

  6. Impact of hydroxyurea on clinical events in the BABY HUG trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Beatrice A.; Luo, Zhaoyu; Miller, Scott T.; Kalpatthi, Ram; Iyer, Rathi; Seaman, Phillip; Lebensburger, Jeffrey; Alvarez, Ofelia; Thompson, Bruce; Ware, Russell E.; Wang, Winfred C.

    2012-01-01

    The Pediatric Hydroxyurea Phase 3 Clinical Trial (BABY HUG) was a phase 3 multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of hydroxyurea in infants (beginning at 9-18 months of age) with sickle cell anemia. An important secondary objective of this study was to compare clinical events between the hydroxyurea and placebo groups. One hundred and ninety-three subjects were randomized to hydroxyurea (20 mg/kg/d) or placebo; there were 374 patient-years of on-study observation. Hydroxyurea was associated with statistically significantly lower rates of initial and recurrent episodes of pain, dactylitis, acute chest syndrome, and hospitalization; even infants who were asymptomatic at enrollment had less dactylitis as well as fewer hospitalizations and transfusions if treated with hydroxyurea. Despite expected mild myelosuppression, hydroxyurea was not associated with an increased risk of bacteremia or serious infection. These data provide important safety and efficacy information for clinicians considering hydroxyurea therapy for very young children with sickle cell anemia. This clinical trial is registered with the National Institutes of Health (NCT00006400, www.clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:22915643

  7. The impact of emotional involvement on online service buying decisions: an event-related potentials perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meina; Wang, Jing; Han, Weiwei

    2015-12-02

    When examining a buying process, changes in human brain signals and their event-related potential (ERP) components can be considered a reflection of the consumers' emotions. In this experiment, participants were shown 12 products and related services that were available for purchase. After recording ERP components, we used a questionnaire to measure the individuals' emotional involvement toward the services (i.e. the same services shown in the stimuli) of the 12 products to measure the emotional valence of the services. The emotional ERP components and the late positive potential (LPP) were elicited under the service conditions and distributed over the left frontal regions. We determined that the services may evoke an LPP and that services with a high emotional value may evoke a larger LPP, which suggests that positive emotion may be measured using the LPP amplitude in the left frontal regions. This result helps elucidate whether positive emotions are stimulated during the product-service system decision-making process and helps understand the emotional valences of different services. Our analysis of the emotional motivation of the consumer suggests that the LPP may be useful as an emotional indicator for measuring consumers' evaluation of services that provides a neural view of product-service system buying decisions.

  8. The impact of perceived quality on online buying decisions: an event-related potentials perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Han, Weiwei

    2014-10-01

    Consumer neuroscience can provide useful insights into the neural foundations of consumer decisions, such as perceived quality. One of the applications is to guide attribute configuration of products to fit consumers' expectations on the basis of individual preferences. In this study, we required 20 participants to decide whether to buy the product provided in the stimuli and to respond as soon as possible. According to their reports of expectations after the experiment, we subdivided the stimuli into two conditions. Condition 1 contained the stimuli that fit individual preferences, whereas Condition 2 contained the other stimuli. An essential component of event-related potentials (ERPs), the P300, was elicited in the two conditions and distributed over almost all parietal and occipital regions. Products in Condition 1 induced a higher P300 amplitude than those in Condition 2. The results show that evaluating product attributes is a cognitive process that modulates attention in the aforementioned regions. When participants evaluate the alternatives, categorical processing occurred on the basis of similarity judgment. The situation in Condition 1 produced a similarity overlap between the product and the expectation and resulted in a higher P300. Otherwise, there was no overlap, leading to a smaller P300. Hence, the P300 may be a useful neural endogenous indicator for measuring consumers' evaluations of products in marketing research.

  9. The impact of occurrence of exceptional solar events on mortality from diseases of the nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolska, Katerina

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this conference paper is to analyse relationships between strong changes of solar, geomagnetic and ionospheric physical parameters, and mortality by medical cause of death from diagnosis group Diseases of the nervous system by ICD-10 WHO. The aggregated daily number of deaths of 6 largest individual causes of death of group VI. Diseases of the nervous system on the occurrence of exceptional solar and geomagnetic events is investigated. Analysis is performed for the period of the solar cycles No. 23 and 24 (years 1994-2013) in the Czech Republic. The correlation between the intensity of mortality from diseases Multiple sclerosis, Epilepsy, Cerebral palsy, Parkinson disease, Secondary parkinsonism and Alzheimer disease and the solar, geomagnetic and ionospheric physical parameters is examined using stochastic method of graphical models of conditional dependences. We study the daily number of deaths separately for both sexes at the age groups under 39 and 40+. Differences are found for maximum solar activity and during the ascending and descending epoch of the solar cycles.

  10. The human impact of volcanoes: a historical review of events 1900-2009 and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dooling, Shayna; Gorokhovich, Yuri

    2013-04-16

    Introduction. More than 500 million people live within the potential exposure range of a volcano. The risk of catastrophic losses in future eruptions is significant given population growth, proximities of major cities to volcanoes, and the possibility of larger eruptions. The objectives of this review are to describe the impact of volcanoes on the human population, in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of volcanoes were compiled using two methods, a historical review of volcano events from 1900 to 2009 from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between volcano mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were a total of 91,789 deaths (range: 81,703-102,372), 14,068 injuries (range 11,541-17,922), and 4.72 million people affected by volcanic events between 1900 and 2008. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of numbers injured and affected. The primary causes of mortality in recent volcanic eruptions were ash asphyxiation, thermal injuries from pyroclastic flow, and trauma. Mortality was concentrated with the ten deadliest eruptions accounting for more than 80% of deaths; 84% of fatalities occurred in four locations (the Island of Martinique (France), Colombia, Indonesia, and Guatemala). Conclusions. Changes in land use practices and population growth provide a background for increasing risk; in conjunction with increasing urbanization in at risk areas, this poses a challenge for future volcano preparedness and mitigation efforts.

  11. Tick exposure and extreme climate events impact survival and threaten the persistence of a long-lived lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alice R; Bull, C Michael; Brook, Barry W; Wells, Konstans; Pollock, Kenneth H; Fordham, Damien A

    2016-03-01

    Assessing the impacts of multiple, often synergistic, stressors on the population dynamics of long-lived species is becoming increasingly important due to recent and future global change. Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) is a long-lived skink (>30 years) that is adapted to survive in semi-arid environments with varying levels of parasite exposure and highly seasonal food availability. We used an exhaustive database of 30 years of capture-mark-recapture records to quantify the impacts of both parasite exposure and environmental conditions on the lizard's survival rates and long-term population dynamics. Lizard abundance was relatively stable throughout the study period; however, there were changing patterns in adult and juvenile apparent survival rates, driven by spatial and temporal variation in levels of tick exposure and temporal variation in environmental conditions. Extreme weather events during the winter and spring seasons were identified as important environmental drivers of survival. Climate models predict a dramatic increase in the frequency of extreme hot and dry winter and spring seasons in our South Australian study region; from a contemporary probability of 0.17 up to 0.47-0.83 in 2080 depending on the emissions scenario. Our stochastic population model projections showed that these future climatic conditions will induce a decline in the abundance of this long-lived reptile of up to 67% within 30 years from 2080, under worst case scenario modelling. The results have broad implications for future work investigating the drivers of population dynamics and persistence. We highlight the importance of long-term data sets and accounting for synergistic impacts between multiple stressors. We show that predicted increases in the frequency of extreme climate events have the potential to considerably and negatively influence a long-lived species, which might previously have been assumed to be resilient to environmental perturbations. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of

  12. A high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age for the Nördlinger Ries impact crater, Germany, and implications for the accurate dating of terrestrial impact events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Martin; Kennedy, Trudi; Jourdan, Fred; Buchner, Elmar; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    2018-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar dating of specimens of moldavite, the formation of which is linked to the Ries impact in southern Germany, with a latest-generation ARGUS VI multi-collector mass spectrometer yielded three fully concordant plateau ages with a weighted mean age of 14.808 ± 0.021 Ma (± 0.038 Ma including all external uncertainties; 2σ; MSWD = 0.40, P = 0.67). This new best-estimate age for the Nördlinger Ries is in general agreement with previous 40Ar/39Ar results for moldavites, but constitutes a significantly improved precision with respect to the formation age of the distal Ries-produced tektites. Separates of impact glass from proximal Ries ejecta (suevite glass from three different surface outcrops) and partially melted feldspar particles from impact melt rock of the SUBO 18 Enkingen drill core failed to produce meaningful ages. These glasses show evidence for excess 40Ar introduction, which may have been incurred during interaction with hydrothermal fluids. Only partially reset 40Ar/39Ar ages could be determined for the feldspathic melt separates from the Enkingen core. The new 40Ar/39Ar results for the Ries impact structure constrain the duration of crater cooling, during the prevailing hydrothermal activity, to locally at least ∼60 kyr. With respect to the dating of terrestrial impact events, this paper briefly discusses a number of potential issues and effects that may be the cause for seemingly precise, but on a kyr-scale inaccurate, impact ages.

  13. Impact of Traumatic Events on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Palic, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse...... survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk...... factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute...

  14. Impact of traumatic events on posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish survivors of sexual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M; Palic, Sabina; Karsberg, Sidsel; Eriksen, Sara Bek

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  15. The Impact of a Barrier Island Loss on Extreme Events in the Tampa Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius eUlm

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Barrier islands characterize up to an eighth of the global coastlines. They buffer the mainland coastal areas from storm surge and wave energy from the open ocean. Changes in their shape or disappearance due to erosion may lead to an increased impact of sea level extremes on the mainland. A barrier island threatened by erosion is Egmont Key which is located in the mouth of the Tampa Bay estuary at the west-central coast of Florida.In this sensitivity study we investigate the impact a loss of Egmont Key would have on storm surge water levels and wind waves along the coastline of Tampa Bay. We first simulate still water levels in a control run over the years 1948-2010 using present-day bathymetry and then in a scenario run covering the same period with identical boundary conditions but with Egmont Key removed from the bathymetry. Return water levels are assessed for the control and the scenario runs using the Peak-over-threshold method along the entire Tampa Bay coastline. Egmont Key is found to have a significant influence on the return water levels in the Bay, especially in the northern, furthest inland parts where water levels associated with the 100-year return period increase between 5 cm and 15 cm.Additionally, wind wave simulations considering all 99.5th percentile threshold exceedances in the years 1980-2013 were conducted with the same control and scenario bathymetries. Assessing changes in return levels of significant wave heights due to the loss of Egmont Key revealed an increase of significant wave heights around today's location of the island.

  16. k-t SENSE-accelerated Myocardial Perfusion MR Imaging at 3.0 Tesla - comparison with 1.5 Tesla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Schwitter, Juerg; Suerder, Daniel; Greenwood, John P.; Boesiger, Peter; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To determine the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of high spatial resolution myocardial perfusion MR at 3.0 Tesla using k-space and time domain undersampling with sensitivity encoding (k-t SENSE). Materials and Methods The study was reviewed and approved by the local ethic review board. k-t SENSE perfusion MR was performed at 1.5 Tesla and 3.0 Tesla (saturation recovery gradient echo pulse sequence, repetition time/echo time 3.0ms/1.0ms, flip angle 15°, 5x k-t SENSE acceleration, spatial resolution 1.3×1.3×10mm3). Fourteen volunteers were studied at rest and 37 patients during adenosine stress. In volunteers, comparison was also made with standard-resolution (2.5×2.5×10mm3) 2x SENSE perfusion MR at 3.0 Tesla. Image quality, artifact scores, signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-enhancement ratios (CER) were derived. In patients, diagnostic accuracy of visual analysis to detect >50% diameter stenosis on quantitative coronary angiography was determined by receiver-operator-characteristics (ROC). Results In volunteers, image quality and artifact scores were similar for 3.0 Tesla and 1.5 Tesla, while SNR was higher (11.6 vs. 5.6) and CER lower (1.1 vs. 1.5, p=0.012) at 3.0 Tesla. Compared with standard-resolution perfusion MR, image quality was higher for k-t SENSE (3.6 vs. 3.1, p=0.04), endocardial dark rim artifacts were reduced (artifact thickness 1.6mm vs. 2.4mm, pTesla and 1.5 Tesla, respectively. Conclusions k-t SENSE accelerated high-resolution perfusion MR at 3.0 Tesla is feasible with similar artifacts and diagnostic accuracy as at 1.5 Tesla. Compared with standard-resolution perfusion MR, image quality is improved and artifacts are reduced. PMID:18936311

  17. WE-G-BRD-02: Characterizing Information Loss in a Sparse-Sampling-Based Dynamic MRI Sequence (k-T BLAST) for Lung Motion Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, T; Nofiele, J; Sawant, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Rapid MRI is an attractive, non-ionizing tool for soft-tissue-based monitoring of respiratory motion in thoracic and abdominal radiotherapy. One big challenge is to achieve high temporal resolution while maintaining adequate spatial resolution. K-t BLAST, sparse-sampling and reconstruction sequence based on a-priori information represents a potential solution. In this work, we investigated how much “true” motion information is lost as a-priori information is progressively added for faster imaging. Methods: Lung tumor motions in superior-inferior direction obtained from ten individuals were replayed into an in-house, MRI-compatible, programmable motion platform (50Hz refresh and 100microns precision). Six water-filled 1.5ml tubes were placed on it as fiducial markers. Dynamic marker motion within a coronal slice (FOV: 32×32cm"2, resolution: 0.67×0.67mm"2, slice-thickness: 5mm) was collected on 3.0T body scanner (Ingenia, Philips). Balanced-FFE (TE/TR: 1.3ms/2.5ms, flip-angle: 40degrees) was used in conjunction with k-t BLAST. Each motion was repeated four times as four k-t acceleration factors 1, 2, 5, and 16 (corresponding frame rates were 2.5, 4.7, 9.8, and 19.1Hz, respectively) were compared. For each image set, one average motion trajectory was computed from six marker displacements. Root mean square error (RMS) was used as a metric of spatial accuracy where measured trajectories were compared to original data. Results: Tumor motion was approximately 10mm. The mean(standard deviation) of respiratory rates over ten patients was 0.28(0.06)Hz. Cumulative distributions of tumor motion frequency spectra (0–25Hz) obtained from the patients showed that 90% of motion fell on 3.88Hz or less. Therefore, the frame rate must be a double or higher for accurate monitoring. The RMS errors over patients for k-t factors of 1, 2, 5, and 16 were.10(.04),.17(.04), .21(.06) and.26(.06)mm, respectively. Conclusions: K-t factor of 5 or higher can cover the high

  18. Impacts of Extreme Hot Weather Events on Electricity Consumption in Baden-Wuerttemberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimler, S.

    2009-04-01

    Changes in electricity consumption due to hot weather events were examined for the German federal state Baden-Württemberg. The analysis consists of three major steps: Firstly, an analysis of the media coverage on the hot summer of 2003 gives direct and indirect information about changes in electricity demand due to changes in consumption patterns. On the one hand there was an overall increase in electricity demand due to the more frequent use of air conditionings, fans, cooling devices and water pumps. On the other hand shifts in electricity consumption took place due to modifications in daily routines: if possible, core working times were scheduled earlier, visitor streams in gastronomy and at events shifted from noon to evening hours, a temporal shifting of purchases took place in early morning or evening hours, and an increased night-activity was documented by a higher number of police operations due to noise disturbances. In a second step, some of the findings of the media analysis were quantified for households in the city region of Karlsruhe. For the chosen electric device groups refrigerators, mini-coolers, air conditionings, fans and electric stoves the difference between the consumption on a hot summer day and a normal summer day was computed. For this purpose, assumptions had to be made on the share of affected households, affected devices or usage patterns. These assumptions were summarized into three scenarios on low, medium and high heat induced changes in electricity consumption. In total, the quantification resulted in a range of about 7.5 to 9.2 % of heat-induced over-consumption related to the average amount of electrical load that is normally provided to Karlsruhe households on a summer's day. A third analysis of summer load curves aimed at testing the following hypotheses derived from the media analysis regarding changes in every-day routines and their effects on shifts in load profiles. To test the hypotheses, correlation tests were applied. (1

  19. A Study of the Impact of Peak Demand on Increasing Vulnerability of Cascading Failures to Extreme Contingency Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Vallem, Mallikarjuna R.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Samaan, Nader A.; Berscheid, Alan P.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Diao, Ruisheng

    2017-10-02

    The vulnerability of large power systems to cascading failures and major blackouts has become evident since the Northeast blackout in 1965. Based on analyses of the series of cascading blackouts in the past decade, the research community realized the urgent need to develop better methods, tools, and practices for performing cascading-outage analysis and for evaluating mitigations that are easily accessible by utility planning engineers. PNNL has developed the Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool (DCAT) as an open-platform and publicly available methodology to help develop applications that aim to improve the capabilities of power planning engineers to assess the impact and likelihood of extreme contingencies and potential cascading events across their systems and interconnections. DCAT analysis will help identify potential vulnerabilities and allow study of mitigation solutions to reduce the risk of cascading outages in technically sound and effective ways. Using the DCAT capability, we examined the impacts of various load conditions to identify situations in which the power grid may encounter cascading outages that could lead to potential blackouts. This paper describes the usefulness of the DCAT tool and how it helps to understand potential impacts of load demand on cascading failures on the power system.

  20. Impact of carbonaceous materials in soil on the transport of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Xiaolin; Zheng, Yi; Wu, Bin; Lin, Zhongrong; Han, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported from contaminated soils by surface runoff pose significant risk for aquatic ecosystems. Based on a rainfall-runoff simulation experiment, this study investigated the impact of carbonaceous materials (CMs) in soil, identified by organic petrology analysis, on the transport of soil-bound PAHs under rainfall conditions. The hypothesis that composition of soil organic matter significantly impacts the enrichment and transport of PAHs was proved. CMs in soil, varying significantly in content, mobility and adsorption capacity, act differently on the transport of PAHs. Anthropogenic CMs like black carbon (BC) largely control the transport, as PAHs may be preferentially attached to them. Eventually, this study led to a rethink of the traditional enrichment theory. An important implication is that CMs in soil have to be explicitly considered to appropriately model the nonpoint source pollution of PAHs (possibly other hydrophobic chemicals as well) and assess its environmental risk. -- Highlights: •Composition of SOM significantly impacts the enrichment and transport of PAHs. •Anthropogenic carbonaceous materials in soil largely control the transport of PAHs. •The classic enrichment theory is invalid if anthropogenic CMs are abundant in the soil. •Organic petrology analysis introduced to study the fate and transport of PAHs. -- Anthropogenic carbonaceous materials in soil, especially black carbon, largely control the transport of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events

  1. The role and production of polar/subtropical jet superpositions in two high-impact weather events over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Andrew C.

    Careful observational work has demonstrated that the tropopause is typically characterized by a three-step pole-to-equator structure, with each break between steps in the tropopause height associated with a jet stream. While the two jet streams, the polar and subtropical jets, typically occupy different latitude bands, their separation can occasionally vanish, resulting in a vertical superposition of the two jets. A cursory examination of a number of historical and recent high-impact weather events over North America and the North Atlantic indicates that superposed jets can be an important component of their evolution. Consequently, this dissertation examines two recent jet superposition cases, the 18--20 December 2009 Mid-Atlantic Blizzard and the 1--3 May 2010 Nashville Flood, in an effort (1) to determine the specific influence that a superposed jet can have on the development of a high-impact weather event and (2) to illuminate the processes that facilitated the production of a superposition in each case. An examination of these cases from a basic-state variable and PV inversion perspective demonstrates that elements of both the remote and local synoptic environment are important to consider while diagnosing the development of a jet superposition. Specifically, the process of jet superposition begins with the remote production of a cyclonic (anticyclonic) tropopause disturbance at high (low) latitudes. The cyclonic circulation typically originates at polar latitudes, while organized tropical convection can encourage the development of an anticyclonic circulation anomaly within the tropical upper-troposphere. The concurrent advection of both anomalies towards middle latitudes subsequently allows their individual circulations to laterally displace the location of the individual tropopause breaks. Once the two circulation anomalies position the polar and subtropical tropopause breaks in close proximity to one another, elements within the local environment, such as

  2. Genetic impact of a severe El Niño event on Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfartz, Sebastian; Glaberman, Scott; Lanterbecq, Deborah; Marquez, Cruz; Rassmann, Kornelia; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2007-12-12

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a major source of climatic disturbance, impacting the dynamics of ecosystems worldwide. Recent models predict that human-generated rises in green-house gas levels will cause an increase in the strength and frequency of El Niño warming events in the next several decades, highlighting the need to understand the potential biological consequences of increased ENSO activity. Studies have focused on the ecological and demographic implications of El Niño in a range of organisms, but there have been few systematic attempts to measure the impact of these processes on genetic diversity in populations. Here, we evaluate whether the 1997-1998 El Niño altered the genetic composition of Galápagos marine iguana populations from eleven islands, some of which experienced mortality rates of up to 90% as a result of El Niño warming. Specifically, we measured the temporal variation in microsatellite allele frequencies and mitochondrial DNA diversity (mtDNA) in samples collected before (1991/1993) and after (2004) the El Niño event. Based on microsatellite data, only one island (Marchena) showed signatures of a genetic bottleneck, where the harmonic mean of the effective population size (N(e)) was estimated to be less than 50 individuals during the period between samplings. Substantial decreases in mtDNA variation between time points were observed in populations from just two islands (Marchena and Genovesa). Our results suggests that, for the majority of islands, a single, intense El Niño event did not reduce marine iguana populations to the point where substantial neutral genetic diversity was lost. In the case of Marchena, simultaneous changes to both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation may also be the result of a volcanic eruption on the island in 1991. Therefore, studies that seek to evaluate the genetic impact of El Niño must also consider the confounding or potentially synergistic effect of other environmental and biological

  3. Genetic impact of a severe El Niño event on Galápagos marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Steinfartz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO is a major source of climatic disturbance, impacting the dynamics of ecosystems worldwide. Recent models predict that human-generated rises in green-house gas levels will cause an increase in the strength and frequency of El Niño warming events in the next several decades, highlighting the need to understand the potential biological consequences of increased ENSO activity. Studies have focused on the ecological and demographic implications of El Niño in a range of organisms, but there have been few systematic attempts to measure the impact of these processes on genetic diversity in populations. Here, we evaluate whether the 1997-1998 El Niño altered the genetic composition of Galápagos marine iguana populations from eleven islands, some of which experienced mortality rates of up to 90% as a result of El Niño warming. Specifically, we measured the temporal variation in microsatellite allele frequencies and mitochondrial DNA diversity (mtDNA in samples collected before (1991/1993 and after (2004 the El Niño event. Based on microsatellite data, only one island (Marchena showed signatures of a genetic bottleneck, where the harmonic mean of the effective population size (N(e was estimated to be less than 50 individuals during the period between samplings. Substantial decreases in mtDNA variation between time points were observed in populations from just two islands (Marchena and Genovesa. Our results suggests that, for the majority of islands, a single, intense El Niño event did not reduce marine iguana populations to the point where substantial neutral genetic diversity was lost. In the case of Marchena, simultaneous changes to both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation may also be the result of a volcanic eruption on the island in 1991. Therefore, studies that seek to evaluate the genetic impact of El Niño must also consider the confounding or potentially synergistic effect of other environmental

  4. Integrated safety assessment of Indian nuclear power plants for extreme events: reducing impact on public mind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakodkar, Anil; Singh, Ram Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear energy professionals need to understand and address the catastrophe syndrome that of late seems to be increasingly at work in public mind in the context of nuclear energy. Classically the nuclear power reactor design and system evolution has been based on the logic of minimization of risk to an acceptable level and its quantification based on a deterministic approach and backed up by a further assessment based on the probabilistic methodology. However, in spite of minimization of risk, the reasons for anxiety and trauma in public mind that still prevails in the context of severe accidents needs to be understood and addressed. Margins between maximum credible accidents factored in the design and the ultimate load withstanding capacities of relevant systems need to be enhanced and guaranteed with a view to minimize release of radioactivity and avoid serious impact in public domain. A more realistic basis for management of an accident in public domain also needs to be quantified for this purpose. Assurance to public on limiting the consequences to a level that does not lead to a trauma is something that we need to be able to credibly demonstrate and confirm. The findings from Chernobyl reports point to significant psychological effects and related health disorders due to large scale emergency relocation of people that could have been possibly reduced by an order of magnitude without significant additional safety detriment

  5. Long-term impacts of coral bleaching events on the world's warmest reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, John; Al-Harthi, Suaad; Al-Cibahy, Ashraf

    2011-10-01

    The southern Arabian Gulf houses some of the most thermally tolerant corals on earth, but severe bleaching in the late 1990s caused widespread mortality. More than a decade later, corals still dominated benthos (mean: 40 ± 3% cover on 10 sites spanning > 350 km; range: 11.0-65.6%), but coral communities varied spatially. Sites to the west generally had low species richness and coral cover (mean: 3.2 species per transect, 31% cover), with Porites dominated communities (88% of coral) that are distinct from more diverse and higher cover eastern sites (mean: 10.3 species per transect, 62% cover). These patterns reflect both the more extreme bleaching to the west in the late 1990s as well as the higher faviid dominated recruitment to the east in subsequent years. There has been limited recovery of the formerly dominant Acropora, which now represents bleaching can have substantial long-term impacts on coral communities, even in areas with corals tolerant to environmental extremes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. IRSN preliminary considerations of the Fukushima event impact on the GENIV reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    • The IRSN study aims to identify main specific safety issues for each GEN IV concept with regards to the European Nuclear Safety Regulatory Group (ENSREG) stress tests topics: → Earthquake; → Flooding; → Loss of the heat sink; →Loss of the power supply; → Combination of the two previous ones; → Severe accident management. • These main specific safety issues are identified as far as they could have a specific impact on: → Grace times; → Cliff edge effects; → Difficulties to cope with them. • The situation is different between existing reactors and for reactors not yet designed because the hazard level may be increase for the new reactors. • Nevertheless, the “hardened safety core” concept may be kept for extreme situations and will be identified on the basis of the above mentioned main specific safety issues. This analysis is a preliminary one based of the IRSN knowledge about the six GEN IV concepts issued from safety assessment already performed (in particular on the French SFRs already built) and publications

  7. The Impacts of Episodic Storm and Flood Events on Carbon and Sediment Delivery to Gulf of Mexico Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, K. M.; Carlin, J. A.; Sayers, L.; Swenson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Marine sediments are an important long-term reservoir for both recently fixed organic carbon (OC) and ancient rock derived OC, much of which is delivered by rivers. The ratio between these two sources of OC in turn regulates atmospheric levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide over geologic time, making this riverine delivery of OC, primarily carried by sediments, an important flux in the global carbon cycle. However, while the overall magnitude of these fluxes are relatively well known, it remains to be determined the importance of episodic events, like storms and floods, in the flux of OC from terrestrial to marine environments. Here, we present data from a 34 cm core collected from the Gulf of Mexico at a mid-shelf distal depocenter for the Brazos River in 2015, during a strong El Nino when that area of the country was experiencing 100-year flood events and anomalously high river flow. Based on analysis of the radioactive isotope 7Be, approximately the top 7-8 cm of the sediment in this core was deposited during this flood event. Both bulk elemental (C, N, and stable carbon isotopes) and chemical biomarker (lignin-phenol) data has been combined to provide information of the origin and chemistry of the OC in this core both before and during flooding. C:N and d13C indicate a mixture of marine-sourced and terrestrially-sourced OC throughout the length of the core with very little variation between the flood layer and deeper sediments. However, lignin-phenol concentrations are higher in flood-deposited sediment, indicating that this sediment is likely terrestrially-sourced. Lignin-phenol indicators of OC degradation state (Acid:Aldehyde ratios) indicate that flood sediment is fresher and less degraded than deeper sediments. Taken together, these results indicate that 1. Bulk analyses are not enough to determine OC source and the importance of flood events in OC cycling and 2. Episodic events like floods could have an oversized impact on OC storage in marine sediments.

  8. Psychological processes mediate the impact of familial risk, social circumstances and life events on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinderman, Peter; Schwannauer, Matthias; Pontin, Eleanor; Tai, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread acceptance of the 'biopsychosocial model', the aetiology of mental health problems has provoked debate amongst researchers and practitioners for decades. The role of psychological factors in the development of mental health problems remains particularly contentious, and to date there has not been a large enough dataset to conduct the necessary multivariate analysis of whether psychological factors influence, or are influenced by, mental health. This study reports on the first empirical, multivariate, test of the relationships between the key elements of the biospychosocial model of mental ill-health. Participants were 32,827 (age 18-85 years) self-selected respondents from the general population who completed an open-access online battery of questionnaires hosted by the BBC. An initial confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess the adequacy of the proposed factor structure and the relationships between latent and measured variables. The predictive path model was then tested whereby the latent variables of psychological processes were positioned as mediating between the causal latent variables (biological, social and circumstantial) and the outcome latent variables of mental health problems and well-being. This revealed an excellent fit to the data, S-B χ(2) (3199, N = 23,397) = 126654.8, pmental health difficulties, social deprivation, and traumatic or abusive life-experiences all strongly predicted higher levels of anxiety and depression. However, these relationships were strongly mediated by psychological processes; specifically lack of adaptive coping, rumination and self-blame. These results support a significant revision of the biopsychosocial model, as psychological processes determine the causal impact of biological, social, and circumstantial risk factors on mental health. This has clear implications for policy, education and clinical practice as psychological processes such as rumination and self-blame are amenable to evidence

  9. Slumping and a sandbar deposit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the El Tecolote section (northeastern Mexico): An impact-induced sediment gravity flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Ana R.; Liesa, Carlos L.; Mata, Maria Pilar; Arz, José A.; Alegret, Laia; Arenillas, Ignacio; Meléndez, Alfonso

    2001-03-01

    Slumps affecting uppermost Méndez Formation marls, as well as the spherulitic layer and basal part of the sandy deposits of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clastic unit, are described at the new K-T El Tecolote section (northeastern Mexico). These K-T clastic deposits represent sedimentation at middle-bathyal water depths in channel and nonchannel or levee areas of reworked materials coming from environments ranging from outer shelf to shallower slope via a unidirectional, high- to low-density turbidite flow. We emphasize the development and accretion of a lateral bar in a channel area from a surging low-density turbidity current and under a high-flow regime. The slumps discovered on land and the sedimentary processes of the K-T clastic unit reflect destabilization and collapse of the continental margin, support the mechanism of gravity flows in the deep sea, and represent important and extensive evidence for the impact effects in the Gulf of México triggered by the Chicxulub event.

  10. Effective population size dynamics reveal impacts of historic climatic events and recent anthropogenic pressure in African elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okello, J B A; Wittemyer, G; Rasmussen, Henrik Barner

    2008-01-01

    Two hundred years of elephant hunting for ivory, peaking in 1970-1980s, caused local extirpations and massive population declines across Africa. The resulting genetic impacts on surviving populations have not been studied, despite the importance of understanding the evolutionary repercussions...... of such human-mediated events on this keystone species. Using Bayesian coalescent-based genetic methods to evaluate time-specific changes in effective population size, we analysed genetic variation in 20 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci from 400 elephants inhabiting the greater Samburu-Laikipia region...... of northern Kenya. This area experienced a decline of between 80% and 90% in the last few decades when ivory harvesting was rampant. The most significant change in effective population size, however, occurred approximately 2500 years ago during a mid-Holocene period of climatic drying in tropical Africa...

  11. Impacts of an extreme cyclone event on landscape-scale savanna fire, productivity and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutley, L B; Maier, S W; Evans, B J; Beringer, J; Cook, G D; Razon, E

    2013-01-01

    North Australian tropical savanna accounts for 12% of the world’s total savanna land cover. Accordingly, understanding processes that govern carbon, water and energy exchange within this biome is critical to global carbon and water budgeting. Climate and disturbances drive ecosystem carbon dynamics. Savanna ecosystems of the coastal and sub-coastal of north Australia experience a unique combination of climatic extremes and are in a state of near constant disturbance from fire events (1 in 3 years), storms resulting in windthrow (1 in 5–10 years) and mega-cyclones (1 in 500–1000 years). Critically, these disturbances occur over large areas creating a spatial and temporal mosaic of carbon sources and sinks. We quantify the impact on gross primary productivity (GPP) and fire occurrence from a tropical mega-cyclone, tropical Cyclone Monica (TC Monica), which affected 10 400 km 2 of savanna across north Australia, resulting in the mortality and severe structural damage to ∼140 million trees. We estimate a net carbon equivalent emission of 43 Tg of CO 2 -e using the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) GPP (MOD17A2) to quantify spatial and temporal patterns pre- and post-TC Monica. GPP was suppressed for four years after the event, equivalent to a loss of GPP of 0.5 Tg C over this period. On-ground fuel loads were estimated to potentially release 51.2 Mt CO 2 -e, equivalent to ∼10% of Australia’s accountable greenhouse gas emissions. We present a simple carbon balance to examine the relative importance of frequency versus impact for a number of key disturbance processes such as fire, termite consumption and intense but infrequent mega-cyclones. Our estimates suggested that fire and termite consumption had a larger impact on Net Biome Productivity than infrequent mega-cyclones. We demonstrate the importance of understanding how climate variability and disturbance impacts savanna dynamics in the context of the increasing interest in

  12. Seawater-flooding events and impact on freshwater lenses of low-lying islands: Controlling factors, basic management and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Voss, Clifford I.; Johnson, Adam G.

    2017-08-01

    An unprecedented set of hydrologic observations was collected after the Dec 2008 seawater-flooding event on Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. By two days after the seawater flooding that occurred at the beginning of dry season, the observed salinity of water withdrawn by the island's main skimming well increased to 100% seawater concentration, but by ten days later already decreased to only 10-20% of seawater fraction. However, the damaging impact on the potability of the groundwater supply (when pumped water had concentrations above 1% seawater fraction) lasted 22 months longer. The data collected make possible analyses of the hydrologic factors that control recovery and management of the groundwater-supply quality on Roi-Namur and on similar low-lying islands. With the observed data as a guide, three-dimensional numerical-model simulation analyses reveal how recovery is controlled by the island's hydrology. These also allow evaluation of the efficacy of basic water-quality management/mitigation alternatives and elucidate how groundwater withdrawal and timing of the seawater-flooding event affect the length of recovery. Simulations show that, as might be expected, by adding surplus captured rainwater as artificial recharge, the freshwater-lens recovery period (after which potable groundwater may again be produced) can be shortened, with groundwater salinity remaining lower even during the dry season, a period during which no artificial recharge is applied. Simulations also show that the recovery period is not lengthened appreciably by groundwater withdrawals during recovery. Simulations further show that had the flooding event occurred at the start of the wet season, the recovery period would have been about 25% (5.5 months) shorter than actually occurred during the monitored flood that occurred at the dry-season start. Finally, analyses show that artificial recharge improves freshwater-lens water quality, making possible longer use of

  13. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Significant Event Analysis: Exploring Personal Impact and Applying Systems Thinking in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; McNaughton, Elaine; Bruce, David; Holly, Deirdre; Forrest, Eleanor; Macleod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; Power, Ailsa; Toppin, Denis; Black, Irene; Pooley, Janet; Taylor, Audrey; Swanson, Vivien; Kelly, Moya; Ferguson, Julie; Stirling, Suzanne; Wakeling, Judy; Inglis, Angela; McKay, John; Sargeant, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Significant event analysis (SEA) is well established in many primary care settings but can be poorly implemented. Reasons include the emotional impact on clinicians and limited knowledge of systems thinking in establishing why events happen and formulating improvements. To enhance SEA effectiveness, we developed and tested "guiding tools" based on human factors principles. Mixed-methods development of guiding tools (Personal Booklet-to help with emotional demands and apply a human factors analysis at the individual level; Desk Pad-to guide a team-based systems analysis; and a written Report Format) by a multiprofessional "expert" group and testing with Scottish primary care practitioners who submitted completed enhanced SEA reports. Evaluation data were collected through questionnaire, telephone interviews, and thematic analysis of SEA reports. Overall, 149/240 care practitioners tested the guiding tools and submitted completed SEA reports (62.1%). Reported understanding of how to undertake SEA improved postintervention (P systems issues (85/123, 69.1%), while most found the Report Format clear (94/123, 76.4%) and would recommend it (88/123, 71.5%). Most SEA reports adopted a systems approach to analyses (125/149, 83.9%), care improvement (74/149, 49.7), or planned actions (42/149, 28.2%). Applying human factors principles to SEA potentially enables care teams to gain a systems-based understanding of why things go wrong, which may help with related emotional demands and with more effective learning and improvement.

  14. Impact of wildfires on ozone exceptional events in the Western u.s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Daniel A; Wigder, Nicole; Downey, Nicole; Pfister, Gabriele; Boynard, Anne; Reid, Stephen B

    2013-10-01

    fire years. The second case is for the Salt Lake City (SLC) region for August 2012. During this period the MDA8 reached 83 ppbv and the SMR suggests a wildfire contribution of 19 ppbv to the MDA8. The wildfire influence is supported by PM2.5 data, the known location of wildfires at the time, HYSPLIT dispersion modeling that indicates transport from fires in Idaho, and results from the CMAQ model that confirm the fire impacts. Concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 are enhanced during this period, but overall there is a poor relationship between them, which is consistent with the complexities in the secondary production of O3. A third case looks at high MDA8 in Boise, ID, during July 2012 and reaches similar conclusions. These results support the use of statistical modeling as a tool to quantify the influence from wildfires on urban O3 concentrations.

  15. Impact of meander geometry and stream flow events on residence times and solute transport in the intra-meander flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir Mahmood, Muhammad; Schmidt, Christian; Trauth, Nico

    2017-04-01

    Stream morphological features, in combination with hydrological variability play a key role in water and solute exchange across surface and subsurface waters. Meanders are prominent morphological features within stream systems which exhibit unique hydrodynamics. The water surface elevation difference across the inner bank of a meander induces lateral hyporheic exchange within the intra-meander region. This hyporheic flow is characterized by considerably prolonged flow paths and residence times (RT) compared to smaller scales of hyporheic exchange. In this study we examine the impact of different meander geometries on the intra-meander hyporheic flow field and solute mobilization under both steady state and transient flow conditions. We developed a number of artificial meander shape scenarios, representing various meander evolution stages, ranging from a typical initial to advanced stage (near cut off ) meander. Three dimensional steady state numerical groundwater flow simulations including the unsaturated zone were performed for the intra-meander region. The meandering stream was implemented in the model by adjusting the top layers of the modelling domain to the streambed elevation and assigning linearly decreasing head boundary conditions to the streambed cells. Residence times for the intra-meander region were computed by advective particle tracking across the inner bank of meander. Selected steady state cases were extended to transient flow simulations to evaluate the impact of stream discharge events on the temporal behavior of the water exchange and solute transport in the intra-meander region. The transient stream discharge was simulated for a number of discharge events of variable duration and peak height using the surface water model HEC-RAS. Transient hydraulic heads obtained from the surface water model were applied as transient head boundary conditions to the streambed cells of the groundwater model. A solute concentration source was added in the

  16. Impacts of severe wave event to the coastal environment, east Taiwan: a case study of 2015 Typhoon Soudelor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao-Yi; Yen, Jiun-Yee; Wu, Bo-Lin; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Ting-Yi

    2017-04-01

    As an island surrounded by open water bodies, Taiwan faces associated challenges of oceanic events such as tidal, current and seasonsal wave cycles. In addition to the secular variations of the adjacent oceans, researchers have raised public awareness toward extreme wave events such as tsunamis and storm surges that may cause great damage to coastal infrastructures and loss of valuable lives. The east coast of Taiwan is prone to suffer from typhoons every year and records have shown that more than 30% of the low-pressure centers took the east coastline as their landing point. In year 2015, Typhoon Soudelor attacked the east coast of Taiwan and resulted in a great number of casualties and severe damage to the infrastructures all over the island. Soudelor is not the greatest typhoon of the year yet still brought in significant influences to the coastal topography due to its path and robust structure. In order to understand the impacts of typhoons like Soudelor, we investigated the coastal areas of Hualien, east Taiwan, to document how sediments and debris are transported along the shoreline under the extreme wave condition. Four coastal areas were surveyed to extract applicable information such as local relief profiles, grain size distribution of drifted sediments/debris, maximum inundation limit and so forth. Field observation suggests that the waves displayed great capability of transporting the sediments and redistributing the beach morphology. For instance, the beach of Qixing Lake (Chishingtan) has astonishing records like maximum volume of transported boulder around 3,000,000 cm3, maximum long axis of transported boulder around 144 cm, maximum distance of boulder transportation of 70 m, and maximum inundation distance of ca. 180 m. The composition and distribution of the drifted sediments in every areas vary with local geological conditions but in general all suggest similar characteristics: 1. the transported materials size down toward inland; 2. The sediments

  17. The impact of storm events on a riverbed system and its hydraulic conductivity at a site of induced infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jonathan; Birck, Matthew D; Mutiti, Samuel; Kilroy, Kathryn C; Windeler, Britton; Idris, Ominigho; Allen, Lauren N

    2011-08-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of riverbed vertical hydraulic conductivity (K(v)) was investigated at a site of induced infiltration, associated with a municipal well field, to assess the impact of high-stage events on scour and subsequently the riverbed K(v). Such impacts are important when considering the potential loss of riverbank filtration capacity due to storm events. The study site, in and along the Great Miami River in southwest Ohio, overlaid a highly productive glacial-outwash aquifer. A three-layer model for this system was conceptualized: a top layer of transient sediment, a second layer comprising large sediment resistant to scour, but clogged with finer sediment (the armor/colmation layer), and a third layer that was transitional to the underlying higher-K(v) aquifer. One location was studied in detail to confirm and quantify the conceptual model. Methods included seepage meters, heat-flow modeling, grain-size analyses, laboratory permeameter tests, slug tests and the use of scour chains and pressure-load cells to directly measure the amount of sediment scour and re-deposition. Seepage meter measured riverbed K(v) ranged from 0.017 to 1.7 m/d with a geometric mean of 0.19 m/d. Heat-transport model-calibrated estimates were even lower, ranging from 0.0061 to 0.046 m/d with a mean of 0.017 m/d. The relatively low K(v) was indicative of the clogged armor layer. In contrast, slug tests in the underlying riverbed sediment yielded K(v) values an order of magnitude greater. There was a linear relationship between scour chain measured scour and event intensity with a maximum scour of only 0.098 m. Load-cell pressure sensor data over a 7-month period indicated a total sediment-height fluctuation of 0.42 m and a maximum storm-event scour of 0.28 m. Scour data indicated that the assumed armor/colmation layer almost always remained intact. Based on measured layer conductivities and thicknesses, the overall K(v) of this conceptualized system was 1.6 m

  18. Lessons learned for reducing the negative impact of adverse events on patients, health professionals and healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Jose Joaquin; Lorenzo, Susana; Carrillo, Irene; Ferrús, Lena; Silvestre, Carmen; Astier, Pilar; Iglesias-Alonso, Fuencisla; Maderuelo, Jose Angel; Pérez-Pérez, Pastora; Torijano, Maria Luisa; Zavala, Elena; Scott, Susan D

    2017-08-01

    To summarize the knowledge about the aftermath of adverse events (AEs) and develop a recommendation set to reduce their negative impact in patients, health professionals and organizations in contexts where there is no previous experiences and apology laws are not present. Review studies published between 2000 and 2015, institutional websites and experts' opinions on patient safety. Studies published and websites on open disclosure, and the second and third victims' phenomenon. Four Focus Groups participating 27 healthcare professionals. Study characteristic and outcome data were abstracted by two authors and reviewed by the research team. Fourteen publications and 16 websites were reviewed. The recommendations were structured around eight areas: (i) safety and organizational policies, (ii) patient care, (iii) proactive approach to preventing reoccurrence, (iv) supporting the clinician and healthcare team, (v) activation of resources to provide an appropriate response, (vi) informing patients and/or family members, (vii) incidents' analysis and (viii) protecting the reputation of health professionals and the organization. Recommendations preventing aftermath of AEs have been identified. These have been designed for the hospital and the primary care settings; to cope with patient's emotions and for tacking the impact of AE in the second victim's colleagues. Its systematic use should help for the establishment of organizational action plans after an AE. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Translation and psychometric evaluation of Persian versions of Burn Specific Pain Anxiety Scale and Impact of Event Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezeljeh, Tahereh Najafi; Ardebili, Fatimah Mohades; Rafii, Forough; Hagani, Hamid

    2013-09-01

    Burn as a traumatic life incident manifests severe pain and psychological problems. Specific instruments are needed to evaluate burn patients' psychological issues related to the injury. The aim of this study was to translate and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Persian versions of Impact of Burn Specific Pain Anxiety scale (BSPAS) and Impact of Event Scale (IES). In this cross-sectional study, convenience sampling method was utilized to select 55 Iranian hospitalized burn patients. Combined translation was utilized for translating scales. Alpha cronbach, item-total correlation, convergent and discriminative validity were evaluated. The Cronbach's α for both BSPAS- and IES-Persian version was 0.96. Item-total correlation coefficients ranged from 0.70 to 0.90. Convergent construct validity was confirmed by indicating high correlation between the scales designed to measure the same concepts. The mean score of BSPAS- and IES-Persian version was lower for individuals with a lower TBSA burn percentage which assessed discriminative construct validity of scales. BSPAS- and IES-Persian version showed high internal consistency and good validity for the assessment of burn psychological outcome in hospitalized burn patients. Future studies are needed to determine repeatability, factor structure, sensitivity and specificity of the scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Versão brasileira da Impact of Event Scale (IES: tradução e adaptação transcultural Brazilian version of the Impact of Event Scale (IES: translation and cross-cultural adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cardoso de Oliveira e Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A Impact of Event Scale (IES tem como proposta avaliar o estresse subjetivo relacionado a eventos de vida, não estando focada em uma situação específica, mas nas características particulares que envolvem tais eventos. OBJETIVO: Descrever a tradução e adaptação semântica da IES para o português brasileiro. MÉTODO: O processo foi realizado por meio de duas traduções e retrotraduções, elaboradas por quatro avaliadores independentes e sem conhecimento prévio da escala original. A elaboração da versão sintética foi realizada por especialista em saúde mental bilíngue. Procedeu-se a posterior aplicação em grupo experimental para avaliação dos itens. A versão gerada foi enviada para aprovação do autor do instrumento original, obtendo-se resposta positiva. RESULTADOS: Todas as etapas do processo, incluindo traduções, retrotraduções e a versão sintética elaborada, são apresentadas para cada um dos 15 itens do instrumento original. O especialista em saúde mental colaborou para a adequação dos termos utilizados em relação ao construto medido. Através da aplicação experimental, foi possível identificar potenciais pontos de dificuldade para o entendimento de itens específicos e realizar ajustes posteriores. Foram obtidos 15 itens em português brasileiro para compor essa versão da escala. CONCLUSÕES: A partir da metodologia utilizada, foi possível elaborar a adaptação transcultural da IES para o português brasileiro.INTRODUCTION: The aim of the Impact of Event Scale (IES is to evaluate subjective distress associated with life events. The instrument is not focused on a specific situation, but rather on the particular characteristics of such events. OBJECTIVE: To describe the translation and semantic adaptation of the IES into Brazilian Portuguese. METHODS: The process consisted of translations and back-translations performed by four independent examiners without prior knowledge of the original

  1. The superfluid diffusion equation S(T)(∂T/∂t) = ∇·[K(T)(∇T)1/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1990-06-01

    This report deals with the superfluid diffusion equation, S(T)(∂T/∂t) = ∇·[K(T)(∇T) 1/3 ], which describes heat transport in turbulent helium-II (superfluid helium). Three methods of solution -- the method of similarity, the variational method, and the method of maximum/minimum principles -- are applied to this equation. The solutions discovered are helpful in addressing the use of helium-II in superconducting magnets and other applications. 22 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs

  2. The European ruminants during the "Microbunodon Event" (MP28, Latest Oligocene): impact of climate changes and faunal event on the ruminant evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennecart, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    The Earth already experienced numerous episodes of global warming and cooling. One of the latest impressive events of temperature rising was the Late Oligocene Warming that occurred around 25 Mya. An increase of the marine temperature of 2 to 4°C has been observed in a short time interval. In Europe, this major climatic event can be correlated to the continental faunal turnover "Microbunodon Event". This event is marked by a huge faunal turnover (40% of the ungulate fauna during the first 500k years) and environmental changes. Drier conditions associated to the appearance of the seasonality lead to new environmental conditions dominated by wooded savannahs. This is correlated to a major arrival of Asiatic immigrants. Moreover, from a homogenous fauna during the main part of the Oligocene, local climatic variations between the European Western coast and the more central Europe could have provided faunal regionalism during the latest Oligocene and earliest Miocene. Considering the ruminants, this event is the major ever known for this group in Europe. A total renewal at the family level occurred. Thanks to a precise stratigraphic succession, major evolutionary elements are highlighted. Typical Oligocene species, mainly Tragulina, were adapted to wooded environments and were leaves/fruits eaters. They disappeared at the end of MP27 or the early MP28. This corresponds to the appearance of the Asiatic immigrants. The Tragulina (Lophiomerycidae, Bachitheriidae) and stem Pecora gave way to more derived stem and maybe crown Pecora (e.g. "Amphitragulus", Babameryx, Dremotherium). These newcomers were adapted to more open environments and mixed feeding. The disappearance of the Tragulina is probably linked to environmental and vegetation changes, and competition. They give way to more derived ruminants having a more efficient metabolism in drier conditions and a better assimilation of less energetic food.

  3. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INFLUENCE OF RISK FACTORS ON THE FREQUENCY AND IMPACT OF SEVERE EVENTS ON THE SUPPLY CHAIN IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Caridad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper is focused on an analysis and evaluation of severe events according to their frequency of occurrence and their impact on the company's manufacturing and distribution supply chains performance in the Czech Republic. Risk factors are introduced for critical events.Design/methodology: An identification and classification of severe events are realized on the basis of median mapping and mapping of ordinal variability acquired through the questionnaire survey of 82 companies. Analysis of 46 risk factors was sorted into 5 groups. We used asymmetric Somers's d statistics for testing the dependence of frequency and impact of a severe event on selected risk sources. The hierarchical cluster analysis is performed to identify relatively homogeneous groups of critical severe events according to their dependency on risk factors and its strength.Findings: Results showed that ‘a lack of contracts’ is considered to be the most critical severe event. Groups of demand and supply side and an external risk factor group were identified to be the most significant sources of risk factors. The worst cluster encompasses 11% of examined risk factors which should be prevented. We concluded that organizations need to adopt appropriate precautions and risk management methods in logistics.Originality: In this paper, the methodology for severe events evaluation in supply chain is designed. This methodology involves assessing the critical factors which influence the critical events and which should be prevented.

  4. Using recent hurricanes and associated event layers to evaluate regional storm impacts on estuarine-wetland systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. G.; Marot, M. E.; Osterman, L. E.; Adams, C. S.; Haller, C.; Jones, M.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical cyclones are a major driver of change in coastal and estuarine environments. Heightened waves and sea level associated with tropical cyclones act to erode sediment from one environment and redistribute it to adjacent environments. The fate and transport of this redistributed material is of great importance to the long-term sediment budget, which in turns affects the vulnerability of these coastal systems. The spatial variance in both storm impacts and sediment redistribution is large. At the regional-scale, difference in storm impacts can often be attributed to natural variability in geologic parameters (sediment availability/erodibility), coastal geomorphology (including fetch, shoreline tortuosity, back-barrier versus estuarine shoreline, etc.), storm characteristics (intensity, duration, track/approach), and ecology (vegetation type, gradient, density). To assess storm characteristics and coastal geomorphology on a regional-scale, cores were collected from seven Juncus marshes located in coastal regions of Alabama and Mississippi (i.e., Mobile Bay, Bon Secour Bay, Mississippi Sound, and Grand Bay) expected to have been impacted by Hurricane Frederic (1979). All cores were sectioned and processed for water content, organic matter (loss-on-ignition), and select cores analyzed for foraminiferal assemblages, stable isotopes and bulk metals to aid in the identification of storm events. Excess lead-210 and cesium-137 were used to develop chronologies for the cores and evaluate mass accumulation rates and sedimentation rates. Temporal variations in accumulation rates of inorganic and organic sediments were compared with shoreline and areal change rates derived from historic aerial imagery to evaluate potential changes in sediment exchange prior to, during, and following the storm. A combined geospatial and geologic approach will improve our understanding of coastal change in estuarine marsh environments, as well help refine the influence of storms on regional

  5. Impact of agricultural management on pluvial flash floods - Case study of an extreme event observed in Austria in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumassegger, Simon; Achleitner, Stefan; Kohl, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    heavily influenced by land use matches well with the observed flow patterns during the storm event in summer 2016. The results clearly indicate the ability to reduce pluvial flash flood impacts by changing agricultural management practices.

  6. Seawater-flooding events and impact on freshwater lenses of low-lying islands: Controlling factors, basic management and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Voss, Clifford I.; Johnson, Adam G.

    2017-01-01

    An unprecedented set of hydrologic observations was collected after the Dec 2008 seawater-flooding event on Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands. By two days after the seawater flooding that occurred at the beginning of dry season, the observed salinity of water withdrawn by the island’s main skimming well increased to 100% seawater concentration, but by ten days later already decreased to only 10–20% of seawater fraction. However, the damaging impact on the potability of the groundwater supply (when pumped water had concentrations above 1% seawater fraction) lasted 22 months longer. The data collected make possible analyses of the hydrologic factors that control recovery and management of the groundwater-supply quality on Roi-Namur and on similar low-lying islands.With the observed data as a guide, three-dimensional numerical-model simulation analyses reveal how recovery is controlled by the island’s hydrology. These also allow evaluation of the efficacy of basic water-quality management/mitigation alternatives and elucidate how groundwater withdrawal and timing of the seawater-flooding event affect the length of recovery. Simulations show that, as might be expected, by adding surplus captured rainwater as artificial recharge, the freshwater-lens recovery period (after which potable groundwater may again be produced) can be shortened, with groundwater salinity remaining lower even during the dry season, a period during which no artificial recharge is applied. Simulations also show that the recovery period is not lengthened appreciably by groundwater withdrawals during recovery. Simulations further show that had the flooding event occurred at the start of the wet season, the recovery period would have been about 25% (5.5 months) shorter than actually occurred during the monitored flood that occurred at the dry-season start. Finally, analyses show that artificial recharge improves freshwater-lens water quality, making possible longer

  7. Impact of Temperature Anomalies Associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole Events on Wine Grape Maturity in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, C.; Barlow, E.; Darbyshire, R.; Eckard, R.; Goodwin, I.

    2016-12-01

    Annual grapevine growth and development are intimately linked with growing season weather conditions. Shifts in circulation patterns resulting from atmospheric teleconnections to changes in sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events can alter seasonal weather across Australia. Both ENSO and IOD events tend to peak in austral spring, when vine and berry development is especially critical and susceptible to damage. To investigate the impacts of ENSO and IOD events on the Australian wine grape growing sector, historical gridded climate data and annual vineyard grape maturity data from a variety of wine growing regions was collected and analysed. The greatest impacts on grape maturity were found when La Niña and IOD positive events occurred in tandem. During these events, significantly dry and hot conditions persist throughout the wine grape growing season, suggesting that the IOD overrides the ENSO signal. These conditions lead to a rapid, compressed growing season, which can cause logistical complications during harvest and impact grape and wine quality. Warming of equatorial SSTs in the Indian Ocean are likely to enhance the amplitude of IOD positive events, which has serious implications for wine grape production in Australia, highlighting the importance of this research.

  8. Method and device for detecting impact events on a security barrier which includes a hollow rebar allowing insertion and removal of an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pies, Ross E.

    2016-03-29

    A method and device for the detection of impact events on a security barrier. A hollow rebar is farmed within a security barrier, whereby the hollow rebar is completely surrounded by the security barrier. An optical fiber passes through the interior of the hollow rebar. An optical transmitter and an optical receiver are both optically connected to the optical fiber and connected to optical electronics. The optical electronics are configured to provide notification upon the detection of an impact event at the security barrier based on the detection of disturbances within the optical fiber.

  9. Impact of emissions from the Los Angeles port region on San Diego air quality during regional transport events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Andrew P; Moore, Meagan J; Furutani, Hiroshi; Prather, Kimberly A

    2009-05-15

    Oceangoing ships emit an estimated 1.2-1.6 million metric tons (Tg) of PM10 per year and represent a significant source of air pollution to coastal communities. As shown herein, ship and other emissions near the Los Angeles and Long Beach Port region strongly influence air pollution levels in the San Diego area. During time periods with regional transport, atmospheric aerosol measurements in La Jolla, California show an increase in 0.5-1 microm sized single particles with unique signatures including soot, metals (i.e., vanadium, iron, and nickel), sulfate, and nitrate. These particles are attributed to primary emissions from residual oil sourcessuch as ships and refineries, as well as traffic in the port region, and secondary processing during transport. During regional transport events, particulate matter concentrations were 2-4 times higher than typical average concentrations from local sources, indicating the health, environmental, and climate impacts from these emission sources must be taken into consideration in the San Diego region. Unless significant regulations are imposed on shipping-related activities, these emission sources will become even more important to California air quality as cars and truck emissions undergo further regulations and residual oil sources such as shipping continue to expand.

  10. When Natural Disaster Follows Economic Downturn: The Incremental Impact of Multiple Stressor Events on Trajectories of Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, Amar D; Bonanno, George A

    2018-04-29

    To determine whether there were incremental mental health impacts, specifically on depression trajectories, as a result of the 2008 economic crisis (the Great Recession) and subsequent Hurricane Sandy. Using latent growth mixture modeling and the ORANJ BOWL dataset, we examined prospective trajectories of depression among older adults (mean age, 60.67; SD, 6.86) who were exposed to the 2 events. We also collected community economic and criminal justice data to examine their impact upon depression trajectories. Participants (N=1172) were assessed at 3 times for affect, successful aging, and symptoms of depression. We additionally assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology after Hurricane Sandy. We identified 3 prospective trajectories of depression. The majority (83.6%) had no significant change in depression from before to after these events (resilience), while 7.2% of the sample increased in depression incrementally after each event (incremental depression). A third group (9.2%) went from high to low depression symptomology following the 2 events (depressive-improving). Only those in the incremental depression group had significant PTSD symptoms following Hurricane Sandy. We identified a small group of individuals for whom the experience of multiple stressful events had an incremental negative effect on mental health outcomes. These results highlight the importance of understanding the perseveration of depression symptomology from one event to another. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 10).

  11. Estimating the Economic Impacts of a Small-Scale Sport Tourism Event: The Case of the Italo-Swiss Mountain Trail CollonTrek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Duglio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from several studies shows that small-scale sport events may have more positive repercussions for the host community than major ones in terms of both economic and social impacts. This study estimates the economic impacts on a small community derived from athletes’ expenditure at a specific small-scale sport tourism event, the Italo-Swiss mountain endurance trail CollonTrek. Even if this kind of event is considered a minor sport event, generating very limited economic activity, this study supports the hypothesis that the funds invested by the public administration are compensated for by revenue generated during the trail. In fact, according to the three analyzed scenarios (Conservative, Average and Liberal, for each euro invested by the public administration, an economic return between €17.62 and €18.92 has been estimated, and between €5.64 and €6.9 (32%–36.47% represent the direct economic return for the local community. Furthermore, in addition to the direct economic benefits, in accordance with the feedback from a sample of participants at the event (n = 180, this kind of event has positive implications in terms of future tourism for the host valley, pointing out how this kind of tourist activities has positive repercussions in terms of economic and social sustainability.

  12. Impact of TCFA on Unanticipated Ischemic Events in Medically Treated Diabetes Mellitus: Insights From the PROSPECT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedhi, Elvin; Kennedy, Mark W; Maehara, Akiko; Lansky, Alexandra J; McAndrew, Thomas C; Marso, Steven P; De Bruyne, Bernard; Serruys, Patrick W; Stone, Gregg W

    2017-04-01

    This study sought to investigate the relationship between thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFAs) on major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) arising from medically treated nonculprit lesions (NCLs) in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). MACEs occur frequently in patients with DM and ACS. The impact of plaque composition on subsequent MACEs in DM patients with ACS is unknown. In the PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree) study, using 3-vessel radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound, we analyzed the incidence of NCL-MACE in 2 propensity-matched groups according to the presence of DM and TCFA. Among 697 patients, 119 (17.7%) had DM. The 3-year total MACE rate (29.4% vs. 18.8%; p = 0.01) was significantly higher in patients with versus without DM, driven by a higher rate of NCL-MACE in DM (18.7% vs. 10.4%; p = 0.02). Propensity score matching generated 2 balanced groups with and without DM of 82 patients each. Among DM patients, the presence of ≥1 TCFA was associated with higher NCL-MACE at 3 years (27.8% vs. 8.9% in patients without a TCFA, hazard ratio: 3.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.98 to 12.96; p = 0.04). DM patients without a TCFA had a similar 3-year rate of NCL-MACE as patients without DM (8.9% vs. 8.9%; hazard ratio: 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 0.27 to 4.41; p = 0.90). ACS patients with DM and ≥1 TCFA have a high rate of NCL-MACE at 3 years. In contrast, the prognosis of ACS patients with DM but no TCFAs is favorable and similar to patients without DM. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Weather Regime-Dependent Predictability: Sequentially Linked High-Impact Weather Events over the United States during March 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosart, L. F.; Winters, A. C.; Keyser, D.

    2016-12-01

    High-impact weather events (HWEs), defined by episodes of excessive precipitation or periods of well above or well below normal temperatures, can pose important predictability challenges on medium-range (8-16 day) time scales. Furthermore, HWEs can contribute disproportionately to temperature and precipitation anomaly statistics for a particular season. This disproportionate contribution suggests that HWEs need to be considered in describing and understanding the dynamical and thermodynamic processes that operate at the weather-climate intersection. HWEs typically develop in conjunction with highly amplified flow patterns that permit an extensive latitudinal exchange of polar and tropical air masses. Highly amplified flow patterns over North America often occur in response to a reconfiguration of the large-scale upstream flow pattern over the North Pacific Ocean. The large-scale flow pattern over the North Pacific, North America, and western North Atlantic during the latter half of March 2016 was characterized by frequent cyclonic wave breaking (CWB). This large-scale flow pattern enabled three sequentially linked HWEs to develop over the continental United States. The first HWE was a challenging-to-predict cyclogenesis event on 23-24 March in the central Plains that resulted in both a major snowstorm along the Colorado Front Range and a severe weather outbreak over the central and southern Plains. The second HWE was a severe weather outbreak that occurred over the Tennessee and Ohio River Valleys on 27-28 March. The third HWE was the development of well below normal temperatures over the eastern United States that followed the formation of a high-latitude omega block over northwestern North America during 28 March-1 April. This study will examine (1) the role that CWB over the North Pacific and North America played in the evolution of the flow pattern during late-March 2016 and the development of the three HWEs and (2) the skill of GFS operational and ensemble

  14. Tourism Impacts of Three Mile Island and Other Adverse Events: Implications for Lincoln County and Other Rural Counties Bisected by Radioactive Wastes Intended for Yucca Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelberger, Jeffery J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes key research implications of Three Mile Island and other major hazard events as related to tourism. Examines how the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will impact tourism in southern Nevada and other visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportation corridors. (AIM)

  15. The impact of being involved in a medical adverse event on GP's (General Physicians) professional behavior in an ambulatory healthcare fund

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manor, Orly

    2017-01-01

    Assurance behavior: performing unnecessary tests so as to deter patients from filing complaints or medical malpractice suits Avoidance behavior: choosing to behave in a way that prevents recurrence of an unpleasant stimulus This thesis examines the impact of involvement in a medical adverse event on

  16. Eyewitness memory: The impact of a negative mood during encoding and/or retrieval upon recall of a non-emotive event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Craig; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Abel, Joseph W; Knott, Lauren M

    2016-07-01

    The police often appeal for eyewitnesses to events that were unlikely to have been emotive when observed. An eyewitness, however, may be in a negative mood whilst encoding or retrieving such events as mood can be influenced by a range of personal, social, and environmental factors. For example, bad weather can induce a negative mood. This experiment compared the impact of negative and neutral moods during encoding and/or retrieval upon eyewitness recall of a non-emotive event. A negative mood during encoding had no impact upon the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at retrieval) but a negative mood during retrieval impaired the number of correct details recalled (provided participants were in a neutral mood at encoding). A negative mood at both time points enhanced the number of correct details recalled, demonstrating a mood-dependent memory enhancement. The forensic implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Modeling transient luminous events produced by cloud to ground lightning and narrow bipolar pulses: detailed spectra and chemical impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Invernon, F. J.; Luque, A.; Gordillo-Vazquez, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    The electromagnetic field generated by lightning discharges can produce Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) in the lower ionosphere, as previously investigated by many authors. Some recent studies suggest that narrow bipolar pulses (NBP), an impulsive and not well-established type of atmospheric electrical discharge, could also produce TLEs. The characterization and observation of such TLEs could be a source of information about the physics underlying NBP. In this work, we develop two different electrodynamical models to study the impact of lightning-driven electromagnetic fields in the lower ionosphere. The first model calculates the quasi-electrostatic field produced by a single cloud to ground lightning in the terrestrial atmosphere and its influence in the electron transport. This scheme allows us to study halos, a relatively frequent type of TLE. The second model solves the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic field produced by a lightning discharge coupled with the Langevin's equation for the induced currents in the ionosphere. This model is useful to investigate elves, a fast TLE produced by lightning or by NBP. In addition, both models are coupled with a detailed chemistry of the electronically and vibrationally excited states of molecular nitrogen, allowing us to calculate synthetic spectra of both halos and elves. The models also include a detailed set of kinetic reactions to calculate the temporal evolution of other species. Our results suggest an important enhancement of some molecular species produced by halos, as NOx , N2 O and other metastable species. The quantification of their production could be useful to understand the role of thunderstorms in the climate of our planet. In the case of TLEs produced by NBP, our model confirms the appearance of double elves and allows us to compute their spectral characteristics.

  18. The impact of major life events on the use of complementary and alternative medicine among individuals with chronic pain: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Ming; Fortier, Michelle A; Cheng, David Y; Perret, Danielle; Hata, Justin; Tan, Edwin T; Kain, Zeev N

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pain affects millions of Americans. Treating chronic pain can be difficult because it is a complex condition influenced by genetic makeup and physiological and psychological factors. The experience of major life events has also been found to affect the psychosocial functioning, health, and health behaviors of patients. Whereas the impact of major life events on the use of traditional medical practices has been explored, only one study to date has examined the relationship between major life events and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This study examined the impact of major life events on the use of CAM among patients with chronic pain syndromes. Participants were consecutive patients seeking treatment at a pain clinic. The study occurred at a tertiary center for pain management in Southern California. Participants were adult patients experiencing chronic pain for at least 6 mo, seeking treatment at a pain center. Participants completed a measure assessing their use of CAM modalities as well as their receptiveness to using previously unused CAM modalities, and they provided demographic information, including the occurrence of major life events, such as a job loss. A total of 199 adults with chronic pain participated in the study. The majority (91.6%) of chronic pain patients in the study reported using at least one form of CAM, with an average of at least five different forms of CAM. Individuals reported receptiveness to CAM modalities that they had not previously used (P CAM use were greater among those that had experienced a major life event in the prior 6 mo (P chronic pain frequently use CAM therapies, especially those who had recently experienced a major life event. Major life events may motivate patients with chronic pain to seek out different forms of CAM as a way to manage their pain.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Climate-Risk and Extreme Event-Related Impacts on Well-Being and Health: Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Leal Filho

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There are various climate risks that are caused or influenced by climate change. They are known to have a wide range of physical, economic, environmental and social impacts. Apart from damages to the physical environment, many climate risks (climate variability, extreme events and climate-related hazards are associated with a variety of impacts on human well-being, health, and life-supporting systems. These vary from boosting the proliferation of vectors of diseases (e.g., mosquitos, to mental problems triggered by damage to properties and infrastructure. There is a great variety of literature about the strong links between climate change and health, while there is relatively less literature that specifically examines the health impacts of climate risks and extreme events. This paper is an attempt to address this knowledge gap, by compiling eight examples from a set of industrialised and developing countries, where such interactions are described. The policy implications of these phenomena and the lessons learned from the examples provided are summarised. Some suggestions as to how to avert the potential and real health impacts of climate risks are made, hence assisting efforts to adapt to a problem whose impacts affect millions of people around the world. All the examples studied show some degree of vulnerability to climate risks regardless of their socioeconomic status and need to increase resilience against extreme events.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Climate-Risk and Extreme Event-Related Impacts on Well-Being and Health: Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Walter Leal; Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Nagy, Gustavo J; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M; Wiesböck, Laura; Ayal, Desalegn Y; Morgan, Edward A; Mugabe, Paschal; Aparicio-Effen, Marilyn; Fudjumdjum, Hubert; Chiappetta Jabbour, Charbel Jose

    2018-02-13

    There are various climate risks that are caused or influenced by climate change. They are known to have a wide range of physical, economic, environmental and social impacts. Apart from damages to the physical environment, many climate risks (climate variability, extreme events and climate-related hazards) are associated with a variety of impacts on human well-being, health, and life-supporting systems. These vary from boosting the proliferation of vectors of diseases (e.g., mosquitos), to mental problems triggered by damage to properties and infrastructure. There is a great variety of literature about the strong links between climate change and health, while there is relatively less literature that specifically examines the health impacts of climate risks and extreme events. This paper is an attempt to address this knowledge gap, by compiling eight examples from a set of industrialised and developing countries, where such interactions are described. The policy implications of these phenomena and the lessons learned from the examples provided are summarised. Some suggestions as to how to avert the potential and real health impacts of climate risks are made, hence assisting efforts to adapt to a problem whose impacts affect millions of people around the world. All the examples studied show some degree of vulnerability to climate risks regardless of their socioeconomic status and need to increase resilience against extreme events.

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Climate-Risk and Extreme Event-Related Impacts on Well-Being and Health: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Abul Quasem; Wiesböck, Laura; Mugabe, Paschal; Aparicio-Effen, Marilyn; Fudjumdjum, Hubert; Chiappetta Jabbour, Charbel Jose

    2018-01-01

    There are various climate risks that are caused or influenced by climate change. They are known to have a wide range of physical, economic, environmental and social impacts. Apart from damages to the physical environment, many climate risks (climate variability, extreme events and climate-related hazards) are associated with a variety of impacts on human well-being, health, and life-supporting systems. These vary from boosting the proliferation of vectors of diseases (e.g., mosquitos), to mental problems triggered by damage to properties and infrastructure. There is a great variety of literature about the strong links between climate change and health, while there is relatively less literature that specifically examines the health impacts of climate risks and extreme events. This paper is an attempt to address this knowledge gap, by compiling eight examples from a set of industrialised and developing countries, where such interactions are described. The policy implications of these phenomena and the lessons learned from the examples provided are summarised. Some suggestions as to how to avert the potential and real health impacts of climate risks are made, hence assisting efforts to adapt to a problem whose impacts affect millions of people around the world. All the examples studied show some degree of vulnerability to climate risks regardless of their socioeconomic status and need to increase resilience against extreme events. PMID:29438345

  2. The ability of environmental healthcare design strategies To impact event related anxiety in paediatric patients: A comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton-Westwood, Deborah; Pearson, Alan; Robertson-Malt, Suzanne

    Background Children's' hospitals are by definition hospitals specialized in all aspects of children's care, but are they and if so, how is that achieved? Are healthcare facilities more than a 'space' in which to ask medical questions, seek answers and obtain treatment? Some suggest that the very design of a space can positively or negatively impact healing, hence the term referred to by those in the architectural community as 'healing spaces'. To date empirical studies to provide evidence to this effect, although growing in number, are still few. What is known is that hospitals, doctor's offices and dental offices alike unintentionally create an atmosphere, particularly for children, that add to an already heightened level of anxiety and fear. Designing a children's hospital, unlike a generalist facility, presents a unique and significant challenge. Those involved in designing such hospitals are faced with the opportunity and responsibility to care for and respond to the needs of children across the age spectrum; infants to toddlers, school aged children to adolescents. As healthcare professionals and architects, it is our responsibility to create healthcare facilities that are of purposeful design; anticipating and alleviating children's anxiety and fear wherever possible.Objectives The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effects of environmental design strategies in healthcare institutions such as hospitals and dental offices on event-related anxiety in the paediatric population.Inclusion Criteria This comprehensive systematic review involved children from the age of 1 to 18 years of age admitted to a healthcare facility with the primary outcomes of interest being four key design strategies: positive distraction; elimination of environmental stressors; access to social support and choice (control); and connection to nature.Search Strategy Using the Joanna Briggs defined three step search strategy, both published and unpublished studies were

  3. [Design and validation of the scales for the assessment of the psychological impact of past life events: the role of ruminative thought and personal growth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Márquez-González, María; Losada-Baltar, Andrés; García, Pablo E; Romero-Moreno, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Older people's emotional distress is often related to rumination processes focused on past vital events occurred during their lives. The specific coping strategies displayed to face those events may contribute to explain older adults' current well-being: they can perceive that they have obtained personal growth after those events and/or they can show a tendency to have intrusive thoughts about those events. This paper describes the development and analysis of the psychometric properties of the Scales for the Assessment of the Psychological Impact of Past Life Events (SAPIPLE): the past life events-occurrence scale (LE-O), ruminative thought scale (LE-R) and personal growth scale (LE-PG). Participants were 393 community dwelling elderly (mean age=71.5 years old; SD=6.9). In addition to the SAPIPLE scales, depressive symptomatology, anxiety, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, physical function and vitality have been assessed. The inter-rater agreement's analysis suggests the presence of two factors in the LE-O: positive and negative vital events. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) supported this two-dimensional structure for both the LE-R and the LE-PG. Good internal consistency indexes have been obtained for each scale and subscale, as well as good criterion and concurrent validity indexes. Both ruminative thoughts about past life events and personal growth following those events are related to older adults' current well-being. The SAPIPLE presents good psychometric properties that justify its use for elderly people. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. The Interrelation of Prayer and Worship Service Attendance in Moderating the Negative Impact of Life Event Stressors on Mental Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, G

    2017-09-13

    The interrelation of worship service attendance and private prayer in moderating the negative impact of life event stressors on mental well-being is examined using hierarchical multiple regressions on a national sample of 2601 Americans. A theoretical model is proposed in which stressful life events are made less distressing under conditions in which exposure to pro-social content at worship services is internalized through frequent private prayer. Interactive models controlling for a block of potential confounds are run to confirm that the stress-moderating effects of worship service attendance are noted only when attendance is complemented by relatively frequent engagement in private prayer.

  5. Sözcük türleri nasıl tasnif edilmelidir? How Must Parts Of Speech Categorize?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. İbrahim DELİCE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available How parts of speech must be defined and what are rudiments tocategorize them is also one of the divisive issues in Turkish grammarworks.This subject is -usually- abstracted accourding to two diffirentapproaches in classical grammar.First approach bases on ‘noun (onoma’, ‘verb (rhéma’,‘preposition (syndesmoi ’ which is Aristotle’s ascertainments aboutparts of speech. Accourding to this approach, firstly words are dealed inthe form of three diffirent categories as noun, verb, preposition.Subsequently, the nouns are diversified within themselves > (‘noun’,‘pronouns’, ‘adjective’ and ‘adverb’; the prepositions are diversifiedwithin themselves > (‘particle’, ‘conjunction’ and ‘interjection’ and theyare listed in the form of eight categories as ‘noun’, ‘pronouns’, ‘adjective’‘adverb’,‘particle’, ‘conjunction’, ‘interjection’ and verb.Second approach is a scrutiny which directly categorized in theform of eight categories as ‘noun’, ‘adjective’ ‘pronouns’,‘adverb’,‘particle’, ‘conjunction’, ‘interjection’ and verb.These categories have been made a criticism recently and it hasbeing offered new classifications of words.This article would also offer a new category basing on ten diffirentparts of speech which is firstly arranged in two main groups as lexicalmean and grammatical mean, subsequently is arranged ‘noun’,‘pronoun’, ‘adjective’, ‘adverb’, ‘main verb’ in words with lexical mean asminor groups and is arranged ‘particle’, ‘conjunction’, ‘interjection’ and‘auxiliary verb’ in words with grammatical mean as minor groups. Türk dil bilgisinin tartışmalı konularından biri de sözcük türlerinin nasıl tanımlanması ve hangi ilkeler doğrultusunda tasnif edilmesi hususudur.Bu konu, geleneksel dil bilgisinde -genelde- iki farklı yaklaşımla incelenmektedir.Bunlardan birinci yaklaşım, Aristo’nun sözcük t

  6. Impacts of droughts and extreme-temperature events on gross primary production and ecosystem respiration: a systematic assessment across ecosystems and climate zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. von Buttlar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extreme climatic events, such as droughts and heat stress, induce anomalies in ecosystem–atmosphere CO2 fluxes, such as gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Reco, and, hence, can change the net ecosystem carbon balance. However, despite our increasing understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the magnitudes of the impacts of different types of extremes on GPP and Reco within and between ecosystems remain poorly predicted. Here we aim to identify the major factors controlling the amplitude of extreme-event impacts on GPP, Reco, and the resulting net ecosystem production (NEP. We focus on the impacts of heat and drought and their combination. We identified hydrometeorological extreme events in consistently downscaled water availability and temperature measurements over a 30-year time period. We then used FLUXNET eddy covariance flux measurements to estimate the CO2 flux anomalies during these extreme events across dominant vegetation types and climate zones. Overall, our results indicate that short-term heat extremes increased respiration more strongly than they downregulated GPP, resulting in a moderate reduction in the ecosystem's carbon sink potential. In the absence of heat stress, droughts tended to have smaller and similarly dampening effects on both GPP and Reco and, hence, often resulted in neutral NEP responses. The combination of drought and heat typically led to a strong decrease in GPP, whereas heat and drought impacts on respiration partially offset each other. Taken together, compound heat and drought events led to the strongest C sink reduction compared to any single-factor extreme. A key insight of this paper, however, is that duration matters most: for heat stress during droughts, the magnitude of impacts systematically increased with duration, whereas under heat stress without drought, the response of Reco over time turned from an initial increase to a downregulation after about 2 weeks. This confirms

  7. Impacts of droughts and extreme-temperature events on gross primary production and ecosystem respiration: a systematic assessment across ecosystems and climate zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Buttlar, Jannis; Zscheischler, Jakob; Rammig, Anja; Sippel, Sebastian; Reichstein, Markus; Knohl, Alexander; Jung, Martin; Menzer, Olaf; Altaf Arain, M.; Buchmann, Nina; Cescatti, Alessandro; Gianelle, Damiano; Kiely, Gerard; Law, Beverly E.; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Margolis, Hank; McCaughey, Harry; Merbold, Lutz; Migliavacca, Mirco; Montagnani, Leonardo; Oechel, Walter; Pavelka, Marian; Peichl, Matthias; Rambal, Serge; Raschi, Antonio; Scott, Russell L.; Vaccari, Francesco P.; van Gorsel, Eva; Varlagin, Andrej; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Mahecha, Miguel D.

    2018-03-01

    Extreme climatic events, such as droughts and heat stress, induce anomalies in ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 fluxes, such as gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Reco), and, hence, can change the net ecosystem carbon balance. However, despite our increasing understanding of the underlying mechanisms, the magnitudes of the impacts of different types of extremes on GPP and Reco within and between ecosystems remain poorly predicted. Here we aim to identify the major factors controlling the amplitude of extreme-event impacts on GPP, Reco, and the resulting net ecosystem production (NEP). We focus on the impacts of heat and drought and their combination. We identified hydrometeorological extreme events in consistently downscaled water availability and temperature measurements over a 30-year time period. We then used FLUXNET eddy covariance flux measurements to estimate the CO2 flux anomalies during these extreme events across dominant vegetation types and climate zones. Overall, our results indicate that short-term heat extremes increased respiration more strongly than they downregulated GPP, resulting in a moderate reduction in the ecosystem's carbon sink potential. In the absence of heat stress, droughts tended to have smaller and similarly dampening effects on both GPP and Reco and, hence, often resulted in neutral NEP responses. The combination of drought and heat typically led to a strong decrease in GPP, whereas heat and drought impacts on respiration partially offset each other. Taken together, compound heat and drought events led to the strongest C sink reduction compared to any single-factor extreme. A key insight of this paper, however, is that duration matters most: for heat stress during droughts, the magnitude of impacts systematically increased with duration, whereas under heat stress without drought, the response of Reco over time turned from an initial increase to a downregulation after about 2 weeks. This confirms earlier theories that

  8. Impact of non-migrating tides on the low latitude ionosphere during a sudden stratospheric warming event in January 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, S. E.; Sassi, F.; Tate, J.; McCormack, J.; Kuhl, D. D.; Drob, D. P.; Metzler, C.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2018-06-01

    The lower atmosphere contributes significantly to the day-to-day variability of the ionosphere, especially during solar minimum conditions. Ionosphere/atmosphere model simulations that incorporate meteorology from data assimilation analysis products can be critically important for elucidating the physical processes that have substantial impact on ionospheric weather. In this study, the NCAR Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, extended version with specified dynamics (SD-WACCM-X) is coupled with an ionospheric model (Sami3 is Another Model of the Ionosphere) to study day-to-day variability in the ionosphere during January 2010. Lower atmospheric weather patterns are introduced into the SAMI3/SD-WACCM-X simulations using the 6-h Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System-Advanced Level Physics High Altitude (NOGAPS-ALPHA) data assimilation products. The same time period is simulated using the new atmospheric forecast model, the High Altitude Navy Global Environmental Model (HA-NAVGEM), a hybrid 4D-Var prototype data assimilation with the ability to produce meteorological fields at a 3-h cadence. Our study shows that forcing SD-WACCM-X with HA-NAVGEM better resolves the semidiurnal tides and introduces more day-to-day variability into the ionosphere than forcing with NOGAPS-ALPHA. The SAMI3/SD-WACCM-X/HA-NAVGEM simulation also more accurately captures the longitudinal variability associated with non-migrating tides in the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) region as compared to total electron content (TEC) maps derived from GPS data. Both the TEC maps and the SAMI3/SD-WACCM-X/HA-NAVGEM simulation show an enhancement in TEC over South America during 17-21 January 2010, which coincides with the commencement of a stratospheric warming event on 19 January 2010. Analysis of the SAMI3/SD-WACCM-X/HA-NAVGEM simulations indicates non-migrating tides (including DW4, DE2 and SW5) played a role during 17-21 January in shifting the phase of the wave-3 pattern in

  9. The impact of GI events on persistence and adherence to osteoporosis treatment: 3-, 6-, and 12-month findings in the MUSIC-OS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, A; Sen, S; Adachi, J D; Adami, S; Cortet, B; Cooper, A L; Geusens, P; Mellström, D; Weaver, J P; van den Bergh, J P; Keown, P; Sajjan, S

    2018-02-01

    The goal of this multinational, prospective, observational study was to examine the relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) events and self-reported levels of medication adherence and persistence in postmenopausal women. A total of 73.9% of patients remained on their osteoporosis (OP) therapy at month 12, although the presence of a GI event at baseline, month 3, and month 6 significantly reduced month 12 persistence among new users. The odds of a month-12 ADEOS score ≥ 20 were significantly lower among patients who experienced a GI event between baseline and month 6. The occurrence of GI events was observed to be associated with a lower likelihood of patient adherence and persistence to OP medication. This study examines the relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) events and self-reported adherence and persistence with initial osteoporosis (OP) therapy over the course of the first 12 months of treatment. The Medication Use Patterns, Treatment Satisfaction, and Inadequate Control of Osteoporosis Study was a multinational, prospective, observational study examining the impact of GI events on OP management in postmenopausal women. Information regarding GI events was collected at the time of enrollment and at months 3, 6, and 12 of follow-up. Patients reported GI events and medication persistence and completed the 12-item Adherence Evaluation of Osteoporosis treatment (ADEOS) questionnaire. Multivariate logistic and general linear models examined the association between GI events at various time points and persistence and adherence at month 12. The study enrolled 2943 women; 22.8% were classified as new users of OP therapy and the remainder were considered experienced users. Across all patients, 68.1% reported GI events at baseline; by month 12, over 80% of subjects who completed follow-up reported at least one GI problem. The majority of patients (86.7%) were treated only with bisphosphonates at baseline. At month 12, 73.9% of patients remained on therapy

  10. Anomalous intraseasonal events in the thermocline ridge region of Southern Tropical Indian Ocean and their regional impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, A.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2012-03-01

    The present study explores the mechanisms responsible for the strong intraseasonal cooling events in the Thermocline Ridge region of the southwestern Indian Ocean. Air sea interface and oceanic processes associated with Madden Julian Oscillation are studied using an Ocean General Circulation Model and satellite observations. Sensitivity experiments are designed to understand the ocean response to intraseasonal forcing with a special emphasis on 2002 cooling events, which recorded the strongest intraseasonal perturbations during the last well-observed decade. This event is characterized by anomalous Walker circulation over the tropical Indian Ocean and persistent intraseasonal heat flux anomaly for a longer duration than is typical for similar events (but without any favorable preconditioning of ocean basic state at the interannual timescale). The model heat budget analysis during 1996 to 2007 revealed an in-phase relationship between atmospheric fluxes associated with Madden Julian Oscillation and the subsurface oceanic processes during the intense cooling events of 2002. The strong convection, reduced shortwave radiation and increased evaporation have contributed to the upper ocean heat loss in addition to the slower propagation of active phase of convection, which supported the integration of longer duration of forcing. The sensitivity experiments revealed that dynamic response of ocean through entrainment at the intraseasonal timescale primarily controls the biological response during the event, with oceanic interannual variability playing a secondary role. This study further speculates the role of oceanic intraseasonal variability in the 2002 droughts over Indian subcontinent.

  11. The impact of post-event information on study-related memories: an exploration of the roles of judgemental anchoring, specific expectations about change, and motivational influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmeier, Peter; Jaeger, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    We explored how well common theories about the impact of post-event information on memories explain recollections that occur naturally in university students' study routines. Instead of starting from a familiar research paradigm, such as those used in hindsight-bias research, the present study used a situation common to university students, and examined how well three candidate explanations--judgemental anchoring, implicit theories of change, and motivational influences--could explain the results we obtained in a long-term memory study that included three sessions, six months apart. We found that about two thirds of the memories of study-related issues were indeed biased, and that the impact of post-event information being used as an anchor is the most plausible explanation for the results. There were also some indications that memory biases might have been due, at least in part, to motivational factors.

  12. Tourism impacts of Three Mile Island and other adverse events: implications for Lincoln County and other rural counties bisected by radioactive wastes intended for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himmelberger, J.J.; Baughman, M.; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    Whether the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will adversely impact tourism in southern Nevada is an open question of particular importance to visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportation corridors (highway or rail). As part of one such county's repository impact assessment program, tourism implications of Three Mile Island (TMI) and other major hazard events have been revisited to inform ongoing county-wide socioeconomic assessments and contingency planning efforts. This paper summarizes key research implications of such research as applied to Lincoln County, Nevada. Implications for other rural counties are discussed in light of the research findings

  13. Tourism impacts of Three Mile Island and other adverse events: Implications for Lincoln County and other rural counties bisected by radioactive wastes intended for Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himmelberger, J.J.; Ogneva-Himmelberger, Y.A. [Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States); Baughman, M. [Interech Services Corporation, Carson City, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Whether the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will adversely impact tourism in southern Nevada is an open question of particular importance to visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportation corridors (highway or rail). As part of one such county`s repository impact assessment program, tourism implications of Three Mile Island (TMI) and other major hazard events have been revisited to inform ongoing county-wide socioeconomic assessments and contingency planning efforts. This paper summarizes key research implications of such research as applied to Lincoln County, Nevada. Implications for other rural counties are discussed in light of the research findings. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Evidence for a Meteoritic Component in Impact Melt Rock from the Chicxulub Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeberl, Christian; Sharpton, Virgil L.; Schuraytz, Benjamin C.; Shirey, Steven B.; Blum, Joel D.; Marin, Luis E.

    1994-01-01

    The Chicxulub structure in Yucatan, Mexico, has recently been recognized as a greater then 200-km-diameter multi-ring impact crater of K-T boundary age. Crystalline impact melt rocks and breccias from within the crater, which have compositions similar to those of normal continental crustal rocks and which show shock metamorphic effects, have been studied for trace element and Re-Os isotope compositions. Re-Os isotope systematics allow the sensitive and selective determination of an extraterrestrial component in impact-derived rocks. A melt rock sample shows elevated iridium concentrations, an osmium concentration of 25 ppb, and a low Os-187/Os-188 ratio of 0.113, which are incompatible with derivation from the continental crust. Even though the Os-187/Os-188 ratio is slightly lower than the range so far measured in meteorites, a mantle origin seems unlikely for mass balance reasons and because the cratering event is unlikely to have excavated mantle material. The data support the hypothesis of a heterogeneously distributed meteoritic component in the Chicxulub melt rock. A sample of impact glass from the Haitian K-T boundary at Beloc yielded about 0.1 ppb osmium and an Os-187/0s-188 ratio of 0.251, indicating the presence of a small meteoritic component in the impact ejecta as well.

  15. Impact of gastrointestinal events on patient-reported outcomes in Asia-Pacific women with osteoporosis: baseline results of the MUSIC OS-AP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, A; Ebeling, P R; Lee, M S; Min, Y K; Mithal, A; Yang, X; Baidya, S; Sen, S; Sajjan, S

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of gastrointestinal events on patient-reported outcomes and health care resource use among Asia-Pacific women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The results of this study show that gastrointestinal events decreased adherence, treatment satisfaction, and quality of life in Asia-Pacific women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study aimed to describe the impact of gastrointestinal (GI) events on patient-reported outcomes and health care resource use among Asia-Pacific women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The MUSIC OS-AP study included an observational cohort study of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Women were classified as untreated or treated, with treated patients further classified as new or experienced users. Adherence was measured by the Adherence Evaluation of Osteoporosis treatment (ADEOS) questionnaire, treatment satisfaction by the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (OPSAT) while general health-related and osteoporosis-specific quality of life were measured by the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire and the Osteoporosis Assessment Questionnaire (OPAQ), respectively. The association of GI events with these outcomes was determined by covariate-adjusted regression analysis of least squares mean differences in the scores of treated patients with and without GI events. Resource utilization was measured as the number of physician visits over the past 3 months, and multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the association of GI events with the likelihood of a visit. The GI event profile, quality of life scores, and resource use were numerically similar in untreated and treated women. The rate of adherence among treated women was higher in experienced than in new users. As indicated by mean scores, experienced users had better quality of life and slightly higher treatment satisfaction and fewer physician visits than new users. Except for adherence in

  16. Two Extreme Climate Events of the Last 1000 Years Recorded in Himalayan and Andean Ice Cores: Impacts on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Davis, M. E.; Kenny, D. V.; Lin, P.

    2013-12-01

    In the last few decades numerous studies have linked pandemic influenza, cholera, malaria, and viral pneumonia, as well as droughts, famines and global crises, to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Two annually resolved ice core records, one from Dasuopu Glacier in the Himalaya and one from the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the tropical Peruvian Andes provide an opportunity to investigate these relationships on opposite sides of the Pacific Basin for the last 1000 years. The Dasuopu record provides an annual history from 1440 to 1997 CE and a decadally resolved record from 1000 to 1440 CE while the Quelccaya ice core provides annual resolution over the last 1000 years. Major ENSO events are often recorded in the oxygen isotope, insoluble dust, and chemical records from these cores. Here we investigate outbreaks of diseases, famines and global crises during two of the largest events recorded in the chemistry of these cores, particularly large peaks in the concentrations of chloride (Cl-) and fluoride (Fl-). One event is centered on 1789 to 1800 CE and the second begins abruptly in 1345 and tapers off after 1360 CE. These Cl- and F- peaks represent major droughts and reflect the abundance of continental atmospheric dust, derived in part from dried lake beds in drought stricken regions upwind of the core sites. For Dasuopu the likely sources are in India while for Quelccaya the sources would be the Andean Altiplano. Both regions are subject to drought conditions during the El Niño phase of the ENSO cycle. These two events persist longer (10 to 15 years) than today's typical ENSO events in the Pacific Ocean Basin. The 1789 to 1800 CE event was associated with a very strong El Niño event and was coincidental with the Boji Bara famine resulting from extended droughts that led to over 600,000 deaths in central India by 1792. Similarly extensive droughts are documented in Central and South America. Likewise, the 1345 to 1360 CE event, although poorly documented

  17. The impact of different emotional states on the memory for what, where and when features of specific events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Preusser, Friederike; Totzeck, Christina; Dere, Ekrem; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    Emotions can modulate the encoding and recollection of personal events. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different emotional states (pleasant, neutral or anxious) on episodic memory formation in a virtual reality (VR) setting. Emotional states were induced by pleasant, neutral or anxiety-inducing movie clips prior to the presentation of specific events in a VR scenario. Episodic memory performance of healthy participants in whom an anxious emotional state had been induced was inferior to those of the neutral and pleasant conditions. In the anxious condition, participants were particularly impaired regarding their memory for the location of events. A correlational analysis indicated that high levels of negative arousal were associated with poor memory for the temporal and spatial context of events. In contrast, high levels of happiness were associated with better memory for the spatial context of events. Our data provide evidence that emotional arousal can modulate memory for what happened, where and when. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Who uses foodbanks and why? Exploring the impact of financial strain and adverse life events on food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayogo, E; Chater, A; Chapman, S; Barker, M; Rahmawati, N; Waterfall, T; Grimble, G

    2017-11-14

    Rising use of foodbanks highlights food insecurity in the UK. Adverse life events (e.g. unemployment, benefit delays or sanctions) and financial strains are thought to be the drivers of foodbank use. This research aimed to explore who uses foodbanks, and factors associated with increased food insecurity. We surveyed those seeking help from front line crisis providers from foodbanks (N = 270) and a comparison group from Advice Centres (ACs) (N = 245) in relation to demographics, adverse life events, financial strain and household food security. About 55.9% of foodbank users were women and the majority were in receipt of benefits (64.8%). Benefit delays (31.9%), changes (11.1%) and low income (19.6%) were the most common reasons given for referral. Compared to AC users, there were more foodbank users who were single men without children, unemployed, currently homeless, experiencing more financial strain and adverse life events (P = 0.001). Food insecurity was high in both populations, and more severe if they also reported financial strain and adverse life events. Benefit-related problems appear to be a key reason for foodbank referral. By comparison with other disadvantaged groups, foodbank users experienced more financial strain, adverse life events, both increased the severity of food insecurity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Event- and time-triggered remembering: the impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on prospective memory performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Karley-Dale S; Kerns, Kimberly A

    2014-11-01

    The current study examined prospective memory (PM, both time-based and event-based) and time estimation (TR, a time reproduction task) in children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study also investigated the influence of task performance and TR on time-based PM in children with ADHD relative to controls. A sample of 69 children, aged 8 to 13 years, completed the CyberCruiser-II time-based PM task, a TR task, and the Super Little Fisherman event-based PM task. PM performance was compared with children's TR abilities, parental reports of daily prospective memory disturbances (Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire for Children, PRMQC), and ADHD symptomatology (Conner's rating scales). Children with ADHD scored more poorly on event-based PM, time-based PM, and TR; interestingly, TR did not appear related to performance on time-based PM. In addition, it was found that PRMQC scores and ADHD symptom severity were related to performance on the time-based PM task but not to performance on the event-based PM task. These results provide some limited support for theories that propose a distinction between event-based PM and time-based PM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing stress-related treatment needs among girls at risk for poor functional outcomes: The impact of cumulative adversity, criterion traumas, and non-criterion events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, Amy E; Plante, Wendy Y; Beck, Audrey N

    2017-05-01

    Despite growing recognition that cumulative adversity (total stressor exposure, including complex trauma), increases the risk for psychopathology and impacts development, assessment strategies lag behind: Adversity-related mental health needs (symptoms, functional impairment, maladaptive coping) are typically assessed in response to only one qualifying Criterion-A traumatic event. This is especially problematic for youth at-risk for health and academic disparities who experience cumulative adversity, including non-qualifying events (separation from caregivers) which may produce more impairing symptomatology. Data from 118 delinquent girls demonstrate: (1) an average of 14 adverse Criterion-A and non-Criterion event exposures; (2) serious maladaptive coping strategies (self-injury) directly in response to cumulative adversity; (3) more cumulative adversity-related than worst-event related symptomatology and functional impairment; and (4) comparable symptomatology, but greater functional impairment, in response to non-Criterion events. These data support the evaluation of mental health needs in response to cumulative adversity for optimal identification and tailoring of services in high-risk populations to reduce disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential impact of single-risk-factor versus total risk management for the prevention of cardiovascular events in Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndindjock, Roger; Gedeon, Jude; Mendis, Shanthi; Paccaud, Fred; Bovet, Pascal

    2011-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in Seychelles, a middle-income African country, and compare the cost-effectiveness of single-risk-factor management (treating individuals with arterial blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg and/or total serum cholesterol ≥ 6.2 mmol/l) with that of management based on total CV risk (treating individuals with a total CV risk ≥ 10% or ≥ 20%). CV risk factor prevalence and a CV risk prediction chart for Africa were used to estimate the 10-year risk of suffering a fatal or non-fatal CV event among individuals aged 40-64 years. These figures were used to compare single-risk-factor management with total risk management in terms of the number of people requiring treatment to avert one CV event and the number of events potentially averted over 10 years. Treatment for patients with high total CV risk (≥ 20%) was assumed to consist of a fixed-dose combination of several drugs (polypill). Cost analyses were limited to medication. A total CV risk of ≥ 10% and ≥ 20% was found among 10.8% and 5.1% of individuals, respectively. With single-risk-factor management, 60% of adults would need to be treated and 157 cardiovascular events per 100000 population would be averted per year, as opposed to 5% of adults and 92 events with total CV risk management. Management based on high total CV risk optimizes the balance between the number requiring treatment and the number of CV events averted. Total CV risk management is much more cost-effective than single-risk-factor management. These findings are relevant for all countries, but especially for those economically and demographically similar to Seychelles.

  2. Impact of traditional and novel risk factors on the relationship between socioeconomic status and incident cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michelle A; Glynn, Robert J; Buring, Julie; Ridker, Paul M

    2006-12-12

    Persons of lower socioeconomic status have greater cardiovascular risk than those of higher socioeconomic status. However, the mechanism through which socioeconomic status affects cardiovascular disease (CVD) is uncertain. Virtually no data are available that examine the prospective association between novel inflammatory and hemostatic CVD risk indicators, socioeconomic status, and incident CVD events. We assessed the relationship between 2 indicators of socioeconomic status (education and income), traditional and novel CVD risk factors (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, fibrinogen, and homocysteine), and incident CVD events among 22,688 apparently healthy female health professionals participating in the Women's Health Study. These women were followed up for 10 years for the development of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, coronary revascularization, and cardiovascular death. More educated women were less likely to be smokers; had a lower prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity; and were more likely to participate in vigorous physical activity than less educated women. At baseline, median total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, C-reactive protein, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, fibrinogen, and homocysteine levels for women in 5 categories of education (master's degree, and a doctoral degree) and 6 categories of income [ or = 100,000 dollars) decreased progressively with increasing education or income levels (all Prisk of incident CVD events decreased with increasing education (1.0, 0.7, 0.5, 0.4, and 0.5; P for trend risk factors on the relationship between education/income and CVD events, the relative hazard of incident CVD associated with a 1-category-higher level of education changed from 0.79 in age- and race-adjusted analysis to 0.89 in fully adjusted analysis. The 11% lower risk per 1 category of education remained significant (P for trend=0.006), suggesting that controlling

  3. Topics in the Measurement of Top Quark Events with ATLAS Pixel Detector Optoelectronics, Track Impact Parameter Calibration, Acceptance Correction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Sandvoss, Stephan Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents methods, which can be applied especially to the measurement of top quark events with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN. Contributions to three fields were made: installation of the detector and its commissioning, data calibration and first physical analysis.

  4. Bagging grey swans : A supply network approach to identifying and managing low-probability high-impact supply chain events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossetti, Christian; Akkermans, Henk; Bhakoo, Vikram; Carnovale, Steven

    Over the past decade practitioners and researchers have become increasingly focused on managing risks in extended supply chains. Whether these risks involve supply disruptions, financial liabilities for a supplier’s actions, or large market shifts; Grey Swan events, defined as unforeseen

  5. Where is the greatest impact of uncontrolled HIV infection on AIDS and non-AIDS events in HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Laut, Kamilla; Reiss, Peter

    2018-01-01

    , viral load ≥10,000 copies/ml], low risk [CD4 ≥500/mm, viral load events. RESULTS: 16839...... differences in patient management as well as underlying socioeconomic circumstances. The difference between those at high, intermediate and low risk of non-AIDS ≥2013 likely reflects better quality of care....

  6. Impact of Childhood Life Events and Childhood Trauma on the Onset and Recurrence of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Spinhoven, Philip; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the onset and recurrence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders over a 2-year period in participants without current psychopathology at baseline. Method: Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants without

  7. The transition to adulthood: A game changer? Panel analyses of the impact of major life events on sport participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, J.M.A. van

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated changes in and differences between the sport participation of individuals during the transition to adulthood, and the role of major life events that mark this transition. We employ a neo-Weberian theoretical framework related to changes in temporal and social resources

  8. Potentially disruptive life events: what are the immediate impacts on chronic disease management? A case-crossover analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffenburger, Julie C; Gagne, Joshua J; Song, Zirui; Brill, Gregory; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2016-08-04

    To explore the association between unexpected potentially disruptive life events in a patient or family member that may challenge an individual's ability to take medications as prescribed and the discontinuation of evidence-based medications for common, chronic conditions. Understanding the relationship between medication adherence and life stressors, especially those that can be identified using administrative data, may help identify patients at risk of non-adherence. Observational self-controlled case-crossover design. Individuals in a nationally representative US commercial health insurance database. Adult individuals who initiated an oral hypoglycaemic, antihypertensive and/or statin and subsequently stopped the medication for ≥90 days. Potentially disruptive life events among patients and their family members measured in the 30 days just before the medication was discontinued ('hazard period') compared with the 30 days before this period ('control period'). These events included personal injury, hospitalisation, emergency room visits, changes in insurance coverage, acute stress or acute anxiety. Among the 326 519 patients meeting study criteria who discontinued their chronic disease medications, 88 896 (27.2%) experienced at least one potentially disruptive life event. Newly experiencing an injury (OR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.42), an emergency room visit (OR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.26) and acute stress (OR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.31) were associated with discontinuation. Life events among patients' family members did not appear to be associated with medication discontinuation or occurred less frequently just prior to discontinuation. Potentially disruptive life events among individuals identified using routinely collected claims data are associated with discontinuation of chronic disease medications. Awareness of these events may help providers or payers identify patients at risk of non-adherence to maximise patient outcomes. Published by the BMJ

  9. Impacts of Extreme Space Weather Events on Power Grid Infrastructure: Physics-Based Modelling of Geomagnetically-Induced Currents (GICs) During Carrington-Class Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M. G.; Bent, R.; Chen, Y.; Delzanno, G. L.; Jeffery, C. A.; Jordanova, V. K.; Morley, S.; Rivera, M. K.; Toth, G.; Welling, D. T.; Woodroffe, J. R.; Engel, M.

    2017-12-01

    Large geomagnetic storms can have devastating effects on power grids. The largest geomagnetic storm ever recorded - called the Carrington Event - occurred in 1859 and produced Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) strong enough to set fires in telegraph offices. It has been estimated that if such a storm occurred today, it would have devastating, long-lasting effects on the North American power transmission infrastructure. Acutely aware of this imminent threat, the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) was recently instructed to establish requirements for transmission system performance during geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) events and, although the benchmarks adopted were based on the best available data at the time, they suffer from a severely limited physical understanding of the behavior of GMDs and the resulting GICs for strong events. To rectify these deficiencies, we are developing a first-of-its-kind data-informed modelling capability that will provide transformational understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms responsible for the most harmful intense localized GMDs and their impacts on real power transmission networks. This work is being conducted in two separate modes of operation: (1) using historical, well-observed large storm intervals for which robust data-assimilation can be performed, and (2) extending the modelling into a predictive realm in order to assess impacts of poorly and/or never-before observed Carrington-class events. Results of this work are expected to include a potential replacement for the current NERC benchmarking methodology and the development of mitigation strategies in real power grid networks. We report on progress to date and show some preliminary results of modeling large (but not yet extreme) events.

  10. Impact of the Assimilation of Hyperspectral Infrared Retrieved Profiles on Advanced Weather and Research Model Simulations of a Non-Convective Wind Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, E. B.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Folmer, M. J.; Jedlovec, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-convective wind events commonly occur with passing extratropical cyclones and have significant societal and economic impacts. Since non-convective winds often occur in the absence of specific phenomena such as a thunderstorm, tornado, or hurricane, the public are less likely to heed high wind warnings and continue daily activities. Thus non-convective wind events result in as many fatalities as straight line thunderstorm winds. One physical explanation for non-convective winds includes tropopause folds. Improved model representation of stratospheric air and associated non-convective wind events could improve non-convective wind forecasts and associated warnings. In recent years, satellite data assimilation has improved skill in forecasting extratropical cyclones; however errors still remain in forecasting the position and strength of extratropical cyclones as well as the tropopause folding process. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of assimilating satellite temperature and moisture retrieved profiles from hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounders (i.e. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS), and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)) on the model representation of the tropopause fold and an associated high wind event that impacted the Northeast United States on 09 February 2013. Model simulations using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW) were conducted on a 12-km grid with cycled data assimilation mimicking the operational North American Model (NAM). The results from the satellite assimilation run are compared to a control experiment (without hyperspectral IR retrievals), 32-km North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) interpolated to a 12-km grid, and 13-km Rapid Refresh analyses.

  11. Impact of the Assimilation of Hyperspectral Infrared Profiles on Advanced Weather and Research Model Simulations of a Non-Convective Wind Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily B.; Zavodsky, Bradley T; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Elmer, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Non-convective wind events commonly occur with passing extratropical cyclones and have significant societal and economic impacts. Since non-convective winds often occur in the absence of specific phenomena such as a thunderstorm, tornado, or hurricane, the public are less likely to heed high wind warnings and continue daily activities. Thus non-convective wind events result in as many fatalities as straight line thunderstorm winds. One physical explanation for non-convective winds includes tropopause folds. Improved model representation of stratospheric air and associated non-convective wind events could improve non-convective wind forecasts and associated warnings. In recent years, satellite data assimilation has improved skill in forecasting extratropical cyclones; however errors still remain in forecasting the position and strength of extratropical cyclones as well as the tropopause folding process. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of assimilating satellite temperature and moisture retrieved profiles from hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounders (i.e. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS), and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)) on the model representation of the tropopause fold and an associated high wind event that impacted the Northeast United States on 09 February 2013. Model simulations using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW) were conducted on a 12-km grid with cycled data assimilation mimicking the operational North American Model (NAM). The results from the satellite assimilation run are compared to a control experiment (without hyperspectral IR retrievals), North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) reanalysis, and Rapid Refresh analyses.

  12. The Impact of the Assimilation of Hyperspectral Infrared Retrieved Profiles on Advanced Weather and Research Model Simulations of a Non-Convective Wind Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary; Elmer, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Non-convective wind events commonly occur with passing extratropical cyclones and have significant societal and economic impacts. Since non-convective winds often occur in the absence of specific phenomena such as a thunderstorm, tornado, or hurricane, the public are less likely to heed high wind warnings and continue daily activities. Thus non-convective wind events result in as many fatalities as straight line thunderstorm winds. One physical explanation for non-convective winds includes tropopause folds. Improved model representation of stratospheric air and associated non-convective wind events could improve non-convective wind forecasts and associated warnings. In recent years, satellite data assimilation has improved skill in forecasting extratropical cyclones; however errors still remain in forecasting the position and strength of extratropical cyclones as well as the tropopause folding process. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of assimilating satellite temperature and moisture retrieved profiles from hyperspectral infrared (IR) sounders (i.e. Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cross-track Infrared and Microwave Sounding Suite (CrIMSS), and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)) on the model representation of the tropopause fold and an associated high wind event that impacted the Northeast United States on 09 February 2013. Model simulations using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model (ARW) were conducted on a 12-km grid with cycled data assimilation mimicking the operational North American Model (NAM). The results from the satellite assimilation run are compared to a control experiment (without hyperspectral IR retrievals), Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis, and Rapid Refresh analyses.

  13. Insights into a dust event transported through Beijing in spring 2012: Morphology, chemical composition and impact on surface aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Niu, Hongya [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Key Laboratory of Resource Exploration Research of Hebei Province, Hebei University of Engineering, Handan, Hebei 056038 (China); Zhang, Daizhou [Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Wu, Zhijun [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Chen, Chen [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center, Beijing 100044 (China); Wu, Yusheng; Shang, Dongjie [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hu, Min, E-mail: minhu@pku.edu.cn [State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Multiple approaches were used to investigate the evolution of surface aerosols in Beijing during the passage of a dust event at high altitude, which was from the Gobi areas of southern Mongolia and covered a wide range of North China. Single particle analysis with electron microscope showed that the majority of coarse particles were mineral ones, and most of them were in the size range of 1–7 μm with a peak of number concentration at about 3.5 μm. Based on elemental composition and morphology, the mineral particles could be classified into several groups, including Si-rich (71%), Ca-rich (15%), Fe-rich (6%), and halite-rich (2%), etc., and they were the main contributors to the aerosol optical depth as the dust occurred. The size distributions of surface aerosols were significantly affected by the dust intrusion. The average number concentration of accumulation mode particles during the event was about 400 cm{sup −3}, which was much lower than that in heavily polluted days (6300 cm{sup −3}). At the stage of floating dust, the number concentration of accumulation mode particles decreased, and coarse particles contributed to total volume concentration of particulate matter as much as 90%. The accumulation mode particles collected in this stage were mostly in the size range of 0.2–0.5 μm, and were rectangular or spherical. They were considered to be particles consisting of ammonium sulfate. New particle formation (NPF) was observed around noon in the three days during the dust event, indicating that the passage of the dust was probably favorable for NPF. - Highlights: • A dust event transported at high altitude through Beijing was investigated. • The dust event caused high variation in surface aerosol number concentrations. • Fine particles in the floating dust period probably consisted of ammonium sulfate. • Passage of the dust induced a favorable condition for new particle formation.

  14. Impact of Azithromycin on Pregnancy Prolongation in Women at Risk of Preterm Labor: A Time-to-Event Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, Isabell