WorldWideScience

Sample records for k-9 traffic safety

  1. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  2. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the reason

  3. 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... death in the United States. 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index January 2014 607 14th Street, NW, Suite ... org | 202-638-5944 Title 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index (January 2014) About the Sponsor AAA Foundation ...

  4. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kind of road user. 1 2 3 4 Traffic Safety News Distracted driving fines are up, but ... detailed data regarding when, where, and how much people drive and goes beyond existing federal data. Research ...

  5. Outer Space Traffic Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Paul B.

    2013-09-01

    Management of traffic in outer space is a major safety problem. Traffic is increasing. Most satellites are navigable but they have to co-exist with space debris which is not navigable. We need minimum safety rules for outer space traffic. We have the possible beginnings of international safety standards in the form of national space object tracking; Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) standardization through ICAO and the International Committee on GNSS (ICG); the IADC space debris guidelines; and the proposed Code of Conduct. However, safety could be improved by standards for such activities as licensing launches of satellites into outer space; standards for accident investigation and search and rescue: operational safety zones around space objects such as the International Space Station. This paper describes legal authority for minimum safety standards. It considers safety standards established by private agreements among commercial operators. Finally it examines a number of options for an international forum to establish safety standards, including self-regulation, COPUOS, ICAO, ITU, a space code of conduct, and a new space organization.

  6. Dose- and time- effect responses of DNA methylation and histone H3K9 acetylation changes induced by traffic-related air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Jin, Yongtang; Liu, Xinneng; Ye, Huaizhuang; Zhu, Ziyi; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Ting; Xu, Yinchun

    2017-01-01

    As an important risk factor of respiratory disorders, traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) has caused extensive concerns. Epigenetic change has been considered a link between TRAP and respiratory diseases. However, the exact effects of TRAP on epigenetic changes are still unclear. Here we investigated the dose- and time- effect responses of TRAP on DNA methylations and H3K9 acetylation (H3K9ac) in both blood and lung tissues of rats. The findings showed that every 1 μg/m3 increase of TRAP components were associated with changes in %5 mC (95% CI) in LINE-1, iNOS, p16CDKN2A, and APC ranging from −0.088% (−0.150, −0.026) to 0.102 (0.049, 0.154), as well as 0.276 (0.053, 0.498) to 0.475 (0.103, 0.848) ng/mg increase of H3K9ac. In addition, every 1 more day exposure at high level of TRAP (in tunnel) also significantly changed the levels of DNA methylation (ranging from −0.842% to 0.248%) and H3K9ac (16.033 and 15.718 ng/mg pro in PBMC and lung tissue, respectively) changes. Season and/or sex could interact with air pollutants in affecting DNA methylation and H3K9ac. The findings showed that TRAP exposure is dose- and time- dependently associated with the changes of DNA methylation and H3K9ac. PMID:28256616

  7. [Comics for traffic education: evaluation of a traffic safety campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfadelli, H

    1989-01-01

    Traffic safety campaigns often are ineffective to change driving behavior because they don't reach the target group or are recognized only by people who are already interested or concerned. The evaluation of a traffic safety campaign called "Leo Lässig", addressed to young new drivers, shows that recognition and acceptance by the target group were stimulated by the age-conform means of comic-strips.

  8. Highway Traffic Safety Manpower Functions Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ronald D.; And Others

    The purpose of the project, "Revision and Update of Traffic Safety Manpower Training Program Development Guide," was to develop the HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY MANPOWER FUNCTIONS GUIDE. This document provides an organizational schema illustrating the functions essential to be performed and the interrelationship of these functions to carry out…

  9. Study on Traffic Thematic Maps Based on MapGIS K9 and Image Fusion%基于影像融合的MapGIS K9交通专题图制作研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁媛; 向怀坤; 张文绩

    2014-01-01

    研究将全色影像和多光谱影像在MapGIS K9遥感影像处理平台进行融合的方法,使融合后的影像既有正确的投影信息又有丰富的色彩和较高的空间分辨率.以融合后的影像为底图,研究利用MapGIS K9制作交通专题图的方法.

  10. Pedalcylists. Traffic Safety Facts, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on traffic accidents involving U.S. bicyclists. Data include: (1) trends in pedalcyclist and total traffic fatalities, 1990-2000; (2) non-occupant traffic fatalities, 1990-2000; (3) pedalcyclists killed and injured, and fatality and injury rates, by age and sex, 2000; and (4) pedalcyclist traffic…

  11. Indiana Criminal Justice Institute Traffic Safety Division

    OpenAIRE

    Klitzsch, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Traffic safety is important for a local community’s protection, health, and economic well-being. There are a variety of options available to communities that can help improve traffic safety and meet needs which, ideally, should be based on data that is specific to the area. We will discuss where a variety of data can be found and used by everyone from community members to engineers in order to improve traffic safety. Some of the options that will be discussed in this presentation are grant op...

  12. An analysis of the traffic safety phenomenon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E. & Kranenburg, A.

    1982-01-01

    The lack of traffic safety is a combination of the critical coincidence of circumstances in the traffic of incidents (near-accidents) and accidents with unwanted (permanent) consequences, such as fatalities, injured and disabled persons and material damage. This definition covers the whole of the cr

  13. 77 FR 24560 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electric Vehicle Safety Technical Symposium AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of public symposium. SUMMARY: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is announcing...

  14. Intelligent Model for Traffic Safety Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chellappan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents an analysis on road traffic system focused on the use of communications to detect dangerous vehicles on roads and highways and how it could be used to enhance driver safety. Approach: The intelligent traffic safety application model is based on all traffic flow theories developed in the last years, leading to reliable representations of road traffic, which is of major importance in achieving the attenuation of traffic problems. The model also includes the decision making process from the driver in accelerating, decelerating and changing lanes. Results: The individuality of each of these processes appears from the model parameters that are randomly generated from statistical distributions introduced as input parameters. Conclusion: This allows the integration of the individuality factor of the population elements yielding knowledge on various driving modes at wide variety of situations.

  15. Urban planning and traffic safety at night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, N.; Trusca, D.

    2016-08-01

    Urban planning including traffic signs serve vital functions, providing road users with regulatory, warning and guidance information about the roadway and surrounding environment. There are a large number of signs and even more guidelines on how these signs should be designed, installed, and maintained in concordance with on road surface traffic signs. More requirements for signs are made for night urban traffic, including appearance (size, shape, colour), placement (height, lateral, and longitudinal), maintenance (visibility, position, damage) and signs light and retroreflective. In the night, traffic signs visibility can interact by on pedestrian visibility and diminish urban traffic safety. The main aim of this paper are the scientific determination of an urban specific zone visibility for evaluate at night real conditions in case of a traffic accident in the Braşov city area. The night visibility study was made using PC-Rect version 4.2. Other goal of the paper was to modify some urban planning solution in order to increase the urban safety in Brașov.

  16. Urban street structure and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Villaveces, Andres

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the influence of road type and junction density on road traffic fatality rates in U.S. cities. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) files were used to obtain fatality rates for all cities for the years 2005-2010. A stratified random sample of 16 U.S. cities was taken, and cities with high and low road traffic fatality rates were compared on their road layout details (TIGER maps were used). Statistical analysis was done to determine the effect of junction density and road type on road traffic fatality rates. The analysis of road network and road traffic crash fatality rates in these randomly selected U.S. cities shows that, (a) higher number of junctions per road length was significantly associated with a lower motor- vehicle crash and pedestrian mortality rates, and, (b) increased number of kilometers of roads of any kind was associated with higher fatality rates, but an additional kilometer of main arterial road was associated with a significantly higher increase in total fatalities. When compared to non-arterial roads, the higher the ratio of highways and main arterial roads, there was an association with higher fatality rates. These results have important implications for road safety professionals. They suggest that once the road and street structure is put in place, that will influence whether a city has low or high traffic fatality rates. A city with higher proportion of wider roads and large city blocks will tend to have higher traffic fatality rates, and therefore in turn require much more efforts in police enforcement and other road safety measures. Urban planners need to know that smaller block size with relatively less wide roads will result in lower traffic fatality rates and this needs to be incorporated at the planning stage. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Traffic safety effects of navigation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, P.J.; Hogema, J.H.; Vonk, T.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract— To investigate effects of navigation systems on traffic safety, a literature search, a damages database analysis, a user survey and an instrumented car study were conducted. This paper presents the instrumented car study to investigate the effects of a navigation system on driving behavior

  18. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  19. School bus and children's traffic safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Shu-ming; Stephen Hargarten; ZHU Shan-kuan

    2007-01-01

    There is no safer way to transport a child than a school bus. Fatal crashes involving occupants are extremely rare events in the US. In recent years, school bus transportation began to develop in China. We want to bring advanced experience on school bus safety in Western countries such as the US to developing countries.Methods: We searched the papers related to school bus safety from Medline, Chinese Scientific Journals Database and the Web of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).Results: There were only 9 papers related to school bus safety, which showed that higher levels of safety standards on school buses, school bus-related transportation and environmental laws and injury prevention were the primary reasons for the desired outcome. Few school bus is related to deaths and injuries in the developed countries.Conclusions: The developing countries should make strict environmental laws and standards on school bus safety to prevent children's injury and death.

  20. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 10: Traffic Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 10 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic records. The purpose and specific objectives of a traffic records program are discussed. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and policies regarding a traffic records…

  1. Police enforcement and traffic safety.

    OpenAIRE

    Wesemann, P.

    1988-01-01

    Research has clearly shown that police-enforcement can improve road safety, and it can be questioned whether the police organisation is prepared and able to give priority to preventive control in stead of repression. Dutch police officers aim primarily at catching offenders, not deterring them. Further, many policymakers and citizens prefer other solutions for this type of problems. An opponent remark is presented by J. Dilling.

  2. Statistical modelling of traffic safety development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christens, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Road safety is a major concern for society and individuals. Although road safety has improved in recent years, the number of road fatalities is still unacceptably high. In 2000, road accidents killed over 40,000 people in the European Union and injured more than 1.7 million. In 2001 in Denmark......, that were designed to study developments over time, including effects of interventions. This aim has been achieved by investigating variations in aggregated Danish traffic accident series and by applying state of the art methodologies to specific case studies. The thesis comprises an introduction...... to accident data, and influential factors such as changing traffic volumes and demographic and economic trends. It highlights the limitations in the influential factors data-structure, in particular, their strong covariance and slow development over time. An important issue in this thesis was to investigate...

  3. INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the researches conducted in the field of safety management systems.Safety management system framework, methods and tools for safety analysis in Air Traffic Control have been reviewed.Principles of development of Integrated safety management system in Air Traffic Services have been proposed.

  4. 32 CFR 234.17 - Vehicles and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles and traffic safety. 234.17 Section 234...) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.17 Vehicles and traffic safety. (a) In general. Unless specifically addressed by regulations in this part, traffic and the use of vehicles within the Pentagon...

  5. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 7: Traffic Courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 7 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic courts, their purpose and objectives. Federal authority in the area of traffic courts are described. Program development and operations (a study of courts trying traffic cases, a…

  6. Traffic safety developments in Poland : a research note.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    2001-01-01

    Recently there has been an increased interest in traffic safety in Poland. There is a feeling that the rapid growth of traffic should be accompanied by additional efforts to improve traffic safety, in order to stop the corresponding increase in fatalities and serious accidents. To set realistic safe

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF TRAFFIC AND TRAFFIC SAFETY IN SIX DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OPPE, S

    1991-01-01

    Two models are presented, describing the development of traffic and traffic safety. Traffic volumes, measured by the total amount ofvehicle kilometres per year, are expected to follow a sigmoid saturation curve over time. The logistic function is used to model this development. The fatality rate, th

  8. 32 CFR 1903.4 - Vehicles and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicles and traffic safety. 1903.4 Section 1903.4 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.4 Vehicles and traffic safety. (a) Open container of alcoholic...

  9. A comedy on TV to promote traffic safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, R.D. Nelissen, W.J.A. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since the end of 1987, a television-series has been promoting traffic safety in the Netherlands. This series named `The Oudenrijn-family' after a well-known traffic junction, is a comedy that treats important road safety themes in a casual and playful way. The members of the TV family, and their

  10. 75 FR 55628 - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Reports, Forms and Record Keeping Requirements: Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Office of Crash Avoidance Standards...

  11. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 13: Traffic Engineering Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 13 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on traffic engineering services. The introduction outlines the purposes and objectives of Highway Safety Program Standard 13 and the Highway Safety Program Manual. Program development and…

  12. INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC-SAFETY MIRROR BY USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Danišovič

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the problematic of traffic safety, dealing with the problem of car intersections with blocked view crossing by a special wireless sensor network (WSN proposed for the traffic monitoring, concretely for vehicle’s detection at places, where it is necessary. Some ultra-low-power TI products were developed due to this reason: microcontroller MSP430F2232, 868MHz RF transceiver CC1101 and LDO voltage regulator TPS7033. The WSN consist of four network nodes supplied with the special safety lightings which serve the function of intelligent traffic safety mirror.

  13. Traffic safety trends,international comparisons,and major factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LeonardEvans

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To examine trends in traffic fatality rates in different countries and to use results to increase understanding of the major factors contributing to traffic safety.Methods:The number of traffic fataities per registered vehicle is examined versus calendar year for a number of countries.Factors hich influence traffic safety are organized into a hierarchical structure.Results:For all countries examined,the number of fatalities per registered vehicle trends downwards in time,but not by equal amounts for all countries.Human factors (driver performance and behavior)are identified as contributing larger effects than engineering factors (roadway and automotive).Conclusion:While all the factors considered are important,it is human behavior that exercises the dominant influence on traffic safety.

  14. COST 329 : towards European models for traffic and traffic safety developments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of COST Activity 329 is to specify an efficient methodology for the analysis of past and future traffic safety developments based on available knowledge. This includes the applicability of time-series modelling techniques. It is planned to make use of traffic speed developments to detect une

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF TRAFFIC AND TRAFFIC SAFETY: GLOBAL TRENDS AND INCIDENTAL FLUCTUATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OPPE, S

    1991-01-01

    In this, and previous related papers, developments of traffic volumes and traffic safety are studied from a system-theoretic point of view. It was proved already that such an approach is effective andleads to new and interesting theoretical facts. Models for the description of long-term developments

  16. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 15: Police Traffic Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 15 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) focuses on police traffic services. The purpose and objectives of a police services program are described. Federal authority in the areas of highway safety and policies regarding a police traffic…

  17. Use of agent based simulation for traffic safety assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Conradie, Dirk CU

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of an agent based Computational Building Simulation (CBS) tool, termed KRONOS that is being used to work on advanced research questions such as traffic safety assessment and user behaviour in buildings...

  18. Automatic road traffic safety management system in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskarbski Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incidents and accidents contribute to decreasing levels of transport system reliability and safety. Traffic management and emergency systems on the road, using, among others, automatic detection, video surveillance, communication technologies and institutional solutions improve the organization of the work of various departments involved in traffic and safety management. Automation of incident management helps to reduce the time of a rescue operation as well as of the normalization of the flow of traffic after completion of a rescue operation, which also affects the reduction of the risk of secondary accidents and contributes to reducing their severity. The paper presents the possibility of including city traffic departments in the process of incident management. The results of research on the automatic incident detection in cities are also presented.

  19. Safety performance of traffic phases and phase transitions in three phase traffic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengcheng; Liu, Pan; Wang, Wei; Li, Zhibin

    2015-12-01

    Crash risk prediction models were developed to link safety to various phases and phase transitions defined by the three phase traffic theory. Results of the Bayesian conditional logit analysis showed that different traffic states differed distinctly with respect to safety performance. The random-parameter logit approach was utilized to account for the heterogeneity caused by unobserved factors. The Bayesian inference approach based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method was used for the estimation of the random-parameter logit model. The proposed approach increased the prediction performance of the crash risk models as compared with the conventional logit model. The three phase traffic theory can help us better understand the mechanism of crash occurrences in various traffic states. The contributing factors to crash likelihood can be well explained by the mechanism of phase transitions. We further discovered that the free flow state can be divided into two sub-phases on the basis of safety performance, including a true free flow state in which the interactions between vehicles are minor, and a platooned traffic state in which bunched vehicles travel in successions. The results of this study suggest that a safety perspective can be added to the three phase traffic theory. The results also suggest that the heterogeneity between different traffic states should be considered when estimating the risks of crash occurrences on freeways.

  20. Improvement of driving safety in road traffic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ke-Ping; Gao Zi-You

    2005-01-01

    A road traffic system is a complex system in which humans participate directly. In this system, human factors play a very important role. In this paper, a kind of control signal is designated at a given site (i.e., signal point) of the road. Under the effect of the control signal, the drivers will decrease their velocities when their vehicles pass the signal point. Our aim is to transit the traffic flow states from disorder to order, and then improve the traffic safety.We have tested this technique for the two-lane traffic model that is based on the deterministic Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) traffic model. The simulation results indicate that the traffic flow states can be transited from disorder to order. Different order states can be observed in the system, and these states are safer.

  1. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zongzhi Li; Hoang Dao; Harshingar Patel; Yi Liu; Bei Zhou

    2017-01-01

    .... This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI) as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis...

  2. Colleges and Universities Highway Traffic and Safety Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, James E., Ed.; Ritzel, Dale O., Ed.

    After consideration of the organizing of university safety centers and the growth and role of such centers in the future, descriptions are presented of the activities and practices in each of 16 existing college and university highway traffic and safety centers. Information is presented regarding center objectives, programs, staff composition,…

  3. Power computations in time series analyses for traffic safety interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, A Ian; Vingilis, E R

    2008-05-01

    The evaluation of traffic safety interventions or other policies that can affect road safety often requires the collection of administrative time series data, such as monthly motor vehicle collision data that may be difficult and/or expensive to collect. Furthermore, since policy decisions may be based on the results found from the intervention analysis of the policy, it is important to ensure that the statistical tests have enough power, that is, that we have collected enough time series data both before and after the intervention so that a meaningful change in the series will likely be detected. In this short paper, we present a simple methodology for doing this. It is expected that the methodology presented will be useful for sample size determination in a wide variety of traffic safety intervention analysis applications. Our method is illustrated with a proposed traffic safety study that was funded by NIH.

  4. K9传奇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文峰

    2004-01-01

    @@ 源远流长的家世 K9这个说法我们中国人不大熟悉,对其意思也不甚明了,但是,在美国、俄罗斯等国,K9却是一个非常大众化的用词.实际上,"K9"就是指警犬和军犬.

  5. General aviation air traffic pattern safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    A concept is described for evaluating the general aviation mid-air collision hazard in uncontrolled terminal airspace. Three-dimensional traffic pattern measurements were conducted at uncontrolled and controlled airports. Computer programs for data reduction, storage retrieval and statistical analysis have been developed. Initial general aviation air traffic pattern characteristics are presented. These preliminary results indicate that patterns are highly divergent from the expected standard pattern, and that pattern procedures observed can affect the ability of pilots to see and avoid each other.

  6. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhi Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.

  7. Controlling traffic jams by time modulating the safety distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu B.; Gorria, C.; Berkemer, R.

    2013-01-01

    in the nonmodulated case, while it is a decreasing function in the opposite case. In other words, the safety distance time modulation facilitates car propagation in the case when the mean distance between cars in the congestive traffic is less than h and hinders it when the neighboring cars in the flow are well......The possibility of controlling traffic dynamics by applying high-frequency time modulation of traffic flow parameters is studied. It is shown that the region of the car density where the uniform (free) flow is unstable changes in the presence of time modulation compared with the unmodulated case....... This region shrinks when the speed-up of cars does not exceed some critical value and expands in the opposite case. The flux of the time-modulated flow is an increasing function of the amplitude of the modulation for traffic flows whose density is larger than 1/h where h is the safety distance...

  8. Distributed Air Traffic Control : A Human Safety Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Nikumbh, Sarvesh; Vartak, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The issues in air traffic control have so far been addressed with the intent to improve resource utilization and achieve an optimized solution with respect to fuel comsumption of aircrafts, efficient usage of the available airspace with minimal congestion related losses under various dynamic constraints. So the focus has almost always been more on smarter management of traffic to increase profits while human safety, though achieved in the process, we believe, has remained less seriously attended. This has become all the more important given that we have overburdened and overstressed air traffic controllers managing hundreds of airports and thousands of aircrafts per day. We propose a multiagent system based distributed approach to handle air traffic ensuring complete human (passenger) safety without removing any humans (ground controllers) from the loop thereby also retaining the earlier advantages in the new solution. The detailed design of the agent system, which will be easily interfacable with the existin...

  9. The importance of spatial orientation and knowledge of traffic signs for children's traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifunović, Aleksandar; Pešić, Dalibor; Čičević, Svetlana; Antić, Boris

    2017-05-01

    Pre-school children, as well as children from lower grades in primary school, who although rarely, completely independently participate in traffic, represent a vulnerable population from the standpoint of traffic safety. The greatest number of children were injured or killed in road traffic crashes on their way from home to kindergarten or school. Mostly due to lack of experience, children's behavior is confusing and often reckless and hasty. Safe behavior in the traffic environment demands certain cognitive skills. Unlike adults, children have less than fully developed peripheral vision. Also, changes occur in color perception, i.e. discrimination. All this leads to the conclusion that the stage of physical and mental development of the child is very important for safe participation in traffic. So, to estimate if they are sufficiently equipped to participate safely in traffic, a sensitive test for young children that may be suitable for their level of cognitive development is required. Accordingly, road safety education should be arranged in such a way that considers the child's level of development, as has been shown to be more effective when started at younger ages. Play is the most natural and easiest way of learning because it is the lens through which children experience their world, and the world of others. Having this in mind, if we want to measure the abilities of a child, and their preparedness for safety participation in traffic, unavoidable is to use non-verbal tests. The purpose of this study is to explore primary schooler's spatial, and abilities of color perception and memorization, as well as their performances in interpreting the meaning of traffic signs. In addition, neighborhood environmental correlates (rural-urban) and possible individual differences influences on the relationship among these abilities was examined. Knowledge about these factors affecting children's safety can be applied to improve relevant intervention measures for promoting

  10. Statistical modelling of traffic safety development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christens, Peter

    2004-01-01

    : - Statistisk modellering af trafik uheld, Trafikdage på Ålborg Univeristet, 2001. - Sociale karakteristika hos trafikofre, Danish Transport Research Institute, 2001. - Models for traffic accidents, FERSI Young Researchers' Seminar, 2001. - Evaluation of the Danish Automatic Mobile Speed Camera Project...... 2000 dræbte trafikuheld over 40.000 i EU og skadede over 1.7 millioner. I Danmark i 2001 var der 6861 politirapporteret trafikuheld med tilskadekomst. De resulterede i 4519 lettere tilskadekomne, 3946 alvorligt tilskadekomne og 431 dræbte. Det generelle formål med dette forskningsarbejde er at forbedre...

  11. Impact of distracted driving on safety and traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Jones, Jennifer L; Garner, Annie A; Griffin, Russell; Franklin, Crystal A; Ball, David; Welburn, Sharon C; Ball, Karlene K; Sisiopiku, Virginia P; Fine, Philip R

    2013-12-01

    Studies have documented a link between distracted driving and diminished safety; however, an association between distracted driving and traffic congestion has not been investigated in depth. The present study examined the behavior of teens and young adults operating a driving simulator while engaged in various distractions (i.e., cell phone, texting, and undistracted) and driving conditions (i.e., free flow, stable flow, and oversaturation). Seventy five participants 16-25 years of age (split into 2 groups: novice drivers and young adults) drove a STISIM simulator three times, each time with one of three randomly presented distractions. Each drive was designed to represent daytime scenery on a 4 lane divided roadway and included three equal roadway portions representing Levels of Service (LOS) A, C, and E as defined in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual. Participants also completed questionnaires documenting demographics and driving history. Both safety and traffic flow related driving outcomes were considered. A Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to analyze continuous outcome variables and a Generalized Estimate Equation (GEE) Poisson model was used to analyze count variables. Results revealed that, in general more lane deviations and crashes occurred during texting. Distraction (in most cases, text messaging) had a significantly negative impact on traffic flow, such that participants exhibited greater fluctuation in speed, changed lanes significantly fewer times, and took longer to complete the scenario. In turn, more simulated vehicles passed the participant drivers while they were texting or talking on a cell phone than while undistracted. The results indicate that distracted driving, particularly texting, may lead to reduced safety and traffic flow, thus having a negative impact on traffic operations. No significant differences were detected between age groups, suggesting that all drivers, regardless of age, may drive in a manner

  12. Impact of Distracted Driving on Safety and Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Jones, Jennifer L.; Garner, Annie A.; Griffin, Russell; Franklin, Crystal A.; Ball, David; Welburn, Sharon C.; Ball, Karlene K.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Fine, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have documented a link between distracted driving and diminished safety; however, an association between distracted driving and traffic congestion has not been investigated in depth. The present study examined the behavior of teens and young adults operating a driving simulator while engaged in various distractions (i.e., cell phone, texting, and undistracted) and driving conditions (i.e., free flow, stable flow, and oversaturation). Seventy five participants 16 to 25 years of age (split into 2 groups: novice drivers and young adults) drove a STISIM simulator three times, each time with one of three randomly presented distractions. Each drive was designed to represent daytime scenery on a 4 lane divided roadway and included three equal roadway portions representing Levels of Service (LOS) A, C, and E as defined in the 2000 Highway Capacity Manual. Participants also completed questionnaires documenting demographics and driving history. Both safety and traffic flow related driving outcomes were considered. A Repeated Measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance was employed to analyze continuous outcome variables and a Generalized Estimate Equation (GEE) poisson model was used to analyze count variables. Results revealed that, in general more lane deviations and crashes occurred during texting. Distraction (in most cases, text messaging) had a significantly negative impact on traffic flow, such that participants exhibited greater fluctuation in speed, changed lanes significantly fewer times, and took longer to complete the scenario. In turn, more simulated vehicles passed the participant drivers while they were texting or talking on a cell phone than while undistracted. The results indicate that distracted driving, particularly texting, may lead to reduced safety and traffic flow, thus having a negative impact on traffic operations. No significant differences were detected between age groups, suggesting that all drivers, regardless of age, may drive in a manner

  13. The impact of navigation systems on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van; Vonk, T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of navigation systems on traffic safety in the Netherlands. This study consists of four analyses: a literature survey, a database analysis, a user survey and an instrumented vehicle study. The results of the four sections show that navigation systems have a positive eff

  14. The impact of navigation systems on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, T. van; Vonk, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of navigation systems on traffic safety in the Netherlands. This study consists of four analyses: a literature survey, a database analysis, a user survey and an instrumented vehicle study. The results of the four sections show that navigation systems have a positive eff

  15. Road traffic safety in conjunction with in-vehicle ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja TOPOLŠEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution. Traffic congestion continues to grow worldwide as a result of increased motorization, population growth, changes in population density and urbanization. Interest in ITS can also be attributed to reducing road accidents and increasing traffic safety. The most common causes for road accidents are excessive speed, inattentive driving and ignorance of the right-of-way rules. To eliminate these causes, experience, knowledge of traffic regulations and a new car are not enough – vehicle safety systems have to take part as well. Therefore, the European Union issued a directive on the installation of intelligent systems, whose functions are active support during driving, warning the driver in dangerous situations and alerting passengers of the car in case of irregularities in motor function or actions carried out by the driver that may cause danger, such as swerving while falling asleep. These systems help drivers to avoid accidents, and in the event of a collision, an emergency call is automatically made. Furthermore, they can be used to regulate traffic patterns or to reduce engine performance, which would reduce pollution. With these benefits in mind, the EU has indicated to the automotive industry that installation of these new Intelligent Transportation Systems should be mandatory in their new vehicles.

  16. Will Banning Begging Improve Traffic Safety?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On August 2,Zhuhai,a city in south China’s Guangdong Province, issued road safety regulations banning begging in vehicle lanes. The new regulations allow the police to impose fines on beggers.Drivers who buy anything from vendors or give money to beg- gars will also be fined.

  17. European side markers effect on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, A.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 new European legislation regarding side-markers for passenger cars became effective. Volvo requested the TNO-Human Factors Research Institute (HFRI) to investigate the possible safety benefit of this European side-markers configuration. A test panel at TNO- HFRI was used to determine the dif

  18. TRAFFIC SAFETY AND DRIVER EDUCATION IN SAN JUAN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides Osvaldo Fernández DE CIEZA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available With over 8,100 traffic fatalities in 1997 and an accident rate per 100 million vehicle kilometres travelled, approximately five times that of United States, Argentinean road authorities are now beginning to focus attention on traffic safety and driver education. One of the main problems in the search of causes for car accidents in Argentina is the lack of a reliable and updated data base. The results and conclusions presented in this paper are based on a thorough analysis of car accidents in the Province of San Juan, Argentina. A seven-year data base of car accidents has been compiled from police reports, including the results of traffic counts at intersections and other collision locations. In addition, topographic and filmed reports of such places and their surroundings bring about parameters such as stop lines, visibility triangles, road size, traffic light performance, etc., which allow to carrying out of a traffic flow analysis for proposing measures aiming to minimize accidents. For San Juan province, in general, the main causes are: high absolute car speeds, speed differences between vehicles, lack of good lighting, poor driving habits, lack of traffic control devices such as signs, signals, and an absence of road markings.

  19. Fire safety assessment and upgrading of existing traffic tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederichs U.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many traffic tunnels in the European Union need records of their conservation and safety status, including fire performance. Besides other countries the German road transport authorities plan to enhance the safety of their tunnels. As an example, the results of investigations performed with a two-tube tunnel in Northern Germany, which has been examined to assess fire safety, is reported. It turned out, that the older tube, which got fire protection boards on the ceilings and the wall crowns, fully fits the demands according to the current rules. The later tube needs an upgrading to avoid catastrophic impairment of air and car traffic in the vicinity of the tunnels. For the retrofitting a number of protection materials are in the market. The execution of the measure requires smart planning as to reach the strived goal.

  20. Safety in traffic for vulnerable military road users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar J. Bulajić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Army of Serbia, as a relatively closed system, regulates the field of traffic safety; however, during peacetime, general rules apply to all participants in traffic circulation. The Republic of Serbia is in the group of countries with a high number of road fatalities. The level of traffic safety in the Serbian Army has been on constant increase since 2000, although the relevant transport authorities in the military are not yet satisfied with the achieved level (even one lost life is too much. The increase can be deceptive, since if we take into account the substantial reduction in vehicle use due to various factors in the last few years (poor financial situation in the country as well as in the military, under-investment in the purchase of new vehicles, purchase of transportation services, fewer drivers drafted and more vehicles driven by trained officers, etc., it is not surprising that there are fewer accidents and fewer road deaths and injuries among military personnel. This paper aims at approaching the problem of pedestrian safety as a segment of road safety and at making an educational impact on all members of the military, because they all participate in traffic daily, if not as drivers or passengers, then certainly in large numbers as pedestrians. The basis of this paper is aimed at shedding light on the causes of pedestrian road fatalities due to their mistakes, i. e. 'negligence' of the participants in car accidents with the participation of pedestrians, as well as at proposing measures to reduce and prevent traffic accidents with pedestrians.

  1. Controlling traffic jams by time modulating the safety distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaididei, Yu. B.; Gorria, C.; Berkemer, R.; Kawamoto, A.; Shiga, T.; Christiansen, P. L.; Sørensen, M. P.; Starke, J.

    2013-10-01

    The possibility of controlling traffic dynamics by applying high-frequency time modulation of traffic flow parameters is studied. It is shown that the region of the car density where the uniform (free) flow is unstable changes in the presence of time modulation compared with the unmodulated case. This region shrinks when the speed-up of cars does not exceed some critical value and expands in the opposite case. The flux of the time-modulated flow is an increasing function of the amplitude of the modulation for traffic flows whose density is larger than 1/h where h is the safety distance in the nonmodulated case, while it is a decreasing function in the opposite case. In other words, the safety distance time modulation facilitates car propagation in the case when the mean distance between cars in the congestive traffic is less than h and hinders it when the neighboring cars in the flow are well separated. A link between a microscopic description and the macroscopic fundamental diagram is established.

  2. Zolpidem and traffic safety - the importance of treatment compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Volkerts, Edmund R; Olivier, Berend; Johnson, William; Liddicoat, Laura

    2007-09-01

    Zolpidem is among the most frequently prescribed hypnotic drugs for those who suffer from insomnia. Recent media reports drew attention to driving impairment after zolpidem misuse. This review summarizes the available data on the effects of recommended use and misuse of zolpidem on driving ability and traffic safety. Both experimental studies and roadside evidence were taken into account. From these studies it must be concluded that patients should fully comply with the prescription instructions of zolpidem, i.e. to take the medication just prior to a full 8 hours of uninterrupted sleep. If this strategy is adopted, zolpidem is a safe alternative to benzodiazpine hypnotics and zopiclone who do show significant driving impairment the morning following bedtime administration. However, to ensure traffic safety higher dosages than recommended (10 mg) or allowing less than 8 hours between zolpidem intake and actual operation of a motor vehicle should be avoided.

  3. The Effect of Elementary Traffic Safety Programs on Out-of-School Safety Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Deborah A.

    The Beltman multi-media traffic safety program was evaluated as an instructional tool in grades K-3. The foremost objective of the Beltman program is to develop the habit of wearing seat belts and to develop positive safety attitudes. Three study groups made up of 550 second grade students were divided into one control and two experimental groups.…

  4. A study on urban road traffic safety based on matter element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhou, Zhuping; Sun, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure.

  5. Is vehicle automation enough to prevent crashes? Role of traffic operations in automated driving environments for traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol; Lee, Seolyoung

    2017-07-01

    Automated driving systems (ADSs) are expected to prevent traffic accidents caused by driver carelessness on freeways. There is no doubt regarding this safety benefit if all vehicles in the transportation system were equipped with ADSs; however, it is implausible to expect that ADSs will reach 100% market penetration rate (MPR) in the near future. Therefore, the following question arises: 'Can ADSs, which consider only situations in the vicinity of an equipped vehicle, really contribute to a significant reduction in traffic accidents?' To address this issue, the interactions between equipped and unequipped vehicles must be investigated, which is the purpose of this study. This study evaluated traffic safety at different MPRs based on a proposed index to represent the overall rear-end crash risk of the traffic stream. Two approaches were evaluated for adjusting longitudinal vehicle maneuvers: vehicle safety-based maneuvering (VSM), which considers the crash risk of an equipped vehicle and its neighboring vehicles, and traffic safety-based maneuvering (TSM), which considers the overall crash risk in the traffic stream. TSM assumes that traffic operational agencies are able to monitor all the vehicles and to intervene in vehicle maneuvering. An optimization process, which attempts to obtain vehicle maneuvering control parameters to minimize the overall crash risk, is integrated into the proposed evaluation framework. The main purpose of employing the optimization process for vehicle maneuvering in this study is to identify opportunities to improve traffic safety through effective traffic management rather than developing a vehicle control algorithm that can be implemented in practice. The microscopic traffic simulator VISSIM was used to simulate the freeway traffic stream and to conduct systematic evaluations based on the proposed methodology. Both TSM and VSM achieved significant reductions in the potential for rear-end crashes. However, TSM obtained much greater

  6. State Traffic Safety Information - 2010-2015 FARS Accident File data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The State Traffic Safety Information (STSI) portal is part of the larger Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) Encyclopedia. STSI provides state-by-state traffic...

  7. Drowsy drivers--medical implication of highway traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, S

    2011-01-01

    The estimates of the contribution of drowsiness and fatigue to the number of road crashes is often neglected considerably, due both to under-reporting of these factors by drivers, and technical difficulty in investigating the problem. Preventing and treating the reasons for falling asleep behind the wheel may have considerable contribution in traffic safety. Therefore the licensing authorities in co-operation with the medical profession should attend more closely to the issue of sleep related disorders and their implications for driving in cases with notoriously high risk. The police and other enforcement authorities need appropriate knowledge and procedures to detect drivers at risk of falling asleep while driving. Considering the increasing number of road traffic accidents day per day, it is a need of the hour to detect drivers possibly at risk, and to take appropriate precautions in terms of education, advice and treatment regimes, as well as restrictions on licensing.

  8. PRINCIPLES OF SAFETY MANAGEMENT OF AIR TRAFFIC FLOWS AND CAPACITY UNDER UNCERTAINTY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the general principles of safety and capacity management in Aeronautical systems regarding air traffic flows operations under uncertainty conditions. In this work the theoretical framework assessing at the same time both the uncertainty model and flight plans model are proposed. Methods: To study features of safety of air traffic flows and capacity under uncertainty conditions were built the original probabilistic models including Bayesian Network for flight plan and air traffic control sector model based on Poisson Binomial Distribution. Results: We obtained models for safety management of air traffic flows and capacity under uncertainty conditions. We discussed appropriate approach for estimating the parameters of safety of air traffic flows and capacity under uncertainty and Markovian uncertainty model for the flight plan. Discussion: We developed the Bayesian Network for flight plan and air traffic control sector models for safety management of air traffic flows and capacity under uncertainty conditions.

  9. A holistic approach for assessing traffic safety in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohammad Nurul; Hawas, Yaser E; Maraqa, Munjed A

    2012-03-01

    Traffic accident and fatality rates can be utilized as indicators of traffic safety, but cannot reflect the overall status of traffic safety in a country. This paper uses a holistic perspective approach to investigate traffic safety in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Initially, 12 potential items were selected to investigate the issue of traffic safety in the country. The investigation included data collection and analyses from official police reports, survey among road-users and interview of traffic safety experts. Based on data analysis and interpretation, the main factors affecting traffic safety in the UAE along with their level of deficiency were identified. The study revealed that the main factors contributing to traffic safety in the UAE are driving behaviour, awareness, education and training, infrastructure, vehicle, law enforcement, coordination and quality of resources. Among these factors, a major deficiency was found in the "driving behaviour", a minor deficiency in "vehicle safety", and a moderate deficiency in the others. Based on the deficiency level of the factors recommendations were proposed to improve the status of traffic safety in the country.

  10. ENHANCEMENT OF ROAD SAFETY THROUGH MORE EFFECTIVE ROAD AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SZCZURASZEK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To make the policy aimed at mitigating the risk of road incidents more effective, Poland should see the introduction of the more efficient road and traffic management. In November 2008 the European Parliament and the European Council published the Directive on "infrastructure safety management" which provides guidance on the procedures for carrying impact assessments of traffic safety, traffic safety audits, safety management on the road network and monitoring traffic safety in Member States. In this article, the authors have proposed a systemic approach to road and traffic management, involving the implementation of consistent procedures that should include regular revisions of roads, eliminating hazardous sites, speed management, as well as the approval and implementation of traffic organization designs.

  11. Effects of scale and efficiency of rural traffic calming on safety, accessibility and wildlife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, C.F.; Langevelde, van F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of scale and efficiency of regional traffic calming on traffic safety, rural accessibility, and survival of wildlife. We distinguish by the scale of road networks affected and considered the efficiencies of various bundling of traffic flows on designated routes. Safet

  12. Effects of scale and efficiency of rural traffic calming on safety, accessibility and wildlife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, C.F.; Langevelde, van F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of scale and efficiency of regional traffic calming on traffic safety, rural accessibility, and survival of wildlife. We distinguish by the scale of road networks affected and considered the efficiencies of various bundling of traffic flows on designated routes.

  13. Assessing the Impact of Local Agency Traffic Safety Training Using Ethnographic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Traffic crashes are a significant source of loss of life, personal injury and financial expense in the United States. In 2008 there were 37,261 people killed and an estimated 2,346,000 people injured nationwide in motor vehicle traffic crashes. State and federal agencies are beginning to focus traffic safety improvement effort on local agency…

  14. Too individualistic for safety culture? Non-traffic related work safety among heavy goods vehicle drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grytnes, Regine; Shibuya, Hitomi; Dyreborg, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This article reports on a study of non-traffic related work safety among drivers of heavy goods vehicles in Denmark. In the heavy goods vehicle transport (HGV) sector only 6.4% of workplace accidents involving drivers are traffic related. HGV work is characterised by solitary work...... values and attitudes as well as organisational and technical aspects in relation to how individualist or collectivist understandings of risk and safety influence the working environment in HGVs. Method The study applied a mixed methods approach and in this article the qualitative interviews conducted...... their understandings and attitudes towards hazards and safety practices. The analysis points to risk-taking and unsafe practices as prevalent among HGV drivers, who often refer to risk as trivial and the management of such risks as one's own responsibility. Knowledge of how to manage risks in everyday practice...

  15. Increase the Safety of Road Traffic Accidents by Applying Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Goran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

  16. Retrospect and prospect of “Traffic Safety Education” in Kagawa Prefecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Ihara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explain why we have conducted “Traffic Safety Education” in the Kagawa Prefecture during the past ten years so as to clarify the important factors for preventing painful traffic accidents in advance. To meet this aim, we firstly clarify the reason why we eventually decided to conduct “Traffic Safety Education” in the Kagawa Prefecture. In other words, the organization of powerful actors and/or leaders to cope with traffic accidents plays a very important role in “Traffic Safety Education.” Then, we specifically describe the essential parts of our “Traffic Safety Education”. In this respect, we have decided to select the following two aims: to reduce the number of traffic accidents, and to improve traffic manners, respectively. Thirdly, we evaluate various measures, such as teaching materials, teaching methods, and other activities of our “Traffic Safety Education” in detail. Lastly, we summarize the remaining tasks, which have been revealed so far, together with some concluding remarks.

  17. A Behavioural Model of Traffic Congestion: Endogenizing Speed Choice, Traffic Safety and Time Losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, E.T.; Rouwendal, J.

    2004-01-01

    Conventional economic models of traffic congestion assume that the relation between traffic flow and speed is a technical one. This paper develops a behavioural model of traffic congestion, in which drivers optimize their speeds by trading off time costs, expected accident costs and fuel costs. Sinc

  18. Analysis of Traffic Safety Factors at Level Rail-Road Crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Mlinarić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main factors of traffic safety andreliabilityat level crossings. The number and causes of accidentsare stated, that result from ignorance, insufficient training ofthe traffic participants, their ilnsponsibility and insufficient orincomplete legislation, as well as from insufficiently professionaland scientifically not serious enough approach to solvingthis cardinal problem in road and railway traffic. Based on theanalysis the causes are determined and solutions proposed, aswell as more efficient methods to improve safety and reduce thenumber of traffic accidents at level crossings.

  19. Opportunities for knowledge translation in the decade of road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rocca, Gregory J; Dunbar, Robert P; Burgess, Andrew R; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations has identified road traffic safety as an important objective for the decade 2011-2020. It has implemented a 5-tiered program: improving health care services, improving management of road safety, improving road network safety, improving vehicular safety, and improving road safety legislation. A small body of practical research has been generated by the medical and surgical (including orthopaedic) communities regarding the road traffic safety, but a substantial amount of work remains to be performed. This article will review published research in each of the 5 tiers of the Decade of Action for Road Traffic Safety and will identify areas where research is insufficient or absent, such that new research programming and funding can be developed.

  20. Short-term traffic safety forecasting using Gaussian mixture model and Kalman filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng JIN; Dian-hai WANG; Cheng XU; Dong-fang MA

    2013-01-01

    In this paper; a prediction model is developed that combines a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) and a Kalman filter for online forecasting of traffic safety on expressways.Raw time-to-collision (TTC) samples are divided into two categories:those representing vehicles in risky situations and those in safe situations.Then,the GMM is used to model the bimodal distribution of the TTC samples,and the maximum likelihood (ML) estimation parameters of the TTC distribution are obtained using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm.We propose a new traffic safety indicator,named the proportion of exposure to traffic conflicts (PETTC),for assessing the risk and predicting the safety of expressway traffic.A Kalman filter is applied to forecast the short-term safety indicator,PETTC,and solves the online safety prediction problem.A dataset collected from four different expressway locations is used for performance estimation.The test results demonstrate the precision and robustness of the prediction model under different traffic conditions and using different datasets.These results could help decision-makers to improve their online traffic safety forecasting and enable the optimal operation of expressway traffic management systems.

  1. A Particle System for Safety Verification of Free Flight in Air Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Krystul, J.; Bakker, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Under free flight, an aircrew has both the freedom to select their trajectory and the responsibility of resolving conflicts with other aircraft. The general belief is that free flight can be made safe under low traffic conditions. Increasing traffic, however, raises safety verification issues. This

  2. A Particle System for Safety Verification of Free Flight in Air Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Krystul, J.; Bakker, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Under free flight, an aircrew has both the freedom to select their trajectory and the responsibility of resolving conflicts with other aircraft. The general belief is that free flight can be made safe under low traffic conditions. Increasing traffic, however, raises safety verification issues. This

  3. Reanalysis of traffic enforcement data from Victoria : a methodological study into the evaluation of safety measures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S. & Bijleveld, F.D.

    2003-01-01

    There is an increased interest in the Netherlands in the safety effects of traffic enforcement measures. This regards the intermediate effect of enforcement on behaviour as well as the final effect on safety itself. In addition to these general safety effects, regional differences are also of

  4. Comparison of Pinavia Interchange Vs Interchange's All Directional and Nano of Traffic Operation and Safety with Traffic simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl samadi Heidar Abadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available in this study, one of the newest types of interchange, which has recently attracted the attention of researchers and designers, i.e. Pinnavia and one of most recent interchange, i.e. the nano interchange and one of the world's most popular interchange, ie the all directional interchange are thoroughly investigated and the reasons for using it will be expressed. In this research, replacement of the Pinnavia interchange with the nano interchange, the all directional interchange with the input vehicle volume of 10000 in an hour and speeds of 70 and 90 km/sec, 2 percent of 10% and 20% heavy vehicles, two turnover ratio of 70 to 30 of left heavy, direct-equal of 50 to 50, under the number of 24 scenarios have been studied using a microscopic simulation by the AIMSUN software. Traffic operation analysis was conducted for the whole interchange. Moreover, parameters of Speed, Delay Time and, Density were compared. SSAM is an application that evaluates the traffic safety by the traffic noise and processing of vehicles routing. Interchange occurs when two road users are in collision position with no escape possibility. The safety estimation has been carried out for the whole interchange with the traffic volume of 10000 vph in highway, ramp volume of 1600 and 1000 vehicles in houre and 20% heavy vehicles which is one f the worst scenario cases. The results of this research reveal the better performance of the nano interchange in most traffic parameters such as, delay time,density and average speed. In terms of safety, the pinnavia interchange operation is better than the performance of the nano and All-directional Interchanges. Moreover, speed increment made a better traffic performance in the pinnavia interchange. In other words, operation of the the pinnavia interchange is better than the performance of the nano and All-directional Interchanges in the speed of 90 Km/h.

  5. Road lighting and traffic safety : a functional approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1970-01-01

    Requirements to be made on the traffic facilities in order to reduce the number of night-time accidents are covered. Traffic facilities include apart from public lighting and road lighting by means of headlamps of vehicles, also road markings and signs, marker lights, catadioptric devices and others

  6. The Safety Level Analysis of the SWIM System in Air Traffic Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Krzykowska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Safety level analysis is included in the paper in context of SWIM system in air traffic management. The example is given. It examines the limitations and drawbacks of current ICT systems used for air traffic management. Analyzing the development of communication systems for the management of general air traffic, it can be concluded that the development of the terrestrial segment of the exchange of information between the parties relating to the air traffic will fluctuate towards a solution based on a service-oriented architecture SOA. This architecture will be the basis for the implementation of the concept of an information exchange system SWIM.

  7. Safety perceptions and behavior related to cycling in mixed traffic: A comparison between Brisbane and Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chataway, Elijah Steven; Kaplan, Sigal; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick;

    2014-01-01

    -based survey administered among cyclists in the two cities. Elicited items concerned perceived risk of infrastructure layouts, fear of traffic, cycling while distracted, use of safety gear, cycling avoidance due to feeling unsafe, and avoidance to cycle in mixed traffic conditions. The data were analyzed...... with structural equation models. Results show that, in comparison with cyclists in Copenhagen, cyclists in Brisbane perceive mixed traffic infrastructure layouts as less safe, feel more fear of traffic, and are more likely to adopt cycling avoidance as a coping strategy. Results also show that cyclists...

  8. Satellite vehicle tracking aiming to increase traffic safety within the Serbian Armed Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor S. Milanović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to show how to affect the most important factor of traffic safety - an individual, by using some technical solutions of satellite tracking of vehicles. By using units of the Land Forces as an example, a brief analysis of traffic safety for vehicles less than 5 years old has been performed. It is noticed that the number of traffic accidents with these vehicles involved has increased, so we tried to use one software package commercially available in order to show all advantages and disadvantages which could be noticed during this kind of vehicle tracking. The conclusion is that preventive vehicle tracking can improve traffic safety, but that a techno-economic analysis has to be done as well, in order to create all the necessary conditions for the introduction of this system in the units of the Serbian Armed Forces.

  9. Multi-Modal Intelligent Traffic Signal Systems Basic Safety Message

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Data were collected during the Multi-Modal Intelligent Transportation Signal Systems (MMITSS) study. MMITSS is a next-generation traffic signal system that seeks to...

  10. Traffic safety as a factor of improving logistics in construction sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjenovic Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security is a complex problem. It includes the driver’s behavior, the features of the vehicle, those of the road and the driving conditions. Security can be approached from the aspect of the vehicle and pavement design, of driving habits, traffic regulation and application of laws. The good coordination of the driver, the vehicle and the road enables for better estimation of the traffic safety relations and interrelations giving the possibilities of improvement of the situation at present and in future. The driver has the main role in the determination of the success or failure of the road system. Over 90% of the accidents are due to improper behavior of people in traffic. Understanding of the human factors is the key factor in the optimal road design and traffic flow. Nevertheless, engineers need more understanding about driving behavior, as they are responsible for road design, for the traffic flow, and for the regulations intended to avoid errors wherever possible. The purpose of this paper is to inform about the current situation both in practice and in the researches of traffic safety, as well as to yield a broader review of the actual traffic safety situation on the roads in Republic of Macedonia.

  11. Vessel traffic safety in busy waterways: A case study of accidents in western shenzhen port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, J M; Chen, P F; He, Y X; Yip, Tsz Leung; Li, W H; Tang, J; Zhang, H Z

    2016-08-03

    Throughout the world, busy waterways near large ports witness heavy vessel traffic in recent decades. The waterways are characterized by high risk in terms of loss of life, property, and pollution to environment. To facilitate maritime safety management with satisfactory efficiency and efficacy, the authors propose a framework of safety indexes to evaluate the risk level in busy waterways according to the accident severity, fatality rate and special indicators of maritime transportation. The safety indexes consist of Safety Evaluation Index (SEI) and Safety Warning Index (SWI), and are derived from the proposed risk criteria of Chinese vessel traffic. As a case study, data on vessel traffic accidents reported in the Western Shenzhen Port, South China from 1995 to 2015 are analyzed. The actual risk level of this area during the period is calculated under the framework. The implementation of the safety indexes indicate that the risk criteria and safety indexes are practicable and effective for the vessel traffic management. The methodology based on long-term accident data can significantly support the risk analysis in the macroscopic perspective for busy ports and waterways, such that SWI can act as threshold to trigger actions, while SEI can act as an indicator to measure safety status.

  12. Safety Performance Evaluation of a Three-Leg Unsignalized Intersection Using Traffic Conflict Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic conflicts were used to evaluate safety performance of a three-leg unsignalized intersection. With the aid of a video camera, data were collected at the intersection and 15-second time span was used in each observation to overcome the drawbacks of traditional methods of traffic conflict analysis. Time to collision (TTC, a widely accepted indicator, was used to identify whether an interaction between two vehicles was a traffic conflict. By using Poisson regression, a prediction model for traffic conflicts at the intersection was developed. Based upon the model, assuming that other factors remain constant, when time headway or speed of eastbound traffic on major road, which is crossed by left-turning traffic from minor road, increases, the number of traffic conflicts at the intersection decreases. When volume of left-turning traffic on minor road or speed of left-turning vehicles on minor road increases, the number of traffic conflicts at the intersection increases if other factors remain constant. Explanations for the influence of the factors, which were represented by independent variables of the prediction model, were then analyzed in detail.

  13. Driving behaviours, traffic risk and road safety: comparative study between Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saif ur Rehman; Khalifah, Zainab Binti; Munir, Yasin; Islam, Talat; Nazir, Tahira; Khan, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate differences in road safety attitude, driver behaviour and traffic risk perception between Malaysia and Singapore. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a sample of Singaporean (n = 187) and Malaysian (n = 313) road users. The data was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling applied to measure comparative fit indices of Malaysian and Singaporean respondents. The results show that the perceived traffic risk of Malaysian respondents is higher than Singaporean counterparts. Moreover, the structural equation modelling has confirmed perceived traffic risk performing the role of full mediation between perceived driving skills and perceived road safety for both the countries, while perceived traffic skills was found to perform the role of partial mediation between aggression and anxiety, on one hand, and road safety, on the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, in both countries, a weak correlation between perceived driving skills, aggression and anxiety with perceived road safety was found, while a strong correlation exists with traffic risk perception. The findings of this study have been discussed in terms of theoretical, practical and conceptual implications for both scholars and policy-makers to better understand the young drivers' attitude and behaviour relationship towards road safety measures with a view to future research.

  14. A safety assessment methodology applied to CNS/ATM-based air traffic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vismari, Lucio Flavio, E-mail: lucio.vismari@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Batista Camargo Junior, Joao, E-mail: joaocamargo@usp.b [Safety Analysis Group (GAS), School of Engineering at University of Sao Paulo (Poli-USP), Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, Trav.3, n.158, Predio da Engenharia de Eletricidade, Sala C2-32, CEP 05508-900, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    In the last decades, the air traffic system has been changing to adapt itself to new social demands, mainly the safe growth of worldwide traffic capacity. Those changes are ruled by the Communication, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) paradigm , based on digital communication technologies (mainly satellites) as a way of improving communication, surveillance, navigation and air traffic management services. However, CNS/ATM poses new challenges and needs, mainly related to the safety assessment process. In face of these new challenges, and considering the main characteristics of the CNS/ATM, a methodology is proposed at this work by combining 'absolute' and 'relative' safety assessment methods adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in ICAO Doc.9689 , using Fluid Stochastic Petri Nets (FSPN) as the modeling formalism, and compares the safety metrics estimated from the simulation of both the proposed (in analysis) and the legacy system models. To demonstrate its usefulness, the proposed methodology was applied to the 'Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcasting' (ADS-B) based air traffic control system. As conclusions, the proposed methodology assured to assess CNS/ATM system safety properties, in which FSPN formalism provides important modeling capabilities, and discrete event simulation allowing the estimation of the desired safety metric.

  15. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  16. Investigating the relationship between jobs-housing balance and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengcheng; Li, Haojie; Zhao, Jingya; Chen, Jun; Wang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of jobs-housing balance on traffic safety. The crash, demographic characteristics, employment, road network, household characteristics and traffic data were collected from the Los Angeles in 2010. One-way ANOVA tests indicated that the jobs-housing ratio significantly affects traffic safety in terms of crash frequency at traffic analysis zone (TAZ). To quantify the safety impacts of jobs-housing balance, the semi-parametric geographically weighted Poisson regression (S-GWPR) was further used to link crash frequency at TAZ with jobs-housing ratio and other contributing factors. The S-GWPR provides better fitness to the data than do the generalized linear regression, as the S-GWPR accounts for the spatial heterogeneity. The S-GWPR results showed that the jobs-housing relationship has a significant association with crash frequency at TAZ when the factors of traffic, network, and household characteristics are controlled. Crash frequency at TAZ level increases with an increase in the jobs-housing ratio. To further investigate the interactive effects between jobs-housing ratio and other factors, a comparative analysis was conducted to compare the variable elasticities under different jobs-housing ratios. The results indicate considerable interactive effects that traffic conditions and road network characteristics have different effects on crash frequency under various jobs-housing ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A review of the effect of traffic and weather characteristics on road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George

    2014-11-01

    Taking into consideration the increasing availability of real-time traffic data and stimulated by the importance of proactive safety management, this paper attempts to provide a review of the effect of traffic and weather characteristics on road safety, identify the gaps and discuss the needs for further research. Despite the existence of generally mixed evidence on the effect of traffic parameters, a few patterns can be observed. For instance, traffic flow seems to have a non-linear relationship with accident rates, even though some studies suggest linear relationship with accidents. On the other hand, increased speed limits have found to have a straightforward positive relationship with accident occurrence. Regarding weather effects, the effect of precipitation is quite consistent and leads generally to increased accident frequency but does not seem to have a consistent effect on severity. The impact of other weather parameters on safety, such as visibility, wind speed and temperature is not found straightforward so far. The increasing use of real-time data not only makes easier to identify the safety impact of traffic and weather characteristics, but most importantly makes possible the identification of their combined effect. The more systematic use of these real-time data may address several of the research gaps identified in this research.

  18. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  19. INFLUENCE OF PLANNING, ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND REGULATION ON ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF PEDESTRIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharenok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on planning, organizational characteristics and regulation modes at  the regulated pedestrian crossings, located out of crossroads in the street and road network of Minsk. Some regularities pertaining to the influence of the investigated characteristics on road traffic safety of pedestrians are revealed in the paper. Practical offers on increase of road traffic safety of pedestrians in the Republic of Belarus have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations and cited in the paper. 

  20. Culture related to road traffic safety: a comparison of eight countries using two conceptualizations of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Şimşekoğlu, Özlem; Rundmo, Torbjorn

    2014-01-01

    The majority of previous cross-country studies of human factors relevant to traffic safety have not operationalized and measured culture. Also studies in this vein have mostly been carried out in Europe and the United States. The aim of the study was to examine country cluster differences, based on the Culture's Consequences framework, in road traffic risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in samples from Norway, Russia, India, Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda, Turkey and Iran. An additional aim was to examine cluster differences in road traffic culture as symbol use and to investigate whether this theoretical cultural framework predicts risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in the country clusters. The sample consisted of a total of 2418 individuals who were obtained by convenience sampling in the different countries. The countries segmented into four Culture's Consequences clusters; Norway, Russia and India, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Near East countries. The findings showed that Norwegians reported overall safer attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour than the remaining country clusters. Individuals in Africa reported the highest risk perception. The countries also differed substantially in road traffic culture as symbol use. Contrary to established cultural theory, prediction models revealed that cultural factors were stronger predictors of driver behaviour than of risk perception. Also, the social cognitive risk constructs (i.e. risk perception and attitudes) solely explained variance in driver behaviour in the Norwegian and Russia/India clusters. Previous empirical efforts, which aimed to demonstrate that culture is important for the risk perception criterion, may have focused on a criterion variable that is not strongly related to driver behaviour. Furthermore, countermeasures aimed to influence social cognition may have stronger applicability in countries with a more individualistic western

  1. 78 FR 43091 - Technical Operations Safety Action Program (T-SAP) and Air Traffic Safety Action Program (ATSAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Action Program (T-SAP) and Air Traffic Safety Action Program (ATSAP) AGENCY: Federal Aviation... under the T-SAP, established in Notice JO 7210.807 which will be incorporated in FAA Order JO 7200.20... voluntarily provide information to the FAA under the T-SAP and ATSAP, so the FAA can learn about and address...

  2. Distinguishing traffic modes in analysing road safety development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, H. & Berends, E.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in mobility influence road safety. The effects of safety measures may even be overshadowed by the effects of temporary mobility fluctuations. Usually mobility is corrected for by defining risk as the ratio between fatalities and mobility. Due to lack of sufficient data, mobility is often

  3. Time Headway Modelling of Motorcycle-Dominated Traffic to Analyse Traffic Safety Performance and Road Link Capacity of Single Carriageways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Priyantha Wedagama

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop time headway distribution models to analyse traffic safety performance and road link capacities for motorcycle-dominated traffic in Denpasar, Bali. Three road links selected as the case study are Jl. Hayam Wuruk, Jl.Hang Tuah, and Jl. Padma. Data analysis showed that between 55%-80% of motorists in Denpasar during morning and evening peak hours paid less attention to the safe distance with the vehicles in front. The study found that Lognormal distribution models are best to fit time headway data during morning peak hours while either Weibull (3P or Pearson III distributions is for evening peak hours. Road link capacities for mixed traffic predominantly motorcycles are apparently affected by the behaviour of motorists in keeping safe distance with the vehicles in front. Theoretical road link capacities for Jl. Hayam Wuruk, Jl. Hang Tuah and Jl. Padma are 3,186 vehicles/hour, 3,077 vehicles/hour and 1935 vehicles/hour respectively.

  4. Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    In the light of the serious road accident that occurred on 3 February 2008, you are reminded that: the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events; failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him to abandon his vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade...

  5. Reminder: Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2011-01-01

    You are reminded that: - the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; - the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events (Operational Circular No. 8); - failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him/her to abandon the vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he/she submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade. They will also stop and question any obviously intoxicate...

  6. Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    In the light of the serious road accident that occurred on 3 February 2008, you are reminded that: the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events; failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him to abandon his vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade...

  7. Influence of geometric design characteristics on safety under heterogeneous traffic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vayalamkuzhi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on analysing the influence of geometric design characteristics on traffic safety using bi-directional data on a divided roadway operated under heterogeneous traffic conditions in India. The study was carried out on a four lane divided inter-city highway in plain and rolling terrain. Statistical modelling approach by Poisson regression and Negative binomial regression were used to assess the safety performance as occurrence of crashes are random events and to identify the influence of the geometric design variables on the crash frequency. Negative binomial regression model was found to be more suitable to identify the variables contributing to road crashes. The study enabled better understanding of the factors related to road geometrics that influence road crash frequency. The study also established that operating speed has a significant contribution to the total number of crashes. Negative binomial models are found to be appropriate to predict road crashes on divided roadways under heterogeneous traffic conditions.

  8. A mathematical theory for related long term developments of road traffic and safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S. & Koornstra, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents and discusses an adoptive evolution model for forecasting long term developments in road safety. It takes into account both traffic growth and human adaptation. Earlier parsimonious models such as those used here are also discussed, and shown to predict trends in accident rates

  9. Ships in an Artificial Force Field: A Multi-agent System for Nautical Traffic and Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, F.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is developing a simulation tool that provides information of detailed ship behavior in a specific navigational environment, on both the ship traffic level and the individual ship level, for safety analysis, decision making, planning of ports and waterways, and des

  10. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Paul; Heinen, Eva; Methorst, Rob; Wegman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urba

  11. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Heinen, E. Methorst, R. & Wegman, F.

    2015-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urba

  12. Infrastructure Measures versus ADAS for Traffic Safety - Application of the Grey Relational Analysis Evaluation Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, M.; Wevers, K.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Marchau, V.A.W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Two of the main approaches to improve traffic safety are extensive redesign of the physical road infrastructure and large-scale implementation of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). These strategies are to a large extent substitutes, but also partly complementary. This paper determines strate

  13. Development of a Junior High School Module in Alcohol Education and Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Teachers College.

    Five 45-minute teaching units for junior high school students on alcohol education and traffic safety are presented. Lesson I examines alcohol as a drug. Activities include a question-answer survey, a film, and a game. Assignments are a "find the word" game and an evaluation of an advertisement for an alcoholic beverage. Lesson II considers…

  14. ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY AUDIT AT LOCAL OBJECT OF MINSK ROADWAY NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kapsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available population of the Republic. Quality of the road traffic or its specific characteristics can be quantitatively estimated  in terms of losses and by that we understand social and economic value of non-obligatory expenses in road traffic. That is why any decision on road traffic organization must be estimated and optimized in accordance with its loss minimization criterion (accidental, economic and ecological.Research and Development Centre for Road Traffic at the BNTU Branch - “Research Division” has developed loss methodology in road traffic for  conflict objects – roads crossings and speed cushions. Such approach has made it possible to compare two alternative options for organization of road traffic at conflict objects. The paper considers an example of selection and substantiation of the accepted decision for an uncontrolled  T-junction with closely located pedestrian crossing in the Ya. Kolas Street, Building 12, Minsk. Planning and organizational and technical measures that increase road traffic safety and decrease economic and ecological losses have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations. The investigations and analysis of the existing conditions of the road traffic at the uncontrolled Ya.Kolas Street –Ya.Kolas off-street junction have revealed that the rate of total losses in the road traffic constitutes   nearly 92,000 c.u./year, including accidental losses – 7,900 c.u./year. Realization of the developed measures will permit to reduce the rate of accidental losses at pedestrian crossing approximately by 4,400 c.u./year with reduction of accidents by 50–55 %

  15. K9的由来

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张四峰

    2015-01-01

    <正>K9在美国、俄罗斯等国,是一个非常大众化的用词。实际上,"K9"就是指警犬和军犬。这个称呼还有一段来历。第二次世界大战时,美国看到第一次世界大战期间军犬在战场上发挥的巨大作用,于是也开始组建自己的拥有2万只军犬的特种部队,用于执行侦察、放哨、探测地雷、警卫等军事任务。但是,如何给这支部队编号呢?于是就有人想到犬的英文单词Canine的谐音K9。这个编号深受官方和公众的欢迎,很快就风靡开来。在美

  16. Classroom instruction versus roadside training in traffic safety education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schagen, I; Rothengatter, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of different approaches to training complex cognitive and psychomotor skills within the framework of road safety education for primary school children. A method involving roadside behavioral training, a classroom instruction method and a method combining these t

  17. Classroom instruction versus roadside training in traffic safety education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schagen, I; Rothengatter, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of different approaches to training complex cognitive and psychomotor skills within the framework of road safety education for primary school children. A method involving roadside behavioral training, a classroom instruction method and a method combining these

  18. Traffic Safety of Older Drivers in Various Types of Road Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Tollazzi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries people over 50 years of age represent a rapidly growing part of population. Their lifestyle is also becoming more active, which means that the percentage of older drivers in the population of all drivers is also increasing. Many different studies have shown that elderly drivers are more frequently involved in specific types of accidents, especially at intersections. In the past 15 years there was a trend of increasing popularity of roundabouts in Slovenia. Their introduction was generally supported by the arguments of increased traffic-flow capacity and traffic safety as well. The studies on which these arguments are based were performed with an “ideal” type of driver in mind; the one that fully understands new rules and reacts correctly in all situations that may occur at such intersections, where there are no light signals to guide them. An elderly person does not necessarily conform to that ideal and if the percentage of elderly drivers became significant, the premises of the above mentioned studies may not be correct anymore which in turn implies that their results could also be questioned. The present study concentrated on the evaluation of traffic safety of elderly drivers, at various types of intersection, from their own perspective. Various statistical analyses of obtained data were performed. The most important finding was that we may claim, with high degree of probability, that the average person of the age of over 60 feels more unsafe at double-lane roundabouts than they would feel had the same intersection been equipped with traffic lights. Elderly traffic participants will always cause more accidents or participate in them due to hazardous factors. Challenge, arising from many different studies and researches, is in studying what measures and solutions can reduce the risk for elderly participants. KEYWORDS: traffic safety, road intersections, roundabouts, elderly people, older drivers

  19. Traffic safety and step-by-step driving licence for young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Young novice car drivers are much more accident-prone than other drivers – up to 10 times that of their parents’ generation. A central solution to improve the traffic safety for this group is implementation of a step-by-step driving licence. A number of countries have introduced a step...... presents a review of safety effects from step-by-step driving licence schemes. Most of the investigated schemes consist of a step-by-step driving licence with Step 1) various tests and education, Step 2) a period where driving is only allowed together with an experienced driver and Step 3) driving without...... companion is allowed but with various restrictions and, in some cases, additional driving education and tests. In general, a step-by-step driving licence improves traffic safety even though the young people are permitted to drive a car earlier on. The effects from driving with an experienced driver vary...

  20. Sleep disorders, sleepiness and traffic safety: a public health menace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Pandi-Perumal

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disorders are not uncommon and have been widely reported throughout the world. They have a profound impact on industrialized 24-h societies. Consequences of these problems include impaired social and recreational activities, increased human errors, loss of productivity, and elevated risk of accidents. Conditions such as acute and chronic insomnia, sleep loss, excessive sleepiness, shift-work, jet lag, narcolepsy, and sleep apnea warrant public health attention, since residual sleepiness during the day may affect performance of daily activities such as driving a car. Benzodiazepine hypnotics and zopiclone promote sleep, both having residual effects the following day including sleepiness and reduced alertness. In contrast, the non-benzodiazepine hypnotics zolpidem and zaleplon have no significant next-day residual effects when taken as recommended. Research on the effects of wakefulness-promoting drugs on driving ability is limited. Countermeasures for excessive daytime sleepiness have a limited effect. There is a need for a social awareness program to educate the public about the potential consequences of various sleep disorders such as narcolepsy, sleep apnea, shift-work-related sleep loss, and excessive daytime sleepiness in order to reduce the number of sleep-related traffic accidents.

  1. K9巡逻队

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱英

    2015-01-01

    某警察局以其精锐的警犬部队(即K9巡逻队)而闻名,但在最近的一次行动中却遭遇了尴尬。一个金发女子下班回到家中,发现自己的家被洗劫一空,感到非常震惊。她立即打电话向警察局报案。

  2. TRAFFIC CONTROLLED-DEDICATED SHORT RANGE COMMUNICATION: A SECURE COMMUNICATION USING TRAFFIC CONTROLLED DEDICATED SHORT RANGE COMMUNICATION MODEL IN VEHICULAR AD HOC NETWORKS FOR SAFETY RELATED SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chandramohan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the road safety and secure communication among the vehicles in the network environment, Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC is followed. Nowadays, research over DSRC is dramatically increased for enhancing the road safety applications. The main task of DSRC is to protect the vehicles by communicating the warning message regarding the vehicle changing conditions, traffic occurrence and dangers over the road in the network. So, it is necessary to maintain the accurate communication timely with high reliability by implementing the appropriate protocol. In the literature there are several methods which provided specifications defined in the physical layer and the Medium Access Control (MAC layer. In those methods, current IEEE 802.11p MAC is not able to provide predictable Quality of Service (QoS for high-priority safety services. Motivated by the fact that the existing work provided three levels of safety-related broadcast services, but did not focus on current traffic load conditions, in this study, we plan to present Traffic Controlled DSRC (TC-DSRC model to analyze and categorize the traffic patterns in the vehicular communication for safety related application. A new algorithm is presented to evaluate the process of traffic controlled DSRC model for secure communication in VANET. The dedicated short range communication broadcast of messages is sent to all the vehicles at a specific instance for defined radius on the traffic zone. Multiple traffic load conditions are categorically stated to handle the vehicular safety with quick response time. Integrating these two performance metrics (i.e., quick response time and security, by using the proposed algorithm, the traffic patterns are categorized for communication between vehicles to provide the safety measure. In addition, our proposed scheme with the categorization using traffic patterns improves the network performance by deriving a specific pattern. Compared with the recent

  3. Traffic safety and step-by-step driving licence for young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the traffic safety, the Danish Government considered introducing and afterwards implemented a step-by-step driving licence for young drivers. Due to this topicality a literature review on the experiences from step-by-step driving licence for young drivers was conducted. All...... investigated studies show that young people are heavily overrepresented in traffic accident statistics. This is partly due to lack of experience, but also due to poor understanding of the risks involving actions taken in traffic. In order to prevent this, a number of countries have started introducing a step......-by-step driving licence for young drivers. The initiatives in the various countries are the young people driving with an adult, limitations to when and where they may drive, limitations to the number of passengers and their age along with a number of tests and interviews in connection with acquiring the step...

  4. Safety concepts for the design of transport and traffic facilities for pedestrians, cyclists, children and disabled in urban areas. Contribution to the 5th National Congress on Traffic Safety, Barcelona, Spain, November 24-26, 1982.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E.

    1982-01-01

    The "vulnerable" road users, pedestrians, cyclists, children and disabled in urban -areas mainly are victims of motorised traffic. The intensity and speed of this motorized traffic are the main agents for the unsafety of the "vulnerable" road users. Safety concepts for urban areas should be directed

  5. A Reputation System for Traffic Safety Event on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Chien Tsai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic safety applications on vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have drawn a lot of attention in recent years with their promising functions on car accident reduction, real-time traffic information support, and enhancement of comfortable driving experience on roadways. However, an inaccurate traffic warning message will impact drivers' decisions, waste drivers' time and fuel in their vehicles, and even invoke serious car accidents. To enable eco-friendly driving VANET environments, that is, to save fuel and time in this context, we proposed an event-based reputation system to prevent the spread of false traffic warning messages. In this system, a dynamic reputation evaluation mechanism is introduced to determine whether an incoming traffic message is significant and trustworthy to the driver. The proposed system is characterized and evaluated through experimental simulations. The simulation results show that, with a proper reputation adaptation mechanism and appropriate threshold settings, our proposed system can effectively prevent false messages spread on various VANET environments.

  6. Multi-scale traffic safety and operational performance study of large trucks on mountainous interstate highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Suren; Chen, Feng; Wu, Jun

    2011-01-01

    In addition to multi-vehicle accidents, large trucks are also prone to single-vehicle accidents on the mountainous interstate highways due to the complex terrain and fast-changing weather. By integrating both historical data analysis and simulations, a multi-scale approach is developed to evaluate the traffic safety and operational performance of large trucks on mountainous interstate highways in both scales of individual vehicle as well as traffic on the whole highway. A typical mountainous highway in Colorado is studied for demonstration purposes. Firstly, the ten-year historical accident records are analyzed to identify the accident-vulnerable-locations (AVLs) and site-specific critical adverse driving conditions. Secondly, simulation-based single-vehicle assessment is performed for different driving conditions at those AVLs along the whole corridor. Finally, the cellular-automaton (CA)-based simulation is carried out to evaluate the multi-vehicle traffic safety as well as the operational performance of the traffic by considering the actual speed limits, including the differential speed limits (DSL) at some locations. It is found that the multi-scale approach can provide insightful and comprehensive observations of the highway performance, which is especially important for mountainous highways.

  7. Traffic safety and step-by-step driving licence for young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Young novice car drivers are much more accident-prone than other drivers - up to 10 times that of their parents' generation. A central solution to improve the traffic safety for this group is implementation of a step-by-step driving licence. A number of countries have introduced a step...... companion is allowed but with various restrictions and, in some cases, additional driving education and tests. In general, a step-by-step driving licence improves traffic safety even though the young people are permitted to drive a car earlier on. The effects from driving with an experienced driver vary...... with effects of up to 40% reduced accident risk, but there is a markedly reduced effect, the older the novice drivers are when they initiate the driving education. In some cases, step 3 is found to reduce accident risk with up to 61%. As the Danish trial includes an additional step 2, and only drivers from 17...

  8. Analysis of Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements for Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczo, Stefan, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Safety analyses of the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) application are provided to establish its Failure Effects Classification which affects certification and operational approval requirements. TASAR was developed by NASA Langley Research Center to offer flight path improvement opportunities to the pilot during flight for operational benefits (e.g., reduced fuel, flight time). TASAR, using own-ship and network-enabled information concerning the flight and its environment, including weather and Air Traffic Control (ATC) system constraints, provides recommended improvements to the flight trajectory that the pilot can choose to request via Change Requests to ATC for revised clearance. This study reviews the Change Request process of requesting updates to the current clearance, examines the intended function of TASAR, and utilizes two safety assessment methods to establish the Failure Effects Classification of TASAR. Considerable attention has been given in this report to the identification of operational hazards potentially associated with TASAR.

  9. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security networks, air traffic and emergency departments

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the roles of intelligent agents in networks, air traffic and emergency departments, this volume focuses on congestion in systems where safety and security are at stake, devoting special attention to applying game theoretic analysis of congestion to: protocols in wired and wireless networks; power generation, air transportation and emergency department overcrowding. Reviewing exhaustively the key recent research into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding, and safety and security elements, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between the different research approaches and serves to lay the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both way...

  10. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security traffic and transportation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding and safety and security elements in traffic and transportation theory, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between different research approaches and through laying the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both ways – this book puts forward new congestion models, breaking new ground by introducing game theory and safety/security. Addressing the multiple actors who may hold different concerns regarding system reliability; e.g. one or several terrorists, a government, various local or regional government agencies, or others with stakes for or against system reliability, this book describes how ...

  11. Road Safety Information System RIS : key information supporting traffic safety policy in The Netherlands. Contribution to the conference `Traffic safety on two continents', Lisbon, Portugal, September 22-24, 1997.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M.

    1997-01-01

    SWOV supports traffic safety policy on a national and regional level with a user friendly computer system, bringing key information to the users' desks. This paper focuses on the following questions: what were the problems to be solved; what are the benefits of accurate and relevant information to p

  12. The Ex Hoc Infrastructure - Enhancing Traffic Safety through LIfe WArning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Eskildsen, Toke

    2004-01-01

    New pervasive computing technologies for sensing and communication open up novel possibilities for enhancing traffic safety. We are currently designing and implementing the Ex Hoc infrastructure framework for communication among mobile and stationary units including vehicles. The infrastructure...... will connect sensing devices on vehicles with sensing devices on other vehicles and with stationary communication units placed alongside roads. The current application of Ex Hoc is to enable the collection and dissemination of information on road condition through LIfe Warning Systems (LIWAS) units....

  13. The Ex Hoc Infrastructure - Enhancing Traffic Safety through LIfe WArning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Kristensen, Lars Michael; Eskildsen, Toke;

    2004-01-01

    New pervasive computing technologies for sensing and communication open up novel possibilities for enhancing traffic safety. We are currently designing and implementing the Ex Hoc infrastructure framework for communication among mobile and stationary units including vehicles. The infrastructure...... will connect sensing devices on vehicles with sensing devices on other vehicles and with stationary communication units placed alongside roads. The current application of Ex Hoc is to enable the collection and dissemination of information on road condition through LIfe Warning Systems (LIWAS) units....

  14. Driver’s Attitudes about the Impact of Caffeine and Energy Drinks on Road Traffic Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Dalibor Pešić; Boris Antić; Davor Brčić; Jelica Davidović

    2015-01-01

    Large amounts of energy drinks and caffeine, which is the main ingredient of energy drinks, produce a negative effect on the drivers, and therefore affect traffic safety.In order to determine the attitudes of drivers toward the impact of energy drinks and caffeine, a research was conducted using a questionnaire form and the targeted group of the survey were drivers. The research was conducted in the City of Belgrade in December 2012. There were 420 survey papers distributed to drivers of diff...

  15. Brochure "towards a sustainable safe traffic system in the Netherlands : National Road Safety Investigation 1990-2010".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research

    1995-01-01

    The Netherlands is one of the safety countries on earth when it comes to traffic on the road. Nevertheless, the Dutch government has set road safety targets: 50% fewer fatalities and 40% fewer hospital admissions resulting from road accidents by the year 2010. The SWOV Institute for Road Safety Rese

  16. Road accident rates: strategies and programmes for improving road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, K; Goniewicz, M; Pawłowski, W; Fiedor, P

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the problem of road accident rates is one of the most important health and social policy issues concerning the countries in all continents. Each year, nearly 1.3 million people worldwide lose their life on roads, and 20-50 million sustain severe injuries, the majority of which require long-term treatment. The objective of the study was to identify the most frequent, constantly occurring causes of road accidents, as well as outline actions constituting a basis for the strategies and programmes aiming at improving traffic safety on local and global levels. Comparative analysis of literature concerning road safety was performed, confirming that although road accidents had a varied and frequently complex background, their causes have changed only to a small degree over the years. The causes include: lack of control and enforcement concerning implementation of traffic regulation (primarily driving at excessive speed, driving under the influence of alcohol, and not respecting the rights of other road users (mainly pedestrians and cyclists), lack of appropriate infrastructure and unroadworthy vehicles. The number of fatal accidents and severe injuries, resulting from road accidents, may be reduced through applying an integrated approach to safety on roads. The strategies and programmes for improving road traffic should include the following measures: reducing the risk of exposure to an accident, prevention of accidents, reduction in bodily injuries sustained in accidents, and reduction of the effects of injuries by improvement of post-accident medical care.

  17. Investigation of the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures on road safety in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Kondyli, Alexandra; Georgopoulou, Xenia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures (LCTEMs) on the improvement of road safety in urban areas. A number of such measures were considered, such as speed humps, woonerfs, raised intersections and other traffic calming measures, which have been implemented on one-way, one-lane roads in the Municipality of Neo Psychiko in the Greater Athens Area. Data were analysed using the before-and-after safety analysis methodology with large control group. The selected control group comprised of two Municipalities in the Athens Greater Area, which present similar road network and land use characteristics with the area considered. The application of the methodology showed that the total number of crashes presented a statistically significant reduction, which can be possibly attributed to the introduction of LCTEMs. This reduction concerns passenger cars and single-vehicle crashes and is possibly due to the behavioural improvement of drivers of 25 years old or more. The results of this research are very useful for the identification of the appropriate low cost traffic engineering countermeasures for road safety problems in urban areas.

  18. Role of street patterns in zone-based traffic safety analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭强; 裴欣; 姚丹亚; 黄仕进

    2015-01-01

    Although extensive analyses of road segments and intersections located in urban road networks have examined the role of many factors that contribute to the frequency and severity of crashes, the explicit relationship between street pattern characteristics and traffic safety remains underexplored. Based on a zone-based Hong Kong database, the Space Syntax was used to quantify the topological characteristics of street patterns and investigate the role of street patterns and zone-related factors in zone-based traffic safety analysis. A joint probability model was adopted to analyze crash frequency and severity in an integrated modeling framework and the maximum likelihood estimation method was used to estimate the parameters. In addition to the characteristics of street patterns, speed, road geometry, land-use patterns, and temporal factors were considered. The vehicle hours was also included as an exposure proxy in the model to make crash frequency predictions. The results indicate that the joint probability model can reveal the relationship between zone-based traffic safety and various other factors, and that street pattern characteristics play an important role in crash frequency prediction.

  19. Safety and accessibility effects of code modifications and traffic calming of an arterial road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leden, Lars; Wikström, Per-Erik; Gårder, Per; Rosander, Peter

    2006-05-01

    The European Road E12 through the community center of Storuman, Sweden was reconstructed in 1999 and 2000. Pedestrian walkways, traffic islands, chicanes of a type referred to as "Danish buns", a roundabout and a two-directional cycle track along the E12 were installed. The purpose of the reconstruction was to improve safety for pedestrians and bicyclists, primarily for children, the elderly and the disabled, and to reduce the barrier effect of the E12 thoroughfare. In May 2000, the code governing the conduct of drivers at marked crosswalks in Sweden became stricter to improve safety and mobility for pedestrians. The combined effect of reconstructions and change of code was analyzed. Traffic behavior was studied at the intersection where the roundabout was constructed. Yield behavior towards pedestrians changed significantly. The difference was even greater with respect to yielding to child bicyclists - from 6% before to 84% after - even though the code change only related to pedestrians. Crash data analysis suggests a minor increase in fall injuries after reconstructions and change of code. Measures of speed, behavioral studies, questionnaires, face-to-face interviews and crash data analysis suggest that safety has increased not only along the E12 but also along adjacent roads. The final conclusion is that a bypass is not needed in a case like Storuman. Traffic calming of the main arterial through the town seems sufficient.

  20. Real-Time Communication Support for Cooperative, Infrastructure-Based Traffic Safety Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Böhm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems services offers great potential to improve the level of safety, efficiency and comfort on our roads. Although cooperative traffic safety applications rely heavily on the support for real-time communication, the Medium Access Control (MAC mechanism proposed for the upcoming IEEE 802.11p standard, intended for ITS applications, does not offer deterministic real-time support, that is, the access delay to the common radio channel is not upper bounded. To address this problem, we present a framework for a vehicle-to-infrastructure-based (V2I communication solution extending IEEE 802.11p by introducing a collision-free MAC phase assigning each vehicle an individual priority based on its geographical position, its proximity to potential hazards and the overall road traffic density. Our solution is able to guarantee the timely treatment of safety-critical data, while minimizing the required length of this real-time MAC phase and freeing bandwidth for best-effort services (targeting improved driving comfort and traffic efficiency. Furthermore, we target fast connection setup, associating a passing vehicle to an RSU (Road Side Unit, and proactive handover between widely spaced RSUs. Our real-time MAC concept is evaluated analytically and by simulation based on a realistic task set from a V2I highway merge assistance scenario.

  1. Safety Impacts of Push-Button and Countdown Timer on Nonmotorized Traffic at Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the random parameters negative binominal model to investigate safety impacts of push-button and countdown timer on pedestrians and cyclists at urban intersections. To account for possible unobserved heterogeneity which could vary from one intersection to another, random parameters model is introduced. A simulation-based maximum likelihood method using Halton draws is applied to estimate the maximum likelihood of random parameters in the model. Dataset containing pedestrians’ and cyclists’ crash data of 1,001 intersections from Chicago is utilized to establish the statistical relationship between crash frequencies and potential impact factors. LIMDEP (Version 9.0 statistical package is utilized for modeling. The parameter estimation results indicate that existence of push-button and countdown timer could significantly reduce crash frequencies of pedestrians and cyclists at intersections. Increasing number of through traffic lanes, left turn lanes, and ratio of major direction AADT to minor direction AADT, tend to increase crash frequencies. Annual average daily left turn traffic has a negative impact on pedestrians’ safety, but its impact on cyclists’ crash frequency is statistically insignificant at 90% confidence level. The results of current study could provide important insights for nonmotorized traffic safety improvement projects in both planning and operational levels.

  2. Assessment of Traffic Safety State of Ship Based on Unascertained Measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Ai-yuan; ZHAO Yao

    2007-01-01

    Using the theory and method of unascertained measure, an unascertained measure model and the related confidence rule are established to assess the safety state of ship. Thus, the dangerous factors in the hull system can be identified, and the accident possibility, loss, and injury degree can be forcasted. An application result shows that the the proposed method is effective in assessment of the traffic safety of ships, and it is more simple in computation than the fuzzy synthetic evaluation method. The proposed method can provide a scientific basis for realizing shipping transportation security and formulating preventive measures.

  3. Towards the development of a scientifically accountable, comprehensive and integrated national road traffic safety databank in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mynhardt, DC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transport Conference, CSIR Convention Centre, Pretoria, 7-10 July 2014 Towards the development of a scientifically accountable, comprehensive and integrated national road traffic safety databank in South Africa D. C. MYNHARDT Council for Scientific...

  4. Multi-agent dynamic traffic management for safeguarding traffic throughput and/or environmental and safety qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immers, L.H.; Tampere, C.M.J.; Stada, J.; Janssens, B.

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly traffic management measures exhibit dynamic features, thus taking into account dynamics in the traffic demand pattern or transport system supply pattern. Some examples are demand actuated traffic signal settings or variable message signs. In most cases these measures are functioning as

  5. Urban planning, traffic planning and traffic safety of pedestrians and cyclists : report presented to the 1979 Road Research Symposium on Safety of Pedestrians and Cyclists, OECD Headquarters, Paris, 14-16 May 1979. Session III: Physical Countermeasures; Subsession III.1: Urban planning and traffic planning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1979-01-01

    The traffic safety of pedestrians and cyclists can be improved by means of urban planning and traffic planning, as one of the possibilities. This paper discusses the framework of these measures and activities and also the effects on the field of traffic planning. Chapter I show that it is not

  6. An Abstract Model for Proving Safety of Multi-lane Traffic Manoeuvres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilscher, Martin; Linker, Sven; Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to prove safety (collision freedom) of multi-lane motorway traffic with lane-change manoeuvres. This is ultimately a hybrid verification problem due to the continuous dynamics of the cars. We abstract from the dynamics by introducing a new spatial interval logic based...... on the view of each car. To guarantee safety, we present two variants of a lane-change controller, one with perfect knowledge of the safety envelopes of neighbouring cars and one which takes only the size of the neighbouring cars into account. Based on these controllers we provide a local safety proof...... for unboundedly many cars by showing that at any moment the reserved space of each car is disjoint from the reserved space of any other car....

  7. Studies of vehicle lane-changing dynamics and its effect on traffic efficiency, safety and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2017-02-01

    Drivers often change lanes on the road to maintain desired speed and to avoid slow vehicles, pedestrians, obstacles and lane closure. Understanding the effect of lane-changing on the traffic is an important topic in designing optimal traffic control systems. This paper presents a comprehensive study of this topic. We review the theory of microscopic dynamic car-following models and the lane-changing models, propose additional lane-changing rules to deal with moving bottleneck and lane reduction, and investigate the effects of lane-changing on the traffic efficiency, traffic safety and fuel consumption as a function of different variables including the distance of the emergency sign ahead of the lane closure, speed limit, traffic density, etc. Extensive simulations of the traffic system have been carried out in different scenarios. A number of important findings of the effect of various factors on the traffic are reported. These findings provide guidance on the traffic management and are important to the designers and engineers of modern highway or inner city roads to achieve high traffic efficiency and safety with minimum environmental impact.

  8. Alternative method of highway traffic safety analysis for developing countries using delphi technique and Bayesian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbakwe, Anthony C; Saka, Anthony A; Choi, Keechoo; Lee, Young-Jae

    2016-08-01

    Highway traffic accidents all over the world result in more than 1.3 million fatalities annually. An alarming number of these fatalities occurs in developing countries. There are many risk factors that are associated with frequent accidents, heavy loss of lives, and property damage in developing countries. Unfortunately, poor record keeping practices are very difficult obstacle to overcome in striving to obtain a near accurate casualty and safety data. In light of the fact that there are numerous accident causes, any attempts to curb the escalating death and injury rates in developing countries must include the identification of the primary accident causes. This paper, therefore, seeks to show that the Delphi Technique is a suitable alternative method that can be exploited in generating highway traffic accident data through which the major accident causes can be identified. In order to authenticate the technique used, Korea, a country that underwent similar problems when it was in its early stages of development in addition to the availability of excellent highway safety records in its database, is chosen and utilized for this purpose. Validation of the methodology confirms the technique is suitable for application in developing countries. Furthermore, the Delphi Technique, in combination with the Bayesian Network Model, is utilized in modeling highway traffic accidents and forecasting accident rates in the countries of research.

  9. Evaluating the efficiency of local municipalities in providing traffic safety using the Data Envelopment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Doron; Sinuany-Stern, Zilla; Shinar, David

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative efficiency of 197 local municipalities in traffic safety in Israel during 2004-2009, using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). DEA efficiency is based on multiple inputs and multiple outputs, when their weights are unknown. We used here inputs reflecting the resources allocated to the local municipalities (such as funding), outputs include measures that reflect reductions in accidents (such as accidents per population), and intermediate variables known as safety performance indicators (SPI): measures that are theoretically linked to crash and injury reductions (such as use of safety belts). Some of the outputs are undesirable. Using DEA, the local municipalities were rank-scaled from the most efficient to the least efficient and required improvements for inefficient municipalities were calculated. We found that most of the improvements were required in two intermediate variables related to citations for traffic violations. Several DEA versions were used including a two-stage model where in the first stage the intermediate variables are the outputs, and in the second stage they are the inputs. Further analyses utilizing multiple regressions were performed to verify the effect of various demographic parameters on the efficiency of the municipalities. The demographic parameters tested for each local municipality were related to the size, age, and socio-economic level of the population. The most significant environmental variable affecting the efficiency of local municipalities in preventing road accidents is the population size of the local authority; the size has a negative effect on the efficiency. As far as we could determine, this is the first time that the DEA is used to measure the efficiency of local municipalities in improving traffic safety.

  10. Development of a Driving Risk Model Based on Speed Choice: A Case Study to Evaluate the Safety Effects of In-Vehicle Traffic Warning Information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KIM, Wonchul; ZHANG, Junyi; FUJIWARA, Akimasa

    2016-01-01

    .... Speed data were collected via an on-site driving experiment on the Sanyo Expressway in Hiroshima Prefecture in Japan in 2009 to examine the impact of in-vehicle traffic warning information (IVTWI) on traffic safety...

  11. IMPROVEMENT OF TRAFFIC SAFETY BY ROAD-VEHICLE COOPERATIVE SMART CRUISE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio HOSAKA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Hopes have been pinned on the development of intelligent systems for road traffic as a way of solving road traffic safety and other such issues. To be sure, work is moving ahead with the incorporation of intelligent systems into automobiles but, with automobiles alone, there are limits in areas such as environment recognition. Compensation for the limits imposed by automobiles can be provided by the support given to environment recognition and related areas of road infrastructure. This paper examines the special features of vehicles and road infrastructure, and describes what role is played by roads and what role is played by vehicles. On the basis of the observations made, road-vehicle cooperative support systems called “smart cruise systems”, which are currently being developed, will be introduced and the expected effects of these systems will be outlined.

  12. Traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The number of road crashes, fatalities and injuries is considered unacceptably high in many countries. This can be derived, for example, from the fact that the European Commission (EC, 2010) announced the ambition of halving the overall number of road deaths in the European Union by 2020, starting f

  13. Safety aspects of urban infrastructure : from traffic humps to integrated urban planning. Paper presented to the International Conference on Traffic and Environmental Management in Cities, Prague, Czechoslovakia, 23-24 May 1989.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H. & Dijkstra, A.

    1989-01-01

    Many traffic and transport problems over the last 20 years have for a large part been caused by a strong increase in the ownership and use of motor cars. The core of this problem lies with the large amount of space taken up by motorised traffic, the danger to traffic safety, the experience of

  14. An Evaluation Scheme for Assessing the Effectiveness of Intersection Movement Assist (IMA) on Improving Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Ardiansyah, Nashir; Ye, Wei-Jyun

    2017-08-16

    Intersection Movement Assist (IMA) has been recognized as one of the prominent countermeasures to reduce angle crashes at intersections, which constitute 22 percent of total crashes in the US. Utilizing vehicle-based sensors, vehicle-to-vehicle (V2░V), and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications, IMA offers extended vision to provide early warning for an imminent crash. However, most of IMA related research implements their methods and strategies only in simulations, test tracks, or driving simulator studies that have quite a few assumptions and limitations, and hence the effectiveness evaluations reported may not be transferable or comparable. This study seeks to develop a generalized evaluation scheme that can be used not only to assess the effectiveness of IMA on improving traffic safety at intersections, but also to facilitate comparisons across similar studies. The proposed evaluation scheme utilizes the concepts of traffic conflict in terms of Time-to-collision (TTC) as a crash surrogate. This approach avoids the issue of having insufficient crash frequency data for system evaluation. To measure the effectiveness of IMA on reducing traffic conflicts, a relative risk is calculated for comparing the risk of with/without using the IMA. As a proof-of-concept study, this study applied the proposed evaluation scheme and reported the effectiveness of IMA on improving traffic safety in a Field Operation Test (FOT). Seven test scenarios were conducted at four intersections, and a total of 40 participants were recruited to use the IMA for six months. It was estimated that IMA users have 26 percent fewer conflicts with TTC less than five seconds, and have 15 percent fewer conflicts with TTC less than four seconds. However, the results vary across different sites and different definitions of conflicts in terms of TTC. Overall, IMA is promising to effectively reduce angle crashes related to sight obstruction, and has potential to reduce not only crash frequency

  15. Protection of victims and goods in the criminal offences against road traffic safety from the aspect of the environment‘s protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The new Law on Traffic Safety contains many novelties related to the protection of traffic participants. Special attention is paid to improving safety - passive safety of different categories of traffic participants. In respect to that, the regulations of the new Law represent a significant improvement in the comparison to the previously existing regulations in the field of traffic in our country. This paper will analyze the most important regulations related to improving the safety of different categories of traffic participants - the victims - from the aspect of environment, what is rarely mentioned and known because the regulations of environmental protection are for the first time included in the new Law on Traffic Safety. In particular, the problem of proving the cause of traffic accidents (crimes from the aspect of the environment will be emphasized in addition to numerous issues and problems faced by the police, public prosecutors and judges.

  16. Test and assessment method of Automotive Safety Systems (SSB) particularly to monitor traffic incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijanowski, B.; Łukjanow, S.; Burliński, R.

    2016-09-01

    The rapid development of telematics, particularly mobile telephony (GSM), wireless data transmission (GPRS) and satellite positioning (GPS) noticeable in the last decade, resulted in an almost unlimited growth of the possibilities for monitoring of mobile objects. These solutions are already widely used in the so-called “Intelligent Transport Systems” - ITS and affect a significant increase for road safety. The article describes a method of testing and evaluation of Car Safety Systems (Polish abbreviation - SSB) especially for monitoring traffic incidents, such as collisions and accidents. The algorithm of SSB testing process is also presented. Tests are performed on the dynamic test bench, part of which is movable platform with car security system mounted on it. Crash tests with a rigid obstacle are carried out instead of destructive attempts to crash test of the entire vehicle which is expensive. The tested system, depending on the simulated traffic conditions, is mounted in such a position and with the use of components, indicated by the manufacturer for the automotive safety system installation in a vehicle, for which it is intended. Then, the tests and assessments are carried out.

  17. Safety effects of traffic signing for left turn flashing yellow arrow signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schattler, Kerrie L; Gulla, Cody J; Wallenfang, Travis J; Burdett, Beau A; Lund, Jessica A

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, the left turn flashing yellow arrow (FYA) signal displays were installed at signalized intersections on state routes in the Peoria, Illinois, area. Supplemental traffic signs with text "Left Turn Yield on Flashing Yellow Arrow" were mounted on the mast arm adjacent to the left turn signal at over half of the FYA installations. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the effectiveness evaluation of the FYA supplemental sign on safety. Analyses are presented on the effects of the FYA supplemental sign for all drivers and a subset of drivers age 65 and older. A crash-based comparison of 164 FYA approaches including 90 approaches with the sign and 74 approaches without the sign showed greater crash reductions when the supplemental FYA sign was present. The results also showed that crashes involving drivers age 65 and older did not experience the same magnitudes of crash reductions as compared to all drivers. The findings of this research indicate that supplemental FYA signs may help in improving safety for left-turning vehicles during the permissive interval. Thus, it is recommended that supplemental signs be used when initially implementing the FYA, and that effort to educate the driving public on new traffic control be made to further improve safety at signalized intersections. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Accident Journalism and Traffic Safety Education: A Three-Phase Investigation of Accident Reporting in the Canadian Daily Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Gerald J. S.; Ackersviller, Melody J.

    A study examined the potential for development of a traffic accident-reporting form in the Canadian daily press that strengthens concern for road safety in the general population and enhances knowledge, attitudes, and behavior leading to greater safety. The investigation was conducted on three levels: a content analysis, a readership analysis, and…

  19. Long-Term Marine Traffic Monitoring for Environmental Safety in the Aegean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, T.; Gyftakis, S.; Charou, E.; Perantonis, S.; Nivolianitou, Z.; Koromila, I.; Makrygiorgos, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Aegean Sea is characterized by an extremely high marine safety risk, mainly due to the significant increase of the traffic of tankers from and to the Black Sea that pass through narrow straits formed by the 1600 Greek islands. Reducing the risk of a ship accident is therefore vital to all socio-economic and environmental sectors. This paper presents an online long-term marine traffic monitoring work-flow that focuses on extracting aggregated vessel risks using spatiotemporal analysis of multilayer information: vessel trajectories, vessel data, meteorological data, bathymetric / hydrographic data as well as information regarding environmentally important areas (e.g. protected high-risk areas, etc.). A web interface that enables user-friendly spatiotemporal queries is implemented at the frontend, while a series of data mining functionalities extracts aggregated statistics regarding: (a) marine risks and accident probabilities for particular areas (b) trajectories clustering information (c) general marine statistics (cargo types, etc.) and (d) correlation between spatial environmental importance and marine traffic risk. Towards this end, a set of data clustering and probabilistic graphical modelling techniques has been adopted.

  20. Use of K9 units in healthcare: a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnese, Paul M

    2016-01-01

    The use of K9 units within healthcare facilities will continue to increase as the violence within healthcare increases. K9s are a wise investment and are cost-effective. K9 units deter and prevent crime and violence at facilities. The typical K9 will be utilized for eight to ten years. The research demonstrates that facilities that have deployed K9 units have seen a reduction in crime and violence. A well trained K9 can not only patrol the exterior of a healthcare facility but also the patient care and service areas. As more hospitals and healthcare facilities look at non-lethal weapons to protect their officers, staff and guests, the use of K9 within healthcare will continue to rise.

  1. Importance of awareness in improving performance of emergency medical services (EMS) systems in enhancing traffic safety: A lesson from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Vinod; Singh, Preeti; Basu, Samyajit

    2016-10-02

    India has been slow in implementing a central emergency medical services (EMS) system across the country. "108 services" is one of the most popular services that is functional under the public-private partnership model. Limited available literature shows that despite access to services, many traffic crash victims are transported using private vehicles. The objective of this study is to understand the effectiveness of 108 services from a traffic safety perspective. A questionnaire survey is conducted to understand the awareness of EMS and their function. Using traffic-related fatalities as the dependent variable, a fixed effect panel data model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of the 108 services in improving the traffic safety. The results from the survey show that, in general, people are not aware of the 108 services. A majority of the population prefers taking victims to the hospital using their personal vehicles or any other vehicles available compared to calling an ambulance. Results from panel data analysis show that despite having an efficient system, these services failed to make significant improvement in the safety of road users in the states in which their services were subscribed. The lack of awareness of an important safety service is alarming. This could be a major reason for lower utilization of 108 services for transporting victims of traffic crashes. This article shows the importance of having efficient awareness campaigns to improve the efficiency of any similar programs that are aimed to enhance the safety of a region.

  2. Traffic safety program for school children through safe action and safe condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, Budi; Setiono, Mahmudah, Amirotul Musthofiah Hidayah; Santoso, Anjar Budi

    2017-06-01

    The facts indicate that the rights of pedestrians is on the wane. Many motorists are unwilling to provide a space for pedestrians, even when they want to cross the road at zebra-cross facility. The data of traffic accident in Surakarta City showed that 7.0% of accident victims in 2014 to 2015 were children aged 5-15 or the group of school-aged children. In general, the location of schools is on the edge of the road where a lot of vehicles run at high speed. Hence, it is very dangerous for the school children to cross the road. Pertaining to this issue, the Department of Transportation implements a program named School Safety Zone (ZoSS). ZoSS is a time-dependent speed control zone consisting of road markings, traffic signs, optional traffic signals, and rumble strips. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the ZoSS based on the perception of the users, including the students, teachers, parents, and community. This study was conducted through a series of activities including the distribution of questionnaire to obtain the road users' perceptions. The results showed that most of the respondents understood the meaning, aim, and benefit of ZoSS. However, it also found that traffic sign and method of cross the road (Four-T) was not recognized appropriately by the respondents. ZoSS program was generally ineffective since the pedestrians felt unsafe to cross the road due to the high-speed vehicles.

  3. Operationalizing an orthopedic action plan for the decade of road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Luke; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2014-01-01

    The decade of action for road traffic safety provides orthopaedic surgeons with an opportunity to contribute to policy that will improve the ability to deliver trauma care. In the previous 2 decades outcomes for orthopaedic trauma patients have improved significantly. The decade of action for road traffic safety will bring attention and funding to trauma related endeavors. The challenge before orthopaedic surgeons and orthopaedic trauma societies is to provide delivery mechanisms so that clinical care can reach populations around the globe. Organizing orthopaedic trauma care into care delivery value chains provides a tool for understanding how efficiency can be gained over the entire cycle of care from emergent management through rehabilitation and revision surgery when needed. Integrated practice units allow orthopaedic surgeons to collaborate with other trauma specialists to provide integrated care and exploit the areas of natural overlap to create trauma care systems that optimize communication for surgeons and simplify follow up for patients. By using these tools orthopaedic surgeons can deliver excellent trauma care to populations around the world.

  4. Influence of professional drivers' personality traits on road traffic safety: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Snežana; Nikolić, Vesna; Markič, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present basic elements of the research directed at identifying and determining the personality traits of professional drivers that affect safe, secure and enjoyable ride on public roads. A quantitative method has been used here, whereas data were acquired from a questionnaire based on a sample of 59 professional drivers. Determining personality traits of professional drivers that are in correlation with a safe and pleasant ride on the roads has been enabled by applying the five-factor model of personality ('Big Five') and the Personality Inventory NEO-PI. From these results it was concluded that safe operation of the vehicle in traffic involves the successful 'conduct' of oneself, which recognises the importance of certain personality traits of professional drivers for traffic safety and the need for appropriate professional selection in the case of employment of professional drivers. Research results implicate development of educational programmes aimed at achieving harmony of psychological, physical and sensory health, that is, programmes for permanent informing, educating and training professional drivers for defensive driving. The research opens the way for new research tasks that should help in creating a specific structure of curricula that can be used in a variety of transportation companies and enterprises to improve general and public safety.

  5. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully.

  6. Safety learning and imagination versus safety bureaucracy in design of the traffic sector.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagtman, H.M. & Hale, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the processes of evaluating the possible safety eVects of measures introduced either in the road infrastructure or in the electronic and information systems in cars. It uses speed control measures (speed bumps and the Intelligent Speed Adapter [ISA]) as cases to describe and

  7. Identification of Behavior Based Safety by Using Traffic Light Analysis to Reduce Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, A.; Nasution, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work present the safety assessment of a case study and describes an important area within the field production in oil and gas industry, namely behavior based safety (BBS). The company set a rigorous BBS and its intervention program that implemented and deployed continually. In this case, observers requested to have discussion and spread a number of determined questions related with work behavior to the workers during observation. Appraisal of Traffic Light Analysis (TLA) as one tools of risk assessment used to determine the estimated score of BBS questionnaire. Standardization of TLA appraisal in this study are based on Regulation of Minister of Labor and Occupational Safety and Health No:PER.05/MEN/1996. The result shown that there are some points under 84%, which categorized in yellow category and should corrected immediately by company to prevent existing bad behavior of workers. The application of BBS expected to increase the safety performance at work time-by-time and effective in reducing accidents.

  8. Reliability reallocation models as a support tools in traffic safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačkalić, Svetlana; Jovanović, Dragan; Bačkalić, Todor

    2014-04-01

    One of the essential questions placed before a road authority is where to act first, i.e. which road sections should be treated in order to achieve the desired level of reliability of a particular road, while this is at the same time the subject of this research. The paper shows how the reliability reallocation theory can be applied in safety analysis of a road consisting of sections. The model has been successfully tested using two apportionment techniques - ARINC and the minimum effort algorithm. The given methods were applied in the traffic safety analysis as a basic step, for the purpose of achieving a higher level of reliability. The previous methods used for selecting hazardous locations do not provide precise values for the required frequency of accidents, i.e. the time period between the occurrences of two accidents. In other words, they do not allow for the establishment of a connection between a precise demand for increased reliability (expressed as a percentage) and the selection of particular road sections for further analysis. The paper shows that reallocation models can also be applied in road safety analysis, or more precisely, as part of the measures for increasing their level of safety. A tool has been developed for selecting road sections for treatment on the basis of a precisely defined increase in the level of reliability of a particular road, i.e. the mean time between the occurrences of two accidents.

  9. Modeling and analyzing traffic safety perceptions: An application to the speed limit reduction pilot project in Edmonton, Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Basyouny, Karim; El-Bassiouni, Mohamed Yahia

    2013-03-01

    To address the speeding problem in residential areas, the City of Edmonton initiated a pilot project to reduce the posted speed limit from 50km/h to 40km/h within six residential communities. This paper investigates the community perceptions of traffic safety within the six pilot communities in two phases: prior to project initiation (pre-pilot) and following the end of the project (post-pilot). This objective was accomplished by analyzing the results of two random dialing telephone surveys comprising 300 residents each. A preliminary analysis showed compatible demographic configurations for the two samples and confirmed that the residents were aware of both the posted speed limits and the adopted speed management controls. For the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), a two-group (pre-pilot and post-pilot) three-factor model was used to assess the residents' perceptions of the speeding behavior (Speeding), their concerns about traffic safety issues (Concerns), and their perceptions of traffic safety (Safety). Comparing the CFA results of the post-pilot survey versus those of the pre-pilot survey, it was evident that there was a significant decrease in Speeding and Concerns accompanied by a significant increase in Safety. A structural equations model (SEM) was also fitted to the data in order to assess the impact of Speeding and Concerns on Safety. The results showed that Concerns increase significantly with Speeding, and that both factors have significant negative impacts on Safety. However, while the impact of Concerns on Safety was direct, that of Speeding on Safety was largely indirect (i.e., mediated through Concerns). Overall, the multivariate analysis has demonstrated that the pilot project was successful in improving the residents' perceptions of traffic safety in their community.

  10. K9初级课堂 关于K9 sports的基础问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    sunbird

    2006-01-01

    K9训练营已经开办近一年,小编是越来越了解这个K9 sports,进而越来越喜欢,于是想做得更专业,却不小心进入一个误区,很多新读者看着小编每次报道的K9比赛难免一头雾水,心中有个大大的问号,到底什么是K9 sports呀?本期K9训练营就来解答新读者们的疑惑,也为以后咱K9 sports更好地发展开个好头!

  11. A Psychological Research on Children's Traffic Safety Awareness%儿童交通安全心理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓华; 段海丹

    2014-01-01

    儿童交通安全问题是一个极受关注的领域。国外已经开展了大量儿童交通安全心理的研究,此类研究主要集中探讨儿童认知对交通安全的影响。研究发现,感知觉、注意和决策等心理因素方面存在的问题是致使儿童成为交通事故高发群体的主要原因。而我国在此领域的研究还较缺乏。因此,我国急需开展儿童交通安全心理的研究,以更好促进儿童健康成长。%The issue of children' traffic safety is a field attracting much public attention .A large number of researches on the child psychology of traffic safety have been carried out abroad .The researches ,mainly focusing on how the children's cognition influences the traffic safety ,have delivered the message that the psychological factors such as perceptions ,attention and strate-gy ,cause them to become the most vulnerable during the traffic accidents .However ,the relevant research of traffic safety psy-chology of Chinese children was largely untouched .Therefore ,the studies related to the children's safety in traffic should be made with fail in China to promote and secure the healthy growth of children.

  12. To illuminate or not to illuminate: roadway lighting as it affects traffic safety at intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, John D; Donnell, Eric T; Rea, Mark S

    2013-04-01

    A two-pronged effort to quantify the impact of lighting on traffic safety is presented. In the statistical approach, the effects of lighting on crash frequency for different intersection types in Minnesota were assessed using count regression models. The models included many geometric and traffic control variables to estimate the association between lighting and nighttime and daytime crashes and the resulting night-to-day crash ratios. Overall, the presence of roadway intersection lighting was found to be associated with an approximately 12% lower night-to-day crash ratio than unlighted intersections. In the parallel analytical approach, visual performance analyses based on roadway intersection lighting practices in Minnesota were made for the same intersection types investigated in the statistical approach. The results of both approaches were convergent, suggesting that visual performance improvements from roadway lighting could serve as input for predicting improvements in crash frequency. A provisional transfer function allows transportation engineers to evaluate alternative lighting systems in the design phase so selections based on expected benefits and costs can be made.

  13. Accident reduction factors and causal inference in traffic safety studies: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G A

    2000-01-01

    Accident reduction factors are used to predict the change in accident occurrence which a countermeasure can be expected to cause. Since ethical and legal obstacles preclude the use of randomized experiments when evaluating traffic safety improvements, empirical support for the causal effectiveness of accident countermeasures comes entirely from observational studies. Drawing on developments in causal inference initiated by Donald Rubin, it is argued here that the mechanism by which sites are selected for application of a countermeasure should be included as part of a study's data model, and that when important features of the selection mechanism are neglected, existing methods for estimating accident reduction factors become inconsistent. A promising, but neglected, way out of these difficulties lies in developing rational countermeasure selection methods which also support valid causal inference of countermeasure effects.

  14. Traffic safety behaviour among young people in different residential settings: the use of seat belts, bicycle helmets, and reflectors by young people in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Erika

    2009-12-01

    This study examines if, and how, the size of the community in which people live may contribute to explaining differences in traffic safety behaviour (self-reported behaviour regarding the use of seat belts, bicycle helmets and reflectors) among young people in Sweden. The study is based on a Swedish nationwide traffic safety survey with a net sample of 2854 respondents aged 16-25. Ordered logit regressions were performed, and place of residence is shown to have an impact on traffic safety behaviour. The results are presented and discussed in relation to risk exposure and traffic safety facilities in different settings. The implications of the study are considered, and the importance of investigating the way in which young people see traffic safety behaviour is emphasised.

  15. The traffic safety of the Carin car information and navigation system IB: Literature study: Description reports and articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blikman, G.

    1988-01-01

    Report of the Delft University of Technology, Department of Transportation Planning and Highway Engineering in assignment of Philips International B.V. A detailed description is given of the reports that have been studied in the framework of a literature study on a number of traffic safety aspects

  16. Summary of Work Performed Pursuant to the Development of Training Manuals for a Highway Safety Workshop for Traffic Court Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The report summarizes the work involved in developing a highway safety workshop for traffic court judges. It describes the testing of previously developed workshop materials and their evaluation, resulting in a contract modification to redesign and refocus the workshop. The report identifies the resources and procedures used in this development…

  17. Limits of traffic safety and societal acceptance; Grenzen der Verkehrssicherheit und gesellschaftliche Akzeptanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, D.; Reichart, G. [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Risk is an inherent companion of human life either due to nature or civilisation. The term 'risk' stems from the Greek term 'rhiza' - cliff and means today the chance to win or to loose. The ancient sailors knew the advantage to sail along the coast line as to transport valuable goods, but they also were aware of the dangers of cliffs on which the boats could be smashed. The more the protection against natural hazards and the more life standards have increased, the more the public acceptance has been shrunk, to take risks including the chance of losses. Death as the extreme form of loss, but also as a natural unavoidable event, is widely inhibited in the highly developed countries. Hazards of civilisation which are found in microbiology, nuclear industry or traffic are set absolutely and not weighted against the benefits. Technique was always a tool to protect oneself against hazards (e.g. buildings as a protection against weather impact). On the other side, they always have been sources of potential hazard (asbest as fire protection and hazardous material). The contribution discusses general aspects of risk acceptance in our society. It describes by the example of road traffic how safety improvements have been reached in the past. The most important causes of accidents in road traffic will be discussed and potentials for further safety improvements by the introduction of driver assistance systems will be exemplified. The paper concludes with an outlook on the limits of technical systems to improve traffic safety. (orig.) [German] Risiken sind seit altersher Begleiter menschlichen Lebens, ob in der Auseinandersetzung mit der Natur oder als Folge der Zivilisation. Der Begriff Risiko, abstammend von rhiza (griech.)=die Klippe, beinhaltet die Chance fuer Gewinn und Verlust. Die Seefahrer kannten die Chancen kuestennah ihren Transport erfolgreich ans Ziel zu bringen und wussten auch um die Gefahren der Klippen, an denen das Boot zerschellen konnte

  18. Crash risk and aberrant driving behaviors among bus drivers: the role of personality and attitudes towards traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that personality traits and attitudes toward traffic safety predict aberrant driving behaviors and crash involvement. However, this process has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers, such as bus drivers. The present study used a personality-attitudes model to assess whether personality traits predicted aberrant self-reported driving behaviors (driving violations, lapses, and errors) both directly and indirectly, through the effects of attitudes towards traffic safety in a large sample of bus drivers. Additionally, the relationship between aberrant self-reported driving behaviors and crash risk was also assessed. Three hundred and one bus drivers (mean age=39.1, SD=10.7 years) completed a structured and anonymous questionnaire measuring personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors (i.e., errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and accident risk in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that personality traits were associated to aberrant driving behaviors both directly and indirectly. In particular altruism, excitement seeking, and normlessness directly predicted bus drivers' attitudes toward traffic safety which, in turn, were negatively associated with the three types of self-reported aberrant driving behaviors. Personality traits relevant to emotionality directly predicted bus drivers' aberrant driving behaviors, without any mediation of attitudes. Finally, only self-reported violations were related to bus drivers' accident risk. The present findings suggest that the hypothesized personality-attitudes model accounts for aberrant driving behaviors in bus drivers, and provide the empirical basis for evidence-based road safety interventions in the context of public transport.

  19. Driver’s Attitudes about the Impact of Caffeine and Energy Drinks on Road Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Pešić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of energy drinks and caffeine, which is the main ingredient of energy drinks, produce a negative effect on the drivers, and therefore affect traffic safety.In order to determine the attitudes of drivers toward the impact of energy drinks and caffeine, a research was conducted using a questionnaire form and the targeted group of the survey were drivers. The research was conducted in the City of Belgrade in December 2012. There were 420 survey papers distributed to drivers of different age groups of which 412 were returned. The survey was completely anonymous and consisted of two parts. The first part was related to basic demographic information about the respondents and it had 8 closed type questions. These questions were responded by circling one of the offered answers. The second part of the survey referred to determining the driver’s attitudes about energy drinks and caffeine. The second part consisted of 26 questions and respondents were to use a five-level scale in order to show to what extent they agree or disagree with any of the listed statements.The results show that energy drinks are consumed mostly by young people, less than 25 years old. The effect of caffeine on gender is statistically significant. Headache is the reason why caffeine (25% is consumed more than energy drinks (8%.Major impact of energy drinks and caffeine on road safety indicates a required activity in this area such as education.

  20. A cooperative transponder system for improved traffic safety, localizing road users in the 5 GHz band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, B.; Kalverkamp, G.; Chaabane, M.; Biebl, E. M.

    2012-09-01

    We present a multi-user cooperative mobile transponder system which enables cars to localize pedestrians, bicyclists and other road users in order to improve traffic safety. The system operates at a center frequency of 5.768 GHz, offering the ability to test precision localization technology at frequencies close to the newly designated automotive safety related bands around 5.9 GHz. By carrying out a roundtrip time of flight measurement, the sensor can determine the distance from the onboard localization unit of a car to a road user who is equipped with an active transponder, employing the idea of a secondary radar and pulse compression. The onboard unit sends out a pseudo noise coded interrogation pulse, which is answered by one or more transponders after a short waiting time. Each transponder uses a different waiting time in order to allow for time division multiple access. We present the system setup as well as range measurement results, achieving an accuracy up to centimeters for the distance measurement and a range in the order of hundred meters. We also discuss the effect of clock drift and offset on distance accuracy for different waiting times and show how the system can be improved to further increase precision in a multiuser environment.

  1. ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY AUDIT AT LOCAL OBJECT OF MINSK ROADWAY NETWORK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. V. Kapsky; D. V. Mozalevsky; V. N. Kuzmenko; A. V. Korzhova; A. S. Polkhovskaya; E. N. Kostiukovich; N. V. Ariushevskaya

    2015-01-01

    population of the Republic. Quality of the road traffic or its specific characteristics can be quantitatively estimated in terms of losses and by that we understand social and economic value of non-obligatory expenses in road traffic...

  2. "Taking the problem to the people": traffic safety from public relations to political theory, 1937-1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardin, Stève

    2015-04-01

    The slogan "taking the problem to the people" nicely summarizes U.S. traffic safety campaigns of the 1950s. It refers to the goal of awareness and self-discipline for drivers through education and law enforcement. A detailed analysis of the campaigns, however, shows a subtler objective of the motor interests that promoted it. They wanted to overcome political indifference through a civic mobilization of drivers as citizens, persuading drivers to lobby for traffic control. The analysis of their efforts leads us to question the role-or lack of role-of politicians in scientific and technological controversies.

  3. Research on Traffic Safety Behavior of Children Pedestrian in Kunming%昆明市儿童行人交通安全行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海琼; 秦雅琴; 赵琳琳; 李剑仕

    2012-01-01

    The traffic safety awareness and habits of 204 children were surveyed in Kunming by simple random sampling. The data of basic information on children pedestrian and traffic safety behavior of children pedestrian were analyzed by SPSS18.0. The results showed that children generally received traffic safety knowledge from few media, 5 mediae as reference, the mean was 2.8333, and 56.4% of the children's traffic safety knowledge was obtained firstly from parents. Children s traffic safety behavior significantly correlated with traffic safety awareness of children, traffic danger awareness of children, traffic safety attitude of children and traffic safety behavior of parents. Children's traffic safety behavior and traffic safety awareness of children, traffic safety attitude of children showed a binary linear relationship between them. The result could offer reference for choosing the methods of improving traffic safety behavior of children pedestrian.%采用简单随机抽样的方法对昆明市204名儿童进行了交通安全认知和交通习惯调查.结果表明,儿童整体上获得交通安全知识媒介偏少,以5种媒介为参考,其均值为2.8333,且56.4%的儿童交通安全知识首先从父母那获得.儿童交通安全行为与儿童交通安全意识、儿童交通危险意识、儿童交通安全态度、父母交通行为显著相关.儿童交通安全行为与儿童交通安全意识和儿童交通安全态度呈二元线性关系.本研究结果可为提高儿童行人交通安全行为的方法选择提供参考.

  4. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Factsheet Traffic safety basic facts 2010 : urban areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pace, J.-F. López de Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster, P. Sanmartín, J. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Argyropoulou, E. Papantoniou, P. Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Brandstaetter, C. Candappa, N. Christoph, M. Vis, M. Haddak, M. Moutengou, E. & Kirk, A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, 13.502 people were killed in traffic accidents on urban roads in the EU-19. This is 38% of all traffic accident fatalities in 2008. In the last decade, urban road fatalities have reduced by a quarter (25,7%), while the total number of fatalities has reduced by almost a third (31,5%). (Autho

  5. Distinguishing between Rural and Urban Road Segment Traffic Safety Based on Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression Models

    OpenAIRE

    Xuedong Yan; Bin Wang; Meiwu An; Cuiping Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the traffic crash rate, total crash frequency, and injury and fatal crash frequency were taken into consideration for distinguishing between rural and urban road segment safety. The GIS-based crash data during four and half years in Pikes Peak Area, US were applied for the analyses. The comparative statistical results show that the crash rates in rural segments are consistently lower than urban segments. Further, the regression results based on Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial (...

  6. Refractive index of K9 Glass under Shock Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changming; Wang, Xiang; Cai, Lingcang; Liu, Cangli

    2013-06-01

    We study K9 glass refraction index under shock loading conducted on powder gun,all experimental tests are plate impact loading. The impact veceloty range from 300m/s to 1200m/s, and the measure method is laser interferometer Photon Doppler Velocimetry(PDV) to measure the particle velocity both at the impact interface and free surface, The shock pressure from 2 GPa to 8 GPa, values for refraction are found from velocity corrections that must be made to account for refraction-index changes in the K9 glass due to shock wave motion. Experiment results show that refraction-index of K9 glass changes with the shock pressure in line relations, it can be as measure window to study the interesting materials under 10 GPa during the shock loading.

  7. Analysis on traffic safety of city road construction%城市道路施工的交通安全分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽芳

    2015-01-01

    In light of traffic safety status of city road construction,the paper analyzes factors influencing traffic safety in city road construction, and makes a description from macro and micro aspects,and finally puts forward traffic safety control countermeasures,which has certain role for improving traffic safety coefficient.%针对城市道路施工中交通安全的现状,分析了城市道路施工中影响交通安全的因素,并从宏观和微观两方面进行了阐述,提出了控制交通安全的对策,对提高交通安全系数有一定的促进作用。

  8. 起亚全新车型K9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖昕

    2012-01-01

    车型平台源自雅科仕。外观造型出自大师手笔一如K2与瑞纳、K5与索纳塔的兄弟关系,K9也自然而然地继承了雅科仕的车型平台。不过出自设计大师彼得·希瑞尔手笔的K9显然不像保守的雅科仕那么死气沉沉,

  9. The relationship between traffic volume and road safety on the secondary road network : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, K.

    2010-01-01

    On motorways, congestion is a well-known traffic problem. On the secondary road network, the same problem arises when traffic volume increases and the driven speed decreases. At certain times of day, roads get congested and the number of interactions between road users increases. In general, higher

  10. Determinants of road traffic safety: New evidence from Australia using state-space analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Connelly, Luke B

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in Queensland for the period 1958-2007 using a state-space time-series model. In particular, we investigate the effects of policies that aimed to reduce drink-driving on traffic fatalities, as well as indicators of the economic environment that may affect exposure to traffic, and hence affect the number of accidents and fatalities. The results show that the introduction of a random breath testing program in 1988 was associated with a 11.3% reduction in traffic fatalities; its expansion in 1998 was associated with a 26.2% reduction in traffic fatalities; and the effect of the "Safe4life" program, which was introduced in 2004, was a 14.3% reduction in traffic fatalities. Reductions in economic activity are also associated with reductions in road fatalities: we estimate that a one percent increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a 0.2% reduction in traffic fatalities.

  11. Safety impacts of platform tram stops on pedestrians in mixed traffic operation: A comparison group before-after crash study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Tram stops in mixed traffic environments present a variety of safety, accessibility and transport efficiency challenges. In Melbourne, Australia the hundred year-old electric tram system is progressively being modernized to improve passenger accessibility. Platform stops, incorporating raised platforms for level entry into low floor trams, are being retro-fitted system-wide to replace older design stops. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety impacts of platform stops over older design stops (i.e. Melbourne safety zone tram stops) on pedestrians in the context of mixed traffic tram operation in Melbourne, using an advanced before-after crash analysis approach, the comparison group (CG) method. The CG method evaluates safety impacts by taking into account the general trends in safety and the unobserved factors at treatment and comparison sites that can alter the outcomes of a simple before-after analysis. The results showed that pedestrian-involved all injury crashes reduced by 43% after platform stop installation. This paper also explores a concern that the conventional CG method might underestimate safety impacts as a result of large differences in passenger stop use between treatment and comparison sites, suggesting differences in crash risk exposure. To adjust for this, a modified analysis explored crash rates (crash counts per 10,000 stop passengers) for each site. The adjusted results suggested greater reductions in pedestrian-involved crashes after platform stop installation: an 81% reduction in pedestrian-involved all injury crashes and 86% reduction in pedestrian-involved FSI crashes, both are significant at the 95% level. Overall, the results suggest that platform stops have considerable safety benefits for pedestrians. Implications for policy and areas for future research are explored.

  12. Trends in traffic fatalities in Mexico: examining progress on the decade of action for road safety 2011-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Trejo, Arturo; Leenen, Iwin; Fabila-Carrasco, John Stewart; Rojas-Vargas, Roy

    2016-11-01

    We explore demographic, temporal and geographic patterns of 256,588 road traffic fatalities from 1998 to 2013 in Mexico, in context of UN´s decade of action for road safety 2010-2020 (DARS). Combined traffic mortality data and population counts were analyzed using mixed-effects logistic regression, distinguishing sex-age groups, vulnerable and protected road users, and municipal size. Rapid growth from 1998 to 2008 in traffic mortality rates has been reversed since 2009. Most deaths averted are among young male protected road users (reduction of 0.95 fatalities per 100,000 per year in males 12-49). In spite of a steady decrease over the full study period, mortality rates remain high in vulnerable road users over 50, with a high mortality rate of 26 per 100,000 males over 75 years in 2013. Progress on the reduction of deaths advances in Mexico, in line with DARS targets. National road safety efforts require strengthening. Initiatives should target vulnerable road users, specifically adults >50 years in urban areas. Strengthening of drink driving programs aimed at young drivers/occupants is promising.

  13. Traffic Safety Equipment Placement Study in Work Zones%占道作业交通安全设施设置技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周嗣恩; 张灿; 杨新苗

    2012-01-01

    Work zone traffic safety study primarily explores risk elements, guarantee techniques and assessment methods for mitigation of traffic incidents in the influencing area of work zones. Based on the current research on work zone traffic safety, this paper focuses on the placement study of safety equipment by defining related terminologies and the classifications and functionalities, detecting latent safety risk elements, and analyzing different types of safety equipment and corresponding placement requirements. It also proposes an assurance technique for work zone traffic safety equipment placement based on holistic process and cross classification idea by considering the type of safety facilities, traffic characteristics, and the work zone characteristics. A work zone traffic safety assessment and auditing method has been designed in the form of a safety checklist with the ultimate objective to maximize benefits of traffic safety assurance, operation safeguard, and holistically promote improvement of the level of service and traffic flow mobility. The applications of the proposed approach show that the proposed method for traffic safety equipment placement can greatly enhance the work zone safety.%占道作业交通安全研究主要探索占道作业区影响范围内与交通安全事件有关联的风险要素、保障对策及评估方法.在综述国内外占道作业区安全研究的基础上,阐述占道作业交通安全术语,明确作业区分类构成及功能,挖掘作业区潜在交通安全风险要素,剖析作业区交通安全设施类型及设置条件,结合占道作业特性及作业区交通特性,从交通安全设施角度提出基于全过程交叉分类的占道作业交通安全设施保障技术,并设计基于安全列表理念的作业区交通安全评估核查技术,以切实发挥交通安全设施效用,高效保障占道作业活动秩序,全面提升道路交通安全和畅通服务水平.典型案例应用表明交通安全设

  14. K9与空警协同作战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 游海霞

    2011-01-01

    在美国、俄罗斯等国,用"K9"指代警犬和军犬.这个称呼始于第二次世界大战.当时,美国看到第一次世界大战期间军犬在战场上发挥的巨大作用,于是也开始组建自己的拥有2万只军犬的特种部队,用于执行侦察、放哨、探测地雷、警卫等军事任务.但是,如何给这支部队编号呢?于是就有人想到犬的英文单词Canine的谐音K9.这个编号深受官方和公众的欢迎,很快就风靡开来.

  15. Performance Measurement of Location Enabled e-Government Processes: A Use Case on Traffic Safety Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, D.; Vancauwenberghe, G.

    2016-12-01

    The European Union Location Framework (EULF), as part of the Interoperable Solutions for European Public Administrations (ISA) Programme of the EU (EC DG DIGIT), aims to enhance the interactions between governments, businesses and citizens by embedding location information into e-Government processes. The challenge remains to find scientific sound and at the same time practicable approaches to estimate or measure the impact of location enablement of e-Government processes on the performance of the processes. A method has been defined to estimate process performance in terms of variables describing the efficiency, effectiveness, as well as the quality of the output of the work processes. A series of use cases have been identified, corresponding to existing e-Government work processes in which location information could bring added value. In a first step, the processes are described by means of BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) to better understand the process steps, the actors involved, the spatial data flows, as well as the required input and the generated output. In a second step the processes are assessed in terms of the (sub-optimal) use of location information and the potential enhancement of the process by better integrating location information and services. The process performance is measured ex ante (before using location enabled e-Government services) and ex-post (after the integration of such services) in order to estimate and measure the impact of location information. The paper describes the method for performance measurement and highlights how the method is applied to one use case, i.e. the process of traffic safety monitoring. The use case is analysed and assessed in terms of location enablement and its potential impact on process performance. The results of applying the methodology on the use case revealed that performance is highly impacted by factors such as the way location information is collected, managed and shared throughout the

  16. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Factsheet Traffic safety basic facts 2010 : junctions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Kirk, A. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Argyropoulou, E. Papantoniou, P. Brandstaetter, C. Candappa, N. Christoph, M. Vis, M. Pace, J.-F. López de Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster, P. Sanmartín, J. Haddak, M. & Moutengou, E.

    2012-01-01

    Almost 10.500 people were killed in road traffic accidents at junctions in 18 EU member states in 1999, and the number fell by 30% by 2008. Figure 1 shows that slightly more than 20% of fatalities occurred at junctions throughout the decade, so the trend in junction accident fatalities broadly follo

  17. The K9 On-Board Rover Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresina, John L.; Bualat, Maria; Fair, Michael; Washington, Richard; Wright, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the software architecture of NASA Ames Research Center s K9 rover. The goal of the onboard software architecture team was to develop a modular, flexible framework that would allow both high- and low-level control of the K9 hardware. Examples of low-level control are the simple drive or pan/tilt commands which are handled by the resource managers, and examples of high-level control are the command sequences which are handled by the conditional executive. In between these two control levels are complex behavioral commands which are handled by the pilot, such as drive to goal with obstacle avoidance or visually servo to a target. This paper presents the design of the architecture as of Fall 2000. We describe the state of the architecture implementation as well as its current evolution. An early version of the architecture was used for K9 operations during a dual-rover field experiment conducted by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) from May 14 to May 16, 2000.

  18. Research on Relationship of Traffic Condition and Traffic Safety of Two-Lane Highway in Plane Areas%平原区双车道公路交通条件与交通安全的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 王蓉蓉; 路维; 胡江碧

    2012-01-01

    On the bais of traffic accident data of the two-lane highway in plane areas, the influence of vertical-section, cross-section and intersection with the traffic accidents, and contrasting the analysis with conclusion abroad are discussed , then a conclusion on the relationship of the traffic condition and the traffic safety of two-lane highway in plane areas is got, a traffic safety prediction model is established,so it has important significance on the upgrading the highway safety.%以平原区双车道公路交通事故资料为基础,分析了道路平曲线和纵断面线形及交叉口等因素与交通事故的关系,将分析结论和国外研究结果相对比,得出我国平原区双车道公路交通条件与交通安全的关系,并建立交通安全性预测模型,对提升我国双车道公路安全性具有重要的意义.

  19. H3 trimethyl K9 and H3 acetyl K9 chromatin modifications are associated with class switch recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Fei Li; Luo, Zhonghui; Scharff, Matthew D

    2009-03-31

    Class switch recombination (CSR) involves a DNA rearrangement in the Ig heavy chain (IgH) gene that allows the same variable (V) region to be expressed with any one of the downstream constant region (C) genes to encode antibodies with many different effector functions. One hypothesis for how CSR is targeted to different C region genes is that histone modifications increase accessibility and/or recruit activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) and its associated processes to particular donor and recipient switch regions. In this work, we identified H3 acetyl K9 and H3 trimethyl K9 as histone modifications that correlate with the recombining pair of donor and recipient switch regions. The appearance of H3 trimethyl K9 is surprising because usually it is thought to mark silent genes and heterochromatin. Nevertheless, the time course of appearance of these histone modifications, the regions in IgH they associate with, and their appearance independent of AID damage suggest that both modifications play a role in targeting CSR.

  20. QSRTI: a method for quality assessment of event based (safety related) traffic information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, T.; Vliet-Hameeteman, C. van der

    2015-01-01

    Using ITS data without understanding its quality is questionable. The QSRTI method has been created by TNO on behalf of the Dutch Road Authority (RWS) in response to the European ITS action plan [1]. To reduce the number of road accidents and enhancing traffic efficiency, the European Commission has

  1. Effects of sleep disorders and pharmacological treatment on driving ability and traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mets, M.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Operating a vehicle is a form of complex skilled behavior, which requires the driver to be alert. Sleepiness and fatigue behind the wheel are important causes of driver errors and traffic accidents and are associated with sleep deprivation, sleep disorders, circadian factors, use of recreational or

  2. Effects of sleep disorders and pharmacological treatment on driving ability and traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mets, M.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Operating a vehicle is a form of complex skilled behavior, which requires the driver to be alert. Sleepiness and fatigue behind the wheel are important causes of driver errors and traffic accidents and are associated with sleep deprivation, sleep disorders, circadian factors, use of recreational or

  3. Main: 1K9B [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1K9B 大豆 Soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill Bowman-Birk Type Proteinase Inhibitor Precursor Glycine Ma...x Molecule: Bowman-Birk Type Proteinase Inhibitor; Chain: A; Synonym: Bbi; Other_details: Fr....O.Essen, G.Wenzl, Y.M.Kim, P.Flecker Crystal Structure Of The Bifunctional Soybean Bowma...n-Birk Inhibitor At 0.28 Nm Resolution. Structural Peculiarities In A Folded Protein Conformation Eu...877; Prot_inh_BBI.|Pfam; PF00228; Bowman-Birk_leg; 2.|SMART; SM00269; BowB; 1.|PROSITE; PS00281; BOWMAN_BIRK

  4. Is Neighborhood Green Space Protective against Associations between Child Asthma, Neighborhood Traffic Volume and Perceived Lack of Area Safety? Multilevel Analysis of 4447 Australian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2017-05-19

    Heavy traffic is a source of air pollution and a safety concern with important public health implications. We investigated whether green space lowers child asthma risk by buffering the effects of heavy traffic and a lack of neighborhood safety. Multilevel models were used to analyze affirmative asthma cases in nationally representative cross-sectional data from 4447 children aged 6-7 years old in Australia. Case-finding was based upon a triangulation of affirmative responses to three questions on doctor-diagnosed asthma, asthma-related medications and illness with wheezing lasting for at least 1 week within the 12 months prior. Among children considered to be exposed to high traffic volumes and areas with 0 to 20% green space quantity, the odds ratio of affirmative asthma was 1.87 (95% CI 1.37 to 2.55). However, the association between heavy traffic and asthma was significantly lower for participants living in areas with over 40% green space coverage (odds ratio for interaction 0.32, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.84). No association between affirmative asthma and green space coverage was observed for participants not exposed to heavy traffic, nor for the area safety variable. Protecting existing and investing in new green space may help to promote child respiratory health through the buffering of traffic-related air pollution.

  5. Highway traffic safety accident prevention and emergency handling%高速公路突发交通安全事故预防和应急处置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佳

    2016-01-01

    The highway has been rapidly developed,but also brought a lot of traffic congestion and traffic safety issues.In recent years,more and more highway emergencies,natural disasters,social problems,hazardous chemical spills can cause traffic congestion problems,and even traffic accidents.Therefore,this paper will analyze the severity of highway incidents and affecting highway traffic safety factors,and finally have a detailed study of highway burst traffic safety accident preven-tion and emergency response programs.%新时期,高速公路已经得到了快速发展,但是也带来很多交通拥挤和交通安全问题。近年来,高速公路突发事件越来越多,自然灾害、社会问题、危险化学物品泄漏等都会导致交通拥堵问题,甚至发生交通事故。对此,将分析高速公路突发事件的严重性以及影响高速公路交通安全的因素,最后详细探究高速公路突发交通安全事故预防和应急处置方案。

  6. Road Environment for Traffic Safety and the Countermeasures%道路环境对交通安全的影响及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志刚

    2015-01-01

    Traffic safety, involving many factors such as people, vehicles and roads and environment. In recent years, because of various reasons make the relevant units and personnel will be more focus on peo-ple,vehicles and roads that a number of factors,on the road traffic environment without too much consid-eration and research. In-depth study of road traffic environment, is advantageous to the road traffic safety, through the research and analysis,it is concluded that the influence on traffic safety and road traffic environ-ment solutions,is of great significance in preventing road traffic safety accidents. At the same time provide guarantee for people's life and property safety, for the construction of socialist harmonious society is of great help.%交通安全,涉及到人、车以及道路和环境等很多因素.近年来,因为各种原因使得有关单位以及人员将更多的将精力放在人、车、道路这几个因素上,对道路交通环境没有过多的考虑和研究.深入研究道路交通环境,有利于道路交通的安全,文章通过对其的研究和分析,得出有关道路交通环境对交通安全的影响和解决措施,对于防止道路交通安全事故具有重要意义.同时为人们的生命财产的安全提供保障、对构建社会主义和谐社会具有很大帮助.

  7. On the Effects of Highway Greening on Traffic Safety%浅析高速公路绿化对行车安全的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周捍宏

    2012-01-01

      Highway greening has an important role in impr-oving the highway ecological environment, ensuring the traffic safety,and beautifying the road landscape.From the point of view of the protection of road and traffic safety, this paper makes simple exposition on the effects of highway greening on traffic safety and discuses on how to design the highway gree-ning.%  高速公路绿化对改善高速公路生态环境,保证行车安全,美化道路景观有着重要作用。本文从保障道路和行车安全的角度简单的论述了绿化对行车安全的作用及其如何设计高速公路的绿化。

  8. Structural biology of human H3K9 methyltransferases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wu

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: SET domain methyltransferases deposit methyl marks on specific histone tail lysine residues and play a major role in epigenetic regulation of gene transcription. We solved the structures of the catalytic domains of GLP, G9a, Suv39H2 and PRDM2, four of the eight known human H3K9 methyltransferases in their apo conformation or in complex with the methyl donating cofactor, and peptide substrates. We analyzed the structural determinants for methylation state specificity, and designed a G9a mutant able to tri-methylate H3K9. We show that the I-SET domain acts as a rigid docking platform, while induced-fit of the Post-SET domain is necessary to achieve a catalytically competent conformation. We also propose a model where long-range electrostatics bring enzyme and histone substrate together, while the presence of an arginine upstream of the target lysine is critical for binding and specificity. ENHANCED VERSION: This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1.

  9. O pediatra e a segurança no trânsito The pediatrician and traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata D Waksman

    2005-11-01

    awareness, in addition to encouraging investments in effective pedestrian safety. The pediatrician's role is to decrease the number of children and adolescents who get involved in traffic accidents by providing them with traffic guidance and education.

  10. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia. A systematic review of existing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Zalat, Marwa M; Qabshawi, Reem I

    2015-04-01

    To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers' faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA.

  11. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1K9PA-1CNPA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1K9PA-1CNPA 1K9P 1CNP A A -ACPLDQAIGLLVAIFHKYSGREGDKHTLSKKELKELIQ...D>1K9P A 1K9PA IGSKL-QDAEI 1CNP A 1CNPA VAL CA 413 -13.432999610900879 15.65699958801269...5 50.41999816894531 rallel> 0.11400000005960464 0.9580000042915344 <

  12. When winning counts : traffic law enforcement and road safety targets for the year 2000.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M. & Goldenbeld, C.

    1996-01-01

    The Dutch government has set the following quantitative targets for road safety: a 25 per cent reduction in the number of road deaths and injuries by the year 2000 (compared with 1985 levels). In order to bring these road safety targets within reach in the short term, it is argued that large-scale

  13. The Dutch approach to road safety : towards a sustainable safe road traffic system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    From the introduction process of Sustainable Safety specific lessons have been learned to be at least supportive or were even a prerequisite, for successful action. Intelligent ways to commit stakeholders have to be found a major one. Sustainable Safety forms an integral part of Dutch transport an

  14. Wind farms' influences for traffic safety. Study of distance requirements for road traffic, railway traffic, sea traffic and air travel; Tuulivoimaloiden vaikutukset liikenneturvallisuuteen. Selvitys etaeisyysvaatimuksista tie-, rautatie-, meri- ja lentoliikenteen osalta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hytoenen, K.; Harju, M.; Piispanen, J.; Haulos, S.

    2012-11-15

    As wind power projects, both design and implementation, have increased rapidly, wind power manufacturers have stated that infrastructure of traffic restricts and complicates implementation of wind power projects. Failure of wind farm and both snow and ice thrown from blades and tower are commonly thought to be dangerous for settlement and for road, railway and sea traffic. Based on the accessible information accidents, which are connected to wind farms, won't cause notable harm for outsiders. Majority of the human injury and fatal accidents concerns the personnel of the wind farm in implementation and operational phases, not outsiders. Purpose of this study has been to clarify how distances requirements in different forms of traffic in Finland differ from other countries that are included in this comparison, and to find grounds for possibly revising these guidelines. In Finland there are still longest distance requirements when placing wind farm nearby the main roads, even after Finnish Traffic Agency revised guidelines in 2012. Regarding roads, differences between all the countries were minor. Also distance requirements regarding railways differ relatively little. Sweden has shortest distance requirement. Distance requirements in Finland and Denmark have been reduced in past few years. Any of these countries have not stated actual defined distance requirements related for example to shipping channels or lanes. International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO has settled internationally rules for obstacle limitation surface nearby airports and marking flight obstacles. Countries have stated national aviation regulations according to these rules and for this reason these regulations are quite consistent. In this study distance requirements are recommended to be calculated for certain basis. In case of roads and railways a general minimum distance requirement is suggested to be 1 x wind farm overall height. Road owner is allowed to require higher distance for

  15. Safety aspects of the bicycle traffic and the needs of cyclists in the City of Zagreb and its surrounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Joško

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were: to determine the possibility of forecasting for the preferences of cycling on the basis of all relevant factors Zagreb cycling (1 and to determine the differences between the participants in all the relevant factors in Zagreb cycling, by gender, in relation to membership in the Association "Trad Union of bicyclists", type of cycling and part of the city where cyclists live (2. Over 3000 members of the Association and cyclists who are not members of the Association ("average" cyclist are tested, using conveniently assembled questionnaire. It turned out that latent dimensions of the sub-questionnaires well represented themes: barriers to cycling, the role of the City in bicycle traffic, the purpose of using bicycle accident during bicycle traffic. People who are more inclined to participate in city traffic riding, often believe that the City should significantly improve conditions for cycling, tend to safer driving and more negative estimate lack of road cycling conditions in Zagreb. Women and members of the Union of cyclists often feel that the City should improve conditions for cycling and negatively evaluate the existing conditions of cycling, more often use the bike for different purposes and had frequent accidents bicycle. In the northern part of the city, Samobor, Zaprešić and Sesvete, Dugo Selo and Ivanja Reka participants were assessed to have the most adverse road conditions for cycling, while the wider center of Zagreb currently has the most favorable conditions for cycling. The results provide the guidance for improving the safety of the cycling in Zagreb and its surrounding, for taking constructive social actions at the state level and on the local-community level, as well as in the broader context of sustainable development.

  16. Use of speed profile as surrogate measure: Effect of traffic calming devices on crosstown road safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana Tsui; García, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Urban road safety management is usually characterized by the lack of sufficient, good quality crash data and low budgets to obtain it even though many traffic accidents occur there. For example, 54 percent of road crashes in Spain take place in urban areas, and 10 percent of urban fatal crashes occur on crosstown roads, which are rural roads that traverse small communities. Traffic calming measures (TCMs) are often implemented on these parts of rural roads that traverse small communities in order to reduce both the frequency and severity of crashes by lowering speeds, but evaluation of their effectiveness has been limited. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology using continuous speed profiles to evaluate the safety effectiveness of TCMs on crosstown roads as part of an integrated system in the absence of historical data. Given the strong relationship between speed and crash experience, safety performance can be related to speed. Consequently, speed can be used indirectly as a surrogate safety measure in the absence of crash and speed data. Two indexes were defined in this study as surrogate safety measures based on the continuous speed profile: Ra and Ea. Ra represents the absolute accumulated speed variations relative to the average speed and is inversely related to accumulated speed uniformity; and Ea represents the accumulated speed variations above the speed limit and is directly related to accumulated speeding. Naturalistic data were collected using GPS trackers for 12 scenarios with different TCM spacings. Then, the indexes were applied to individual observed speed profiles (individual analysis) as well as the operating speed profile (global analysis). The values obtained from individual and global analysis were statistically different. Spacing lower than 110m, which was found optimal from previous research, did not allow drivers to modify their speeds as the accumulated speed uniformity was quite similar regardless of the average operating

  17. Factors of the safety in bicycle traffic in the City of Zagreb and its surrounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Joško

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the differences in underlying factors of Zagreb cycling, compared to the "types of cyclists" (driving style, i.e. different ways of using bicycles as a means of transport. The study included over 3,000 frequent participants in urban traffic cycling, sample of members of the association Cyclist Union (N = 1259 and snowball sample of "typical" of cyclists, i.e. people who are using the bike, but are not the members of the Cyclist Union (N = 1831, using the conveniently assembled questionnaire. Study participants who bike used in various applications prefer the safest driving style (only on sidewalks and bike paths / lines. Barriers of the weather conditions are ubiquitous in the safest driving style. Daily, weekly and yearly riding a bicycle are more often found in those who prefer the safest driving style. Cyclists who drive with medium secure style (roads with less traffic and lower speeds, more often ride a bike, as compared with those who prefer the safest driving style. Having a better bike line / track and other infrastructure is the most often considered at those with the highest risk driving style. The results provide the guidance for local authorities and for the cyclists to improve the conditions for a safer and more often by bicycle circulation in the City of Zagreb and its surroundings.

  18. Effects of alcohol (BAC 0.5‰) and ecstasy (MDMA 100 mg) on simulated driving performance and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldstra, Janet L; Brookhuis, Karel A; de Waard, Dick; Molmans, Barbara H W; Verstraete, Alain G; Skopp, Gisela; Jantos, Ricarda

    2012-08-01

    An increasing number of fatal road-accidents have been reported in which ecstasy was found in the blood of drivers. Although, ecstasy is frequently found to have been used in combination with alcohol, studies on the acute effects of ecstasy co-administered with alcohol on driving performance are relatively rare. The present study was designed to establish the extent of driver impairment as a consequence of ecstasy or combined ecstasy and alcohol use as compared to driving under the influence of 0.3‰, 0.5‰ and 0.8‰ alcohol. Furthermore, subjective performance was also assessed. Alcohol and ecstasy mainly influenced automated driving performance such as lateral and speed control. However, small to no effects of the substances were found on more complex driving behaviour. Overall, variance within the different driving measures was high especially when participants were treated with 3.4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and alcohol. Furthermore, equivalence testing showed that combined use may lead to impaired driving for some, but not all, drivers. Participants rated their own performance to be slightly worse than normal in both studies. Since driving was actually seriously deteriorated, this was a falsely positive assessment of their condition. The dissociation between subjective perceptions and objective performance decrements are important notions for traffic safety since this may affect a driver's judgement of whether or not it is safe to drive. For example, an intoxicated individual might decide to drive because the feelings of alertness caused by MDMA cloud the impairing effects of other drugs such as alcohol, thereby creating a potentially serious risk for traffic safety.

  19. 我国道路交通安全教育培训思考%Consideration on education and training of road traffic safety in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董胜武; 曾嘉

    2012-01-01

    统计数据显示,我国2007 - 2009年道路运输事故呈下降趋势.但道路运输事故造成的死亡人数远远高于煤炭事故造成的死亡人数,道路交通安全形势依然很严峻.交通安全形势严峻的主要原因之一就是人为因素,加强对交通参与者的相关教育培训,提高安全意识,规范安全行为,是改善交通安全形势的根本途径.本文系统分析了我国的安全教育环境、交通文化、交通安全法律法规及交通安全教育培训存在问题,提出了改善我国交通安全教育的措施及建议.%The data of China's road traffic accidents for 2007 -2009 shows that the overall trend of road traffic accident is declining. However, according to the accident mortality of China in 2009, the deaths caused by road traffic accident plays the biggest role, which is significantly higher than that caused by coal mine mishap. Therefore, the current situation of road traffic safety in China is severe. One of the key elements which affect the circumstance is human factor, so enhancing the education and training for traffic participant, which could improve the standardization of citizen' s behavior and people' s safety awareness, is one of the fundamental measures to improve the state of traffic safety. In this paper the suggestions and measures for improving the state of traffic safety were put forward by analyzing the safety education environment, transportation culture, relevant law and rules, and problems in traffic safety education and training.

  20. Traffic safety management in Liaohe Oilfield%辽河油田公司交通安全管理的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建立

    2015-01-01

    交通安全管理是辽河油田公司安全管理的重要组成部分,探索交通安全管理的有效方法是实现交通管理本质安全的必由之路.%It's critical to realize the essential safety to find out valid measures of traffic safety which is significant for security management in Liaohe Oilfield.

  1. Driver support systems and traffic safety : theoretical considerations. On behalf of the Directorate-General of Public Works and Water Management, Transport Research Centre AVV.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiken, M.J. & Heijer, T.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides an overview of possible approaches, when considering driver support and traffic safety. The assessment of driver support systems should address potential problems in relation to the environment, the driver, and the driving task. Assessment procedures should focus on potential er

  2. Pedestrian Urban Safety System and Comfort at Traffic Signals PUSSYCATS : new pedestrian facilities : technique, observations and opinions, a drive-project in France, the UK and The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.B.M.

    1994-01-01

    PUSSYCATS (Pedestrian Urban Safety System and Comfort at Traffic Signals) is a new system incorporating technical improvements better adapted to pedestrians needs and behaviour. A Kerb-side detector mat replaces the push buttons, with infrared sensors detecting the presence of pedestrians on the cro

  3. Architecture for Control of the K9 Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresina, John L.; Bualat, maria; Fair, Michael; Wright, Anne; Washington, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Software featuring a multilevel architecture is used to control the hardware on the K9 Rover, which is a mobile robot used in research on robots for scientific exploration and autonomous operation in general. The software consists of five types of modules: Device Drivers - These modules, at the lowest level of the architecture, directly control motors, cameras, data buses, and other hardware devices. Resource Managers - Each of these modules controls several device drivers. Resource managers can be commanded by either a remote operator or the pilot or conditional-executive modules described below. Behaviors and Data Processors - These modules perform computations for such functions as planning paths, avoiding obstacles, visual tracking, and stereoscopy. These modules can be commanded only by the pilot. Pilot - The pilot receives a possibly complex command from the remote operator or the conditional executive, then decomposes the command into (1) more-specific commands to the resource managers and (2) requests for information from the behaviors and data processors. Conditional Executive - This highest-level module interprets a command plan sent by the remote operator, determines whether resources required for execution of the plan are available, monitors execution, and, if necessary, selects an alternate branch of the plan.

  4. The recent dramatic decline in road mortality in France: how drivers' attitudes towards road traffic safety changed between 2001 and 2004 in the GAZEL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, A; Salmi, L R; Lafont, S; Chiron, M; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2008-10-01

    A very significant decline in the number of road casualties has been observed recently in France, concomitantly with a dramatic increase in law enforcement. The aim of this study was (i) to assess changes in attitudes about road traffic accident (RTA) prevention initiatives in France from 2001 to 2004 and (ii) to identify factors associated with an increase in positive attitudes towards RTA prevention initiatives. In 2001 and 2004, 9216 participants reported their attitudes towards traffic safety using the same self-administered Driving Behaviour and Road Safety Questionnaire. Sociodemographic, psychological and behavioural data were also available. The mean change in scores analysis showed that support for relaxing existing regulations decreased significantly during this period, while support for heightened enforcement and stricter regulations showed some decrease but remained high overall, especially concerning blood alcohol content and speed controls. Multivariate analyses suggest that highly educated drivers changed their attitudes towards road safety regulations more than other categories. Our results suggest that increased traffic law enforcement measures led to increasing support for current restrictions. Even if support for additional traffic law enforcement began to wane slightly in 2004, a large part of our population remained in favour of strengthening law enforcement related to speeding and drunk driving.

  5. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-15

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  6. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Reyes-Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1 an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2 A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3 as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  7. Recognition of H3K9 methylation by GLP is required for efficient establishment of H3K9 methylation, rapid target gene repression, and mouse viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Zhang, Zhuqiang; Jiang, Yonghua; Meng, Lingjun; Xiong, Jun; Zhao, Zuodong; Zhou, Xiaohua; Li, Jia; Li, Hong; Zheng, Yong; Chen, She; Cai, Tao; Gao, Shaorong

    2015-01-01

    GLP and G9a are major H3K9 dimethylases and are essential for mouse early embryonic development. GLP and G9a both harbor ankyrin repeat domains that are capable of binding H3K9 methylation. However, the functional significance of their recognition of H3K9 methylation is unknown. Here, we report that the histone methyltransferase activities of GLP and G9a are stimulated by neighboring nucleosomes that are premethylated at H3K9. These stimulation events function in cis and are dependent on the H3K9 methylation binding activities of ankyrin repeat domains of GLP and G9a. Disruption of the H3K9 methylation-binding activity of GLP in mice causes growth retardation of embryos, ossification defects of calvaria, and postnatal lethality due to starvation of the pups. In mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) harboring a mutant GLP that lacks H3K9me1-binding activity, critical pluripotent genes, including Oct4 and Nanog, display inefficient establishment of H3K9me2 and delayed gene silencing during differentiation. Collectively, our study reveals a new activation mechanism for GLP and G9a that plays an important role in ESC differentiation and mouse viability. PMID:25637356

  8. Identifying factors affecting the safety of mid-block bicycle lanes considering mixed 2-wheeled traffic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lu; Chan, Ching-Yao; Liu, Pan; Xu, Chengcheng

    2017-10-03

    Electric bikes (e-bikes) have been one of the fastest growing trip modes in Southeast Asia over the past 2 decades. The increasing popularity of e-bikes raised some safety concerns regarding urban transport systems. The primary objective of this study was to identify whether and how the generalized linear regression model (GLM) could be used to relate cyclists' safety with various contributing factors when riding in a mid-block bike lane. The types of 2-wheeled vehicles in the study included bicycle-style electric bicycles (BSEBs), scooter-style electric bicycles (SSEBs), and regular bicycles (RBs). Traffic conflict technology was applied as a surrogate measure to evaluate the safety of 2-wheeled vehicles. The safety performance model was developed by adopting a generalized linear regression model for relating the frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and regular bikes to the operating speeds of BSEBs, SSEBs, and RBs in mid-block bike lanes. The frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes increased with an increase in the operating speeds of e-bikes and the volume of e-bikes and bikes and decreased with an increase in the width of bike lanes. The large speed difference between e-bikes and bikes increased the frequency of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes in mid-block bike lanes. A 1% increase in the average operating speed of e-bikes would increase the expected number of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes and bikes by 1.48%. A 1% increase in the speed difference between e-bikes and bikes would increase the expected number of rear-end conflicts between e-bikes/bikes by 0.16%. The conflict frequency in mid-block bike lanes can be modeled using generalized linear regression models. The factors that significantly affected the frequency of rear-end conflicts included the operating speeds of e-bikes, the speed difference between e-bikes and regular bikes, the volume of e-bikes, the volume of bikes, and the width of bike lanes. The

  9. 新交通安全法对城市车祸伤的流行病学影响%Epidemiological effects of the new Traffic Safety Law on traffic accident injuries:observation in Yingcheng City, Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigat the epidemiological effects of the new Traffic Safety Law on the urban road traffic injuries. Methods The data of the cases with urban road traffic injuries treated in Yingcheng People's Hospital, yingcheng, a county-level city in Hubei Province, one year before the implementation of the new Traffic Safety Law on 1 May 2011, and one year after its implementation were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Results In the period of one year before the implementation of the new Traffic Saferty Law 3508 cases were admitted, age (36.5+18.1) (3~79), 2498 males (71.3%) and 1010 females (28.7%). And within the period of one yaer after the implementation of the new Traffic Safety Laws 3372 patients , aged (35.5+17.3) (4~78), 2350 males (69.7%) and 1022 females (30.3%) were admitted. The number of cases of the group after the implementation was less than that of the group before the implementation. In both groups the age 19~43, being male, professios of farmers, migrant workers, and students, education attainment of junior middle school and below, nightime, and vrhicles as motorcycle and electric bicycle were all risk factors. The percentage of car accidetns in the whole cause of traffic accidents and the percentage of death caused by car accidents one year after the implementation were 21.5% and 17.25% respectively, both significantly lower than those one year before the implementation (31.9%and 31.89%respectively, both P<0.05)S. Conclusion The implementation of the new Traffic Safety Law helps reduce the cases of traffic injuries to a certain extent.%目的:研究新交通安全法实施对城市道路交通伤害的影响。方法收集2011年5月1日新道路交通安全法实施前后各一年内,湖北省应城市人民医院收治的城市道路交通事故伤者的资料进行分析。结果新交通安全法实施前一年收治3508例,男2498例,女1010例,年龄(3~79)岁,平均(36.5+18.1)

  10. A B C分类管理方法在海事安全管理中的应用%ABC Classification in Waterborne Traffic Accidents Safety Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊振南

    2001-01-01

    将仓储管理ABC分类法引入海事的安全管理中,以便于安全管理部门针对不同水域的海事发生频率、危险程度,制定不同的安全管理对策,并能够充分利用有限的管理资源以提高海事安全管理水平.%If the ABC classification is applied to the management of the waterborne traffic safety,it is convenient for the safety management department to establish different management countermeasures according to the different frequency and criticality of waterborne traffic accidents in different shipping area,shipping company,etc,and to make full use the best of the limited resources in order to improve the management level of waterborne traffic safety.

  11. 高速公路安全与交通流特征参数关系%Relationship Between Traffic Flow and Safety on Freeway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟连德; 孙小端

    2013-01-01

    With 3-year' s traffic flow data and crash data of a freeway in plain terrain in China, the relationship between traffic flow and safety was analyzed. Besides the amount of traffic volume influences the crash occurrence absolutely, truck percent, the speed difference between truck and car, and the ratio of traffic volume to capacity are the most three prominent parameters. The interactive impact also existed among the traffic flow parameters inside, so how and to what extent the single parameter impacted the road safety was changeable, and some functions made sense only when other parameters were confined in the specific conditions. The authors developed several kinds of mathematical relationships that described the combined effects of traffic flow characteristics on crash occurrences, which can enable engineers to identify and implement effective countermeasures to reduce the probability of crashes.%基于我国平原区1条典型高速公路3年的事故数据和交通流数据对两者之间的关系进行了研究.利用多变量多项式比率等方法建立了多个交通流参数和事故率之间的关系方程,并辅以三维曲面图加以直观反映.研究表明:大车比例、大小车平均速度差和饱和度是影响交通安全最为重要的3个交通流特征参数,多个交通流参数之间相互作用关系复杂,单个参数对交通安全的影响随着其他参数取值的变化而变化.

  12. Traffic Safety Situation Analysis of Shunyi District in Beijing City%北京市顺义区交通安全现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪婷; 孙立山

    2011-01-01

    Based on the traffic crash data of Shunyi District of Beijing, this paper used mathematical statistics method to summarize the traffic crash characteristics of Shunyi District from four aspects (time, space, causes, and vehicles types). On this basis, it analyzed the traffic safety influencing factors from pedestrians, vehicles, road and environment. At the same time some specific countermeasures are put forward. Analysis showed that: (1) specific feature of the human factors is short of safety consciousness! (2) the main factors of vehicle show in the diversity of vehicle types; (3) the main factors of road traffic facilities mainly show in short of traffic safety facilities and deficient alignment design; (4) environmental factors mainly reflect in climate, roadside environment and the management, etc.%结合北京市顺义区的交通事故数据,运用数理统计的方法,从时间、空间、成因、车型等方面对北京市顺义区交通事故特征进行了归纳总结.在此基础上,从人、车、路和环境4个方面分析了北京市顺义区交通安全的影响因素并提出对策.分析表明:人的因素主要表现为交通安全意识淡薄;车的因素主要表现为机动车车型多样;路的因素主要体现交通设施不全、线形设计存在隐患;环境的因素主要体现在气候、路侧环境和管理等.

  13. Innovative neuro-fuzzy system of smart transport infrastructure for road traffic safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinarovica, Anna; Gorobetz, Mikhail; Levchenkov, Anatoly

    2017-09-01

    The proposed study describes applying of neural network and fuzzy logic in transport control for safety improvement by evaluation of accidents’ risk by intelligent infrastructure devices. Risk evaluation is made by following multiple-criteria: danger, changeability and influence of changes for risk increasing. Neuro-fuzzy algorithms are described and proposed for task solution. The novelty of the proposed system is proved by deep analysis of known studies in the field. The structure of neuro-fuzzy system for risk evaluation and mathematical model is described in the paper. The simulation model of the intelligent devices for transport infrastructure is proposed to simulate different situations, assess the risks and propose the possible actions for infrastructure or vehicles to minimize the risk of possible accidents.

  14. Pedestrian and traffic safety in parking lots at SNL/NM : audit background report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Paul Ernest

    2009-03-01

    This report supplements audit 2008-E-0009, conducted by the ES&H, Quality, Safeguards & Security Audits Department, 12870, during fall and winter of FY 2008. The study evaluates slips, trips and falls, the leading cause of reportable injuries at Sandia. In 2007, almost half of over 100 of such incidents occurred in parking lots. During the course of the audit, over 5000 observations were collected in 10 parking lots across SNL/NM. Based on benchmarks and trends of pedestrian behavior, the report proposes pedestrian-friendly features and attributes to improve pedestrian safety in parking lots. Less safe pedestrian behavior is associated with older parking lots lacking pedestrian-friendly features and attributes, like those for buildings 823, 887 and 811. Conversely, safer pedestrian behavior is associated with newer parking lots that have designated walkways, intra-lot walkways and sidewalks. Observations also revealed that motorists are in widespread noncompliance with parking lot speed limits and stop signs and markers.

  15. CURRENT STATUS, TRENDS AND CONTRADICTIONS IN ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK OF THE STATE INSPECTION FOR ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF TERRITORIAL SUBDIVISIONS OF THE MINISTRY OF INTERIOR OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda A. ERMOLAEVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the current state, trends and contradictions in organization of the work of the Russian traffic police subdivisions of the Ministry of Interior, following the requirements of the President regarding education of law-abiding citizens. After the road accident that had occurred in Khabarovsk region on August 5, 2015, when 68 people were injured, 15 people died, Vladimir Putin conducted a session of the Government of the Russian Federation. At the session, the President assigned the task to develop additional measures of safety on the roads. The complex plan, proposed by I. Shuvalov and aimed at reducing deaths on the roads, includes some different aspects: interaction with information agencies for publishing the data on dangerous sections of roads; strengthening of requirements to organizations engaged in transporting citizens; the use of helicopters to provide medical aid for victims of traffic accidents. The First Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation paid special attention to education of road users, introduction of norms of driver’s behavior, emergence of the term «dangerous driving» and strengthening of the responsibility for driving while intoxicated. For many years, the educational function has been assigned to police officers, namely to the traffic police. However, in some regions of the Russian Federation there is a reduction of police regular staff officers, including the State Inspection for road traffic safety of territorial subdivisions of the Ministry of Interior of the Russian Federation. 

  16. Superficial Analysis GYK for Railcar Traffic Safety and Security Features%浅析GYK对轨道车行车安全保障功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂海

    2015-01-01

    The rail car is major railway transport equipment and construction equipment operations, line construction, equipment maintenance and rescue and other work. Describes the implementation process railcar operation control device(GYK)composition and traffic safety control functions, describes the role of the emergency prevention approach GYK fault GYK data analysis and traffic safety risk.%轨道车是铁路建设、线路施工、设备检修和抢险等工作的主要运输设备和作业器具。介绍了轨道车运行控制设备(GYK)的组成和行车安全控制功能的实现过程,介绍了GYK故障后的应急处理办法和GYK数据分析对行车安全风险的防控作用。

  17. Discussion on the Influence of Design Points on Highway Traffic Safety%刍议影响交通安全的公路设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马传涛

    2014-01-01

    With the development of national economy and the increasing of highway miles and the number of cars in our country, requirements on the highway traffic safety are also rising. This article analyzed and discussed the influence of highway design on traffic safety, hoping to provide a certain reference for highway construction in our country.%随着国民经济发展,公路建设里程的不断增加以及我国汽车数量的增加,对公路交通安全的要求也在不断提高。本文就我国公路设计对交通安全的影响进行了分析和论述,希望对我国公路的施工建设起到一定的借鉴作用。

  18. Evaluating the effects of bilingual traffic signs on driver performance and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamson, S L; Tate, F N; Jamson, A H

    2005-12-15

    Variable message signs (VMS) can provide immediate and relevant information to road users and bilingual VMS can provide great flexibility in countries where a significant proportion of the population speak an alternative language to the majority. The study reported here evaluates the effect of various bilingual VMS configurations on driver behaviour and safety. The aim of the study was to determine whether or not the visual distraction associated with bilingual VMS signs of different configurations (length, complexity) impacted on driving performance. A driving simulator was used to allow full control over the scenarios, road environment and sign configuration and both longitudinal and lateral driver performance was assessed. Drivers were able to read one- and two-line monolingual signs and two-line bilingual signs without disruption to their driving behaviour. However, drivers significantly reduced their speed in order to read four-line monolingual and four-line bilingual signs, accompanied by an increase in headway to the vehicle in front. This implies that drivers are possibly reading the irrelevant text on the bilingual sign and various methods for reducing this effect are discussed.

  19. 轨道交通建设安全风险管理体系的建立%Establishment of Rail Traffic Construction Safety Risk Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩圣章; 马运康; 李超

    2011-01-01

    Combined with the current situation of Tianjin rail traffic engineering construction safety risk,the project construction safety risk occurring rules and characteristics are summarized.from risk identification,classification,evaluation,analysis,control and management mechanism,and management model,the paper discusses ideas and methods of risk management during the engineering construction periods,analyzes engineering construction safety risk management system structure and content,sets up Tianjin rail traffic engineering construction safety risk management system in order to prevent,control and avoid all kinds of engineering construction safety risk,and promote the standardization of urban rail traffic engineering construction safety risk management.%结合天津市轨道交通工程建设安全风险的现状,总结归纳工程建设中安全风险发生的规律和特点,从风险辨识、分级、评估、分析、控制及管理机制、管理模式等方面,论述工程建设期间风险管理的思路和方法,分析工程建设安全风险管理体系的构成和内容,初步建立天津市轨道交通工程建设安全风险管理体系,从而预防、控制和规避各类工程建设安全风险,促进城市轨道交通工程建设安全风险管理的规范化。

  20. 民航空管安全文化建设探析%Establishment of the safety culture in civil aviation air traffic control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 宋祥波; 王万乐

    2012-01-01

    Based on the objective law of civil aviation safety development, it is necessary to establish and sustain-ably improve effective means and measures on safety culture construction in civil aviation air traffic control for ensuring the continuous safety of civil aviation in China, with consideration of synthetically requirement of carrying out continuous safety concept for ATM, the requirement of reducing human errors in air traffic control and the requirement of building ATM safety management system. In-depth exploration is launched on the safety culture construction pathways, and relevant suggestions and measures are put forwarded, such as developing cultural and entertaining activities, establishing psychological training and counseling mechanism for air traffic controllers, enhancing air traffic controllers adaptability to ATM new technology. ATM safety culture establishment is the strong backing of ATC development, and effective means and measures promoting construction will become the strong safeguard of a-viation operation safety.%根据民航空管安全发展的客观规律,在综合考虑践行空管持续安全理念、减少空管人为差错、建设空管安全管理体系的基础上,提出要实现我国民航的持续安全,就要构建并不断完善空管安全文化建设的有效手段和途径.对空管安全文化建设的途径展开了深入探索,并提出了相关建议和措施,包括开展技能竞赛等文化娱乐活动、建立管制员心理培训与辅导机制、提升管制员新技术适应能力等.空管安全文化的建设是空管发展的坚强后盾,有效手段和措施建设的推进将成为航空运行安全的有力保障.

  1. The SUVR4 histone lysine methyltransferase binds ubiquitin and converts H3K9me1 to H3K9me3 on transposon chromatin in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje V Veiseth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin structure and gene expression are regulated by posttranslational modifications (PTMs on the N-terminal tails of histones. Mono-, di-, or trimethylation of lysine residues by histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTases can have activating or repressive functions depending on the position and context of the modified lysine. In Arabidopsis, trimethylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me3 is mainly associated with euchromatin and transcribed genes, although low levels of this mark are also detected at transposons and repeat sequences. Besides the evolutionarily conserved SET domain which is responsible for enzyme activity, most HKMTases also contain additional domains which enable them to respond to other PTMs or cellular signals. Here we show that the N-terminal WIYLD domain of the Arabidopsis SUVR4 HKMTase binds ubiquitin and that the SUVR4 product specificity shifts from di- to trimethylation in the presence of free ubiquitin, enabling conversion of H3K9me1 to H3K9me3 in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and immunocytological analysis showed that SUVR4 in vivo specifically converts H3K9me1 to H3K9me3 at transposons and pseudogenes and has a locus-specific repressive effect on the expression of such elements. Bisulfite sequencing indicates that this repression involves both DNA methylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Transcribed genes with high endogenous levels of H3K4me3, H3K9me3, and H2Bub1, but low H3K9me1, are generally unaffected by SUVR4 activity. Our results imply that SUVR4 is involved in the epigenetic defense mechanism by trimethylating H3K9 to suppress potentially harmful transposon activity.

  2. 农村公路交通安全设施的选用与设置研究%Selecting and Setting Rural Road Traffic Safety Facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮志刚

    2013-01-01

      公路交通中护栏、标柱、标志标线等是为保障行车和行人的安全必须配备的交通安全设施,虽然我国制定了一系列标准规范交通安全设置的配备,但我国农村的公路建设存在技术等级低以及缺乏建设养护资金等问题。基于对农村公路现状的调查,分析了山区农村公路的交通特点,在此基础上对农村公路交通安全设置的选用与设置进行了研究。论文分别从路侧防撞设施、交通标志等方面,对比现有标准结合农村公路实际给出了选用类型,设置参数等实际可行的解决方案。%  Highway guardrail, pillar, signs and markings are traffic safety facilities for protection of traffic and pedestrian safety must be equipped with, although China has formulated a series of standards of traffic security settings equipped, but China's rural highway construction technical level is low and lack of funds for construction and maintenance etc. Based on the investigation of rural highway, the traffic characteristics analysis of mountainous rural highway is made, on the basis of the research on the selection and setting of road traffic safety in rural settings. This paper, from the aspects of anti-collision facilities, roadside traffic signs, in contrast to the existing standard, and combining with rural highway reality, gives selection type, the parameters and other practical solution.

  3. The effects of local and non-local traffic on child pedestrian safety: a spatial displacement of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Scott, Darren M

    2013-03-01

    In most places, motor-vehicle traffic volume is associated with increased risk of child pedestrian injury; however, the burden of risk is geographically complex. In some neighbourhoods, proportionally fewer drivers may be local, meaning that the moral and practical responsibility of risk to children is displaced from one place (e.g., the suburbs) to another (e.g., downtown). Using the City of Toronto, Canada, as a case study, this research asks two related questions: 1) what is the variation in traffic volume by neighbourhood of origin and socioeconomic status and 2) what is the relationship between the geographical origin of traffic and the risk of collisions involving child pedestrians and motor-vehicles? We find that low-income downtown neighbourhoods have the highest proportion of non-local traffic. We also find that while higher local traffic activity is associated with lower risk of collision, higher flow-through traffic activity (excluding traffic from major thoroughfares) is associated with higher risk of collision. We interpret the former as very likely a proxy of parents' frequency of chauffeuring children to school, and the latter an illustration of the spatial displacement of risk between Toronto neighbourhoods. Our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to account for the externalization of harm experienced by children, particularly in low-income downtown neighbourhoods.

  4. The Traffic Light Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic lights are an important part of the transportation infrastructure, regulating traffic flow and maintaining safety when crossing busy streets. When they go awry or become nonfunctional, a great deal of havoc and danger can be present. During power outages, the street lights go out all over the affected area. It would be good to be able to…

  5. 公路几何线形对交通安全影响%According to the Geometrical Line Highway on Traffic Safety Influence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于雪梅; 汪钱进

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of highway, elevation to the basic principles of the linear combi- nation and design of the general requirements, and highway geometry design and analysis of the influence of traffic safety, and puts forward the design of highway alignment should pay attention to safety problems and the related measures, the designers for in the design process for reference. Thus strengthening design personnel and road users safety awareness, which can guarantee the safety, reduce traffic accidents.%介绍在公路设计中平、纵、横线形组合的基本原则及设计中的一般要求,并分析公路几何设计对交通安全的影响,提出公路几何设计中应该注意的安全问题及相关措施,加强设计人员及道路使用者安全意识,保证行车安全,降低交通事故发生率。

  6. Dangerous R loops form in the absence of H3K9 methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salcini, Anna Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9) is a hallmark of transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin that is deregulated in pathological conditions. A new study shows that complete loss of H3K9 methylation in Caenorhabditis elegans leads to derepression of repetitive elements and formation...

  7. Application of Geologic Mapping Based on MapGIS K9%基于MapGIS K9的地质制图的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立

    2011-01-01

    Geologic mapping is an important component in geographic information system. The MapGIS K9 in the geologic mapping was described briefly and the process of geologic mapping was also expounded in this article.%地质制图是地理信息系统中的一项重要的组成部分,文章简要介绍了地理信息地质制图中的MapGIS K9,并对地质制图过程进行叙述.

  8. 基于多元回归模型的青少年交通安全行为分析%Youth Behavior Analysis on Traffic Safety Based on a Regression Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晟; 刘尔辉

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the traffic safety level of youth in Guangzhou ,China ,protect them in traffic safety , the youth behaviors on traffic safety were studied based on the Guangzhou youth safe behavior survey data in this paper . Four indicators of youth behaviors on traffic safety including education ,awareness ,attitudes and personal factors were i‐dentified by quantitative analysis .The information of traffic safety education ,awareness ,and attitude was collected by the questionnaires .Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis with SPSS 19 .0 were used to analyze the collected data .The results show that education ,awareness ,attitude and other factors were directly related to the youth behaviors on traffic safety .The significant levels (sig .) of the variables were less than 0 .05 ,which meant that all varia‐bles have significant effects on the youth behaviors on traffic safety ,and they can be well applied in the evaluation of youth behaviors on traffic safety .The results also provide a scientific basis for youth education on traffic safety for par‐ents ,schools ,traffic management authorities to develop relevant policies .%为了提高广州市青少年交通安全水平,保障青少年交通安全。基于广州市青少年安全调查数据对青少年交通安全行为影响因素进行了研究。通过定量分析的方法筛选出了与青少年交通安全最密切相关的4项指标(教育、意识、态度、个人因素),设计并使用调查问卷,获得交通安全教育、意识、态度的评分,运用SPSS19.0采用皮尔逊(Pearson )相关分析以及多元回归模型分析进行实证分析。结果表明,教育、意识、态度、个人因素能够很好地解释青少年交通安全行为得分,所有变量的显著性水平sig .均小于0.05,可以认为所有变量均有显著影响,能够很好地应用在青少年交通安全行为的评价之中。

  9. The application of MAPGIS K9 in geological mapping%MAPGIS K9在地质制图中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯娟; 翟伟芳; 赵伟娜

    2016-01-01

    The product name of MAPGIS is released digital group, is China's geographic information system with full independent intellectual copyright software platform. MAPGIS K9 help drawings, graphics editing and graphics processing and other functions, is the first selection of digital industry of our country geological mapping tool. Combined with practical work, this paper introduces the MAPGIS K9 at Grid correction, point parameters editor, line editor, the pologon parameters editor, map layout design of digital mapping method and the skill.%MAPGIS是中地数码集团的产品名称,是我国具有完全自主知识版权的地理信息系统软件平台。MAPGIS K9具有机助制图、图形编辑和图形处理等多种功能,是我国地质行业数字化制图的首选工具。本文结合工作实例,介绍了MAPGIS K9在栅格数据校正、点参数编辑、线参数编辑、面参数编辑、地图版面设计等方面的数字制图方法和技巧。

  10. CDC Vital Signs: Child Passenger Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Academy of Pediatrics. Graphic design: adapted from National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Top of Page What Can Be ... 0:60 seconds] On Other Web Sites National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Parents Central National Highway Traffic Safety ...

  11. 公路路线设计中交通安全影响因素探究%Explore the Traffic Safety Influence Factors in Highway Route Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 解朝森

    2014-01-01

    交通事故对人们的生命财产安全有着不容忽视的危害。本文以影响交通安全的主要因素为切入点,对公路路线设计中的主要问题(沿线设计、设计速度以及运行速度)进行了讨论,并在结尾提出了详细地改善措施。%Traf ic accidents endanger people's life and prop-erty safety which not al owed ignoring. This article takes the main factors of traffic safety as the breakthrough point, disc-usses the main problems in the highway route design (along the line design, design speed and running speed) and put fo-rward the improvement measures in detail at the end.

  12. Exploration and Analyses of the Traffic Safety Education to Preschool Children%学前儿童交通安全教育的价值探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭怡; 王琪

    2016-01-01

    对学前儿童进行交通安全教育的直接目的是减少交通事故,保护其生命和身体,同时还具有重要的教育价值。基于教育价值的两个方面即教育的个人价值和社会价值,学前儿童交通安全教育的价值主要体现在对学前儿童的发展价值和以学前儿童为中心扩散开来的延伸价值。发展价值是指交通安全教育促进学前儿童的认知、动作、情意等方面的发展。延伸价值是指学前儿童获得的交通安全知识与意识、规则与行为、尊重与利他等对其成为合格的社会公民是一种自然而然的准备,同时在生态系统理论之下以儿童为中心扩散开来的重要他人、社会相关机构和行业等都会发生相应的改变,将最终有利于社会的进步。%The traffic safety education to preschool children has important value. The direct purpose is reducing traffic accidents and protection of preschool children' s life and body. The important development value is promoting the development of preschool children''s cognition, action, feeling and other aspects. The extended value is embodied in that traffic safety knowledge and awareness, rules and behavior, respect and benefiting others obtained by preschool children in traffic safety education is an automatic preparation for becoming qualified social citizens. Meanwhile, with the ecological system theory, child-centered others, social institutions and industries related to preschool children will bring corresponding change, which will be favorable to social progress ultimately.

  13. 36 CFR 4.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstructing traffic. 4.13... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.13 Obstructing traffic. The following are prohibited: (a) Stopping or... interfere with the normal flow of traffic. ...

  14. Study on damage of K9 glass under 248nm ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Fang, Xiaodong

    2015-04-01

    The damage of K9 glass under 248nm ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiation was studied. The laser pulse energy was kept within the range of 60mJ to 160mJ, and the repetition rate was adjusted within the range of 1Hz to 40Hz. The damage morphologies of single-pulse and multi-pulse laser irradiation were characterized by optical microscope, and the damage mechanism was discussed. The experimental results indicated that the damage of K9 glass irradiated by 248nm ultraviolet laser mainly followed the thermal-mechanical coupling mechanism and the damage threshold of K9 glass was 2.8J/cm2. The intensity of damage area increased gradually with the increase of the laser pulse number. It was shown that accumulation effect of laser induced damage to K9 glass was obvious.

  15. 比亚迪K9登陆武汉和曼谷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳

    2015-01-01

    3月1日,比亚迪绿色公交正式登陆武汉,2辆K9纯电动大巴走上武汉街头。作为全球首款全通道低地板纯电动公交,K9为武汉市民的绿色出行增添新动力。武汉K9纯电动大巴采用白绿色车身,简洁大方。首批2辆K9投放在武汉295路公交线路,从汉口火车站开往黄陂客运站,单车载客往返一次60个站点、约80公里,运营时间约3小时。

  16. TALE-directed local modulation of H3K9 methylation shapes exon recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieberstein, Nicole I; Kozáková, Eva; Huranová, Martina; Thakur, Prasoon K; Krchňáková, Zuzana; Krausová, Michaela; Carrillo Oesterreich, Fernando; Staněk, David

    2016-07-21

    In search for the function of local chromatin environment on pre-mRNA processing we established a new tool, which allows for the modification of chromatin using a targeted approach. Using Transcription Activator-Like Effector domains fused to histone modifying enzymes (TALE-HME), we show locally restricted alteration of histone methylation modulates the splicing of target exons. We provide evidence that a local increase in H3K9 di- and trimethylation promotes inclusion of the target alternative exon, while demethylation by JMJD2D leads to exon skipping. We further demonstrate that H3K9me3 is localized on internal exons genome-wide suggesting a general role in splicing. Consistently, targeting of the H3K9 demethylase to a weak constitutive exon reduced co-transcriptional splicing. Together our data show H3K9 methylation within the gene body is a factor influencing recognition of both constitutive and alternative exons.

  17. Histone H3K9 methyltransferase G9a represses PPARγ expression and adipogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lifeng; Xu, Shiliyang; Lee, Ji-Eun; Baldridge, Anne; Grullon, Sean; Peng, Weiqun; Ge, Kai

    2012-01-01

    PPARγ promotes adipogenesis while Wnt proteins inhibit adipogenesis. However, the mechanisms that control expression of these positive and negative master regulators of adipogenesis remain incompletely understood. By genome-wide histone methylation profiling in preadipocytes, we find that among gene loci encoding adipogenesis regulators, histone methyltransferase (HMT) G9a-mediated repressive epigenetic mark H3K9me2 is selectively enriched on the entire PPARγ locus. H3K9me2 and G9a levels dec...

  18. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Factsheet Traffic safety basic facts 2010 : young people (aged 18-24).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Argyropoulou, E. Papantoniou, P. Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Brandstaetter, C. Candappa, N. Christoph, M. Vis, M. Pace, J.-F. López de Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster, P. Sanmartín, J. Haddak, M. Moutengou, E. & Kirk, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this Basic Fact Sheet, „young people? are defined as those who are between 18 and 24 years old. In general, young people worldwide are far more likely to be victims in road accidents than people in any other age group. More than 58.000 persons aged 18-24 years old were killed in traffic accidents

  19. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Zongtao, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Li, Ying, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Zheng, Xibin, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Liu, Yan, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Dai, Jiting, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn; Kang, Jun, E-mail: ztduan@chd.edu.cn [Chang' an University School of Information Engineering, Xi' an, China and Shaanxi Engineering and Technical Research Center for Road and Traffic Detection, Xi' an (China)

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  20. Numerical simulation of temperature field in K9 glass irradiated by ultraviolet pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Fang, Xiaodong

    2015-10-01

    The optical component of photoelectric system was easy to be damaged by irradiation of high power pulse laser, so the effect of high power pulse laser irradiation on K9 glass was researched. A thermodynamic model of K9 glass irradiated by ultraviolet pulse laser was established using the finite element software ANSYS. The article analyzed some key problems in simulation process of ultraviolet pulse laser damage of K9 glass based on ANSYS from the finite element models foundation, meshing, loading of pulse laser, setting initial conditions and boundary conditions and setting the thermal physical parameters of material. The finite element method (FEM) model was established and a numerical analysis was performed to calculate temperature field in K9 glass irradiated by ultraviolet pulse laser. The simulation results showed that the temperature of irradiation area exceeded the melting point of K9 glass, while the incident laser energy was low. The thermal damage dominated in the damage mechanism of K9 glass, the melting phenomenon should be much more distinct.

  1. 30 CFR 56.9100 - Traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 56.9100 Section 56.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of...

  2. 30 CFR 57.9100 - Traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control. 57.9100 Section 57.9100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9100 Traffic control. To provide for the safe movement of self-propelled...

  3. Computational intelligence for traffic and mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wuhong

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the new development of computation intelligence for traffic, transportation and mobility, the main contents include traffic safety, mobility analysis, intelligent transportation system, smart vehicle, transportation behavior, driver modeling and assistance, transportation risk analysis and reliability system analysis, vehicle operation and active safety, urban traffic management and planning.

  4. Discussion on several problems of improving road traffic safety publicity and education in China%关于改善我国道路交通安全宣传教育问题的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎刚

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problems of traffic safety publicity and education, and discusses the main purpose and mission of traffic safety education, introduces some of the practices of foreign traffic safety publicity and education, and put forward some ideas and suggestions to promote its educational work, for reference to the people engaged in this work.%本文分析了交通安全宣传教育的一些问题,探讨了交通安全宣传教育的主要目的和任务,介绍了国外交通安全宣传教育的一些做法,提出了宣传教育工作的一些理念和建议,供从事该领域研究的学者们参考。

  5. Data Conversion Between AutoCAD and MapGIS K9%AutoCAD与MapGIS K9数据转换

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑贵洲; 姚昳昕; 彭俊芳

    2013-01-01

    介绍了两种软件的数据特点和数据格式,阐述了AutoCAD和MapGIS K9块与子图、线型、颜色、图案、图层之间对照关系表的建立方法,详细概括了实现两种格式间数据转换的过程.

  6. Inhibition of H3K9 methyltransferase G9a ameliorates methylglyoxal-induced peritoneal fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kazuya; Doi, Shigehiro; Nakashima, Ayumu; Nagai, Takuo; Irifuku, Taisuke; Ueno, Toshinori; Masaki, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Activity of H3K9 histone methyltransferase G9a is reportedly induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and plays an important role in the progression of cancer and fibrosis. In this study, we investigated whether inhibition of G9a-mediated H3K9 methylation attenuates peritoneal fibrosis in mice and human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). Nonadherent cells of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were isolated from PD effluent to examine expression of G9a. Peritoneal fibrosis was induced by peritoneal injection of methylglyoxal (MGO) in male C57/B6 mice for 3 weeks. BIX01294, a G9a inhibitor, was administered by subcutaneous injection. Effects of BIX01294 on MGO-induced pathological and functional changes in mice were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and a peritoneal equilibration test. HPMCs were isolated from human omentum, and the inhibitory effect of BIX01294 on TGF-β1-induced fibrotic changes was investigated in the HPMCs by western blotting. G9a was upregulated in nonadherent cells of human PD effluent, the peritoneum of MGO-injected mice, and TGF-β1-stimulated HPMCs. BIX01294 significantly reduced the submesothelial zone thickness and cell density in MGO-injected mice. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that BIX01294 treatment decreased not only mono-methylation of H3K9 (H3K9me1), but also the number of mesenchymal cells, accumulation of collagen, and infiltration of monocytes. In addition to the pathological changes, BIX01294 reduced the level of TGF-β1 in peritoneal fluid and improved peritoneal functions. Furthermore, BIX01294 inhibited TGF-β1-induced fibrotic changes along with suppression of H3K9me1 in HPMCs. Therefore, inhibition of H3K9 methyltransferase G9a suppresses peritoneal fibrosis through a reduction of H3K9me1. PMID:28278257

  7. Study on Safety Capability Model of Air Traffic Controllers%管制员安全能力模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 罗云

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate civil aviation air traffic controllers'safety capabilities correctly, the nature of civil aviation air traffic controllers safety capability is defined according to the competence and controller s job responsibility. Base on the meaning of controllers safety capability and job specification, a model for controller's safety capability is built, which has three structural dimensions including physical quality, professional quality and consciousness. Physical quality includes physical conditions and psychological conditions. Professional quality includes the educational background, training background, skills and experience. Consciousness includes safety consciousness and work consciousness. In order to reduce the error under the conditions that there is a big difference of attributes among the indexes and to reflect the index objectively, efficacy coefficient method is used to standardize the evaluation index. In the meantime, the subjective and objective comprehensive weight method determines the index and makes up the shortcomings of single weight method by integrating the Gl method and entropy method. Finally, the TOPSIS is employed to evaluate the level of civil aviation air traffic controller's safety capability. Theresults show that the factors influencing controllers'safety capabilities are consciousness, physical quality and the professional quality in order according to influencing power. For the influencing power on the capabilities, the psychological condition has a greater impact than the physiological condition; skills are stronger than educational background, training background and experience; safety consciousness is stronger than work consciousness.%为准确评价管制员安全能力,基于能力的定义和管制员工作职责,界定管制员安全能力的内涵;依据该内涵及其工作特性,建立由身体素质、业务素质和意识3个结构维度组成的管制员安全能力模型.其中,身体素质包括生理

  8. Influence of ion beam bombardment on surface roughness of K9 glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yongqiang; Huang, Guojun; Hang, Lingxia

    2010-10-01

    Ion beam bombardment optical substrate surface has become an important part of process of optical thin films deposition. In this work, the K9 optical glass is bombarded by the broad beam cold cathode ion source. The dependence of the K9 glass surface roughness on the ion beam bombardment time, the ion energy, the distance and incident angle are all investigated, respectively. Surface roughness of K9 glass is measured using Talysurf CCI. The experimental results show that when the ion energy is 800ev, the bombardment distance of 20cm, with the ion beam bombardment time increased, the K9 substrate surface roughness first increase and then decrease. When the ion beam bombardment distance is 20cm, bombardment time is 10min, with the bombardment energy increases, substrate surface roughness increase first and then decrease, especially in the ion energy greater than 1200ev, the optical substrate surface roughness rapidly increases. When the ion energy is 800 eV, bombardment time is 10min, with the bombardment distance increase, substrate surface roughness decrease gradually. Furthermore, the incident angle of ion beam plays an important role in improving the K9 glass surface roughness.

  9. 起亚旗舰K9正式发布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    起亚目前发布了全新研发的旗舰豪华轿车——K9,新车将于2012年上半年在韩国上市销售。起亚表示K9也将在2012年年底销往韩国以外的市场,但尚未透露海外市场的车名和准确发布时间。全新K9是起亚旗下首款后驱轿车,将被作为起亚的旗舰车系替代2010年退市的欧菲莱斯(Opirus,又称为Amanti),但定位将有所提升。起亚表示K9拥有出类拔萃的设计和操控乐趣,并拥有大量先进技术,这表示我们可以将K9视为起亚最高研发和制造水平的展现。

  10. 基于自适应临界状态的交通流运营安全评价%Safety Audit of Traffic Flows Based on Self-adjustable Critical State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋锐; 郭忠印; 孔令旗

    2011-01-01

    考虑实际交通流中车辆驾驶员的主观能动性,改进交通冲突技术机械式假设的不足,提出交通流自适应临界状态概念.构建车速差、减速度差和行程时间差等3个模型,量化交通流运营状态的自适应“能力”.以安全车头时距和实际车头时距的差值,评价实时交通流运营安全性.通过实验分析,结果表明基于自适应临界状态的运营风险与历史事故数之间存在良好的相关性.%Considering characteristic of driver subjective in real traffic flows, self-adjustable critical state is put forward firstly conquering mechanical-hypothesis weakness of traffic conflict. Based on differences of speed/deceleration/travel time, analysis models are found to appraise ability of self-adjustable traffic flows. In according to discrepancy between safety headway and realistic headway, traffic flow risk index is introduced to audit real-time traffic safety. Experiment results showed that the relation between traffic flow risk and historical accidents is well.

  11. The Road Safety Information System RIS : a tool for decision makers. Lecture for the Russian-Swedish seminar on traffic safety, Moscow, June 18, 1996.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P. & Brouwer, M.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this lecture is the use of knowledge in the preparation and evaluation of road safety policy. The following subjects will be dealt with: the organisation of Dutch road safety policy; the type of knowledge that can enhance the effectiveness of this policy; the set-up of the developed R

  12. Physical and psychological consequences of serious road traffic injuries, Deliverable 7.2 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W.A.M. Meunier, J.-C. Bos, N. Perez, C. Hours, M. Johannsen, H. Barnes, J. Brown, L. Quigley, C. Filtness, A. Perez, C. Olabarria, M. Duran, X. Hours, M. Martin, J. Bauer, R. & Johannsen, H.

    2017-01-01

    SafetyCube aims to develop an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policy-makers and stakeholders to select the most appropriate strategies, measures and cost-effective approaches to reduce casualties of all road user types and all severities. Work Package 7 of Safet

  13. Physical and psychological consequences of serious road traffic injuries, Deliverable 7.2 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W.A.M. Meunier, J.-C. Bos, N. Perez, C. Hours, M. Johannsen, H. Barnes, J. Brown, L. Quigley, C. Filtness, A. Perez, C. Olabarria, M. Duran, X. Hours, M. Martin, J. Bauer, R. & Johannsen, H.

    2017-01-01

    SafetyCube aims to develop an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policy-makers and stakeholders to select the most appropriate strategies, measures and cost-effective approaches to reduce casualties of all road user types and all severities. Work Package 7 of

  14. 浅析MapGIS K9的应用技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉英

    2013-01-01

    MapGIS K9是采用新一代GIs架构技术和开发模式,面向网络超大型分布式地理信息系统基础软件平台.MapGIS K9中地质制图是一项重要的组成部分,文章简述MapGIS K9在地质制图中的应用技术,以便为地质制图人员提供参考.地质制图是一项较为复杂的综合性工作,它需要制图人员在大量地质调查的基础上,运用先进技术完成制图工作.

  15. 起亚旗舰车型K9韩国上市

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    日前,现代起亚汽车全新旗舰车型K9正式在韩国上市销售。全新起亚K9豪华轿车与现代雅科仕共享技术平台,它出自前奥迪设计师彼得·希瑞尔之手,外形更加优雅、时尚。全新起亚K9装备了3.8L排量V6汽油发动机,最高输出功率210kW。

  16. 人体生物节律在道路交通安全中的应用%Application of human biorhythms in road traffic safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任林茂

    2014-01-01

    Human biorhythm theory reveals the cyclical variation of people's physical, sensitive and intellectual, and its impact on people's behavior. Driver behavior is a major factor in road accidents. The use of human biorhythm theory on the drivers and transportation enterprises can effectively reduce and prevent road traffic accidents, and improve road traffic safety.%人体生物节律理论揭示了人的体力、情绪和智力的周期性变化规律,及其对人们行为的影响。驾驶员的行为是引发道路交通事故的主要因素。利用人体生物节律理论对驾驶员及交通运输企业进行安全行车的管理和指导,能够有效地减少和预防道路交通事故的发生,改善道路交通安全状况。

  17. Analysis of the Influence of Driving Characteristics on Traffic Safety%驾驶特性对交通安全的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏朝; 郭忠庆; 翟海朋; 王生昌

    2016-01-01

    本文基于对人类行为模式的研究,并以此作为参考,将驾驶员的信息处理过程划分为感知、判断、操纵三个阶段。分析感知特性、判断特性、操作特性对交通安全的影响。%The paper is based on the study of human behavior patterns, and as a reference, thedriver in-formation processing process is divided into perception, judgment and manipulation of three stages.We analysis the impact of perception characteristics,judgment characteristics and operational characteristics on traffic safety.

  18. File list: His.PSC.50.H3K9K14ac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.50.H3K9K14ac.AllCell mm9 Histone H3K9K14ac Pluripotent stem cell ERX245530,...1 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.50.H3K9K14ac.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: His.PSC.20.H3K9ac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.20.H3K9ac.AllCell hg19 Histone H3K9ac Pluripotent stem cell SRX067524,SRX03...8537,SRX951984,SRX951983,SRX038538,SRX095381 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.PSC.20.H3K9ac.AllCell.bed ...

  20. Study on fine annealing process of the large-aperture K9 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Wang; Bin, Liu Yi; Zheng, Li Li; Hui, Zhang; Lei, Xie; Min, Qiu Fu; Ping, Ma; Yao, Yan Ding

    2016-10-01

    Study on fine annealing process of the large-aperture K9 glasses was carried out in the report. The process parameters of glass placed way, fan speed and design of the cavity for keeping temperature uniformity were attained. By the fine annealing experiment, the stress distribution was improved evidently. The stress changed from Irregular distribution to consistency symmetric distribution and the stress max was reduced. The surface profile accuracy of the large-aperture K9 glasses was controlled steadily during CNC polishing.

  1. 交通安全宣传教育传播途径与载体形式研究%Propaganda Approach and Carrier form for Road Traffic Safety Publicity and Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚炜; 丛浩哲; 马金路

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic safety involves many factors, and the human factor is crucial. It is particularly im-portant for the traffic participants to expend the different approaches and creative carrier form of traffic safety publicity and education. The article analyzed the propaganda approaches and carrier characteristics of different groups, and put forward different carrier form suitable for traffic safety publicity and educa-tion. Then, according to traffic accident statistics, such as the nature of vehicle use, driving age, casualty age and type of industry, 13 factors from the representative group with higher accident rate were selected. Finally, based on the educational demands and acceptance level of different groups, road traffic safety ed-ucation propaganda approaches and carrier form were determined, and the production system of traffic safety publicity and education was set up, which could provide basis for planning and design of traffic safety popular science education.%在交通安全涉及的诸多因素中,人的因素最为关键。对交通参与者开展交通安全宣传教育,重点是研究拓展宣传教育渠道和途径,创新宣教载体形式。鉴于此,分析了不同群体传播途径与载体的特点,提出了适合交通安全宣教途径的载体形式。然后,根据车辆使用性质、驾驶人年龄、伤亡人员年龄及行业类型等因素的交通事故统计数据,筛选出13类事故比例较高、具有代表性的重点群体。最后,根据不同受众群体的教育需求和接受程度,确定其交通安全宣传教育途径与载体形式,建立了交通安全宣传教育途径与作品构成体系,为规划和设计交通安全科普教育系列作品提供依据。

  2. Road traffic injuries in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Francelina; Nizamo, Hanifa; Mapasse, Domingos; Rafico, Momede Mussá; José, João; Mataruca, Simão; Efron, M Lúcia; Omondi, Lucas O; Leifert, Thelma; Bicho, Joaquim M L Marungo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries affect the economy, health and quality of life of the people of Mozambique. Current road safety programmes are inadequate and inefficient given the magnitude of the problem. Data reported on road traffic crashes in the period 1990 to 2000 from the National Institute for Road Safety, the traffic police and the Central Hospital of Maputo were reviewed. The burden of road traffic injuries in Mozambique is rising, with at least three people killed daily. The age group most affected is 25-38 (39.35%), followed by 16-24 (20.79%). The main causes of crashes include reckless driving, drunken driving, roads with potholes, inadequate signs, lack of protection for pedestrians, and inadequate traffic law enforcement. However, the data are not adequate to reveal the true magnitude of the problem. Data collected by different sources are incomplete and not coordinated with other sources and databases. In urban areas, however, better response to crashes, treatment of the injured, reporting and data collection is attributable to a greater concentration of police and medical facilities. Road traffic safety programmes in Mozambique are inadequate and inefficient, starting with the data collection system. Improvement of injury surveillance systems is needed to help make road traffic safety a national development agenda priority and for developing and implementing road safety policies. For road safety programmes to be effective, government must facilitate stakeholders' involvement, and the clear definition of government activities, civil society activities and public-private partnerships need to be established.

  3. 考虑学校和年级差异的精细化小学生交通安全教育研究%Precise Education of Pupils’Traffic Safety Considering Schools and Grades Differences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 王雪松; 杨东援

    2012-01-01

    通过问卷调查山东省临沂市和滨州市4所小学927名不同年级小学生,利用描述性分析和卡方检验分析了小学生交通安全知识与行为特征.调查显示小学生交通安全知识问题平均答对率为84%,良好交通行为平均发生率近80%,小学生整体交通安全认知与行为情况良好.分析表明小学生不同年级在交通安全知识与行为的很多方面有显著性差异;三年级是交通安全认知和行为的转折点;小学生可以划分为低年级(1~3年级)和高年级(4~6年级)2个阶段.研究发现不同学校在交通安全知识与行为的很多方面有显著性差异.在此基础上,提出了考虑学校和年级差异的精细化小学生交通安全教育对策,即考虑学校的差异制定交通安全教育重点;对低年级学生侧重于交通安全知识教育,高年级学生注重交通行为的规范.%In order to promote pupils' traffic safety education more effectively, the situation of students' traffic safety knowledge and behavior characteristics are required to know. Thus, 927 different grade pupils from 4 primary schools in Linyi and Binzhou of Shandong Province were surveyed by questionnaires. Students' traffic safety knowledge and behavior characteristics were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Chi-square statistics analysis methods. The results show that the average right rate of pupils' traffic safety knowledge is 83. 82% and that of behavior is 79. 57% , which suggests that the pupils' overall traffic safety knowledge and behaviors are in good condition. Grade has a significant effect on the traffic safety knowledge and behaviors, while Grade Three is a turning point. Thus, students can be divided into two stages of junior (1 - 3 grade) and senior (4 - 6 grade). School also has a significant effect on traffic safety knowledge and behaviors in many points. On this basis, countermeasures for precise education of pupils' traffic safety considering school

  4. K9 Buddies: A Program of Guide Dogs for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Today, exceptional dogs that have been specially bred and socialized are paired with children who are blind or visually impaired. These dogs, called "K9 Buddies," are from Guide Dogs for the Blind, a national nonprofit organization with a mission to offer skilled mobility dogs and training free-of-charge to adults with visual impairments…

  5. Psychological drivers and road traffic safety%驾驶员心理素质与道路交通安全

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王然

    2013-01-01

    交通事故作为汽车经济发展的“副产品”,成为影响群众安全感的主要因素之一。“人”、“车”、“路”是影响道路交通安全的三个重要因素,其中,驾驶员是保证道路交通安全的第一道和最重要的一道防线,与“车”、“路”相比,“人”的行为是更为重要的安全行车保证。从人的因素出发,通过分析几种典型违章的驾驶员心理,以及防范措施,加强安全意识,杜绝违章,减少事故。%Economic development as a car accident, "product", affects the safety of the masses of the main factors. "People", "car", "road" is the impact of road traffic safety are three important factors, the driver is to ensure road safety first and most important line of defense, and the "car", "road" phase ratio, "human" behavior is more important to ensure safe driving. Starting from the human factor, through the analysis of several typical driver violation psychological, as well as preventive measures to enhance safety awareness and eliminate illegal, reduce accidents.

  6. The H3K9 dimethyltransferases EHMT1/2 protect against pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronsen, Jan Magnus; Ferrini, Arianna; Brien, Patrick; Alkass, Kanar; Tomasso, Antonio; Agrawal, Asmita; Bergmann, Olaf; Reik, Wolf; Roderick, Hywel Llewelyn

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophic growth in response to pathological cues is associated with reexpression of fetal genes and decreased cardiac function and is often a precursor to heart failure. In contrast, physiologically induced hypertrophy is adaptive, resulting in improved cardiac function. The processes that selectively induce these hypertrophic states are poorly understood. Here, we have profiled 2 repressive epigenetic marks, H3K9me2 and H3K27me3, which are involved in stable cellular differentiation, specifically in cardiomyocytes from physiologically and pathologically hypertrophied rat hearts, and correlated these marks with their associated transcriptomes. This analysis revealed the pervasive loss of euchromatic H3K9me2 as a conserved feature of pathological hypertrophy that was associated with reexpression of fetal genes. In hypertrophy, H3K9me2 was reduced following a miR-217–mediated decrease in expression of the H3K9 dimethyltransferases EHMT1 and EHMT2 (EHMT1/2). miR-217–mediated, genetic, or pharmacological inactivation of EHMT1/2 was sufficient to promote pathological hypertrophy and fetal gene reexpression, while suppression of this pathway protected against pathological hypertrophy both in vitro and in mice. Thus, we have established a conserved mechanism involving a departure of the cardiomyocyte epigenome from its adult cellular identity to a reprogrammed state that is accompanied by reexpression of fetal genes and pathological hypertrophy. These results suggest that targeting miR-217 and EHMT1/2 to prevent H3K9 methylation loss is a viable therapeutic approach for the treatment of heart disease. PMID:27893464

  7. Research on Traffic Safety of Long and Steep Downgrade Sections in Mountainous Highways%山区高速公路长大下坡交通安全保障研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    况小根; 金加华; 廖碧海; 周睿

    2016-01-01

    The impact degree of road slope on traffic accidents is analyzed in this paper in order to know the impact of long and steep downgrade sections on traffic safety and decrease traffic accidents in these sections .The classification of long and steep downgrade sections with road slope and road length as control indexes is put forward based on the situation of traffic ac-cidents in our country .The statistic analysis for the long and steep downgrade sections of De -shang mountainous highway in construction is conducted and the traffic safety facilities for these sections are given .%为了解长大下坡对交通安全的影响,控制长大下坡路段交通安全事故发生,本文分析了道路下坡坡度对交通安全事故的影响程度;基于我国交通安全事故形势,建议了以道路坡度和路线长度为控制指标的长大下坡分级标准;分析统计了建设中的德上山区高速长大下坡数量,建议了德上高速长大下坡交通安全设施设置。

  8. Traffic sounds and cycling safety : the use of electronic devices by cyclists and the quietness of hybrid and electric cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, B. van

    2015-01-01

    The growing popularity of electric devices and the increasing number of hybrid and electric cars have recently raised concerns about the use of auditory signals by vulnerable road users. This paper consolidates current knowledge about the two trends in relation to cycling safety. Both a literature r

  9. Legislation and research in The Netherlands in the field of traffic safety regarding seat belts and crash helmets.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.

    1979-01-01

    Legislation on seat belts and crash helmets has been introduced since 1975. Safety belts are used by 50-75% of car drivers and passengers. Crash helmets are used by virtually all motorcyclists and moped riders. Fatalities have been reduced due to the use of seat belts by 60%, and due to the helmets

  10. The concept of a sustainable safe road traffic system : a new vision for road safety policy in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Dutch Government has set the following quantitative targets for road safety: a 25 per cent reduction in the number of road deaths and injuries by the year 2000 (compared with 1985 levels) and a further reduction of 50% and 40% respectively by the year 2010 (compared with 1986 levels). Various

  11. Traffic sounds and cycling safety : the use of electronic devices by cyclists and the quietness of hybrid and electric cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelling-Konczak, A. Hagenzieker, M.P. & Wee, B. van

    2015-01-01

    The growing popularity of electric devices and the increasing number of hybrid and electric cars have recently raised concerns about the use of auditory signals by vulnerable road users. This paper consolidates current knowledge about the two trends in relation to cycling safety. Both a literature

  12. 基于灰色多层次的空中交通管理安全风险评价%Safety Risk Evaluation of Air Traffic Management Based on Grey Hierarchy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文兴忠

    2011-01-01

    针对影响空中交通管理安全风险诸多因素具有的灰色性,引入灰色理论对空中交通管理安全进行风险评价.从人为因素、设备因素、环境因素和管理因素4个方面,提出了空中交通管理安全风险评价的指标体系,采用层次分析法确定评价指标权重,建立基于灰色多层次的空中交通管理安全风险评价模型.并结合实例进行了计算,结果表明,该方法能有效地利用评价指标的信息,科学合理地综合评价空中交通管理安全风险状况,可根据评价结果采取有效措施防止空中交通管理事故的发生.%To develop effective measures to ensure the safety operation of air traffic management, it is necessary to evaluate the security risks of air traffic management scientifically. In view of many grey factors affecting the safety of the air traffic management, the grey theory is used to evaluate the safety risk of the air traffic management. An indicator system of the safety risk evaluation of the air traffic management is built on the basis of the four kinds of factors, including human factors, equipment factors, environment factors and management factors. The weights of evaluation indexes are determined by means of the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). A model of safety risk assessment of the air traffic management based on the grey hierarchy theory is proposed. The expert score evaluation is used to evaluate the index layer of the security of the air traffic management. With this method,, the evaluation sample matrix of the index can be obtained. Then the grey evaluation weight matrix of each indicator in every index layer can be obtained. The safety risks of the air traffic management in a grey hierarchy theory can then be evaluated. The results of examples show that the model is effective, an overall security risk level of the air traffic management can be obtained with this method and an integrated evaluation method to evaluate the safety risks of

  13. Research on Various Factors of Influencing Traffic Safety of Suburban Highway in Shanghai City%上海市城郊公路交通安全相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊轩轩; 潘晓东

    2011-01-01

    随着城镇化进程的加快,城郊公路交通特征发生显著变化,公路城市化现象趋势明显,导致城郊公路交通事故频频发生.首先分析城郊公路的典型交通特征,并通过城郊公路交通事故分析深入探讨城郊公路事故发生与交通方式、交通结构、接入口密度以及饱和度之间的相关关系,最后根据城郊公路交通特征的变化将其分为郊区段、过渡段、市区段等3部分,应用层次分析法来分析各段的交通安全水平,确定城郊公路交通安全工作的重中之重.%Along with the accelerating process of urbanization, traffic characteristics change a lot in suburban highway, and the phenomenon of highway urbanization trends obviously, which result in traffic accidents occur frequently in suburban highway. In the paper, firstly the characteristics of the suburban highway are analyzed; Secondly the correlation of the number of accidents and modes of transportation, traffic composition, density of branch and traffic are deeply studied; last the suburban highway will be divided into suburbs segment, transition section, the urban section according to the different traffic characteristics, and the safety of the section of suburban highway is comprehensively evaluate using Analytic Hierarchy Process to analyze level of safety in suburban highway and to determine the highway traffic safety priority.

  14. Sustainable road safety in The Netherlands : contribution to the conference `Traffic safety in the future', Aalborg, Denmark, August 24-25, 1998.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Dutch Government has set the following quantitative targets for road safety: a 25 per cent reduction in the number of road deaths and injuries by the year 2000 (compared with 1985 levels) and a further reduction of 50% and 40% respectively by the year 2010 (compared with 1986 levels). Various

  15. Differential localization and independent acquisition of the H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 chromatin modifications in the Caenorhabditis elegans adult germ line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica B Bessler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone methylation is a prominent feature of eukaryotic chromatin that modulates multiple aspects of chromosome function. Methyl modification can occur on several different amino acid residues and in distinct mono-, di-, and tri-methyl states. However, the interplay among these distinct modification states is not well understood. Here we investigate the relationships between dimethyl and trimethyl modifications on lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 in the adult Caenorhabditis elegans germ line. Simultaneous immunofluorescence reveals very different temporal/spatial localization patterns for H3K9me2 and H3K9me3. While H3K9me2 is enriched on unpaired sex chromosomes and undergoes dynamic changes as germ cells progress through meiotic prophase, we demonstrate here that H3K9me3 is not enriched on unpaired sex chromosomes and localizes to all chromosomes in all germ cells in adult hermaphrodites and until the primary spermatocyte stage in males. Moreover, high-copy transgene arrays carrying somatic-cell specific promoters are highly enriched for H3K9me3 (but not H3K9me2 and correlate with DAPI-faint chromatin domains. We further demonstrate that the H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 marks are acquired independently. MET-2, a member of the SETDB histone methyltransferase (HMTase family, is required for all detectable germline H3K9me2 but is dispensable for H3K9me3 in adult germ cells. Conversely, we show that the HMTase MES-2, an E(z homolog responsible for H3K27 methylation in adult germ cells, is required for much of the germline H3K9me3 but is dispensable for H3K9me2. Phenotypic analysis of met-2 mutants indicates that MET-2 is nonessential for fertility but inhibits ectopic germ cell proliferation and contributes to the fidelity of chromosome inheritance. Our demonstration of the differential localization and independent acquisition of H3K9me2 and H3K9me3 implies that the trimethyl modification of H3K9 is not built upon the dimethyl modification in

  16. Safety : the challenge of today for transportation safety in the future. General report on theme -V "Safety" at the 14th International Study Week on Traffic Engineering and Safety, Strasbourg, September 7-10, 1982.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transportation (un)safety is the result of a complex process in the transportation system. A large number of variables (characteristics of the system elements) with many interactions, produce a complex network of relationships expressed in "system behaviour". In this network of relationships, man as

  17. Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.; Palanque, Philippe Andre Rolan; Martinie, De Almeida; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault-tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  18. SIG: Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael; Palanque, Philippe; Martinie, Célia; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects/systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  19. 78 FR 53497 - Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Uniform Procedures for State Highway Safety Grant Programs AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Request for public comment on..., National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Office of Regional Operations and Program...

  20. 36 CFR 1004.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstructing traffic. 1004.13 Section 1004.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.13 Obstructing traffic. The following are prohibited: (a) Stopping or parking a vehicle upon a Presidio Trust...

  1. Disseminating Traffic Information in Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alyas Shahid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Wifi based system is described for disseminating traffic information in vehicular networks. Basic aim of this approach is to distribute information regarding the traffic conditions such as traffic congestions or safety warnings to vehicles in an effective way.

  2. Cardiotoxicity associated with the synthetic cannabinoid, K9, with laboratory confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Amy C; Schwarz, Evan; Medina, Genevieve; Obafemi, Adebisi; Feng, Sing-Yi; Kane, Colin; Kleinschmidt, Kurt

    2012-09-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids have been popular recreational drugs of abuse for their psychoactive properties. Five of the many synthetic cannabinoids have been recently banned in the United States because of their unknown and potentially harmful adverse effects. Little is known about these substances. They are thought to have natural cannabinoid-like effects but have different chemical structures. Adverse effects related to synthetic cannabinoids are not well known. We provide clinical effects and patient outcome following K9 use. In addition, we briefly review synthetic cannabinoids. We present a 17-year-old adolescent boy with chest pain, tachycardia, and then bradycardia associated with smoking K9. Two synthetic cannabinoids, JWH-018 and JWH-073, were confirmed on laboratory analysis. In addition to the limited current data, we demonstrate harmful adverse effects related to toxicity of 2 synthetic cannabinoids. Further studies are needed.

  3. 商务大屏 双网双待 中恒K9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GWY

    2012-01-01

    一直主推商务手机的中恒,在功能上采用逐步升级的策略,以此满足不同层次用户的需要。K9从型号上来看是K8的延续,两者均强调双网双待,后者支持GSM/WCDMA,后者则支持GSM/CDMA2000。因此从功能上来看,K9也可以看作是SX30+的大屏升级版。

  4. Heterochromatic genome stability requires regulators of histone H3 K9 methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamy C Peng

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Heterochromatin contains many repetitive DNA elements and few protein-encoding genes, yet it is essential for chromosome organization and inheritance. Here, we show that Drosophila that lack the Su(var3-9 H3K9 methyltransferase display significantly elevated frequencies of spontaneous DNA damage in heterochromatin, in both somatic and germ-line cells. Accumulated DNA damage in these mutants correlates with chromosomal defects, such as translocations and loss of heterozygosity. DNA repair and mitotic checkpoints are also activated in mutant animals and are required for their viability. Similar effects of lower magnitude were observed in animals that lack the RNA interference pathway component Dcr2. These results suggest that the H3K9 methylation and RNAi pathways ensure heterochromatin stability.

  5. Heterochromatic genome stability requires regulators of histone H3 K9 methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jamy C; Karpen, Gary H

    2009-03-01

    Heterochromatin contains many repetitive DNA elements and few protein-encoding genes, yet it is essential for chromosome organization and inheritance. Here, we show that Drosophila that lack the Su(var)3-9 H3K9 methyltransferase display significantly elevated frequencies of spontaneous DNA damage in heterochromatin, in both somatic and germ-line cells. Accumulated DNA damage in these mutants correlates with chromosomal defects, such as translocations and loss of heterozygosity. DNA repair and mitotic checkpoints are also activated in mutant animals and are required for their viability. Similar effects of lower magnitude were observed in animals that lack the RNA interference pathway component Dcr2. These results suggest that the H3K9 methylation and RNAi pathways ensure heterochromatin stability.

  6. Acupuncture promotes angiogenesis after myocardial ischemia through H3K9 acetylation regulation at VEGF gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ping Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acupuncture exerts cardioprotective effects on several types of cardiac injuries, especially myocardial ischemia (MI, but the mechanisms have not yet been well elucidated. Angiogenesis mediated by VEGF gene expression and its modification through histone acetylation has been considered a target in treating myocardial ischemia. This study aims to exam whether modulation of angiogenesis through H3K9 acetylation regulation at VEGF gene is one possible cardioprotective mechanism of acupuncture. RESULTS: We generated rat MI models by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery and applied electroacupuncture (EA treatment at the Neiguan (PC6 acupoint. Our results showed that acupuncture reversed the S-T segment change, reduced Q-wave area, decreased CK, CK-MB, LDH levels, mitigated myocardial remodeling, and promoted microvessel formation in the MI heart. RNA-seq analysis showed that VEGF-induced angiogenesis signaling was involved in the modulation of EA. Western blot results verified that the protein expressions of VEGF, Ras, phospho-p44/42 MAPK, phospho-p38 MAPK, phospho-SAPK/JNK and Akt, were all elevated significantly by EA treatment in the MI heart. Furthermore, increased H3K9 acetylation was also observed according with the VEGF. ChIP assay confirmed that EA treatment could notably stimulate the recruitment of H3K9ace at the VEGF promoter. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates for the first time that acupuncture can effectively up-regulate VEGF expression through H3K9 acetylation modification directly at the VEGF promoter and hence activate VEGF-induced angiogenesis in rat MI models. We employed high throughput sequencing in this study and, for the first time, generated genome-wide gene expression profiles both in the rat MI model and in acupuncture treatment.

  7. Acupuncture promotes angiogenesis after myocardial ischemia through H3K9 acetylation regulation at VEGF gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shu-Ping; He, Su-Yun; Xu, Bin; Hu, Chen-Jun; Lu, Sheng-Feng; Shen, Wei-Xing; Huang, Yan; Hong, Hao; Li, Qian; Wang, Ning; Liu, Xuan-Liang; Liang, Fanrong; Zhu, Bing-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Acupuncture exerts cardioprotective effects on several types of cardiac injuries, especially myocardial ischemia (MI), but the mechanisms have not yet been well elucidated. Angiogenesis mediated by VEGF gene expression and its modification through histone acetylation has been considered a target in treating myocardial ischemia. This study aims to exam whether modulation of angiogenesis through H3K9 acetylation regulation at VEGF gene is one possible cardioprotective mechanism of acupuncture. We generated rat MI models by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery and applied electroacupuncture (EA) treatment at the Neiguan (PC6) acupoint. Our results showed that acupuncture reversed the S-T segment change, reduced Q-wave area, decreased CK, CK-MB, LDH levels, mitigated myocardial remodeling, and promoted microvessel formation in the MI heart. RNA-seq analysis showed that VEGF-induced angiogenesis signaling was involved in the modulation of EA. Western blot results verified that the protein expressions of VEGF, Ras, phospho-p44/42 MAPK, phospho-p38 MAPK, phospho-SAPK/JNK and Akt, were all elevated significantly by EA treatment in the MI heart. Furthermore, increased H3K9 acetylation was also observed according with the VEGF. ChIP assay confirmed that EA treatment could notably stimulate the recruitment of H3K9ace at the VEGF promoter. Our study demonstrates for the first time that acupuncture can effectively up-regulate VEGF expression through H3K9 acetylation modification directly at the VEGF promoter and hence activate VEGF-induced angiogenesis in rat MI models. We employed high throughput sequencing in this study and, for the first time, generated genome-wide gene expression profiles both in the rat MI model and in acupuncture treatment.

  8. Validation and Development of a Certification Program for Using K9s to Survey Desert Tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Esque, and K. Nussear. Humans vs. K9s: Is fear warranted in the race to save the desert tortoise? 91st Annual Ecological Society of America , August 6-11...desert tortoises, other reptiles (Schwartz et al., 1984; Engeman et al., 1998), or even to 10 distinguish cancer in human subjects (McCulloch et...has yet to be validated in mammals. Therefore, it is not possible to explain precisely how dogs use scent to find desert tortoises, other reptiles

  9. Study on Dynamic Compression Properties of K9 Glass with Doppler Pins Array Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changming, Hu; Xiang, Wang; Lingcang, Cai; Cangli, Liu

    2009-06-01

    K9 glass is one of archetypal brittle materials for studies of dynamic fracture, failure wave, and so on. This paper presented the dynamic compression properties of K9 glass under uniaxial strain condition. Experimental sample is K9 glass with internal pre-existed defects, and the shape of pre-existed defects is disc with less than 0.5 mm diameter. All tests were conducted by power gun with 37 mm diameter chamber. Doppler Pins array with high space-time resolutions, which consists of sixteen pins in range of 2 mm line length, were applied to measure the particle velocity histories in different positions at the sample rear surface, and the space-resolution is 127 μm, Experimental results show failure waves initiate at internal micro-surfaces of the sample under shock loading, and the dynamic stress concentration is likely attributed to be a physical mechanism of the initiation of the failure wave. These defects that by the controlled laser irradiation in advance are some internal micro-surfaces. Meanwhile, the experimental results show that internal micro-surfaces of the sample have influence on the elastic precursor wave decay.

  10. ESET/SETDB1 gene expression and histone H3 (K9) trimethylation in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hoon; Lee, Junghee; Hagerty, Sean W; Soh, Byoung Yul; McAlpin, Sara E; Cormier, Kerry A; Smith, Karen M; Ferrante, Robert J

    2006-12-12

    Chromatin remodeling and transcription regulation are tightly controlled under physiological conditions. It has been suggested that altered chromatin modulation and transcription dysfunction may play a role in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). Increased histone methylation, a well established mechanism of gene silencing, results in transcriptional repression. ERG-associated protein with SET domain (ESET), a histone H3 (K9) methyltransferase, mediates histone methylation. We show that ESET expression is markedly increased in HD patients and in transgenic R6/2 HD mice. Similarly, the protein level of trimethylated histone H3 (K9) was also elevated in HD patients and in R6/2 mice. We further demonstrate that both specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and specificity protein 3 (Sp3) act as transcriptional activators of the ESET promoter in neurons and that mithramycin, a clinically approved guanosine-cytosine-rich DNA binding antitumor antibiotic, interferes with the DNA binding of these Sp family transcription factors, suppressing basal ESET promoter activity in a dose dependent manner. The combined pharmacological treatment with mithramycin and cystamine down-regulates ESET gene expression and reduces hypertrimethylation of histone H3 (K9). This polytherapy significantly ameliorated the behavioral and neuropathological phenotype in the R6/2 mice and extended survival over 40%, well beyond any existing reported treatment in HD mice. Our data suggest that modulation of gene silencing mechanisms, through regulation of the ESET gene is important to neuronal survival and, as such, may be a promising treatment in HD patients.

  11. Optical properties of K9 glass waveguides fabricated by using carbon-ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Xiao; Wei, Wei; Fu, Li-Li; Zhu, Xu-Feng; Guo, Hai-Tao; Li, Wei-Nan; Lin, She-Bao

    2016-07-01

    K9 glass is a material with promising properties that make it attractive for optical devices. Ion implantation is a powerful technique to form waveguides with controllable depth and refractive index profile. In this work, optical planar waveguide structures were fabricated in K9 glasses by using 6.0-MeV C3+-ion implantation with a fluence of 1.0 × 1015 ions/cm2. The effective refractive indices of the guided modes were measured by using a prism-coupling system. The refractive index change in the ion-irradiated region was simulated by using the intensity calculation method. The modal intensity profile of the waveguide was calculated and measured by using the finite difference beam propagation method and the end-face coupling technique, respectively. The transmission spectra before and after the implantation showed that the main absorption band was not influenced by the low fluence dopants. The optical properties of the carbon-implanted K9 glass waveguides show promise for use as integrated photonic devices.

  12. File list: His.PSC.20.H3K9ac.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.PSC.20.H3K9ac.AllCell mm9 Histone H3K9ac Pluripotent stem cell SRX185844,SRX185...848,SRX873351,SRX873349,SRX873345,SRX097641,SRX130021,SRX873347,SRX187620 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.PSC.20.H3K9ac.AllCell.bed ...

  13. Research on countermeasures of collector first-grade highway plane intersection traffic safety%集散一级公路平面交叉口交通安全对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亦丁

    2011-01-01

    In engineering design perspective,plane this paper analyzed and researched domestic collector first-grade highway plane intersections safety problems exist,to address these issues and put forward countermeasures to improve highway plane intersection traffic safety,improve traffic capacity of road safety at level-crossings design methods to protect the distribution of traffic safety and smooth.%从工程设计的角度对国内集散一级公路平面交叉口存在的安全问题进行了分析研究,并针对这些问题提出了相应对策和改善公路平面交叉口交通安全、提高通行能力的公路平交路口安全设计方法,以保障集散一级公路交叉口的交通安全和畅通。

  14. Histone H3-K9 methyltransferase ESET is essential for early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Jonathan E; Kang, Yong-Kook; Beppu, Hideyuki; Lei, Hong; Li, En

    2004-03-01

    Methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3-K9) mediates heterochromatin formation by forming a binding site for HP1 and also participates in silencing gene expression at euchromatic sites. ESET, G9a, SUV39-h1, SUV39-h2, and Eu-HMTase are histone methyltransferases that catalyze H3-K9 methylation in mammalian cells. Previous studies demonstrate that the SUV39-h proteins are preferentially targeted to the pericentric heterochromatin, and mice lacking both Suv39-h genes show cytogenetic abnormalities and an increased incidence of lymphoma. G9a methylates H3-K9 in euchromatin, and G9a null embryos die at 8.5 days postcoitum (dpc). G9a null embryo stem (ES) cells show altered DNA methylation in the Prader-Willi imprinted region and ectopic expression of the Mage genes. So far, an Eu-HMTase mouse knockout has not been reported. ESET catalyzes methylation of H3-K9 and localizes mainly in euchromatin. To investigate the in vivo function of Eset, we have generated an allele that lacks the entire pre- and post-SET domains and that expresses lacZ under the endogenous regulation of the Eset gene. We found that zygotic Eset expression begins at the blastocyst stage and is ubiquitous during postimplantation mouse development, while the maternal Eset transcripts are present in oocytes and persist throughout preimplantation development. The homozygous mutations of Eset resulted in peri-implantation lethality between 3.5 and 5.5 dpc. Blastocysts null for Eset were recovered but in less than Mendelian ratios. Upon culturing, 18 of 24 Eset(-/-) blastocysts showed defective growth of the inner cell mass and, in contrast to the approximately 65% recovery of wild-type and Eset(+/-) ES cells, no Eset(-/-) ES cell lines were obtained. Global H3-K9 trimethylation and DNA methylation at IAP repeats in Eset(-/-) blastocyst outgrowths were not dramatically altered. Together, these results suggest that Eset is required for peri-implantation development and the survival of ES cells.

  15. Relationship between Level of Service and Traffic Safety on Freeway%高速公路交通服务水平与交通安全关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 孙小端; 熊彬; 贺玉龙; 刘小明

    2012-01-01

    Level of service (LOS) is a quality measure describing operational conditions within a traffic stream. Traffic safety is not an index to be used to assess LOS. Based on the data of traffic flow and crashes of a freeway, the relationships between hourly LOS and traffic safety of segments in a representative day, and between LOS 15 minutes before a crash and traffic safety were studied. The level of casualty of crashes on different LOS was analyzed. The results show that with the improvement of LOS, the occurrence probability of an injury or fatal crash increases on the freeway and the crashes tend to be more serious.%交通服务水平是道路使用者从道路状况、交通条件、道路环境等方面可能得到的服务程度或服务质量,交通安全没有包括在评定交通服务水平的指标里.基于样本高速公路的交通流和交通事故数据,分析了路段1d24h每个小时的服务水平与交通安全的关系、每起事故发生前15 min的路段服务水平与交通安全的关系.通过比较各级交通服务水平下的交通伤亡事故水平,表明随着交通服务水平的提高,高速公路发生伤亡事故的机率也随之增加,交通事故后果越严重.

  16. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  17. Metal Content in Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Leaves: Influence of Vehicular Traffic and Safety upon Consumption as Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnese Giacomino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread distribution of the common dandelion, that is, Taraxacum officinale, along with its ability to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, makes this plant a good candidate as biological monitor of environmental metal contamination. Taraxacum officinale leaves growing spontaneously in meadows and along the streets are traditionally picked up and eaten in Italy as salad, so it is important to know the concentrations of potentially toxic elements contained in them from the point of view of food safety. For these reasons the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn were determined in dandelion leaf and underlying soil samples collected at 12 sites in the province of Cuneo (Piedmont, Italy in the vicinity of streets or roundabouts. The concentrations were compared with reference values for plant and soils and with maximum allowable concentrations in edible vegetables. Neither dandelion nor soil samples were found to be polluted by metals, but the comparison with limits for vegetables suggests that caution should be used in consuming spontaneously growing vegetables.

  18. DNA methylation and histone H3-K9 modifications contribute to MUC17 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Sho; Yamada, Norishige; Yokoyama, Seiya; Houjou, Izumi; Higashi, Michiyo; Goto, Masamichi; Batra, Surinder K; Yonezawa, Suguru

    2011-02-01

    MUC17 glycoprotein is a membrane-associated mucin that is mainly expressed in the digestive tract. It has been suggested that MUC17 expression is correlated with the malignancy potential of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs). In the present study, we provided the first report of the MUC17 gene expression through epigenetic regulation such as promoter methylation, histone modification and microRNA (miRNA) expression. Near the transcriptional start site, the DNA methylation level of MUC17-negative cancer cell lines (e.g. PANC1) was high, whereas that of MUC17-positive cells (e.g. AsPC-1) was low. Histone H3-K9 (H3-K9) modification status was also closely related to MUC17 expression. Our results indicate that DNA methylation and histone H3-K9 modification in the 5' flanking region play a critical role in MUC17 expression. Furthermore, the hypomethylation status was observed in patients with PDAC. This indicates that the hypomethylation status in the MUC17 promoter could be a novel epigenetic marker for the diagnosis of PDAC. In addition, the result of miRNA microarray analysis showed that five potential miRNA candidates existed. It is also possible that the MUC17 might be post-transcriptionally regulated by miRNA targeting to the 3'-untranslated region of its mRNA. These understandings of the epigenetic changes of MUC17 may be of importance for the diagnosis of carcinogenic risk and the prediction of outcomes for cancer patients.

  19. Study on dynamic compression performance of K9 glass with prefabricated defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changming; Wang, Xiang; Cai, Lingcang; Liu, Cangli

    2012-03-01

    We conducted several planar impact experiments to study dynamic compression properties of K9 glass on powder gun using Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) measure system. Samples are prefabricated some internal meso-defects by laser three-dimensional erosion technique before shock loading. Free surface velocities recorded by high temporal-spatial resolution PDV array or multi-point PDV. All these experimental results show some different properties influenced by evolutions of pre-existed internal defects face on free surface velocity profiles. The critical compression strength and dynamic evolution information of pre-existed internal defects can be derived from the experimental results tentatively.

  20. Fast Predicting Statistical Subsurface Damage Parameters of the K9 Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hairong; Chen, Hongfeng; Xiao, Lihui; Zhang, Bike; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2015-07-01

    Based on the subsurface damage model and the material removal rate of K9 glass in HF acid solution, a fast method is proposed to calculate the parameters of characterizing the subsurface damage of a polished sample. When micro cracks of the etched sample's subsurface can be clearly observed, lengths, widths, angles, densities of the micro cracks can be calculated by using the image processing algorithm, and depths of the micro cracks may be predicted by the load-crack model. Eventually a set of the parameters are proposed as a complete description about subsurface damage of the sample.

  1. Evaluación cardiovascular en perros de atención inmediata (k9)

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Adrián Benítez Tezoquipa; Roberto Villa Ocaranza; Alejandro Rodolfo Reynoso Palomar

    2012-01-01

    El estudio de las respuestas al ejercicio y entrenamiento tipo K9 en perros, ha sido poco evaluado a diferencia de otros tipos de entrenamiento en deportes o utilidades en canidos. El ejercicio continuo y el entrenamiento exhaustivo conducen al desgaste físico y emocional de los perros, por lo que realizar la valoración del sistema cardiovascular permitió determinar el tipo, características y posibles factores involucrados en el desarrollo de cardiopatías en este tipo de animales. Se efectuar...

  2. A histone H3K9M mutation traps histone methyltransferase Clr4 to prevent heterochromatin spreading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Chun-Min; Wang, Jiyong; Xu, Ke; Chen, Huijie; Yue, Jia-Xing; Andrews, Stuart; Moresco, James J.; Yates, John R.; Nagy, Peter L.; Tong, Liang; Jia, Songtao

    2016-09-20

    Histone lysine-to-methionine (K-to-M) mutations are associated with multiple cancers, and they function in a dominant fashion to block the methylation of corresponding lysines on wild type histones. However, their mechanisms of function are controversial. Here we show that in fission yeast, introducing the K9M mutation into one of the three histone H3 genes dominantly blocks H3K9 methylation on wild type H3 across the genome. In addition, H3K9M enhances the interaction of histone H3 tail with the H3K9 methyltransferase Clr4 in a SAM (S-adenosyl-methionine)-dependent manner, and Clr4 is trapped at nucleation sites to prevent its spreading and the formation of large heterochromatin domains. We further determined the crystal structure of an H3K9M peptide in complex with human H3K9 methyltransferase G9a and SAM, which reveales that the methionine side chain had enhanced van der Waals interactions with G9a. Therefore, our results provide a detailed mechanism by which H3K9M regulates H3K9 methylation.

  3. 36 CFR 4.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 4.12... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device is prohibited unless otherwise directed by the superintendent....

  4. 36 CFR 1004.12 - Traffic control devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traffic control devices. 1004.12 Section 1004.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.12 Traffic control devices. Failure to comply with the directions of a traffic control device...

  5. 47 CFR 80.325 - Control of distress traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of distress traffic. 80.325 Section 80... Safety Procedures § 80.325 Control of distress traffic. (a) Distress traffic consists of all messages relating to the immediate assistance required by the mobile station in distress. In distress traffic, the...

  6. Extending the value of police crash reports for traffic safety research: collecting supplemental data via surveys of drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; Myers, Rachel K; Curry, Allison E; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Arbogast, Kristy B

    2015-04-01

    Police crash reports have been used to advance motor vehicle safety research, though their value is limited by their focus on the crash event rather than outcomes of the crash. To develop and evaluate the effect of enhanced recruitment methods, including a monetary incentive, on response rates of drivers identified on police reports in a national MVC surveillance system. The National Automotive Sampling System-General Estimates System (NASS-GES) was used to identify passenger vehicle crashes between 1 July and 30 October 2012 involving drivers ≥16 years old with at least one child occupant ≤17 years old. We collected data from the driver via self-administered hardcopy or interviewer-administered telephone surveys. Within each survey mode, half the drivers were randomly assigned to receive a small monetary incentive. Response rates were calculated overall, and by mode of survey administration and incentive condition. 495 drivers were eligible, and 127 completed the survey, yielding an overall response rate of 25.7% (95% CI 21.8% to 29.5%). The response rate across the two modes was higher for those who received an incentive than for those who did not (35.6% vs 15.7%, psurvey who received an incentive. The NASS-GES provides a surveillance system from which cases of interest can be identified and supplemental data collected via surveys of drivers identified on police reports. We adapted procedures commonly used in public health surveillance systems, including monetary incentives and branded recruitment materials, to improve driver response rates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. 固结磨料化学机械研抛K9玻璃的材料去除机理%Material Removal Mechanism of K9 Glass During Chemical Mechanical Polishing by Fixed Abrasive Pad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊吉龙; 朱永伟; 李军; 叶剑锋

    2012-01-01

    采用失重法对固结磨料研抛K9玻璃材料去除过程中的机械与化学作用进行了分离,采用显微硬度方法分析了研抛液对K9玻璃工件表层硬度的影响.研究结果表明:研抛液能与K9玻璃发生化学反应并在其表面形成一层较基质材料软的变质层,变质层厚度随浸泡时间的延长而增加;单纯研抛液的化学作用对K9玻璃的材料去除作用有限,固结磨料研抛垫对K9玻璃的机械去除作用主要以脆性去除为主,化学与机械的交互作用是K9玻璃影响材料去除的主要方式:当研抛盘转速为200r/min时,化学作用与机械作用达到平衡,交互作用最为强烈,材料去除率达到最大值.%The mechanical and chemical functions during the material removal process are separated by adopting weight loss measurements when fixed abrasive pad works on K9 glass. The influence of polishing slurry on the surface hardness of K9 glass is also analyzed by the micro-hardness method. The research results show that the chemical reaction between polishing slurry and K9 glass will take place and form a denatured layer on the surface of K9 glass, which is softer than host material and whose thickness increases with soak time. The material removal rate of K9 glass by chemical function is very limited and the mechanical function of K9 glass is mainly by brittle removal, while the interaction of chemical and mechanical functions is the main factor in influencing the material removal rate of K9 glass. When the rotation speed of the polishing pad is 200 r/min, the chemical and mechanical functions come to a balance with their interaction being the strongest, and the material removal rate reaches its maximum.

  8. The tumor suppressor, parafibromin, mediates histone H3 K9 methylation for cyclin D1 repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong-Jin; Han, Jeung-Whan; Youn, Hong-Duk; Cho, Eun-Jung

    2010-01-01

    Parafibromin, a component of the RNA polymerase II-associated PAF1 complex, is a tumor suppressor linked to hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome and sporadic parathyroid carcinoma. Parafibromin induces cell cycle arrest by repressing cyclin D1 via an unknown mechanism. Here, we show that parafibromin interacts with the histone methyltransferase, SUV39H1, and functions as a transcriptional repressor. The central region (128-227 amino acids) of parafibromin is important for both the interaction with SUV39H1 and transcriptional repression. Parafibromin associated with the promoter and coding regions of cyclin D1 and was required for the recruitment of SUV39H1 and the induction of H3 K9 methylation but not H3 K4 methylation. RNA interference analysis showed that SUV39H1 was critical for cyclin D1 repression. These data suggest that parafibromin plays an unexpected role as a repressor in addition to its widely known activity associated with transcriptional activation. Parafibromin as a part of the PAF1 complex might downregulate cyclin D1 expression by integrating repressive H3 K9 methylation during transcription.

  9. K9玻璃的离子束抛光

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏志伟; 陈庆川

    2005-01-01

    K9玻璃是常用的光学和微系统材料。随着光学和微系统技术的迅速发展,由于具有较低廉的价格、良好的微加工性能,在K9玻璃上制作微米、纳米尺度的微结构和微器件的技术,已应用于光电子、微波技术、衍射光学元件等众多领域。但是,由于光学和微波等器件的表面粗糙可引起光散射和信号损失,从而降低器件性能。因此材料表面的超光滑处理对提高光学和微波等器件的性能具有十分重要的意义。

  10. MapGIS K9软件在数字地质图中的应用%DISCUSSION ON THE APPLICATION OF MAPGIS K9 SOFTWARE IN DIGITAL GEOLOGICAL MAPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代丽霞; 胡红霞; 朱忠梅

    2013-01-01

    从制图的角度,结合工作实践阐述了MapGIS K9在地形地质图的绘制、图形数据库的建立等方面的应用.使制图专业人员对MapGIS K9软件更加了解,并对其基本功能与应用由感性上升到理性认识,从而更好地掌握MapGIS K9,提高制图质量及精度要求.

  11. 道路交通安全执法技术及大范围应用——课题七成果综述%Road Traffic Safety Law Enforcement Technologies and Wide Range Applications——An Introduction to Project Ⅶ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞春俊

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic safety law enforcement technologies include traffic accident quick handling and the scene protection, traffic accident investigation and identification, traffic safety law enforcement evidence collection and processing, and the speed control integration, etc. This research has developed a series of new technologies and equipment for traffic accident quick investigation, traffic accident scene protection, traffic accident analysis and identification, onsite traffic safety law enforcement evidence collection and the speed control integration. The research has also developed a multi-functional traffic accident quick investigation system, a database for multi-factorial feature information of major accidents, a major traffic accident investigation, identification and analysis platform, a traffic safety law enforcement information database, and a mobile traffic law enforcement platform. The aim of this research is to form an industry standards and norms system through large-scale application and demonstration of these technologies and equipment, making the road traffic safety enforcement in the demonstration areas markedly improved, so as to build a supporting system for Chinese road traffic safety law enforcement technologies.%“道路交通安全执法技术及大范围应用”项目重点研究了交通事故快速处置及现场防护、交通事故调查与鉴定、交通安全执法取证与处理、车速管控集成等关键技术;研制了交通事故现场快速勘查、交通事故现场防护、交通事故调查分析鉴定、交通安全执法现场取证、车速管控集成等方面的系列化新技术装备;开发了多功能交通事故快速勘察系统、重特大交通事故多因素特征信息集成数据库、重特大交通事故调查与鉴定技术分析平台、交通安全执法信息数据库、交通安全移动执法平台等.通过实施规模化示范应用,形成行业标准和规范体系,实现

  12. Harm of drug abuse ( drug driving ) on traffic safety in China%我国药物滥用(毒驾)对交通安全的危害现况初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂勇; 张超; 关一亮; 李文君; 周继红

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨驾驶人滥用药物(吸毒)对交通安全的危害及其对策. 方法 资料来源:(1)媒体报道的毒驾案例统计;(2)理论数据的推断分析;(3)戒毒门诊问卷调查;(4)上海世博会安保期间涉毒筛查与驾驶证比对;(5)各地数据综合. 结果 全国1 000万以上在册和隐性吸毒人口中,至少有200万以上的吸毒人员持有机动车驾驶证,该群体对交通安全构成了极大的威胁. 结论 药物滥用(吸毒)对交通安全的危害极大,急需相关部门采取相应的对策.%Objective To investigate the harm of drug abuse of drivers on traffic safety and discuss the countermeasures. Methods Data were collected from sources including statistics of drug driving traffic accidents reported by mass media,inference analysis of the theoretical data,survey of outpatients in drug rehabilitation center,drug-related screening with drivers license during Shanghai World Expo 2010 Moat Security and integrated data from various areas. Results Of the over 10 million drug abusers including the registered and unregistered in China,more than 2 million drug abusers had drivers license,which greatly threatened the traffic safety. Conclusion Drug abuse (drug driving) has done great harm on traffic safety,which calls for appropriate preventive countermeasures.

  13. HP1a recruitment to promoters is independent of H3K9 methylation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida L A Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1 proteins, recognized readers of the heterochromatin mark methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me, are important regulators of heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing and chromosome structure. In Drosophila melanogaster three histone lysine methyl transferases (HKMTs are associated with the methylation of H3K9: Su(var3-9, Setdb1, and G9a. To probe the dependence of HP1a binding on H3K9me, its dependence on these three HKMTs, and the division of labor between the HKMTs, we have examined correlations between HP1a binding and H3K9me patterns in wild type and null mutants of these HKMTs. We show here that Su(var3-9 controls H3K9me-dependent binding of HP1a in pericentromeric regions, while Setdb1 controls it in cytological region 2L:31 and (together with POF in chromosome 4. HP1a binds to the promoters and within bodies of active genes in these three regions. More importantly, however, HP1a binding at promoters of active genes is independent of H3K9me and POF. Rather, it is associated with heterochromatin protein 2 (HP2 and open chromatin. Our results support a hypothesis in which HP1a nucleates with high affinity independently of H3K9me in promoters of active genes and then spreads via H3K9 methylation and transient looping contacts with those H3K9me target sites.

  14. Analysis of Traffic Safety by Design of Urban Street Median%城市道路中央分隔带设计对交通安全影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志将; 袁黎; 崔二娟; 吴梦倩

    2012-01-01

    中央分隔带作为有效组织交通的重要交通设施,在保障交通安全的同时提高了道路通行效率.通过对不同形式中央分隔带的差异化分析,确定特定路况下的中央分隔带设计方案,满足现阶段交通通行的需要,为以后交通环境的改善预留空间.综合比较后,着重分析了实用效果好,适用广泛的具有一定宽度的绿化带式中央分隔带.%As a transport facility which can manage traffic flow effectively, the median can guarantee traffic safety and improve traffic efficiency. Through analysing different forms of medians, choose the best design of median to meet the need of traffic flow and reserve space for future. After comparison, the writer investigate the median of green belt which be used effect.

  15. The plasma spectrum research on K9 glass under nanosecond pulse laser%ns脉冲激光作用下K9玻璃的等离子体谱图研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽炜; 蔡红星; 李昌立; 何双力; 张喜和; 冯锴

    2008-01-01

    建立一套激光等离子体光谱测量实验装置,以Nd:YAG调Q倍频固体激光器为激发光源,作用K9玻璃.通过对K9的等离子体谱图的分析发现,K9玻璃等离子体谱强度的变化与激光器输出能量呈线性关系.同时利用显微镜观察K9玻璃的表面损伤形貌,并进行理论分析.

  16. Research and Application of Flex Development Mode Based on MapGIS K9 IMS%MapGIS K9 IMS的Flex开发模式研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦超; 姜良君; 薛逸飞; 蔡永香

    2012-01-01

    对MapGIS K9 IMS的Flex开发框架展开研究,重点介绍了Flex客户端的结构及常用的控件,然后结合一个应用实例说明了MapGIS K9 IMS的Flex开发WebGIS的主要过程和关键问题,最后总结了基于MapGIS K9IMS的Flex开发模式设计与开发WebGIS的优势.%This paper introduces the Flex development framework of MapGIS K9 IMS, and mainly discusses the structure of client on Flex and the widgets used frequently. Then, by combining a specific application instance, the paper explains the main process and key problems when developing WebGIS based on this model. At last, the advantages of design and development of WebGIS based on this development mode are summarized

  17. Alignment of palatally impacted canine with open window technique and modified K-9 spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Shastri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The patient was an 18-year-old female who had an Angle Class I malocclusion with a left palatally impacted maxillary canine. The orthodontic treatment of a palatally impacted canine is aimed at bringing the tooth into its correct position in the dental arch without causing any periodontal damage. To achieve this goal, a variety of surgical and orthodontic techniques have been proposed in relation to the position of the impacted tooth and there are various treatment methods used for traction. The duration of the traction was 3 months and alignment duration was 12 months the total treatment time was 15 months. In the following case, we presented that maxillary palatally impacted canine was brought into the arch with open window method for canine exposure and modified K-9 spring for traction, that is simple spring for orthodontic traction of the palatally impacted canines.

  18. Mapgis k9地籍管理系统测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜循英

    2015-01-01

    由于第二次全国土地调查涉及面广,数据类型多,调查的结果缺乏标准和规范,给政府对全国土地管理带来极大不便,所以全国各省市的土地主管部门对地籍管理系统提出了新的要求。Mapgis k9地籍管理系统软件是按国家规定的制度开发,保证了地籍资料的连贯性、系统性、可靠性、精确性和完整性。

  19. Stochastic control of traffic patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri B.; Gorria, Carlos; Berkemer, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    A stochastic modulation of the safety distance can reduce traffic jams. It is found that the effect of random modulation on congestive flow formation depends on the spatial correlation of the noise. Jam creation is suppressed for highly correlated noise. The results demonstrate the advantage...... of heterogeneous performance of the drivers in time as well as individually. This opens the possibility for the construction of technical tools to control traffic jam formation....

  20. KSHV ORF K9 (vIRF) is an oncogene which inhibits the interferon signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S J; Boshoff, C; Jayachandra, S; Weiss, R A; Chang, Y; Moore, P S

    1997-10-16

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus linked to the development of Kaposi's sarcoma and a rare B cell lymphoma, primary effusion lymphoma. The KSHV gene ORF K9 encodes vIRF which is a protein with low but significant homology to members of the interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF) family responsible for regulating intracellular interferon signal transduction (Moore PS, Boshoff C, Weiss RA and Chang Y. (1996). Science, 274, 1739-1744). vIRF inhibits IFN-beta signal transduction as measured using an IFN-responsive ISG54 reporter construct co-transfected with ORF K9 into HeLa and 293 cells. vIRF also suppresses genes under IFN regulatory control as shown by inhibition of the IFN-beta inducibility of p21WAF1/CIP1, however, no direct DNA-binding or protein-protein interactions characteristic for IRF repressor proteins were identified. Stable transfectant NIH3T3 clones expressing vIRF grew in soft agar and at low serum concentrations, lost contact inhibition and formed tumors after injection into nude mice indicating that vIRF has the properties of a viral oncogene. Since vIRF is primarily expressed in KSHV-infected B cells, not KS spindle cells, this study suggests that vIRF is a transforming oncogene active in B cell neoplasias that may provide a unique immune escape mechanism for infected cells. This data is consistent with tumor suppressor pathways serving a dual function as host cell antiviral pathways.

  1. Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda. ... Traffic Accidents (RTA), establish the safety measures in place to protect road users to ... drivers of different categories of vehicles, motorcyclists and bicyclists locally known ...

  2. Study on ultra-precision machining of K9 glass by fixed abrasive lapping and polishing%固结磨料研磨抛光K9玻璃的超精密加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李标; 李军; 朱永伟; 夏磊; 李鹏鹏; 孙玉利; 左敦稳

    2012-01-01

    PHL-350 High-speed lapping & polishing system was employed in ultra-precision machining experiment of K9 glass by fixed abrasive lapping and polishing. Influence of fixed abrasive pad ( FAP ) with different particle size and different abrasive on material removal rate and surface quality of the K9 glass was studied. An ultra-precision machining process of K9 glass with high efficiency, low cost and high quality was obtained: first M20/30 diamond FAP was used for lapping, then 3 μm CeO2 FAP was used for polishing. A good surface of K9 glass with surface roughness RMS less than 0. 6 nm and very few micro scratches or damages was achieved.%采用PHL-350型平面高速研磨抛光系统,通过固结磨料研磨抛光方法进行了超精密加工K9玻璃试验研究.探讨了不同粒径和不同磨粒研磨抛光垫在加工中对K9玻璃材料去除率和表面质量的影响.获得了高效率、低成本、高质量的K9玻璃的超精密加工工艺:首先使用M20/30金刚石研磨垫研磨,然后使用3μm CeO2抛光垫抛光.加工后K9玻璃的表面粗糙度优于RMS 0.6 nm,微观损伤少.

  3. SAFETY

    CERN Document Server

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  4. 重庆两江大桥交通安全设施优化设计%Optimal Design of Traffic Safety Facilities on Chongqing Two-river Bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张政委

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the problems in traffic safety of urban bridges at present, expatiates design of traffic safety facilities of Two-river Bridges from the aspects of layout of marks, layout of marked lines, protruding signs, delineators, anti-collision drums and TPU columns as well as safety guarantee measures for special sections, etc. in allusion for Chongqing Dongshuimen Yangtze River Bridge and Qiansimen Jialing River Bridge ( Two-river Bridges for short) project, and performs structural check computation and comparative analysis for mark layout, common hot melt marked lines and double-component marked lines, respectively so as to propose an optimal design scheme for traffic safety facilities of Two-river Bridges to satisfy the need of safe operation of bridges.%分析目前城市桥梁交通安全存在的问题,针对重庆东水门长江大桥、千厮门嘉陵江大桥(简称两江大桥)项目,从标志布设、标线布设、突起路标、轮廓标、防撞桶及TPU柱和特殊段落的安全保障措施等方面阐述两江大桥交通安全设施设计,并对标志版面、普通热熔型标线及双组份标线分别进行结构验算和比较分析,提出两江大桥交通安全设施优化设计方案,以满足桥梁安全运营的需要。

  5. Analysis of gene selection in reassortant formation between canine rotavirus K9 and human rotaviruses with different antigenic specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, N; Taniguchi, K; Urasawa, T; Urasawa, S

    1993-01-01

    A number of antigenic mosaic reassortants which have neutralization proteins VP4 and VP7 derived from different parental strains were analysed in order to study gene selection in reassortant formation between animal and human rotaviruses (HRV). These reassortants were isolated from mixed infection of MA-104 cells with canine rotavirus strain K9 (subgroup I and G serotype 3) and HRV strains (with subgroup I or II antigen and G serotype 1-4, 9 or 12 antigen), through repeated selections with anti-VP4 and anti-VP7 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies directed specifically at HRV and K9, respectively. By serological and genomic analyses, all the isolated clones were found to be antigenic mosaic reassortants possessing VP4 of K9 and VP7 of HRV. In the reassortants between strain K9 and one of the six strains of subgroup II HRV, a single or a few genotypes with particular constellations of RNA segments were predominant, with only a few RNA segments including gene 4 (encoding VP4) being derived from K9. In contrast, in the reassortants between strain K9 and any one of the subgroup I HRV, more than nine different genotypes were identified and various RNA segments, except for segments 8 and 10, were derived from K9. These findings indicated that the RNA segments of K9 might be reassorted more readily with those of subgroup I HRV than with those of subgroup II HRV, suggesting the possible existence of functional mechanisms which determine the extent of diversity of genome selection depending on the pairs of parent strains in the reassortant formation.

  6. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that heatstroke can pose to kids left in cars. July 28, 2017 Death in Florida crash may be 13th in U.S. involving Takata inflator Honda has confirmed that a Takata air bag inflator ruptured in a fatal crash involving a ...

  7. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RAM ROLLS-ROYCE SAAB SMART SRT SUBARU SUZUKI TESLA TOYOTA VOLKSWAGEN VOLVO Select make Model model Select model NHTSA committed to keeping you safe Sept. 20, 2016: Federal Automated Vehicles Policy news conference Rescuing toddler locked in hot car What's Wrong With Your Air Bag? Latest from ...

  8. Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337016/LAST_RELEASED Code A10: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337019/LAST_RELEASED Code A11: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337026/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. TIS Secretariat

  9. 基于N-K模型的空中交通安全耦合风险分析%Analysis of Coupled Risk of Air Traffic Safety Based on N-K Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗帆; 刘堂卿

    2011-01-01

    The coupling situations among human factors, equipment factors, environment factors and management factors were analyzed. These factors affect air traffic safety. By Using the N - K model, occurrence probability and the value at risk of the single factor coupling,two -factor coupling and multi -factor coupling were calculated separately with reference to the unsafe events occurred in the ATC in China over the past decade. Then the status of safety risks in air traffic control were assessed according to the value at risk. In this way,it provided new ideas and methods to ATC safety risk manasement.%对影响空中交通安全的人为因素、设备因素、环境因素和管理因素耦合的情况进行了分析,并结合我国近10年来发生的空管不安全事件,利用N-K模型,分别计算出单因素耦合、双因素耦合、多因素耦合发生的概率及风险值.根据风险值大小评估空管安全风险状态,从而为空管安全风险管理提供了新的思路和方法.

  10. 英国城市交通安全管理的调查与思考%Investigation and reflection of urban traffic safety management in British

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉国

    2012-01-01

    从科学管理的角度,总结分析了英国城市道路交通安全管理工作的经验:科学的道路规划网络,清晰的道路语言,完善的道路交通设施,前瞻的事故预防体系,健全的机动车管理制度,高效的停车管理措施,畅通的公路交通动脉,严格的执勤执法.在调查的基础上,结合我国道路交通状况及交通管理部门的工作实际,提出了加强我国城市道路交通科学管理的对策措施,为我国城市特别是中等以上城市治理交通拥堵、提高道路交通利用率提供了借鉴经验.%The management experience of the British urban road traffic was summarized from the perspective of scientific management, including the scientific road planning network, the clear road language, the perfect road transport facilities, the forward-looking accident prevention system, the robust vehicle management system, the efficient parking management measures, the smooth flow of road traffic artery, and the strictly duty of law enforcement. Finally , based on the investigation and combination of the road traffic conditions and traffic management department, the countermeasures to strengthen the scientific management of urban road traffic for our city were proposed, which can solve the traffic congestion problem especially in some large-scale cities and provide the experience for improving the road traffic utilization.

  11. Effect of focus position of ns pulse laser on damage characteristics of K9 glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yunxiang; Zhang, Hongchao; Li, Mengmeng; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2015-05-01

    Laser-induced damage of optical glasses has been investigated for more than fifty years. Due to the residual scratches, inclusions and other forms of defects at surfaces of optical glasses after the processes of grinding and polishing, it is well known that the sample surface can be damaged more easily than bulk. In order to get the relationship between the damage threshold and the location of the laser spot, we carried out damage experiments on K9 glasses with a 7ns pulse laser. Since ns pulse laser-induced damage of optical glasses always accompanies with the generation of the plasma, a optical microscope connected with a CCD camera was used to observe the plasma flash, which can provide a real time detection of damage sites. The laser pulse was first focused into the bulk, then the spot was moved toward the direction of incident laser beam step by step until the beam was completely focused in ambient air. Damage threshold curves were measured for each focus position, and low thresholds and high thresholds were extracted from those curves. Finally, the relationship between damage thresholds and focus position was analyzed.

  12. Effect of amorphous C films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on smoothing K9 glass substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Songwen; Qi, Hongji; Wei, Chaoyang; Yi, Kui; Fan, Zhengxiu; Shao, Jianda

    2009-12-01

    Soft X-ray multilayer reflectors must be deposited on super-smooth surface such as super-polished silicon wafers or glasses, which are complicate, time-consuming and expensive to produce. To overcome this shortage, C films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering were considered to smooth the K9 glass substrates' surface in the present paper. The structure of C films was systematically studied by XRD and Raman spectrum. The surface morphology and rms-roughness were obtained by AFM. Then, we calculated the impact of the C layers on the reflectivity curve of Mo/Si soft X-ray multilayer reflector around 13.5 nm. The C films exhibit typical amorphous state. With the increasing of power and thickness, the content of sp3 hybrid bonding decreases while the amount or size of well-organized graphite clusters increases. The surface rms-roughness decreases from 2.4 nm to 0.62 nm after smoothed by an 80 nm thick C layer deposited in 500 W, which is the smoothest C layer surface we have obtained. The calculation results show that the theoretical normal incidence reflectivity of Mo/Si multilayer at 13.5 nm increases from 7% to 63%.

  13. Mutations in keratin K9 in kindreds with epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma and epidemiology in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covello, S P; Irvine, A D; McKenna, K E; Munro, C S; Nevin, N C; Smith, F J; Uitto, J; McLean, W H

    1998-12-01

    Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK, MIM #144200) is an autosomal dominant disorder in which hyperkeratosis confined to the palms and soles is characterized histologically by cytolysis of suprabasal keratinocytes. Mutations in the keratin 9 gene (KRT9), a type 1 keratin expressed exclusively in the suprabasal keratinocytes of palmoplantar epidermis, have previously been demonstrated in this disorder. Here, we have studied four Northern Irish kindreds presenting with EPPK. By direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products, heterozygous missense mutations in exon 1 of KRT9 were detected in all the families. These included a novel mutation M156T; as well as M156V in two kindreds; and R162Q in the remaining family. All mutations were confirmed by reverse strand sequencing and restriction enzyme analysis. The point prevalence of EPPK in Northern Ireland was found to be 4.4 per 100,000. To date, all reported EPPK mutations occur in the helix initiation motif at the start of the central coiled-coil rod domain of K9.

  14. Purification and partial characterization of a tripeptidase from Pediococcus pentosaceus K9.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitsopoulou, M; Vafopoulou, A; Choli-Papadopoulou, T; Alichanidis, E

    1997-12-01

    A tripeptidase was purified from the cytoplasm of Pediococcus pentosaceus K9.2 by anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated by gel filtration at 100,000 Da. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified peptidase showed one protein band of 45,000 Da. Optimal enzyme activity was obtained at pH 7.0 and at 50 degrees C. The peptidase hydrolyzed all tripeptides tested. Cleavage was not observed with dipeptides, oligopeptides, or amino acid-p-nitroanilide derivatives. Strong inhibition of activity was caused by EDTA, 1,10-phenanthroline, dithiothreitol, and beta-mercaptoethanol, whereas phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and sulfur-reactive reagents had no effect on peptidase activity. Mg2+, Mn2+, and Ca2+ stimulated the hydrolyzing activity of the enzyme. The 20 N-terminal amino acids of the tripeptidase from P. pentosaceus had 84% identity with those from the corresponding N-terminal region of the tripeptidase from Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2.

  15. 俄罗斯进口 K9焦煤在本钢的应用研究%Application research of Russian imported K9 coking coal in Bensteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢毅; 王文光; 翟向军; 韩颖; 李利凯

    2015-01-01

    通过质量检测、煤的岩相分析、40 kg试验焦炉炼焦试验,对俄罗斯进口K9焦煤的煤质特性和结焦特性进行了研究。结果表明K9煤低灰、低硫,为单一煤层煤,煤质稳定,配煤炼焦时有利于焦炭质量稳定,提高焦炭平均粒度和抗碎强度。在使用K9焦煤时,还可以配入高硫肥煤。%Russian imported K9 coking coal was investigated on coal quality and coking property by means of quality detection, petrographic analysis of coal and 40kg testing coke oven test.The result in-dicated that K9 coal was featured with low ash, low sulfur and stable quality, belonging to single coal seam.So it is beneficial to stabilize coke quality and improve coke average particle size and crushing strength in coal blending and coking.Meanwhile, fat coal with high sulfur content can be used in co-king.

  16. 高速公路交通安全预警管理系统的建立%Establishment of the Fore-warning Management System of Highway Traffic Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清; 吴燕子

    2003-01-01

    根据高速公路交通安全管理的实际需要,提出了高速公路交通灾害预警管理系统的总体设计要求;论述了该系统的基本组成、功能及其实际应用.%According to the actual necessary of highway traffic safety management, this paper came up with the total design requirement of highway calamity fore-warning management system. It also discussed the fundamental constitute, function and key technology of this system.

  17. Molecular Targets of Chromatin Repressive Mark H3K9me3 in Primate Progenitor Cells within Adult Neurogenic Niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Foret

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Histone 3 Lysine 9 (H3K9 methylation is known to be associated with pericentric heterochromatin and important in genomic stability. In this study, we show that trimethylation at H3K9 (H3K9me3 is enriched in an adult neural stem cell niche- the subventricular zone (SVZ on the walls of the lateral ventricle in both rodent and non-human primate baboon brain. Previous studies have shown that there is significant correlation between baboon and human regarding genomic similarity and brain structure, suggesting that findings in baboon are relevant to human. To understand the function of H3K9me3 in this adult neurogenic niche, we performed genome-wide analyses using ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep-sequencing and RNA-Seq for in vivo SVZ cells purified from baboon brain. Through integrated analyses of ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq, we found that H3K9me3-enriched genes associated with cellular maintenance, post-transcriptional and translational modifications, signaling pathways, and DNA replication are expressed, while genes involved in axon/neuron, hepatic stellate cell, or immune-response activation are not expressed. As neurogenesis progresses in the adult SVZ, cell fate restriction is essential to direct proper lineage commitment. Our findings highlight that H3K9me3 repression in undifferentiated SVZ cells is engaged in the maintenance of cell type integrity, implicating a role for H3K9me3 as an epigenetic mechanism to control cell fate transition within this adult germinal niche.

  18. Research on Coal Quality and Coking Property of Russian Imported K9 Coking Coal%俄罗斯进口K9焦煤煤质特性与结焦特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文光; 李立凯; 李春那; 王军; 丁娜; 顾雪霞; 隋月诗

    2012-01-01

    通过质量检测、煤的岩相分析、40kg试验焦炉炼焦试验,对俄罗斯进口K9焦煤的煤质特性和结焦特性进行了研究,K9煤低灰、低硫,为单一煤层煤,煤质稳定,配煤炼焦有利于焦炭质量稳定.K9焦煤的结焦性能略好于我厂使用的国内中钢2号焦煤的结焦性能.

  19. 固结磨料研磨K9玻璃表面粗糙度模型%Model of Surface Roughness in Fixed Abrasive Lapping of K9 Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 王慧敏; 王文泽; 黄建东; 朱永伟; 左敦稳

    2015-01-01

    Surface roughness model is an important basis for lapping process design and process parameter selection. K9 glass is one of the most widely applied optical materials. The model of surface roughness in lapping of K9 glass is established to improve processing efficiency and save production cost. Based on surface microstructure of the lapping pad, fixed abrasive lapping process is simplified, and the number of effective abrasives and the single abrasive depth of cutting into the workpiece are calculated. Combing the force equilibrium in lapping process, surface roughness model of fixed abrasive lapping of K9 glass is established. The model is verified by lapping of K9 glass with different abrasive particle sizes and concentrations, as well as different pressures. The results show that surface roughness of K9 glass is proportional to particle size and one-third power of lapping pressure, and inversely proportional to two-ninth power of the pad concentration. The changing trend of theoretical surface roughness values over abrasive particle sizes and pad concentrations as well as lapping pressures matches experimental trend. Surface roughness of K9 glass can be successfully predicted by the model in fixed abrasive lapping process, which can be used to guide the lapping process design and process parameters selection with high reliability.%表面粗糙度模型是研磨过程设计和工艺参数选择的重要依据,K9 玻璃是应用最广泛的光学材料之一.建立研磨 K9玻璃表面粗糙度模型有利于提高加工效率、节约生产成本.简化固结磨料研磨过程,基于研磨垫表面微结构,计算研磨过程中参与研磨的有效磨粒数和单颗磨粒切入工件深度,利用研磨过程中受力平衡,建立固结磨料研磨K9玻璃表面粗糙度模型.采用不同磨粒粒径和不同磨料浓度的固结磨料研磨垫以及不同压力研磨K9玻璃验证表面粗糙度模型.结果表明:固结磨料研磨K9玻璃

  20. Measurement for bulk and surface absorptances of K9 substrates with laser calorimeter%激光量热法测量K9基片的表面吸收和体吸收

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘浩; 潘峰; 陈松林; 王震; 马平; 欧阳升; 卫耀伟

    2014-01-01

    表面抛光可能给K9基片带来额外的杂质和吸收,分离K9基片的表面吸收率与体吸收率有助于改进基片的加工质量和抛光工艺,对抗损伤能力研究具有重要意义.分析了激光量热法测量弱吸收的原理,采用符合ISO 11551要求的激光量热计测量K9基片的弱吸收.对相同工艺抛光的不同厚度K9基片进行了弱吸收表征,实验发现K9基片的弱吸收随着厚度增加近似线性增大.推导了表面吸收率和体吸收率的计算式,实验得出本样品的表面吸收率为1.21×10-5,体吸收率远大于表面吸收率,体吸收系数为1.72×10-3/cm.实验结果显示所用K9样品的吸收主要来自于材料本身,改善抛光工艺对降低其吸收率作用不大.

  1. 脉冲CO2激光损伤K9玻璃的实验与仿真%Simulation and Experimental Research on Damage in K9 Glass due to Pulsed CO2 Laser Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玺; 李化; 聂劲松

    2008-01-01

    对脉冲CO2激光损伤K9玻璃进行了实验与仿真研究.采用输出脉宽为10μs的脉冲CO2激光器对K9玻璃样品进行激光损伤实验,并且建立了脉冲CO2激光损伤K9玻璃的理论模型,利用有限元法对K9玻璃样品中的温度和应力分布进行数值分析.研究表明,K9玻璃的损伤阈值为6.533 J/cm2;入射激光能量密度越高,样品的损伤程度就越大,并且多脉冲对样品的损伤程度明显大于单脉冲;在激光能量较强的情况下,K9玻璃表面在光斑区域内形成熔融损伤和由压缩应力造成的应力损伤,在光斑区域外围则形成由环向拉伸应力造成的应力损伤,仿真分析结果与实验结果吻合良好.

  2. Transumo: Toward sustainable and integrated traffic management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arem, B. van; Pommer, J.

    2009-01-01

    The current and expected increase of traffic demand can not be matched with expansion of road infrastructure. Nor will traditional traffic management measures suffice in the long run. As a consequence we are faced with increasing congestion, an unreliable road network as well as safety and environme

  3. Analysis of damage threshold of K9 glass irradiated by 248-nm KrF excimer laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Shao, Jingzhen; Li, Hua; Nie, Jinsong; Fang, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    The theoretical model of K9 glass irradiated by a 248-nm KrF excimer laser was established, and a numerical simulation was performed to calculate temperature and thermal stress fields in the K9 glass sample using the finite element method. The laser-induced damage thresholds were defined and calculated, and the effect of repetition frequency and the number of pulses on the damage threshold were also studied. Furthermore, the experiment research was carried out to confirm the numerical simulation. The damage threshold and damage morphology were analyzed by means of a metallurgical microscope and scanning electron microscopy. The simulation and experimental results indicated that the damage mechanism of K9 glass irradiated by a KrF excimer laser was melting damage and stress damage, and the stress damage first appeared inside the K9 glass sample. The tensile stress damage threshold, the compressive stress damage threshold, and the melting damage threshold were 0.64, 0.76, and 1.05 J/cm2, respectively. The damage threshold decreased with increasing repetition frequency and number of laser pulses. The experimental results indicated that the damage threshold of K9 glass was 2.8 J/cm2.

  4. A jumonji (Jarid2) protein complex represses cyclin D1 expression by methylation of histone H3-K9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirato, Haruki; Ogawa, Satoko; Nakajima, Kuniko; Inagawa, Masayo; Kojima, Mizuyo; Tachibana, Makoto; Shinkai, Yoichi; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2009-01-09

    Covalent modifications of histone tails have critical roles in regulating gene expression. Previously, we identified the jumonji (jmj, Jarid2) gene, the jmjC domain, and a Jmj family. Recently, many Jmj family proteins have been shown to be histone demethylases, and jmjC is the catalytic domain. However, Jmj does not have histone demethylase activity because the jmjC domain lacks conserved residues for binding to cofactors. Independently of these studies, we previously showed that Jmj binds to the cyclin D1 promoter and represses the transcription of cyclin D1. Here, we show the mechanisms by which Jmj represses the transcription of cyclin D1. We found that a protein complex of Jmj had histone methyltransferase activity toward histone H3 lysine 9 (H3-K9). We also found that Jmj bound to the H3-K9 methyltransferases G9a and GLP. Expression of Jmj recruited G9a and GLP to the cyclin D1 promoter and increased H3-K9 methylation. Inactivation of both G9a and GLP, but not of only G9a, inhibited the methylation of H3-K9 in the cyclin D1 promoter and repression of cyclin D1 expression by Jmj. These results suggest that Jmj methylates H3-K9 and represses cyclin D1 expression through G9a and GLP, and that Jmj family proteins can regulate gene expression by not only histone demethylation but also other histone modification.

  5. Analysis of temperature and thermal stress fields of K9 glass damaged by 1064nm nanosecond pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yunxiang; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2013-02-01

    There are residual scratches, inclusions and other forms of defects at surfaces of optical materials after the processes of grinding and polishing, which could either enhance the local electric field or increase the absorption rate of the material. As a result, the laser-induced damage threshold at the surface of the material is reduced greatly. In order to study underlying mechanisms and process of short pulsed laser-induced damage to K9 glass, a spatial axisymmetric model where the K9 glass was irradiated by a laser whose wavelength and pulse width are respectively 1064nm and 10ns was established. Taking into account the fact that the surface of the K9 glass is more likely to be damaged, 2μm-thick layers whose absorption coefficients are larger than bulk were set at both the input and output surfaces in the model. In addition, the model assumed that once the calculated tensile/compressive stress was greater than the tensile/compressive strength of K9 glass, the local absorption coefficient increased. The finite element method(FEM) was applied to calculate the temperature and thermal stress fields in the K9 glass. Results show that only the temperature of a small part of interacted region exceeds the melting point, while most of the damage pit is generated by thermal stress. The simulated damage morphology and the size of the damage region are consistent with those reported in literatures, which indicates that the model built in our work is reasonable.

  6. The Effects of Traffic Safety Education Performed in 2010 for Young Pedestrians in Four Cities of Guangdong Province%2010年广东四城市儿童步行安全教育干预效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂少萍; 徐浩锋; 沈少君; 夏亮; 马文军; 许燕君

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of traffic safety education program performed in 2010 for young pedestrians and provide reference for planning traffic injury prevention in children.Methods Following the Implementation Plan of Traffic Safety Education for Children in four cities of Guangdong Province in 2009-2010”, 8 600 students of grades 4 and 5 in 10 schools from each city were recruited using stratified cluster sampling method. Participants were asked to complete the self-administered questionnaire before and after the safety education, which includes knowledge about pedestrian safety, safety regulations, risk behaviors on the road and injures happened.Results After safety education, all participants showed significant improvement (P graders.Conclusion The short-term effects of the traffic safety education on young pedestrians are obvious, while a long-term mechanism should be established to sharpen safety education and consolidate the effect of intervention.%目的评价儿童步行安全教育干预的效果,为儿童道路交通伤害干预提供参考。方法按照《2009─2010年度广东省四城市儿童安全教育干预项目实施方案》的要求,抽取4个城市作为项目市,采用分层整群抽样方法,每市选择10所学校四、五年级在校学生共8600人为目标人群;在实施儿童步行安全教育干预前后,分别采用自填式问卷对其步行安全知识、安全行为及道路危险行为等进行调查。结果干预后,交通安全知识知晓率除斑马线标志外均较干预前上升,差异普遍有统计学意义(P<0.05)在马路上追逐玩闹、红灯时穿越马路、跨越马路中间护栏过马路等三种道路危险行为发生率比干预前下降,其中男生和四年级学生红灯时穿越马路行为发生率的下降较为明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);学生与车辆碰撞发生率比干预前略有下降,其中女生和五年级学生与机动车碰撞发生率

  7. 公路设计中需要考虑的交通安全因素分析%Analysis of Traffic Safety Factors Need to be Considered in Design of Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈苏; 周杰

    2014-01-01

    本文从行车视距、平面线形、纵断面线形、平面交叉和平纵组合等五个方面,对公路设计中需要考虑的主要交通安全因素进行了分析研究,以期为提高公路设计质量、保障行车安全提供参考。%This paper, from five aspects of driving sight dista-nce, horizontal alignment, vertical alignment, plane intersect-tion and combination of cross and vertical, analyzed the main traffic safety factors need to be considered in the design of hi-ghway, in order to improve the quality of highway design, en-suring the driving safety and provide reference.

  8. Experiment on damage in K9 glass due to repetition rate pulsed CO2 laser radiation%重频脉冲CO2激光损伤K9玻璃的实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玺; 卞进田; 李华; 聂劲松; 孙晓泉; 尹学忠; 雷鹏

    2013-01-01

      对脉冲CO2激光在不同重频模式下损伤K9玻璃进行了实验研究。采用输出能量为10 J,脉宽为90 ns,重复频率在100 Hz至300 Hz之间连续可调的脉冲CO2激光器,对K9玻璃样品进行了激光损伤实验,观察到两次不同重频条件下样品的损伤形貌。实验结果表明,重频越高,对样品的损伤程度就越严重;应力损伤成为K9玻璃激光损伤的最主要的原因,在重频强激光的辐照下,K9玻璃表面出现强烈的等离子体闪光,伴随明显的熔融气化破坏,并形成等离子体爆轰波。爆轰波对玻璃材料产生了严重的力学冲击作用,这种应力作用足以对K9玻璃造成毁灭性破坏。运用有限元分析对激光辐照K9玻璃的温度与应力分布进行仿真,其计算结果与实验基本吻合。%  In this paper, the experiment on damage in K9 glass induced by pulsed CO2 laser under different repetition rates was carried out, which had a pulse width of 90 ns. The laser pulse energy was 10 J and the repetition rate was kept within the range of 100 Hz to 300 Hz. The damage morphologies of two kind repetition rates after laser irradiation were characterized. The experimental results indicate that the effect of laser irradiation on samples can be affected considerably by the change of laser repetition rate, and the intensity of damage morphology on the sample increases with the laser repetition rate, and the damage in K9 glass induced by pulsed CO2 laser is dominated by stress. As a result, the plasma detonation wave induced by laser occured, the material was broken result from the melting and evaporation of K9 glass. It is shown that the plasma detonation wave affected stress damage considerably, and this mechanical effect almost destroyed K9 glass sample. A numerical simulation was performed to calculate temperature and stress distributions in K9 glass sample irradiated by pulsed CO2 laser using finite element method. The model

  9. 优良K9苹果优质丰产配套栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李占印; 任宝君

    2014-01-01

    K9苹果,又名七月鲜,是辽宁省果树科学研究所以佚名大苹果为母本、铃铛果为父本杂交选育而成的.近年来在朝阳市的建平县、凌源市栽培表现果色艳丽、酸甜适口、果型圆正等诸多优良特性,根据K9在辽西北地区的生长特性,总结了苹果K9的园地选择、栽植、整形修剪、肥水管理、病虫害防治等系列关键技术.

  10. ICBP90, a novel methyl K9 H3 binding protein linking protein ubiquitination with heterochromatin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagianni, Panagiota; Amazit, Larbi; Qin, Jun; Wong, Jiemin

    2008-01-01

    Methylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 is critical for diverse biological processes including transcriptional repression, heterochromatin formation, and X inactivation. The biological effects of histone methylation are thought to be mediated by effector proteins that recognize and bind to specific patterns of methylation. Using an unbiased in vitro biochemical approach, we have identified ICBP90, a transcription and cell cycle regulator, as a novel methyl K9 H3-specific binding protein. ICBP90 and its murine homologue Np95 are enriched in pericentric heterochromatin of interphase nuclei, and this localization is dependent on H3K9 methylation. Specific binding of ICBP90 to methyl K9 H3 depends on two functional domains, a PHD (plant homeodomain) finger that defines the binding specificity and an SRA (SET- and RING-associated) domain that promotes binding activity. Furthermore, we present evidence that ICBP90 is required for proper heterochromatin formation in mammalian cells.

  11. The use of yellow longitudinal markings on roads with two-directional traffic. Contribution to OECD Research Group TS 304 "Improving road safety at night".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The question is posed whether the application of a colour difference for the central line on the road is the best solution available for the coding of the categories of road. It has been proposed to apply yellow centre lines on roads with two-way traffic and white centre lines on roads with one-wa

  12. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 4, Decision Support: Deliverable 4.4: Forecasting road traffic fatalities in European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, C. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Bijleveld, F.D. Commandeur, J.J.F. Broughton, J Knowles, J. Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Giustianni, G. Shingo, D. Hermans, E. Lassarre, S. Perez, C. & Santamariña, E.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic crashes have a major impact to European society, in 2008 over 38,000 road users died and over 1.2 million were injured. The economic cost is immense and has been estimated at over 160 billion for the EU 15 alone. The European Commission and National Governments place a high priority on reduc

  13. Pedestrians, two-wheelers and road safety : a statistical comparison of pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider road-traffic fatalities in The Netherlands from 1968 to 1972.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Data were collected on pedestrian, cyclist and moped-rider traffic fatalities from 1968 to 1972. Use is made only of statistics available. The variables that were considered were related to demographic factors (sex and age), locality characteristics, vicinity factors, other circumstances and the se

  14. 当前道路交通安全管理工作的现状及对策%Current Situation and Countermeasures of Road Traffic Safety Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨仕东

    2012-01-01

    当前,道路交通的人、车、路、环境和管理五个基本要素发生了根本变化,使得植根在适应过去传统时代、社会背景下的管理理念成为束缚公安交通管理的樊笼。对策:1.夯实交警队伍建设;2.探索和建立适应社会发展的交通管理机制;3.拓宽服务模式,切实落实管理措施。%Nowadays, the five elements of road traffic, namely the people, vehicles, roads, environ- ment, and management, have been significantly changed. These changes make the traditional concept of man- agement which may fit old days become an obstacle of road traffic management of public security organs. Countermeasures: 1. emphasizing team building of traffic police; 2. developing and establishing suitable mechanism of traffic management; 3. providing various forms of service. Making management measures fully implemented.

  15. ACCOUNT OF ROAD CONDITIONS WHILE INVESTIGATING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Selioukov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  16. 7 CFR 503.12 - Vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vehicular and pedestrian traffic. 503.12 Section 503... traffic. Drivers of all vehicles on the PIADC Government-owned parking areas in PIADC shall drive in a... posted traffic signs. Pedestrians will also observe specific safety directives as may be issued and...

  17. 准分子激光辐照K9玻璃的热力效应分析%Thermal and mechanical damage in K9 glass irradiated by KrF excimer laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玺; 方晓东

    2016-01-01

    A numerical simulation is performed to calculate temperature and stress distributions in K9 glass sample irradia-ted by KrF excimer laser using finite element method,and the relationship between laser parameters and damage effect is also studied.The simulation results indicate that the damage of K9 glass irradiated by KrF excimer laser is thermal stress damage when the incident laser energy is low.The stress damage in laser spot area is dominated by compressive stress,and the damage near the edge of the spot or inside the K9 glass is dominated by tensile stress.The thermal stress as shock wave oscillates obvi-ously inside the K9 glass sample.It is shown that repetition frequency and the number of pulses affect damage considerably,and the accumulation of multi-shot laser induced damage in K9 glass is obvious.%基于传热学理论,利用有限元法对KrF准分子激光辐照K9 玻璃样品中的热力效应进行了数值分析,并比较了脉冲数目和重频对损伤效果的影响.研究表明,较低的准分子激光能量就能够使 K9 玻璃在表面和体内产生热应力损伤,热应力损伤在光斑区域内主要由压缩热应力控制,在光斑边缘和材料内部则主要由拉伸热应力控制.在激光脉冲结束时刻,产生的温度和热应力最大,且热应力以热冲击波的形式在材料内传播,随时间变化而来回振荡,逐渐减弱.这种热应力的反复冲击会对材料产生持续的损伤增长效应,增加了材料的损伤时间,并使材料更容易断裂.脉冲数目和重复频率对损伤效果有着较大影响,在高重复频率下,损伤累积效应明显.

  18. 固结磨料研磨掺铈玻璃与K9玻璃的对比研究%Research on fixed abrasive lapping of cerium doped glass and K9 glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏磊; 李军; 李鹏鹏; 朱永伟; 王文泽; 左敦稳

    2013-01-01

    在相同研磨条件下,采用固结磨料研磨垫研磨掺铈玻璃和K9玻璃,比较掺铈玻璃和K9玻璃的研磨材料去除率,研磨摩擦系数值和加工后表面质量.研究结果表明:金刚石固结磨料研磨垫对掺铈玻璃的材料去除率和研磨摩擦系数小于K9玻璃,表面质量相对较优.掺铈玻璃残屑中的Ce与Si在金刚石颗粒表面及磨粒之间形成包裹层和填覆层,改变材料去除机理,导致材料去除率和摩擦系数下降,获得更优的表面质量.%Fixed abrasive pad was employed to lap cerium doped glass and K9 glass in the same condition. Material removal rate(MRR) , lapping friction coefficient and surface quality were investigated. Results showed that MRR and lapping friction coefficient of cerium doped glass were less than those of K9 glass, but surface quality was better. The Ce and Si from the chips of cerium doped glass formed a covering layer on diamond particle surface and a filling layer in the gap between abrasives, thus changing the material removal mechanism. MRR and friction coefficient declined, and surface quality got better.

  19. Roads to Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  20. 33 CFR 161.55 - Vessel Traffic Service Puget Sound and the Cooperative Vessel Traffic Service for the Juan de...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service Puget Sound and the Cooperative Vessel Traffic Service for the Juan de Fuca Region. 161.55 Section 161.55 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT...

  1. Cloning, characterization and serological evaluation of K9 and K26: two related hydrophilic antigens of Leishmania chagasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, A; Daifalla, N S; Jen, S; Badaro, R; Reed, S G; Skeiky, Y A

    1999-08-20

    We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of two related hydrophilic antigens of Leishmania chagasi. These two antigens have predicted molecular weights of approximately 9 and 26 kDa and detect antibodies in sera of patients with kala-azar (k). Thus, to maintain consistency with nomenclature of the previously described 39 kDa diagnostic antigen of L. chagasi (k39 [1]), these antigens are being referred to as k9 and k26. A significant difference between k9 and k26 is the presence of 11 copies of a 14 amino acid repeat in the open reading frame of k26. The region flanking the repeats of k26 shares a 69% identity with the open reading frame of k9. The recombinant proteins encoded by both antigens are very hydrophilic and show aberrant migration on SDS PAGE. Results of Southern blot analysis reveal that k9 and k26 are conserved to varying degrees among various Leishmania species. Interestingly, the repeat region of k26 is specific to L. chagasi and L. donovani while the flanking region is conserved among several other species. Transcript levels of k26 are significantly upregulated in the amastigote stage of the parasite. Our results show that recombinant K26 is specific in detecting antibodies in infection sera from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. Thus rK26 may complement rK39 in a more accurate diagnosis of VL in the old and the new world.

  2. Transient absorption and luminescence spectra of K9 glass at sub-damage site by ultraviolet laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z., E-mail: namezhangzhen@126.com [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000 (China); Huang, J.; Geng, F.; Zhou, X.Y. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Feng, S.Q. [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000 (China); Cheng, X.L., E-mail: chengxl@scu.edu.cn [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000 (China); Jiang, X.D. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wu, W.D. [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion (China); Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610000 (China); Zheng, W.G.; Tang, Y.J. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Transient absorption and luminescence spectra at sub-damage site of K9 glass by laser irradiation at 355 nm are presented. • As the energy density increases to 2.54 J/cm{sup 2}, the absorption intensity reaches to about 0.2. • The mechanism of two-photon ionization mainly plays a critical role at sub-damage site. • Intensity of Raman spectra is very high at low energy density and decreased with respect to high energy density. -- Abstract: Transient absorption and luminescence spectra at sub-damage site of K9 glass by laser irradiation at 355 nm are presented. The dependence of transient absorption on laser energy and number of pulses was investigated. As the energy density increases to 2.54 and 3.18 J/cm{sup 2}, the transient absorption intensity reaches to about 0.20 range from 400 to 480 nm. With the increase of number of pulses the process of residual absorption appears, which can be used to explain the fatigue effect of K9 glass. The defects in K9 glass were investigated by fluorescence and Raman spectra. The fluorescence band centered at about 410 nm is attributed to oxygen deficiency centers. The mechanism of two-photon ionization plays a critical role at sub-damage site. Compared to the Raman spectra of pristine site, intensity of Raman spectra is very high at a lower energy density, while it decreased at a higher energy density.

  3. A silencing pathway to induce H3-K9 and H4-K20 trimethylation at constitutive heterochromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotta, Gunnar; Lachner, Monika; Sarma, Kavitha; Ebert, Anja; Sengupta, Roopsha; Reuter, Gunter; Reinberg, Danny; Jenuwein, Thomas

    2004-06-01

    Histone lysine methylation is a central modification to mark functionally distinct chromatin regions. In particular, H3-K9 trimethylation has emerged as a hallmark of pericentric heterochromatin in mammals. Here we show that H4-K20 trimethylation is also focally enriched at pericentric heterochromatin. Intriguingly, H3-K9 trimethylation by the Suv39h HMTases is required for the induction of H4-K20 trimethylation, although the H4 Lys 20 position is not an intrinsic substrate for these enzymes. By using a candidate approach, we identified Suv4-20h1 and Suv4-20h2 as two novel SET domain HMTases that localize to pericentric heterochromatin and specifically act as nucleosomal H4-K20 trimethylating enzymes. Interaction of the Suv4-20h enzymes with HP1 isoforms suggests a sequential mechanism to establish H3-K9 and H4-K20 trimethylation at pericentric heterochromatin. Heterochromatic H4-K20 trimethylation is evolutionarily conserved, and in Drosophila, the Suv4-20 homolog is a novel PEV modifier to regulate position-effect variegation. Together, our data indicate a function for H4-K20 trimethylation in gene silencing and further suggest H3-K9 and H4-K20 trimethylation as important components of a repressive pathway that can index pericentric heterochromatin.

  4. K4, K9 and K18 in human histone H3 are targets for biotinylation by biotinidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Keyna; Camporeale, Gabriela; Rueckert, Brian; Kueh, Alice; Griffin, Jacob B; Sarath, Gautam; Zempleni, Janos

    2005-08-01

    Histones are modified post-translationally, e.g. by methylation of lysine and arginine residues, and by phosphorylation of serine residues. These modifications regulate processes such as gene expression, DNA repair, and mitosis and meiosis. Recently, evidence has been provided that histones are also modified by covalent binding of the vitamin biotin. The aims of this study were to identify biotinylation sites in histone H3, and to investigate the crosstalk among histone biotinylation, methylation and phosphorylation. Synthetic peptides based on the sequence of human histone H3 were used as substrates for enzymatic biotinylation by biotinidase; biotin in peptides was probed using streptavidin peroxidase. These studies provided evidence that K4, K9 and K18 in histone H3 are good targets for biotinylation; K14 and K23 are relatively poor targets. Antibodies were generated to histone H3, biotinylated either at K4, K9 or K18. These antibodies localized to nuclei in human placental cells in immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting experiments, suggesting that lysines in histone H3 are biotinylated in vivo. Dimethylation of R2, R8 and R17 increased biotinylation of K4, K9 and K18, respectively, by biotinidase; phosphorylation of S10 abolished biotinylation of K9. These observations are consistent with crosstalk between biotinylation of histones and other known modifications of histones. We speculate that this crosstalk provides a link to known roles for biotin in gene expression and cell proliferation.

  5. H3K9me-independent gene silencing in fission yeast heterochromatin by Clr5 and histone deacetylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs R; Hazan, Idit; Shanker, Sreenath;

    2011-01-01

    Nucleosomes in heterochromatic regions bear histone modifications that distinguish them from euchromatic nucleosomes. Among those, histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me) and hypoacetylation have been evolutionarily conserved and are found in both multicellular eukaryotes and single-cell model...

  6. H3K9 Trimethylation Silences Fas Expression To Confer Colon Carcinoma Immune Escape and 5-Fluorouracil Chemoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Amy V; Yang, Dafeng; Lu, Chunwan; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Li, Xia; Liu, Feiyan; Figueroa, Mario; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Pearce, Cedric; Bollag, Wendy B; Nayak-Kapoor, Asha; Liu, Kebin

    2015-08-15

    The Fas-FasL effector mechanism plays a key role in cancer immune surveillance by host T cells, but metastatic human colon carcinoma often uses silencing Fas expression as a mechanism of immune evasion. The molecular mechanism under FAS transcriptional silencing in human colon carcinoma is unknown. We performed genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis and identified that the FAS promoter is enriched with H3K9me3 in metastatic human colon carcinoma cells. The H3K9me3 level in the FAS promoter region is significantly higher in metastatic than in primary cancer cells, and it is inversely correlated with Fas expression level. We discovered that verticillin A is a selective inhibitor of histone methyltransferases SUV39H1, SUV39H2, and G9a/GLP that exhibit redundant functions in H3K9 trimethylation and FAS transcriptional silencing. Genome-wide gene expression analysis identified FAS as one of the verticillin A target genes. Verticillin A treatment decreased H3K9me3 levels in the FAS promoter and restored Fas expression. Furthermore, verticillin A exhibited greater efficacy than decitabine and vorinostat in overcoming colon carcinoma resistance to FasL-induced apoptosis. Verticillin A also increased DR5 expression and overcame colon carcinoma resistance to DR5 agonist drozitumab-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, verticillin A overcame metastatic colon carcinoma resistance to 5-fluorouracil in vitro and in vivo. Using an orthotopic colon cancer mouse model, we demonstrated that tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes are FasL(+) and that FasL-mediated cancer immune surveillance is essential for colon carcinoma growth control in vivo. Our findings determine that H3K9me3 of the FAS promoter is a dominant mechanism underlying FAS silencing and resultant colon carcinoma immune evasion and progression.

  7. development of an electronic vehicular traffic signal controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    safety and orderly flow of traffic as well as safety of pedestrians. ... Conceptual block diagram of signal controller finite state machine .... process was repeated every other week for three months in the laboratory and for an additional two months.

  8. Level of neurotic disorders among drivers causing traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Đurić Predrag; Filipović Danka

    2007-01-01

    Different aspects of driver personality may affect traffic safety. Extended driver reaction time causes deceleration of the reflexes, which is a major cause of traffic accidents. Cornell index was used in 30 drivers responsible for traffic accidents, with the aim to measure their level of neurotic disorder and compare them with results of controls (drivers not responsible for traffic accidents). Reaction time was measured and compared among subjects with normal results of Cornell test and tho...

  9. 青兰高速二灰土(水泥/石灰/土)试验段(k9+412-k9+740)施工方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆滨

    2008-01-01

    路基综合稳定土简称二灰土,它是水泥、石灰、土的混合料。现广泛应用在高速、一级路的路基底基层的施工上,因他的施工工艺技术含量要求较高,所以在正式大面积施工前,一定要做好施工试验段的全部技术指标的确定工作。以下就是青兰高速的试验段(K9+412-k9+740)的施工过程。

  10. K9玻璃磁性研磨抛光表面粗糙度试验研究%Research on surface roughness of K9 glass by magnetic abrasive finishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘永亮; 邱腾雄; 阎秋生

    2015-01-01

    针对 K9光学玻璃研磨抛光过程中存在的问题,将磁性研磨加工方法应用在光学玻璃的研磨抛光上。试验表明,K9玻璃的表面粗糙度值Ra由原来的90 nm 左右下降到40 nm 左右。为进一步研究磁性研磨试验的4个因素,设计了正交试验,最终得出各个因素对于工件表面粗糙度影响的主次顺序,并确定其最优组合为:磁极转速2300 r/min,加工间隙1.5 mm,磁感应强度0.4 T,进给速度200 mm/min。%To study the existing problems of polishing K9 optical glass,magnetic abrasive finishing was put forward in polishing optical glass•Results showed that surface roughness R a of K9 glass decreased from 90 nm to 40 nm•Based on the feasibility study,the magnetic abrasive finishing experiments were performed by orthogonal experiment with 4 parameters•Then various factors of magnetic abrasive finishing were listed in sequence•The optimum combination was that:pole speed of 2300 r∕min,working clearance of 1•5 mm,magnetic flux density of 0•4 T and feed rate of 200 mm∕min.

  11. H3K9me3 Inhibition Improves Memory, Promotes Spine Formation, and Increases BDNF Levels in the Aged Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigdha, Shikha; Prieto, G Aleph; Petrosyan, Arpine; Loertscher, Brad M; Dieskau, André P; Overman, Larry E; Cotman, Carl W

    2016-03-23

    An increasing number of studies show that an altered epigenetic landscape may cause impairments in regulation of learning and memory-related genes within the aged hippocampus, eventually resulting in cognitive deficits in the aged brain. One such epigenetic repressive mark is trimethylation of H3K9 (H3K9me3), which is typically implicated in gene silencing. Here, we identify, for the first time, an essential role for H3K9me3 and its histone methyl transferase (SUV39H1) in mediating hippocampal memory functions. Pharmacological inhibition of SUV39H1 using a novel and selective inhibitor decreased levels of H3K9me3 in the hippocampus of aged mice, and improved performance in the objection location memory and fear conditioning tasks and in a complex spatial environment learning task. The inhibition of SUV39H1 induced an increase in spine density of thin and stubby but not mushroom spines in the hippocampus of aged animals and increased surface GluR1 levels in hippocampal synaptosomes, a key index of spine plasticity. Furthermore, there were changes at BDNF exon I gene promoter, in concert with overall BDNF levels in the hippocampus of drug-treated animals compared with control animals. Together, these data demonstrate that SUV39H1 inhibition and the concomitant H3K9me3 downregulation mediate gene transcription in the hippocampus and reverse age-dependent deficits in hippocampal memory. Cognitive decline is a debilitating condition associated with not only neurodegenerative diseases but also aging in general. However, effective treatments have been slow to emerge so far. In this study, we demonstrate that epigenetic regulation of key synaptic proteins may be an underlying, yet reversible, cause of this decline. Our findings suggest that histone 3 trimethylation is a probable target for pharmacological intervention that can counteract cognitive decline in the aging brain. Finally, we provide support to the hypothesis that, by manipulating the enzyme that regulates H3K9

  12. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  13. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  14. Statistical analysis of water traffic accident and safety management for sand ship%砂石船舶水上交通事故统计分析及安全管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文华; 马晓雪; 马来好; 陈海泉; 张银东; 乔卫亮

    2014-01-01

    对某水域2008-2012年上半年砂石船舶水上交通事故进行统计分析,探索砂石船舶水上交通事故的发生规律。结合对砂石船舶营运系统中船员、船舶、环境、管理和砂石五个方面的剖析,有针对性地提出相应的安全管理对策,为相关责任部门制订砂石船舶水上交通安全管理对策提供参考。%Based on the statistical analysis of the sand ship traffic accidents in some water areas from 2008 to the first half year of 2012 , the occurrence of traffic accidents for sand ship was explored , and combining with statistical analysis on fol-lowing five aspects , including crew , ship, environment , man-agement and sand which were in the operation of the ship sys-tems, the countermeasures for safety management were pro-posed,which can provide reference for the relevant responsible departments .

  15. Practical guidelines for the registration and monitoring of serious traffic injuries, Deliverable 7.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez, K. Weijermars, W.A.M. Amoros, E. Bauer, R. Bos, N. Dupont, E. Filtness, A. Houwing, S. Johannsen, H. Leskovsek, B. Machata, K. Martin, JL. Nuyttens, N. Olabarria, M. Pascal, L. & Van den Berghe, W.

    2017-01-01

    Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency (SafetyCube) is a European Commission supported Horizon 2020 project. The project’s main objective is the development of an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policy-makers and stakeholders to select and implement the most

  16. 33 CFR 167.173 - Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic Route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.173 Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic...

  17. Comparative investigation of damage performance on K9 and SiO2 under 1064-nm nanosecond laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Wang, Fengrui; Zhang, Zhen; Huang, Jin; Zhou, Xinda; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Zheng, Wanguo

    2012-01-01

    Laser damage performance of K9 glass and fused silica glass were tested respectively at same experimental condition with 1064 nm nanosecond laser. The initial damage threshold (IDT), the damage growth threshold (DGT) and the damage growth laws of the two optics glass were investigated comparatively. The results show that the damage growth behavior of the two glasses are quite different, for example, the lower damage growth threshold and the higher damage growth coefficient for K9 glass, which can attribute to the difference of the material's damage morphology, optical absorption, residual stress near damage site between the two optics glass. The research is very important to choose transparent optical material applied in high power laser.

  18. H3K9me-independent gene silencing in fission yeast heterochromatin by Clr5 and histone deacetylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Klavs R; Hazan, Idit; Shanker, Sreenath; Watt, Stephen; Verhein-Hansen, Janne; Bähler, Jürg; Martienssen, Robert A; Partridge, Janet F; Cohen, Amikam; Thon, Geneviève

    2011-01-06

    Nucleosomes in heterochromatic regions bear histone modifications that distinguish them from euchromatic nucleosomes. Among those, histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me) and hypoacetylation have been evolutionarily conserved and are found in both multicellular eukaryotes and single-cell model organisms such as fission yeast. In spite of numerous studies, the relative contributions of the various heterochromatic histone marks to the properties of heterochromatin remain largely undefined. Here, we report that silencing of the fission yeast mating-type cassettes, which are located in a well-characterized heterochromatic region, is hardly affected in cells lacking the H3K9 methyltransferase Clr4. We document the existence of a pathway parallel to H3K9me ensuring gene repression in the absence of Clr4 and identify a silencing factor central to this pathway, Clr5. We find that Clr5 controls gene expression at multiple chromosomal locations in addition to affecting the mating-type region. The histone deacetylase Clr6 acts in the same pathway as Clr5, at least for its effects in the mating-type region, and on a subset of other targets, notably a region recently found to be prone to neo-centromere formation. The genomic targets of Clr5 also include Ste11, a master regulator of sexual differentiation. Hence Clr5, like the multi-functional Atf1 transcription factor which also modulates chromatin structure in the mating-type region, controls sexual differentiation and genome integrity at several levels. Globally, our results point to histone deacetylases as prominent repressors of gene expression in fission yeast heterochromatin. These deacetylases can act in concert with, or independently of, the widely studied H3K9me mark to influence gene silencing at heterochromatic loci.

  19. H3K9me-independent gene silencing in fission yeast heterochromatin by Clr5 and histone deacetylases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klavs R Hansen

    Full Text Available Nucleosomes in heterochromatic regions bear histone modifications that distinguish them from euchromatic nucleosomes. Among those, histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me and hypoacetylation have been evolutionarily conserved and are found in both multicellular eukaryotes and single-cell model organisms such as fission yeast. In spite of numerous studies, the relative contributions of the various heterochromatic histone marks to the properties of heterochromatin remain largely undefined. Here, we report that silencing of the fission yeast mating-type cassettes, which are located in a well-characterized heterochromatic region, is hardly affected in cells lacking the H3K9 methyltransferase Clr4. We document the existence of a pathway parallel to H3K9me ensuring gene repression in the absence of Clr4 and identify a silencing factor central to this pathway, Clr5. We find that Clr5 controls gene expression at multiple chromosomal locations in addition to affecting the mating-type region. The histone deacetylase Clr6 acts in the same pathway as Clr5, at least for its effects in the mating-type region, and on a subset of other targets, notably a region recently found to be prone to neo-centromere formation. The genomic targets of Clr5 also include Ste11, a master regulator of sexual differentiation. Hence Clr5, like the multi-functional Atf1 transcription factor which also modulates chromatin structure in the mating-type region, controls sexual differentiation and genome integrity at several levels. Globally, our results point to histone deacetylases as prominent repressors of gene expression in fission yeast heterochromatin. These deacetylases can act in concert with, or independently of, the widely studied H3K9me mark to influence gene silencing at heterochromatic loci.

  20. The effect of laser pulse width on laser-induced damage at K9 and UBK7 components surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinda; Ba, Rongsheng; Zheng, Yinbo; Yuan, Jing; Li, Wenhong; Chen, Bo

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigated the effects of laser pulse width on laser-induced damage. We measured the damage threshold of K9 glass and UBK7 glass optical components at different pulse width, then analysis pulse-width dependence of damage threshold. It is shown that damage threshold at different pulse width conforms to thermal restriction mechanism, Because of cm size laser beam, defect on the optical component surface leads to laser-induced threshold decreased.

  1. Map Gis-K9 在油田发展建设中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金仁

    2016-01-01

    在信息技术时代,油田发展建设过程中也必须提升其决策和业务的信息技术水平。Map GIS-K9 不仅技术成熟,而且二次开发等售后服务能够基于用户实际情况做出科学调整,因此,它在油田发展建设中得到广发应用,也受到用户的广泛认可。从石油地质图编绘系统、油气管道管理系统等方面讨论了Map Gis-K9 在油田发展建设中的应用,希望对促进Map Gis-K9 在油田工程领域中更好地发挥价值,从而促进中国石油领域的进步有积极意义。

  2. Fluorescence and Raman spectra on surface of K9 glass by high fluence ultraviolet laser irradiation at 355 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Huang, Jin; Geng, Feng; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Feng, Shiquan; Ren, Dahua; Cheng, Xinlu; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Zheng, Wanguo; Tang, Yongjian

    2013-11-01

    In order to explore the damage mechanisms of K9 glass irradiated by high energy density ultraviolet laser, laser-induced fluorescence and Raman spectra were investigated. Compared the fluorescence spectra of damaged area, undamaged area and sub-damaged area, it can be conclude that the fluorescence spectrum of sub-damaged area is different from the structure of the other two areas. Especially, the main peak of the spectra at 415 nm reveals the unique characteristics of K9 glass. The structure at the sub-damaged area enhances intensity of the Raman scattering spectra. Three peaks of the spectra at about 500 nm and two characteristic peaks at about 550 nm exhibit the characterization of damaged area. A peak of the Raman scattering spectra at 350 nm which related to water can be observed. The relationship between intensity of Raman scattering and laser intensity at 355 nm is investigated by confocal Raman microscopy. At sub-damage area, signal of Raman scattering is rather high and decreased dramatically with respect to energy density. The major band at about 1470 cm-1 sharpened and moved to higher frequency with densification. These phenomena demonstrate that the structure of sub-damaged area has some characterization compared with the damaged area. The investigation of defect induced fluorescence and Raman spectra on surface of K9 glass is important to explore the damage mechanisms of optical materials irradiated by ultraviolet laser irradiation at 355 nm.

  3. Monoallele deletion of CBP leads to pericentromeric heterochromatin condensation through ESET expression and histone H3 (K9) methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junghee; Hagerty, Sean; Cormier, Kerry A; Kim, Jinho; Kung, Andrew L; Ferrante, Robert J; Ryu, Hoon

    2008-06-15

    Chromatin remodeling is tightly controlled under physiological conditions. Alterations in chromatin structure are involved in the pathogenesis of neuronal systems. We found that the monoallelic deletion of CREB binding protein (CBP) results in the induction of ERG-associated protein with SET domain (ESET) and increases trimethylation of histone H3 (K9) and condensation of pericentromeric heterochromatin structure in neurons. Nested deletion and mutational analysis of the ESET promoter further demonstrated that the Ets-2 transcription factor regulates transcriptional activity of the ESET gene. In CBP+/- mice, Ets-2 occupancy in the ESET promoter DNA was markedly elevated. Our results suggest that CBP is a transcriptional repressor of ESET gene expression by limiting Ets-2 transcriptional activity, while CBP siRNA enhances basal and Ets-2-dependent ESET transcriptional activity. Altered expression of the ESET gene and hypertrimethylation of H3 (K9) correlate with striatal neuron atrophy and dysfunction in CBP+/- mice. These results establish an alternative pathway that loss of CBP leads to the pericentric heterochromatin condensation through ESET expression and trimethylation of H3 (K9).

  4. KEY COMPARISON Final report on APMP international comparison APMP.EM-K9: High voltage AC-DC transfer standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yih-Cheng; Yeh, Hsin-Da

    2010-01-01

    The international key comparison APMP.EM-K9 of AC-DC high voltage transfer standards with 12 participants was carried out from June 2000 to January 2004. This comparison offers the same range and frequencies as BIPM key comparison CCEM-K9, voltages at 500 V and 1000 V, frequency from 1 kHz to 100 kHz. This comparison provides the national metrology institutes (NMIs) of the APMP member economies with an opportunity to link the values of their standards for AC-DC transfer difference to the international reference values. The results of the majority of the participating NMIs show an agreement with the reference value within the associated expanded uncertainty given by the individual NMI. The agreement of the results and the tables of the degree of equivalence of the participants are included. The results have been linked to the key comparison CCEM-K9. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  5. Differential dynamics of histone H3 methylation at positions K4 and K9 in the mouse zygote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Jörn

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mouse zygote the paternal genome undergoes dramatic structural and epigenetic changes. Chromosomes are decondensed, protamines replaced by histones and DNA is rapidly and actively demethylated. The epigenetic asymmetry between parental genomes remains at least until the 2-cell stage suggesting functional differences between paternal and maternal genomes during early cleavage stages. Results Here we analyzed the timing of histone deposition on the paternal pronucleus and the dynamics of histone H3 methylation (H3/K4mono-, H3/K4tri- and H3/K9di-methylation immediately after fertilization. Whereas maternal chromatin maintains all types of histone H3 methylation throughout the zygotic development, paternal chromosomes acquire new and unmodified histones shortly after fertilization. In the following hours we observe a gradual increase in H3/K4mono-methylation whereas H3/K4tri-methylation is not present before latest pronuclear stages. Histone H3/K9di-methylation is completely absent from the paternal pronucleus, including metaphase chromosomes of the first mitotic stage. Conclusion Parallel to the epigenetic asymmetry in DNA methylation, chromatin modifications are also different between both parental genomes in the very first hours post fertilization. Whereas methylation at H3/K4 gradually becomes similar between both genomes, H3/K9 methylation remains asymmetric.

  6. Shock induced damage and damage threshold of optical K9 glass investigated by laser-driven shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yunfei; Yu, Guoyang; Jiang, Lilin; Zheng, Xianxu; Liu, Yuqiang; Yang, Yanqiang

    2011-04-01

    The shock wave driven by short laser pulse is used to study the damage of brittle material K9 glass. The damage morphology of K9 glass surface indicates that the material has experienced different loading modes, respectively, at the central area and the surrounding area of the shock wave. At the central area of shock wave, the wavefront is plane and has a uniform pressure distribution, the material mainly suffers a longitudinal shock pressure; but on the edge the shock wave, the wavefront is approximately spherical, besides longitudinal pressure, transverse tensile stress will emerge inside the material. In the latter case, the damage threshold of the material is much smaller than that in the case of compressing by longitudinal pressure only. According to the relationship between damage area and shock pressure, an experimental method is proposed to measure the damage threshold of materials under shock loading. The damage threshold of K9 glass under spherical shock wave is measured to be about 1.12 GPa; and the damage threshold under plane shock wave is estimated to be between 1.82 and 1.98 GPa. They are much bigger than the damage threshold under static pressure. This method could also be used to measure the damage threshold of other materials when loaded by dynamic pressure.

  7. Transient absorption and luminescence spectra of K9 glass at sub-damage site by ultraviolet laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Huang, J.; Geng, F.; Zhou, X. Y.; Feng, S. Q.; Cheng, X. L.; Jiang, X. D.; Wu, W. D.; Zheng, W. G.; Tang, Y. J.

    2014-01-01

    Transient absorption and luminescence spectra at sub-damage site of K9 glass by laser irradiation at 355 nm are presented. The dependence of transient absorption on laser energy and number of pulses was investigated. As the energy density increases to 2.54 and 3.18 J/cm2, the transient absorption intensity reaches to about 0.20 range from 400 to 480 nm. With the increase of number of pulses the process of residual absorption appears, which can be used to explain the fatigue effect of K9 glass. The defects in K9 glass were investigated by fluorescence and Raman spectra. The fluorescence band centered at about 410 nm is attributed to oxygen deficiency centers. The mechanism of two-photon ionization plays a critical role at sub-damage site. Compared to the Raman spectra of pristine site, intensity of Raman spectra is very high at a lower energy density, while it decreased at a higher energy density.

  8. MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of vehicle safety are considered. The methodology of approach to analyzing and solving the problem of safety management of vehicles and overall traffic is offered. The distinctive features of organization and management of vehicle safety are shown. There has been drawn a conclusion that the methodological approach to solving traffic safety problems is reduced to selection and classification of safety needs.

  9. Traffic safety and city structure: lessons for the future Seguridad en el tránsito y estructura urbana: lecciones para el futuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Mohan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the critical factors that are likely to influence road traffic fatality rates in large cities around the world in the next few decades. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Road traffic fatality data for 56 cities around the world and for cities with a population of greater than 100 000 in the USA were collected and analysed to understand factors affecting differences in fatality rates. RESULTS: There are wide variations in fatality rates across income levels and within similar incomes levels. The risk varies by a factor of about 20 between the best and the worst cities. CONCLUSIONS: These patterns appear to indicate that it is not enough to have the safest vehicle and road technology to ensure low road traffic fatality rates. City structure, modal share split, and exposure of motorists and pedestrians may have a significant role in determining fatality rates, in addition to enforcement, vehicle crashworthiness and road design.OBJETIVO: Entender los factores críticos con probabilidad de influir en las tasas de fatalidad por tránsito en las grandes ciudades del mundo durante las próximas décadas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se recolectaron y analizaron datos de fatalidad por tránsito de 56 ciudades del mundo y de las ciudades en Estados Unidos con más de 100 000 habitantes para entender aquellos factores que determinan diferencias en las tasas de fatalidad. RESULTADOS: Hay grandes variaciones en las tasas de fatalidad entre diferentes niveles de ingreso y dentro de niveles de ingreso similares. El riesgo varía por un factor de alrededor de 20 entre las mejores y las peores ciudades. CONCLUSIÓN: Estos patrones parecen indicar que no es suficiente tener vehículos y tecnologías viales más seguros para asegurar tasas bajas de fatalidad por tránsito. La estructura de la ciudad, el reparto modal del transporte y la exposición de los automovilistas y peatones pueden tener un papel significativo en la determinación de las tasas de

  10. IMPROVEMENT OF ROAD TRAFFIC QUALITY IN ACCIDENT CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kapsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic with its share from 2/3 to 3/4 of the total volume of transport service represents rather large and complicated social and production system with several subsystems that include roads, transport facilities, road traffic organization, law enforcement, personnel training, road traffic service and others. Road traffic quality can be quantitatively evaluated in accordance with values of losses pertaining to social and economic cost of discretionary (unenforced expenses for road traffic process. Road traffic contains accident, ecological, economic and social risks. Accidence is considered as the most important risk for participants involved in road traffic because it directly concerns their life, health and welfare. So accident response has rather high social significance and it is considered as a matter of national importance. In this connection role of road traffic organization has become very important and it is directed on improvement of its quality including security in the accident clusters.Methodological principles for improvement of road traffic quality have been developed in the paper. These principles presuppose the following: maximization of danger while selecting investigation object; minimization of total losses while evaluating quality and selecting solutions on improvement in road traffic safety; balanced accountability of accidental and ecological losses while selecting solutions on higher road traffic safety in ambiguous situations; minimization of total cost pertaining to object operation while selecting measures on improvement of road traffic safety; obligatory operative control evaluation of accidence on the basis of method for conflict situations while introducing measures of road traffic safety. Such approaches will contribute to higher quality of the decisions taken in the field of road traffic organization.

  11. Jamitons: Phantom Traffic Jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowszun, Jorj

    2013-01-01

    Traffic on motorways can slow down for no apparent reason. Sudden changes in speed by one or two drivers can create a chain reaction that causes a traffic jam for the vehicles that are following. This kind of phantom traffic jam is called a "jamiton" and the article discusses some of the ways in which traffic engineers produce…

  12. Queueing and traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baër, Niek

    2015-01-01

    Traffic jams are everywhere, some are caused by constructions or accidents but a large portion occurs naturally. These "natural" traffic jams are a result of variable driving speeds combined with a high number of vehicles. To prevent these traffic jams, we must understand traffic in general, and to

  13. Jamitons: Phantom Traffic Jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowszun, Jorj

    2013-01-01

    Traffic on motorways can slow down for no apparent reason. Sudden changes in speed by one or two drivers can create a chain reaction that causes a traffic jam for the vehicles that are following. This kind of phantom traffic jam is called a "jamiton" and the article discusses some of the ways in which traffic engineers produce…

  14. Visual Analysis of Air Traffic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, George Hans; Pang, Alex

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present visual analysis tools to help study the impact of policy changes on air traffic congestion. The tools support visualization of time-varying air traffic density over an area of interest using different time granularity. We use this visual analysis platform to investigate how changing the aircraft separation volume can reduce congestion while maintaining key safety requirements. The same platform can also be used as a decision aid for processing requests for unmanned aerial vehicle operations.

  15. 76 FR 4994 - Agency Information Collection: Activity Under OMB Review; Report of Traffic and Capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... consolidation. Traffic Forecasting The FAA uses traffic, operational and capacity data as important safety... and others of the effect major changes or innovations are having on the air transportation...

  16. 76 FR 39153 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Report of Traffic and Capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    .... Traffic Forecasting The FAA uses traffic, operational and capacity data as important safety indicators and... and others of the effect major changes or innovations are having on the air transportation...

  17. TRANSIMS traffic flow characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, K; Pieck, M; Donnelly, R; Barrett, C L; Nagel, Kai; Stretz, Paula; Pieck, Martin; Donnelly, Rick; Barrett, Christopher L.

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of fundamental traffic flow characteristics of traffic simulation models is an essential requirement when using these models for the planning, design, and operation of transportation systems. In this paper we discuss the following: a description of how features relevant to traffic flow are currently under implementation in the TRANSIMS microsimulation, a proposition for standardized traffic flow tests for traffic simulation models, and the results of these tests for two different versions of the TRANSIMS microsimulation.

  18. Involvement of histone methyltransferase GLP in HIV-1 latency through catalysis of H3K9 dimethylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Donglin; Qu, Xiying; Li, Lin; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Sijie; Lin, Shiguan; Wang, Pengfei; Liu, Shaohui; Kong, Chuijin; Wang, Xiaohui; Liu, Lin; Zhu, Huanzhang, E-mail: hzzhu@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-06-05

    Understanding the mechanism of HIV-1 latency is crucial to eradication of the viral reservoir in HIV-1-infected individuals. However, the role of histone methyltransferase (HMT) G9a-like protein (GLP) in HIV-1 latency is still unclear. In the present work, we established four clonal cell lines containing HIV-1 vector. We found that the integration sites of most clonal cell lines favored active gene regions. However, we also observed hypomethylation of CpG of HIV 5′LTR in all four clonal cell lines. Additionally, 5′-deoxy-5′-methylthioadenosine (MTA), a broad-spectrum histone methyltransferase inhibitor, was used to examine the role of histone methylation in HIV-1 latency. MTA was found to decrease the level of H3K9 dimethylation, causing reactivation of latent HIV-1 in C11 cells. GLP knockdown by small interfering RNA clearly induced HIV-1 LTR expression. Results suggest that GLP may play a significant role in the maintenance of HIV-1 latency by catalyzing dimethylation of H3K9. - Highlights: ► We have established an in vitro model of HIV-1 latency. ► The integration sites of most clonal cell lines favor in active gene regions. ► Hypomethylation occurs in CpG islands of HIV 5′LTR in all four clonal cell lines. ► MTA can reactivate latent HIV-1 by decreasing the level of H3K9 me2 in C11 cells. ► HMT GLP may play a significant role in the maintenance of HIV-1 latency.

  19. Discussion on Research Necessity of Highway Traffic Safety Facilities Setting---Based on Highways in Haixi Region,Qinghai Province%浅谈高速公路交通安全设施设置研究的必要性--基于青海省海西地区高速公路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白学平

    2015-01-01

    To improve highway capacity and reduce the incidence of traffic accident in Qinghai ,in this pa‐per ,setting of traffic safety facilities i .e .traffic signs ,markings ,separation fences etc .on highways in Haixi region ,Qinghai Province are studied ,w hich is significant in protecting life and property safety of drivers and passengers .This paper can provide basis for setting traffic safety facilities in similar projects .%青海省海西地区高速公路上交通标志、标线、隔离栅等交通安全设施设置的研究,对于青海模式的高速公路提高道路通行能力,减少交通事故,保护司乘人员生命财产安全有着深远的意义,并为今后类似项目交通安全设施的设置提供依据。

  20. Pre-analytical variables of circulating cell-free nucleosomes containing 5-methylcytosine DNA or histone modification H3K9Me3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise; Herzog, Marielle; Rømer, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate pre-analytical variables of circulating cell-free nucleosomes containing 5-methylcytosine DNA (5mC) or histone modification H3K9Me3 (H3K9Me3). Materials and methods: Six studies were designed to assess the possible influence of pre-analytical variables. Study 1: influence of stasis...

  1. Fine-Tuning ADAS Algorithm Parameters for Optimizing Traffic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the development of the Connected Vehicle technology that facilitates wirelessly communication among vehicles and road-side infrastructure, the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can be adopted as an effective tool for accelerating traffic safety and mobility optimization at various highway facilities. To this end, the traffic management centers identify the optimal ADAS algorithm parameter set that enables the maximum improvement of the traffic safety and mobility performance, and broadcast the optimal parameter set wirelessly to individual ADAS-equipped vehicles. After adopting the optimal parameter set, the ADAS-equipped drivers become active agents in the traffic stream that work collectively and consistently to prevent traffic conflicts, lower the intensity of traffic disturbances, and suppress the development of traffic oscillations into heavy traffic jams. Successful implementation of this objective requires the analysis capability of capturing the impact of the ADAS on driving behaviors, and measuring traffic safety and mobility performance under the influence of the ADAS. To address this challenge, this research proposes a synthetic methodology that incorporates the ADAS-affected driving behavior modeling and state-of-the-art microscopic traffic flow modeling into a virtually simulated environment. Building on such an environment, the optimal ADAS algorithm parameter set is identified through an optimization programming framework to enable th

  2. Gradual development of a genome-wide H3-K9 trimethylation pattern in paternally derived pig pronucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young Sun; Yeo, Seungeun; Park, Jung Sun; Lee, Kyung-Kwang; Kang, Yong-Kook

    2007-06-01

    The cytoplasm of a mature oocyte contains many protein complexes that are programmed to restructure incoming sperm chromatins on fertilization. Of the complicated biochemical events that these functional machineries control, the most impressive and important is epigenetic reprogramming. Despite its importance in epigenetic resetting, or "de-differentiation," of gamete genomes back to an incipient status, the mechanisms of epigenetic reprogramming do not seem to be conserved among mammals. Here, we report that, unlike in the mouse, the pig sperm-derived pronucleus is markedly trimethylated at lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3-m(3)K9), which might be associated with preservation of paternally derived cytosine methylation in pig zygotes. The male H3-m(3)K9 pattern is gradually established during pronucleus development, and this process occurs independently of DNA replication. Considering these unique epigenetic features, the pig zygote is, we believe, suited to serve as another model of epigenetic reprogramming that is antithetical to the well-characterized mouse model.

  3. Joint international study for the calibration of traffic conflict techniques : background paper ICTCT-Meeting, Copenhagen, 25-27 May 1983.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S.

    1983-01-01

    Conflict observation is a way of looking at the insecurity in traffic of particular locations or situations in traffic. The use of traffic conflicts techniques in safety analysis is completely different from the use of the techniques as a surrogate measure of the amount of the traffic safety.

  4. Growing old safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.I.J. & Welleman, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Problems with traffic which is steadily becoming more intensive begin to play a larger role with advancing age. This is reflected in the data on participation in traffic and on road safety. The central theme in this contribution is the independent and safe functioning of elderly people in modern tra

  5. Growing old safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.I.J. & Welleman, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    Problems with traffic which is steadily becoming more intensive begin to play a larger role with advancing age. This is reflected in the data on participation in traffic and on road safety. The central theme in this contribution is the independent and safe functioning of elderly people in modern tra

  6. 77 FR 69586 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Small Business Impacts of Motor Vehicle Safety AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration..., and motor vehicle equipment. DATES: You should submit comments early enough to ensure that...

  7. Parental Traffic Safeguarding at School Sites: Unequal Risks and Responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Tigar McLaren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scholars recognize the importance of parental chauffeuring in urbanenvironments, but pay remarkably little attention to how parents, as part of everyday, domestic practices, safeguard their children in auto-dominated streets. Based on in-depth, qualitative interviews with parents whose children attend public elementary schools, this exploratory study compares traffic safeguarding experiences on the east and west sides of Vancouver, British Columbia. The analysisshows how social class and gender intersect in three traffic sites: school streetscapes, school entrances, and school traffic safety volunteerism. Utilizing automobility and feminist theories, we argue that urban parental traffic safeguarding is a complex and variegated phenomenon involving unequal risks and responsibilities. Our analysis illustrates the ways in which parental traffic safeguarding is a lynchpin to the automobility system, particularly with respect to itsillusion of safety, and how, conversely, this system shapes parenting by constituting traffic safeguarding as part of domestic responsibilities.

  8. K9BB METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  9. K9MN METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  10. Quantifying traffic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Gregory C; Parson, Kris; Shinoda, Naomi; Lindgren, Paula; Dunlap, Sara; Yawn, Barbara; Wollan, Peter; Johnson, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Living near traffic adversely affects health outcomes. Traffic exposure metrics include distance to high-traffic roads, traffic volume on nearby roads, traffic within buffer distances, measured pollutant concentrations, land-use regression estimates of pollution concentrations, and others. We used Geographic Information System software to explore a new approach using traffic count data and a kernel density calculation to generate a traffic density surface with a resolution of 50 m. The density value in each cell reflects all the traffic on all the roads within the distance specified in the kernel density algorithm. The effect of a given roadway on the raster cell value depends on the amount of traffic on the road segment, its distance from the raster cell, and the form of the algorithm. We used a Gaussian algorithm in which traffic influence became insignificant beyond 300 m. This metric integrates the deleterious effects of traffic rather than focusing on one pollutant. The density surface can be used to impute exposure at any point, and it can be used to quantify integrated exposure along a global positioning system route. The traffic density calculation compares favorably with other metrics for assessing traffic exposure and can be used in a variety of applications.

  11. INVESTIGATION ON NORTH AMERICAN TRAFFIC CALMING DEVICE SELECTION PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana RAHMAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic calming provides a process for identifying and addressing existing problems related to speeding, excessive traffic volume, and pedestrian safety concerns on residential streets. Although several traffic calming devices have been installed in Asian countries for example in Japan and Korea; they have no distinct and methodical process for the device selection. The objective of this research is to illustrate a comprehensive review of North American traffic calming device selection process practices. The aim is to establish traffic calming device selection process guiding principles to be introduced in Japan. This research reveals that speeding is the most significant issue for installing a traffic calming device. The result explores that community support is the most important factor for the selection of a traffic calming device. The result shows that speed humps and speed tables or raised crosswalks are the most widely practiced devices.

  12. 浅谈山区公路行车与交通安全%On Mountainous Area Highway Driving and Traffic Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪长才

    2012-01-01

    Mountain highways are usually in high mountains and lofty hills,they are at the root of mountains on the cliff,nar-row bend urgently and undulating surface.it's hard to drive and requires the drivers to have great driving skills,and also good mental quality.This paper discusses about the driving safety in mountain highways.%通常山区公路大多在崇山峻岭之中,依山傍崖、路窄弯急,地势起伏不平,驾驶难度极高,这就要求驾驶员不仅要有娴熟的驾驶技术,还要有良好的心理素质。文章对山区公路上的行车安全进行了简要探讨。

  13. A role for repressive complexes and H3K9 di-methylation in PRDM5-associated brittle cornea syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, Louise F; Galli, Giorgio G; Williamson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    skin fibroblast expression microarrays from patients with PRDM5 mutations p.Arg590* and Δ exons 9-14, as well as from a PRDM5 ChIP-sequencing experiment. Gene ontology analysis of dysregulated PRDM5 target genes reveals enrichment for extracellular matrix (ECM) genes supporting vascular integrity...... and development. Q-PCR, and ChIP-qPCR confirm upregulation of critical mediators of ECM stability in vascular structures (COL13A1, COL15A1, NTN1, CDH5) in patient fibroblasts. We identify H3K9 di-methylation at these PRDM5 target genes in fibroblasts, and demonstrate that the BCS2 mutation p.Arg83Cys diminishes...

  14. H3K9me-independent gene silencing in fission yeast heterochromatin by Clr5 and histone deacetylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs R; Hazan, Idit; Shanker, Sreenath

    2011-01-01

    Nucleosomes in heterochromatic regions bear histone modifications that distinguish them from euchromatic nucleosomes. Among those, histone H3 lysine 9 methylation (H3K9me) and hypoacetylation have been evolutionarily conserved and are found in both multicellular eukaryotes and single-cell model...... organisms such as fission yeast. In spite of numerous studies, the relative contributions of the various heterochromatic histone marks to the properties of heterochromatin remain largely undefined. Here, we report that silencing of the fission yeast mating-type cassettes, which are located in a well...... at multiple chromosomal locations in addition to affecting the mating-type region. The histone deacetylase Clr6 acts in the same pathway as Clr5, at least for its effects in the mating-type region, and on a subset of other targets, notably a region recently found to be prone to neo-centromere formation...

  15. Polarization-dependent characteristics of a racetrack waveguide resonator fabricated by ion exchange in K9 glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuyou Han; Feng Liu; Fufei Pang; Fenghong Chu; Haiwen Cai; Ronghui Qu; Zujie Fang

    2006-01-01

    @@ A racetrack waveguide resonator filter was fabricated by ion exchange technology in K9 optical glass.The filter responses of the waveguide resonator were measured with two polarized input lightwaves. The polarization-dependent characteristics of the waveguide resonator were analyzed, and the results of effective indices of Nte = 1.5721 and Ntm = 1.5548, coupling ratios of Rte = 0.731 and Rtm = 0.761, and losses of Αte = 4.35 Db/cm and Αtm = 6.05 Db/cm were obtained for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes, respectively. The causes of large loss and effective index differences between TE and TM modes were discussed.

  16. Progressive Chromatin Condensation and H3K9 Methylation Regulate the Differentiation of Embryonic and Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, Fernando; Sousae, Rebekah; Cinquin, Bertrand; Martin, Eric W.; Krietsch, Jana; Sanchez, Gabriela; Inman, Margaux; Tsang, Herman; Warr, Matthew; Passegué, Emmanuelle; Larabell, Carolyn A.; Forsberg, E. Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Summary Epigenetic regulation serves as the basis for stem cell differentiation into distinct cell types, but it is unclear how global epigenetic changes are regulated during this process. Here, we tested the hypothesis that global chromatin organization affects the lineage potential of stem cells and that manipulation of chromatin dynamics influences stem cell function. Using nuclease sensitivity assays, we found a progressive decrease in chromatin digestion among pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs), multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and mature hematopoietic cells. Quantitative high-resolution microscopy revealed that ESCs contain significantly more euchromatin than HSCs, with a further reduction in mature cells. Increased cellular maturation also led to heterochromatin localization to the nuclear periphery. Functionally, prevention of heterochromatin formation by inhibition of the histone methyltransferase G9A resulted in delayed HSC differentiation. Our results demonstrate global chromatin rearrangements during stem cell differentiation and that heterochromatin formation by H3K9 methylation regulates HSC differentiation. PMID:26489895

  17. DOG1 (clone K9) is seldom expressed and not useful in the evaluation of pancreatic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminger, Jessica; Marsh, William L; Iwenofu, Obiajulu Hans; Frankel, Wendy L

    2012-07-01

    DOG1, a transmembrane calcium-regulated chloride channel protein, is a sensitive and specific marker for gastrointestinal stromal tumors compared with other spindle cell and epithelioid neoplasms. Overexpression has also been described in a variety of both benign and malignant epithelial neoplasms. Recently, DOG1 immunoreactivity has been reported in pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPT), suggesting a role as a marker for SPT. Utilizing immunohistochemistry, we evaluated DOG1 expression in pancreatic neoplasms to determine the prevalence of staining and establish diagnostic utility. Multiple tissue microarrays (TMA) were created from cores of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks containing pancreatic adenocarcinomas (n=112), neuroendocrine tumors (n=99), serous cystadenomas (n=28), and SPT (n=14) as well as normal pancreas (n=12). Immunoreactivity for DOG1 (clone K9) was assessed for intensity (1 to 3+), percentage of tumor positivity and location. Of the 99 cases of neuroendocrine tumors, only 2 (2%) were focally positive. Patchy staining was identified in 8 cases (7%) of adenocarcinoma of 1 to 2+ intensity, involving 15% to 80% of the tumor cells and primarily seen in a membranous and luminal distribution. In contrast to a previous report, no DOG1 positivity was observed in SPT, evaluated by both TMA and full sections. The TMAs of serous cystadenomas and normal pancreas were negative for DOG1. Rarely, pancreatic islets displayed granular, cytoplasmic staining. DOG1 antibody clone K9 is not a useful marker for SPT or other primary pancreatic neoplasms. Additional studies may be helpful to evaluate differences between clones of DOG1.

  18. Protein complex interactor analysis and differential activity of KDM3 subfamily members towards H3K9 methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Brauchle

    Full Text Available Histone modifications play an important role in chromatin organization and gene regulation, and their interpretation is referred to as epigenetic control. The methylation levels of several lysine residues in histone tails are tightly controlled, and JmjC domain-containing proteins are one class of broadly expressed enzymes catalyzing methyl group removal. However, several JmjC proteins remain uncharacterized, gaps persist in understanding substrate recognition, and the integration of JmjC proteins into signaling pathways is just emerging. The KDM3 subfamily is an evolutionarily conserved group of histone demethylase proteins, thought to share lysine substrate specificity. Here we use a systematic approach to compare KDM3 subfamily members. We show that full-length KDM3A and KDM3B are H3K9me1/2 histone demethylases whereas we fail to observe histone demethylase activity for JMJD1C using immunocytochemical and biochemical approaches. Structure-function analyses revealed the importance of a single amino acid in KDM3A implicated in the catalytic activity towards H3K9me1/2 that is not conserved in JMJD1C. Moreover, we use quantitative proteomic analyses to identify subsets of the interactomes of the 3 proteins. Specific interactor candidates were identified for each of the three KDM3 subfamily members. Importantly, we find that SCAI, a known transcriptional repressor, interacts specifically with KDM3B. Taken together, we identify substantial differences in the biology of KDM3 histone demethylases, namely enzymatic activity and protein-protein interactions. Such comparative approaches pave the way to a better understanding of histone demethylase specificity and protein function at a systems level and are instrumental in identifying the more subtle differences between closely related proteins.

  19. Influencing speeding behaviour through preventative police enforcement. Paper presented at the VIth International Road Safety Organisation PRI World Congress on `Marketing traffic safety', 3-6 October 1994, Cape Town, South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers the effect of speed on road safety and how to influence speeding behaviour. The results that can be achieved through police enforcement combined with information campaigns are discussed with reference to projects carried out in the Netherlands. The cost implications are

  20. assessment of traffic flow on enugu highways using speed density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    This research provides practical application for speed estimation, construction, maintenance and optimization of the highways using the speed-density models which will enhance traffic ... engineering. .... machines without actually taking physical field traffic .... Federal Road Safety Corps, Enugu State Command, 2015.

  1. Achieving safe road traffic — the experience in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Oguchi

    2016-03-01

    This paper compares Japanese annual trends with those of other developed countries to show that Japan has recently become risen to the top level of traffic safety. In hopes of achieving an even safer traffic society in Japan, the paper summarizes the key factors for consideration.

  2. Effects of traffic infrastructure and road design on safe driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2014-01-01

    One of the building blocks of the Dutch success in road safety is the Sustainable Safety approach. This philosophy specifies that road safety should be a design requirement in road traffic with a focus on the use of human characteristics as a starting point, considering both humans’ physical

  3. Effects of traffic infrastructure and road design on safe driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2014-01-01

    One of the building blocks of the Dutch success in road safety is the Sustainable Safety approach. This philosophy specifies that road safety should be a design requirement in road traffic with a focus on the use of human characteristics as a starting point, considering both humans’ physical vulnera

  4. ns脉冲激光作用下K9玻璃的等离子体谱图研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽炜; 蔡红星; 李昌立; 何双力; 张喜和; 冯锴

    2008-01-01

    建立一套激光等离子体光谱测量实验装置,以Nd:YAG调Q倍频固体激光器为激发光源,作用K9玻璃。通过对K9的等离子体谱图的分析发现,K9玻璃等离子体谱强度的变化与激光器输出能量呈线性关系。同时利用显微镜观察K9玻璃的表面损伤形貌,并进行理论分析。

  5. Effect of inclusion matrix model on temperature and thermal stress fields of K9-glass damaged by long-pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yunxiang; Wang, Bin; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2013-04-01

    A model containing an inclusion matrix heated by a millisecond laser is proposed to calculate temperature and thermal stress fields of K9-glass using a finite element method. First, the evolution of temperature and thermal stress fields is analyzed. Results show that both the upper and lower surfaces are damaged. K9-glass is primarily damaged by the combination of radial and axial stresses. Calculated damage morphology is mainly determined by radial stress. Then damage morphology evolution with the increase of the incident laser energy is investigated, which shows that damage area spreads inward from both the front and rear surfaces. Finally, experimental results of long-pulse laser damage of K9-glass are analyzed. The comparison of numerical results with experimental observations shows a good correlation in damage morphology, which indicates that the built inclusion matrix model is applicable to long-pulse laser damage in K9-glass.

  6. Excel与MapGis K9相结合在山东县级林地保护利用规划中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓红; 袁孟妍; 刘国群

    2016-01-01

    MapGis K9在山东省县级林地保护利用规划小班勾绘过程中操作简单,但在小班属性输入时却费时费力。本文通过excel与MapGis K9相结合,批量导入小班属性,大大提高了小班制图的效率。

  7. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  8. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black......This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  9. Monitoring road traffic congestion using a macroscopic traffic model and a statistical monitoring scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Zeroual, Abdelhafid

    2017-08-19

    Monitoring vehicle traffic flow plays a central role in enhancing traffic management, transportation safety and cost savings. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for detection of traffic congestion. Specifically, we combine the flexibility and simplicity of a piecewise switched linear (PWSL) macroscopic traffic model and the greater capacity of the exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring chart. Macroscopic models, which have few, easily calibrated parameters, are employed to describe a free traffic flow at the macroscopic level. Then, we apply the EWMA monitoring chart to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the constructed PWSL model to detect congested situations. In this strategy, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of data has been used before the application of the EWMA scheme to improve further the robustness of this method to measurement noise and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors. The performance of the PWSL-EWMA approach is successfully tested on traffic data from the three lane highway portion of the Interstate 210 (I-210) highway of the west of California and the four lane highway portion of the State Route 60 (SR60) highway from the east of California, provided by the Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS). Results show the ability of the PWSL-EWMA approach to monitor vehicle traffic, confirming the promising application of this statistical tool to the supervision of traffic flow congestion.

  10. HP1 recruits activity-dependent neuroprotective protein to H3K9me3 marked pericentromeric heterochromatin for silencing of major satellite repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Mosch

    Full Text Available H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3 is a histone posttranslational modification (PTM that has emerged as hallmark of pericentromeric heterochromatin. This constitutive chromatin domain is composed of repetitive DNA elements, whose transcription is differentially regulated. Mammalian cells contain three HP1 proteins, HP1α, HP1β and HP1γ These have been shown to bind to H3K9me3 and are thought to mediate the effects of this histone PTM. However, the mechanisms of HP1 chromatin regulation and the exact functional role at pericentromeric heterochromatin are still unclear. Here, we identify activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP as an H3K9me3 associated factor. We show that ADNP does not bind H3K9me3 directly, but that interaction is mediated by all three HP1 isoforms in vitro. However, in cells ADNP localization to areas of pericentromeric heterochromatin is only dependent on HP1α and HP1β. Besides a PGVLL sequence patch we uncovered an ARKS motif within the ADNP homeodomain involved in HP1 dependent H3K9me3 association and localization to pericentromeric heterochromatin. While knockdown of ADNP had no effect on HP1 distribution and heterochromatic histone and DNA modifications, we found ADNP silencing major satellite repeats. Our results identify a novel factor in the translation of H3K9me3 at pericentromeric heterochromatin that regulates transcription.

  11. An H3K9/S10 methyl-phospho switch modulates Polycomb and Pol II binding at repressed genes during differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbattini, Pierangela; Sjoberg, Marcela; Nikic, Svetlana; Frangini, Alberto; Holmqvist, Per-Henrik; Kunowska, Natalia; Carroll, Tom; Brookes, Emily; Arthur, Simon J; Pombo, Ana; Dillon, Niall

    2014-03-01

    Methylated histones H3K9 and H3K27 are canonical epigenetic silencing modifications in metazoan organisms, but the relationship between the two modifications has not been well characterized. H3K9me3 coexists with H3K27me3 in pluripotent and differentiated cells. However, we find that the functioning of H3K9me3 is altered by H3S10 phosphorylation in differentiated postmitotic osteoblasts and cycling B cells. Deposition of H3K9me3/S10ph at silent genes is partially mediated by the mitogen- and stress-activated kinases (MSK1/2) and the Aurora B kinase. Acquisition of H3K9me3/S10ph during differentiation correlates with loss of paused S5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, which is present on Polycomb-regulated genes in embryonic stem cells. Reduction of the levels of H3K9me3/S10ph by kinase inhibition results in increased binding of RNAPIIS5ph and the H3K27 methyltransferase Ezh1 at silent promoters. Our results provide evidence of a novel developmentally regulated methyl-phospho switch that modulates Polycomb regulation in differentiated cells and stabilizes repressed states.

  12. Impact of traffic states on freeway crash involvement rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hwasoo; Jang, Kitae; Skabardonis, Alexander; Kang, Seungmo

    2013-01-01

    Freeway traffic accidents are complicated events that are influenced by multiple factors including roadway geometry, drivers' behavior, traffic conditions and environmental factors. Among the various factors, crash occurrence on freeways is supposed to be strongly influenced by the traffic states representing driving situations that are changed by road geometry and cause the change of drivers' behavior. This paper proposes a methodology to investigate the relationship between traffic states and crash involvements on the freeway. First, we defined section-based traffic states: free flow (FF), back of queue (BQ), bottleneck front (BN) and congestion (CT) according to their distinctive patterns; and traffic states of each freeway section are determined based on actual measurements of traffic data from upstream and downstream ends of the section. Next, freeway crash data are integrated with the traffic states of a freeway section using upstream and downstream traffic measurements. As an illustrative study to show the applicability, we applied the proposed method on a 32-mile section of I-880 freeway. By integrating freeway crash occurrence and traffic data over a three-year period, we obtained the crash involvement rate for each traffic state. The results show that crash involvement rate in BN, BQ, and CT states are approximately 5 times higher than the one in FF. The proposed method shows promise to be used for various safety performance measurement including hot spot identification and prediction of the number of crash involvements on freeway sections.

  13. A Marine Traffic Flow Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz Leung Yip

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A model is developed for studying marine traffic flow through classical traffic flow theories, which can provide us with a better understanding of the phenomenon of traffic flow of ships. On one hand, marine traffic has its special features and is fundamentally different from highway, air and pedestrian traffic. The existing traffic models cannot be simply extended to marine traffic without addressing marine traffic features. On the other hand, existing literature on marine traffic focuses on one ship or two ships but does not address the issues in marine traffic flow.

  14. Implications of traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This thesis discusses the implications of the traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering with BGP. We first provide an overview of the interdomain traffic control problem. Then, we present results concerning the characteristics of the interdomain traffic, based on the analysis of real traffic traces gathered from non-transit ASes. We discuss the implications of the topological properties of the traffic on interdomain traffic engineering. Based on this knowledge of the...

  15. Implications of traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This thesis discusses the implications of the traffic characteristics on interdomain traffic engineering with BGP. We first provide an overview of the interdomain traffic control problem. Then, we present results concerning the characteristics of the interdomain traffic, based on the analysis of real traffic traces gathered from non-transit ASes. We discuss the implications of the topological properties of the traffic on interdomain traffic engineering. Based on this knowledge of the...

  16. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moynihan, P.I. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  17. Empirical findings with multi-criteria routing for Dynamic Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, F.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic simulation is conventionally based on travel time as input to the cost function. The new challenge in traffic management takes into account not only travel throughput but also vehicle emission and safety. The question is then whether the network traffic performance will change if

  18. Empirical findings with multi-criteria routing for Dynamic Traffic Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, F.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic simulation is conventionally based on travel time as input to the cost function. The new challenge in traffic management takes into account not only travel throughput but also vehicle emission and safety. The question is then whether the network traffic performance will change if multi-crite

  19. Analysis of Air Traffic Controller Workload Reduction Based on the Solution Space for the Merging Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic controller workload is considered to be an important limiting factor to the growth of air traffic. The difficulty of an air traffic control task can be analyzed through examining the problem’s solution space, that is, all possible vector commands that satisfy the constraints of safety, p

  20. Analysis of Air Traffic Controller Workload Reduction Based on the Solution Space for the Merging Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic controller workload is considered to be an important limiting factor to the growth of air traffic. The difficulty of an air traffic control task can be analyzed through examining the problem’s solution space, that is, all possible vector commands that satisfy the constraints of safety, p

  1. Predicting the development of traffic fatalities in Latin-American and Carribean countries. Paper presented at the OECD conference on road safety in Latin-American and Carribean countries, Sao Paulo, Brazil, December 1995.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Long-term developments in traffic growth and fatality rate can be rather well described by non-linear functions of time. The basics are an S-shaped function for saturating traffic growth (measured by annual motor vehicle kilometres or motorised vehicle volumes) and an exponentially decreasing functi

  2. Predicting the development of traffic fatalities in Latin-American and Carribean countries. Paper presented at the OECD conference on road safety in Latin-American and Carribean countries, Sao Paulo, Brazil, December 1995.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Long-term developments in traffic growth and fatality rate can be rather well described by non-linear functions of time. The basics are an S-shaped function for saturating traffic growth (measured by annual motor vehicle kilometres or motorised vehicle volumes) and an exponentially decreasing

  3. The Daxx/Atrx Complex Protects Tandem Repetitive Elements during DNA Hypomethylation by Promoting H3K9 Trimethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Quanyuan; Kim, Hyeung; Huang, Rui; Lu, Weisi; Tang, Mengfan; Shi, Fengtao; Yang, Dong; Zhang, Xiya; Huang, Junjiu; Liu, Dan; Songyang, Zhou

    2015-09-03

    In mammals, DNA methylation is essential for protecting repetitive sequences from aberrant transcription and recombination. In some developmental contexts (e.g., preimplantation embryos) DNA is hypomethylated but repetitive elements are not dysregulated, suggesting that alternative protection mechanisms exist. Here we explore the processes involved by investigating the role of the chromatin factors Daxx and Atrx. Using genome-wide binding and transcriptome analysis, we found that Daxx and Atrx have distinct chromatin-binding profiles and are co-enriched at tandem repetitive elements in wild-type mouse ESCs. Global DNA hypomethylation further promoted recruitment of the Daxx/Atrx complex to tandem repeat sequences, including retrotransposons and telomeres. Knockdown of Daxx/Atrx in cells with hypomethylated genomes exacerbated aberrant transcriptional de-repression of repeat elements and telomere dysfunction. Mechanistically, Daxx/Atrx-mediated repression seems to involve Suv39h recruitment and H3K9 trimethylation. Our data therefore suggest that Daxx and Atrx safeguard the genome by silencing repetitive elements when DNA methylation levels are low.

  4. 基于物元分析理论的空管安全风险模糊综合评价%An Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation Model for Safety Risk in Air Traffic Control Based on Matter Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓燕; 韩松臣; 杨昌其

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure aviation safety and scientifically evaluate the risks in air traffic control (ATC),a fuzzy synthetic evaluation model for risk assessment in ATC is established based on the matter element theory.The hazards in ATC are identified and classified according to Safety Management Manual issued by the International Civil Aviation Or-ganization (ICAO).An indicator system and a set of classes of effective factors and the corresponding degrees of hazards in ATC are determined.The weight of each hazard is calculated by the matter element theory,eliminating the limitation of subjectivity in experts′evaluation.Furthermore,the weight assignment is improved.After that,a multilevel fuzzy syn-thetic evaluation method is proposed to evaluate the risks in ATC.On the basis of statistics and analysis to the hazard data in ATC of a coastal sub-bureau of air traffic management (ATM)in 2012 – 2014,the risks are evaluated.The results in-dicate that the degree of impact of first-level,second-level,and third-level membership of hazards are 0.291 3,0.495 1, 0.213 6,respectively.The degree of impact in this sub-bureau lies at second-level.The results are consistent with the ac-tual operations.Thus the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed method is verified.%为保证航空安全,科学评价空管运行安全风险,提出了基于物元分析理论的空管安全风险模糊综合评价模型.依据国际民航组织的《安全管理手册》对空管危险源进行识别分级;然后确定空管危险源的指标体系和等级集合.在此基础上,运用物元分析理论,计算各空管危险源因素的权重矩阵,避免了人为评判的主观性,实现了权重客观赋值.应用多层次模糊综合评判方法,对空管安全风险进行了评估.以某沿海空管分局2012~2014年空管危险源相关数据为例进行了实际应用.结果表明,该沿海空管分局空管危险源因素对空管安全的影响级别属于Ⅰ级高风险、

  5. Economic development, mobility and traffic accidents in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougueroua, M; Carnis, L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this contribution is to estimate the impact of road economic conditions and mobility on traffic accidents for the case of Algeria. Using the cointegration approach and vector error correction model (VECM), we will examine simultaneously short term and long-term impacts between the number of traffic accidents, fuel consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) per capital, over the period 1970-2013. The main results of the estimation show that the number of traffic accidents in Algeria is positively influenced by the GDP per capita in the short and long term. It implies that a higher economic development worsens the road safety situation. However, the new traffic rules adopted in 2009 have an impact on the forecast trend of traffic accidents, meaning efficient public policy could improve the situation. This result calls for a strong political commitment with effective countermeasures for avoiding the further deterioration of road safety record in Algeria.

  6. 面向安全预警的机动车驾驶意图研究现状与展望%Research on Driver's Intention for Traffic Safety Precaution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良力; 吴超仲; 黄珍; 王斌

    2012-01-01

    The purpose and significance of research on driver's intention for traffic safety precaution are described. Based on the analysis of related research status at home and abroad, the approach to the research on driver's intention by means of driver's behaviors and driving action sequences is feasible and valid. Two modeling methods for driver's intention are introduced based on probability and mathematical statistics theories. Considering characteristics of driver's behaviors implemented in Linear closed road, this research presents the hidden Markov model (HMM)-based procedure of driver's intention modeling as well as the model parameters learning and system online optimization. The research fields such as the network structure and dynamic property are discussed and considered as the subsequent importance with HMM-based driver's intention model.%简述当前开展面向安全预警的机动车驾驶意图研究的目的和意义.分析国内外研究现状,得出从驾驶员行为及驾驶动作序列角度开展驾驶意图研究的可行性和有效性,同时介绍了 2种基于概率与数理统计的机动车驾驶意图建模方法.结合驾驶员在直线封闭路段实施驾驶行为特征,阐述使用隐马尔科夫模型(HMM)理论建立驾驶意图模型的步骤以及模型参数学习和系统在线优化算法等内容.对驾驶意图模型网络结构、动态性能方面相关研究方向进行展望.

  7. Fast Drawing of Traffic Sign Using Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Q.; Tan, B.; Huang, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Traffic sign provides road users with the specified instruction and information to enhance traffic safety. Automatic detection of traffic sign is important for navigation, autonomous driving, transportation asset management, etc. With the advance of laser and imaging sensors, Mobile Mapping System (MMS) becomes widely used in transportation agencies to map the transportation infrastructure. Although many algorithms of traffic sign detection are developed in the literature, they are still a tradeoff between the detection speed and accuracy, especially for the large-scale mobile mapping of both the rural and urban roads. This paper is motivated to efficiently survey traffic signs while mapping the road network and the roadside landscape. Inspired by the manual delineation of traffic sign, a drawing strategy is proposed to quickly approximate the boundary of traffic sign. Both the shape and color prior of the traffic sign are simultaneously involved during the drawing process. The most common speed-limit sign circle and the statistic color model of traffic sign are studied in this paper. Anchor points of traffic sign edge are located with the local maxima of color and gradient difference. Starting with the anchor points, contour of traffic sign is drawn smartly along the most significant direction of color and intensity consistency. The drawing process is also constrained by the curvature feature of the traffic sign circle. The drawing of linear growth is discarded immediately if it fails to form an arc over some steps. The Kalman filter principle is adopted to predict the temporal context of traffic sign. Based on the estimated point,we can predict and double check the traffic sign in consecutive frames.The event probability of having a traffic sign over the consecutive observations is compared with the null hypothesis of no perceptible traffic sign. The temporally salient traffic sign is then detected statistically and automatically as the rare event of having a

  8. Acute severe head injury resulted from road traffic accidents:a report on 231 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敬业; 张赛; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the epidemiology and clinical outcome of acute severe head injurey induced by road traffic accidents.Methods:The data of 231 patients with acute severe head injury induced by road traffic accidents were retrospectively studied.Results:The major victim-maker was automobiles (98.8%).The first three common types of traffic accidents were automobiles crashing into automobiles,automobiles crashing into bicycles(42.9%),and automobiles crashing pedestrians(40.3%).Eighty-seven patients out of 231 died,with the mortality of 37.7%.Conclusions:It suggests tat improving traffic administration and traffic safety consciousness may significantly reduce traffic trauma.

  9. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...

  10. 四川大源商业核心区地下交通联系隧道整体消防安全性评价%On the safety evaluation of the urban traffic link tunnel in the Dayuan central business district, Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杰; 代君雨; 吴建波; 张志刚; 徐钟铭

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is aimed at introducing the results of our safety evaluation of the urban traffic link tunnel in the Dayuan central business district, Sichuan. As is known, urban traffic link tunnels are a novel type of underground transportation and traffic system, which is used to connect traffic trunks and underground garages. Since such tunnels are narrow and limited in their space, there exists a great potential and unexpected haphazards due to the heavy traffic flow and difficult evacuation both for men and for the vehicles. In this paper, we would like to take the urban traffic link tunnels in Dayuan central business district (CBD) , Sichuan, as our case study. In our research, we have tested different mechanical smoke extraction approaches under the different typical fire conditions, verified the validity of the smoke exhausting systems, tested the thermal dynamic phenomena so as to provide a theoretical basis for designing and running a smoke control system in the relevant projects by using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) numerical simulation software. And, finally, put forward a systematic fire-prevention safety design, so as make it as a reference to the relevant engineering projects at home and abroad. In addition, our evaluation can also serve as a theoretical and constructive reference to formulating the regulations as to the urban traffic link tunnels as compared with the Fire Dynamics Simulator smoke simulation.%城市地下交通联系隧道是一种新型地下公共交通系统,多与城市交通主干道、地下车库相连接,交通流量大,火灾危险性较高,人员安全疏散相对困难,目前尚无此类专业防火设计规范.以四川大源商业核心区地下交通联系隧道为研究对象,采用FDS数值模拟软件对不同火源位置各典型火灾场景进行模拟,验证其排烟系统的有效性并分析隧道内烟气运动规律;在此基础上运用Building Exodus人员疏散软件模拟环道内人员安全疏

  11. Evaluation of Children's Traffic Safety Education Result Based on Multiple Representations%基于多元表征的儿童交通安全教育效果评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛浩哲; 远臻; 汪翔

    2014-01-01

    Childhood traffic safety education is critical to children themselves and their future develop⁃ment. Because of children′s cognitive and mental characteristics, educational methods and means for chil⁃dren must be innovative to stimulate their interest and make them focus attention on the taught content. Short-term memory, long term memory and mental load were analyzed through three different kinds of teaching approaches to make comparative evaluation on educational effect. It indicates that multiple repre⁃sentations approaches and multicenter method are effectual method to enhance children′s long-term mem⁃ory and reduce their mental load, although it has less effect of short-term memory compared with monoto⁃nous education. It can stimulate children′s interest and make children willing to have safety education again.%儿童时期的交通安全教育对儿童现阶段及未来发展都至关重要,但儿童自身的认知特征和心理特征决定对其的教育方式和手段必须具有创新性,激发他们的兴趣,使他们的注意力集中到受教内容上。通过分析三种施教方式对短期记忆、长期记忆和心理负荷量大小的影响效果,对比评价教育效果的优劣,表明利用多元表征和多通道的教育方式,相比单调的教育方式其短期记忆效果虽然不理想,但长期记忆效果较好,并且使儿童心理负荷量明显减小,能激发儿童的兴趣,使其更乐意再次接受交通安全教育。

  12. Traffic Signs Inventory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ružbarský

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on practical application of Cambridge Correlator. The goal is to propose a traffic signs inventory system by using excellent characteristics of correlator in the rapid optical correlation. The proposal of this inventory system includes obtaining of traffic signs to create the database either collecting the GPS coordinates. It is necessary to know the traffic signs position and also to document the entire surface route for later evaluation in offline mode.

  13. Warning Threshold Value Determination of Team Safety Behavior Risks in Air Traffic Control%空中交通管制班组安全行为风险告警阈值界定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨智; 罗帆

    2012-01-01

    针对空中变通管制班组安全行为的风险类型,在实地调研的基础上选取班组行为风险指标,结合层次分析法构建指标体系,并在风险危害因子及风险抵御因子的基础上,运用加权综合评价法构建班组安全行为风险的评价模型,在以年龄、职称及学历为控制变量的情况下,通过运用有序聚类的最优分割算法界定班组安全行为风险的阈值,阈值界定过程中以班组安全行为绩效为参照序列.结果表明,空中交通管制班组安全行为风险与职称及年龄变量相关性较高,其告警阈值的划分也相对更为严格,职称及年龄组告警区间明显窄于学历控制组的阈值区间,因而在充分考虑各控制变量的基础上划设空中交通管制班组安全行为风险的阈值将更为合理,可有效避免因阈值划设过松或过严而出现的漏警及虚警的问题.%According to the types of the team safety behavior risks in air traffic control ( ATC) , team behavior risk indexes are selected through practical investigation. Then, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to build an index system. A comprehensive evaluation model is developed by weighting team safety behavior risks described by the risk destruction and resistance factors. In the model, it takes the age, professional level, and education as the control variables. By using the orderly clustering of optimal partition algorithm, we take team's performance as reference sequence to define the risk threshold value of the team safety behavior. Results show that the team's safety risk behavior depends heavily on variable titles and ages in ATC. Its alarm threshold division is relatively stricter and obviously narrower than the part of diploma control- With full consideration of the total control variables by the proposed method, the risk threshold value is reasonable such that the threshold is neither too loose nor too strict, which can reduce both false positive and negative.

  14. Rotenone affects p53 transcriptional activity and apoptosis via targeting SIRT1 and H3K9 acetylation in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ya; Liu, Te; Dong, Su-Yan; Guo, Yan-Jie; Jankovic, Joseph; Xu, Huaxi; Wu, Yun-Cheng

    2015-08-01

    The protein deacetylase SIRT1 has been recognized to exert its protective effect by directly deacetylasing histone and many other transcriptional factors including p53. However, the effect of SIRT1 on p53 expression at the transcriptional level still remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that rotenone treatment decreased cell viability, induced apoptosis, reduced SIRT1 level, and promoted p53 expression. Pre-treatment with resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator, could attenuate rotenone-induced cell injury and p53 expression, whereas down-regulation of SIRT1 directly increased p53 expression. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that SIRT1 bound to H3K9 within the p53 promoter region, and this binding resulted in decreased H3K9 acetylation and increased H3K9 tri-methylation, thereby inhibiting p53 gene transcription. In conclusion, our data indicate that rotenone promotes p53 transcription and apoptosis through targeting SIRT1 and H3K9. This leads to nigrostriatal degeneration, the main pathogenic mechanism of motor features of Parkinson's disease. SIRT1, a deacetylase enzyme, has neuroprotective effects for Parkinson's disease via targeting various factors. Resveratrol activated SIRT1 can target H3K9 and regulate p53 gene expression at the transcriptional level, thus inhibiting p53 transcription to enhance neuroprotection, alleviating rotenone induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration. We think these findings should provide a new strategy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  15. The histone H3K9 methylation and RNAi pathways regulate normalnucleolar and repeated DNA organization by inhibiting formation ofextrachromosomal DNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Jamy C.; Karpen, Gary H.

    2006-06-15

    In order to identify regulators of nuclear organization, Drosophila mutants in the Su(var)3-9 histone H3K9 methyltransferase, RNAi pathway components, and other regulators of heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing were examined for altered nucleoli and positioning of repeated DNAs. Animals lacking components of the H3K9 methylation and RNAi pathways contained disorganized nucleoli, ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and satellite DNAs. The levels of H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) in chromatin associated with repeated DNAs decreased dramatically in Su(var)3-9 and dcr-2 (dicer-2) mutant tissues compared to wild type. We also observed a substantial increase in extrachromosomal repeated DNAs in mutant tissues. The disorganized nucleolus phenotype depends on the presence of Ligase 4 (Lig4), and ecc DNA formation is not induced by removal of cohesin. We conclude that H3K9 methylation of rDNA and satellites, maintained by Su(var)3-9, HP1, and the RNAi pathway, is necessary for the structural stability of repeated DNAs, which is mediated through suppression of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). These results suggest a mechanism for how local chromatin structure can regulate genome stability, and the organization of chromosomal elements and nuclear organelles.

  16. Ubiquitination of Lysine 867 of the Human SETDB1 Protein Upregulates Its Histone H3 Lysine 9 (H3K9) Methyltransferase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Kenji; Kawamata, Natsuko; Uchihara, Yoshie; Okubo, Moeka; Fujimoto, Reiko; Gotoh, Eiko; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Mizohata, Eiichi; Hino, Nobumasa; Okada, Yoshiaki; Mochizuki, Yasuhiro; Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Tachibana, Keisuke; Doi, Takefumi

    2016-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins play a crucial role in regulating protein-protein interactions, enzyme activity, subcellular localization, and stability of the protein. SET domain, bifurcated 1 (SETDB1) is a histone methyltransferase that regulates the methylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9), gene silencing, and transcriptional repression. The C-terminal region of SETDB1 is a key site for PTMs, and is essential for its enzyme activity in mammalian and insect cells. In this study, we aimed to evaluate more precisely the effect of PTMs on the H3K9 methyltransferase activity of SETDB1. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we show that the C-terminal region of human SETDB1 purified from insect cells is ubiquitinated. We also demonstrate that the ubiquitination of lysine 867 of the human SETDB1 is necessary for full H3K9 methyltransferase activity in mammalian cells. Finally, we show that SETDB1 ubiquitination regulates the expression of its target gene, serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 1 (SERPINE1) by methylating H3K9. These results suggest that the ubiquitination of SETDB1 at lysine 867 controls the expression of its target gene by activating its H3K9 methyltransferase activity. PMID:27798683

  17. Histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP form heteromeric complexes and are both crucial for methylation of euchromatin at H3-K9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Makoto; Ueda, Jun; Fukuda, Mikiko; Takeda, Naoki; Ohta, Tsutomu; Iwanari, Hiroko; Sakihama, Toshiko; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Hamakubo, Takao; Shinkai, Yoichi

    2005-04-01

    Histone H3 Lys 9 (H3-K9) methylation is a crucial epigenetic mark for transcriptional silencing. G9a is the major mammalian H3-K9 methyltransferase that targets euchromatic regions and is essential for murine embryogenesis. There is a single G9a-related methyltransferase in mammals, called GLP/Eu-HMTase1. Here we show that GLP is also important for H3-K9 methylation of mouse euchromatin. GLP-deficiency led to embryonic lethality, a severe reduction of H3-K9 mono- and dimethylation, the induction of Mage-a gene expression, and HP1 relocalization in embryonic stem cells, all of which were phenotypes of G9a-deficiency. Furthermore, we show that G9a and GLP formed a stoichiometric heteromeric complex in a wide variety of cell types. Biochemical analyses revealed that formation of the G9a/GLP complex was dependent on their enzymatic SET domains. Taken together, our new findings revealed that G9a and GLP cooperatively exert H3-K9 methyltransferase function in vivo, likely through the formation of higher-order heteromeric complexes.

  18. Effects of Intervention and Team Culture on Operating Room Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Ricardo W; Kester, Benjamin; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    How changes in the surgical team's culture can potentially reduce operating room (OR) traffic. Excessive OR traffic during surgical procedures can present a risk to the patient's safety and recovery. Data suggest that limiting the number of OR personnel during the intraoperative period can reduce excessive OR traffic. However, it is unclear whether the surgeon's verbal intervention can also successfully reduce intraoperative OR traffic. This study compares traffic rates in hip and knee arthroplasty cases against traffic rates during nonarthroplasty cases to examine the effects of verbal interventions implemented by the surgeon to reduce intraoperative traffic. The study consisted of 16 orthopedic surgeons in a noninterventional group and 1 orthopedic surgeon in the interventional group. The surgeon in the interventional group implemented verbal protocols to OR staff to limit excessive intraoperative traffic. Operating room traffic was monitored for 3 consecutive months (January-March 2015) with the use of infrared automated door counters that tracked door openings when someone entered or left the OR. A total of 50 hip and knee arthroplasties cases and 157 nonarthroplasty cases were tracked during the study period. A total of 134 hours and 4482 movements were collected for the hip and knee arthroplasty cases. A total of 498 hours and 22 902 movements were collected for the nonarthroplasty cases. Comparing the 2 groups, the interventional group averaged 33 movements per hour while the noninterventional group averaged 46 movements per hour (P traffic can be reduced through simple verbal protocols established by the surgical team.

  19. Environmental stress model for evaluation of vessel traffic in ports and waterways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhiwu; CHEN Weijiong; INOUE K

    2005-01-01

    Environmental stress model is proposed as an effective tool to the analysis and evaluation of navigational safety in ports and waterways. Marine traffic simulations are carried out in a virtual port area with various arrangements and conditions. Calculations of stress values and traffic volume criteria are illustrated. The simulation results provide a valuable hint for safety management of vessel traffic. The model provides quantitative information and helps administrators in decision making to achieve desired safety level and improve the efficiency of vessel traffic in ports and waterways.

  20. Inhibition of H3K9 methyltransferase G9a induces autophagy and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Aishu; Qiu, Yu [Chongqing Key Laboratory for Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 401147 (China); Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 401147 (China); Cui, Hongjuan [State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400716 (China); Fu, Gang, E-mail: fg.ras@hotmail.com [Chongqing Key Laboratory for Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 401147 (China); Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 401147 (China)

    2015-03-27

    Objective: To explore whether inhibition of H3K9 Methyltransferase G9a could exert an antitumoral effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and methods: First we checked G9a expression in two OSCC cell lines Tca8113 and KB. Next we used a special G9a inhibitor BIX01294 (BIX) to explore the effect of inhibition of G9a on OSCC in vitro. Cell growth was tested by typlan blue staining, MTT assay and Brdu immunofluorescence staining. Cell autophagy was examined by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, LC3-II immunofluorescence staining and LC3-II western blot assay. Cell apoptosis was checked by FITC Annexin-V and PI labeling, tunnel staining and caspase 3 western blot assay. Finally, the effect of inhibition of G9a on clonogenesis and tumorigenesis capacity of OSCC was analyzed by soft agar growth and xenograft model. Results: Here we showed that G9a was expressed in both Tca8113 and KB cells. Inhibition of G9a using BIX significantly reduced cell growth and proliferation in Tca8113 and KB. Inhibition of G9a induced cell autophagy with conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and cell apoptosis with the expression of cleaved caspase 3. We also found that inhibition of G9a reduced colony formation in soft agar and repressed tumor growth in mouse xenograph model. Conclusion: Our results suggested that G9a might be a potential epigenetic target for OSCC treatment. - Highlights: • Inhibition of G9a reduced cell growth and proliferation in OSCC cells. • Inhibition of G9a induces autophagy and apoptosis in OSCC cells. • Inhibition of G9a repressed tumor growth in mouse xenograph model.

  1. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link...

  2. Traffic management system: Recommendations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-30

    This report identifies the primary and secondary air traffic networks inside and outside Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area where particular safety and traffic problems exist. The Consortium Louis Berger International, Inc.-IBI Group-UBATEC provides recommendations divided into two groups: one based on engineering aspects for each identified deficiency in the selected routes; and a second group that is based on the results of the evaluations of needs. This is Volume 5, Recommendations Final Report, and it provides recommendations to optimize transportation in the city of Buenos Aires.

  3. ATRX binds to atypical chromatin domains at the 3' exons of zinc finger genes to preserve H3K9me3 enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-García, David; Qadeer, Zulekha A; McHugh, Domhnall S; Ghiraldini, Flávia G; Chowdhury, Asif H; Hasson, Dan; Dyer, Michael A; Recillas-Targa, Félix; Bernstein, Emily

    2016-06-02

    ATRX is a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler proposed to govern genomic stability through the regulation of repetitive sequences, such as rDNA, retrotransposons, and pericentromeric and telomeric repeats. However, few direct ATRX target genes have been identified and high-throughput genomic approaches are currently lacking for ATRX. Here we present a comprehensive ChIP-sequencing study of ATRX in multiple human cell lines, in which we identify the 3' exons of zinc finger genes (ZNFs) as a new class of ATRX targets. These 3' exonic regions encode the zinc finger motifs, which can range from 1-40 copies per ZNF gene and share large stretches of sequence similarity. These regions often contain an atypical chromatin signature: they are transcriptionally active, contain high levels of H3K36me3, and are paradoxically enriched in H3K9me3. We find that these ZNF 3' exons are co-occupied by SETDB1, TRIM28, and ZNF274, which form a complex with ATRX. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated loss-of-function studies demonstrate (i) a reduction of H3K9me3 at the ZNF 3' exons in the absence of ATRX and ZNF274 and, (ii) H3K9me3 levels at atypical chromatin regions are particularly sensitive to ATRX loss compared to other H3K9me3-occupied regions. As a consequence of ATRX or ZNF274 depletion, cells with reduced levels of H3K9me3 show increased levels of DNA damage, suggesting that ATRX binds to the 3' exons of ZNFs to maintain their genomic stability through preservation of H3K9me3.

  4. Turning Traffic Jams to Jelly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Beijing, known for having the worst traffic in China, is brewing up a traffic plan with the harshest ever measures to ensure smooth traffic flow as the capital’s gridlock during rush hour and private car sales soar.

  5. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Distraction in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Many drivers, as well as cyclists and pedestrians, are occupied with all kinds of activities that can distract their attention from traffic, like listening to music, conducting a conversation on their mobile phone, or texting. Distraction has negative effects on traffic behaviour. Most studies estim

  7. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas th

  8. Analysis of traffic safety at road works.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W. & Spittje, H.

    2010-01-01

    Road works create a risk, both to road workers and drivers. SWOV conducted research into 58 severe crashes to gain more insight into the causes of crashes at work zones. Finally, 50 work-zones were visited to obtain more insight into (1) the extent to which the Dutch guidelines for safe road works a

  9. Rumble devices for road traffic safety

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jobson, AJ

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available on the approaches to hazardous curves or intersections. City and town engineers had little to report on rumble installations but showed a keen interest in their potential usefulness. Each type of rumble device has certain merits and these are discussed...

  10. DoD Traffic Safety Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-22

    regulates operating privileges shall establish procedures for applicable mandatory administrative or disciplinary action, to include the suspension ...exhaust sys- tem, wipers, horns, brake systems, steering systems, suspension , tires, and wheel assemblies as well as the following: 1. The inspection... scooters , or ATVs, such 2-1 license requirements, as a minimum, shall apply to operation of those vehicles on DoD installations. (An ATV is a

  11. Editorial on Impacts on Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Bhzad Sidawi

    2012-12-01

    Finally, the guest editors of this special issue would like to thank the chief editors of the International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology for giving them a chance to publish these papers through the journal.

  12. Properties of Traffic Risk Coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Tie-Qiao; HUANG Hai-Jun; SHANG Hua-Yan; XUE Yu

    2009-01-01

    We use the model with the consideration of the traffic interruption probability (Physica A 387(2008)6845) to study the relationship between the traffic risk coefficient and the traffic interruption probability.The analytical and numerical results show that the traffic interruption probability will reduce the traffic risk coefficient and that the reduction is related to the density, which shows that this model can improve traffic security.

  13. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... light solvency stress test system introduced by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority (DFSA) in June 2001. This monitoring system requires L&P companies to submit regular reports documenting the sensitivity of the companies' base capital to certain pre-defined market shocks - the red and yellow...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  14. European vehicle passive safety network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Janssen, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the European Vehicle Passive Safety Network is to contribute to the reduction of the number of road traffic victims in Europe by passive safety measures. The aim of the road safety policy of the European Commission is to reduce the annual total of fatalities to 18000 in 2010

  15. MapGIS K9投影变换在国土资源“一张图”中的应用研究%Research on the Apptication of MapGIS k9 Projection Transformation in Lamd Resources A Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟世彬; 胡水平; 闫喜凤

    2011-01-01

    This paper firmly introduced the I luir*ctrri*lic? Of MapOIS K9 projection tranaformalion. "Own il foruiwd on the application c the coordinate import,coordinate transformation,and dynamic projection in I.mil Resource* A Map. It was proved tli.it MapGIS K9 can improve efficiency and quality of Land Resourcr* A Mup.%介绍了MapGIS K9投影变换特点,重点阐述了坐标导入、坐标特换和动态投影在国土资源“一张图”中的应用实例.通过试验验证,MapGIS K9有利于提高国土资源“一张国”工程建设效率与质量.

  16. ANSYS在脉冲CO2激光对K9玻璃损伤过程模拟中的应用研究%Application of ANSYS in Simulation Process of Pulse CO2 Laser Damage of K9 Glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玺; 李化; 聂劲松

    2008-01-01

    从脉冲CO2激光损伤K9玻璃有限元模型的建立和网格划分、脉冲激光的加载、设置初始条件和边界条件等几个方面,分析了基于ANSYS的脉冲CO2激光损伤K9玻璃模拟过程中的一些关键问题,建立了脉冲CO2激光损伤K9玻璃的有限元模型,对K9玻璃受到脉冲CO2激光辐照时的温度和应力分布进行了数值分析.

  17. CEDR Transnational Road Research Programme : Call 2013: Traffic Management: Implementation of Innovation in Traffic Management. METHOD (Managing European Traffic using Human-Oriented Designs), WP 1, Deliverable 2: Human Factors in Traffic Management; Information and advice for European traffic management practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Vissers, L.

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic management is an umbrella term. It encompasses all measures that (re)direct traffic flows over the road network, so that the movements of people and goods are optimised for reliability, safety and environmental sustainability. The levels of road mobility continue to increase year on

  18. CEDR Transnational Road Research Programme : Call 2013: Traffic Management: Implementation of Innovation in Traffic Management. METHOD (Managing European Traffic using Human-Oriented Designs), WP 1, Deliverable 2: Human Factors in Traffic Management; Information and advice for European traffic management practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Vissers, L.

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic management is an umbrella term. It encompasses all measures that (re)direct traffic flows over the road network, so that the movements of people and goods are optimised for reliability, safety and environmental sustainability. The levels of road mobility continue to increase year on yea

  19. An extended macro traffic flow model accounting for multiple optimal velocity functions with different probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rongjun; Ge, Hongxia; Wang, Jufeng

    2017-08-01

    Due to the maximum velocity and safe headway distance of the different vehicles are not exactly the same, an extended macro model of traffic flow with the consideration of multiple optimal velocity functions with probabilities is proposed in this paper. By means of linear stability theory, the new model's linear stability condition considering multiple probabilities optimal velocity is obtained. The KdV-Burgers equation is derived to describe the propagating behavior of traffic density wave near the neutral stability line through nonlinear analysis. The numerical simulations of influences of multiple maximum velocities and multiple safety distances on model's stability and traffic capacity are carried out. The cases of two different kinds of maximum speeds with same safe headway distance, two different types of safe headway distances with same maximum speed and two different max velocities and two different time-gaps are all explored by numerical simulations. First cases demonstrate that when the proportion of vehicles with a larger vmax increase, the traffic tends to unstable, which also means that jerk and brakes is not conducive to traffic stability and easier to result in stop and go phenomenon. Second cases show that when the proportion of vehicles with greater safety spacing increases, the traffic tends to be unstable, which also means that too cautious assumptions or weak driving skill is not conducive to traffic stability. Last cases indicate that increase of maximum speed is not conducive to traffic stability, while reduction of the safe headway distance is conducive to traffic stability. Numerical simulation manifests that the mixed driving and traffic diversion does not have effect on the traffic capacity when traffic density is low or heavy. Numerical results also show that mixed driving should be chosen to increase the traffic capacity when the traffic density is lower, while the traffic diversion should be chosen to increase the traffic capacity when

  20. KMT1E mediated H3K9 methylation is required for the maintenance of embryonic stem cells by repressing trophectoderm differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Felix; Loureiro, Joseph; Su, Hui; Fang, Qing; Lei, Hong; Lewis, Tanya; Yang, Yi; Labow, Mark; Li, En; Chen, Taiping; Kadam, Shilpa

    2010-02-01

    Dynamic regulation of histone methylation by methyltransferases and demethylases plays a central role in regulating the fate of embryonic stem (ES) cells. The histone H3K9 methyltransferase KMT1E, formerly known as ESET or Setdb1, is essential to embryonic development as the ablation of the Setdb1 gene results in peri-implantation lethality and prevents the propagation of ES cells. However, Setdb1-null blastocysts do not display global changes in H3K9 methylation or DNA methylation, arguing against a genome-wide defect. Here we show that conditional deletion of the Setdb1 gene in ES cells results in the upregulation of lineage differentiation markers, especially trophectoderm-specific factors, similar to effects observed upon loss of Oct3/4 expression in ES cells. We demonstrate that KMT1E deficiency in ES cells leads to a decrease in histone H3K9 methylation at and derepression of trophoblast-associated genes such as Cdx2. Furthermore, we find genes that are derepressed upon Setdb1 deletion to overlap with known targets of polycomb mediated repression, suggesting that KMT1E mediated H3K9 methylation acts in concert with polycomb controlled H3K27 methylation. Our studies thus demonstrate an essential role for KMT1E in the control of developmentally regulated gene expression programs in ES cells.