WorldWideScience

Sample records for k-6-19 pineal physiology

  1. Experiment K-6-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Kaddis, F.; Markley, C.; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. It was recognized as early as 1685 (cited in Kitay and Altschule, 1954) that the pineal of humans calcified with age. However, little can be found in the literature relating calcification and pineal function. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, researchers examined pineal calcium content following the spaceflight. Researchers concluded that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanism of the responses noted.

  2. 68Ga-DOTATATE uptake in pineal gland, a rare physiological variant: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Saima; Syed, Rizwan; Skoura, Evangelia; Alshammari, Alshaima; Gaze, Mark; Sajjan, Rakesh; Halsey, Richard; Bomanji, Jamshed

    2015-11-01

    (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT is widely used for the evaluation of neuroendocrine tumours. Knowledge of the physiological distribution of the radiotracer is of critical importance in characterizing focal areas of uptake. In this case series, we report three paediatric cases (average age 4.7 years ± 0.6 SD) with diagnosed advanced stage IV Neuroblastoma. Two had (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT scans and one underwent (68)Ga-DOTATATE PET-MRI scan to assess for suitability of molecular therapy. Focal increased tracer uptake in the pineal gland was noted in all cases with no morphological abnormality on the corresponding CT and MRI scans. The uptake within the gland was thought to be a physiological variant rather than metastases owing to the heterogeneity of somatostatin receptors expression. The pineal gland has been reported to express somatostatin receptors. The physiological distribution of (68)Ga-DOTATATE uptake in the pineal gland is not routinely seen. Furthermore, the possibility of pineal meningioma is very unlikely as pineal meningiomas are very rare and there was no convincing morphological evidence of meningiomas on CT/MRI scan.

  3. The pineal neurohormone melatonin and its physiologic opiatergic immunoregulatory role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges J. M. Maestroni

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland functions as a neuroendocrine transducer that coordinate the organism response to changing environmental stimuli such as light and temperature. The main and best known pineal neurohormone is melatonin that is synthesized and released in a circadian fashion with a peak during the night darkness hours. We have recently reported that melatonin exerts important immuno regulatory functions. Here we describe the astonishing property of exogenous melatonin which is able to counteract completely the depressive effect of anxiety-restraint stress and/or of corticosterone on thymus weight, andibody production and antiviral responses. This effect seems to be mediated by antigen-activated T cells via an opiatergic mechanism.

  4. "Their pineal glands aglow": Theosophical physiology in Ulysses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisson, Mark S

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that Joyce's engagements with the Theosophy of the Dublin literary world amount to more than simple parody. In Ulysses, Joyce portrays Theosophy's efforts to offer an alternative understanding of physiology to that of the medical establishment as a form of boundary work, an adaptation of the discourse of modern medical research to fashion modern mysticism as a science. Ultimately, Joyce rejects Theosophical physiology and its evolutionary scientism because it provides an unsatisfactory rhetorical body, a failed attempt to renegotiate the boundaries between scientific materialism and spirituality in the awkward modernity of Dublin in 1904.

  5. Intracranial physiological calcification on computed tomography, 1. Calcification of pineal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Ryungchan; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Ito, Shotaro; Kadoya, Satoru

    1988-06-01

    Of intracranial physiological calcification, common calcification of pineal region, choroid plexus of lateral ventricles and of basal ganglia was examined based on the frequency of occurence of age and sex and type of CT scanners. Consecutive cases of 2877 (1450 males and 1427 females) underwent plain CT scanning were studied. Pathological calcification was excluded from this study. Three types of CT scanners (SCN-200, Somatom 2 and TCT-10 A) were used. As a whole, calcification was shown in 67.7 % in pineal region, 57.6 % in choroid plexus of lateral ventricles and 7.5 % in basal ganglia. First, we reported in detail the calcification of pineal region, in which calcification occurred most frequently. Calcification in pineal region had a close relation with age by increasing with aging. The youngest patient was 8 years old. There was a striking increase in number of patients aged from 10 to 39 years. There was a gradual increase in those aged over 40 years. Of patients aged from 70 to 79 years, calcification was found in 81.5 %. The incidence was noted no changes in patients aged over 80 years. As for patients aged over 20 years, calcification was observed in 75.1 % (82.6 % males and 68.0 % females). In patients aged from 20 to 79 years, the calcification was significantly higher in male than female. Although there was a different incidence of calcification examined by three types of CT scanners, it was not significant. There was no significant difference between thickness of 8 mm section and 10 mm.

  6. Experiment K-7-19: Pineal Physiology After Spaceflight: Relation to Rat Gonadal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, D. C.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

    1994-01-01

    The function of pineal exposed to microgravity and spaceflight is studied. It is found that the spaceflight resulted in a stress response as indicated by adrenal hypertrophy, that gonadal function was compromised, and that the pineal may be linked as part of the mechanisms of the response noted.

  7. COSMOS 2044. Experiment K-7-19. Pineal physiology in microgravity: Relation to rat gonadal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, D.; Soliman, M. R. I.; Krasnov, I.; Asadi, H.

    1989-01-01

    It is now known that the pineal organ can interact with many endocrine and nonendocrine tissues in a regulatory fashion. Given its key role in the regulation of melatonin synthesis, its high concentration, and that its levels may persist longer than the more rapidly changing melatonin, it was felt that serotonin might give a more accurate assessment of the effects of microgravity on pineal function following recovery of animals from flight. Five-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), a major metabolite of serotonin metabolism, was also measured. One of the most interesting concomitants to spaceflight and exposure to microgravity has been the disturbing alteration in calcium metabolism and resulting skeletal effects. Given the link between exposure to microgravity and perturbation of calcium metabolism and the fact that the pineal is apparently one of the only soft tissues to calcify, pineal calcium content was examined following spaceflight.

  8. Pineal physiology in microgravity - Relation to rat gonadal function aboard Cosmos 1887

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Markley, Carol L.; Soliman, Magdi R. I.; Kaddis, Farida; Krasnov, Igor'

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from an analysis of pineal glands obtained for five male rats flown aboard an orbiting satellite for their melatonin, serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIA), and calcium content. Plasma 5-HT and 5-HIAA were measured. These parameters were compared to indicators of gonadal function: plasma testosterone concentration and spermatogonia development. Plasma melotonin was found to be low at the time of euthanasia and was not different among the experimental groups. Pineal calcium of flight animals was not different from ground controls. Pineal 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the flight group were significantly higher than those in ground controls. These findings suggest a possible increase in pineal 5-HT turnover in flight animals which may result in increased melatonin secretion. It is argued that the alteration of pinal 5-HT turnover and its expected effects on melatonin secretion may partially explain the lower plasma testosterone levels and 4-11 percent fewer spermatogonia cells observed in flight animals.

  9. Circadian regulation of pineal gland rhythmicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjigin, Jimo; Zhang, L Samantha; Calinescu, Anda-Alexandra

    2012-02-05

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity of the neural circuit controlling melatonin production; (4) role of clock genes in melatonin formation; (5) phase control of pineal rhythmicity; (6) impact of light at night on pineal rhythms; and (7) physiological function of the pineal rhythmicity.

  10. Characterization of human pineal gland proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelamanchi, Soujanya D; Kumar, Manish; Madugundu, Anil K; Gopalakrishnan, Lathika; Dey, Gourav; Chavan, Sandip; Sathe, Gajanan; Mathur, Premendu P; Gowda, Harsha; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla K; Prasad, T S Keshava

    2016-11-15

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland located at the center of the brain. It is known to regulate various physiological functions in the body through secretion of the neurohormone melatonin. Comprehensive characterization of the human pineal gland proteome has not been undertaken to date. We employed a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based approach to characterize the proteome of the human pineal gland. A total of 5874 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland in this study. Of these, 5820 proteins were identified from the human pineal gland for the first time. Interestingly, 1136 proteins from the human pineal gland were found to contain a signal peptide domain, which indicates the secretory nature of these proteins. An unbiased global proteomic profile of this biomedically important organ should benefit molecular research to unravel the role of the pineal gland in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. The reno-pineal axis: A novel role for melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland is a tiny endocrine gland whose physiologic role has been the focus of much research and much more speculation over the past century. This mini-review discusses recent findings which correlate melatonin and renal physiology, and postulates the presence of a "reno-pineal axis." Drawing lessons from comparative endocrinology, while quoting human data, it advocates the need to study the "reno-pineal axis" in greater detail.

  12. Comparison of Three Methods for the Estimation of Pineal Gland Volume Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Niyazi Acer; Ahmet Turan Ilıca; Ahmet Tuncay Turgut; Özlem Özçelik; Birdal Yıldırım; Mehmet Turgut

    2012-01-01

    Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of t...

  13. Characterization of the relations between morphology and physiological status of the pineal gland in connection with the somatic development level in turkeys reared in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lazăr

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research started from the premises of the existence of some possible relationships between indole and pineal peptide hormones and the somatic development, with participation of hypothalamic-pituitary complex. Experimental factors, which were the subject of the present paper, influenced the dynamics of corporal mass and fodder consumption, leading to the occurrence of some important structural modifications at the level of pineal gland. The exposure of the individuals to continuous light (photic pinealectomy produces increases in corporal mass, showing the involvement of the pineal gland in neuro-endocrine-metabolic reactions, which contributes to the maintenance of homeostatic balance, including somatic ones. Biological material was represented by a number of 50 individuals belonging to B.U.T. Big 6 hybrid, reared on soil, on a permanent litter, which could assure the expanding of knowledge area regarding the relation between rearing technology, modulation of some microclimate parameters and growing performances. Were also realised cytometric and hystometric muscular determinations.

  14. Content of microelements in the rat pineal gland at different ages and the effects of selenium supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Demajo M.; Jozanov-Stankov Olga; Đujić Ivana

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian pineal gland regulates a number of important physiological processes. In this paper we report changes in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) in the male rat pineal glands at 4, 5, 8, and 12 months of age. The effect of Se supplementation in drinking water on the content of pineal gland microelements was also studied. Selenium (Se)-dependent changes in pineal gland reported in this study suggest novel physicochemical and biochemical properties of S...

  15. Descartes' pineal neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C U

    1998-02-01

    The year 1996 marked the quattrocentenary of Descartes' birth. This paper reviews his pineal neuropsychology. It demonstrates that Descartes understood the true anatomical position of the pineal. His intraventricular pineal (or glande H) was a theoretical construct which allowed him to describe the operations of his man-like "earthen machine." In the Treatise of Man he shows how all the behaviors of such machines could then be accounted for without the presence of self-consciousness. Infrahuman animals are "conscious automata." In Passions of the Soul he adds, but only for humans, self-consciousness to the machine. In a modern formulation, only humans not only know but know that they know.

  16. Neuropeptide Y in the Adult and Fetal Human Pineal Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Møller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  17. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we show by use of immunohistochemistry that neuropeptide Y is present in nerve fibers of the adult human pineal gland. The fibers are classical neuropeptidergic fibers endowed with large boutons en passage and primarily located in a perifollicular position with some fibers entering the pineal parenchyma inside the follicle. The distance from the immunoreactive terminals to the pinealocytes indicates a modulatory function of neuropeptide Y for pineal physiology. Some of the immunoreactive fibers might originate from neurons located in the brain and be a part of the central innervation of the pineal gland. In a series of human fetuses, neuropeptide Y-containing nerve fibers was present and could be detected as early as in the pineal of four- to five-month-old fetuses. This early innervation of the human pineal is different from most rodents, where the innervation starts postnatally.

  18. Comparison of three methods for the estimation of pineal gland volume using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acer, Niyazi; Ilıca, Ahmet Turan; Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; Ozçelik, Ozlem; Yıldırım, Birdal; Turgut, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Pineal gland is a very important neuroendocrine organ with many physiological functions such as regulating circadian rhythm. Radiologically, the pineal gland volume is clinically important because it is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although many studies have estimated the pineal gland volume using different techniques, to the best of our knowledge, there has so far been no stereological work done on this subject. The objective of the current paper was to determine the pineal gland volume using stereological methods and by the region of interest (ROI) on MRI. In this paper, the pineal gland volumes were calculated in a total of 62 subjects (36 females, 26 males) who were free of any pineal lesions or tumors. The mean ± SD pineal gland volumes of the point-counting, planimetry, and ROI groups were 99.55 ± 51.34, 102.69 ± 40.39, and 104.33 ± 40.45 mm(3), respectively. No significant difference was found among the methods of calculating pineal gland volume (P > 0.05). From these results, it can be concluded that each technique is an unbiased, efficient, and reliable method, ideally suitable for in vivo examination of MRI data for pineal gland volume estimation.

  19. The function of very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá, Angel

    2010-02-01

    The mammalian pineal gland is a prominent secretory organ with a high metabolic activity. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), the main secretory product of the pineal gland, efficiently scavenges both the hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals counteracting lipid peroxidation in biological membranes. Approximately 25% of the total fatty acids present in the rat pineal lipids are represented by arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). These very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids play important roles in the pineal gland. In addition to the production of melatonin, the mammalian pineal gland is able of convert these polyunsaturated fatty acids into bioactive lipid mediators. Lipoxygenation is the principal lipoxygenase (LOX) activity observed in the rat pineal gland. Lipoxygenation in the pineal gland is exceptional because no other brain regions express significant LOX activities under normal physiological conditions. The rat pineal gland expresses both 12- and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, producing 12- and 15-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12- and 15-HpETE) from arachidonic acid and 14- and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid (14- and 17-HdoHE) from docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. The rat pineal also produces hepoxilins via LOX pathways. The hepoxilins are bioactive epoxy-hydroxy products of the arachidonic acid metabolism via the 12S-lipoxygenase (12S-LOX) pathway. The two key pineal biochemical functions, lipoxygenation and melatonin synthesis, may be synergistically regulated by the status of n-3 essential fatty acids.

  20. Pineal Proteins Upregulate Specific Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Bharti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroendocrine functions of the pineal affect a wide variety of glandular and nervous system processes. Beside melatonin (MEL, the pineal gland secretes and expresses certain proteins essential for various physiological functions. It has been suggested that the pineal gland may also have an antioxidant role due to secretory product other than MEL. Therefore, the present study was designed to study the effect of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pineal proteins (PP on the antioxidant defense system in the brain of female rats. The twenty-four rats were taken in present study and were divided into four groups: control (0 day, control (28 day, vehicle control and buffalo PP. The PP was injected 100 µg/kg BW intraperitoneal (i.p. daily for 28 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR and reduced glutathione (GSH concentration and the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO in the brain tissue were measured to assess the antioxidant systems. These enzymes protect from adverse effects of free radicals and help in amelioration of oxidative stress. Buffalo pineal proteins administration did not cause any effect on brain LPO, whereas GPx, GR and GSH were significantly (p < 0.05 decreased. However, SOD and CAT activities were increased to significant levels than the control in PP treated rats. Our study herein suggested that buffalo (Bubalus bubalis pineal proteins upregulates specific antioxidant defense systems and can be useful in control of various oxidative stress-induced neuronal diseases.

  1. An historical view of the pineal gland and mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Muñoz, F; Molina, J D; Rubio, G; Alamo, C

    2011-08-01

    Since Classical Antiquity numerous authors have linked the origin of some mental disorders to physical and functional changes in the pineal gland because of its attributed role in humans as the connection between the material and the spiritual world. The pineal organ was seen as a valve-like structure that regulated the flow of animal spirits through the ventricular system, a hypothesis that took on more vigour during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The framework for this theory was "the three cells of the brain", in which the pineal gland was even called the "appendix of thought". The pineal gland could also be associated with the boom, during this period, of certain legends about the "stone of folly". But the most relevant psychopathological role of this organ arrived with Descartes, who proposed that it was the seat of the human soul and controlled communications between the physical body and its surroundings, including emotions. After a period of decline during which it was considered as a mere vestigial remnant of evolution, the link between the pineal gland and psychiatric disorders was definitively highlighted in the 20th century, first with the use of glandular extracts in patients with mental deficiency, and finally with the discovery of melatonin in 1958. The physiological properties of melatonin reawakened interest in the relationship between the pineal gland and mental disorders, fundamentally the affective and sleep disorders, which culminated in the development of new pharmacological agents acting through melatonergic receptors (ramelteon and agomelatine).

  2. The rat pineal gland comprises an endocannabinoid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marco; Habazettl, Iris; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2008-11-01

    In the mammalian pineal gland, the rhythm in melatonin biosynthesis depends on the norepinephrine (NE)-driven regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the penultimate enzyme of melatonin biosynthesis. A recent study showed that phytocannabinoids like tetrahydrocannabinol reduce AANAT activity and attenuate NE-induced melatonin biosynthesis in rat pineal glands, raising the possibility that an endocannabinoid system is present in the pineal gland. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed cannabinoid (CB) receptors and specific enzymes for endocannabinoid biosynthesis or catabolism in rat pineal glands and cultured pinealocytes. Immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses revealed the presence of CB1 and CB2 receptor proteins, of N-acyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), an enzyme catalyzing endocannabinoid biosynthesis and of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid catabolizing enzyme, in pinealocytes, and in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers identified by double immunofluorescence with an antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase. The immunosignals for the CB2 receptor, NAPE-PLD, and FAAH found in pinealocytes did not vary under a 12 hr light:12 hr dark cycle. The CB1 receptor immunoreaction in pinealocytes was significantly reduced at the end of the light phase [zeitgeber time (ZT) 12]. The immunosignal for NAPE-PLD found in pineal sympathetic nerve fibers was reduced in the middle of the dark phase (ZT 18). Stimulation of cultured pinealocytes with NE affected neither the subcellular distribution nor the intensity of the immunosignals for the investigated CB receptors and enzymes. In summary, the pineal gland comprises indispensable compounds of the endocannabinoid system indicating that endocannabinoids may be involved in the control of pineal physiology.

  3. Expression of luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Masanori T; Hosaka, Takeshi; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Ishizuka, Bunpei

    2006-08-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) influences the secretion of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) from the pineal gland. The present study examined the possible presence of LH/chorionic gonadotropin (CG) receptor in the pineal gland of adult female rats. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that LH/CG receptor mRNA is expressed in the pineal gland. Western blotting showed that the pineal gland, like the ovary, contains an 80 kDa receptor protein. Immunohistochemistry revealed that LH/CG receptor, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (a regulatory enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis) and serotonin (a melatonin precursor) are localized primarily to the same cells of the pineal gland. We further found that the levels of pineal LH/CG receptor protein in normal cycling female rats change significantly during the estrous cycle, being lowest at early metestrus. These results demonstrate that LH/CG receptor is expressed in the pineal gland, primarily in melatonin-synthesizing cells, namely pinealocytes. Furthermore, it is suggested that LH influences pineal melatonin secretion through binding to this receptor. In addition, LH/CG receptor levels in the pineal gland are regulated during the estrous cycle under normal physiological conditions.

  4. Pineal melatonin synthesis in Syrian hamsters: A summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollag, M. D.

    1982-12-01

    During the past decade there has been ample documentation of the proposition that the pineal gland mediates photoperiodic influences upon reproductive behavior of hamsters. It is commonly hypothesized that the pineal gland expresses its activity by transformation of photoperiodic information into an hormonal output, that hormone being melatonin. If this hypothesis is correct, there must be some essential diffrence in melatonin's output when hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic environments. The experiments summarized in this communication analyze pineal melatonin contents in Syrian hamsters maintained in a variety of photoperiodic conditions during different physiological states. The results demonstrate that adult hamsters have a daily surge in pineal melatonin content throughout their lifetime when exposed to simulated annual photoperiodic cycles. There is some fluctuation in the amount of pineal melatonin produced during different physiological states and photoperiodic environments, but these fluctuations seem small when compared to those normally found for other regulatory hormones. When hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic regimens, the daily melatonin surge maintains a relatively constant phase relationship with respect to the onset of daily activity. There is a concomitant change in its phase relationship with respect to light-dark transitions.

  5. Thyroid hormone and adrenergic signaling interact to control pineal expression of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (Drd4)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jong-So; Bailey, Michael J; Weller, Joan L;

    2009-01-01

    . Our studies indicate that Drd4 is the dominant dopamine receptor gene expressed in the pineal gland. The gene is expressed in pinealocytes at levels which are approximately 100-fold greater than in other tissues, except the retina, in which transcript levels are similar. Pineal Drd4 expression...... and whether thyroid hormone controls expression of other genes in the pineal gland.......Dopamine plays diverse and important roles in vertebrate biology, impacting behavior and physiology through actions mediated by specific G-protein-coupled receptors, one of which is the dopamine receptor D4 (Drd4). Here we present studies on the >100-fold daily rhythm in rat pineal Drd4 expression...

  6. Content of microelements in the rat pineal gland at different ages and the effects of selenium supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demajo M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian pineal gland regulates a number of important physiological processes. In this paper we report changes in the content of iron (Fe, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, and selenium (Se in the male rat pineal glands at 4, 5, 8, and 12 months of age. The effect of Se supplementation in drinking water on the content of pineal gland microelements was also studied. Selenium (Se-dependent changes in pineal gland reported in this study suggest novel physicochemical and biochemical properties of Se, an important element essential in the antioxidative processes, yet known to influence a number of endocrine processes.

  7. Homeobox genes and melatonin synthesis: regulatory roles of the cone-rod homeobox transcription factor in the rodent pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Kristian; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin Fredensborg

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processes, are also expressed in the mature rodent pineal gland. Among these, the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor is believed to control pineal-specific Aanat expression. Based on recent advances in our understanding of Crx in the rodent pineal gland, we here suggest that homeobox genes play a role in adult pineal physiology both by ensuring pineal-specific Aanat expression and by facilitating cAMP response element-based circadian melatonin production.

  8. Homeobox Genes and Melatonin Synthesis: Regulatory Roles of the Cone-Rod Homeobox Transcription Factor in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Rohde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland is controlled by a circadian rhythm in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT enzyme activity. In the rodent, Aanat gene expression displays a marked circadian rhythm; release of norepinephrine in the gland at night causes a cAMP-based induction of Aanat transcription. However, additional transcriptional control mechanisms exist. Homeobox genes, which are generally known to encode transcription factors controlling developmental processes, are also expressed in the mature rodent pineal gland. Among these, the cone-rod homeobox (CRX transcription factor is believed to control pineal-specific Aanat expression. Based on recent advances in our understanding of Crx in the rodent pineal gland, we here suggest that homeobox genes play a role in adult pineal physiology both by ensuring pineal-specific Aanat expression and by facilitating cAMP response element-based circadian melatonin production.

  9. Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovsing, Louise; Clokie, Samuel; Bustos, Diego M;

    2011-01-01

    Cone-rod homeobox (Crx) encodes Crx, a transcription factor expressed selectively in retinal photoreceptors and pinealocytes, the major cell type of the pineal gland. In this study, the influence of Crx on the mammalian pineal gland was studied by light and electron microscopy and by use......-regulation of 745 genes (p pineal glands of wild......-type animals; only eight of these were also day/night expressed in the Crx-/- pineal gland. However, in the Crx-/- pineal gland 41 genes exhibited differential night/day expression that was not seen in wild-type animals. These findings indicate that Crx broadly modulates the pineal transcriptome and also...

  10. Pineal calcification among black patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, K J

    1983-08-01

    A postmortem histopathological study was done in 233 pineal glands of black patients. Among them, 70 percent showed microscopic evidence of calcification in the pineal parenchyma. The frequency of calcification increased with age. However, the severity of calcification reached the peak in the 60 to 69 year old age group and then gradually declined. As compared to males, females had slightly higher frequency and reached the peak of severity in younger age groups. When pineal calcification was compared among patients with various malignancies, a higher frequency and more severe calcification were observed in patients with carcinoma of the prostate and the pancreas. A lower frequency and less severe calcification were observed in patients with carcinoma of the breast and the cervix. The results of this study emphasize the important role of sex hormone in genesis of pineal calcification.

  11. GABAergic signaling in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haijie; Benitez, Sergio G; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Kruse, Martin; Seo, Jong Bae; Koh, Duk-Su; Muñoz, Estela M; Hille, Bertil

    2016-08-01

    Pinealocytes secrete melatonin at night in response to norepinephrine released from sympathetic nerve terminals in the pineal gland. The gland also contains many other neurotransmitters whose cellular disposition, activity, and relevance to pineal function are not understood. Here, we clarify sources and demonstrate cellular actions of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of the gland and electrical recording from pinealocytes. GABAergic cells and nerve fibers, defined as containing GABA and the synthetic GAD67, were identified. The cells represent a subset of interstitial cells while the nerve fibers were distinct from the sympathetic innervation. The GABAA receptor subunit α1 was visualized in close proximity of both GABAergic and sympathetic nerve fibers as well as fine extensions among pinealocytes and blood vessels. The GABAB 1 receptor subunit was localized in the interstitial compartment but not in pinealocytes. Electrophysiology of isolated pinealocytes revealed that GABA and muscimol elicit strong inward chloride currents sensitive to bicuculline and picrotoxin, clear evidence for functional GABAA receptors on the surface membrane. Applications of elevated potassium solution or the neurotransmitter acetylcholine depolarized the pinealocyte membrane potential enough to open voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels leading to intracellular calcium elevations. GABA repolarized the membrane and shut off such calcium rises. In 48-72-h cultured intact glands, GABA application neither triggered melatonin secretion by itself nor affected norepinephrine-induced secretion. Thus, strong elements of GABA signaling are present in pineal glands that make large electrical responses in pinealocytes, but physiological roles need to be found.

  12. Pineal photoreceptor cells are required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinle Li

    Full Text Available In non-mammalian vertebrates, the pineal gland functions as the central pacemaker that regulates the circadian rhythms of animal behavior and physiology. We generated a transgenic zebrafish line [Tg(Gnat2:gal4-VP16/UAS:nfsB-mCherry] in which the E. coli nitroreductase is expressed in pineal photoreceptor cells. In developing embryos and young adults, the transgene is expressed in both retinal and pineal photoreceptor cells. During aging, the expression of the transgene in retinal photoreceptor cells gradually diminishes. By 8 months of age, the Gnat2 promoter-driven nitroreductase is no longer expressed in retinal photoreceptor cells, but its expression in pineal photoreceptor cells persists. This provides a tool for selective ablation of pineal photoreceptor cells, i.e., by treatments with metronidazole. In the absence of pineal photoreceptor cells, the behavioral visual sensitivity of the fish remains unchanged; however, the circadian rhythms of rod and cone sensitivity are diminished. Brief light exposures restore the circadian rhythms of behavioral visual sensitivity. Together, the data suggest that retinal photoreceptor cells respond to environmental cues and are capable of entraining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity; however, they are insufficient for maintaining the rhythms. Cellular signals from the pineal photoreceptor cells may be required for maintaining the circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity.

  13. MR imaging of pineal cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong Sik; Yu, Hyeon; Kim, Wan Tae; Bae, Jin Woo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors.

  14. Homeobox Genes in the Rodent Pineal Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential...... for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental...... functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function...

  15. Corpus pineale og MR billeddiagnostik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langevad, Line; Madsen, Camilla Gøbel; Siebner, Hartwig;

    2014-01-01

    The pineal gland (CP) is located centrally in the brain and produces melatonin. Cysts and concrements are frequent findings on MRI but their significance is still unclear. The visualization of CP is difficult due to its location and surrounding structures and so far, no standardized method exists...

  16. Pineal germinoma with extracranial metastases: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Rang; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Park, Moon Hyang; Ko, Yong [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    Pineal germinoma is the commonest pineal region tumor of childhood and adolescence. Metastatic germinoma most commonly occurs via the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and it is usually limited to the cerebrospinal axis. ExtacraniaI hematogenous metastasis is known to be very rare. We report here on a case of pineal germinoma with gradual extracranial metastases that occurred both through the CSF pathway and by hematogenous spread. The patient had multifocal CSF seeding after his surgery for pineal germinoma, and the left iliac metastasis and lung metastasis then occurred.

  17. The Pineal and Photoperiodism in Artic Species,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    pineal glands with approximately the dimensions of those in 200gm rats (l.22mm/50g ; 1.42mm/200g). It is appropriate at this point to discuss the meaning...of a large pineal gland . In the white rat , both volume and cytological element vary with day length; experimentally the pineal weight is reduced by...more sensitive to cold than normal rats (14). His correlative studies of the supraoptic nucleus suggest that the pineal gland is responsible for the

  18. Pineal function: impact of microarray analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, David C; Bailey, Michael J; Carter, David A

    2009-01-01

    Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-h schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity...... foundation that microarray analysis has provided will broadly support future research on pineal function....

  19. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorhan, C.; Soto-Ares, G.; Pruvo, J.P. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Lille (France); Ruchoux, M.M. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France); Blond, S. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France)

    2001-11-01

    We describe CT and MR findings in a 23-month-old infant with a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal gland. The tumour has been stereotactically biopsied and surgically resected. The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi eTsutsui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland transduces photoperiodic changes to the neuroendocrine system by rhythmic secretion of melatonin. We recently provided new evidence that the pineal gland is a major neurosteroidogenic organ and actively produces a variety of neurosteroids de novo from cholesterol in birds. Notably, allopregnanolone is a major pineal neurosteroid that is far more actively produced in the pineal gland than the brain and secreted by the pineal gland in juvenile birds. Subsequently, we have demonstrated the biological action of pineal allopregnanolone on Purkinje cells in the cerebellum during development in juvenile birds. Pinealectomy (Px induces apoptosis of Purkinje cells, whereas allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks prevents cell death. Furthermore, Px increases the number of Purkinje cells that express active caspase-3, a crucial mediator of apoptosis, and allopregnanolone administration to Px chicks decreases the number of Purkinje cells expressing active caspase-3. It thus appears that pineal allopregnanolone prevents cell death of Purkinje cells by suppressing the activity of caspase-3 during development. This paper highlights new aspects of the biosynthesis and biological action of pineal allopregnanolone.

  1. Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  2. Comparative histomorphological study of the pineal gland in human and fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Comparative histological studies of pineal gland of man and fowl has been made to observe structural differences if any between these two species. Background: Some works have been done sporadically on laboratory animals and on birds and also in human correlating with other parameters. In this investigation an approach has been made to observe the cellular organization of the pineal gland parenchyma in these two vertebrates, having different physiological aspects. Methods: Some special stains were used to observe connective tissue elements (Reticulin,collagen and elastic fibers along with conventional H and E stains. Result and conclusion: The lobular character of the gland, connective tissue septa, shape and size of the pinealocytes were found to be almost common in both species. Major differences seen in fowl pineal gland are the presence of ependymal cells on the walls of the lumen of the lobules and absence of corpora arenacea.

  3. Enantioselective micro-2D-HPLC determination of aspartic acid in the pineal glands of rodents with various melatonin contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hai; Miyoshi, Yurika; Oyama, Tsubasa; Konishi, Ryoko; Mita, Masashi; Hamase, Kenji

    2011-10-01

    Enantioselective determination of aspartic acid (Asp) in the pineal gland of rodents with various melatonin contents was performed using a highly sensitive and selective two-dimensional HPLC system. After derivatization of the amino group with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F), NBD-Asp was separated using a capillary monolithic ODS column in the first dimension. The fraction of NBD-Asp was automatically collected and transferred to the second dimension, and the D- and L-Asp were separated and determined using a narrowbore enantioselective column. Large amounts of D-Asp were observed in the pineal gland of the rats and specific strains of mice (C3H and CBA) possessing a high concentration of melatonin in their pineal gland. On the other hand, the amounts of D-Asp were small in the pineal gland of mice possessing a trace or no melatonin in their pineal gland (ddY, ICR, C57BL and BALB/c). In other tissues and physiological fluids, no significant strain-dependent changes of the D-Asp amounts were observed. These results indicate that large amounts of D-Asp are present only in the pineal gland containing large amounts of melatonin, and special care should be taken when selecting mouse strains for the investigation of D-Asp.

  4. [Characteristics of the pineal gland and thymus relationship in aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Kvetnoĭ, I M; Trofimov, A V; Sevost'ianova, N N

    2011-01-01

    The review presents the interference between thymus and pineal gland during their involution. The research data of thymus peptides influence on pineal gland and pineal peptides on thymus are summarized. Analysis of these data showed that pineal peptides (Epithalamin, Epitalon) had more effective geroprotective effect on thymus involution in comparison with geroprotective effect of thymic peptides (Thymalin, Thymogen) on involution of pineal gland. The key mechanisms of pineal peptides effect on thymus dystrophy is immunoendocrine cooperation, which is realized as transcription's activation of various proteins.

  5. [Morphofunctional and molecular bases of pineal gland aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavinson, V Kh; Lin'kova, N S

    2012-01-01

    The review analyzed morphology, molecular and functional aspects of pineal gland aging and methods of it correction. The pineal gland is central organ, which regulates activity of neuroimmunoendocrine, antioxidant and other organisms systems. Functional activity of pineal gland is discreased at aging, which is the reason of melatonin level changing. The molecular and morphology research demonstrated, that pineal gland hadn't strongly pronounced atrophy at aging. Long-term experience showed, that peptides extract of pineal gland epithalamin and synthetic tetrapeptide on it base epithalon restored melatonin secretion in pineal gland and had strong regulatory activity at neuroimmunoendocrine and antioxidant organism systems.

  6. Pineal anlage tumor in a 5-month-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya, Joffre E; Raghavan, Ravi; Totaro, Laura; Zouros, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Pineal tumors are rare neoplasms that are categorized into pineoblastomas, pineocytomas, and pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation. Pineal anlage tumors are primary pineal tumors with neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal differentiation and without endodermal differentiation. The authors review the literature and report the case of a 5-month-old boy with a pineal anlage tumor. This is only the sixth case of a pineal anlage tumor reported in the English-language literature adding to the understanding of this tumor's presentation, immunomorphological and molecular characteristics, embryological origin, radiological appearance, treatment outcome, and prognosis.

  7. [Double suprasellar and pineal germinoma with potomania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnegg, J F; Burckhardt, P; de Tribolet, N

    1980-06-14

    A case is reported of suprasellar and pineal germinoma in a 16-year-old male initially presenting with potomania without diabetes insipidus. The role of stimulation of the hypothalamus in producing pathological thirst is discussed.

  8. Rhodopsin expression in the zebrafish pineal gland from larval to adult stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoli, Domenico; Zichichi, Rosalia; Laurà, Rosaria; Guerrera, Maria Cristina; Campo, Salvatore; de Carlos, Felix; Suárez, Alberto Álvarez; Abbate, Francesco; Ciriaco, Emilia; Vega, Jose Antonio; Germanà, Antonino

    2012-03-09

    The zebrafish pineal gland plays an important role in different physiological functions including the regulation of the circadian clock. In the fish pineal gland the pinealocytes are made up of different segments: outer segment, inner segment and basal pole. Particularly, in the outer segment the rhodopsin participates in the external environment light reception that represents the first biochemical step in the melatonin production. It is well known that the rhodopsin in the adult zebrafish is well expressed in the pineal gland but both the expression and the cellular localization of this protein during development remain still unclear. In this study using qRT-PCR, sequencing and immunohistochemistry the expression as well as the protein localization of the rhodopsin in the zebrafish from larval (10 dpf) to adult stage (90 dpf) were demonstrated. The rhodopsin mRNA expression presents a peak of expression at 10 dpf, a further reduction to 50 dpf before increasing again in the adult stage. Moreover, the cellular localization of the rhodopsin-like protein was always localized in the pinealocyte at all ages examined. Our results demonstrated the involvement of the rhodopsin in the zebrafish pineal gland physiology particularly in the light capture during the zebrafish lifespan.

  9. Suprasellar/pineal bifocal germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Vicente; Alderete, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    Intracranial germ cell tumors (GCT) arise from embryonal rests of germinal cells. The aim of this report is to analyze a small group of GCT located simultaneously in the suprasellar and pineal regions without seeding either between both tumors or to other places. We named this group as suprasellar/pineal bifocal germ cell tumors (SPBT). A retrospective review of a series of 25 GCT showed a) 16 cases of unifocal non-disseminated pineal or sellar GCT, b) one case of unifocal disseminated pineal GCT, c) three cases with suprasellar and pineal double tumors with dissemination, and d) five cases with SPBT. The analysis is focused on the latter group. The series includes four pure germinomas and one germinal non-germinoma. MRI and endoscopic exploration were necessary to define SPBT. Endocrine, ocular, and increased intracranial pressure syndromes were identified and related to the size of the tumors. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy were performed in all SPBT. Radical or partial resection of SPBT offered no benefits over biopsy. Prognosis for bifocal groups was similar to unifocal tumors of the same histological type. Complete remission without recurrence and mortality were achieved in all cases. SPBT seem to be an entity defined by a) one tumor in the suprasellar and another in the pineal region, b) GCT with predominance of PG, but not exclusively, and c) MRI and endoscopy without any dissemination. The presence of two tumors does not indicate dissemination; SPBT were non-disseminated but focal tumors, and spinal radiotherapy was not necessary.

  10. Postnatal development of the dog pineal gland. Light microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, J.L.; Boya, J; García-Mauriño, A.; López Carbonell, A.

    1990-01-01

    The light microscopical morphology of the dog pineal gland from the first postnatal day to maturity is described. In the first postnatal week, the pineal parenchyma shows immature cells and many mitotic figures. In this week, pigmented cells are obsemed for the first time, both in the pineal gland and in extrapineal nodules. Throughout the second week, the pineal parenchyma shows a cordonal pattern that disappears progressively in the following stages. From the...

  11. The pineal gland: A model for adrenergic modulation of ubiquitin ligases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Reiter, Russel J.

    2017-01-01

    responsive, in vitro, to treatment with a cyclic AMP analog, and norepinephrine. All previously described 24-hour rhythms in the pineal require an intact sympathetic input from the superior cervical ganglia. Conclusions The Hartley dataset thus provides evidence that the pineal gland is a highly useful model for studying adrenergically dependent mechanisms regulating variations in ubiquitin ligases, ubiquitin conjugases, and deubiquitinases, mechanisms that may be physiologically relevant not only in the pineal gland, but in all adrenergically innervated tissue. PMID:28212404

  12. Photoperiod: Its importance as an impeller of pineal and seasonal reproductive rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, R. J.

    1980-03-01

    A number of long day breeding rodents depend on seasonal changes in photoperiodic length to synchronize their breeding seasons with the appropriate time of the year. These relationships are particularly conspicuous in the Syrian hamster where day length is vitally important in determining periods of sexual activity and inactivity. The organ in the body whose activity is most closely attuned to the photoperiodic environment is the pineal gland. During periods of darkness the biochemical and secretory activity of the pineal is enhanced with the resultant production of antigonadotrophic principles which are strongly suppressive to reproductive physiology. In this manner, decreasing day lengths of the fall are involved with suppressing sexual capability in male and female hamsters. Throughout the winter months darkness (because of the shorter day lengths and the fact that hamsters remain underground in lightless burrows) holds the gonads in an atrophic condition and thereby prevents hamsters from breeding. As spring approaches the neuroendocrine reproductive axis becomes refractory to the inhibitory effects of darkness and the pineal gland and, as a consequence, the gonads recrudesce allowing the animals to successfully reproduce. The long days of the spring and summer serve to interrupt the refractory period so that when winter approaches shortening day lengths will again, by way of the pineal gland, induce gonadalinvolution. In this scheme both light and darkness are critically important in synchronizing the phases of the annual reproductive cycle of the hamster with the appropriate season of the year. Melatonin may be the pineal hormone which mediates the effects of darkness on reproductive physiology.

  13. The pineal gland from development to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapède, Dora; Cau, Elise

    2013-01-01

    The pineal gland is a small neuroendocrine organ whose main and most conserved function is the nighttime secretion of melatonin. In lower vertebrates, the pineal gland is directly photosensitive. In contrast, in higher vertebrates, the direct photosensitivity of the pineal gland had been lost. Rather, the action of this gland as a relay between environmental light conditions and body functions involves reception of light information by the retina. In parallel to this sensory regression, the pineal gland (and its accessory organs) appears to have lost several functions in relation to light and temperature, which are important in lower vertebrate species. In humans, the functions of the pineal gland overlap with the functions of melatonin. They are extremely widespread and include general effects both on cell protection and on more precise functions, such as sleep and immunity. Recently, the role of melatonin has received a considerable amount of attention due to increased cancer risk in shift workers and the discovery that patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases, autism, or depression exhibit abnormal melatonin rhythms.

  14. Pineal organs in deep demersal fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, H J; Mattheus, U

    2002-01-01

    We studied ten species of demersal fish from depths of 1500-4800 m, i.e. regions of the abyss outside the reach of sunlight. A pineal window in the skin and/or the skull, often found in mesopelagic fish, was never observed in demersal specimens. Nine species had a well-developed pineal organ, with light- and electron-microscopic features, well known in other teleosts living in surface waters, including photoreceptor cells with inner and outer segments, synaptic ribbons, neuronal perikarya, and (radial) glial cells. One species ( Bathypterois dubius) showed signs of regression; it also had reduced eyes. We observed considerable morphological variation in location, size, microscopic structure and ultrastructural organisation, including the frequency of photoreceptor cells, size of outer segments and the number of myelinated and unmyelinated axons. No systematic trend in the sense of an increase of sensitivity with greater depths was observed. Melatonin contents varied between 4 pg and 92 pg per pineal in the grenadier Coryphaenoides ( Nematonurus) armatus and between 2 pg and 70 pg per pineal in the eel Synaphobranchus kaupi. Differences between day and night values and between autumn and spring suggest that pineal melatonin acts as neurochemical signal mediating rhythmic processes and behaviour. The role of an alternative non-solar zeitgeber in the demersal environment is discussed.

  15. Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari; Afeche, Solange Castro; Scialfa, Julieta Helena; do Amaral, Fernanda Gaspar; dos Santos, Sabrina Heloísa José; Lima, Fabio Bessa; Young, Martin Elliot; Cipolla-Neto, José

    2008-01-02

    The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes melatonin in a circadian manner, peaking during the dark phase. This synthesis is primarily regulated by sympathetic innervations via noradrenergic fibers, but is also modulated by many peptidergic and hormonal systems. A growing number of studies reveal a complex role for melatonin in influencing various physiological processes, including modulation of insulin secretion and action. In contrast, a role for insulin as a modulator of melatonin synthesis has not been investigated previously. The aim of the current study was to determine whether insulin modulates norepinephrine (NE)-mediated melatonin synthesis. The results demonstrate that insulin (10(- 8)M) potentiated norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPOH) activity in ex vivo incubated pineal glands. When ex vivo incubated pineal glands were synchronized (12h NE-stimulation, followed by 12h incubation in the absence of NE), insulin potentiated NE-mediated melatonin synthesis and arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) activity. Insulin did not affect the activity of hydroxyindole-O-methyltranferase (HIOMT), nor the gene expression of tpoh, aanat, or hiomt, under any of the conditions investigated. We conclude that insulin potentiates NE-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland, potentially through post-transcriptional events.

  16. 3D highly heterogeneous thermal model of pineal gland in-vitro study for electromagnetic exposure using finite volume method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Wei; Hoppe, Ralph; Lu, Rongbo; Cai, Zhaoquan; Gu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the relationship between electromagnetic power absorption and temperature distributions inside highly heterogeneous biological samples was accurately determinated using finite volume method. An in-vitro study on pineal gland that is responsible for physiological activities was for the first time simulated to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. A survey of molecular details in the human pineal gland in the light of phylogeny, structure, function and chronobiological diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Jörg H; Saade, Anastasia; Rawashdeh, Oliver; Ackermann, Katrin; Jilg, Antje; Sebestény, Tamás; Maronde, Erik

    2011-08-01

    The human pineal gland is a neuroendocrine transducer that forms an integral part of the brain. Through the nocturnally elevated synthesis and release of the neurohormone melatonin, the pineal gland encodes and disseminates information on circadian time, thus coupling the outside world to the biochemical and physiological internal demands of the body. Approaches to better understand molecular details behind the rhythmic signalling in the human pineal gland are limited but implicitly warranted, as human chronobiological dysfunctions are often associated with alterations in melatonin synthesis. Current knowledge on melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland is based on minimally invasive analyses, and by the comparison of signalling events between different vertebrate species, with emphasis put on data acquired in sheep and other primates. Together with investigations using autoptic pineal tissue, a remnant silhouette of premortem dynamics within the hormone's biosynthesis pathway can be constructed. The detected biochemical scenario behind the generation of dynamics in melatonin synthesis positions the human pineal gland surprisingly isolated. In this neuroendocrine brain structure, protein-protein interactions and nucleo-cytoplasmic protein shuttling indicate furthermore a novel twist in the molecular dynamics in the cells of this neuroendocrine brain structure. These findings have to be seen in the light that an impaired melatonin synthesis is observed in elderly and/or demented patients, in individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease, Smith-Magenis syndrome, autism spectrum disorder and sleep phase disorders. Already, recent advances in understanding signalling dynamics in the human pineal gland have significantly helped to counteract chronobiological dysfunctions through a proper restoration of the nocturnal melatonin surge.

  18. Pineal anlage tumour - a rare entity with divergent histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Arvind; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Suri, Vaishali; Sarkar, Chitra; Sharma, B S; Garg, Ajay

    2011-06-01

    Pineal anlage tumour is a rare tumour of the pineal gland that is not listed in the 2007 World Health Organization classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Pineal anlage has been defined as a primary pineal tumour with both neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal differentiation but without endodermal differentiation. We report a pineal anlage tumour in a 4-month-old boy, the youngest patient reported with this rare tumour, with a brief review of the literature. Clinicians and neuropathologists should be aware of this entity as it is likely to be misdiagnosed as a teratoma or a melanocytic tumour of the central nervous system.

  19. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma.The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland with significant enhancement.The patient underwent surgical treatment for removal of the neoplastic lesion in the pineal gland. Histopathological examination confirmed invasion of the pineal gland by metastatic urothelial carcinoma.This case highlighted that the presence of pineal lesions in patient with known malignancy should raise suspicion of metastatic involvement.

  20. Diagnosis of pineal region tumors; Imagerie des tumeurs de la region pineale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauvrit, J.Y.; Soto Ares, G.; Hamon-Kerautret, M.; Pruvo, J.P.; Blond, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 59 - Lille (France)

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain the different radio-clinical presentations of pineal region tumors. Although MR images provide a important help to diagnosis, because of topographic analysis and evaluation of MR characteristics in the tumors, clinic, presentation tumors markers and the stereotaxic surgery are also of great importance. Radiological appearances, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnostic of pineal region tumours. (authors). 44 refs.

  1. Pineal function : Impact of microarray analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, David C.; Bailey, Michael J.; Carter, David A.; Kim, Jong-so; Shi, Qiong; Ho, Anthony K.; Chik, Constance L.; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Morin, Fabrice; Ganguly, Surajit; Rath, Martin F.; Moller, Morten; Sugden, David; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.; Weller, Joan L.; Coon, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Microarray analysis has provided a new understanding of pineal function by identifying genes that are highly expressed in this tissue relative to other tissues and also by identifying over 600 genes that are expressed on a 24-h schedule. This effort has highlighted surprising similarity to the retin

  2. Endodermal cyst in pineal region: Rare location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Dolan, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pineal tumors are very uncommon intracranial lesions, and endodermal cysts in this location are extremely rare. Case Description: A 49-year-old right-handed female presented with 3 weeks history of progressive dizziness and imbalance. Imaging studies showed 1.8 cm × 1.7 cm × 1.8 cm pineal lesion with small enhancing mural component displacing ventrally the quadrigeminal plate and narrowing of aqueduct of Sylvius without hydrocephalus. In addition, she was found with small interhemispheric lipoma, and small posterior falx possible meningioma. Cerebrospinal fluid markers obtained by lumbar puncture were all negative. She underwent tumor resection, and final pathology reported endodermal cyst. No new deficits were encountered, and her gait imbalance improved significantly by 3 months follow-up. Conclusions: With evidence of enlargement or symptomatic pineal lesions, surgical consideration is necessary. Among pineal lesions, endodermal cysts are extremely uncommon and although benign pathology, long-term follow-up is advised due to unknown chronic behavior. PMID:27217965

  3. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis.

  4. Chronic stress induces upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Zepeda-Carreño, Rodrigo; Díaz-Véliz, Gabriela; Mora, Sergio; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2006-05-01

    Chronic stress affects brain areas involved in learning and emotional responses. These alterations have been related with the development of cognitive deficits in major depression. Moreover, stress induces deleterious actions on the epithalamic pineal organ, a gland involved in a wide range of physiological functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the stress effects on the pineal gland are related with changes in the expression of neurotrophic factors and cell adhesion molecules. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, we analyzed the effect of chronic immobilization stress on the BDNF mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland. We found that BDNF is produced in situ in the pineal gland. Chronic immobilization stress induced upregulation of BDNF mRNA and integrin alpha5 expression in the rat pineal gland but did not produce changes in beta-actin mRNA or in GAPDH expression. Stressed animals also evidenced an increase in anxiety-like behavior and acute gastric lesions. These results suggest that BDNF and integrin alpha5 may have a counteracting effect to the deleterious actions of immobilization stress on functionally stimulated pinealocytes. Furthermore, this study proposes that the pineal gland may be a target of glucocorticoid damage during stress.

  5. Cystic lesions of the pineal region - MRI and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, U. [Department of Neuropathology, Benjamin-Franklin-Klinikum, Faculty of Medicine, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Gottschalk, S.; Niehaus, L.; Lehmann, R. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Radiological Diagnosis, Charite University Hospital, Berlin (Germany); May, C.; Vogel, S. [Neurosurgical Clinic, St. Gertraud' s Hospital, Berlin (Germany); Jaenisch, W. [Department of Neuropathology, Landesklinik Brandenburg (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    Pineal lesions are rare. Tumours in this location comprise 0.4-1% of intracranial tumours. They grow mainly as solid-mass lesions, and cystic tumours are not common. On MRI, a cystic configuration is associated usually with non-neoplastic pineal lesions rather than with a tumour, but analysis does not allow cystic pineal tumours to be distinguished from glial cysts with certainty. We compared neuroradiological and pathological data from 13 cystic pineal lesions, analysing preoperative MRI. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical specimens were stained routinely and immunocytochemically, using the streptavidin-biotin-complex method. Histology revealed six pineocytomas, four glial cysts, an arachnoid cyst, a low-grade astrocytoma and a teratoma. Signal characteristics of pineocytomas were similar in many respects to those of glial pineal cysts. Histomorphological analysis allowed unambiguous discrimination between pineocytomas and glial pineal cysts. (orig.)

  6. Pineal Gland Lymphoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshya Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old male presented to our institution with acute-onset headache. Imaging studies demonstrated a mass in the region of the pineal gland, with subsequent histopathology findings being consistent with large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with methotrexate, but ultimately did not survive. Primary central nervous system (CNS lymphoma rarely involves the pineal gland, but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal gland tumors in the appropriate clinical setting.

  7. Neuropeptide Y as a presynaptic modulator of norepinephrine release from the sympathetic nerve fibers in the pig pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, N; Lewczuk, B; Przybylska-Gornowicz, B

    2015-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) released from the sympathetic nerve endings is the main neurotransmitter controlling melatonin synthesis in the mammalian pineal gland. Although neuropeptide Y (NPY) co-exists with NE in the pineal sympathetic nerve fibers it also occurs in a population of non-adrenergic nerve fibers located in this gland. The role of NPY in pineal physiology is still enigmatic. The present study characterizes the effect of NPY on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release from the pig pineal explants. The explants of the pig pineal gland were loaded with 3H-NE in the presence of pargyline and superfused with Tyrode medium. They were exposed twice to the modified Tyrode medium containing 60 mM of K+ to evoke the 3H-NE release via depolarization. NPY, specific agonists of Y1- and Y2- receptors and pharmacologically active ligands of α2-adrenoceptors were added to the medium before and during the second depolarization. The radioactivity was measured in medium fractions collected every 2 minutes during the superfusion. NPY (0.1-10 μM) significantly decreased the depolarization-induced 3H-NE release. Similar effect was observed after the treatment with Y2-agonist: NPY13-36, but not with Y1-agonist: [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY. The tritium overflow was lower in the explants exposed to the 5 μM NPY and 1 μM rauwolscine than to rauwolscine only. The effects of 5 μM NPY and 0.05 μM UK 14,304 on the depolarization-evoked 3H-NE release were additive. The results show that NPY is involved in the regulation of NE release from the sympathetic terminals in the pig pineal gland, inhibiting this process via Y2-receptors.

  8. [Participation of pineal gland in antistressor activity of adaptogenic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arushanian, É B; Beĭer, É V

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress produces some morphological changes in rats, including thymus weight reduction, adrenal hypertrophy, and peptic ulcers in stomach. Repeated administration of phytoadaptogenic drugs (ginseng and bilobil) decreased these stress-induced disorders. The antistressor activity of drugs was attenuated upon by removal of the pineal gland. Histochemical and morphometric investigation of pineal tissues in stressed animals showed that that the pharmacological effect was accompanied by increasing functional activity of the pineal gland. It is suggested that pineal mobilization may participate in antistressor activity of phytoadaptogenic drugs.

  9. Unique Case Report of Pineal Gland Metastasis From Bladder Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pineal metastasis is uncommon and most metastatic pineal lesions are asymptomatic. To our knowledge the herein reported case is the first in which the pineal gland was confirmed as the metastatic site of a bladder carcinoma. The patient reported in this case is a 59-year-old man who suffered from headache and delirium for 4 days after surgical treatment for removal of a bladder carcinoma 1 year ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a solid tumor involving the pineal gland wi...

  10. Seasonal changes in reindeer physiology

    OpenAIRE

    A. Reeta Pösö

    2005-01-01

    The seasonal changes in the photoperiod, temperature and availability of food need to be converted to hormonal signals in order to induce adaptations in the physiology of the reindeer. The most reliable of the seasonal changes in the environment is the photoperiod, which affects the reindeer physiology through pineal gland and its hormone, melatonin. Usually there are large diurnal changes in the concentration of melatonin, but in the reindeer the daily rhythm disappears during the arctic sum...

  11. MR-billeddiagnostik af corpus pineale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langevad, Line; Gøbel Madsen, Camilla; Siebner, Hartwig R.;

    2014-01-01

    Tilgængeligheden af højopløselige MR-teknikker har ført til større opmærksomhed på og nye spørgsmål vedrørende corpus pineales (CP) funktion og kliniske betydning. Dertil kommer en stigende interesse for hormonet melatonins kliniske betydning og relation til forandringer i CP. I denne statusartikel...

  12. Histiocytosis mimicking a pineal gland tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gizewski, E.R.; Forsting, M. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Essen (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    We report an unusual case of isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system. A 19-year-old man presented with an incomplete ocular palsy. MRI revealed a solitary mass in the pineal gland with marked contrast enhancement. Complete microsurgical excision was followed by local radiotherapy. Histological examination revealed histiocytosis. Unifocal brain involvement by histiocytosis X is rare with few cases in the literature; the most commonly involved areas are the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (orig.)

  13. [Primary teratocarcinoma of the pineal region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, T; Tarocchi, A; Cappricci, E; Gullotta, F

    1989-01-01

    Primary Teratocarcinoma of Pineal Region. A case of a 12 year old boy admitted for intracranial hypertension of sudden onset has been reported. CT scanning and MR showed a triventricular hydrocephalus due to a space-occupying lesion of the pineal region. Tonic-clonic fits of the upper limbs and Parinaud syndrome were followed by loss of consciousness. Intervention I: ventriculo-peritoneal shunt with sampling of CSF and assay for beta-HCG, alpha FP and CEA, which proved negative. Cytology for neoplastic cells in cerebrospinal fluid was negative. Intervention II: grossly total removal of the tumor. This was followed by partial remission of Parinaud syndrome, total remission of the hypertensive symptoms and discharge on day 12. The 3 cm. whitish-pink tumor of rubbery consistency proved on histological examination to be a teratocarcinoma. The patient was further submitted to chemioterapy and irradiation but died 7 months after the second intervention. This is a rare tumor, much more than teratoma of the pineal gland, which is relatively frequent. It is interesting histologically because of the presence not only of chondroid and mesenchymal portions but also of adamantinomatous rudiments and of epithelial zones resembling embryonal carcinoma of the testis.

  14. Pineal cyst: study with magnetic resonance. Quistes pineales simples: estudio con resonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua, J.C.; Aleixandre, A.; Esteban, M.J.; Marti-Bomati, L.; Poyatos, C. (Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia (Spain))

    1992-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance (MR) as a diagnostic technique in central nervous system pathology has made possible the detection of structures that are hard to view with other diagnostic methods. In 21 patients in whom the existence of pineal cyst was detected by chance, we describe the study technique employed and present the MR characterization. In the absence of specific clinical symptoms and sings, the differential diagnosis of this pathology, with respect to other neoplastic formations located in the pineal gland, is based on its typical location behind the third ventricle, its size, which does not vary in the different serial studies, and its signal intensity. (author)

  15. [The morphological response of the pineal gland of old animals on course of melatonin injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubina-Vakulik, G I; Bondarenko, L A; Gevorkian, A R

    2009-01-01

    On the old (18-20 months) male rats of Wistar population the influence of the 10 days evening melatonin injections in physiological rang doses on morphological state pineal gland, was studied. It has been shown, that the course of melatonin injections to old rats brings appearance of histological pattern of pineal gland activation: increasing of area of pinealocytes nuclear and density of nuclear and cytoplasm with stein by hallocyanine on total nucleic acid that means stimulation to material both indole, and peptide nature production. Using of melatonin in dose 0.05 mg/kg mass of the body is sparing for pinealocytes of the old rats and slows the apoptosis processes on background of polyploidization. Using of melatonin in dose 0,5 mg/kg mass of the body causes cell's overstrain and induces the forced apoptosis. It's possible to suppose that the geroprotective effect of the evening injections of melatonin is increased due to stimulation of the biosynthesis of neuropeptides in pineal gland.

  16. Analysis of daily and circadian gene expression in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Chiaki; Tosini, Gianluca

    2008-02-01

    The mammalian pineal gland is an important component of the circadian system. In the present study, we examined the expression of roughly 8000 genes in the rat pineal gland as a function of time of day under light-dark (LD) cycles and in constant dark (DD) using oligo DNA microarray technique. We identified 47 and 13 genes that showed higher levels at night and day, respectively, under LD. The same patterns of expression were also observed in DD. About half of the genes that peaked at night have a known biological function, i.e., transcription factors and proteins that are involved in signaling cascades, whereas 14 are expressed sequence tags and 8 have an unknown biological function. Twelve of the genes that were up-regulated at night were also up-regulated after 1h NE stimulation, thus suggesting that the expression of these genes is controlled by adrenergic mechanisms. Of the 13 genes that were up-regulated in the daytime, 6 coded for proteins that are involved in intracellular signaling pathways. The results obtained with microarray analysis were well correlated with data obtained using real time quantitative RT-PCR. The present results provide new materials to dissect and understand the pineal physiology.

  17. Astrocitoma de grado I en glándula pineal

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Tres imágenes de un astrocitoma de grado I situado en la glándula pineal de un paciente de 10 años. Three pictures of a grade I astrocytoma located in the pineal gland of a 10-year-old male patient.

  18. Astrocitoma de grado I en glándula pineal

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Rozas, José Rafael, 1942-

    1985-01-01

    Tres imágenes de un astrocitoma de grado I situado en la glándula pineal de un paciente de 10 años. Three pictures of a grade I astrocytoma located in the pineal gland of a 10-year-old male patient.

  19. Review of pineal anlage tumor with divergent histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Stephen; Pearl, Gary

    2006-08-01

    Pineal anlage tumor is an extremely rare tumor that is not listed in the 2000 World Health Organization Classification of nervous system tumors. It has been defined as a primary pineal tumor with both neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal differentiation and without endodermal differentiation. We review the literature on this tumor, including the clinical presentation, gross pathology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis, and prognosis.

  20. The ontogenic expressions of multiple vesicular glutamate transporters during postnatal development of rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S; Ina, A; Konno, J; Wu, T; Shutoh, F; Nogami, H; Hisano, S

    2008-03-18

    The pineal gland expresses vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2), which are thought to transport glutamate into synaptic-like microvesicles in the pinealocytes. Recently, we reported that the rat pineal gland also expresses VGLUT1v which is a novel variant of VGLUT1 during the perinatal period. To explore the biological significance of these VGLUT expressions in pineal development, we studied the ontogeny of VGLUT in this gland by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using rats. Histological analysis revealed that intensities of VGLUT1 hybridization signal and immunostaining drastically increase by postnatal day (P) 7, whereas VGLUT2 expression exhibits high levels of mRNA and protein at birth and decreases gradually from P7 onward. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis supported these histological observations, showing that expressions of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 exhibit opposite patterns to each other. Coinciding with VGLUT1-upregulation, RT-PCR data showed that expressions of dynamin 1 and endophilin 1, which are factors predictably involved in the endocytotic recovery of VGLUT1-associated vesicle, are also increased by P7. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of VGLUT1v demonstrated that its mRNA expression is upregulated by P7, kept at the same level until P14, and apparently decreased at P21, suggesting its functional property required for a certain developmental event. Moreover, a comparison of mRNA expressions at daytime and nighttime revealed that neither VGLUT1 nor VGLUT1v shows any difference in both P7 and P21 glands, whereas VGLUT2 is significantly lower at daytime than at nighttime at P21 but not P7, the time point at which the melatonin rhythm is not yet generated. The present study shows that expressions of these VGLUT types are differentially regulated during postnatal pineal development, each presumably participating in physiologically distinct glutamatergic functions.

  1. Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 Expression in the Rat Pineal Gland: Detailed Analysis of Expression Pattern and Regulatory Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachine; Hisano, Setsuji

    Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, is closely related physiologically to circadian rhythm, sleep and reproduction, and also psychiatrically to mood disorders in humans. Under circadian control, melatonin secretion is modulated via nocturnal autonomic (adrenergic) stimulation to the gland, which expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and a VGLUT1 splice variant (VGLUT1v), glutamatergic markers. Expression of VGLUT2 gene and protein in the intact gland has been reported to exhibit a rhythmic change during a day. To study VGLUT2 expression is under adrenergic control, we here performed an in vitro experiment using dispersed pineal cells of rats. Stimulation of either β-adrenergic receptor or cAMP production to the pineal cells was shown to increase mRNA level of VGLUT2, but not VGLUT1 and VGLUT1v. Because an ability of glutamate to inhibit melatonin production was previously reported in the cultured gland, it is likely that pineal VGLUT2 transports glutamate engaged in the inhibition of melatonin production.

  2. Low-Grade Oligodendroglioma of the Pineal Region: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Fabricio Correa; de Paiva Neto, Manoel Antonio; Stavale, João Norberto; Cavalheiro, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Background Although germ cell tumors and pineal cell tumors account for most of the histologic tumor subtypes, > 17 different tumors can arise in this location. We report a rare case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma that arose in the pineal region. Clinical Presentation A young woman complaining of a headache underwent magnetic resonance imaging that showed a mass in the pineal region and mild hydrocephalus. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was performed followed by a near-total tumor removal, due to tumor invasion of the tectal plate and thalamus. The histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. The patient then underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy as adjuvant therapies. Conclusion Although the pineal region is a common place for a large number of tumoral lesions, low-grade oligodendrogliomas are extremely rare in this location. This case is only the second account of a benign oligodendroglioma of the pineal region reported in the literature.

  3. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light-dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23 kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light-dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s) as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut-derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini review is to summarize the existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish.

  4. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Saumen Kumar Maitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light-dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light-dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish.

  5. Endogenous rhythmicity of Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha in the hamster pineal gland is not driven by norepinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Felder-Schmittbuhl, Marie-Paule; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Pévet, Paul; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2009-05-01

    Pineal melatonin is synthesized with daily and seasonal rhythms following the hypothalamic clock-driven release of norepinephrine (NE). The pineal gland of rats and mice, like the biological clock, expresses a number of clock genes. However, the role of pineal clock elements in pineal physiology is still unknown. We examined the expression and regulation of several clock genes (Per1, Cry2, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha) under different lighting conditions or following adrenergic treatments in the Syrian hamster, a seasonal rodent. We found that Per1 and Cry2 genes were similarly regulated by the nocturnal release of NE: levels of Per1 and Cry2 mRNA displayed a nocturnal increase that was maintained after 2 days in constant darkness (DD) but abolished after 2 days under constant light (LL), a condition that suppresses endogenous NE release, or after an early night administration of the adrenergic antagonist propranolol. In contrast, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha exhibited a different pattern of expression and regulation. mRNA levels of both clock genes displayed a marked daily variation, maintained in DD, with higher values at midday for Bmal1 and at day/night transition for Rev-erb alpha. Remarkably, the daily variation of both Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha mRNA was maintained in LL conditions and was not affected by propranolol. This study confirms the daily regulation of Per1 and Cry2 gene expression by NE in the pineal gland of rodents and shows for the first time that a second set of clock genes, Bmal1 and Rev-erb alpha are expressed with a circadian rhythm independent of the hypothalamic clock-driven noradrenergic signal.

  6. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; Bárcena, Carmen; Agra, Carolina; Asunción, Alfonso

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that the histology of normal pineal gland may resemble not only pineal tumors but also gliomas, owing to its cellularity which is much greater than that of normal white or gray matter. Our recent experience with a case in which part of a normal gland was submitted for intraoperative consultation, together with the scarcity of cytologic descriptions, led us to perform a cyto-histologic correlation study. In addition to the intraoperative case, we collected five pineal glands from consecutive adult autopsies. During the squash procedure, we often noted the presence of calcified grains. Smears were hypercellular, distributed in tissue fibrillary fragments and as numerous single cells, with crystalline structures. Pineal gland cells (pineocytes) were large, round, epithelioid with ill-defined cytoplasms and moderate nuclear pleomorphism. Spindle cells with greater fibrillary quality were less common. One of the most remarkable findings seen in all cases was the presence of cytoplasmic pigment. Histological evaluation and immunohistochemical staining confirmed that the tissue was normal pineal gland. The histology showed a characteristic lobular aspect and frequent corpora arenacea. The pigment seen cytologically was also encountered in histology and corresponded to lipofuscin. Cytologic features of the pineal gland are peculiar when compared to other normal structures of the central nervous system. These features correlate closely with what is seen on histology. In an adequate clinical context, and in combination with frozen sections, cytology allows a specific recognition of the pineal gland during intraoperative pathologic consultations.

  7. Diversification of non-visual photopigment parapinopsin in spectral sensitivity for diverse pineal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Wada, Seiji; Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Hara, Yuichiro; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Kosaka, Shigeaki; Kawakami, Koichi; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Hisao; Shichida, Yoshinori; Terakita, Akihisa

    2015-09-15

    shown the different molecular properties of duplicated non-visual opsins by demonstrating the diversification of parapinopsin with respect to spectral sensitivity. Moreover, we have shown a plausible link between the diversification and its physiological impact by discovering a strong candidate for the underlying pigment in light-regulated melatonin secretion in zebrafish; the diversification could generate a new contribution of parapinopsin to pineal photoreception. Current findings could also provide an opportunity to understand the "color" preference of non-visual photoreception.

  8. [Influence of peptides from pineal gland on thymus function at aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin'kova, N S; Poliakova, V O; Trofimov, A V; Sevost'ianova, N N; Kvetnoĭ, I M

    2010-01-01

    The interference between thymus and pineal gland during their involution is considered in this review. The research data about influence of thymus peptides on pineal gland and pineal peptides on thymus is summarized. Analysis of these data showed that pineal peptides (epithalamin, epitalon) had more effective geroprotective effect on thymus involution in comparison with geroprotective effect of thymic peptides (thymalin, thymogen) on involution of pineal gland. The key mechanisms of pineal peptides effect on thymus dystrophy is immunoendocrine cooperation, which is realized as transcription's activation of various proteins.

  9. Spontaneous Involution of Pineal Cyst in an Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A full-term newborn girl presenting at birth with macrocephaly and a large pineal region hemorrhagic cyst without neurologic deficit is reported from the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida.

  10. Rhythmic control of endocannabinoids in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marco; Ferreirós, Nerea; Geisslinger, Gerd; Dehghani, Faramarz; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids modulate neuroendocrine networks by directly targeting cannabinoid receptors. The time-hormone melatonin synchronizes these networks with external light condition and guarantees time-sensitive and ecologically well-adapted behaviors. Here, the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) showed rhythmic changes in rat pineal glands with higher levels during the light-period and reduced amounts at the onset of darkness. Norepinephrine, the essential stimulus for nocturnal melatonin biosynthesis, acutely down-regulated AEA and other endocannabinoids in cultured pineal glands. These temporal dynamics suggest that AEA exerts time-dependent autocrine and/or paracrine functions within the pineal. Moreover, endocananbinoids may be released from the pineal into the CSF or blood stream.

  11. Asymptomatic intraventricular lipid leak from a primary pineal teratoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, R.L.; Abernethy, L.J. [Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2001-02-01

    We present a case of pineal teratoma in a symptomatically stable 6-year-old child in which MRI revealed intraventricular lipid accumulation in the absence of any primary tumour growth, metastatic disease or tumour degeneration. (orig.)

  12. Papillary tumor of pineal region: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineal tumors comprise 0.4-1.0% of intracranial space occupying lesions in adults. Papillary tumor of pineal region (PTPR is a very rare entity. It has been newly described in WHO 2007 classification of brain tumors. Only a few case reports are available in the literature. We report a case of a 60-year-old female presenting with headache, giddiness and reduced vision. Imaging studies showed a pineal mass with areas of hemorrhage. All ventricles were normal. There was a past history of a pineal gland tumor excised 2 years ago. This case is being reported for its rarity and aggressiveness in the form of recurrence. Limited/available immunohistochemistry workup has been done.

  13. Incidental pineal cysts in children who undergo 3-T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Oh, Christopher C. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Choudhri, Asim F. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Pineal cysts, both simple and complex, are commonly encountered in children. More cysts are being detected with MR technology; however, nearly all pineal cysts are benign and require no follow-up. To discover the prevalence of pineal cysts in children at our institution who have undergone high-resolution 3-T MRI. We retrospectively reviewed 100 consecutive 3-T brain MRIs in children ages 1 month to 17 years (mean 6.8 {+-} 5.1 years). We evaluated 3-D volumetric T1-W imaging, axial T2-W imaging, axial T2-W FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) and coronal STIR (short tau inversion recovery) sequences. Pineal parenchymal and cyst volumes were measured in three planes. Cysts were analyzed for the presence and degree of complexity. Pineal cysts were present in 57% of children, with a mean maximum linear dimension of 4.2 mm (range 1.5-16 mm). Of these cysts, 24.6% showed thin septations or fluid levels reflecting complexity. None of the cysts demonstrated complete T2/FLAIR signal suppression. No cyst wall thickening or nodularity was present. There was no significant difference between the ages of children with and without cysts. Cysts were more commonly encountered in girls than boys (67% vs. 52%; P = 0.043). There was a slight trend toward increasing pineal gland volume with age. Pineal cysts are often present in children and can be incidentally detected by 3-T MRI. Characteristic-appearing pineal cysts in children are benign, incidental findings, for which follow-up is not required if there are no referable symptoms or excessive size. (orig.)

  14. The originality of Descartes' theory about the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhorst, G J; Kaitaro, T T

    2001-03-01

    René Descartes thought that the pineal gland is the part of the body with which the soul is most immediately associated. Several prominent historians (such as Soury, Thorndike and Sherrington) have claimed that this idea was not very original. We re-examine the evidence and conclude that their assessment was wrong. We pay special attention to the thesis about the pineal gland which Jean Cousin defended in January, 1641.

  15. Cellular Basis of Pineal Gland Development: Emerging Role of Microglia as Phenotype Regulator

    OpenAIRE

    Ibañez Rodriguez, María P.; Noctor, Stephen C.; Muñoz, Estela M.

    2016-01-01

    The adult pineal gland is composed of pinealocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and other interstitial cells that have been described in detail. However, factors that contribute to pineal development have not been fully elucidated, nor have pineal cell lineages been well characterized. We applied systematic double, triple and quadruple labeling of cell-specific markers on prenatal, postnatal and mature rat pineal gland tissue combined with confocal microscopy to provide a comprehensive view of the...

  16. Daytime Unresponsiveness of the Human and Syrian Hamster Pineal to Adrenergic Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    depresses nighttime melatonin content without changing N-acetyltransferase activity in the rat pineal gland . Neuroendocrinology 47, 55-60. Vaughan, G.M...exposure) raises pineal melatonin content; injection outside this sensitive period does not. (CajP-" This dramatic change in response of the pineal gland ...in rats , though the change is small in rats with functional pineal nerve endinvs. Ether anesthesia (G.M. Vaughan and J.P. Allen, unpublished results

  17. A new identified complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrzad, Raman; Mishra, Suprav; Feinstein, Alexander; Ho, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Pineal gland cysts are typically asymptomatic, benign cysts most commonly found incidentally in adults. In rare cases, a large pineal gland cyst can be complicated by intracystic hemorrhage, which could then manifest with neurological symptoms. We report a new complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst in a 40-year-old man with new onset seizures.

  18. The pineal volume: a three-dimensional volumetric study in healthy young adults using 3.0 T MR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Wang, Dan; Tang, Yuchun; Fan, Lingzhong; Lin, Xiangtao; Yu, Taifei; Qi, Hengtao; Li, Zhenping; Liu, Shuwei

    2009-11-01

    It is usually difficult to distinguish small pineal tumors via routine or enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) scan. The knowledge of normal pineal size is helpful to detect small pineal lesions, while very few true volumetric data of pineal glands have been reported. Therefore, we obtained the accurate reference range of normal pineal volumes in 112 individuals aged 20-30 years recruited randomly from a healthy community sample. Transverse and sagittal 3.0T magnetic resonance data were obtained using three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted FSPGR and T2-weighted SE sequences. True pineal volumes were measured from T1-weighted images, while estimated volumes were calculated using pineal length, width and height. All the glands were divided into three types according to the maximum inner diameter of pineal cysts. The prevalence of asymptomatic pineal cyst is 25.00%, with a slight female predominance. In the whole sample, we found no gender differences of pineal volume, but a significant gender difference of pineal volume index. A significant correlation between pineal volume and asymptomatic cyst was found. After excluding cases with big pineal cysts, there were significant correlations between pineal volume and head circumference, body height and body weight, respectively. This study suggests that asymptomatic pineal cysts may exert an important influence on pineal volume.

  19. Glioblastoma multiforme of the pineal region: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparetto Emerson Leandro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: pineal region tumors are uncommon, and comprise more frequently three categories: germ cell, parenchymal cell and glial tumors. Most pineal gliomas are low-grade astrocytomas. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive and common brain tumor, is extremely rare at this location with only few cases reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: a 29-year-old woman with a two month history of headache, nuchal pain, fever, nausea and seizures and physical examination showing nuchal rigidity, generalized hypotony, hypotrophy and hyper-reflexia, Babinski sign and left VI cranial par palsy. CT scan examination revealed a ill-defined hypodense lesion at the pineal region with heterogeneous contrast enhancement. MRI showed a lesion at the pineal region infiltrating the right thalamic region. The patient underwent a right craniotomy with partial resection of the mass. The histological examination of paraffin-embedded material defined the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. Post-operative radiotherapy was indicated but the patient refused the treatment and died two months afterwards. CONCLUSION: in spite of its rarity at this location, glioblastoma multiforme should be considered in the differential diagnosis of aggressive lesions at the pineal region.

  20. Phosphodiesterase 10A in the rat pineal gland: localization, daily and seasonal regulation of expression and influence on signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwoks-Becker, Isabella; Wolloscheck, Tanja; Rickes, Oliver; Kelleher, Debra K; Rohleder, Nils; Weyer, Veronika; Spessert, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) is highly expressed in striatal spiny projection neurons and represents a therapeutic target for the treatment of psychotic symptoms. As reported previously [J Biol Chem 2009; 284:7606-7622], in this study PDE10A was seen to be additionally expressed in the pineal gland where the levels of PDE10A transcript display daily changes. As with the transcript, the amount of PDE10A protein was found to be under daily and seasonal regulation. The observed cyclicity in the amount of PDE10A mRNA persists under constant darkness, is blocked by constant light and is modulated by the lighting regime. It therefore appears to be driven by the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Since adrenergic agonists and dibutyryl-cAMP induce PDE10A mRNA, the in vitro clock-dependent control of Pde10a appears to be mediated via a norepinephrine → β-adrenoceptor → cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway. With regard to the physiological role of PDE10A in the pineal gland, the specific PDE10A inhibitor papaverine was seen to enhance the adrenergic stimulation of the second messenger cAMP and cGMP. This indicates that PDE10A downregulates adrenergic cAMP and cGMP signaling by decreasing the half-life of both nucleotides. Consistent with its effect on cAMP, PDE10A inhibition also amplifies adrenergic induction of the cAMP-inducible gene arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) which codes the rate-limiting enzyme in pineal melatonin formation. The findings of this study suggest that Pde10a expression is under circadian and seasonal regulation and plays a modulatory role in pineal signal transduction and gene expression.

  1. Pineal melatonin is a circadian time-giver for leptin rhythm in Syrian hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtissam eChakir

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland may affect central and peripheral timing, in addition to its well-known involvement in the control of seasonal physiology. The Syrian hamster is a photoperiodic species, which displays gonadal atrophy and increased adiposity when adapted to short (winter-like photoperiods. Here we investigated whether pineal melatonin secreted at night can impact daily rhythmicity of metabolic hormones and glucose in that seasonal species. For that purpose, daily variations of plasma leptin, cortisol, insulin and glucose were analyzed in pinealectomized hamsters, as compared to sham-operated controls kept under very long (16h light/08h dark or short photoperiods (08h light/16h dark. Daily rhythms of leptin under both long and short photoperiods were blunted by pinealectomy. Furthermore, the phase of cortisol rhythm under a short photoperiod was advanced by 5.6 h after pinealectomy. Neither plasma insulin, nor blood glucose displays robust daily rhythmicity, even in sham-operated hamsters. Pinealectomy, however, totally reversed the decreased levels of insulin under short days and the photoperiodic variations in mean levels of blood glucose (i.e., reduction and increase in long and short days, respectively. Together, these findings in Syrian hamsters show that circulating melatonin at night drives the daily rhythmicity of plasma leptin, participates in the phase control of cortisol rhythm and modulates glucose homeostasis according to photoperiod-dependent metabolic state.

  2. Classification of the venous architecture of the pineal gland by 7T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Zang-Hee; Choi, Sang-Han; Chi, Je-Gun; Kim, Young-Bo

    2011-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7.0 Tesla (7T) can show many details of anatomical structures with unprecedented resolution and contrast. In this report, we describe for the first time the unexpected wide variation in pineal gland structure, as visualized by MR images obtained with 7T in a group of healthy young volunteers. A total of 34 volunteers (22 men and 12 women) were enrolled in the study. Their 7T MR images revealed such wide variations in pineal gland shape that it led us to attempt to classify the patterns seen in these pineal glands. Indeed, they were successfully correlated with a previous human cadaver study of venous structures by Tamaki et al., who classified the venous structures of the pineal gland into three categories. This is the first human in vivo pineal vein imaging study using 7T MRI. Pineal venous imaging may permit the early diagnosis of a pineal tumor.

  3. Sympathetic neural control of indoleamine metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, H. J.; Hsuan, M.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the acceleration in rat pineal biosynthetic activity in response to prolonged exposure to darkness or to immobilization were investigated in animals whose pineals were surgically denervated. Some animals were adrenalectomized to remove one potential source of circulating catecholamines, and some were subjected to a partial chemical sympathectomy accomplished by a series of intravenous injections of 6-hydroxydopamine. Results suggest that N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity can be enhanced either by release of norepinephrine from sympathetic terminals within the pineal or from sympathetic nerve terminals elsewhere. The stress of immobilization stimulates the pineal by increasing circulating catecholamines. Photic control of pineal function requires intact pineal sympathetic innervation, since the onset of darkness apparently does not cause a sufficient rise in circulating catecholamines to stimulate the pineal. The present studies suggest that nonspecific stress triggers increased biosynthesis and secretion of melatonin; it is possible that this hormone may participate in mechanisms of adaptation.

  4. Conservatively managed pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werder, Gabriel M. [William Beaumont Hospital, Department of Radiology, 3600 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, MI 48073 (United States); St Christopher Iba Mar Diop College of Medicine, Luton (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gabriel_werder@yahoo.com; Razdan, Rahul S.; Gagliardi, Joseph A.; Chaddha, Shashi K.B. [St Vincent' s Medical Center, Bridgeport, CT (United States)

    2008-02-15

    We present a case of pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated and hypertensive 56-year-old Hispanic male. At presentation, the patient's international normalized ratio (INR) was 10.51 and his blood pressure was 200/130 mmHg. His presenting symptoms included acute onset of headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and visual disturbance. Neuroimaging demonstrated hemorrhage into a morphologically normal pineal gland. Under conservative management, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms excluding the disturbance of upward gaze.

  5. Meningiomas of pineal region in children Meningiomas da região da pineal em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Matushita

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are uncommon tumors in children and either more rarely encountered in the pineal region. We report two cases of meningioma of the pineal region in children. One of these cases was a five years-old girl and the other a one year-old boy. No specific clinical presentation or tomographic examinations findings was identified before treatment, suggestive of a diagnosis of menigioma. The clinical and laboratory features were very similar to the most common tumors of the pineal region. Prior to the surgery, the histology of these tumors was not suspected. Both patients underwent direct surgery and complete removal was achieved by a suboccipital transtentorial approach. The tumors originated from velum interpositum in both cases. At the follow up, one case presented with recurrence six years later, and she underwent a reoperation with total resection without morbidity. Long-term follow up presented no other recurrences.Meningiomas são tumores poucos frequentes em crianças, e mais raramente encontrados na região da pineal. Relatamos dois casos de meningioma da região da pineal em crianças, uma menina de cinco anos e um menino de um ano de idade. Não foi identificada nenhuma forma de apresentação clinica ou caracteristica tomográfica, antes do tratamento, que sugerisse o diagnóstico de meningioma. As características clinicas e laboratoriais encontradas foram similares às de tumores mais frequentes da região da pineal. Ambos os pacientes foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico e a remoção completa foi obtida por abordagem suboccipital transtentorial. Durante o seguimento, um dos pacientes foi reoperado por recorrencia do tumor seis anos após o tratamento inicial. Atualmente, os pacientes encontram-se livres de recorrência tumoral.

  6. The role of the pineal gland in the photoperiodic control of bird song frequency and repertoire in the house sparrow, Passer domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Harpole, Clifford E; Paulose, Jiffin; Cassone, Vincent M

    2014-04-01

    Temperate zone birds are highly seasonal in many aspects of their physiology. In mammals, but not in birds, the pineal gland is an important component regulating seasonal patterns of primary gonadal functions. Pineal melatonin in birds instead affects seasonal changes in brain song control structures, suggesting the pineal gland regulates seasonal song behavior. The present study tests the hypothesis that the pineal gland transduces photoperiodic information to the control of seasonal song behavior to synchronize this important behavior to the appropriate phenology. House sparrows, Passer domesticus, expressed a rich array of vocalizations ranging from calls to multisyllabic songs and motifs of songs that varied under a regimen of different photoperiodic conditions that were simulated at different times of year. Control (SHAM) birds exhibited increases in song behavior when they were experimentally transferred from short days, simulating winter, to equinoctial and long days, simulating summer, and decreased vocalization when they were transferred back to short days. When maintained in long days for longer periods, the birds became reproductively photorefractory as measured by the yellowing of the birds' bills; however, song behavior persisted in the SHAM birds, suggesting a dissociation of reproduction from the song functions. Pinealectomized (PINX) birds expressed larger, more rapid increases in daily vocal rate and song repertoire size than did the SHAM birds during the long summer days. These increases gradually declined upon the extension of the long days and did not respond to the transfer to short days as was observed in the SHAM birds, suggesting that the pineal gland conveys photoperiodic information to the vocal control system, which in turn regulates song behavior.

  7. Neuropeptide Y in the adult and fetal human pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Badiu, Corin

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y was isolated from the porcine brain in 1982 and shown to be colocalized with noradrenaline in sympathetic nerve terminals. The peptide has been demonstrated to be present in sympathetic nerve fibers innervating the pineal gland in many mammalian species. In this investigation, we s...

  8. Pallister-Killian syndrome: case report with pineal tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauceri, L; Sorge, G; Incorpora, G; Pavone, L

    2000-11-06

    Pallister-Killian syndrome, an aneuploidy syndrome, comprises a characteristic facial appearance, mental retardation, and multiple other anomalies. It is caused by mosaicism with a supernumerary isochromosome 12p. This chromosomal abnormality has been reported also in human germ cell tumors. We report on a 15-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome and pineal tumor.

  9. Sympathetic neuroaxonal dystrophy in the aged rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert E; Dorsey, Denise A; Parvin, Curtis A; Beaudet, Lucie N

    2006-10-01

    Dysfunction of circadian melatonin production by the pineal gland in aged humans and rats is thought to reflect the functional loss of its sympathetic innervation. Our ultrastructural neuropathologic studies of the sympathetic innervation of the pineal gland of aged (24 months old) Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats showed loss of nerve terminals as well as the development of neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD), an ultrastructurally distinctive distal axonopathy, far in excess of that in young control rats. Immunolocalization of tyrosine hydroxylase confirmed the age-related loss of normal noradrenergic innervation and development of NAD. NAD was more frequent in aged female rats compared to males and was particularly severe in aged female Sprague-Dawley rats compared to Fischer-344 rats. Pineal NGF content was significantly increased or unchanged in female and male aged Fischer-344 rats, respectively, compared to young controls. The rat pineal is a sensitive experimental model for the quantitative ultrastructural examination of age-related neuropathological changes in nerve terminals of postganglionic noradrenergic sympathetic axons, changes which may reflect similar changes in the diffusely distributed sympathetic innervation of other targeted endorgans.

  10. Pineal Gland Volume Assessed by MRI and Its Correlation with 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin Levels among Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Lara G; Markt, Sarah C; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Aspelund, Thor; Fall, Katja; Schernhammer, Eva; Rider, Jennifer R; Launer, Lenore; Harris, Tamara; Stampfer, Meir J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2016-10-01

    The pineal gland produces the hormone melatonin, and its volume may influence melatonin levels. We describe an innovative method for estimating pineal volume in humans and present the association of pineal parenchyma volume with levels of the primary melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin. We selected a random sample of 122 older Icelandic men nested within the AGES-Reykjavik cohort and measured their total pineal volume, their parenchyma volume, and the extent of calcification and cysts. For volume estimations we used manual segmentation of magnetic resonance images in the axial plane with simultaneous side-by-side view of the sagittal and coronal plane. We used multivariable adjusted linear regression models to estimate the association of pineal parenchyma volume and baseline characteristics, including 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels. We used logistic regression to test for differences in first morning urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels among men with or without cystic or calcified glands. The pineal glands varied in volume, shape, and composition. Cysts were present in 59% of the glands and calcifications in 21%. The mean total pineal volume measured 207 mm(3) (range 65-536 mm(3)) and parenchyma volume 178 mm(3) (range 65-503 mm(3)). In multivariable-adjusted models, pineal parenchyma volume was positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels (β = 0.52, p pineal assessment, we found pineal parenchyma volume to be positively correlated with 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels, in line with other recent studies.

  11. The pineal gland: a comparative MR imaging study in children and adults with respect to normal anatomical variations and pineal cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, R.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Ege Univ. Hospital, Izmir (Turkey)

    1995-06-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the variations in appearance of the normal pineal gland. The findings of 1000 consecutive MR imaging examinations obtained at 0.5 T were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 1 day to 83 years, and findings in children and adults were compared. In all age groups the pineal gland appeared mainly in three forms: (1) nodule-like, (2) crescent-like and (3) ring-like. Overall prevalences of these forms were 52 %, 26 % and 22 %, respectively. Apparent differences in frequencies were evident in children and adults with respect to the crescent-and ring-like types. Cystiform pineal lesions 5 mm or larger in one diameter (anteroposterior, sagittal or transverse) were taken to be true pineal cysts, when compared with the gland`s ring-like appearance (less than 5 mm). Pineal cysts had a prevalence of 0.6 % in children and 2.6 % in adults. No symptomatic pineal cyst with mass effect on the lamina tecti was detected in the series. Besides identifying the three anatomical types of the pineal gland as seen on MR imaging and addressing the potential significance of differences in their frequencies in children and adults, the author tries to explain the previous discrepancy between the MR imaging and autopsy series findings with respect to frequencies of the pineal cysts. (orig.)

  12. The effect of chronic morphine or methadone exposure and withdrawal on clock gene expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pačesová, D; Novotný, J; Bendová, Z

    2016-07-18

    The circadian rhythms of many behavioral and physiological functions are regulated by the major circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Long-term opiate addiction and drug withdrawal may affect circadian rhythmicity of various hormones or the sleep/activity pattern of many experimental subjects; however, limited research has been done on the long-term effects of sustained opiate administration on the intrinsic rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland. Here we compared the effects of repeated daily treatment of rats with morphine or methadone and subsequent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal on the expression of the Per1, Per2, and Avp mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in the pineal gland. We revealed that 10-day administration and withdrawal of both these drugs failed to affect clock genes and Avp expression in the SCN. Our results indicate that opioid-induced changes in behavioral and physiological rhythms originate in brain structures downstream of the suprachiasmatic nucleus regulatory output pathway. Furthermore, we observed that acute withdrawal from methadone markedly extended the period of high night AA-NAT activity in the pineal gland. This suggests that withdrawal from methadone, a widely used drug for the treatment of opioid dependence, may have stronger impact on melatonin synthesis than withdrawal from morphine.

  13. The CI findings of 6 cases of the pineal cyst. Consideration on neuroradiological images and the mechanism of occurrence of pineal cysts in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajou, Takahito; Kurisaka, Masahiro; Mori, Koreaki [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    In comparison to adult individuals over the age of 50, pineal cysts do rarely occur in children and adolescents. Here we report on four young patients who had pineal cysts in combination with hypophyseal dwarfism. We studied an 8-year-old girl with chiasmal germinoma, an 8-year-old boy with epilepsy, a 17-year-old male with spontaneous hypophyseal dwarfism and a 11-year-old female with craniopharyngioma. We also investigated a 29-year-old man with pontine glioma and a 48-year-old women with prolactinoma. The comparison of neuroimaging the pineal cysts in children and adults revealed the characteristics of their location in the pineal gland and the presence of residual normal gland. The etiology of pineal cysts in combination with pituitary dwarfism is unclear. However, our cases would suggest that they may be related to endocrinological disorders of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. (author).

  14. Localization and diurnal expression of mRNA encoding the β1-adrenoceptor in the rat pineal gland: an in situ hybridization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Morgan, K.C.;

    1997-01-01

    Anatomy, neurobiology, adrenoceptors, diurnal rhythms, in situ hybridization, pineal gland, rat (Wistar)......Anatomy, neurobiology, adrenoceptors, diurnal rhythms, in situ hybridization, pineal gland, rat (Wistar)...

  15. An autopsy case of sudden unexpected death due to a glial cyst of the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Joo-Young; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Park, Jong-Tae

    2014-09-01

    Pineal cysts are usually asymptomatic; however, they may rarely cause symptoms such as chronic headache, paroxysmal headache with gaze paresis, postural syncope, loss of consciousness, and sudden death. A 30-year-old woman with no specific medical history except chronic headache was found collapsed in a public toilet per se. Postmortem examination revealed no external injuries or internal diseases except a cystic lesion of the pineal gland. Histologic examination showed an internal cyst surrounded by glial tissues and pineal parenchyma that was diagnosed as a glial cyst of the pineal gland. Although the pineal cyst cannot be confirmed as the cause of death, it was considered, as no other cause was evident. Herein, we report a pineal cyst considered as an assumed cause of death.

  16. The effect of the transplanted pineal gland on the sympathetic innervation of the rat sublingual gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthaphavong, R S; Murphy, S M; Anderson, C R

    2004-08-01

    We investigated the effect of the pineal on sympathetic neurons that normally innervate the sublingual gland of the rat. When the pineal gland was transplanted into the sublingual gland, it remained as a distinct mass that was innervated by sympathetic axons. Injection of the retrograde tracer, Fast Blue, into the sublingual gland labelled sympathetic neurons in the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion (SCG). Thirty per cent of all neurons labelled retrogradely by Fast Blue injection into transplanted pineal glands were immunoreactive for both neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calbindin. This combination is characteristic of sympathetic neurons innervating the pineal gland in its normal location, but not the sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons normally innervating the sublingual gland. This, and our previous study in which the pineal gland was shown to similarly influence the phenotype of salivary secretomotor neurons, suggests that a range of different functional classes of sympathetic neuron are able to change their phenotype in response to signals released by the pineal gland.

  17. Melatonin changes in the pineal gland of sleep-deprived rats following habenular nucleus lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Jin; Meiying Song; Min Huang; Manli Wang; Hua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The habenular nucleus (Hb) is an important structure that regulates the function of the pineal gland,which may affect melatonin content in the pineal gland after sleep deprivation (SD). In the present study, high performance liquid chromatography showed that the melatonin content in the pineal gland was significantly reduced, and Y-aminobutyric acid content in the Hb was significantly increased after SD. Furthermore, the melatonin content in the pineal gland was markedly reduced after Hb lesion under normal sleep and SD conditions. Immunohistochemistry showed that the number of Fos-positive neurons was significantly decreased in the lateral and medial Hb after SD.The findings demonstrate that the reduction of melatonin in the pineal gland after SD is related to decreased activity of Hb neurons, and that the Hb can regulate sleep-wake rhythm by influencing melatonin secretion in the pineal gland.

  18. Light-Emitting Diodes and Cool White Fluorescent Light Similarly Suppress Pineal Gland Melatonin and Maintain Retinal Function and Morphology in the Rat. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Heeke, D.; Mele, G.

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the light sources most commonly used in animal habitat lighting are cool white fluorescent or incandescent lamps. We evaluated a novel light-emitting diode (LED) light source for use in animal habitat lighting by comparing its effectiveness to cool white fluorescent light (CWF) in suppressing pineal gland melatonin and maintaining normal retinal physiology and morphology in the rat. Results of pineal melatonin suppression experiments showed equal suppression of pineal melatonin concentrations for LED light and CWF light at five different light illuminances (100, 40, 10, 1 and 0.1 lux). There were no significant differences in melatonin suppression between LED and CWF light when compared to unexposed controls. Retinal physiology was evaluated using electroretinography. Results show no differences in a-wave implicit times and amplitudes or b-wave implicit times and amplitudes between 100-lux LED-exposed rats and 100-lux CWF-exposed rats. Results of retinal histology assessment show no differences in retinal thickness rod outer segment length and number of rod nuclei between rats exposed to 100-lux LED and 100-lux CWF for days. Furthermore, the retinal pigmented epithelium and rod outer segments of all eyes observed were in good condition and of normal thickness. This study indicates that LED light does not cause retinal damage and can suppress pineal melatonin at similar intensities as a conventional CWF light source. These data suggest that LED light sources may be suitable replacements for conventional light sources used in the lighting of rodent vivariums while providing many mechanical and economical advantages.

  19. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong; Clokie, Samuel J; Zykovich, Artem; Coon, Steven L; Klein, David C; Rath, Martin F

    2015-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx9 is highly expressed in the developing pineal gland of the rat with transcript abundance peaking early in development; transcript levels decrease postnatally to nearly undetectable levels in the adult, a temporal pattern that is generally similar to that reported for Lhx9 expression in other brain regions. Studies with C57BL/6J Lhx9(-/-) mutant mice revealed marked alterations in brain and pineal development. Specifically, the superficial pineal gland is hypoplastic, being reduced to a small cluster of pinealocytes surrounded by meningeal and vascular tissue. The deep pineal gland and the pineal stalk are also reduced in size. Although the brains of neonatal Lhx9(-/-) mutant mice appear normal, severe hydrocephalus develops in about 70% of the Lhx9(-/-) mice at 5-8 weeks of age; these observations are the first to document that deletion of Lhx9 results in hydrocephalus and as such indicate that Lhx9 contributes to the maintenance of normal brain structure. Whereas hydrocephalus is absent in neonatal Lhx9(-/-)mutant mice, the neonatal pineal gland in these animals is hypoplastic. Accordingly, it appears that Lhx9 is essential for early development of the mammalian pineal gland and that this effect is not secondary to hydrocephalus.

  20. Leptin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo Antonio; Andrade-Silva, Jéssica; Cipolla-Neto, José; Carvalho, Carla Roberta de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Pineal melatonin synthesis can be modulated by many peptides, including insulin. Because melatonin appears to alter leptin synthesis, in this work we aimed to investigate whether leptin would have a role on norepinephrine- (NE-)mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal glands. According to our data, cultured rat pineal glands express leptin receptor isoform b (Ob-Rb). Pineal expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was also observed in vivo. Administration of leptin (1 nM) associated with NE ( 1 µM) reduced melatonin content as well as arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase (AANAT) activity and expression in cultured pineal glands. Leptin treatment per se induced the expression of STAT3 in cultured pineal glands, but STAT3 does not participate in the leptin modulation of NE-mediated pineal melatonin synthesis. In addition, the expression of inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) was further induced by leptin challenge when associated with NE. In conclusion, leptin inhibition of pineal melatonin synthesis appears to be mediated by a reduction in AANAT activity and expression as well as by increased expression of Icer mRNA. Peptidergic signaling within the pineal gland appears to be one of the most important signals which modulates melatonin synthesis; leptin, as a member of this system, is not an exception.

  1. Leptin Modulates Norepinephrine-Mediated Melatonin Synthesis in Cultured Rat Pineal Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineal melatonin synthesis can be modulated by many peptides, including insulin. Because melatonin appears to alter leptin synthesis, in this work we aimed to investigate whether leptin would have a role on norepinephrine- (NE-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal glands. According to our data, cultured rat pineal glands express leptin receptor isoform b (Ob-Rb. Pineal expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was also observed in vivo. Administration of leptin (1 nM associated with NE (1 µM reduced melatonin content as well as arylalkylamine-N-acetyl transferase (AANAT activity and expression in cultured pineal glands. Leptin treatment per se induced the expression of STAT3 in cultured pineal glands, but STAT3 does not participate in the leptin modulation of NE-mediated pineal melatonin synthesis. In addition, the expression of inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER was further induced by leptin challenge when associated with NE. In conclusion, leptin inhibition of pineal melatonin synthesis appears to be mediated by a reduction in AANAT activity and expression as well as by increased expression of Icer mRNA. Peptidergic signaling within the pineal gland appears to be one of the most important signals which modulates melatonin synthesis; leptin, as a member of this system, is not an exception.

  2. Leptin Modulates Norepinephrine-Mediated Melatonin Synthesis in Cultured Rat Pineal Gland

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Antonio Peliciari-Garcia; Jéssica Andrade-Silva; José Cipolla-Neto; Carla Roberta de Oliveira Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    Pineal melatonin synthesis can be modulated by many peptides, including insulin. Because melatonin appears to alter leptin synthesis, in this work we aimed to investigate whether leptin would have a role on norepinephrine- (NE-)mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal glands. According to our data, cultured rat pineal glands express leptin receptor isoform b (Ob-Rb). Pineal expression of Ob-Rb mRNA was also observed in vivo. Administration of leptin (1 nM) associated with NE (1 µM)...

  3. Demonstration of an orexinergic central innervation of the pineal gland of the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabris, Chiara; Cozzi, Bruno; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    into the pineal stalk and parenchyma to disperse among the pinealocytes. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the presence of orexinergic nerve fibers in the pig pineal gland. After extraction of total mRNA from the hypothalamus and pineal gland, we performed RT-PCR and nested PCR using primers specific...... for porcine orexin receptors. PCR products were sequenced, verifying the presence of both OR-R1 and OR-R2 in the tissues investigated. These findings, supported by previous studies on rodents, suggest a hypothalamic regulation of the pineal gland via central orexinergic nervous inputs....

  4. The presence of opioidergic pinealocytes in the pineal gland of the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus): an immunocytochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coto-Montes, A.; Masson-Pévet, M.; Pévet, P.;

    1994-01-01

    Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)......Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)...

  5. Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukda, S; Chetsawang, B; Govitrapong, P;

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography of extracts of rat pineal glands, followed by radio immunological analysis with antibodies against tachykinins, demonstrated the presence of substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B in the superficial rat pineal gland. Immunohistochemistry on perfusion...... specific for NK1-, NK2- and NK3-receptors, agarose gel analysis of the reaction products showed the presence of mRNA encoding all three neurokinin receptors. Immunohistochemical analysis showed NK1 receptor to be located in the interstitial cells of the gland. This location was confirmed by use of in situ...... hybridization using radioactively labeled antisense oligonucleotide probes. Double immunohistochemical stainings showed that the NK1-immunoreactive cells were not a part of the macrophages or antigen-presenting cells of the gland. Our study suggests that tachykinins, after release from intrapineal nerve fibers...

  6. Expression and cellular localization of the transcription factor NeuroD1 in the developing and adult rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Analía E; Benitez, Sergio G; Farias Altamirano, Luz E; Savastano, Luis E; Patterson, Sean I; Muñoz, Estela M

    2015-05-01

    Circadian rhythms govern many aspects of mammalian physiology. The daily pattern of melatonin synthesis and secretion is one of the classic examples of circadian oscillations. It is mediated by a class of neuroendocrine cells known as pinealocytes which are not yet fully defined. An established method to evaluate functional and cytological characters is through the expression of lineage-specific transcriptional regulators. NeuroD1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in the specification and maintenance of both endocrine and neuronal phenotypes. We have previously described developmental and adult regulation of NeuroD1 mRNA in the rodent pineal gland. However, the transcript levels were not influenced by the elimination of sympathetic input, suggesting that any rhythmicity of NeuroD1 might be found downstream of transcription. Here, we describe NeuroD1 protein expression and cellular localization in the rat pineal gland during development and the daily cycle. In embryonic and perinatal stages, protein expression follows the mRNA pattern and is predominantly nuclear. Thereafter, NeuroD1 is mostly found in pinealocyte nuclei in the early part of the night and in cytoplasm during the day, a rhythm maintained into adulthood. Additionally, nocturnal nuclear NeuroD1 levels are reduced after sympathetic disruption, an effect mimicked by the in vivo administration of α- and β-adrenoceptor blockers. NeuroD1 phosphorylation at two sites, Ser(274) and Ser(336) , associates with nuclear localization in pinealocytes. These data suggest that NeuroD1 influences pineal phenotype both during development and adulthood, in an autonomic and phosphorylation-dependent manner.

  7. The pineal gland - Its possible roles in human reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Amnon; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the pineal gland in controlling mammalian reproduction, with particular attention given to the role of melatonin in polyestrus mammals, like humans and laboratory rodents. Evidence is cited indicating the influence of melatonin production and blood content on the age of puberty, the timing of the ovulatory cycle, gonadal steriodogenesis, and patterns of reproductive behavior. It is suggested that abnormal patterns of melatonin might be associated with amenorrhea, anovulation, unexplained infertility, premature menopause, and habitual abortions.

  8. A model for the neural control of pineal periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Cruz, Frederico Alan; Soares, Marilia Amavel Gomes; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was verify if a computational model associating the synchronization dynamics of coupling oscillators to a set of synaptic transmission equations would be able to simulate the control of pineal by a complex neural pathway that connects the retina to this gland. Results from the simulations showed that the frequency and temporal firing patterns were in the range of values found in literature.

  9. Growth Factors: Thrombopoietic Property of the Pineal Hormone Melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissoni, PAOLO; Mandala, MARIO; Rossini, FAUSTO; Fumagalli, LUCA; Barni, SANDRO

    1999-01-01

    The recent advances in the psychoneuroimmunology have suggested that the hematopoiesis may be under a neuroendocrine regulation, mainly exerted by the pineal gland. In particular, melatonin (MLT), which is the main pineal hormone, has appeared to stimulate platelet generation, probably by promoting the megakaryocyte fragmentation and modulating the cytokine network involved in platelet production. On this basis, we have evaluated the effect of pharmacological doses of MLT on platelet number in patients with persistent thrombocytopenia due to different causes. The study included 200 patients, who were randomized to receive supportive care alone or MLT at 20 mg/day orally in the evening, for al least 1 month. No MLT-related toxicity occured. Platelet mean number rapidly and significantly increased in response to MLT, and a normalization of platelet number was achieved on MLT therapy in 71/98 (72%) patients. The least responsive form of thrombocytopenia was DIC. This study shows that the pineal hormone MLT may represent a well tolerable and effective therapy of thrombocytopenia due to different pathogenetic mechanisms.

  10. Cellular pleomorphism in papillary tumors of the pineal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Juliana; Rostad, Steven; Foltz, Greg; Pytel, Peter; Rodriguez, Fausto J.

    2015-01-01

    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a recently recognized entity. We present the pathologic findings of two cases of PTPR as examples, and discuss the presence of cellular pleomorphism in these tumors. Patient 1 is a 48-year-old man with a pineal region mass. The tumor had unique biphasic patterns, papillary/pseudopapillary areas, and increased mitotic activity. Juxtaposed areas had marked pleomorphism, including nuclear enlargement, smudgy chromatin, nuclear pseudoinclusions, and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Mitoses were absent in these areas. Immunohistochemical staining revealed strong S100 expression. CAM 5.2 and CK18 were strongly positive in a patchy fashion. MIB1 labeling indices were high in classic PTPR regions but very low in pleomorphic areas. Patient 2 was a 35-year-old male with a pineal region tumor characterized by papillary architecture and overall cellular monotony, rare mitoses, and pleomorphism as a more isolated finding, with associated nuclear enlargement and crowding. S100 and CAM 5.2 labeling were present, and MIB1 labeling index was very low throughout the tumor. We discuss the pathologic and phenotypic features of PTPR. Variable pleomorphism may be present, reflected in size variation and nuclear hyperchromasia, but was not accompanied by increased proliferative activity in these cases, suggesting a degenerative phenomenon. PMID:22622671

  11. Cellular pleomorphism in papillary tumors of the pineal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Juliana; Rostad, Steven; Foltz, Greg; Pytel, Peter; Rodriguez, Fausto J

    2013-04-01

    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is a recently recognized entity. We present the pathologic findings of two cases of PTPR as examples, and discuss the presence of cellular pleomorphism in these tumors. Patient 1 is a 48-year-old man with a pineal region mass. The tumor had unique biphasic patterns, papillary/pseudopapillary areas, and increased mitotic activity. Juxtaposed areas had marked pleomorphism, including nuclear enlargement, smudgy chromatin, nuclear pseudoinclusions, and cytoplasmic vacuolation. Mitoses were absent in these areas. Immunohistochemical staining revealed strong S100 expression. CAM 5.2 and CK18 were strongly positive in a patchy fashion. MIB1 labeling indices were high in classic PTPR regions but very low in pleomorphic areas. Patient 2 was a 35-year-old male with a pineal region tumor characterized by papillary architecture and overall cellular monotony, rare mitoses, and pleomorphism as a more isolated finding, with associated nuclear enlargement and crowding. S100 and CAM 5.2 labeling were present, and MIB1 labeling index was very low throughout the tumor. We discuss the pathologic and phenotypic features of PTPR. Variable pleomorphism may be present, reflected in size variation and nuclear hyperchromasia, but was not accompanied by increased proliferative activity in these cases, suggesting a degenerative phenomenon.

  12. Regulation of period 1 expression in cultured rat pineal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Chiaki; Dirden, James C.; Tosini, Gianluca

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro expression of Period 1 (Per1), Period 2 (Per2) and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) genes in the rat pineal gland to understand the mechanism(s) regulating the expression of these genes in this organ. Pineals, when maintained in vitro for 5 days, did not show circadian rhythmicity in the expression of any of the three genes monitored. Norepinephrine (NE) induced AA-NAT and Per1, whereas its effect on Per2 was negligible. Contrary to what was observed in other systems, NE stimulation did not induce circadian expression of Per1. The effect of NE on Per1 level was dose- and receptor subtype-dependent, and both cAMP and cGMP induced Per1. Per1 was not induced by repeated NE - or forskolin - stimulation. Protein synthesis was not necessary for NE-induced Per1, but it was for reduction of Per1 following NE stimulation. Per1 transcription in pinealocytes was activated by BMAL1/CLOCK. Our results indicate that important differences are present in the regulation of these genes in the mammalian pineal. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Comparative ultrastructural observations on the pineal organ of the pipefish, Syngnatus acus, and the seahorse, Hippocampus hudsonius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, H J

    1980-01-01

    A comparative ultrastructural study was made of the pineal organ of two related species of the Syngnathidae, the pipefish, Syngnathus acus, and the seahorse, Hippocampus hudsonius. Both species have a relatively small pineal organ, which ultrastructurally shows several similarities with the pineal of other teleosts. In the pineal organ of Syngnathus acus, the photoreceptor cells have well-developed outer segments consisting of about 15 to 60 saccules. The pineal supporting cells are characterized by the presence of numerous myeloid bodies. In Hippocampus hudsonius the pineal outer segments are scarce and poorly developed; generally, they show not more than 20 saccules. The apical parts of the supporting cells contain dense-core vesicles with a diameter varying from 100 to 180 nm. Corresponding vesicles were not observed in the pineal organ of Syngnathus acus. Arguments are presented for the suggestion that the pineal organ of the Syngnathidae, in spite of its relatively small size, still has a functional significance. In Syngnathus acus, light reaching the pineal organ directly might have a regulating effect on pineal activity. In Hippocampus hudsonius, however, light acting directly on the pineal organ appears to have minor effect on pineal function.

  14. Night/day changes in pineal expression of >600 genes: central role of adrenergic/cAMP signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Michael J; Coon, Steven L; Carter, John David;

    2009-01-01

    The pineal gland plays an essential role in vertebrate chronobiology by converting time into a hormonal signal, melatonin, which is always elevated at night. Here we have analyzed the rodent pineal transcriptome using Affymetrix GeneChip(R) technology to obtain a more complete description of pineal...

  15. Ganglioglioma da região da pineal: relato de caso Ganglioglioma of the pineal region: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter José Fagundes-Pereyra

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Os gangliogliomas são neoplasias mistas, compostas de elementos gliais e neuronais, extremamente raros na região da glândula pineal. Na presente revisão da literatura foram encontrados oito casos publicados. Apresentamos o caso de paciente de 14 anos, masculino, com ganglioglioma da região da pineal, tratado cirurgicamente, com exérese total da lesão por via suboccipital transtentorial. O estudo histológico mostrou tratar-se de ganglioglioma grau I, confirmado por imuno-histoquímica. Conclui-se que tais tumores são raros e que se deve optar pela cirurgia, objetivando a exérese total. Quando isso não for possível, ou no caso de recorrência, o paciente deve ser acompanhado clínica e radiograficamente, considerando-se a radioterapia como tratamento complementar.Ganglioglioma are tumors presenting neoplastic glial cells and nerve cells, very rarely found in the pineal region. Only eight cases have been previously published in the literature. We present the case of a 14 years-old male patient with a ganglioglioma of the pineal region. The patient was treated surgically by a suboccipital transtentorial approach with complete removal. Histopathologic specimens with immunostainning revealed a ganglioglioma grade I. We conclude that these tumors are rare and should be treated surgically aiming total remove. If it is not possible or in case of recorrence the patient should be followed and radiotheraphy could be considered.

  16. The Lhx9 homeobox gene controls pineal gland development and prevents postnatal hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamazaki, Fumiyoshi; Møller, Morten; Fu, Cong

    2015-01-01

    Lhx9 is a member of the LIM homeobox gene family. It is expressed during mammalian embryogenesis in the brain including the pineal gland. Deletion of Lhx9 results in sterility due to failure of gonadal development. The current study was initiated to investigate Lhx9 biology in the pineal gland. Lhx...

  17. The human pineal gland and melatonin in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.-H.; Swaab, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is a central structure in the circadian system which produces melatonin under the control of the central clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN and the output of the pineal gland, i.e. melatonin, are synchronized to the 24-hr day by environmental light, received by the re

  18. Homeobox genes in the rodent pineal gland: roles in development and phenotype maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Martin F; Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten

    2013-06-01

    The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland responsible for nocturnal synthesis of melatonin. During early development of the rodent pineal gland from the roof of the diencephalon, homeobox genes of the orthodenticle homeobox (Otx)- and paired box (Pax)-families are expressed and are essential for normal pineal development consistent with the well-established role that homeobox genes play in developmental processes. However, the pineal gland appears to be unusual because strong homeobox gene expression persists in the pineal gland of the adult brain. Accordingly, in addition to developmental functions, homeobox genes appear to be key regulators in postnatal phenotype maintenance in this tissue. In this paper, we review ontogenetic and phylogenetic aspects of pineal development and recent progress in understanding the involvement of homebox genes in rodent pineal development and adult function. A working model is proposed for understanding the sequential action of homeobox genes in controlling development and mature circadian function of the mammalian pinealocyte based on knowledge from detailed developmental and daily gene expression analyses in rats, the pineal phenotypes of homebox gene-deficient mice and studies on development of the retinal photoreceptor; the pinealocyte and retinal photoreceptor share features not seen in other tissues and are likely to have evolved from the same ancestral photodetector cell.

  19. TLR4 and CD14 receptors expressed in rat pineal gland trigger NFKB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Sanseray; Carvalho-Sousa, Claudia Emanuele; Tamura, Eduardo Koji; Pinato, Luciana; Cecon, Erika; Fernandes, Pedro Augusto Carlos Magno; de Avellar, Maria Christina Werneck; Ferreira, Zulma Silva; Markus, Regina Pekelmann

    2010-09-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFKB), a pivotal player in inflammatory responses, is constitutively expressed in the pineal gland. Corticosterone inhibits pineal NFKB leading to an enhancement of melatonin production, while tumor necrosis factor (TNF) leads to inhibition of Aa-nat transcription and the production of N-acetylserotonin in cultured glands. The reduction in nocturnal melatonin surge favors the mounting of the inflammatory response. Despite these data, there is no clear evidence of the ability of the pineal gland to recognize molecules that signal infection. This study investigated whether the rat pineal gland expresses receptors for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin from the membranes of Gram-negative bacteria, and to establish the mechanism of action of LPS. Here, we show that pineal glands possess both CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), membrane proteins that bind LPS and trigger the NFKB pathway. LPS induced the nuclear translocation of p50/p50 and p50/RELA dimers and the synthesis of TNF. The maximal expression of TNF in cultured glands coincides with an increase in the expression of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) in isolated pinealocytes. In addition, LPS inhibited the synthesis of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin. Therefore, the pineal gland transduces Gram-negative endotoxin stimulation by producing TNF and inhibiting melatonin synthesis. Here, we provide evidence to reinforce the idea of an immune-pineal axis, showing that the pineal gland is a constitutive player in the innate immune response.

  20. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity.

  1. Restricted feeding restores rhythmicity in the pineal gland of arrhythmic suprachiasmatic-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feillet, Céline A; Mendoza, Jorge; Pévet, Paul; Challet, Etienne

    2008-12-01

    In mammals, the rhythmic synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland is tightly controlled by the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). In behaviourally arrhythmic SCN-lesioned rats, we investigated the effects of daily restricted feeding (RF) on pineal melatonin synthesis. RF restored not only a rhythmic transcription of the rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin biosynthesis [arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT)] and a rhythmic expression of c-FOS but also a rhythmic synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland. In control rats without functional SCN and fed ad libitum, a daily immobilization stress did not restore any rhythmicity in the pineal gland. Interestingly, a combination of RF and daily stress prior to the time of food access did not markedly impair AaNat mRNA and c-FOS rhythmicity but did abolish the restoration of rhythmic pineal melatonin. These data indicate that the synchronizing effects of RF on the pineal rhythmicity are not due to, and cannot be mimicked by, high levels of circulating glucocorticoids. In keeping with the multi-oscillatory nature of the circadian system, the rhythmicity of pineal melatonin in mammals, until now an exclusive output of the SCN, can also be controlled by daily feeding cues when the SCN clock is lacking. Thus, the present study demonstrates that daily RF in SCN-lesioned rats provides, probably via sympathetic fibres, synchronizing stimuli strong enough to drive rhythmicity in the pineal gland.

  2. A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, V I; Slesarev, S M; Slesareva, E V

    2008-09-01

    A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats and other rodents (e. g., ground squirrels) is proposed. Epiphysectomy is carried out by resection of a fragment of the bone with the underlying pineal gland. Using this method, many animals can be operated within a short period; the method is reliable and simple, which recommends it for chronobiological studies.

  3. Pineal gland volume in primary insomnia and healthy controls: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumb, Jan M; Schilling, Claudia; Enning, Frank; Haddad, Leila; Paul, Franc; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael; Schredl, Michael; Nolte, Ingo

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the relation between pineal volume and insomnia. Melatonin promotes sleep processes and, administered as a drug, it is suitable to improve primary and secondary sleep disorders in humans. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that human plasma and saliva melatonin levels are partially determined by the pineal gland volume. This study compares the pineal volume in a group of patients with primary insomnia to a group of healthy people without sleep disturbance. Pineal gland volume (PGV) was measured on the basis of high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in 23 patients and 27 controls, matched for age, gender and educational status. Volume measurements were performed conventionally by manual delineation of the pineal borders in multi-planar reconstructed images. Pineal gland volume was significantly smaller (P insomnia compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to clarify whether low pineal volume is the basis or the consequence of functional sleep changes to elucidate the molecular pathology for the pineal volume loss in primary insomnia.

  4. Amyloid β peptide directly impairs pineal gland melatonin synthesis and melatonin receptor signaling through the ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecon, Erika; Chen, Min; Marçola, Marina; Fernandes, Pedro A C; Jockers, Ralf; Markus, Regina P

    2015-06-01

    Melatonin is the hormone produced by the pineal gland known to regulate physiologic rhythms and to display immunomodulatory and neuroprotective properties. It has been reported that Alzheimer disease patients show impaired melatonin production and altered expression of the 2 G protein-coupled melatonin receptors (MTRs), MT₁ and MT₂, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Here we evaluated whether this dysfunction of the melatonergic system is directly caused by amyloid β peptides (Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42)). Aβ treatment of rat pineal glands elicited an inflammatory response within the gland, evidenced by the up-regulation of 52 inflammatory genes, and decreased the production of melatonin up to 75% compared to vehicle-treated glands. Blocking NF-κB activity prevented this effect. Exposure of HEK293 cells stably expressing recombinant MT₁ or MT₂ receptors to Aβ lead to a 40% reduction in [(125)I]iodomelatonin binding to MT₁. ERK1/2 activation triggered by MTRs, but not by the β₂-adrenergic receptor, was markedly impaired by Aβ in HEK293 transfected cells, as well as in primary rat endothelial cells expressing endogenous MTRs. Our data reveal the melatonergic system as a new target of Aβ, opening new perspectives to Alzheimer disease diagnosis and therapeutic intervention.

  5. [Circadian changes of the density of melatonin receptors 1A in the neurons of the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the rat hypothalamus under conditions of diverse functional activiity of the pineal gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishak, V P; Bulyk, R Ie

    2008-01-01

    An immunohistochemical study of the density of melatonin receptors 1A in the neurons of the rat suprachiasmatic nuclei with diverse functional activity of the pineal gland has been carried out. The density of melatonin receptors 1A under conditions of the physiological function of the pineal gland was characterized by clear-cut diurnal variations. Simultaneously, a dysfunction of the gland results in their marked disturbance. In case of a hypofunction of the pineal body the density of the structures was reliably lower than in case of hyperfunction. It has been demonstrated that in case of a suppressed activity of the pineal body the maximum number of melatonin receptors 1A in the neurons of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei shifts from 02.00 a.m. to 02.00 p.m. and constitutes 0.35+/-0.012 conventional units (c.u.) of density, whereas a larger index is noticed at 20 hours making up 0.43+/-0.015 c.u. of density when the gland is activated.

  6. Post-natal growth in the rat pineal gland: a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbagci, H; Kizilkan, N; Ozbag, D; Erkilic, S; Kervancioglu, P; Canan, S; Gumusburun, E

    2012-10-01

    The purpose was to observe the changes in a rat pineal gland using stereological techniques during lactation and post-weaning periods. Thirty Wistar albino rats were studied during different post-natal periods using light microscopy. Pineal gland volume was estimated using the Cavalieri Method. Additionally, the total number of pinealocytes was estimated using the optical fractionator technique. Pineal gland volume displayed statistically significant changes between lactation and after weaning periods. A significant increase in pineal gland volume was observed from post-natal day 10 to post-natal day 90. The numerical density of pinealocytes became stabilized during lactation and decreased rapidly after weaning. However, the total number of pinealocytes continuously increased during post-natal life of all rats in the study. However, this increment was not statistically significant when comparing the lactation and after weaning periods. The increase in post-natal pineal gland volume may depend on increment of immunoreactive fibres, capsule thickness or new synaptic bodies.

  7. Distinct effects of the serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors milnacipran and venlafaxine on rat pineal monoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kuwagata, Makiko; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-06-17

    Monoamine systems are involved in the pathology and therapeutic mechanism of depression. The pineal gland contains large amounts of serotonin as a precursor for melatonin, and its activity is controlled by noradrenergic sympathetic nerves. Pineal diurnal activity and its release of melatonin are relevant to aberrant states observed in depression. We investigated the effects on pineal monoamines of serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, which are widely used antidepressants. Four days of milnacipran treatment led to an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin levels, whereas 4 days of venlafaxine treatment reduced 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels; both agents induced an increase in dopamine levels. Our data suggest that milnacipran increases levels of the precursor for melatonin synthesis by facilitating the noradrenergic regulation of pineal activity and that venlafaxine inhibits serotonin reuptake into noradrenergic terminals on the pineal gland.

  8. Arecoline cannot alter testicular dysfunction and pineal activation caused by noise in wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterjee, Aniruddha; Chatterji, Urmi; Maiti, B R

    2017-07-13

    Millions of people consume betel nut for increased capacity to work and for stress reduction. The nut contains arecoline, which has multiple side effects on endocrine functions. Objective of the work is to investigate pineal-testicular responses to noise and after arecoline treatment in noise in rats. Noise exposure (100 dB, 6 h daily, 10 days) caused pineal stimulation ultrastructurally and at indoleamines level. Leydig cell dysfunction with fall of testosterone level and suppression of sex accessories were noticed. In contrast, pineal activity was inhibited and reproductive functions were stimulated after arecoline administration, confirmed from reversed changes to those of noise. Arecoline treatment in noise exposure showed same results as in noise both in pineal and in reproductive functions. It is concluded that noise causes testicular dysfunction probably by gonadotropin suppression induced by pineal melatonin in noise. Furthermore, arecoline cannot prevent it in noise in rats.

  9. NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Estela M; Bailey, Michael J; Rath, Martin F

    2007-01-01

    NeuroD1/BETA2, a member of the bHLH transcription factor family, is known to influence the fate of specific neuronal, endocrine and retinal cells. We report here that NeuroD1 mRNA is highly abundant in the developing and adult rat pineal gland. Pineal expression begins in the 17-day embryo at which...... time it is also detectable in other brain regions. Expression in the pineal gland increases during the embryonic period and is maintained thereafter at levels equivalent to those found in the cerebellum and retina. In contrast, NeuroD1 mRNA decreases markedly in non-cerebellar brain regions during...... development. Pineal NeuroD1 levels are similar during the day and night, and do not appear to be influenced by sympathetic neural input. Gene expression analysis of the pineal glands from neonatal NeuroD1 knockout mice identifies 127 transcripts that are down-regulated (>twofold, p

  10. Cellular Basis of Pineal Gland Development: Emerging Role of Microglia as Phenotype Regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez Rodriguez, María P; Noctor, Stephen C; Muñoz, Estela M

    2016-01-01

    The adult pineal gland is composed of pinealocytes, astrocytes, microglia, and other interstitial cells that have been described in detail. However, factors that contribute to pineal development have not been fully elucidated, nor have pineal cell lineages been well characterized. We applied systematic double, triple and quadruple labeling of cell-specific markers on prenatal, postnatal and mature rat pineal gland tissue combined with confocal microscopy to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular dynamics and cell lineages that contribute to pineal gland development. The pineal gland begins as an evagination of neuroepithelium in the roof of the third ventricle. The pineal primordium initially consists of radially aligned Pax6+ precursor cells that express vimentin and divide at the ventricular lumen. After the tubular neuroepithelium fuses, the distribution of Pax6+ cells transitions to include rosette-like structures and later, dispersed cells. In the developing gland all dividing cells express Pax6, indicating that Pax6+ precursor cells generate pinealocytes and some interstitial cells. The density of Pax6+ cells decreases across pineal development as a result of cellular differentiation and microglial phagocytosis, but Pax6+ cells remain in the adult gland as a distinct population. Microglial colonization begins after pineal recess formation. Microglial phagocytosis of Pax6+ cells is not common at early stages but increases as microglia colonize the gland. In the postnatal gland microglia affiliate with Tuj1+ nerve fibers, IB4+ blood vessels, and Pax6+ cells. We demonstrate that microglia engulf Pax6+ cells, nerve fibers, and blood vessel-related elements, but not pinealocytes. We conclude that microglia play a role in pineal gland formation and homeostasis by regulating the precursor cell population, remodeling blood vessels and pruning sympathetic nerve fibers.

  11. Failure pattern of pineal and ectopic pineal germ cell tumor after gamma knife radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Heung Lae; Sohn, Seung Chang [College of Medicine, Inje Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the optimal treatment volume of patients treating with radiation therapy for intracranial germ cell tumor. From 1993 to 1998, 19 patients with intracranial germ cell tumors treated by gamma knife radiosurgery were analyzed. The location of tumor was as follows; 9 cases on pineal region, 1 case on suprasellar region, and 9 cases of multiple lesion. 7 patients were pathologically verified; 5 cases of germ cell tumor and 2 cases of non germinomatous germ cell tumor. Tumor volume was ranged from 2.4 cm{sup 3} to 74 cm{sup 3}. Irradiation dose was 10 Gy to 20 Gy with 50% isodose curve. Follow up period was 10 months to 54 months. Recurrences were observed in 14 cases among 19 (74%) patients. Complete remission and partial remission were achieved in 2 (11%) and 10 (53%) respectively. No response was observed in 7 (36%). 2 cases were recurred within original tumor bed. 6 cases were recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed. Bentricular relapses separated from pretreatment tumor bed were 3. Spinal recurrences were 4. Among 8 recurred cases of which tumor volume is smaller than 20 cm{sup 3}, 2 were recurred within original tumor bed, 4 were recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed, and 1 spinal recurrence. Meanwhile, 6 cases of which tumor volume larger than 20 cm{sup 3}, 1 case was recurred beyond but contiguous with tumor bed, 2 ventricular recurrences separated with original tumor bed, and 3 spinal recurrences. 5 cases which did not show any recurrence sign show any recurrence sign showed characteristics of single lesion, tumor volume smaller than 20 cm{sup 3} and normal tumor marker. All of 4 cases of spinal recurrences happened in the case having ventricular invasion or lesion. Among 9 cases having multiple lesion, only 3 cases recurred within original tumor bed or around tumor bed, the other 6 cases recurred separated from pretreatment tumor bed. Gamma knife radiosurgery is not recommended for the treatment of

  12. Postnatal neurogenesis in the cow pineal gland: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Esteban, M B; Muñoz Mosqueira, M I; Arroyo, A A; Muñoz Barragán, L

    2013-03-01

    In the pineal gland of cows and rats structures designated rosettes have been described both during embryonic development and in adult animals. In order to investigate the possible nature of the cells comprising such structures, in the present work we studied the pineal glands from 10 cows of one- or four-years-old using conventional immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy techniques. As markers of glial cells, we used anti-vimentin (Vim) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-S-100 sera, and the pinealocytes were labelled with β-III tubulin. As a marker of stem cells, we used an antinestin serum, while an anti-PCNA serum was employed to label proliferating cells. To explore the neuronal nature of some cells of the rosettes, we used an anti-SRIF serum. The rosettes were seen to be present throughout the glandular parenchyma and displayed a central cavity surrounded by cells, most of which expressed all or just some of the above glial labels and nestin, although there were also some rosettes with cells that expressed β-III tubulin and other cells that expressed SRIF. Likewise, in the cells of the rosettes the cell nucleus showed strong expression of PCNA. Confocal microscopy revealed that the walls of the rosettes contained cells that coexpressed Vim/S-100, Vim/GFAP and Vim/nestin. The number of rosettes was significantly greater in the animals of one year of age with respect to the four-year-old cows. The present findings allow us to suggest that rosettes are evolving structures and that most of the cells present in their walls should be considered stem cells, and hence responsible for the postnatal neurogenesis occurring in the pineal gland of cows.

  13. Low-grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levidou Georgia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gliomas are a very rare subtype of pineal region tumours, whereas oligodendrogliomas of the pineal region are exceedingly rare, since there have been only 3 cases of anaplastic oligodedrogliomas reported this far. Methods-Results We present a case of a low-grade oligodendroglioma arising in the pineal gland of a 37 year-old woman. The patient presented with diplopia associated with a cystic pineal region mass demonstrated on MRI. Total resection was performed and histological examination showed that the cystic wall consisted of tumour cells with a central nucleus a perinuclear halo and minimal pleomorphism. Immnunohistochemical analysis showed that these cells were diffusely positive for CD57, and negative for GFAP, CD10, CD99, cytokeratins, neurofilaments and synaptophysin. FISH analysis was performed in a small number of neoplastic cells, which were not exhausted after immunohistochemistry and did not reveal deletion of 1p and 19q chromosome arms. However, the diagnosis of a low grade oligodendroglioma of the pineal gland was assigned. Conclusion Although the spectrum of tumours arising in the pineal gland is broad, the reports of oligodendrogliomas confined to this location are exceedingly rare, and to the best of our knowledge there is no report of a low-grade oligodendroglioma. However, they should be added in the long list of tumours arising in the pineal gland.

  14. Shadow response in the blind cavefish Astyanax reveals conservation of a functional pineal eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Masato; Jeffery, William R

    2008-02-01

    The blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus undergoes bilateral eye degeneration during embryonic development. Despite the absence of light in the cave environment, cavefish have retained a structurally intact pineal eye. We show here that contrary to visual degeneration in the bilateral eyes, the cavefish pineal eye has conserved the ability to detect light. Larvae of two different Astyanax cavefish populations and the con-specific sighted surface-dwelling form (surface fish) respond similarly to light dimming by shading the pineal eye. As a response to shading, cavefish larvae swim upward vertically. This behavior resembles that of amphibian tadpoles rather than other teleost larvae, which react to shadows by swimming downward. The shadow response is highest at 1.5-days post-fertilization (d.p.f.), gradually diminishes, and is virtually undetectable by 7.5 d.p.f. The shadow response was substantially reduced after surgical removal of the pineal gland from surface fish or cavefish larvae, indicating that it is based on pineal function. In contrast, removal of one or both bilateral eye primordia did not affect the shadow response. Consistent with its light detecting capacity, immunocytochemical studies indicate that surface fish and cavefish pineal eyes express a rhodopsin-like antigen, which is undetectable in the degenerating bilateral eyes of cavefish larvae. We conclude that light detection by the pineal eye has been conserved in cavefish despite a million or more years of evolution in complete darkness.

  15. Daily variation of constitutively activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) in rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecon, Erika; Fernandes, Pedro A; Pinato, Luciana; Ferreira, Zulma S; Markus, Regina P

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, the production of melatonin by the pineal gland is mainly controlled by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the master clock of the circadian system. We have previously shown that agents involved in inflammatory responses, such as cytokines and corticosterone, modulate pineal melatonin synthesis. The nuclear transcription factor NFKB, detected by our group in the rat pineal gland, modulates this effect. Here, we evaluated a putative constitutive role for the pineal gland NFKB pathway. Male rats were kept under 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle or under constant darkness (DD) condition. Nuclear NFKB was quantified by electrophoretic mobility shift assay on pineal glands obtained from animals killed throughout the day at different times. Nuclear content of NFKB presented a daily rhythm only in LD-entrained animals. During the light phase, the amount of NFKB increased continuously, and a sharp drop occurred when lights were turned off. Animals maintained in a constant light environment until ZT 18 showed diurnal levels of nuclear NFKB at ZT15 and ZT18. Propranolol (20 mg/kg, i.p., ZT 11) treatment, which inhibits nocturnal sympathetic input, impaired nocturnal decrease of NFKB only at ZT18. A similar effect was observed in free-running animals, which secreted less nocturnal melatonin. Because melatonin reduces constitutive NFKB activation in cultured pineal glands, we propose that this indolamine regulates this transcription factor pathway in the rat pineal gland, but not at the LD transition. The controversial results regarding the inhibition of pineal function by constant light or blocking sympathetic neurotransmission are discussed according to the hypothesis that the prompt effect of lights-off is not mediated by noradrenaline, which otherwise contributes to maintaining low levels of nuclear NFKB at night. In summary, we report here a novel transcription factor in the pineal gland, which exhibits a constitutive rhythm dependent on environmental photic

  16. Pineal germ cell tumors: Two cases with review of histopathologies and biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Daniel T; Lagman, Carlito; Sun, Michael; Yew, Andrew; Chung, Lawrance K; Lee, Seung J; Bui, Timothy T; Ooi, Yinn Cher; Robison, R Aaron; Zada, Gabriel; Yang, Isaac

    2017-04-01

    Pineal germ cell tumors (GCTs) are primarily seen in pediatric and Asian populations. These tumors are divided into germinomatous and non-germinomatous GCTs (NGGCTs). GCTs are thought to arise by misplacement of totipotent stem cells en route to gonads during embryogenesis. Intracranial GCTs display an affinity to develop along the pineal-suprasellar axis and have variable manifestations dependent upon the location of the tumor. Management and outcomes are driven by histopathologies. In this study, we highlight two cases of pineal GCTs and present a review of the literature with an emphasis on histopathologies and biomarkers.

  17. The modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal norepinephrine release and melatonin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukda, Sujira; Ebadi, Manuchair; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2009-01-01

    Secretion of melatonin by the mammalian pineal gland is primarily regulated by the release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerve terminals that originate from the superior cervical ganglia. Peptidergic nerves that originate in the perikarya located in the sensory trigeminal ganglia also...... or melatonin secretion in rat pineal organ cultures. However, in the presence of NE, substance P inhibited the NE-induced increase in AANAT activity and melatonin secretion. This is the first time that a function for substance P in the mammalian pineal gland has been demonstrated....

  18. Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery of pineal and related tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Mori, Yoshimasa; Yamada, Yasushi; Kida, Yoshihisa [Komaki City Hospital, Aichi (Japan). Gamma Knife Center

    2001-06-01

    The role of gamma radiosurgery as an additional therapy after conventional treatments for pineal and related tumors was studied in 30 out of 33 cases with a mean follow-up of 23.3 months. Overall results showed that complete response (CR) was obtained in 8 cases (26.7%) and response rate was 73.3%. However, enlargement of the tumors was noted in 8 cases, of which 7 (23.3%) died of tumor progression (PG). Germinomas and pineocytomas showed higher response and control rates of 100%, and no tumor enlargement or death occurred after gamma knife treatment. In germinoma with STGC (syncytiotrophoblastic giant cell) which has been thought to have intermediate prognosis, two cases showed partial response (PR), but another died from progression of the disease. Malignant germ cell tumors and pineoblastomas showed unfavorable response and prognosis; the response and progression rates were 50%. However, complete response was obtained in 3 cases (25%) after gamma radiosurgery. Gamma knife was the initial treatment in three cases without pathological diagnosis in which one obtained CR and two showed partial response (PR). Stereotactic gamma radiosurgery is expected to be an effective and novel treatment for pineal and related tumors not only as an adjuvant, but also as an initial therapy. (author)

  19. Modulation of Aanat gene transcription in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anthony K; Chik, Constance L

    2010-01-01

    The main function of the rat pineal gland is to transform the circadian rhythm generated in the suprachiasmatic nucleus into a rhythmic signal of circulating melatonin characterized by a large nocturnal increase that closely reflects the duration of night period. This is achieved through the tight coupling between environmental lighting and the expression of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase, the rhythm-controlling enzyme in melatonin synthesis. The initiation of Aanat transcription at night is controlled largely by the norepinephrine-stimulated phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein by protein kinase A. However, to accurately reflect the duration of darkness, additional signaling mechanisms also participate to fine-tune the temporal profile of adrenergic-induced Aanat transcription. Here, we reviewed some of these signaling mechanisms, with emphasis on the more recent findings. These signaling mechanisms can be divided into two groups: those involving modification of constitutively expressed proteins and those requiring synthesis of new proteins. This review highlights the pineal gland as an excellent model system for studying neurotransmitter-regulated rhythmic gene expression.

  20. Modulation of metabolic and clock gene mRNA rhythms by pineal and retinal circadian oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaganis, Stephen P.; Bartell, Paul A.; Shende, Vikram R.; Moore, Ashli F.; Cassone, Vincent M.

    2009-01-01

    Avian circadian organization involves interactions between three neural pacemakers: the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), pineal, and retina. Each of these structures is linked within a neuroendocrine loop to influence downstream processes and peripheral oscillations. However, the contribution of each structure to drive or synchronize peripheral oscillators or circadian outputs in avian species is largely unknown. To explore these interactions in the chick, we measured 2-deoxy[14C]-glucose (2DG) uptake and mRNA expression of the chick clock genes bmal1, cry1, and per3 in three brain areas and in two peripheral organs in chicks that underwent pinealectomy, enucleation, or sham surgery. We found that 2DG uptake rhythms damp under constant darkness in intact animals, while clock gene mRNA levels continue to cycle, demonstrating that metabolic rhythms are not directly driven by clock gene transcription. Moreover, 2DG rhythms are not phase-locked to rhythms of clock gene mRNA. However, pinealectomy and enucleation had similar disruptive effects on both metabolic and clock gene rhythms, suggesting that both of these oscillators act similarly to reinforce molecular and physiological rhythms in the chicken. Finally, we show that the relative phasing of at least one clock gene, cry1, varies between central and peripheral oscillators in a tissue specific manner. These data point to a complex, differential orchestration of central and peripheral oscillators in the chick, and, importantly, indicate a disconnect between canonical clock gene regulation and circadian control of metabolism. PMID:19136000

  1. Neuroendocrine mediated effects of electromagnetic-field exposure: possible role of the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B W; Stevens, R G; Anderson, L E

    1989-01-01

    Reports from recent epidemiological studies have suggested a possible association between extremely low frequency (ELF; including 50- or 60-Hz) electric- and magnetic-field exposure, and increased risk of certain cancers, depression, and miscarriage. ELF field-induced pineal gland dysfunction is a possible etiological factor in these effects. Work in our laboratory and elsewhere has shown that ELF electromagnetic-field exposure can alter the normal circadian rhythm of melatonin synthesis and release in the pineal gland. Consequences of reduced or inappropriately timed melatonin release on the endocrine, neuronal, and immune systems are discussed. Laboratory data linking ELF field exposure to changes in pineal circadian rhythms in both animals and humans are reviewed. The authors suggest that the pineal gland, in addition to being a convenient locus for measuring dyschronogenic effects of ELF field exposure, may play a central role in biological response to these fields via alterations in the melatonin signal.

  2. Interleukin-1 β Modulates Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Gland: Ex Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, A P; Bochenek, J; Skipor, J; Król, K; Krawczyńska, A; Antushevich, H; Pawlina, B; Marciniak, E; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL-) 1β, on melatonin release and expression enzymes essential for this hormone synthesis: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) in ovine pineal gland, taking into account the immune status of animals before sacrificing. Ewes were injected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg) or saline, two hours after sunset during short day period (December). Animals were euthanized three hours after the injection. Next, the pineal glands were collected and divided into four explants. The explants were incubated with (1) medium 199 (control explants), (2) norepinephrine (NE; 10 µM), (3) IL-1β (75 pg/mL), or (4) NE + IL-1β. It was found that IL-1β abolished (P pineal fragments isolated from LPS-treated animals were characterized by elevated (P pineal AA-NAT protein expression.

  3. [Haemorrhagic pineal cysts: two clinical cases successfully treated by means of microsurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arevalo, A; Pulido-Rivas, P; Gilo-Arrojo, F; Sola, R G

    2016-09-01

    Introduccion. Los quistes pineales son un hallazgo incidental relativamente frecuente en las pruebas de imagen; sin embargo, la apoplejia pineal se considera rara y se asocia a sintomas graves. Casos clinicos. Varon de 25 a˜os y mujer de 15 a˜os, que acudieron a urgencias con clinica de hipertension intracraneal; mediante pruebas de imagen se confirmo la existencia de una hemorragia pineal. Se les trato con exito mediante microcirugia. Conclusion. En nuestra experiencia, y avalado por la bibliografia, creemos que el mejor tratamiento de esta infrecuente patologia es el abordaje microquirurgico. Sin embargo, no se excluye la posibilidad de que, en un futuro, las tecnicas endoscopicas puedan tener un lugar importante en el tratamiento de la apoplejia pineal.

  4. Effect of electric field exposure on melatonin and enzyme circadian rhythms in the rat pineal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.; Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.

    1980-11-01

    The effects of chronic 30-day electric field exposure on pineal serotonin N-acetyl transferase (EC 2.1.15) activity as well as melatonin and 5-methoxy tryptophol (5-MTOL) concentrations in rats, were assessed.

  5. Chronic exposure to 60-Hz electric fields: effects on pineal function in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B.W.; Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Philips, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    As a component of studies to search for effects of 60-Hz electric field exposure on mammalian endocrine function, concentrations of melatonin, 5-methoxytryptophol, and serotonin-N-acetyl transferase activity were measured in the pineal glands of rats exposed or sham-exposed at 65 kV/m for 30 days.In two replicate experiments there were statistically significant differences between exposed and control rats in that the normal nocturnal increase in pineal melatonin content was depressed in the exposed animals. Concentrations of 5-methoxytryptophol were increased in the pineal glands of the exposed groups when compared to sham-exposed controls. An alteration was also observed in serotonin-N-acetyl transferase activity, with lower levels measured in pineal glands from exposed animals.

  6. The perivascular phagocyte of the mouse pineal gland: An antigen-presenting cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F; Klein, David C

    2006-01-01

    The perivascular space of the rat pineal gland is known to contain phagocytic cells that are immunoreactive for leukocyte antigens, and thus they appear to belong to the macrophage/microglial cell line. These cells also contain MHC class II proteins. We investigated this cell type in the pineal...... gland of mice. Actively phagocytosing cells with a prominent lysosomal system were found in the pericapillary spaces of the mouse pineal gland following intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase. The cells also exhibited strong acid phosphatase activity. Perivascular cells were immunopositive...... for MHC class II protein and for CD68, a marker of monocytes/phagocytes. This study verifies that perivascular phagocytes with antigen-presenting properties are present in the mouse pineal gland....

  7. Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change...... significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day (E) 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until E20. In both tissues, Rax is expressed throughout postnatal development into adulthood. In the mature rat pineal gland, the abundance of Rax...... transcripts increases 2-fold during the light period with a peak occurring at dusk. These findings are consistent with the evidence that Rax is of functional importance in eye development and suggest a role of Rax in the developing pineal gland. In addition, it would appear possible that Rax contributes...

  8. Functional unity of the thymus and pineal gland and study of the mechanisms of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, V O; Linkova, N S; Kvetnoy, I M; Khavinson, V Kh

    2011-09-01

    The data on the morphology and functions of the thymus and pineal gland in individuals of different age are analyzed and common mechanisms of involution of these organs during aging and the consequencies of this process are discussed. Based on the data on the molecular changes in the thymus and pineal gland during aging, the authors hypothesize the functional unity of these organs and their mutual complementarity in the maintenance of normal immune and endocrine status during aging.

  9. Rhodopsin Kinase Activity in the Mammalian Pineal Gland and Other Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Robert L.; Klein, David C.

    1984-10-01

    Rhodopsin kinase, an enzyme involved in photochemical transduction in the retina, has been found in the mammalian pineal gland in amounts equal to those in the retina; other tissues had 7 percent of this amount, or less. This finding suggests that, in mammals, rhodopsin kinase functions in the pineal gland and other tissues to phosphorylate rhodopsin-like integral membrane receptors and is thereby involved in signal transduction.

  10. Midline and off-midline infratentorial supracerebellar approaches to the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Satoshi; Baydin, Serhat; Güngör, Abuzer; Miki, Koichi; Komune, Noritaka; Kurogi, Ryota; Iihara, Koji; Rhoton, Albert L

    2016-10-07

    OBJECTIVE A common approach to lesions of the pineal region is along the midline below the torcula. However, reports of how shifting the approach off midline affects the surgical exposure and relationships between the tributaries of the vein of Galen are limited. The purpose of this study is to examine the microsurgical and endoscopic anatomy of the pineal region as seen through the supracerebellar infratentorial approaches, including midline, paramedian, lateral, and far-lateral routes. METHODS The quadrigeminal cisterns of 8 formalin-fixed adult cadaveric heads were dissected and examined with the aid of a surgical microscope and straight endoscope. Twenty CT angiograms were examined to measure the depth of the pineal gland, slope of the tentorial surface of the cerebellum, and angle of approach to the pineal gland in each approach. RESULTS The midline supracerebellar route is the shortest and provides direct exposure of the pineal gland, although the culmen and inferior and superior vermian tributaries of the vein of Galen frequently block this exposure. The off-midline routes provide a surgical exposure that, although slightly deeper, may reduce the need for venous sacrifice at both the level of the veins from the superior cerebellar surface entering the tentorial sinuses and at the level of the tributaries of the vein of Galen in the quadrigeminal cistern, and require less cerebellar retraction. Shifting from midline to off-midline exposure also provides a better view of the cerebellomesencephalic fissure, collicular plate, and trochlear nerve than the midline approaches. Endoscopic assistance may aid exposure of the pineal gland while preserving the bridging veins. CONCLUSIONS Understanding the characteristics of different infratentorial routes to the pineal gland will aid in gaining a better view of the pineal gland and cerebellomesencephalic fissure and may reduce the need for venous sacrifice at the level of the tentorial sinuses draining the upper

  11. Shadow response in the blind cavefish Astyanax reveals conservation of a functional pineal eye

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus undergoes bilateral eye degeneration during embryonic development. Despite the absence of light in the cave environment, cavefish have retained a structurally intact pineal eye. We show here that contrary to visual degeneration in the bilateral eyes, the cavefish pineal eye has conserved the ability to detect light. Larvae of two different Astyanax cavefish populations and the con-specific sighted surface-dwelling form (surface fish) respond similarly to ...

  12. Participation of the pineal gland in the response of rat testes to ionizing radiation. [X radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnicki, T.; Boguslawski, A. (Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland))

    1981-01-01

    The study was aimed to determine influence of pineal stimulation by light restriction on the response of rat testes to single, locally administered exposure dose of 7.79x10-2 C/kg of X-rays. Different arrangements of light-dark cycles before and after irradiation were used. It was found that stimulation of the pineal by light deprivation before and after irradiation may be accelerated by displacing the animals after irradiation to normal conditions.

  13. Rax: Developmental and Daily Expression Patterns in the Rat Pineal Gland and Retina

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C.; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day (E) 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until E20. In both tissues, Rax is e...

  14. PINEAL GLAND TUMOURS - OUR EXPERIENCE AT TERTIARY CARE CENTRE: A 3-YEAR STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Mani Mekhala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pineal gland tumours are slow growing tumours arising in the pineal gland that resemble normal pineal gland. In WHO classification, they are considered as WHO Grade 1 tumours. Incidence of these tumours is very low. The germ cell tumours in this region are much more common arising from the pluripotent germ cells mistakenly lodged in this region during embryogenesis. Tumours which arise from the stroma are Gliomas and Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumours (ATRT. Commonest clinical presentation is hydrocephalus due to compression of tectum and upward gaze due to compression of superior colliculi. Radiology aids in giving a provisional diagnosis on CT and MRI. Confirmation with histopathology is important for proper treatment and prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a retrospective study done over 3 years at a tertiary care centre. Radiologically diagnosed cases as pineal gland tumours, which were well demarcated within the region of pineal gland were included in the study. The surgically resected specimen were examined by squash cytology and then processed routinely for histopathology and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION A total of 18 cases were studied and analysed. The lesions encountered were germ cell tumours, pineal parenchymal tumours and gliomas. On intraoperative squash, one case, which was diagnosed as glioma was later reported as Pineocytoma on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Histological subtypes of pineal gland tumours on comparison with SEER database was correlated with our study. CONCLUSION Though pineal gland is a very small organ also considered as vestigial organ in lower primates the tumours present aggressively and are proved to be fatal except pineocytomas, which have a good prognosis with 5 year survival rate of 60 to 75% and hence exact diagnosis is critical to choose correct therapy.

  15. Patofysiologiske mekanismer bag øjensymptomer ved primaere tumorer i corpus pineale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illum, N O; Møller, M; Garde, E

    1993-01-01

    Primary tumors of the pineal body can produce dyscoordinative movements of the eye, pupillary dilatation, paralysis of adduction during convergence and nystagmus. Obstruction of the aqueduct can cause hydrocephalus, increased intracranial pressure and papilledema. Diabetes insipidus may...... manifestations prior to evident appearance of symptoms related to primary tumor growth. A primary tumor of the pineal body should be considered in patients where a monosymptomatic uveoretinitis presents without associated provoking factors. Furthermore, analyses of S-antigen in the spinal fluid can be useful...

  16. Pineal concretions in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) as a result of collagen-mediated calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylska-Gornowicz, B; Lewczuk, B; Prusik, M; Bulc, M

    2009-04-01

    The intra-pineal calcification is a well-known phenomenon in mammals, however it is almost completely unknown in birds. The aim of the present work was to analyze morphology and genesis of the pineal concretions in the turkey. The studies were performed on the pineals collected from one-year-old turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). In addition to standard morphological methods, the alizarin red S and potassium pyroantimonate methods were employed for localization of calcium at the light and electron microscopy level. In light microscopy, calcified concretions with diameters from 300 microm to 2 mm and quantities from 3 to 6 per gland were observed in all the examined pineals. They were stained red with alizarin S and showed the presence of collagen in Mallory's staining. Two types of cells were noted inside the concretion: polygonal and elongated ones. Using electron microscopy, three parts were distinguished within the calcification area. The peripheral part contained densely packed collagen fibrils, some elongated cells and numerous pyroantimonate precipitates demonstrating the presence of calcium ions. In the intermediate part, the fibrils were covered by almost continuous sheets of pyroantimonate precipitates and fused side by side. The central part showed an appearance of calcified hard tissue and contained some polygonal (osteocyte-like) cells. The obtained data demonstrated that the formation of the pineal concretions in the turkey is associated with the mineralization of collagen. This process is completely different from the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the concretions in the mammalian pineal.

  17. Neuroimaging diagnosis of pineal region tumors - quest for pathognomonic finding of germinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awa, Ryuji; Campos, Francia; Arita, Kazunori; Karki, Prasanna; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Hanaya, Ryosuke; Oyoshi, Tatsuki; Hirano, Hirofumi [Kagoshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuhiko [Hiroshima University, Department of Clinical Oncology and Neuro-oncology Program, Hiroshima (Japan); Tominaga, Atsushi; Kurisu, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Fumiyuki [Hiroshima University, Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima (Japan); Fukukura, Yoshihiko [Kagoshima University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Fujii, Yukihiko [Niigata University, Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Our study aimed to elucidate the imaging features for the differentiation of pineal germinoma and other pineal region tumors. Image data sets of computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 93 pineal region tumors including 33 germinomas, 30 nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCTs), 20 pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs), and 10 miscellaneous tumors of pineal region were reviewed. Imaging features on CT and MRI were qualitatively assessed by three readers. To know the reasons for morphological differences between germinomas and NGGCTs, histological investigation was done. Localized calcification was seen in more than 70 % of germ cells tumors (GCTs: germinomas and NGGCTs) while it was scattered in more than half of PPTs. Cystic components in tumors were most frequent in NGGCTs (62 %). Multiplicity of lesion was restricted to GCTs: 39.4 % in germinoma and 10.0 % in NGGCTs. Thick peritumoral edema was more frequent in germinoma than in NGGCT: 40.6 vs. 14.8 % (p = 0.0433, Fisher's test). Bithalamic extension of tumor was seen in 78.8 % of germinomas. It was significantly rare in other groups of tumors (p < 0.0001, Fisher's test). The relative collagen amount per unit area was significantly lower in germinoma than in NGGCTs. By paying attention to characteristic features as bithalamic extension, thick peritumoral edema, calcification pattern, multiplicity, and their combination, the preoperative differential diagnosis of pineal germinoma will become more accurate. (orig.)

  18. Morphofunctional and signaling molecules overlap of the pineal gland and thymus: role and significance in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltsev, Michael A; Polyakova, Victoria O; Kvetnoy, Igor M; Anderson, George; Kvetnaia, Tatiana V; Linkova, Natalia S; Paltseva, Ekaterina M; Rubino, Rosa; De Cosmo, Salvatore; De Cata, Angelo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-03-15

    Deficits in neuroendocrine-immune system functioning, including alterations in pineal and thymic glands, contribute to aging-associated diseases. This study looks at ageing-associated alterations in pineal and thymic gland functioning evaluating common signaling molecules present in both human and animal pinealocytes and thymocytes: endocrine cell markers (melatonin, serotonin, pCREB, AANAT, CGRP, VIP, chromogranin А); cell renovation markers (p53, AIF, Ki67), matrix metalloproteinases (MMP2, MMP9) and lymphocytes markers (CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20). Pineal melatonin is decreased, as is one of the melatonin pathway synthesis enzymes in the thymic gland. A further similarity is the increased MMPs levels evident over age in both glands. Significant differences are evident in cell renovation processes, which deteriorate more quickly in the aged thymus versus the pineal gland. Decreases in the number of pineal B-cells and thymic T-cells were also observed over aging. Collected data indicate that cellular involution of the pineal gland and thymus show many commonalities, but also significant changes in aging-associated proteins. It is proposed that such ageing-associated alterations in these two glands provide novel pharmaceutical targets for the wide array of medical conditions that are more likely to emerge over the course of ageing.

  19. Rax : developmental and daily expression patterns in the rat pineal gland and retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Kristian; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F

    2011-09-01

    Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene encodes a transcription factor essential for vertebrate eye development. Recent microarray studies indicate that Rax is expressed in the adult rat pineal gland and retina. The present study reveals that Rax expression levels in the rat change significantly during retinal development with a peak occurring at embryonic day 18, whereas Rax expression in the pineal is relatively delayed and not detectable until embryonic day 20. In both tissues, Rax is expressed throughout postnatal development into adulthood. In the mature rat pineal gland, the abundance of Rax transcripts increases 2-fold during the light period with a peak occurring at dusk. These findings are consistent with the evidence that Rax is of functional importance in eye development and suggest a role of Rax in the developing pineal gland. In addition, it would appear possible that Rax contributes to phenotype maintenance in the mature retina and pineal gland and may facilitate 24-h changes in the pineal transcriptome.

  20. CRX is a diagnostic marker of retinal and pineal lineage tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Santagata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CRX is a homeobox transcription factor whose expression and function is critical to maintain retinal and pineal lineage cells and their progenitors. To determine the biologic and diagnostic potential of CRX in human tumors of the retina and pineal, we examined its expression in multiple settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we show that Crx RNA and protein expression are exquisitely lineage restricted to retinal and pineal cells during normal mouse and human development. Gene expression profiling analysis of a wide range of human cancers and cancer cell lines also supports that CRX RNA is highly lineage restricted in cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis of 22 retinoblastomas and 13 pineal parenchymal tumors demonstrated strong expression of CRX in over 95% of these tumors. Importantly, CRX was not detected in the majority of tumors considered in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors (n = 78. The notable exception was medulloblastoma, 40% of which exhibited CRX expression in a heterogeneous pattern readily distinguished from that seen in retino-pineal tumors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings describe new potential roles for CRX in human cancers and highlight the general utility of lineage restricted transcription factors in cancer biology. They also identify CRX as a sensitive and specific clinical marker and a potential lineage dependent therapeutic target in retinoblastoma and pineoblastoma.

  1. The photoreceptive cells of the pineal gland in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurà, Rosaria; Magnoli, Domenico; Zichichi, Rosalia; Guerrera, Maria Cristina; De Carlos, Felix; Suárez, Alberto Álvarez; Abbate, Francesco; Ciriaco, Emilia; Vega, Jose Antonio; Germanà, Antonino

    2012-03-01

    The zebrafish pineal gland plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the circadian rhythm through the melatonin secretion. The pinealocytes, also called photoreceptive cells, are considered the morphofunctional unit of pineal gland. In literature, the anatomical features, the cellular characteristics, and the pinealocytes morphology of zebrafish pineal gland have not been previously described in detail. Therefore, this study was undertaken to analyze the structure and ultrastructure, as well as the immunohistochemical profile of the zebrafish pineal gland with particular reference to the pinealocytes. Here, we demonstrated, using RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, the expression of the mRNA for rhodopsin in the pineal gland of zebrafish, as well as its cellular localization exclusively in the pinealocytes of adult zebrafish. Moreover, the ultrastructural observations demonstrated that the pinealocytes were constituted by an outer segment with numerous lamellar membranes, an inner segment with many mitochondria, and a basal pole with the synapses. Our results taken together demonstrated a central role of zebrafish pinealocytes in the control of pineal gland functions.

  2. Occurrence of Pineal Gland Tumors in Combined Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity Studies in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treumann, Silke; Buesen, Roland; Gröters, Sibylle; Eichler, Jens-Olaf; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2015-08-01

    Pineal gland tumors are very rare brain lesions in rats as well as in other species including humans. A total of 8 (out of 1,360 examined) Wistar rats from 3 different combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity or mere carcinogenicity studies revealed pineal gland tumors. The tumors were regarded to be spontaneous and unrelated to treatment. The morphology and immunohistochemical evaluation led to the diagnosis malignant pinealoma. The main characteristics that were variably developed within the tumors were the following: cellular atypia, high mitotic index, giant cells, necrosis, Homer Wright rosettes, Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes and pseudorosettes, positive immunohistochemical reaction for synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase. The pineal gland is not a protocol organ for histopathological examination in carcinogenicity studies. Nevertheless, the pineal gland can occasionally be encountered on the routine brain section or if it is the origin of a tumor protruding into the brain, the finding will be recorded. Therefore, although known to be a rare tumor in rats, pineal neoplasms should be included in the list of possible differential diagnoses for brain tumors, especially when the tumor is located in the region of the pineal body.

  3. Evidence of Pineal Gland Calcification on CBCT is Not Insignificant: What Else You Might Discover about Your Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    The use of CBCT technology in the dental office is increasing rapidly. These scans provide information on anatomy not previously evaluated with traditional 2D films. One structure often mentioned in a CBCT radiology report is the pineal gland. The pineal gland will show evidence of calcification, but this calcification is often dismissed as a normal aging process. This review of the function and influence of the pineal gland may influence the doctor to complete further evaluation of the patient.

  4. Morphological findings relating to the problem of cortex and medulla in the pineal glands of rat and hamster.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidbüchel, U; Vollrath, L.

    1983-01-01

    Because, in previous investigations on the rat pineal gland, karyometric studies of pinealocytes from cortical and medullary regions had yielded contradictory results, experiments were carried out to resolve this problem. In immersion-fixed, paraffin-embedded pineal glands, nuclear size of cortical regions was invariably larger than that in the medulla, the nuclear size clearly depending on the plane of sectioning. The differences between cortex and medulla were abolished in (a) pineal glands...

  5. Differential effect of benserazide (Ro4-4602) on the concentration of indoleamines in rat pineal and hypothalamus.

    OpenAIRE

    Arendt, J; HO, A.K.; Laud, C.; Marston, A.; Nohria, V.; Smith, J A; Symons, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    1 Low doses (50 and 80 mg/kg) of benserazide (Ro4-4602), an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, markedly reduced 5-hydroxytryptamine and melatonin in the rat pineal gland without affecting hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine. 2 This differential effect shows that inhibition of the pineal gland decarboxylase activity is possible, and confirms that the rat pineal gland is accessible to peripherally acting agents.

  6. Association of mast cells with calcification in the human pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maślińska, Danuta; Laure-Kamionowska, Milena; Deręgowski, Krzysztof; Maśliński, Sławomir

    2010-01-01

    Increased pineal calcifications and decreased pineal melatonin biosynthesis, both age related, support the notion of a pineal bio-organic timing mechanism. The role of calcification in the pathogenesis of pineal gland dysfunction remains unknown but the available data document that calcification is an organized, regulated process, rather than a passive aging phenomenon. The cellular biology and micro-environmental conditions required for calcification remain poorly understood but most studies have demonstrated evidence that mast cells are strongly implicated in this process. The aim of the present study was to examine the phenotype of mast cells associated with early stages and with the progressive development of calcification in the human pineal gland. The study was performed on pineal samples of 170 fetuses and children whose brains were autopsied and diagnosed during 1998-2002. The representative cerebral and pineal specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or the von Kossa staining technique and for the distribution of mast cell tryptase, mast cell chymase, histamine H4 receptor and vascular network using biotinylated Ulex europaeus agglutinin. Tryptase mast cells were found in all stages of pineal gland development independently of the presence of local tissue lesions. All of them were always localized in the close vicinity of the blood vessels and expressed immunoreactivity to histamine H4 receptor antibody. Immunolocalization of mast cells by chymase antibody (and following dual immunostaining with both chymase and tryptase antibodies) demonstrated that these cells were few in number and were located in the subcapsular region of the gland. In our study, all functional mast cells that underwent activation and were co-localized with deposits of calcium did not contain chymase. All of them were stained with tryptase and represent the MC-T phenotype. Tryptase mast cells and extracellular tryptase were often associated with areas of early and more

  7. [The pineal cyst in children with different central nervous system diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Anna; Skowronek-Bała, Barbara; Wesołowska, Ewa; Kaciński, Marek

    2010-01-01

    In the group of adult patients being diagnosed from different neurological complaints frequency of pineal cyst occurrence is estimated at 0,1-4,9%. Frequency of its occurrence in pediatric population is unknown, however it is regarded as a common lesion at this age, more frequent in girls and older children. This structural lesion is usually asymptomatic, without sequels and clinical complications. However, neoplastic lesions may also localize in pineal cyst. Characterization of pineal cysts found in children diagnosed from different neurological diseases. 45 children at the age range from 14 months to 17 years were hospitalized in the Department of Pediatric Neurology Chair of Pediatric and Adolescent Neurology in the years 2006-2010. MR examination with contrast (with the use of Siemens device 1,5 T) revealed lesions in pineal gland defined as pineal cysts. Predominance of girls was observed in the group (33/45). Additionally older children between 10 and 15 years of age were dominating (27/ 45). In 24/45 children serum tumor markers AFP and betaHCG were determined. Examined group of patients with clinical symptoms which indicated necessity of MR examination performance was very heterogenic. The diameter of pineal cyst was between 3-10 mm in 40/45 children, 13 mm in 2 children and 11 mm in 3 children (most often 4-5 mm in 18 children). Usually this lesion accompanied other congenital or acquired CNS disorders. In 1/3 of children included to the study, headaches were cause of brain MR examination. In 15 children brain MR examination was performed due to epileptic paroxysmal events. No positive values of tumor markers were found in any of examined children. 1. Pineal cysts are common structural lesions in children hospitalized from different neurological symptoms. 2. Pineal cysts were usually found in children diagnosed because of headaches and epilepsy, and these were the most often final diagnosis. 3. In the examined group children over the age of 10 years and

  8. Developmental and diurnal expression of the synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (Snap25) in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Anna S; Rath, Martin F; Rohde, Kristian; Toft, Trine; Møller, Morten

    2013-06-01

    Snap25 (synaptosomal-associated protein) is a 25 kDa protein, belonging to the SNARE-family (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) of proteins, essential for synaptic and secretory vesicle exocytosis. Snap25 has by immunohistochemistry been demonstrated in the rat pineal gland but the biological importance of this is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate a high expression of mRNA encoding Snap25 in all parts of the rat pineal complex, the superficial-, and deep-pineal gland, as well as in the pineal stalk. Snap25 showed a low pineal expression during embryonic stages with a strong increase in expression levels just after birth. The expression showed no day/night variations. Neither removal of the sympathetic input to the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy nor bilateral decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia significantly affected the expression of Snap25 in the gland. The pineal expression levels of Snap25 were not changed following intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. The strong expression of Snap25 in the pineal gland suggests the presence of secretory granules and microvesicles in the rat pinealocyte supporting the concept of a vesicular release. At the transcriptional level, this Snap25-based release mechanism does not exhibit any diurnal rhythmicity and is regulated independently of the sympathetic nervous input to the gland.

  9. Control of pineal indole biosynthesis by changes in sympathetic tone caused by factors other than environmental lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, H. J.; Eng, J. P.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of experimental investigations showing that, in addition to environmental lighting, other manipulations known to modify sympathetic tone can also modify pineal indole biosynthesis. Comparable alterations in sympathetic tone that occur in response to activity or feeding cycles may be instrumental in generating the pineal rhythms that persist in the absence of light-dark cycle.

  10. Pineal clock gene oscillation is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, due to functional disconnection from the "master clock".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Y.-H.; Fischer, D.F.; Kalsbeek, A.; Garidou-Boof, M.-L.; Vliet, J. van der; Heijningen, C. van; Liu, R.-Y.; Zhou, J.-N.; Swaab, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the "master clock" of the mammalian brain. It coordinates the peripheral clocks in the body, including the pineal clock that receives SCN input via a multisynaptic noradrenergic pathway. Rhythmic pineal melatonin production is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD

  11. Developmental and Diurnal Expression of the Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25 (Snap25) in the Rat Pineal Gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anna S; Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    the expression of Snap25 in the gland. The pineal expression levels of Snap25 were not changed following intraperitoneal injection of isoproterenol. The strong expression of Snap25 in the pineal gland suggests the presence of secretory granules and microvesicles in the rat pinealocyte supporting the concept...

  12. Neurosurgical venous considerations for tumors of the pineal region resected using the infratentorial supracerebellar approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Toshiaki; Bozinov, Oliver; Sürücü, Oguzkan; Ulrich, Nils H; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2011-11-01

    The authors present a microsurgical technique for the resection of a heterogeneous group of pineal-region tumors and discuss the key points for successfully performing this surgery. Twenty-six consecutive patients with pineal-region tumors were resected by the senior author (H.B.) and analyzed retrospectively. For all 26 patients, the operation was conducted using the infratentorial supracerebellar (ITSC) approach in the sitting (23 patients) or Concorde (three patients) positions. Twenty-five patients had symptomatic obstructive hydrocephalus and were treated with ventricular drainage, a previously inserted ventriculoperitoneal shunt, or an endoscopic third ventriculostomy before undergoing resection of the pineal-region tumor. The gross total removal of the tumor was achieved in 23 patients and subtotal removal was achieved in three patients. The tumors were pathologically diagnosed mainly as pineocytomas (10), pilocytic astrocytomas (6), or pineal cysts (4). Twenty-five of the patients clinically improved after surgery, and there was no mortality. Two patients experienced transient postoperative neurological deterioration: one patient developed Parinaud syndrome, and one patient developed intermittent diplopia. Successful surgery and patient outcome when treating tumors of the pineal region using the ITSC approach requires: (i) preservation of the venous flow of the Galenic draining system; (ii) preservation of the thick bridging veins of the tentorial surface of the cerebellum, especially the hemispheric bridging veins; and (iii) minimizing retraction of the cerebellum during surgery to avoid adverse effects caused by both direct cerebellar compression and disturbance of the venous circulation.

  13. NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Estela M; Bailey, Michael J; Rath, Martin F; Shi, Qiong; Morin, Fabrice; Coon, Steven L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2007-08-01

    NeuroD1/BETA2, a member of the bHLH transcription factor family, is known to influence the fate of specific neuronal, endocrine and retinal cells. We report here that NeuroD1 mRNA is highly abundant in the developing and adult rat pineal gland. Pineal expression begins in the 17-day embryo at which time it is also detectable in other brain regions. Expression in the pineal gland increases during the embryonic period and is maintained thereafter at levels equivalent to those found in the cerebellum and retina. In contrast, NeuroD1 mRNA decreases markedly in non-cerebellar brain regions during development. Pineal NeuroD1 levels are similar during the day and night, and do not appear to be influenced by sympathetic neural input. Gene expression analysis of the pineal glands from neonatal NeuroD1 knockout mice identifies 127 transcripts that are down-regulated (>twofold, p twofold, p < 0.05). According to quantitative RT-PCR, the most dramatically down-regulated gene is kinesin family member 5C ( approximately 100-fold) and the most dramatically up-regulated gene is glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 ( approximately fourfold). Other impacted transcripts encode proteins involved in differentiation, development, signal transduction and trafficking. These findings represent the first step toward elucidating the role of NeuroD1 in the rodent pinealocyte.

  14. Effects of 60-Hz electric fields on serotonin metabolism in the rat pineal gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.; Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.; Wilson, B.W.; Chess, E.K.

    1982-06-01

    Serotonin and two of its metabolites, melatonin and 5-methoxytryptophol, exhibit circadian rhythmicity in the pineal gland. We recently reported a marked reduction in the normal night-time increase in melatonin concentration in the pineal glands of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Concomitant with the apparent abolition of melatonin rhythmicity, serotonin-N-acetyl transferase (SNAT) activity was suppressed. We have now conducted studies to determine if abolition of the rhythm in melatonin production in electric-field-exposed rats arises solely from interference in SNAT activity, or if the availability of pineal serotonin is a factor that is affected by exposure. Pineal serotonin concentrations were compared in rats that were either exposed or sham exposed to 65 kV/m for 30 days. Sham-exposed animals exhibited normal diurnal rhythmicity for pineal concentrations of both melatonin and serotonin; melatonin levels increased markedly during the dark phase with a concurrent decrease in serotonin levels. In the exposed animals, however, normal serotonin rhythmicity was abolished; serotonin levels in these animals did not increase during the light period. The conclusion that electric field exposure results in a biochemical alteration in SNAT enzyme activity can be inferred from the loss of both serotonin and melatonin rhythmicity, as well as by direct measurement of SNAT activity itself. 35 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  15. A noradrenergic sensitive endogenous clock is present in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Felder-Schmittbuhl, Marie-Paule; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of endogenous oscillations of Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Rev-erbα genes in rat pineal explants and to investigate their regulation by adrenergic ligands. Our results show a significant and sustained rhythm of Per2,Bmal1 and Rev-erbα gene expression for up to 48 h in cultured pineal gland with a pattern similar to that observed in vivo. By contrast, the rhythms of Per1 and Aa-nat, the rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin synthesis, were strongly attenuated after 24 h in culture. Addition of the exogenous adrenergic agonist isoproterenol on cultured pineal glands induced a short-term increase in mRNA levels of Per1 and Aa-nat, but not those of Per2,Bmal1 and Rev-erbα. This study demonstrates that the rat pineal gland hosts a circadian oscillator as evidenced by the sustained, noradrenergic-independent, endogenous oscillations of Per2, Bmal1 and Rev-erbα mRNA levels in cultured tissues. Only expression of Per1 was stimulated by adrenergic ligands suggesting that, in vivo, the adrenergic input could synchronize the pineal clock by acting selectively on Per1.

  16. [Pineal gland glutathione peroxidase activity in rats and its age-associated change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razygraev, A V

    2010-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase activity has been studied in the pineal gland (epiphysis) of young and aging female Wistar rats (2-4 and 17-19 month old). For comparison the same activity was studied in the pyramids of medulla oblongata and in the olfactory tubercle. These two brain structures represent white and gray matter respectively. The determination of the activity was performed with H2O2 as a substrate and with 5,5'-dithio-bis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) for estimation of the decrease of restored form of glutathione concentration. The glutathione peroxidase activity was higher in the pineal gland than in the brain structures used. Pineal glutathione peroxidase activities (micromole of GSH per minute per milligram of protein, M +/- m) in young and old rats were 1,52 +/- 0,07 and 1,27 +/- 0,06 respectively (prats is the age-associated decrease of the selenium content in the pineal gland. The decline found may be one of the reflections of the pineal gland functional involution.

  17. Macro-microscopical aspects of the buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Linnaeus, 1758 pineal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Gross and microscopical aspects of the buffalo pineal gland were described in seasonal parturition animals, since this gland is responsible for melatonin secretion which acts upon the hypothalamus-hypophysis reproductive axis feedback system. (Hafez, 1995. For the present study, 11 cross-bred buffaloes, predominantly of the Mediterranean breed, from the Pirassununga Campus - USP (University of São Paulo, were killed in different photoperiods in the slaughterhouse. The pineal glands were obtained, fixed, weighed, measured, photographed, processed, cut into sections and stained. All glands demonstrated the same global shape, with a mean length of 8.82 ± 1.07mm and a width of 7.91 ± 0.83mm, and a stem length of 5.50 ± 4.18mm. The stems had a microscopically visible lumen. The mean gland weight was 251.45 ± 83.1mg. The buffalo pineal gland presented right and left lobes of different sizes. Microscopically, they were surrounded by a connective tissue layer with blood vessels infiltrating into the glandular parenchyma, which became separated into glial cell lobules. A great number of the pinealocytes were arranged in irregular strings, and cells from the connective tissue could be observed in the glandular parenchyma. We conclude that the buffalo pineal gland is similar to that of pineal cows and that it does not show morphologic alterations during different photoperiods of the year.

  18. Clinicopathologic study of pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tamio; Kanno, Hiromi; Sato, Ken-ichi; Oikawa, Mitsuteru; Ozaki, Yoshimaru; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Hatanaka, Kanako; Murata, Jyun-ichi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTID) are extremely rare tumor entities, and only limited data are available regarding their pathologic features and biologic behaviors. Because grading criteria of pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) have yet to be established, the treatment strategy and prognosis of PPTIDs remain controversial. We describe the clinicopathologic study of six patients with PPTID and compare responses for the treatment and prognosis with cases of pineocytoma (PC) and pineoblastoma (PB). From this analysis, we attempt to clarify the treatment strategy for PPTIDs. This study included 15 patients with PPTs, consisting of 6 PCs, 6 PPTIDs, and 3 PBs. We focused on the 6 patients with PPTIDs. All PPTID cases were treated surgically, and radiotherapy and chemotherapy were administered as adjuvant therapies in some cases. We have earlier reported the histopathologic study (Neuropathology 32:647-653, 2012). Briefly, we examined mitotic figures and necrosis by hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical markers such as neuronal markers (synaptophysin, neurofilament (NF), and neuronal nuclear antigen), and an MIB-1 labeling index was determined. In the PPTID cases, the extent of resection was variable and the recurrence rates among patients varied according to stage and treatment. All PC patients underwent total resection with no recurrence. All PB patients underwent resection and adjuvant therapy with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. There were no recurrences in patients with PC or PB. The results of histopathologic findings have been already reported as mentioned above. Briefly, the results indicated no mitotic figure or necrosis in any of the six cases of PPTID, but those features were observed in PB cases. All cases even including PC and PB were immunopositive for neuronal markers. The MIB-1 labeling index of PPTID was 3.5%, whereas it was 0% in PC and 10.5% in PB. Good radiosensitivity of PPTIDs was observed in our series

  19. Photoreceptor-like outer segments in the pineal organ of the lovebird, Uroloncha domestica (Aves: passeriformes). A scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueck, M; Ohnishi, R; Wake, K

    1977-07-26

    In the pineal organ of the lovebird, Uroloncha domestica, bulbous, cup-shaped and elongated outer segments of photoreceptor-like pinealocytes are demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. These scarce outer segments, 4-11 micron in length, extend into the pineal lumen. The present structural observations speak in favor of photosensitive pinealocytes in the pineal organ of Uroloncha domestica. The relation of the photoreceptor-like pinealocytes to acetylcholinesterase-positive nerve cells and a nervous connection between the pineal and the brain indicate that the pineal organ of this passeriform species may be the site of neuroendocrine and photoreceptive functions.

  20. Germinomas cerebrais (teratomas atípicos da pineal Cerebral germinomas (atipical teratomas of the pineal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Alencar

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available São estudados três casos de germinomas cerebrais, sendo um tópico, da região pineal, e dois ectópicos, chamados germinomas supra-selares ou quiasmáticos. Estes últimos parecem ser mais agressivos que os seus congeneres tópicos, pois alem de se disseminarem pelas cisternas basais, costumam infiltrar as paredes do III ventrículo, fórnix, hipotálamo, nervos e quiasma ópticos. Caracteristicamente produzem um enorme aumento das proteínas liquóricas, desacompanhado de uma pleocitose proporcional. As proteínas liquóricas aumentadas sao globulinas cujas reações mostram-se fortemente positivas, possivelmente produzidas pelas celulas de aspecto linfocitario que constituem parte desta neoplasia. O aumento das proteinas liquoricas e tao acentuado que em presenca de uma crianca ou adolescente com sindrome de hipertensão intracraniana, hiperproteinoraquia sem pleocitose e sinais clínicos ou radiológicos sugestivos de localização na base do crânio a possibilidade de um germinoma quiasmático deve ser seriamente considerada, pois o quadro e muito sugestivo.Three cases of Cerebral Germinomas, one of them situated in the pineal region (topical and two ectopical of the so called suprasellar or chiasmal Germinomas are studied. These last ones may be more aggressive than the congeneral topical ones, since besides it's dissemination throughout the basal cisternas they usually infilstrate into de walls of the III Ventricle, Fornix, Hypothalamus, Chiasma and Optic nervs. A high level of proteins in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells is characteristic. Globulins are the predominant fraction of the increased spinal fluid proteins, as indicated by the highly positive laboratory test. These globulins are possibly produced by the lymphocytes which are part of this neoplasm. The high level of protein in the spinal fluid without proportional increase of the cells, in the presence of intracranial syndrome in a child or

  1. Isodense epidermoid cyst in the pineal region. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanouchi, Yasuo; Takahara, Nobuhiko; Kawamura, Yasuo; Matsumura, Hiroshi

    1985-02-01

    A 69-year-old male was admitted complaining of gait disturbances and diplopia, 2.5 years after an episode of serous meningitis. Neurological examination on admission disclosed Parinaud's sign, unsteady gait and dysdiadochokinesis on the left side. A striking finding on the computerized tomography (CT) was the left to right shift of the posterior portion of the third ventricle without visualization of the quadrigeminal and ambient cisterns, which were almost completely occupied by an isodense mass accompanied by high dense flecks and a low dense part. Enhanced CT showed positive enhancement in the vicinity of the pineal calcification. By the suboccipital supracerebellar approach, an encapsulated mass containing brownish yellow fluid was subtotally removed and a histological examination of it revealed epidermoid tissue and hemosiderin deposits in the solid portion. Few reports of isodense epidermoid cysts have so far been found in the literature giving a full explanation for this unusual CT attenuation value. Based on the clinical course and histology of this case, the pathogenesis of the unusual density is discussed along the following lines: The mixture of the low dense factor due to cholesterin and the high dense factor due to prior bleeding is believed to result in the isodense attenuation value in the liquid portion. Also, in the solid part, a microscopically mixed texture of deposited hemosiderin and cholesterin clefts in the inflammatory granulomatous tissue could explain its density on the CT scan.

  2. Wound healing and the effect of pineal gland and melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Drobnik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex phenomenon that is controlled by local and general regulatory mechanisms. The aim of the paper is to analyze recently-published data devoted to the regulation of wound repair by melatonin. The effect of melatonin has been reported in different wound types healed with various mechanisms. The action of the pineal indoleamine is dependent on the used dose, time of application and target organ. Moreover, melatonin influences different phases of wound repair such as inflammation, by regulating the release of inflammatory mediators, cell proliferation and migration, by influencing angiogenesis, and the proliferation of fibroblasts, as well as the synthesis phase, by regulating collagen and glycosaminoglycan accumulation in the wounded milieu. Thus, healing of the skin wound, myocardial infarction, bone fractures and gastric ulcer is influenced by melatonin. In patients with low levels of melatonin (elderly or β-blocker treated patients, its regulatory effects are expected to be impaired. Thus, the need for melatonin supplementation in those patients is postulated in the study. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(1.000: 3-14

  3. Circadian changes in long noncoding RNAs in the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Steven L; Munson, Peter J; Cherukuri, Praveen F; Sugden, David; Rath, Martin F; Møller, Morten; Clokie, Samuel J H; Fu, Cong; Olanich, Mary E; Rangel, Zoila; Werner, Thomas; Mullikin, James C; Klein, David C

    2012-08-14

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a broad range of biological roles, including regulation of expression of genes and chromosomes. Here, we present evidence that lncRNAs are involved in vertebrate circadian biology. Differential night/day expression of 112 lncRNAs (0.3 to >50 kb) occurs in the rat pineal gland, which is the source of melatonin, the hormone of the night. Approximately one-half of these changes reflect nocturnal increases. Studies of eight lncRNAs with 2- to >100-fold daily rhythms indicate that, in most cases, the change results from neural stimulation from the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (doubling time = 0.5-1.3 h). Light exposure at night rapidly reverses (halving time = 9-32 min) levels of some of these lncRNAs. Organ culture studies indicate that expression of these lncRNAs is regulated by norepinephrine acting through cAMP. These findings point to a dynamic role of lncRNAs in the circadian system.

  4. Brain CT of non-pineal intracranial germ cell tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hang Young; Chung, Eun Cheul; Lee, Dong Ho; Choo, In Wook; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    19 cases of non-pineal intracranial germ cell tumors were reviewed retrospectively with both radiologic and clinical features. The results were as follows: 1. The age distribution was 8 to 32 year old (16 year old of mean age) and the sex distribution shows male predominance (15:4). 2. The histopathologic diagnosis includes 11 cases of germinoma, 2 case of mixed germ cell tumor, 1 case of embryonal cell carcinoma and 5 cases of unknown. 3. The location of tumors was the sarsaparilla region in 8 cases, the left basal ganglia and thalamus in 5 cases, and the right frontal lobe in 1 case. Among 11 cases of germinoma, 6 cases involve the sarsaparilla region and 3 cases the left basal ganglia and thalamus. 4. In clinical features, there were visual disturbance, diabetes indispose, increased ICP signs, motor weakness, hormonal disorders, and personal changes in order. 5. In tumor marker study of 6 cases of germinoma, 5 cases show increase in HCG titer, but all 6 cases were normal in AFP titer. 6. In brain CT, most of all revealed well-defined homogeneous high density with or without small central low density and homogeneous enhancement at solid portion, and there was calcification in only case with mixed germ cell tumor.

  5. Ontogeny of circadian clock gene expression in the pineal and the suprachiasmatic nucleus of chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Naritoshi; Yasuo, Shinobu; Watanabe, Miwa; Namikawa, Takao; Ebihara, Shizufumi; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2003-11-14

    Avian circadian rhythms are regulated by a multiple oscillatory system consisting of the pineal, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the eye. In the present study, ontogeny of circadian clock in the pineal and the SCN of chick embryo was examined using Per2 expression as a marker. A daily rhythmicity of Per2 expression was first detectable at embryonic day (ED) 18 in the pineal and at ED 16 in the SCN under light-dark (LD) cycles. The amplitude of the rhythmicity increased during the development. In contrast, little expression was observed during the development in constant darkness. These results suggest that although circadian clock matures by the end of the embryonic life in chicken, LD cycles are required for the expression of the Per2.

  6. Infratentorial supracerebellar resection of a pineal tumor using a high definition video exoscope (VITOM®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamelak, Adam N; Drazin, Doniel; Shirzadi, Ali; Black, Keith L; Berci, George

    2012-02-01

    A telescope based high definition (HD) video system (VITOM®, Karl Storz GmBH & Co., Tuttlingen, Germany) has recently been proposed as an alternative to the operating microscope for microneurosurgery. It remains unclear which clinical situations will benefit from its advantages. In light of the uncomfortable surgeon position and fatigue often associated with pineal region surgery, we used the VITOM® HD exoscope system to perform an infratentorial supracerebellar resection of a pineal tumor. The VITOM® dramatically improved surgeon comfort and ease of operating by permitting the surgeon to stand upright and in a comfortable position and avoid the need to extend the arm or assume an awkward. position commonly encountered when using the microscope for these approaches. The marked improvement in surgeon comfort afforded by the VITOM® exoscope indicates that this system may have significant advantages over traditional microscope based surgery for tumors of the pineal region approached using an infratentorial supracerebellar approach.

  7. Papillary tumor of the pineal region-report of three cases with literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR is a rare tumor of the pineal region. Not much is known about the pathogenesis, prognosis, and treatment protocol of this uncommon entity. We present three cases of PTPR with follow-up from 8 months to 98 months. All patients presented with headache and visual disturbance. One patient also had amenorrhea. Radiology revealed an heterogeneously enhancing mass arising from the pineal region with associated hydrocephalus. Histopathologically, all cases showed the papillary architecture, strong pan cytokeratin and cytokeratin 18 positivity, and faint positivity for synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase. All cases received postoperative radiotherapy. One case showed tumor recurrence after 7 years. Other two cases did not show any recurrence till the last follow-up.

  8. The role of pineal gland and exogenous melatonin on the irradiation stress response of suprarenal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicelebić, Selma; Mornjaković, Zakira; Susko, Irfan; Cosović, Esad; Beganović-Petrović, Amira

    2006-11-01

    Pineal gland has and antistressogenic role. Its main hormone, melatonin, has radio protective effect on endocrine and other dynamic tissues. In our previous study, we have shown that pinealectomy changes the behavior of suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin on suprarenal gland of rats with or without pineal gland. Four months after pinealectomy (experimental group) or shampinealectomy (control group), adult Wistar male rats were daily treated with 0,2 mg of melatonin intraperitoneally, during two weeks. Thereafter, all animals were totally irradiated with 8 Gy of Gamma rays produced from Cobalt 60. Animals who survived were sacrificed on the 17(th) post irradiation day. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the suprarenal gland were studied using histological methods. The results show that exogenous melatonin had protective role on suprarenal gland in totally irradiated rats and that those effects were more pronounced in the presence of pineal gland.

  9. Endoscopic surgery for tumors of the pineal region via a paramedian infratentorial supracerebellar keyhole approach (PISKA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaher, Firas; Kurucz, Peter; Fuellbier, Lars; Bittl, Markus; Hopf, Nikolai J

    2014-10-01

    The tumors of the pineal region represent a significant challenge in terms of patient selection and surgical approach. Traditional surgical options were commonly used to approach this area causing considerable surgical morbidity and mortality. We report for the first time on a series of endoscopic procedures for lesions of the pineal region performed via an infratentorial supracerebellar keyhole approach (PISKA) in the prone position using endoscope-assisted and endoscope-controlled technique. A single-institution series of 11 consecutive patients (five male and six female patients [11 total cases]; mean age 21 years, range 1-75 years) treated via the endoscope-assisted and endoscope-controlled PISKA for a pathological entity in the pineal region was retrospectively reviewed. The mean follow-up time was 24 months. The endoscopic PISKA was successfully used to approach a variety of pineal lesions, including pineocytoma (three patients), pineal cysts (four patients), germinoma, lipoma, medulloblastoma, and glioblastoma (one patient each). Gross total resection was achieved in ten cases and subtotal resection in one case. The mean preoperative tumor volumes were approximately 2 × 2 cm. Five patients developed postoperatively transient Parinaud's syndrome. One patient underwent surgical revision for cerebrospinal fluid leak. There was no mortality. Ten patients had an uneventful postoperative course with restitutio ad integrum after a mean follow-up duration of 13.5 months. The endoscopically PISKA is a safe and effective minimally invasive approach that enables endoscopic treatment of different lesions of the pineal region with comparable results to standard microsurgical technique but less morbidity.

  10. Daily rhythm and regulation of clock gene expression in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneaux, V; Poirel, V-J; Garidou, M-L; Nguyen, D; Diaz-Rodriguez, E; Pévet, P

    2004-01-05

    Rhythms in pineal melatonin synthesis are controlled by the biological clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. The endogenous clock oscillations rely upon genetic mechanisms involving clock genes coding for transcription factors working in negative and positive feedback loops. Most of these clock genes are expressed rhythmically in other tissues. Because of the peculiar role of the pineal gland in the photoneuroendocrine axis regulating biological rhythms, we studied whether clock genes are expressed in the rat pineal gland and how their expression is regulated.Per1, Per3, Cry2 and Cry1 clock genes are expressed in the pineal gland and their transcription is increased during the night. Analysis of the regulation of these pineal clock genes indicates that they may be categorized into two groups. Expression of Per1 and Cry2 genes shows the following features: (1) the 24 h rhythm persists, although damped, in constant darkness; (2) the nocturnal increase is abolished following light exposure or injection with a beta-adrenergic antagonist; and (3) the expression during daytime is stimulated by an injection with a beta-adrenergic agonist. In contrast, Per3 and Cry1 day and night mRNA levels are not responsive to adrenergic ligands (as previously reported for Per2) and daily expression of Per3 and Cry1 appears strongly damped or abolished in constant darkness. These data show that the expression of Per1 and Cry2 in the rat pineal gland is regulated by the clock-driven changes in norepinephrine, in a similar manner to the melatonin rhythm-generating enzyme arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. The expression of Per3 and Cry1 displays a daily rhythm not regulated by norepinephrine, suggesting the involvement of another day/night regulated transmitter(s).

  11. Ultrastructural and hormonal changes in the pineal-testicular axis following arecoline administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Indraneel; Chatterji, Urmi; Chaudhuri-Sengupta, Santasri; Nag, Tapas C; Nag, Debabrata; Banerjee, Samir; Maiti, B R

    2007-04-01

    Arecoline is an alkaloid of betel nut of Areca catechu. Betel nut is chewed by millions of people in the world and it causes oral and hepatic cancers in human. It has therapeutic value for the treatment of Alzheimer and schizophrenia. Arecoline has immunosuppressive, mutagenic and genotoxic effects in laboratory animals. It also affects endocrine functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of arecoline on pineal-testicular axis in rats. Since pineal activity is different between day and night, the current study is undertaken in both the photophase and scotophase. The findings were evaluated by ultrastructural and hormonal studies of pineal and testicular Leydig cells, with quantitations of fructose and sialic acid of sex accessories. Arecoline treatment (10 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days) caused suppression of pineal activity at ultrastructural level by showing dilatation of the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), large autophagosome-like bodies with swollen mitochondrial cristae, numerous lysosomes, degenerated synaptic ribbons and reduced number of synaptic-like microvesicles. Moreover, pineal and serum N-acetylserotonin and melatonin levels were decreased with increased serotonin levels in both the gland and serum. In contrast, testicular Leydig cell activity was stimulated with abundance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER), electron-dense core vesicles and vacuolated secretory vesicles, and increased testosterone level in the arecoline recipients. Consequently, the testosterone target, like prostate, was ultrastructurally stimulated with abundance of RER and accumulation of secretory vesicles. Fructose and sialic acid concentrations were also significantly increased respectively in the coagulating gland and seminal vesicle. These results were more significant in the scotophase than the photophase. The findings suggest that arecoline inhibits pineal activity, but stimulates testicular function (testosterone level

  12. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  13. Characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags From a Gallus gallus Pineal Gland cDNA Library

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The pineal gland is the circadian oscillator in the chicken, regulating diverse functions ranging from egg laying to feeding. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) isolated from a chicken pineal gland cDNA library. A total of 192 unique sequences were analysed and submitted to GenBank; 6% of the ESTs matched neither GenBank cDNA sequences nor the newly assembled chicken genomic DNA sequence, three ESTs aligned with sequences designated to be on...

  14. Nucleolus-like bodies in the pineal gland of the adult yak (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhaohui H; Gan, Ping

    2013-05-28

    The pineal glands of adult yak were studied electron microscopically. Nucleolus-like bodies (NLBs) were found mostly in the pinealocytes and the interstitial cells of the pineal glands of the yak. The NLBs were electron-dense, round or ovoid bodies with a diameter of 50 nm - 500 nm. Two types of granules were identified as melanin. These may correspond to different stages of a progressive storage of melanin. Rough endoplasmic reticula with abundant ribosomes were observed. There was no correlation between the number of NLBs and the sex of the animals.

  15. Analysis of clinical features and treatment in mature teratomas at pineal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QI Gui-jun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment through occipital tentorium of cerebellum approach was performed in nine cases of mature teratoma at the pineal region. Diagnosis was confirmed by postoperative pathological examination. No perioperative death occurred. Surgery-related complications (visual difficulties, visual field defects, seizures were seen in 4 cases. All cases were followed for 3 months-7 years (mean 3.70 years. The mature teratoma at the pineal region are more common in male children. The main clinical manifestations are intracranial hypertension and ataxia. Neurosurgical treatment may provide satisfactory outcome.

  16. Light-dependent changes in the chick pineal temperature and the expression of cHsp90 alpha gene: a potential contribution of in vivo temperature change to the photic-entrainment of the chick pineal circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Masao; Nakajima, Yoshito; Okano, Toshiyuki; Fukada, Yoshitaka

    2002-06-01

    The circadian clock is entrained to the diurnal alteration of environmental conditions such as light and temperature, but the molecular mechanism underlying the entrainment is not fully understood. In the present study, we employed a differential display-based screening for a set of genes that are induced by light in the chick pineal gland, a structure of the central clock entrainable to both light and temperature changes. We found that the level of the mRNA encoding chicken heat shock protein 90 alpha (cHSP90 alpha) was rapidly elevated in the pineal gland within a 5-min exposure of chicks to light. Furthermore, the pineal cHsp90 alpha mRNA was expressed rhythmically under both 12-hr light/12-hr dark (LD) cycles and constant dark (DD) conditions. The total amount of the pineal cHSP90 alpha protein was, however, kept at nearly constant levels under LD cycles, and immunohistochemical analyses of the pineal cHSP90 alpha showed invariable localization at the cytoplasm throughout the day. In vivo measurement of the chick pineal temperature demonstrated its light-dependent and time-of-day-dependent change, and the profile was very similar to that of the pineal cHSP90 alpha mRNA level. These observations suggest that the in vivo temperature change regulates the expression of temperature-responsive genes including cHSP 90 alpha in the pineal gland. The temperature change may induce a phase-shift of the pineal clock, thereby facilitating its efficient entrainment to environmental LD cycles.

  17. Posttranslational regulation of TPH1 is responsible for the nightly surge of 5-HT output in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheping; Liu, Tiecheng; Chattoraj, Asamanja; Ahmed, Samreen; Wang, Michael M; Deng, Jie; Sun, Xing; Borjigin, Jimo

    2008-11-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), a precursor for melatonin production, is produced abundantly in the pineal gland of all vertebrate animals. The synthesis of 5-HT in the pineal gland is rate limited by tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1) whose activity displays a twofold increase at night. Earlier studies from our laboratory demonstrate that pineal 5-HT secretion exhibits dynamic circadian rhythms with elevated levels during the early night, and that the increase is controlled by adrenergic signaling at night. In this study, we report that (a) 5-HT total output from the pineal gland and TPH1 protein levels both display diurnal rhythms with a twofold increase at night; (b) stimulation of cAMP signaling elevates 5-HT output in vivo; (c) 5-HT total output and TPH1 protein content in rat pineal gland are both acutely inhibited by light exposure at night. Consistent with these findings, molecular analysis of TPH1 protein revealed that (a) TPH1 is phosphorylated at the serine 58 in vitro and in the night pineal gland; and (b) phosphorylation of TPH1 at this residue is required for cAMP-enhanced TPH1 protein stability. These data support the model that increased nocturnal 5-HT synthesis in the pineal gland is mediated by the phosphorylation of TPH1 at the serine 58, which elevates the TPH1 protein content and activity at night.

  18. Adenosine triphosphate inhibits melatonin synthesis in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Teodoro, Luis Henrique; Dargenio-Garcia, Letícia; Petrilli-Lapa, Camila Lopes; Souza, Ewerton da Silva; Fernandes, Pedro A C M; Markus, Regina P; Ferreira, Zulma S

    2016-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released onto the pinealocyte, along with noradrenaline, from sympathetic neurons and triggers P2Y1 receptors that enhance β-adrenergic-induced N-acetylserotonin (NAS) synthesis. Nevertheless, the biotransformation of NAS into melatonin, which occurs due to the subsequent methylation by acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT; EC 2.1.1.4), has not yet been evaluated in the presence of purinergic stimulation. We therefore evaluated the effects of purinergic signaling on melatonin synthesis induced by β-adrenergic stimulation. ATP increased NAS levels, but, surprisingly, inhibited melatonin synthesis in an inverse, concentration-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate that enhanced NAS levels, which depend on phospholipase C (PLC) activity (but not the induction of gene transcription), are a post-translational effect. By contrast, melatonin reduction is related to an ASMT inhibition of expression at both the gene transcription and protein levels. These results were independent of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) translocation. Neither the P2Y1 receptor activation nor the PLC-mediated pathway was involved in the decrease in melatonin, indicating that ATP regulates pineal metabolism through different mechanisms. Taken together, our data demonstrate that purinergic signaling differentially modulates NAS and melatonin synthesis and point to a regulatory role for ATP as a cotransmitter in the control of ASMT, the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin synthesis. The endogenous production of melatonin regulates defense responses; therefore, understanding the mechanisms involving ASMT regulation might provide novel insights into the development and progression of neurological disorders since melatonin presents anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and neurogenic effects.

  19. Characterization of lymphocyte subsets over a 24-hour period in Pineal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (PALT in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNulty John A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeostatic trafficking of lymphocytes in the brain has important relevance to the understanding of CNS disease processes. The pineal gland of the chicken contains large accumulations of lymphocytes that suggest an important role related to homeostatic circadian neuro-immune interactions. The purpose of this initial study was to characterize the lymphocyte subsets in the pineal gland and quantitate the distribution and frequency of lymphocyte phenotypes at two time points over the 24-hour light:dark cycle. Results PALT comprised approximately 10% of the total pineal area. Image analysis of immunocytochemically stained sections showed that the majority of lymphocytes were CD3+ (80% with the remaining 20% comprising B-cells and monocytes (Bu-1+, which tended to distribute along the periphery of the PALT. T-cell subsets in PALT included CD4+ (75–80%, CD8+ (20–25%, TCRαβ/Vβ1+ (60%, and TCRγδ+ (15%. All of the T-cell phenotypes were commonly found within the interfollicular septa and follicles of the pineal gland. However, the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ within the pineal tissue were each 1:1, in contrast to the PALT where the ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and TCRγδ+/TCRαβ/Vβ1+ each approximated 1:4. Bu-1+ cells were only rarely seen in the pineal interstitial spaces, but ramified Bu-1+ microglia/macrophages were common in the pineal follicles. Effects of the 24-h light:dark cycle on these lymphocyte-pineal interactions were suggested by an increase in the area of PALT, a decline in the density of TCRαβ/Vβ1+ cells, and a decline in the area density of Bu-1+ microglia at the light:dark interphase (1900 h compared to the dark:light interphase (0700 h. Conclusion The degree of lymphocyte infiltration in the pineal suggests novel mechanisms of neuro-immune interactions in this part of the brain. Our results further suggest that these interactions have a temporal component related to the 24-hour light

  20. A transcription factor network controls cell migration and fate decisions in the developing zebrafish pineal complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Joshua A.; Dean, Benjamin J.; Gamse, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish pineal complex consists of four cell types (rod and cone photoreceptors, projection neurons and parapineal neurons) that are derived from a single pineal complex anlage. After specification, parapineal neurons migrate unilaterally away from the rest of the pineal complex whereas rods, cones and projection neurons are non-migratory. The transcription factor Tbx2b is important for both the correct number and migration of parapineal neurons. We find that two additional transcription factors, Flh and Nr2e3, negatively regulate parapineal formation. Flh induces non-migratory neuron fates and limits the extent of parapineal specification, in part by activation of Nr2e3 expression. Tbx2b is positively regulated by Flh, but opposes Flh action during specification of parapineal neurons. Loss of parapineal neuron specification in Tbx2b-deficient embryos can be partially rescued by loss of Nr2e3 or Flh function; however, parapineal migration absolutely requires Tbx2b activity. We conclude that cell specification and migration in the pineal complex are regulated by a network of at least three transcription factors. PMID:27317804

  1. Modified forms of vasopressin and oxytocin in a bovine pineal preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Ebels, I.

    1987-01-01

    A bovine pineal acid extract displays a vasotocin-like bioactivity in several bioassays, and is recognized by antibodies against the Pro-Arg-Gly-amide ending common to vasopressin and vasotocin. By using molecular sieve filtration and reversed-phase HPLC, a vasopressin- and oxytocin-like peptide was

  2. Parasympathetic inhibition of pineal indole metabolism by prejunctional modulation of noradrenaline release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, WJ; Grol, CJ; Westerink, BHC

    1996-01-01

    The role of the parasympathetic nervous system in rat pineal indole metabolism was investigated by transpineal in vivo microdialysis. On-line coupling to a high performance liquid chromatography system with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) allowed simultaneous analysis of three major indolic compoun

  3. Modified forms of vasopressin and oxytocin in a bovine pineal preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Burbach, J.P.H.; Ebels, I.

    1987-01-01

    A bovine pineal acid extract displays a vasotocin-like bioactivity in several bioassays, and is recognized by antibodies against the Pro-Arg-Gly-amide ending common to vasopressin and vasotocin. By using molecular sieve filtration and reversed-phase HPLC, a vasopressin- and oxytocin-like peptide was

  4. Melatonin and pineal gland peptides are able to correct the impairment of reproductive cycles in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutjunyan, Alexander; Kozina, Ljudmila; Milyutina, Yulia; Korenevsky, Andrew; Stepanov, Michael; Arutyunov, Vladimir

    2012-12-01

    Catecholamines play an important role in the hypothalamic regulation of the synthesis and secretion of gonadotropin- releasing hormone, or gonadoliberin. We have shown that melatonin and the pineal gland peptides (epithalamine and epitalon) exert a correcting influence on the diurnal dynamics of norepinephrine (NE) in the medial preoptic area (MPA) and of dopamine (DA) in the median eminence with arcuate nuclei (ME-Arc) disturbed by single administration of the neurotoxic xenobiotic 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in female rats. It has been found that experiments with DMH administration can be used as an animal model of female reproductive system premature aging. The investigation of epithalamine (a polypeptide preparation from the bovine pineal gland) effect on circadian rhythms disturbed by the neurotoxic compound DMH has shown a recovery of the diurnal dynamics of NE in MPA. In addition, NE was found to decrease from 9:30 till 11 o'clock, Circadian Time (CT), which was typical of control animals. Epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) proved to be more effective in ME-Arc. This peptide prevents the xenobiotic caused disturbance of DA diurnal rhythm, keeping this metabolite low at 5 o'clock (CT) with it having increased by 11 o'clock (CT). The data obtained suggest that the pineal gland is important for the circadian signal normalization needed for gonadoliberin surge on the day of proestrus. Melatonin and peptides of the pineal gland can be considered as effective protectors of female reproductive system from xenobiotics and premature aging.

  5. Characterization of the Expression of Basigin Gene Products Within the Pineal Gland of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Derek; van Ekeris, Leslie; Linser, Paul J; Ochrietor, Judith D

    2016-11-04

    The expression of Basigin gene products and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) has been investigated within the mammalian neural retina and suggests a role for these proteins in cellular metabolism within that tissue. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression of these same proteins in the pineal gland of the mouse brain. Mouse pineal gland and neural retina RNA and protein were subjected to quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. In addition, paraffin-embedded sections of each tissue were analyzed for expression of Basigin gene products and MCT1 via immunohistochemistry. The results indicate that MCT1 and Basigin variant-2, but not Basigin variant-1, are expressed within the mouse pineal gland. The expression of Basigin variant-2 and MCT1 was localized to the capsule surrounding the gland. The position and relative amounts of the gene products suggest that they play a much less prominent role within the pineal gland than in the neural retina.

  6. An overview of the current surgical options for pineal region tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed A Azab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The list of pineal region tumors comprises an extensive array of pathological entities originating within one of the most complex areas of the intracranial cavity. With the exception of germ cell tumors, microsurgical excision is still nowadays the mainstay of management for most pineal region tumors. Methods: A search of the medical literature was conducted for publications addressing surgical options for management of pineal region tumors. Results: The infratentorial supracerebellar and the occipital transtentorial approaches are currently the most frequently used approaches for pineal region tumors. Endoscopic tumor biopsy with simultaneous endoscopic third ventriculostomy has emerged as a minimally invasive and highly effective strategy for initial management since it addresses the issue of tissue diagnosis and offers a solution for the associated hydrocephalus frequently encountered in these patients. Endoscope-assisted microsurgery and purely endoscopic excision have been reported in few reports and are likely to be more utilized in the future. Conclusion : Preoperative planning is very crucial and should most importantly be individualized according to the anatomical features of the lesion and structures encountered during the procedure.

  7. Insulin modulates norepinephrine-mediated melatonin synthesis in cultured rat pineal gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mammalian pineal gland synthesizes melatonin in a circadian manner, peaking during the dark phase. This synthesis is primarily regulated by sympathetic innervations via noradrenergic fibers, but is also modulated by many peptidergic and hormonal systems. A growing number of studies reveal a comp...

  8. The effect of light on melatonin secretion in the cultured pineal glands of Anolis lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ashli F; Menaker, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is important for regulating circadian rhythms in many animals. Light at night causes an acute suppression of melatonin in nearly all vertebrate species. A previous study found that light failed to suppress melatonin in the lizard Anolis carolinensis. This is a surprising result given that the Anolis pineal gland is intrinsically photosensitive, is a key pacemaker controlling locomotor activity, and can be directly entrained to a light-dark cycle. To find out if the lack of photic suppression is widespread in the Anolis genus, we investigated the acute effects of light on melatonin secretion in five different species of Anolis using flow-through tissue culture. We administered a two-hour pulse of bright light to isolated pineal glands during the night. The results show photic suppression of melatonin in all five Anolis species, but the suppression is weak relative to that seen in other vertebrates. Moreover, Anolis species differ in the magnitude of the effect. These findings are discussed in the context of vertebrate pineal evolution and the ecology of Anolis lizards. Given their extensive phylogenetic and ecological divergence, Anolis lizards provide a promising system for investigating the ecology and evolution of circadian organization.

  9. /sup 3/H-retinol derived photopigment in chick pineal membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallingford, J.; Zatz, M.

    1986-05-01

    Pineal glands display a day-night rhythm in the synthesis and secretion of melatonin. Dispersed chick pinealocytes retain their ability to respond to light in vitro for at least a week. Pinealocytes incubated overnight with /sup 3/H-retinol in the dark incorporate radioactivity predominantly into retinyl esters. To identify the chick pineal photopigment, SDS-PAGE was performed on radiolabelled preparations of pinealocytes and (intraocularly injected) rat retina. When intact cells or membrane preparations of cultured cells were incubated with NaCNBH/sub 3/, in the dark, a single radioactive peak with an apparent molecular weight of 32,000 daltons was observed. Rat retina preparations revealed a major peak at approximately 40,000 daltons. Protease inhibitors were present in the workup, and radioactivity corresponding to the smaller peak from pineal was not observed in retina. There was no radioactive peak when NaCNBH/sub 3/ was omitted. When samples were boiled in SDS the radioactivity shifted to the origin. These data suggest a protein in pinealocyte membranes which binds retinoid via a Schiff's base. Exposure to light of deoxycholate solubilized pineal membranes reduced the radioactivity associated with the protein. These findings raise the possibility that this protein is the pinealocyte's photopigment. Photopigments smaller than those observed in mammals have been reported in invertebrates.

  10. Tryptophan hydroxylase is modulated by L-type calcium channels in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Roseli; Scialfa, Julieta Helena; Terra, Ilza Mingarini; Cipolla-Neto, José; Simonneaux, Valérie; Afeche, Solange Castro

    2008-02-27

    Calcium is an important second messenger in the rat pineal gland, as well as cAMP. They both contribute to melatonin synthesis mediated by the three main enzymes of the melatonin synthesis pathway: tryptophan hydroxylase, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase. The cytosolic calcium is elevated in pinealocytes following alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation, through IP(3)-and membrane calcium channels activation. Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, reduces melatonin synthesis in rat pineal glands in vitro. With the purpose of investigating the mechanisms involved in melatonin synthesis regulation by the L-type calcium channel, we studied the effects of nifedipine on noradrenergic stimulated cultured rat pineal glands. Tryptophan hydroxylase, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activities were quantified by radiometric assays and 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, N-acetylserotonin and melatonin contents were quantified by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The data showed that calcium influx blockaded by nifedipine caused a decrease in tryptophan hydroxylase activity, but did not change either arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase or hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activities. Moreover, there was a reduction of 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, N-acetylserotonin and melatonin intracellular content, as well as a reduction of serotonin and melatonin secretion. Thus, it seems that the calcium influx through L-type high voltage-activated calcium channels is essential for the full activation of tryptophan hydroxylase leading to melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland.

  11. Proteomic analysis of day-night variations in protein levels in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Morten; Sparre, Thomas; Bache, Nicolai; Roepstorff, Peter; Vorum, Henrik

    2007-06-01

    The pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin. This secretion exhibits a circadian rhythm with a zenith during night and a nadir during day. We have performed proteome analysis of the superficial pineal gland in rats during daytime and nighttime. The proteins were extracted and subjected to 2-DE. Of 1747 protein spots revealed by electrophoresis, densitometric analysis showed the up-regulation of 25 proteins during nighttime and of 35 proteins during daytime. Thirty-seven of the proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The proteins up-regulated during the night are involved in the Krebs cycle, energy transduction, calcium binding, and intracellular transport. During the daytime, enzymes involved in glycolysis, electron transport, and also the Krebs cycle were up-regulated as well as proteins taking part in RNA binding and RNA processing. Our data show a prominent day-night variation of the protein levels in the rat pineal gland. Some proteins are up-regulated during the night concomitant with the melatonin secretion of the gland. Other proteins are up-regulated during the day indicating a pineal metabolism not related to the melatonin synthesis.

  12. MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, H. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Uozumi, T. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Arita, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Sumida, M. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical characterization of interstitial cells in pre- and postnatal developing sheep pineal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Redondo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pineal gland interstitial cells from 32 sheep embryos (from day 54 of gestation until birth and 18 sheep (from 1 month to >2 years were analysed using ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. From day 98 of gestation and throughout postnatal development, a second cell type was observed in addition to pinealocytes; these cells displayed uniform ultrastructural features similar to those of CNS astrocytes. Ultrastructural homogeneity was not matched by the results of histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. Expression of phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin indicates that the second cell population in the developing ovine pineal gland is, in fact, a combination of glial-astrocyte cells at varying stages of maturity. Pineal interstitial cells started to show signs of functional activity evident in vascular tropism; such activity, evident from around day 98 of gestation, appeared to relate to the exchange of substances between the pineal parenchyma and blood vessels and, though it continued throughout postnatal development, was most evident in animals slaughtered between 9 months and 2 years of age (group II. Morphologically, functional activi- ty in interstitial cells in this age-group was apparent in: 1, formation of specific contact sites between interstitial cells and nerve fibres in the perivascular space; and 2, the presence of numerous gap junctions between the bulbous endings of cytoplasmic processes.

  14. Interleukin-1 β Modulates Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Gland: Ex Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Herman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the effect of proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin- (IL- 1β, on melatonin release and expression enzymes essential for this hormone synthesis: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT in ovine pineal gland, taking into account the immune status of animals before sacrificing. Ewes were injected by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg or saline, two hours after sunset during short day period (December. Animals were euthanized three hours after the injection. Next, the pineal glands were collected and divided into four explants. The explants were incubated with (1 medium 199 (control explants, (2 norepinephrine (NE; 10 µM, (3 IL-1β (75 pg/mL, or (4 NE + IL-1β. It was found that IL-1β abolished (P<0.05 NE-induced increase in melatonin release. Treatment with IL-1β also reduced (P<0.05 expression of AA-NAT enzyme compared to NE-treated explants. There was no effect of NE or IL-1β treatment on gene expression of HIOMT; however, the pineal fragments isolated from LPS-treated animals were characterized by elevated (P<0.05 expression of HIOMT mRNA and protein compared to the explants from saline-treated ewes. Our study proves that IL-1β suppresses melatonin secretion and its action seems to be targeted on the reduction of pineal AA-NAT protein expression.

  15. MICRODIALYSIS OF MELATONIN IN THE RAT PINEAL-GLAND - METHODOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DRIJFHOUT, WJ; GROL, CJ; WESTERINK, BHC

    1993-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a new technique to measure melatonin contents in the pineal gland of freely moving rats, by means of on-line microdialysis. The transcerebral cannula was modified, and a sensitive assay of melatonin, using HPLC with fluorimetric detection, was set up. W

  16. Early development of circadian rhythmicity in the suprachiamatic nuclei and pineal gland of teleost, flounder (Paralichthys olivaeus), embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogi, Makoto; Uji, Susumu; Yokoi, Hayato; Suzuki, Tohru

    2015-08-01

    Circadian rhythms enable organisms to coordinate multiple physiological processes and behaviors with the earth's rotation. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the sole master circadian pacemaker, has entrainment mechanisms that set the circadian rhythm to a 24-h cycle with photic signals from retina. In contrast, the zebrafish SCN is not a circadian pacemaker, instead the pineal gland (PG) houses the major circadian oscillator. The SCN of flounder larvae, unlike that of zebrafish, however, expresses per2 with a rhythmicity of daytime/ON and nighttime/OFF. Here, we examined whether the rhythm of per2 expression in the flounder SCN represents the molecular clock. We also examined early development of the circadian rhythmicity in the SCN and PG. Our three major findings were as follows. First, rhythmic per2 expression in the SCN was maintained under 24 h dark (DD) conditions, indicating that a molecular clock exists in the flounder SCN. Second, onset of circadian rhythmicity in the SCN preceded that in the PG. Third, both 24 h light (LL) and DD conditions deeply affected the development of circadian rhythmicity in the SCN and PG. This is the first report dealing with the early development of circadian rhythmicity in the SCN in fish.

  17. Oncostatic activity of pineal neuroendocrine treatment with the pineal indoles melatonin and 5-methoxytryptamine in untreatable metastatic cancer patients progressing on melatonin alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissoni, Paolo; Rovelli, Franco; Frassineti, Andrea; Fumagalli, Luca; Malysheva, Ola; Conti, Ario; Maestroni, Georges

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The recent advances in psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunology have demonstrated the existence of several endogenous neuroendocrine substances, capable of affecting both tumor growth and host anticancer immune defenses. The pineal gland would represent one of the most important organs releasing antiproliferative and immunostimulating substances, the most known of them is melatonin (MLT). However, MLT would not be the only pineal indole provided by antitumor activity. Other pineal indoles, namely 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MTT), would play antitumor effects, by either inhibiting cancer cell proliferation or stimulating the anticancer immunity. Preliminary data have shown that MLT may deserve antitumor activity in the treatment of human neoplasms, whereas at present there are no clear data about 5-MTT. In an attempt to obtain some preliminary data about the anticancer properties of 5-MTT in humans, we have evaluated the efficacy of MLT plus 5-MTT in untreatable advanced cancer patients progressing on MLT alone. METHODS: The study included 73 untreatable advanced solid tumor patients, who had progressed after two months of MLT therapy alone. According to tumor histotype, patients were randomized to receive MLT alone (20 mg/day orally in the evening) or MLT plus 5-MTT (1 mg at noon orally), every day for at least two months. The clinical response was evaluated according to WHO criteria. RESULTS: A partial response (PR) occurred in two patients treated with MLT + 5-MTT and in none of the patients receiving MLT alone. A stable disease (SD) was achieved in only 2/37 patients on MLT therapy alone, and in 8/36 patients receiving MLT plus 5-MTT. Therefore, the percent of non-progressing patients (SD + PR) obtained with MLT plus 5-MTT was significantly higher than that obtained with MLT alone. Moreover, the relief of asthenia and depressant symptoms was significantly higher in patients concomitantly treated with 5-MTT. DISCUSSION: This preliminary study would suggest that

  18. Histone H3 phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland: adrenergic regulation and diurnal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chik, C L; Arnason, T G; Dukewich, W G; Price, D M; Ranger, A; Ho, A K

    2007-04-01

    In this study, we investigated phosphorylation of Ser10 in histone H3 by norepinephrine (NE) in the rat pineal gland. In whole-animal studies, we demonstrated a marked increase in histone H3 phosphorylation in the rat pineal gland during the first half of the dark period. Exposure to light during this period caused a rapid decline in histone H3 phosphorylation with an estimated t1/2 of less than 15 min, indicating a high level of dephosphorylation activity. Corresponding studies in cultured pineal cells revealed that treatment with NE produced an increase in histone H3 phosphorylation that peaked between 2 and 3 h and declined rapidly by 4 h. The NE-induced histone H3 phosphorylation was blocked by cotreatment with propranolol or KT5720, a protein kinase A inhibitor, but not by prazosin or other kinase inhibitors. Moreover, only treatment with dibutyryl cAMP but not other kinase activators mimicked the effect of NE on histone H3 phosphorylation. The NE-stimulated H3 phosphorylation was markedly increased by cotreatment with a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, tautomycin or okadaic acid, supporting a high level of ongoing histone H3 dephosphorylation activity. Together, our results indicate that histone H3 phosphorylation is a naturally occurring event at night in the rat pineal gland that is driven almost exclusively by a NE-->beta-adrenergic-->cAMP/protein kinase A signaling mechanism. This transient histone H3 phosphorylation probably reflects the nocturnal activation of multiple adrenergic-regulated genes in the rat pineal gland.

  19. Increased vascular permeability and nitric oxide production in response to hypoxia in the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, C; Sivakumar, V; Lu, J; Ling, E A

    2007-04-01

    This study examined the factors that may be involved in altering the function of pineal gland in hypoxic conditions. Adult Wistar rats were subjected to hypoxia and the pineal gland was examined for the mRNA and protein expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial, neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS, iNOS) at 3 hr-14 days after hypoxic exposure by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Upregulated mRNA and protein expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF, eNOS, nNOS and iNOS was observed in response to hypoxia. VEGF concentrations as determined by enzyme immunoassay and nitric oxide (NO) production measured by colorimetric assay were significantly higher after hypoxic exposure when compared with the controls. Melatonin content of the pineal gland, as determined by ELISA, was significantly reduced after the hypoxic exposure. Dilated blood vessels expressing eNOS were observed in hypoxic rats. Cells immunoreactive for VEGF were identified as the astrocytes whereas those immunoreactive for iNOS were pinealocytes and macrophages. Our findings indicate that excess production of VEGF and NO in pineal gland in response to hypoxia may be involved in increased vascular permeability as evidenced by an enhanced leakage of rhodamine isothiocyanate (RhIC). The increased vascular permeability may allow free access of serum-derived substances in the pineal gland that may affect the secretory function of the pinealocytes. Administration of exogenous melatonin may be beneficial as it reduced VEGF concentration and NO production significantly in hypoxic rats, and leakage of RhIC was concomitantly reduced.

  20. The nicotinic receptor in the rat pineal gland is an alpha3beta4 subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Susan C; Vicini, Stefano; Xiao, Yingxian; Dávila-García, Martha I; Yasuda, Robert P; Wolfe, Barry B; Kellar, Kenneth J

    2004-10-01

    The rat pineal gland contains a high density of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We characterized the pharmacology of the binding sites and function of these receptors, measured the nAChR subunit mRNA, and used subunit-specific antibodies to establish the receptor subtype as defined by subunit composition. In ligand binding studies, [3H]epibatidine ([3H]EB) binds with an affinity of approximately 100 pM to nAChRs in the pineal gland, and the density of these sites is approximately 5 times that in rat cerebral cortex. The affinities of nicotinic drugs for binding sites in the pineal gland are similar to those at alpha3beta4 nAChRs heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In functional studies, the potencies and efficacies of nicotinic drugs to activate or block whole-cell currents in dissociated pinealocytes match closely their potencies and efficacies to activate or block 86Rb+ efflux in the cells expressing heterologous alpha3beta4 nAChRs. Measurements of mRNA indicated the presence of transcripts for alpha3, beta2, and beta4 nAChR subunits but not those for alpha2, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6, alpha7, or beta3 subunits. Immunoprecipitation with subunit-specific antibodies showed that virtually all [3H]EB-labeled nAChRs contained alpha3 and beta4 subunits associated in one complex. The beta2 subunit was not associated with this complex. Taken together, these results indicate that virtually all of the nAChRs in the rat pineal gland are the alpha3beta4 nAChR subtype and that the pineal gland can therefore serve as an excellent and convenient model in which to study the pharmacology and function of these receptors in a native tissue.

  1. Neurosurgical experience with tumours of the pineal region at Clinica Puerta de Hierro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, J; Ramiro, J; Martínez, R; Bravo, G

    1992-01-01

    The clinicopathological experience with 50 cases of pineal region tumours at Clinica Puerta de Hierro is presented. In this series, 88% of the patients were evaluated by CT-scan. Pineal region tumours make up approximately 0.7% of the intracranial expansive processes in the Spanish population. The largest group of lesions appearing in this localization is that of the germinomas (38%), followed by nontumoural lesions (20%) and tumours generally considered to be of the vicinity, such as meningiomas, gliomas and metastases (18%), tumours of the pineal parenchyma (14%), and non-germinoma germinal tumours (10%). In our series, in addition to an intracranial hypertension syndrome, an ophthalmological and, to a minor degree, an endocrinological syndrome predominate in germ-cell tumours, with a cerebellar syndrome appearing in gliomas of the pineal region. All the patients in the series diagnosed as having a germinoma and treated by irradiation are alive, and free of disease, after follow-up ranging from 2 to 20 years (mean: 8 years). The experience obtained with the present series supports the opinion that, in radiosensitive tumours, surgical resection adds no therapeutic benefit to treatment with radiotherapy alone. We suggest that when dealing with a tumour of the pineal region, CT-scan and clinical assessment now permit an initial selection of patients susceptible to surgery as a first therapeutic option, indicating those patients who, because they are considered to have either a "probable germinoma" or a "tumour of uncertain diagnosis", should undergo stereotaxic biopsy or trial radiotherapy and, only when this has proved a failure, should be subjected to open surgery.

  2. Seasonal postembryonic maturation of the diurnal rhythm of serotonin in the chicken pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesiewicz, Aneta; Kedzierska, Urszula; Turkowska, Elzbieta; Adamska, Iwona; Majewski, Pawel M

    2015-02-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated the postembryonic development of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus L.) pineal gland functions expressed as changes in melatonin (MEL) biosynthesis. Pineal concentrations of MEL and its precursor serotonin (5-HT) were shown to increase between the 2nd and 16th day of life. We also found that levels of the mRNAs encoding the enzymes participating in the final two steps of MEL biosynthesis from 5-HT: arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), as well as their enzymatic activities, were raised during postembryonic development. Moreover, the manner of these changes was season-of-hatch dependent, even in animals kept under constant laboratory conditions (L:D 12:12). The most pronounced changes were seen in the concentrations of 5-HT and MEL, as well as in Aanat mRNA level and its enzymatic activity. The high daily variability in 5-HT content suggested that season- and age-dependent changes in the activity of the chicken pineal gland might rely on the availability of 5-HT, i.e. it may be limited by changes in pineal tryptophan (TRP) and/or 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) levels as well as by the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC): two enzymes participating in the conversion of TRP to 5-HT. The present study was undertaken with the following objectives: (1) to examine whether the pineal concentration of the 5-HT precursors TRP and 5-HTP exhibit age- and season-related changes; (2) to look for season-related differences in the transcription of the Tph1 and Ddc genes encoding enzymes TPH and AADC; (3) to identify the step(s) in postembryonic development in which these season-related variations in pineal gland function are most pronounced. Male Hy-line chickens hatched in the summer or winter, from eggs laid by hens held in L:D 16:8 conditions were kept from the day of hatch in L:D 12:12 conditions. At the age of 2 or 9 days, animals were sacrificed

  3. Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela; Ganguly, Surajit; Morin, Fabrice; Shi, Qiong; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten

    2006-04-01

    Otx2 is a vertebrate homeobox gene, which has been found to be essential for the development of rostral brain regions and appears to play a role in the development of retinal photoreceptor cells and pinealocytes. In this study, the temporal expression pattern of Otx2 was revealed in the rat brain, with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression pattern similar to that of Otx2, although there was a distinct lag in time of onset. Otx2 protein was identified in pineal extracts and found to be localized in pinealocytes. Total pineal Otx2 mRNA did not show day-night variation, nor was it influenced by removal of the sympathetic input, indicating that the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes associated with phototransduction and melatonin synthesis.

  4. Expression of the Otx2 homeobox gene in the developing mammalian brain: embryonic and adult expression in the pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin F; Muñoz, Estela; Ganguly, Surajit;

    2006-01-01

    , with special emphasis on the pineal gland throughout late embryonic and postnatal stages. Widespread high expression of Otx2 in the embryonic brain becomes progressively restricted in the adult to the pineal gland. Crx (cone-rod homeobox), a downstream target gene of Otx2, showed a pineal expression pattern...... that the level of Otx2 mRNA appears to be independent of the photoneural input to the gland. Our results are consistent with the view that pineal expression of Otx2 is required for development and we hypothesize that it plays a role in the adult in controlling the expression of the cluster of genes associated...... similar to that of Otx2, although there was a distinct lag in time of onset. Otx2 protein was identified in pineal extracts and found to be localized in pinealocytes. Total pineal Otx2 mRNA did not show day-night variation, nor was it influenced by removal of the sympathetic input, indicating...

  5. Differential control of tryptophan hydroxylase expression in raphe and in pineal gland: evidence for a role of translation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, S; Darmon, M C; Delort, J; Mallet, J

    1989-12-01

    In a previous study, we characterized two tryptophan hydroxylase mRNAs (TPH mRNAs) in the pineal gland. However, we failed to detect these species in the raphe by Northern blot experiments. Here, we report by S1 nuclease analysis and in situ hybridization that these two TPH mRNAs, as well as a third species, are expressed both in pineal gland and in raphe. In both tissues, the three mRNAs are transcribed predominantly from the same promoter. Strikingly, from the results of S1 maping analysis, it was observed that the total level of TPH mRNA per tissue is at least 150 times lower in the raphe than in the pineal gland. In contrast, TPH antigen as quantified by immunoblot experiments is about threefold more abundant per raphe than per pineal gland. TPH mRNA from one raphe and one pineal gland yield in vitro about the same amount of TPH antigen, suggesting that the discrepancy in the ratios of TPH mRNA and TPH antigen between the raphe and the pineal gland results, at least in part, from a difference in the translation efficiency of TPH mRNAs in the two structures.

  6. Expression of UV-Sensitive Parapinopsin in the Iguana Parietal Eyes and Its Implication in UV-Sensitivity in Vertebrate Pineal-Related Organs

    OpenAIRE

    Seiji Wada; Emi Kawano-Yamashita; Mitsumasa Koyanagi; Akihisa Terakita

    2012-01-01

    The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identifi...

  7. Circadian dynamics of the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor in the rat pineal gland and its role in regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Kristian; Rovsing, Louise; Ho, Anthony K; Møller, Morten; Rath, Martin F

    2014-08-01

    The cone-rod homeobox (Crx) gene encodes a transcription factor in the retina and pineal gland. Crx deficiency influences the pineal transcriptome, including a reduced expression of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat), a key enzyme in nocturnal pineal melatonin production. However, previous functional studies on pineal Crx have been performed in melatonin-deficient mice. In this study, we have investigated the role of Crx in the melatonin-proficient rat pineal gland. The current study shows that pineal Crx transcript levels exhibit a circadian rhythm with a peak in the middle of the night, which is transferred into daily changes in CRX protein. The study further shows that the sympathetic innervation of the pineal gland controls the Crx rhythm. By use of adenovirus-mediated short hairpin RNA gene knockdown targeting Crx mRNA in primary rat pinealocyte cell culture, we here show that intact levels of Crx mRNA are required to obtain high levels of Aanat expression, whereas overexpression of Crx induces Aanat transcription in vitro. This regulatory function of Crx is further supported by circadian analysis of Aanat in the pineal gland of the Crx-knockout mouse. Our data indicate that the rhythmic nature of pineal CRX protein may directly modulate the daily profile of Aanat expression by inducing nighttime expression of this enzyme, thus facilitating nocturnal melatonin synthesis in addition to its role in ensuring a correct tissue distribution of Aanat expression.

  8. Morphologic study of the pineal gland of the dog/ Estudo morfológico da glândula pineal do cão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Xavier Hernandez Blazquez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the discovery of the melatonin by Lerner et al. (1958, new research and perspectives were developed in order to improve the knowledge regarding the pineal gland. This hormone is not only related to the circadian control but also influences other behavioral functions such as the reproductive cycle and thermoregulation. In this study the morphology of the pineal gland (epiphysis cerebri from 20 dogs were analyzed by means of macroscopic and microscopic evaluation. The shape of the gland ranged from conic to “tongue-like shape” (in relation to human tongue. The gland color ranged from beige to gray-brownish and it had a gelatinous consistency. The width and length of the glands ranged from 1.38 to 2.39 mm and 1.53 to 2.96 mm, respectively. Capsule, septa, pinealocytes, glial cells and pigment granules were microscopically found in all glands. No calcareous concretions were observed.Após a descoberta da melatonina por Lerner et al. (1958, novas pesquisas e perspectivas surgiram tornando a pineal uma estrutura mais estudada. Além disso, sabe-se que este hormônio está relacionado com o controle circadiano e outras funções comportamentais fisiológicas como o ciclo reprodutivo e termorregulação. Neste trabalho, foram utilizados 20 cães e estudamos a morfologia das glândulas, empregando uma análise macroscópica e microscópica. O formato das pineais variou de cônico a glossóide (em relação à língua humana; cor entre bege e marrom-acinzentado e apresentaram consistência gelatinosa. A largura e o comprimento das glândulas variaram respectivamente de 1,38 a 2,39 mm e de 1,53 a 2,96 mm. Quanto à microscopia, utilizamos coloração de eosina-hematoxilina (HE, e em todas as pineais observamos a presença dos seguintes componentes: cápsula; septos ou trabéculas pinealócitos; células da glia; grânulos de pigmentos, e não foram notadas concreções calcáreas.

  9. Identification of differentially expressed genes during development of the zebrafish pineal complex using RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuansuwan, Sataree; Gamse, Joshua T

    2014-11-01

    We describe a method for isolating RNA suitable for high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) from small numbers of fluorescently labeled cells isolated from live zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos without using costly, commercially available columns. This method ensures high cell viability after dissociation and suspension of cells and gives a very high yield of intact RNA. We demonstrate the utility of our new protocol by isolating RNA from fluorescence activated cell sorted (FAC sorted) pineal complex neurons in wild-type and tbx2b knockdown embryos at 24 hours post-fertilization. Tbx2b is a transcription factor required for pineal complex formation. We describe a bioinformatics pipeline used to analyze differential expression following high-throughput sequencing and demonstrate the validity of our results using in situ hybridization of differentially expressed transcripts. This protocol brings modern transcriptome analysis to the study of small cell populations in zebrafish.

  10. Significant anti-tumor effect of bevacizumab in treatment of pineal gland glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Joshua; Fields, Braxton; Macomson, Samuel; Rixe, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive subtype of malignant gliomas. Current standard treatment for GBM involves a combination of cytoreduction through surgical resection, followed by radiation with concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy (temozolomide). The role of bevacizumab in the treatment of GBM continues to be a topic of ongoing research and debate. Despite aggressive treatment, these tumors remain undoubtedly fatal, especially in the elderly. Furthermore, tumors present in the pineal gland are extremely rare, accounting for only 0.1-0.4 % of all adult brain tumors, with this location adding to the complexity of treatment. We present a case of GBM, at the rare location of pineal gland, in an elderly patient who was refractory to initial standard of care treatment with radiation and concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide, but who developed a significant response to anti-angiogenic therapy using bevacizumab.

  11. Estudo morfológico da glândula pineal no cão

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Alécio Gomes

    2003-01-01

    A glândula pineal animal por muito tempo foi uma estrutura “esquecida” ou considerada de pouca importância para muitos estudiosos ligados à anatomia. Após a descoberta da melatonina, hormônio por ela secretado novas pesquisas e perspectivas surgiram. Neste trabalho, efetuamos estudo morfológico desta glândula no cão, mediante análise macroscópica, mesoscópica e microscópica (microscopia de luz). Para este estudo, foram utilizados 20 cães. A glândula pineal revelou um formato variando de cônic...

  12. Estudo morfológico da glândula pineal no cão

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Alécio Gomes

    2003-01-01

    A glândula pineal animal por muito tempo foi uma estrutura “esquecida” ou considerada de pouca importância para muitos estudiosos ligados à anatomia. Após a descoberta da melatonina, hormônio por ela secretado novas pesquisas e perspectivas surgiram. Neste trabalho, efetuamos estudo morfológico desta glândula no cão, mediante análise macroscópica, mesoscópica e microscópica (microscopia de luz). Para este estudo, foram utilizados 20 cães. A glândula pineal revelou um formato variando de cônic...

  13. Proteomic analysis of day-night variations in protein levels in the rat pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Sparre, Thomas; Bache, Nicolai

    2007-01-01

    The pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin. This secretion exhibits a circadian rhythm with a zenith during night and a nadir during day. We have performed proteome analysis of the superficial pineal gland in rats during daytime and nighttime. The proteins were extracted and subjected to 2-DE....... Of 1747 protein spots revealed by electrophoresis, densitometric analysis showed the up-regulation of 25 proteins during nighttime and of 35 proteins during daytime. Thirty-seven of the proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The proteins up-regulated during the night are involved in the Krebs cycle......, energy transduction, calcium binding, and intracellular transport. During the daytime, enzymes involved in glycolysis, electron transport, and also the Krebs cycle were up-regulated as well as proteins taking part in RNA binding and RNA processing. Our data show a prominent day-night variation...

  14. Light and electron microscopic study on the pineal complex of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, M A; Merhige, M E

    1977-03-01

    The pineal complex of the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae was studied light and electron microscopically. It consists of two vesicles representing parapineal and pineal organs. Both occur intracranially and openly communicate with each other and the brain ventricle. The entire complex shows a striking photoreceptor morphology with sensory, ependymal and nerve cells. The last cell type is more abundant in the parapineal vesicle than in the pineal organ. The following ultrastructural details of the parapineal are noteworthy: 1. The sensory cells possess large inner and outer segments protruding freely in the vesicular cavity. The outer segments measure 8-10 mum in length and consist of as many as 275 lamellae. The basal processes of these cells terminate in neuropil-like regions. Occasionally, dense granules (500-1000 A) of uncertain identity occur in the perinuclear and inner segment cytoplasm of the cells. 2. The supporting cells are of the ependymal type. Their cytoplasm contains a filamentous feltwork and pinocytotic vesicles, but lacks secretory granules. Cytosomes are particularly abundant in cell processes in the neuropil-like zones. The basal end-feet of these cells isolate the receptor and nerve cells from the perivascular space. 3. In the neuropil-like regions, terminals of sensory cells make synaptic contacts with neuronal dendrites. Synaptic ribbon-like profiles in the terminals characterize the contact zones. Only unmyelinated nerve fibers could be observed in the small area of the tissue examined. The results are discussed with regard to photoreceptive and secretory functions of the pineal complex and its evolution in lower vertebrates.

  15. [The role of the pineal-thymus system in the regulation of autoimmunity, aging and lifespan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2016-07-03

    Thymus is an immunoendocrine organ, the hormones of which mainly influence its own lymphatic elements. It has a central role in the immune system, the neonatal removal causes the collapse of immune system and the whole organism. The thymic nurse cells select the bone marrow originated lymphocytes and destroy the autoreactive ones, while thymus originated Treg cells suppress the autoreactive cells in the periphery. The involution of the organ starts after birth, however, this truly happens in the end of puberty only, as before this it is overcompensated by developmental processes. From the end of adolescence the involution allows the life, proliferation and enhanced functioning of some autoreactive cells, which gradually wear down the cells and intercellular materials, causing the aging. The enhanced and mass function of autoreactive cells lead to the autoimmune diseases and natural death. This means that the involution of thymus is not a part of the organismic involution, but an originator of it, which is manifested in the lifespan-pacemaker function. Thus, aging can be conceptualized as a thymus-commanded slow autoimmune process. The neonatal removal of pineal gland leads to the complete destruction of the thymus and the crashing down of the immune system, as well as to wasting disease. The involution of the pineal and thymus runs parallel, because the two organs form a functional unit. It is probable that the pineal gland is responsible for the involution of thymus and also regulates its lifespan determining role. However, the data reviewed here do not prove the exclusive role of the pineal-thymus system in the regulation of aging and lifespan, but only call attention to such possibility.

  16. The Syrian Hamster Pineal Gland Responds to Isoproterenol in Vivo at Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    pineal melatonin content in Results were analyzed by t tests with the uninjected animals (exp. 2) was typical for Bonferroni correction for multiplicity of... Coggins for technical assistance and Dr. Mark Rollag for melatonin antibody. 12. Lipton JS, Petterborg LJ, Reiter RJ 1981 Influence of propranolol...Axelrod J 1973 Superinduc- glands. Neuroendocrinology 38:193 tion of serotonin N-acetyltransferase 14. Vaughan GM, Lasko J, Coggins SH, and

  17. [Influence of pineal hormone melatonin on behavioral disturbances and neurological status of animals after hemorrhagic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arushanian, E B; Naumov, S S

    2011-01-01

    Experimental hemorrhagic stroke causes behavior and locomotor activity with memory impairment and neurological disturbances in rats. These shifts are weaker in the evening hours than after morning testing. The repeated administration of the pineal gland hormone melatonin (melaxen) during one week significantly decreases behavior and neurological deficits as well as pathomorphological signs in the lesion focus. The normalizing effect of the hormone is more distinct in the evening.

  18. Papillary tumor of the pineal region: report of a rapidly progressive tumor with possible multicentric origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takashi S. [University of Iowa, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Kirby, Patricia A. [University of Iowa, Department of Pathology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Buatti, John M. [University of Iowa, Department of Radiation Oncology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Moritani, Toshio [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Papillary tumor of the pineal region (PTPR) is an uncommon tumor recently added to the WHO classification of CNS tumors. We report a case of PTPR in a young boy that was noteworthy for early CSF dissemination and relentless progression. In spite of intensive chemotherapy and comprehensive radiotherapy, the boy died. The neuroimaging appearance is unique with possible multicentric origin of the tumor and intense uptake of {sup 111}In-DTPA-pentetreotide. (orig.)

  19. Determination of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (EC 2. 1. 1. 4) activity in rat pineal gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, D.J.; Potgieter, B. (Rhodes Univ., Grahamstown (South Africa))

    1982-01-01

    This study was an attempt to ascertain optimum conditions for in vitro HIOMT activity with regard to concentration of enzyme, pH, buffer, temperature, incubation time, substrate concentration and velocity maxima. Pineal glands were obtained from rats of the Wistar strain kept in a cycle of 12 hours dark / 12 hours light and fed a balanced diet. Methyl /sup 14/C, N-acetylserotonin and melatonin were used. The assay technique used was based on modification of that of Axelrod.

  20. Transducin duplicates in the zebrafish retina and pineal complex: differential specialisation after the teleost tetraploidisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lagman

    Full Text Available Gene duplications provide raw materials that can be selected for functional adaptations by evolutionary mechanisms. We describe here the results of 350 million years of evolution of three functionally related gene families: the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of transducins, the G protein involved in vision. Early vertebrate tetraploidisations resulted in separate transducin heterotrimers: gnat1/gnb1/gngt1 for rods, and gnat2/gnb3/gngt2 for cones. The teleost-specific tetraploidisation generated additional duplicates for gnb1, gnb3 and gngt2. We report here that the duplicates have undergone several types of subfunctionalisation or neofunctionalisation in the zebrafish. We have found that gnb1a and gnb1b are co-expressed at different levels in rods; gnb3a and gnb3b have undergone compartmentalisation restricting gnb3b to the dorsal and medial retina, however, gnb3a expression was detected only at very low levels in both larvae and adult retina; gngt2b expression is restricted to the dorsal and medial retina, whereas gngt2a is expressed ventrally. This dorsoventral distinction could be an adaptation to protect the lower part of the retina from intense light damage. The ontogenetic analysis shows earlier onset of expression in the pineal complex than in the retina, in accordance with its earlier maturation. Additionally, gnb1a but not gnb1b is expressed in the pineal complex, and gnb3b and gngt2b are transiently expressed in the pineal during ontogeny, thus showing partial temporal subfunctionalisation. These retina-pineal distinctions presumably reflect their distinct functional roles in vision and circadian rhythmicity. In summary, this study describes several functional differences between transducin gene duplicates resulting from the teleost-specific tetraploidisation.

  1. Transducin duplicates in the zebrafish retina and pineal complex: differential specialisation after the teleost tetraploidisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagman, David; Callado-Pérez, Amalia; Franzén, Ilkin E; Larhammar, Dan; Abalo, Xesús M

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplications provide raw materials that can be selected for functional adaptations by evolutionary mechanisms. We describe here the results of 350 million years of evolution of three functionally related gene families: the alpha, beta and gamma subunits of transducins, the G protein involved in vision. Early vertebrate tetraploidisations resulted in separate transducin heterotrimers: gnat1/gnb1/gngt1 for rods, and gnat2/gnb3/gngt2 for cones. The teleost-specific tetraploidisation generated additional duplicates for gnb1, gnb3 and gngt2. We report here that the duplicates have undergone several types of subfunctionalisation or neofunctionalisation in the zebrafish. We have found that gnb1a and gnb1b are co-expressed at different levels in rods; gnb3a and gnb3b have undergone compartmentalisation restricting gnb3b to the dorsal and medial retina, however, gnb3a expression was detected only at very low levels in both larvae and adult retina; gngt2b expression is restricted to the dorsal and medial retina, whereas gngt2a is expressed ventrally. This dorsoventral distinction could be an adaptation to protect the lower part of the retina from intense light damage. The ontogenetic analysis shows earlier onset of expression in the pineal complex than in the retina, in accordance with its earlier maturation. Additionally, gnb1a but not gnb1b is expressed in the pineal complex, and gnb3b and gngt2b are transiently expressed in the pineal during ontogeny, thus showing partial temporal subfunctionalisation. These retina-pineal distinctions presumably reflect their distinct functional roles in vision and circadian rhythmicity. In summary, this study describes several functional differences between transducin gene duplicates resulting from the teleost-specific tetraploidisation.

  2. Neurotranscriptomics: The Effects of Neonatal Stimulus Deprivation on the Rat Pineal Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Stephen W; Coon, Steven L; Savastano, Luis E; Mullikin, James C; Fu, Cong; Klein, David C

    2015-01-01

    The term neurotranscriptomics is used here to describe genome-wide analysis of neural control of transcriptomes. In this report, next-generation RNA sequencing was using to analyze the effects of neonatal (5-days-of-age) surgical stimulus deprivation on the adult rat pineal transcriptome. In intact animals, more than 3000 coding genes were found to exhibit differential expression (adjusted-p night/day basis in the pineal gland (70% of these increased at night, 376 genes changed more than 4-fold in either direction). Of these, more than two thousand genes were not previously known to be differentially expressed on a night/day basis. The night/day changes in expression were almost completely eliminated by neonatal removal (SCGX) or decentralization (DCN) of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG), which innervate the pineal gland. Other than the loss of rhythmic variation, surgical stimulus deprivation had little impact on the abundance of most genes; of particular interest, expression levels of the melatonin-synthesis-related genes Tph1, Gch1, and Asmt displayed little change (less than 35%) following DCN or SCGX. However, strong and consistent changes were observed in the expression of a small number of genes including the gene encoding Serpina1, a secreted protease inhibitor that might influence extracellular architecture. Many of the genes that exhibited night/day differential expression in intact animals also exhibited similar changes following in vitro treatment with norepinephrine, a superior cervical ganglia transmitter, or with an analog of cyclic AMP, a norepinephrine second messenger in this tissue. These findings are of significance in that they establish that the pineal-defining transcriptome is established prior to the neonatal period. Further, this work expands our knowledge of the biological process under neural control in this tissue and underlines the value of RNA sequencing in revealing how neurotransmission influences cell biology.

  3. Neurotranscriptomics: The Effects of Neonatal Stimulus Deprivation on the Rat Pineal Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Hartley

    Full Text Available The term neurotranscriptomics is used here to describe genome-wide analysis of neural control of transcriptomes. In this report, next-generation RNA sequencing was using to analyze the effects of neonatal (5-days-of-age surgical stimulus deprivation on the adult rat pineal transcriptome. In intact animals, more than 3000 coding genes were found to exhibit differential expression (adjusted-p < 0.001 on a night/day basis in the pineal gland (70% of these increased at night, 376 genes changed more than 4-fold in either direction. Of these, more than two thousand genes were not previously known to be differentially expressed on a night/day basis. The night/day changes in expression were almost completely eliminated by neonatal removal (SCGX or decentralization (DCN of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG, which innervate the pineal gland. Other than the loss of rhythmic variation, surgical stimulus deprivation had little impact on the abundance of most genes; of particular interest, expression levels of the melatonin-synthesis-related genes Tph1, Gch1, and Asmt displayed little change (less than 35% following DCN or SCGX. However, strong and consistent changes were observed in the expression of a small number of genes including the gene encoding Serpina1, a secreted protease inhibitor that might influence extracellular architecture. Many of the genes that exhibited night/day differential expression in intact animals also exhibited similar changes following in vitro treatment with norepinephrine, a superior cervical ganglia transmitter, or with an analog of cyclic AMP, a norepinephrine second messenger in this tissue. These findings are of significance in that they establish that the pineal-defining transcriptome is established prior to the neonatal period. Further, this work expands our knowledge of the biological process under neural control in this tissue and underlines the value of RNA sequencing in revealing how neurotransmission influences cell

  4. An unusual variant of anlage tumor of pineal region in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdasi, Raghvendra; Kothari, Kanchan; Goel, Naina; Mahore, Amit

    2015-04-01

    A 9-month-old male child was brought with complaints of increasing head size for 2 months, increasing lethargy and vomiting for the last 2 days. Radiology revealed a heterogeneously enhancing, globular lesion in the pineal region with hydrocephalus. Near total excision of the tumor was carried out. The histopathological examination of the lesion showed heterogenous elements in the form of mature neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal tissue. The pathology and radiology of this unusual lesion is discussed with relevant review of literature.

  5. Pineal-independent regulation of photo-nonresponsiveness in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, B J; Freeman, D A

    1999-02-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin influences circadian rhythms and also mediates reproductive responses to photoperiod. The authors tested whether pinealectomy influences circadian oscillators responsible for induction of nonresponsiveness to short day lengths by preventing normal short-day patterns of circadian entrainment. Adult male Siberian hamsters were pinealectomized or sham operated, maintained in either 18 h light per day (18L) or 15L for 10 weeks, and then tested for responsiveness to 10L. Because pinealectomized hamsters do not show gonadal regression in short day lengths, responsiveness was assessed by measuring phase angle of entrainment and the length of the nightly activity period following transfer to 10L. The incidence of nonresponsiveness was significantly higher in 18L hamsters than in 15L hamsters but was unaffected by pineal status. Fully 88% of 18L hamsters failed to entrain to 10L in the normal short-day manner; the duration of nightly activity remained compressed, and the phase angle of entrainment was large and negative relative to lights off. The 15L hamsters entrained normally to 10L. Exposure to constant light after 10L treatment was equally effective in inducing arrhythmicity in pinealectomized and intact hamsters. Changes in the period of morning and evening circadian oscillators subsequent to 18L treatment did not predict circadian responsiveness to short photoperiod. Long-day induction of photo-nonresponsiveness, which prevents winter responses to short day lengths, occurs independently of pineal melatonin feedback on the circadian system.

  6. Functional development of the circadian clock in the zebrafish pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Moshe, Zohar; Foulkes, Nicholas S; Gothilf, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish constitutes a powerful model organism with unique advantages for investigating the vertebrate circadian timing system and its regulation by light. In particular, the remarkably early and rapid development of the zebrafish circadian system has facilitated exploring the factors that control the onset of circadian clock function during embryogenesis. Here, we review our understanding of the molecular basis underlying functional development of the central clock in the zebrafish pineal gland. Furthermore, we examine how the directly light-entrainable clocks in zebrafish cell lines have facilitated unravelling the general mechanisms underlying light-induced clock gene expression. Finally, we summarize how analysis of the light-induced transcriptome and miRNome of the zebrafish pineal gland has provided insight into the regulation of the circadian system by light, including the involvement of microRNAs in shaping the kinetics of light- and clock-regulated mRNA expression. The relative contributions of the pineal gland central clock and the distributed peripheral oscillators to the synchronization of circadian rhythms at the whole animal level are a crucial question that still remains to be elucidated in the zebrafish model.

  7. Nocturnal headache associated with melatonin deficiency due to a pineal gland cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadaş, Omer; Ipekdal, Ilker H; Ulaş, Umit H; Odabaşi, Zeki

    2012-02-01

    The cyclic nature of some of headache disorders is closely related to melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland. We report a 29-year-old male patient with a 2.5-year history of headaches that woke him in the middle of the night. These headaches were pulsatile and continued until sunrise. During these attacks he also suffered from allodynia over the scalp, bilateral conjunctival hyperemia, and nervousness. His brain MRI showed a 5mm by 4mm neuroepithelial cyst in the pineal gland. The peak plasma melatonin level that was measured at 2 am was 28 pg/mL. The patient underwent oral melatonin treatment (6 mg/day). After 1 month he experienced a 70% reduction in his symptoms. When the melatonin dosage was increased to 10mg/day he became headache-free, and 5 months after the treatment began, had no complaints. His 5-month follow-up plasma melatonin level at 2 am was 61 pg/mL. To our knowledge this is the first report of a patient with nocturnal headache associated with a low level of melatonin due to a neuroepithelial cyst in the pineal gland.

  8. Morphological study of the pineal gland of (crab eater raccoon Procyon cancrivorus (Cuvier, 1798

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro de Oliveira Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Procyon cancrivorus is a wild carnivore that is widely distributed and relatively common, but it remains little studied, and few works report on the biology of this species. The aim of this work was to characterize morphologically the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus through macro, microscopic and radiographic studies, and to compare them with those from other animals. In this work, four adult animals of both sexes were used, originating from the Scientific Herd of CECRIMPAS IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76. Macroscopically, the pineal gland of Procyon cancrivorus was located between the occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres, cranially to the vermis cerebelar. It was positioned rostrally to the rostral colliculus and caudally to the habenular comissure. Microscopically, the gland was covered externally by a capsule deriving from the meningeal pia mater. The presence of three types of cells was noted in the glandular parenchyma: pinealocytes, glial cells and mast cells. No calcareous concretions in the pineal gland were found in the radiographic and microscopic studies.

  9. A rhythmic change of vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 2 expression in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Sachine; Hira, Yoshiki; Ehara, Ayuka; Mimura-Yamamoto, Yuka; Kawano, Michihiro; Shutoh, Fumihiro; Nogami, Haruo; Hisano, Setsuji

    2012-01-01

    The pineal gland secretes melatonin under circadian control via nocturnal noradrenergic stimulation, and expresses vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and a VGLUT1 splice variant (VGLUT1v). Although we previously reported that VGLUT2 mRNA level of rat pineal gland at postnatal day 21 is higher in the nighttime than in daytime, questions remained as to the time of postnatal onset of this phenomenon and a 24-h change in the mRNA or protein level at postnatal days. The day-night difference in VGLUT2 mRNA level was evident 14 days after birth. In the adult, VGLUT2 mRNA and protein levels increased in the dark phase, with the protein level showing a 6-h delay. The nocturnal elevation in VGLUT2 mRNA level diminished under the constant light condition but persisted under the constant dark condition. The present data suggest that VGLUT2 in the rat pineal gland is involved in some nocturnal glutamatergic function.

  10. Melatonin formation in pineal gland from rats with hexachlorobenzene experimental porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llambías, Elena B C; Mazzetti, Marta B; Lelli, Sandra M; Aldonatti, Carmen; San Martín de Viale, Leonor C

    2007-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene produces an experimental hepatic porphyria in rats, which is similar to human porphyria cutanea tarda, with hyperpigmentation as one of its characteristic features. Alterations in tryptophan metabolism have been previously observed in this chronic porphyria. Melatonin formation from tryptophan via serotonin shows diurnal rhythmicity in the pineal gland, and higher values are observed during the dark phase of an imposed light-dark cycle. The purpose of this study was to determine the contents of tryptophan and its metabolites in pineal gland of normal and hexachlorobenzene-treated rats in order to find alterations potentially related to porphyria cutanea tarda. Results show that in animals with this experimental porphyria some tryptophan metabolite levels (serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) increase only during the light period, whereas tryptophan content remained equal to the controls. Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activity also increases by light in pineal gland from hexachlorobenzene-treated rats. On the other hand, tryptophan is converted to melatonin in the dark period, but this route is not exacerbated in hexachlorobenzene porphyria. The relevance of these alterations is discussed in relation to hyperpigmentation, neoplastic and oxidative stress processes associated with this porphyria.

  11. Clinical experience with a high definition exoscope system for surgery of pineal region lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Kurtis; Drazin, Doniel; Black, Keith L; Williams, James; Berci, George; Mamelak, Adam N

    2014-07-01

    VITOM-90 (Karl Storz Endoscopy, Tuttlingen, Germany) is a new technology that can be used as an alternative to the operating microscope. We have found that this device substantially improves surgeon comfort during infra-tentorial supracerebellar approaches to pineal region masses, and now report our experiences. The VITOM-90 is a specially designed scope that is attached to a high definition (HD) digital camera and displayed on a HD video monitor. This system was utilized in five patients undergoing infratentorial supracerebellar approaches for pineal region lesions. Surgical outcomes and pathologies are described. The device was used by three surgeons during five procedures. Three patients underwent surgery in the sitting position and two in the modified prone (Concorde) position. Pathologies included pineocytoma, lipoma, and germinoma. Total resection was achieved in three patients and subtotal in two patients. Surgeon assessment was positive; surgeons indicated that surgery with the VITOM-90 was more comfortable than with the operating microscope. Lack of stereopsis was considered a minor drawback. The VITOM-90 permitted a natural head and neck position. Operating room personnel and residents reported improved visualization of the anatomy. Using the VITOM-90 benefited surgeons during pineal region surgery by reducing strain and allowing the surgeon to operate from a comfortable position without increased operative time or complications. The improved comfort levels may translate into safer, more accurate surgeries in this complex area.

  12. The rhythm and blues of gene expression in the rodent pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolczak, Magdalena; Korf, Horst-Werner; Stehle, Jörg H

    2005-07-01

    In all vertebrates, melatonin is rhythmically synthesized in the pineal gland and functions as a hormonal message, encoding for the duration of night. In rodents, the nocturnal rise and fall of the arylalkylamine N-ace-tyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity controls the rhythmic synthesis of melatonin. This rhythm is centered around the transcriptional regulation of the AA-NAT by two norepinephrine-inducible transcription factors, the activator CREB (Ca2+/cAMP-response element binding protein) and the inhibitor ICER (inducible cAMP early repressor). CREB is activated by phosphorylation, which is one of the fastest responses in pinealocytes upon adrenergic stimulation, occurring within minutes. ICER in turn accumulates only after several hours, a time gap resulting from the required de novo protein synthesis upon adrenergic stimulation. However, these molecular components of neuroendocrine signaling in the rodent pineal gland are supplemented by the impact of a variety of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, and by translational and post-translational mechanisms. By molecular crosstalk, those different inputs on pinealocytes seem to fine-tune the shape of the melatonin signal, by interacting at various levels with the NE/cAMP/pCREB/ICER pathway. In addition, these alternate signaling routes may be important in acute "emergency" situations. Together, concerted signaling events in the rodent pineal gland help to generate a stable and reliable hormonal message of darkness for the body, that, however, can be altered rapidly upon sudden and unexpected "error" signals.

  13. Ultrastructural interrelationship between the pineal gland and the testis in the male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuş, I; Sarsilmaz, M; Ogetürk, M; Yilmaz, B; Keleştimur, H; Oner, H

    2000-01-01

    The ultrastructural interrelationship between the pineal gland and testis was evaluated in the rat. Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups. Groups I and II were sham-orchidectomized and orchidectomized rats, respectively. Rats in group III were orchidectomized and daily injected with testosterone propionate (TP) for 1 month. Groups IV and V were sham-pinealectomized and pinealectomized, respectively. Group VI was pinealectomized and daily injected with melatonin for 2 months. All animals were anesthetized with ketamine for fixation by vascular perfusion. Pineal glands of groups I, II, and III and the testes of groups IV, V, and VI were removed and weighed. All specimens were examined by electron microscopy. Orchidectomy caused an increase of lipid droplets, cytoplasmic dense bodies, and lysosomes. Rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria were extensive in the cytoplasm. TP administration to orchidectomized rats resulted in formation of less extensive lipid droplets and mitochondria. In pinealectomized rats, golgi complex, mitochondria, and enlarged smooth endoplasmic reticulum were extensive in the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. Formation of cytoplasmic secretory granules and osmiophilic bodies was observed. Testicular weight increased compared to group IV. Melatonin decreased testicular weight in comparison to group V and prevented ultrastructural changes. Pinealectomy and orchidectomy caused hyperactivity in Leydig cells and pinealocytes, respectively, which suggests a mutual relationship between the pineal gland and testis in the rat.

  14. Dynamics in enzymatic protein complexes offer a novel principle for the regulation of melatonin synthesis in the human pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maronde, Erik; Saade, Anastasia; Ackermann, Katrin; Goubran-Botros, Hany; Pagan, Cecile; Bux, Roman; Bourgeron, Thomas; Dehghani, Faramarz; Stehle, Jörg H

    2011-08-01

    Time of day is communicated to the body through rhythmic cues, including pineal gland melatonin synthesis, which is restricted to nighttime. Whereas in most rodents transcriptional regulation of the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) gene is essential for rhythmic melatonin synthesis, investigations into nonrodent mammalian species have shown post-transcriptional regulation to be of central importance, with molecular mechanisms still elusive. Therefore, human pineal tissues, taken from routine autopsies were allocated to four time-of-death groups (night/dawn/day/dusk) and analyzed for daytime-dependent changes in phosphorylated AANAT (p31T-AANAT) and in acetyl-serotonin-methyltransferase (ASMT) expression and activity. Protein content, intracellular localization, and colocalization of p31T-AANAT and ASMT were assessed, using immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation techniques. Fresh sheep pineal gland preparations were used for comparative purposes. The amount of p31T-AANAT and ASMT proteins as well as their intracellular localization showed no diurnal variation in autoptic human and fresh sheep pineal glands. Moreover, in human and sheep pineal extracts, AANAT could not be dephosphorylated, which was at variance to data derived from rat pineal extracts. P31T-AANAT and ASMT were often found to colocalize in cellular rod-like structures that were also partly immunoreactive for the pinealocyte process-specific marker S-antigen (arrestin) in both, human and sheep pinealocytes. Protein-protein interaction studies with p31T-AANAT, ASMT, and S-antigen demonstrated a direct association and formation of robust complexes, involving also 14-3-3. This work provides evidence for a regulation principle for AANAT activity in the human pineal gland, which may not be based on a p31T-AANAT phosphorylation/dephosphorylation switch, as described for other mammalian species.

  15. Physiological Networks: towards systems physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-02-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate new dimensions to the field of systems physiology.

  16. Developmental and diurnal dynamics of Pax4 expression in the mammalian pineal gland: nocturnal down-regulation is mediated by adrenergic-cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin F; Bailey, Michael J; Kim, Jong-So

    2009-01-01

    that treatment with adrenergic agonists suppresses pineal Pax4 expression in vivo and in vitro. This suppression appears to be mediated by cAMP, a second messenger of norepinephrine in the pineal gland, based on the observation that treatment with a cAMP mimic reduces pineal Pax4 mRNA levels. These findings...

  17. MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma: focus on differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Ho Kyu; Kim, Jae Kyun; Shin, Ji Hoon; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Myung Jun; Ham, Soo Youn; Lee, Jong Hwa; Suh, Dae Chul [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    To determine the characteristic MR imaging findings of pineal germinoma, and differential diagnosis from other germ cell tumors. MR images of patients with histopathologically proven pineal germinoma(n=3D14) and other pineal germ cell tumors(n=3D10) were retrospectively analyzed with regard to size, signal intensity and homogeneity, enhancing features, cyst formation, and multiplicity of lesions. Other pineal germ cell tumors were the mixed germ cell tumors (n=3D4), malignant teratomas (n=3D3), choriocarcinoma(n=3D1), embryonal carcinoma(n=3D1), and endodermal sinus tumor(n=3D1). Tumor markers were evaluated. On T1-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(86%) or iso signal intensity (93%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or iso signal intensity(70%). On T2-weighted images, germinomas showed homogeneous(64%) or iso signal intensity(57%), while other germ cell tumors showed inhomogeneous(70%) or high signal intensity(80%). On Gd-DTPA enhanced images, germinomas showed homogeneous (93%) or strong enhancement (64%), while other germ cell tumors showed homogeneous(60%) or strong enhancement (70%). Cyst formation was noted in ten Patients (71%) with germinoma and in six (60%) with other germ cell tumors. Invasion on surrounding structures was seen in 11 patients (79%) with germinoma and in five (50%) with other germ cell tumors. Lesions were multiple in three patients(21%) with germinoma. Thirteen of 14 patients with germinoma had normal serum {alpha}-FP(tetoprotein) and {beta}-HCG(human chononic gonafotrophin) levels. Two of four patients with mixed germ cell tumors had elevated serum {beta}-FP and {alpha}-HCG levels; in the ther two, elevated serum {alpha}-FP or {beta}-HCG levels were noted. In the malignant teratoma and embryonal carcinoma patients, serum {alpha}-FP and {beta}-HCG levels were normal. The patient with choriocarcinoma had an elevated serum {beta}-HCG level. On T1W1, the only significant differential point (p<0.01) between

  18. The in vitro maintenance of clock genes expression within the rat pineal gland under standard and norepinephrine-synchronized stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Silva, Jéssica; Cipolla-Neto, José; Peliciari-Garcia, Rodrigo A

    2014-01-01

    Although the norepinephrine (NE) synchronization protocol was proved to be an important procedure for further modulating in vitro pineal melatonin synthesis, the maintenance of clock genes under the same conditions remained to be investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the maintenance of the clock genes expression in pineal gland cultures under standard and NE-synchronized stimulation. The glands were separated into three experimental groups: Control, Standard (acute NE-stimulation), and NE-synchronized. The expression of Bmal1, Per2, Cry2, Rev-erbα, the clock controlled gene Dbp and Arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase were investigated, as well as melatonin content. No oscillations were observed in the expression of the investigated genes from the control group. Under Standard NE stimulation, the clock genes did not exhibit a rhythmic pattern of expression. However, in the NE-synchronized condition, a rhythmic expression pattern was observed in all cases. An enhancement in pineal gland responsiveness to NE stimulation, reflected in an advanced synthesis of melatonin was also observed. Our results reinforce our previous hypothesis that NE synchronization of pineal gland culture mimics the natural rhythmic release of NE in the gland, increasing melatonin synthesis and keeping the pineal circadian clock synchronized, ensuring the fine adjustments that are relied in the clockwork machinery.

  19. The contribution of the pineal gland on daily rhythms and masking in diurnal grass rats, Arvicanthis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuboni, Dorela D; Agha, Amna A; Groves, Thomas K H; Gall, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Melatonin is a hormone rhythmically secreted at night by the pineal gland in vertebrates. In diurnal mammals, melatonin is present during the inactive phase of the rest/activity cycle, and in primates it directly facilitates sleep and decreases body temperature. However, the role of the pineal gland for the promotion of sleep at night has not yet been studied in non-primate diurnal mammalian species. Here, the authors directly examined the hypothesis that the pineal gland contributes to diurnality in Nile grass rats by decreasing activity and increasing sleep at night, and that this could occur via effects on circadian mechanisms or masking, or both. Removing the pineal gland had no effect on the hourly distribution of activity across a 12:12 light-dark (LD) cycle or on the patterns of sleep-like behavior at night. Masking effects of light at night on activity were also not significantly different in pinealectomized and control grass rats, as 1h pulses of light stimulated increases in activity of sham and pinealectomized animals to a similar extent. In addition, the circadian regulation of activity was unaffected by the surgical condition of the animals. Our results suggest that the pineal gland does not contribute to diurnality in the grass rat, thus highlighting the complexity of temporal niche transitions. The current data raise interesting questions about how and why genetic and neural mechanisms linking melatonin to sleep regulatory systems might vary among mammals that reached a diurnal niche via parallel and independent pathways.

  20. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-02-01

    This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma.A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL.Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma.

  1. Pineal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Concomitant With Pituitary Prolactinoma: Possible Correlation Between 2 Distinguished Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Jung, Shin; Noh, Myung-Giun; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Moon, Kyung-Sub

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This is the first reported case of pineal lymphoma with concomitant prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma. A 51-year-old male experienced worsening headaches accompanied by nausea, diplopia, and memory loss for 1 month. Cranial nerve examination revealed bilateral upward gaze limitation with convergence impairment, which is known as Parinaud syndrome. Magnetic resonance images revealed a mass in the pineal gland with a coexisting mass within the enlarged sella fossa. Hormone analysis revealed hyperprolactinemia. The pineal mass was removed without injuring the hypothalamus, brain stem, or any neighboring vessels. Pathology examination confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the pineal gland. After further studies, the pineal lymphoma was determined to be a secondary tumor from a gastric primary tumor. The patient died 6 months after diagnosis due to systemic progression of DLBCL. Although the mechanistic link between hyperprolactinemia and lymphoma progression has not been clarified on a clinical basis, high prolactin levels may contribute to the rapid progression and therapeutic resistance of the lymphoma. PMID:26937937

  2. Physiological control of growth, reproduction and lactation in deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ryg

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The physiological mechanisms controlling the growth, lactation and reproductive cycles of cervids, and the control of allocation of energy to different organs are discussed. The growth cycle may be secondary to an appetite cycle, regulated by changes in the secretion of prolactin, gonadal steroids, and possibly unknown factors. The reproductive cycle is controlled by changes in the release at the hypothalamic hormone GnRH, and by changes in the feedback effect of gonadal steroids. These cycles are probably the result of the timing effects of nutrition and changing photoperiod on an endogenous, circannual rhythm. The effect of photopenod is mediated by the pineal hormone melatonin. The physiological mechanisms controlling the partitioning of substrates between milk production, fetal growth and the tissues of the mother are poorly understood, but may involve changes in the secretion of growth hormone, insulin and triiodothyronine.

  3. Characterization of the chicken GCAP gene array and analyses of GCAP1, GCAP2, and GC1 gene expression in normal and rd chicken pineal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple-Rowland, S L; Larkin, P; Bronson, J D; Nykamp, K; Streit, W J; Baehr, W

    1999-07-28

    This study had three objectives: (1) to characterize the structures of the chicken GCAP1 and GCAP2 genes; (2) to determine if GCAP1, GCAP2, and GC1 genes are expressed in chicken pineal gland; (3) if GC1 is expressed in chicken pineal, to determine if the GC1 null mutation carried by the retinal degeneration (rd) chicken is associated with degenerative changes within the pineal glands of these animals. GCAP1 and GCAP2 gene structures were determined by analyses of chicken cosmid and cDNA clones. The putative transcription start points for these genes were determined using 5'-RACE. GCAP1, GCAP2 and GC1 transcripts were analyzed using Northern blot and RT-PCR. Routine light microscopy was used to examine pineal morphology. Chicken GCAP1 and GCAP2 genes are arranged in a tail-to-tail array. Each protein is encoded by 4 exons that are interrupted by 3 introns of variable length, the positions of which are identical within each gene. The putative transcription start points for GCAP1 and GCAP2 are 314 and 243 bases upstream of the translation start codons of these genes, respectively. As in retina, GCAP1, GCAP2 and GC1 genes are expressed in the chicken pineal. Although the GC1 null mutation is present in both the retina and pineal of the rd chicken, only the retina appears to undergo degeneration. The identical arrangement of chicken, human, and mouse GCAP1/2 genes suggests that these genes originated from an ancient gene duplication/inversion event that occurred during evolution prior to vertebrate diversification. The expression of GC1, GCAP1, and GCAP2 in chicken pineal is consistent with the hypothesis that chicken pineal contains a functional phototransduction cascade. The absence of cellular degeneration in the rd pineal gland suggests that GC1 is not critical for pineal cell survival.

  4. 正常成人松果体MRI研究%MRI imaging studies of pineal gland in normal human brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玲; 钱学华; 周庭永; 刘敏; 白桂芹; 吕发金

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish the parameter standard of pineal gland and discuss the changing rule of different groups by gender and age in health adults on MRI. Methods A total of 327 adult heads were scanned by using 3D MR sequences,pineal gland and its related structures were observed and analyzed. Results The length of the pineal gland was(7.12±1.11)mm in the female group,and (6.52±1.01) mm in the male group(female>male,Pmale,P男性,P男性,P<0.05)。结论松果体矢径和体积女性大于男性,松果体体积性别差异出现在31~60岁。

  5. MicroRNAs in the pineal gland: miR-483 regulates melatonin synthesis by targeting arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clokie, Samuel J H; Lau, Pierre; Kim, Hyun Hee; Coon, Steven L; Klein, David C

    2012-07-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a broad range of roles in biological regulation. In this study, rat pineal miRNAs were profiled for the first time, and their importance was evaluated by focusing on the main function of the pineal gland, melatonin synthesis. Massively parallel sequencing and related methods revealed the miRNA population is dominated by a small group of miRNAs as follows: ~75% is accounted for by 15 miRNAs; miR-182 represents 28%. In addition to miR-182, miR-183 and miR-96 are also highly enriched in the pineal gland, a distinctive pattern also found in the retina. This effort also identified previously unrecognized miRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs. Pineal miRNAs do not exhibit a marked night/day difference in abundance with few exceptions (e.g. 2-fold night/day differences in the abundance of miR-96 and miR-182); this contrasts sharply with the dynamic 24-h pattern that characterizes the pineal transcriptome. During development, the abundance of most pineal gland-enriched miRNAs increases; however, there is a marked decrease in at least one, miR-483. miR-483 is a likely regulator of melatonin synthesis, based on the following. It inhibits melatonin synthesis by pinealocytes in culture; it acts via predicted binding sites in the 3"-UTR of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) mRNA, the penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis, and it exhibits a developmental profile opposite to that of Aanat transcripts. Additionally, a miR-483 targeted antagonist increased melatonin synthesis in neonatal pinealocytes. These observations support the hypothesis that miR-483 suppresses Aanat mRNA levels during development and that the developmental decrease in miR-483 abundance promotes melatonin synthesis.

  6. TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, K.R.

    1993-06-01

    This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

  7. TransRapid TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic field effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groh, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic field (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the TransRapid TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic field (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.

  8. Season-dependent postembryonic maturation of the diurnal rhythm of melatonin biosynthesis in the chicken pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesiewicz, A; Kedzierska, U; Podobas, E; Adamska, I; Zuzewicz, K; Majewski, P M

    2012-11-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that the timing of the nocturnal peak of activity of the pineal arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase - a key enzyme in the melatonin biosynthesis pathway - in 3-wk-old chickens kept from the day of hatch under controlled laboratory conditions (L:D 12:12) varies depending on the season of hatch (summer vs. winter). The present study was undertaken to answer the following questions: (1) are season-related differences seen in the level of transcription of genes encoding enzymes of the melatonin biosynthesis pathway? (2) Does the pineal content of the main precursor (serotonin) and the final product (melatonin) exhibit age- and season-related changes? (3) At which step in postembryonic development are these season-related variations in pineal gland function most pronounced? Male Hy-line chickens hatched in the summer or winter, from eggs laid by hens held on L:D 16:8, were kept from the day of hatch under L:D 12:12 conditions. At the age of 2, 9, or 16 d, chickens were sacrificed every 2 h over a 24-h period and their pineal glands, isolated under dim red light, were processed for the measurement of (i) the level of Aanat and Asmt (acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase) mRNAs encoding the two last enzymes involved in melatonin biosynthesis, (ii) the activity of these enzymes, and (iii) the pineal content of serotonin and melatonin. Circadian rhythmicity of all the measured parameters was evaluated by the cosinor method. The levels of Aanat mRNA, AANAT enzymatic activity, and the pineal melatonin content changed during postembryonic development in a manner that was dependent on the season of hatch. Furthermore, the diurnal profile of Asmt mRNA was elevated during the light phase. In "winter" birds, the pattern and amplitude of the diurnal rhythm of accumulation of this transcript did not change with age, while in "summer" birds it increased in an age-related way. In contrast, the enzymatic activity of hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT

  9. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  10. Gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region: uncommon localization and rare tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Yasuo; Terasaki, Mizuhiko; Tanigawa, Ken; Ohshima, Koichi; Morioka, Motohiro; Higaki, Koichi; Nakagawa, Setsuko; Shimokawa, Shoko; Nakashima, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Gliosarcomas are a variant of glioblastomas and present a biphasic pattern, with coexisting glial and mesenchymal components. In this study, two unusual cases are presented. Case 1 is a 52-year-old woman with a headache and memory disturbance for a month. Case 2 is an 18-year-old man with a headache lasting two weeks. In both cases, an MRI revealed enhancing T1-low to iso, T2-iso to high intensity lesions in the pineal gland region. Histologically, in case 1, the tumor showed spindle cell proliferation with disorganized fascicles and cellular pleomorphism. Tumor cells variously exhibited oncocytic transformation. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for myoglobin and desmin. Some of the tumor cells were positive for GFAP and S-100 protein. On the other hand, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1, and SOX-2 which are the markers of neural stem cells. In case 2, the tumor showed monotonous proliferation of short spindle cells with disorganized fascicles and cellular atypism. The morphological distinction between glial and mesenchymal components was not apparent. Immunohistochemically, most of the spindle tumor cells were positive for desmin. Glial tumor cells that were dispersed within the sarcoma as single cells were positive for GFAP. In addition, all tumor cells were positive for CD133, Musashi1 and SOX-2. Based on these microscopic appearances, and immunohistochemical findings, these cases were diagnosed as gliosarcomas arising from the pineal gland region. These results also indicated that pluripotential cancer stem cells differentiated into glial and muscle cell lines at the time of tumor growth. In a survey of previous publications on gliosarcoma arising from the pineal gland, these cases are the second and third reports found in English scientific writings.

  11. Protein phosphorylation in rat pineal gland and its regulation in supersensitive and subsensitive states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimino, M.; Benfenati, F.; Farabegoli, C.; Cattabeni, F.; Agnati, L.F.

    1987-04-01

    The phosphorylation of specific proteins in pineal homogenate was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Cyclic AMP had the capacity to stimulate in a dose-dependent manner the incorporation of /sup 32/P in protein bands of apparent molecular weights 59K, 56K, and 35K with a maximal effect at 1 microM. On the other hand, calcium alone did not induce a marked increase in /sup 32/P incorporation with the exception of a dose-dependent phosphorylation of a 46K protein with a peak effect at 0.2 mM calcium concentration. The addition of exogenous calmodulin enhanced /sup 32/P incorporation in proteins migrating in the 62K and 52K regions, an effect that was antagonized by the calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine. However, also under these conditions, the stimulation of pineal protein phosphorylation was rather weak compared to that observed in other brain areas. In an attempt to investigate the functional changes of these biochemical processes during environmental lighting and adrenergic stimulation, it was found that the administration of (-)-isoproterenol (5 mg/kg, s.c.), a beta-receptor agonist, induced a clear-cut enhancement of /sup 32/P incorporation into the cyclic AMP-sensitive 59K and 56K proteins only in animals exposed for 18 h to the light, whereas it was almost ineffective in those kept in the dark for the same period. This effect was antagonized by (-)-propranolol pretreatment (20 mg/kg), suggesting that the changes in cyclic AMP-dependent protein phosphorylation observed in supersensitive pineals may represent a beta-receptor mediated process.

  12. Cyclic AMP-inducible genes respond uniformly to seasonal lighting conditions in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spessert, R; Gupta, B B P; Rohleder, N; Gerhold, S; Engel, L

    2006-12-01

    The encoding of photoperiodic information ensues in terms of the daily profile in the expression of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-inducible genes such as the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) gene that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin formation. In the present study, we compared the influence of the photoperiodic history on the cAMP-inducible genes AA-NAT, inducible cyclic AMP early repressor (ICER), fos-related antigen-2 (FRA-2), mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), nerve growth factor inducible gene-A (NGFI-A) and nerve growth factor inducible gene-B (NGFI-B) in the pineal gland of rats. For this purpose, we monitored the daily profiles of each gene in the same pineal gland under a long (light/dark 16:8) and a short (light/dark 8:16) photoperiod by measuring the respective mRNA amounts by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. We found that, for all genes under investigation, the duration of increased nocturnal expression is lengthened and, in relation to light onset, the nocturnal rise is earlier under the long photoperiod (light/dark 16:8). Furthermore, with the exception of ICER, all other cAMP-inducible genes tend to display higher maximum expression under light/dark 8:16 than under light/dark 16:8. Photoperiod-dependent changes persist for all of the cAMP-inducible genes when the rats are kept for two cycles under constant darkness. Therefore, all cAMP-inducible genes are also influenced by the photoperiod of prior entrained cycles. Our study indicates that, despite differences regarding the expressional control and the temporal phasing of the daily profile, cAMP-inducible genes are uniformly influenced by photoperiodic history in the rat pineal gland.

  13. [Pineal region tumors in children: is gross-total resection necessary? A single-center experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aguilar, Enrique; Garza-González, María del Carmen; Ortiz-Azpilcueta, Mariana; Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Ana Carolina; Rioscovian-Soto, Ana; de la Cruz-Yañez, Hermilo; Betanzos-Cabrera, Yadira

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la supervivencia de los niños con tumores de la región pineal se ha incrementado en la última década; estos tienen una evolución insidiosa asociada con los desórdenes endocrinológicos y una alta morbilidad y mortalidad, sobre todo después de la resección. El objetivo es reportar la supervivencia, la morbilidad y mortalidad según el tipo de cirugía, la histología y el tratamiento en un grupo de niños con tumores de la región pineal. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo que incluyó a todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de tumor de la región pineal menores de 17 años de edad que acudieron en un periodo de 10 años a un hospital de pediatría. Se realizó una revisión histopatológica, se determinó la extensión de la resección y se estimó la supervivencia. Resultados: se incluyeron 46 pacientes, 36 de los cuales tenían expediente completo y material de patología adecuado. La resección total se realizó en 24 (66.6 %) y biopsia en 12 (33.3 %); fallecieron 23 pacientes (88 %) y fue el desequilibrio hidroelectrolítico la causa de 14 defunciones (60 %) y la progresión tumoral la causa de las 9 defunciones restantes (39.1 %). La sobrevida a 10 años de los pacientes tratados con resección total y biopsia fue del 52 y 75 %, respectivamente, con una p = 0.7; se presentaron alteraciones endocrinológicas en 13 (36.1%) pacientes de los cuales a 10 (76.9 %) se les realizó la resección de la tumoración. Conclusión: los tumores de la región pineal en niños se pueden tratar con biopsia diagnóstica seguida de tratamiento adyuvante con quimioterapia y radioterapia.

  14. Characteristics of the norepinephrine-stimulated phosphatidylinositol turnover in rat pineal cell dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, G.; Smith, T.L.

    1981-10-01

    Dispersed rat pineal cells can be used for the study of the phosphatidylinositol effect. The response to ( - )-norepinephrine of the incorporation of 32Pi into phospholipids is linear with time and cell concentration, stereospecific, and mediated through alpha-1-adrenergic receptors. Na+ in the incubation medium is obligatory for labeling of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine by 32P. In the absence of K+, incorporation of 32P is drastically lowered and no stimulation by norepinephrine occurs. Rb+ can replace K+. Omission of Ca2+ or substitution with Sr2+ preferentially lowers incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine. Mg2+ is not required for basal or stimulated labeling.

  15. The clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor in the pineal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yun-xiang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinicopathological features of intermediate trophoblastic tumor (ITT in the pineal region. Methods A retrospective study was performed to analyse the diagnostic and therapeutic process of 1 case with ITT in the pineal region. The specimen obtained from the surgery was dealt with common tissue processing mode and cut into slices. HE staining was performed to observe histophathological features. Immunohistochemical staining (SP two-step method was performed to analyse the expression of tumor markers. Related literatures were reviewed. Results A 6-year old boy with clinical manifestations of penis enlargement and rapid growth for more than one year, presented a mass in his pineal region through MRI. The tumor was surgically excised after it is refractory to 10 times experimental radiotherapy as germinoma. The level of β-human chorionic gonadotropin ( β-hCG in his postoperative blood was decreased to normal, but gradually increased, once again followed to normal after three times chemotherapy. Patient was normal almost postoperative 6 months later by follow -up. Pathological examination showed sheets necrosis with multiple calcification and scattered fresh blood cells, epithelioid tumor cells with solid growth pattern. The tumor cells were atypical mononuclear cells with relative uniform (between heterotypic cells and partially surrounding and invasing the vascular walls. The cytoplasm of tumor cells was eosinophilic or clear, the nucleus was round or irregular in shape and some with intranuclear pseudoinclusions, and its mitotic figures were rarely seen under light microscopy. The tumor cells showed strong positive for AE1/AE3, cell adhesion molecules 5.2 (CAM5.2, human placental lactogen (hPL, octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (Oct3/4, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and E-cadherin. P53 was also expressed. The positive rate of Ki-67 was about 10%, and β-hCG was expressed in the extremely tumor cells. The

  16. Reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.; Ellis, David H.; Gee, George F.; Mirande, Claire M.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  17. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...

  18. Melatonin Synthesis: Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase (ASMT) Is Strongly Expressed in a Subpopulation of Pinealocytes in the Male Rat Pineal Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Martin F; Coon, Steven L; Amaral, Fernanda G; Weller, Joan L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2016-05-01

    The rat pineal gland has been extensively used in studies of melatonin synthesis. However, the cellular localization of melatonin synthesis in this species has not been investigated. Here we focus on the localization of melatonin synthesis using immunohistochemical methods to detect the last enzyme in melatonin synthesis, acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT), and in situ hybridization techniques to study transcripts encoding ASMT and two other enzymes in melatonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-1 and aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase. In sections of the rat pineal gland, marked cell-to-cell differences were found in ASMT immunostaining intensity and in the abundance of Tph1, Aanat, and Asmt transcripts. ASMT immunoreactivity was localized to the cytoplasm in pinealocytes in the parenchyma of the superficial pineal gland, and immunopositive pinealocytes were also detected in the pineal stalk and in the deep pineal gland. ASMT was found to inconsistently colocalize with S-antigen, a widely used pinealocyte marker; this colocalization was seen in cells throughout the pineal complex and also in displaced pinealocyte-like cells of the medial habenular nucleus. Inconsistent colocalization between ASMT and TPH protein was also detected in the pineal gland. ASMT protein was not detected in extraepithalamic parts of the central nervous system or in peripheral tissues. The findings in this report are of special interest because they provide reason to suspect that melatonin synthesis varies significantly among individual pinealocytes.

  19. Diurnal expression of clock genes in pineal gland and brain and plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol in Atlantic salmon parr and smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tien-sheng; Ruoff, Peter; Fjelldal, Per G

    2010-10-01

    In Atlantic salmon, the preadaptation to a marine life, i.e., parr-smolt transformation, and melatonin production in the pineal gland are regulated by the photoperiod. However, the clock genes have never been studied in the pineal gland of this species. The aim of the present study was to describe the diurnal expression of clock genes (Per1-like, Cry2, and Clock) in the pineal gland and brain of Atlantic salmon parr and smolts in freshwater, as well as plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol. By employing an out-of-season smolt production model, the parr-smolt transformation was induced by subjecting triplicate groups of parr to 6 wks (wks 0 to 6) under a 12 h:12 h light-dark (LD) regime followed by 6 wks (wks 6 to 12) of continuous light (LL). The measured clock genes in both pineal gland and brain and the plasma levels of melatonin and cortisol showed significant daily variations in parr under LD in wk 6, whereas these rhythms were abolished in smolts under LL in wk 12. In parr, the pineal Per1-like and Cry2 expression peaked in the dark phase, whereas the pineal Clock expression was elevated during the light phase. Although this study presents novel findings on the clock gene system in the teleost pineal gland, the role of this system in the regulation of smoltification needs to be studied in more detail.

  20. Expression of Clock genes in the pineal glands of newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Sun; Xing Feng; Xin Ding; Li Bao; Yongfu Li; Jun He; Meifang Jin

    2012-01-01

    Clock genes are involved in circadian rhythm regulation,and surviving newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy may present with sleep-wake cycle reversal.This study aimed to determine the expression of the clock genes Clock and Bmall,in the pineal gland of rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.Results showed that levels of Clock mRNA were not significantly changed within 48 hours after cerebral hypoxia and ischemia.Expression levels of CLOCK and BMAL1 protein were significantly higher after 48 hours.The levels of Bmall mRNA reached a peak at 36 hours,but were significantly reduced at 48 hours.Experimental findings indicate that Clock and Bmall genes were indeed expressed in the pineal glands of neonatal rats.At the initial stage (within 36 hours) of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage,only slight changes in the expression levels of these two genes were detected,followed by significant changes at 36 48 hours.These changes may be associated with circadian rhythm disorder induced by hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

  1. Seasonal variations of gonadotropins and prolactin in the laboratory rat. Role of maternal pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, N; Díaz, E; Fernández, C; Jiménez, V; Esquifino, A; Díaz, B

    2007-01-01

    The laboratory rat, a non-photoperiodic rodent, exhibits seasonal fluctuations of melatonin. Melatonin has been found to be readily transferred from the maternal to the fetal circulation. No data exist on the possible influence of maternal pineal gland upon seasonal variations of the offspring. The aim of the present study was to asses the influence of the maternal melatonin rhythm on the offspring postnatal development of the reproductive hormones LH, FSH and prolactin. Male offspring from control, pinealectomized (PIN-X) and PIN-X + melatonin (PIN-X+MEL) mother Wistar rats were studied at 21, 31, and 60 days of age. Seasonal age-dependent variations were found for all hormones studied in control offspring but PIN-X offspring showed a tendency to have reduced duration or altered seasonal variations. Maternal melatonin treatment to PIN-X mothers partially restored the effect of pinealectomy. The chronological study of LH, FSH, and prolactin in PIN-X offspring also showed an altered pattern as compared to control-offspring. Melatonin treatment to the mothers partially restored the developmental pattern of reproductive hormones. Results of this study indicate that maternal pineal gland of the laboratory rat is involved in the seasonal postnatal development variations of reproductive hormones of the offspring.

  2. Phosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase (phospholipase C) activity in the pineal gland: characterization and photoneural regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, A.K.; Klein, D.C.

    1987-04-01

    Phosphatidylinositol phosphodiesterase (PL-C) appears to be a key element in the adrenergic regulation of pineal cyclic AMP levels. In the present study, the rat pineal enzyme was characterized using exogenous (/sup 3/H)phosphatidylinositol (0.5 mM) as substrate. Half the enzyme activity was found in the cytosolic fraction, but the highest specific concentration was associated with the membrane fraction. Two pH optima (5.5 and 7.5) of enzyme activity were observed for the membrane fraction but only one in the cytosol fraction (pH 5.5). Enzyme activity in both fractions was Ca2+ dependent. In the case of the membrane protein in pH 7.5, the enzyme activity was sensitive to changes in Ca2+ in the 10-100 nM range. Addition of an equimolar concentration of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate nearly completely inhibited the hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)phosphatidylinositol; other phospholipids (1.0 mM) were less potent. This may reflect our present finding that (/sup 3/H)phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate is a better substrate than (/sup 3/H)phosphatidylinositol for the enzyme. Stimulus deprivation (2 weeks of constant light or superior cervical ganglionectomy) reduced the cytosolic activity by 30% and had no effect on the membrane-associated enzyme.

  3. Age-related Histological Findings in the Pineal Gland of Crl:CD(SD) Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonari, Yuki; Sato, Junko; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2012-12-01

    To provide background data as the pathologic basis, the pineal glands of 190 male and 193 female Crl:CD(SD) rats at ages of 0-7, 51-58, 70-85 and 111 weeks were examined histologically in this study. Mineralization and fibrosis were common findings in the aged rats, whereas they were rarely found in the young ones; mineralization was present in 7, 44, 67 and 79% of males and in 0, 32, 67 and 79% in females, and fibrosis was present in 0, 29, 48 and 44% of males and 0, 18, 40 and 35% of females at ages of 0-7, 51-58, 70-85 and 111 weeks, respectively. Striated muscle fiber appeared regularly in the fibrosis region from 51-58 weeks of age when fibrosis increased, while the origin of this fiber remained unclear. Vacuolation of pineal cells also increased with age in both sexes, though the total incidence was low. There was a low incidence of lymphocytic infiltration in both sexes, but this was not related to age.

  4. Pineal Gland Calcification in Kurdistan: A Cross-Sectional Study of 480 Roentgenograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahee A Mohammed

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to compare the incidence of Pineal Gland Calcification (PGC by age group and gender among the populations living in the Kurdistan Region-Iraq.This prospective study examined skull X-rays of 480 patients between the ages of 3 and 89 years who sought care at a large teaching public hospital in Duhok, Iraq from June 2014 to November 2014. Descriptive statistics and a binary logistic regression were used for analysis.The overall incidence rate of PGC among the study population was 26.9% with the 51-60 age group and males having the highest incidence. PGC incidence increased after the first decade and remained steady until the age of 60. Thereafter the incidence began to decrease. Logistic regression analysis revealed that both age and gender significantly affected the risk of PGC. After adjusting for age, males were 1.94 (95% CI, 1.26-2.99 times more likely to have PGC compared to females. In addition, a one year increase in age increases the odds of developing PGC by 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01-1.03 units after controlling for the effects of gender.Our analysis demonstrated a close relationship between PGC and age and gender, supporting a link between the development of PGC and these factors. This study provides a basis for future researchers to further investigate the nature and mechanisms underlying pineal gland calcification.

  5. [Pineal anlage tumor in a 8-month-old boy. The first case reported in Spanish language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Velasco, Alicia; Ramírez-Reyes, Alma Griselda

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el tumor pineal anlage es una neoplasia maligna muy poco frecuente. Aunque ya ha sido informado en la literatura, aún no se encuentra listado en la última clasificación de los tumores del sistema nervioso central de la Organización Mundial de la Salud publicada en 2007. Es un tumor primario de la pineal con diferenciación neuroepitelial y ectomesenquimal. Debido a su poca frecuencia, el entendimiento de su comportamiento biológico y su tratamiento apropiado son incompletos. En una búsqueda realizada en PubMed como pineal anlage tumor solo se identificaron siete casos informados entre 1989 y 2011. CASO CLÍNICO: niño de ocho meses de edad que fue llevado a consulta por aumento progresivo del perímetro cefálico y estrabismo convergente de dos meses de evolución. Se identificó tumor pineal conformado por glia, células ganglionares, neuroepitelio pigmentado y células musculares estriadas. Se realizó derivación ventrículo-peritoneal para mitigar la hidrocefalia y resección quirúrgica completa. El paciente recibió dos cursos de quimioterapia con carboplatino, ifosfamida y mesna. Al año permanecía asintomático.

  6. Changes in vasopressin-converting aminopeptidase activity in the rat pineal gland during summer : Relationship to vasopressin contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, B.; Burbach, J.P.H.

    1988-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP)-converting aminopeptidase (VP-AP) activity and VP contents were measured in single rat pineal glands during the summer of two successive years. The peptidase activity decreased significantly in August. The lowest activity (±SEM) of 0.18±0.02 pmol·hour−1 was recorded on August 14, co

  7. Primary pineal melanoma presenting with leptomeningeal spreading in a 22-year-old woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimi Parisa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region is exceedingly rare. We report a case of primary pineal malignant melanoma and review the literature. Case presentation Our patient was a 22-year-old Iranian woman without any significant past medical history, who was referred to our center with a four-week history of headache and gait disturbance. A magnetic resonance imaging study showed a solid mass in the pineal region causing obstructive hydrocephalus. A brain biopsy was performed and the histological examination indicated melanoma. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. Our patient underwent gross total resection. At the time of discharge she had fully recovered without any neurological deficits. Three weeks after discharge, she was readmitted to hospital with the diagnosis of distal deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism; 12 weeks after the onset of her illness she died of cardiopulmonary arrest. Conclusion We have presented here a rare tumor, a primary malignant melanoma of the pineal region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second-youngest patient with such a tumor reported in the literature.

  8. Chronic stress decreases the expression of sympathetic markers in the pineal gland and increases plasma melatonin concentration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Orellana, Juan A; Carmona-Fontaine, Carlos; Montiel, Juan; Díaz-Velíz, Gabriela; Serón-Ferré, María; Wyneken, Ursula; Concha, Miguel L; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2006-06-01

    Chronic stress affects brain areas involved in learning and emotional responses. Although most studies have concentrated on the effect of stress on limbic-related brain structures, in this study we investigated whether chronic stress might induce impairments in diencephalic structures associated with limbic components of the stress response. Specifically, we analyzed the effect of chronic immobilization stress on the expression of sympathetic markers in the rat epithalamic pineal gland by immunohistochemistry and western blot, whereas the plasma melatonin concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. We found that chronic stress decreased the expression of three sympathetic markers in the pineal gland, tyrosine hydroxylase, the p75 neurotrophin receptor and alpha-tubulin, while the same treatment did not affect the expression of the non-specific sympathetic markers Erk1 and Erk2, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, these results were correlated with a significant increase in plasma melatonin concentration in stressed rats when compared with control animals. Our findings indicate that stress may impair pineal sympathetic inputs, leading to an abnormal melatonin release that may contribute to environmental maladaptation. In addition, we propose that the pineal gland is a target of glucocorticoid damage during stress.

  9. This pineal gland does not mediate phase shifts in the disc shedding rhythm of the rat retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Albino rats were subjected to pinealectomy, superior cervical ganglionectomy, or the appropriate sham preparation and were placed in lighting conditions so that light onset was advanced by 10 hr. After 6 days of this regimen, all animals exhibited a complete shift in their outer segment disc shedding rhythm, indicating that the pineal gland is not a factor in mediating such a shift.

  10. Some properties of acetyl-CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase (EC 2. 3. 1. 5) from rat pineal gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, D.J. (Department of Pharmacy, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe)

    N-acetylation of serotonin to N-acetylserotonin in the pineal gland is catalysed by acetyl-CoA:arylamine N-acetyltransferase (SNAT). The present investigation was an attempt to design an assay technique which would permit sensitive evaluation of SNAT in order to evaluate some kinetic properties of the enzyme.

  11. 'TRPing' synaptic ribbon function in the rat pineal gland: neuroendocrine regulation involves the capsaicin receptor TRPV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, Stefan; Disque-Kaiser, Ursula; Binzen, Uta; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Peschke, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic ribbons (SRs) are presynaptic structures thought to regulate and facilitate multivesicular release. In the pineal gland, they display a circadian rhythm with higher levels at night paralleling melatonin synthesis. To gain more insight into the processes involved and the possible functions of these structures, a series of experiments were conducted in rodents. We studied the regional distribution of a molecular marker of pineal SRs, the kinesin motor KIF3A in the gland. Respective immunoreactivity was abundant in central regions of the gland where sympathetic fibers were less dense, and vice versa, revealing that intercellular communication between adjacent pinealocytes is enhanced under low sympathetic influence. KIF3A was found to be colocalized to the transient receptor potential channel of the vanilloid receptor family, subtype 1 (TRPV1). The TRPV1 agonist capsaicin increased melatonin secretion from perifused pineals in a dose-dependent manner that was blocked by the competitive TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine. No change in free intracellular calcium was observed in response to TRPV1 ligands applied to pinealocytes responding to norepinephrine, bradykinin and/or depolarization. These data clearly indicate that TRPV1 actively regulates pineal gland function.

  12. Norepinephrine release in the rat pineal gland : The input from the biological clock measured by in vivo microdialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, WJ; vanderLinde, AG; Kooi, SE; Grol, CJ; Westerink, BHC

    1996-01-01

    The sympathetic innervation of the rat pineal gland was investigated, measuring the norepinephrine (NE) release by on-line in vivo microdialysis, NE was assayed using an HPLC method with precolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection. Its high sensitivity and reliability made it very suitable t

  13. Separation of pineal extracts on sephadex G-10 : III. Isolation and comparison of extracted and synthetic melatonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebels, I.; Balemans, M.G.M.; Tommel, D.K.J.

    1972-01-01

    Melatonin has been isolated from 300 gm of sheep pineal bodies by filtration of an aqueous extract on Sephadex G-10. Excitation and fluorescence maxima of the fractions of the column were measured and the fractions were tested for their blanching activity in tadpoles of Xenopus laevis. The microgram

  14. SEASONAL VARIATION OF PINEAL MELATONIN CONTENT IN THE TOAD-HEADED LIZARD (PHRYNOCEPHALUS PRZEWALSKII)%荒漠沙蜥松果体褪黑激素含量的季节性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁德; 李云鸿; 陈强

    2002-01-01

    应用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)-UV检测了不同季节荒漠沙蜥(Phrynocephalus przewalskii)松果体内褪黑激素的含量.结果显示,其高峰值发生在春季,为1 017±209 pg/pineal.低峰值出现在冬季(实验室内冬眠,2~4℃),为355±68.5 pg/pineal,秋季的含量(735±133.7 pg/pineal)高于夏季的含量(597±94.9 pg/pineal).表明荒漠沙蜥松果体褪黑激素含量呈现明显的年周期节律并与光周期和生殖周期的年节律基本相符.%Seasonal variation in the pineal melatonin content of toad-headed lizards was determined by HPLC. The highest melatonin content (1 017±209 pg/pineal) occurred in spring and the lowest (335±68.5 pg/pineal) in winter. Melatonin levels in autumn (735±133 pg/pineal) were higher than in summer (597±94.9 pg/pineal). We conclude that pineal melatonin content has remarkable seasonal variation that coincides with photoperiod and reproductive rhythms.

  15. Developmental and diurnal dynamics of Pax4 expression in the mammalian pineal gland: nocturnal down-regulation is mediated by adrenergic-cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Martin F; Bailey, Michael J; Kim, Jong-So; Ho, Anthony K; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Coon, Steven L; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C

    2009-02-01

    Pax4 is a homeobox gene that is known to be involved in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. In this tissue, Pax4 counters the effects of the related protein, Pax6. Pax6 is essential for development of the pineal gland. In this study we report that Pax4 is strongly expressed in the pineal gland and retina of the rat. Pineal Pax4 transcripts are low in the fetus and increase postnatally; Pax6 exhibits an inverse pattern of expression, being more strongly expressed in the fetus. In the adult the abundance of Pax4 mRNA exhibits a diurnal rhythm in the pineal gland with maximal levels occurring late during the light period. Sympathetic denervation of the pineal gland by superior cervical ganglionectomy prevents the nocturnal decrease in pineal Pax4 mRNA. At night the pineal gland is adrenergically stimulated by release of norepinephrine from the sympathetic innervation; here, we found that treatment with adrenergic agonists suppresses pineal Pax4 expression in vivo and in vitro. This suppression appears to be mediated by cAMP, a second messenger of norepinephrine in the pineal gland, based on the observation that treatment with a cAMP mimic reduces pineal Pax4 mRNA levels. These findings suggest that the nocturnal decrease in pineal Pax4 mRNA is controlled by the sympathetic neural pathway that controls pineal function acting via an adrenergic-cAMP mechanism. The daily changes in Pax4 expression may influence gene expression in the pineal gland.

  16. Endoscope-Assisted Combined Supracerebellar Infratentorial and Endoscopic Transventricular Approach to the Pineal Region: A Technical Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felbaum, Daniel; Syed, Hasan R; Ryan, Joshua E; Jean, Walter C; Anaizi, Amjad

    2016-03-06

    Neoplasms of the pineal region comprise less than 2% of all intracranial lesions. A variety of techniques have been adapted to gain access to the pineal region. Classic approaches employ the use of the microscope. More recently, the endoscope has been utilized to improve access to such deep-seated lesions. A 62-year-old female presented with a heterogeneously enhancing lesion in the pineal region with associated hydrocephalus. On exam, the patient exhibited Parinaud's syndrome. The patient initially underwent a single burr hole endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy of the lesion. Initial pathology was consistent with a grade III astrocytoma. Following a period of recuperation, she returned for definitive surgical resection. A suboccipital craniectomy was performed in the sitting position. Prior to dural opening, an endoscope was inserted into the right lateral ventricle through the prior burr hole.The endoscope was passed through the foramen of Monro and the tumor could be visualized along the posterior third ventricle. The patient underwent a standard supracerebellar infratentorial approach aided by the microscope. After initial debulking of the pineal lesion, an endoscope was utilized to guide the depth of resection and assist in dissection with transventricular manipulation of the tumor. During the final stages of resection from the craniotomy, the endoscope was used to help visualize the posterior supracerebellar corridor. This assisted in the assessment of the extent of resection. The endoscope was also utilized for the removal of intraventricular blood products following tumor resection. The patient was extubated and transferred to the intensive care unit. A postoperative contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed greater than 95% resection, with expected residual within the midbrain. The combined supracerebellar infratentorial and transventricular endoscope-assisted approach provided maximum visualization and aided in optimal

  17. Daily oscillation of gene expression in the retina is phase-advanced with respect to the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lin; Zimmer, Sybille; Rickes, Oliver; Rohleder, Nils; Holthues, Heike; Engel, Lydia; Leube, Rudolf; Spessert, Rainer

    2008-04-08

    The photoreceptive retina and the non-photoreceptive pineal gland are components of the circadian and the melatonin forming system in mammals. To contribute to our understanding of the functional integrity of the circadian system and the melatonin forming system we have compared the daily oscillation of the two tissues under various seasonal lighting conditions. For this purpose, the 24-h profiles of the expression of the genes coding for arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), nerve growth factor inducible gene-A (NGFI-A), nerve growth factor inducible gene-B (NGFI-B), retinoic acid related orphan receptor beta (RORbeta), dopamine D4 receptor, and period2 (Per2) have been simultaneously recorded in the retina and the pineal gland of rats under short day (light/dark 8:16) and long day (light/dark 16:8) conditions. We have found that the cyclical patterns of all genes are phase-advanced in the retina, often with a lengthened temporal interval under short day conditions. In both tissues, the AA-NAT gene expression represents an indication of the output of the relevant pacemakers. The temporal phasing in the AA-NAT transcript amount between the retina and the pineal gland is retained under constant darkness suggesting that the intrinsic self-cycling clock of the retina oscillates in a phase-advanced manner with respect to the self-cycling clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which controls the pineal gland. We therefore conclude that daily rhythms in gene expression in the retina are phase-advanced with respect to the pineal gland, and that the same temporal relationship appears to be valid for the self-cycling clocks influencing the tissues.

  18. Photoperiodism as a modifier of effect of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field on morphological properties of pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Tamara; Matavulj, Amela; Matavulj, Milica; Rajković, Vesna; Lazetić, Bogosav

    2006-08-01

    The aim of our study was to determine, using histological and stereological methods, whether photoperiodism has any impact on the effects that chronic (three-month long) exposure to LF-EMF (50Hz) has on morphological characteristics on rat's pineal gland. The experiment was performed on 48 Mill Hill male rats (24 experimental and 24 control). Upon birth, 24 rats were exposed for 7h a day, 5 days a week for 3 months to LF-EMF (50 Hz, 50-500microT, 10V/m). In the winter (short days, long nights), the activity of the pineal gland and neuroendocrine sensitivity is increased. The study was performed both during summer and winter, following the identical protocol. After sacrifice of animals, samples of pineal gland were processed for HE staining and then were analyzed using the methods of stereology. The most significant changes in epiphysis in the first group of animals in wintertime are: altered glandular feature, hyperemia, reduced pinealocytes with pale pink, poor cytoplasm and irregular, stick-form nuclei. In the second group (II) pinealocytes are enlarged, with vacuolated cytoplasm and hyper chromatic, enlarged nucleus. Morphological changes of pineal gland at rats in the summertime were not as intense as in the winter and finding of the gland in the group II is compatible with those from the control group. Stereological results show both in winter and summer in the first group the decrease of volume density of pinealocytes, their cytoplasm and nuclei and in the second group in winter increase the volume density of pinealocytes, cytoplasm and nuclei, while in the second group the results in summertime are equal to those from the control group. Photoperiodism is modifier of effect of LF-EMF on morphological structure of pineal gland, because the gland recovery is incomplete in winter and reversible in summer.

  19. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  20. Molecular physiology of vesicular glutamate transporters in the digestive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Li; Fayez K. Ghishan; Liqun Bai

    2005-01-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Packaging and storage of glutamate into glutamatergic neuronal vesicles require ATP-dependent vesicular glutamate uptake systems, which utilize the electrochemical proton gradient as a driving force. Three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) have been recently identified from neuronal tissue where they play a key role to maintain the vesicular glutamate level. Recently, it has been demonstrated that glutamate signaling is also functional in peripheral neuronal and non-neuronal tissues, and occurs in sites of pituitary, adrenal, pineal glands, bone, GI tract, pancreas,skin, and testis. The glutamate receptors and VGLUTs in digestivesystem have been found in both neuronal and endocrinal cells. The glutamate signaling in the digestive system may have significant relevance to diabetes and GI tract motility disorders. This review will focus on the most recent update of molecular physiology of digestive VGLUTs.

  1. Importance of light in temporal organization of photoreceptor proteins and melatonin-producing system in the pineal of carp Catla catla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Mohua; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2010-05-01

    The importance of light in the temporal organization of photoreceptor proteins and melatonin-producing system has been investigated for the first time in the pineal of a tropical fish. In this study, an identical experimental paradigm was followed during the four distinct phases of an annual cycle in adult carps (Catla catla) maintained either under natural photoperiod (NP) or continuous illumination (LL) or darkness (DD) for 30 days. At the end of each experiment, the pineal from fish in each experimental group was collected either at 06:00, 12:00, 18:00, or 24:00 in a daily cycle and assessed by Western blot analysis for pineal rod-like opsin, alpha-transducin, and AANAT. The same animals were also used for measurement of serum melatonin levels, and the serum as well as intra-pineal Ca(++) levels at each timepoint. The study revealed a daily rhythmicity with a peak at 12:00 h and nadir at 24:00 h in the band intensity of pineal rod-like opsin and alpha-transducin in NP fish, while the band intensities of these photo-pigment proteins remained high under LL and low under DD, irrespective of clock hour during the 24 h cycle. The band intensity of pineal AANAT, levels of serum melatonin, and both serum Ca(++) and intra-pineal Ca(++) were maximum at 24:00 h and minimum at 12:00h in NP fish, and they were significantly lower under LL and higher under DD at each point of study. The results showed loss of daily rhythm in each studied variable in both LL and DD carps, suggesting that their circadian organization is dependent on the external light-dark conditions, rather than an endogenous circadian oscillator in the pineal.

  2. A role of trial radiation therapy in the pineal region tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Shil; Ryu, Mi Ryung; Chung, Su Mi; Kim, Moon Chan; Yoon, Sei Chul [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the treatment results of 30 patients with pineal region tumors who were underwent radiation therapy under the diagnosis by either CT or MRI. There was no histological verification. We analyzed the prognostic factors that have a significant effect on the overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) rates. A total 30 patients with pineal region tumors were treated between March 1983 and August 1995. After a trial radiation therapy of 20 {approx} 30 Gy/2 {approx} 3 weeks, the patients were evaluated for their clinical response and radiological response by either CT or MRI and the final treatment direction was then decided. According to their response to the trial radiation therapy and the involved site, radiation treatment was given in various field i.e., local, ventricle, whole brain and craniospinal field. The radiation dose ranged from 40.8 to 59.4 Gy (Median 50.4 Gy). The median follow up was 36.5 months (4 {approx} 172 months). An improvement or stability in the clinical symptoms was observed in 28 patients (93.3%) after the trial RT. Nineteen patients (63.3%) showed a partial or complete response by CT or MRI. The two-year and five-year survival rates of the patients were 66.7% and 55.1%, respectively. No significant difference in the survival rates according to the degree of the radiological response was observed after the trial RT. The results of univariate analysis showed that age, the primary site, the performance status(KPS {>=} 70), the degree of response after completing RT and the RT field were significant prognostic factors affecting the survival and disease free survival rates ({rho} < 0.05). The clinical and histological characteristics of pineal region tumors are quite complex and diverse. Therefore, it is difficult to predict the histological diagnosis and the possibility of radiocurability only with the initial response to RT. We think that the development of less invasive histological

  3. Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2013-05-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observedfrom this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of

  4. Pineal metastasis as first clinical manifestation of colorectal adenocarcinoma: case report Metástase pineal como primeira manifestação clinica de adenocarcinoma colorretal: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO RAMINA

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metastases from colorectal adenocarcinomas occur in 8% of the cases. Diagnosis is usually made when primary disease and widespread metastases are already known. We report the case of a patient with single metastases in the pineal region as the first clinical manifestation of a colorectal adenocarcinoma. A 48-year-old female with Parinaud's syndrome for 15 days prior her admission was evaluated in our clinic. She had no symptoms or signs of colorectal disease. MRI examination revealed an heterogeneous lesion with peritumoral gadolinium enhancement, located in the pineal region. The tumor was radically resected through an infratentorial/supracerebellar approach. Histology showed metastatic carcinoma and immunohistochemical examination showed gastrointestinal tract adenocarcinoma. Metastases to the pineal region are extremely rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors of this region.Metástases cerebrais derivadas de adenocarcinomas colorretais ocorrem em 8% dos casos. Geralmente a doença primária e as metástases em outros órgãos já são conhecidas quando do momento das manifestações neurológicas. Descrevemos um caso de metástase única na região pineal que promoveu a primeira manifestação clínica de adenocarcinoma colorretal. Uma mulher de 48 anos de idade apresentava há quinze dias de sua admissão ao nosso serviço diplopia e síndrome de Parinaud . O exame de ressonância magnética revelou lesão heterogênea localizada na região pineal. O tumor foi completamente retirado por acesso infratentorial/supracerebelar. O exame histológico revelou tumor metastático indiferenciado e o exame imuno-histoquímico demostrou adenocarcinoma do trato gastrointestinal moderadamente diferenciado. Metástases para a região pineal são extremamente raras e devem ser consideradas no diagnóstico diferencial de tumores nesta região.

  5. The sixth sense in mammalian forerunners: Variability of the parietal foramen and the evolution of the pineal eye in South African Permo-Triassic eutheriodont therapsids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Benoit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In some extant ectotherms, the third eye (or pineal eye is a photosensitive organ located in the parietal foramen on the midline of the skull roof. The pineal eye sends information regarding exposure to sunlight to the pineal complex, a region of the brain devoted to the regulation of body temperature, reproductive synchrony, and biological rhythms. The parietal foramen is absent in mammals but present in most of the closest extinct relatives of mammals, the Therapsida. A broad ranging survey of the occurrence and size of the parietal foramen in different South African therapsid taxa demonstrates that through time the parietal foramen tends, in a convergent manner, to become smaller and is absent more frequently in eutherocephalians (Akidnognathiidae, Whaitsiidae, and Baurioidea and non-mammaliaform eucynodonts. Among the latter, the Probainognathia, the lineage leading to mammaliaforms, are the only one to achieve the complete loss of the parietal foramen. These results suggest a gradual and convergent loss of the photoreceptive function of the pineal organ and degeneration of the third eye. Given the role of the pineal organ to achieve fine-tuned thermoregulation in ectotherms (i.e., “cold-blooded” vertebrates, the gradual loss of the parietal foramen through time in the Karoo stratigraphic succession may be correlated with the transition from a mesothermic metabolism to a high metabolic rate (endothermy in mammalian ancestry. The appearance in the eye of melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells replacing the photoreceptive role of the pineal eye could also have accompanied its loss.

  6. Historical and cultural aspects of the pineal gland: comparison between the theories provided by Spiritism in the 1940s and the current scientific evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Giancarlo; Daher, Jorge C; Iandoli, Decio; Gonçalves, Juliane P B; Lucchetti, Alessandra L G

    2013-01-01

    Significance has been attached to the pineal gland in numerous different cultures and beliefs. One religion that has advanced the role of the pineal gland is Spiritism. The objective of the present study was to compile information on the pineal gland drawing on the books of Francisco Cândido Xavier written through psychography and to carry out a critical analysis of their scientific bases by comparing against evidence in the current scientific literature. A systematic search using the terms "pineal gland" and "epiphysis" was conducted of 12 works allegedly dictated by the spirit "André Luiz". All information on the pineal having potential correlation with the field of medicine and current studies was included. Specialists in the area were recruited to compile the information and draw parallels with the scientific literature. The themes related to the pineal gland were: mental health, reproductive function, endocrinology, relationship with physical activity, spiritual connection, criticism of the theory that the organ exerts no function, and description of a hormone secreted by the gland (reference alluding to melatonin, isolated 13 years later). The historical background for each theme was outlined, together with the theories present in the Spiritist books and in the relevant scientific literature. The present article provides an analysis of the knowledge the scientific community can acquire from the history of humanity and from science itself. The process of formulating hypotheses and scientific theories can benefit by drawing on the cultural aspects of civilization, taking into account so-called non-traditional reports and theories.

  7. Differentiation of germinomas from other tumors in the pineal region with CT and MR imaging, with special reference to extension patterns to the thalami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Tetsuya [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-03-01

    To determine the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) characteristics of pineal region germinomas, the author reviewed images from 40 patients with pineal region tumors. These tumors were divided into two groups: those with germinomas (n=17), and those with other tumors in the pineal region (5 with a germ cell tumor other than germinoma; 8, mixed germ cell tumor; 8, pineal parenchymal tumor; and 2, miscellaneous tumors; n=23). All cases were investigated with CT; 31 of the cases were also investigated with MR imaging. The following parameters comprised statistically significant differences between the two groups: maximum size of the tumor, tumor density of the precontrast CT, signal intensity of precontrast T1-weighted spin-echo images, and homogeneity of the tumor on both precontrast and postcontrast studies. This study found that extension patterns of pineal region tumors into the thalamus have significant implications in differentiating germinomas from other tumors of this region. Germinomas are characterized by thalamic extension without lateral displacement of the third ventricle walls due to direct compression by tumors (p=0.0034). The analysis of tumor extension patterns, combined with the parameters mentioned above, may provide a more accurate differential diagnosis in pineal region tumors, leading to prompt and appropriate treatment. (author)

  8. A direct influence of moonlight intensity on changes in melatonin production by cultured pineal glands of the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Akihiro; Ueda, Satomi; Hiyakawa, Nanae; Nikaido, Yoshiaki

    2006-04-01

    Rabbitfish are a restricted lunar-synchronized spawner that spawns around a species-specific lunar phase. It is not known how the fish perceive changes in cues from the moon. One possible explanation is that rabbitfish utilize changes in moonlight intensity to establish synchrony. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether or not the pineal gland of the golden rabbitfish can directly perceive changes in moonlight intensity. Isolated pineal glands were statically cultured under natural or artificial light conditions and melatonin secreted into the culture medium was measured using a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Under an artificial light/dark cycle, melatonin secretion significantly increased during the dark phase. Under continuous light conditions, melatonin secretion was suppressed, while culture under continuous dark conditions seemed to duplicate melatonin secretion corresponding to the light/dark cycle in which the fish were acclimated. When cultured pineal glands were kept under natural light conditions on the dates of the full and the new moon, small amounts of melatonin were secreted at night. Moreover, exposure of cultured pineal glands to artificial and natural light conditions resulted in a significant decrease of melatonin secretion within 2 hr. These results suggest that the isolated pineal gland of golden rabbitfish responds to environmental light cycles and that 'brightness' of the night moon has an influence on melatonin secretion from the isolated pineal gland.

  9. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  10. Clorgyline effect on pineal melatonin biosynthesis in adrenalectomized rats pretreated with 6-hydroxydopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, S; Requintina, P J; Riemann, R; Oxenkrug, G F

    1994-01-01

    The response to administration of the specific monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) blocker clorgyline was investigated in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats which were adrenalectomized four days prior to treatment or were additionally sympathectomized as newborns by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine. In both groups, the contents of pineal indoles melatonin and N-acetylserotonin were augmented, and the contents of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and 5-hydroxyindoletryptophol decreased 90 min following clorgyline injections when compared to rats receiving saline. The observed responses were less pronounced in rats both adrenalectomized and sympathectomized. The results are in line with the hypothesis that preservation from oxidation of both MAO-A substrates, noradrenaline and serotonin, upon clorgyline administration contributes to the observed increase in melatonin biosynthesis thought to be associated with the anti-depressant effects of MAO inhibition.

  11. Pineal gland hormone and idiopathic scoliosis: possible effect of melatonin on sleep-related postural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeiano, O; Manzoni, D; Miele, F

    2002-04-01

    Experimental and clinical evidences indicate that endocrine mechanisms, particularly involving the pineal gland, exert a role in the development of postural deficits leading to the occurrence of idiopatic scoliosis (IS). In particular, experiments performed in bipedal animals have shown that removal of the pineal gland, which secretes melatonin (M), induced a scoliosis, and that in such preparations, administration of this hormone prevented the development of this deformity (cf. 131). It appears also that adolescents with IS showed a reduced level of serum M with respect to age-related control subjects. The possible mechanisms involved in the M regulation of the tonic contraction of the axial musculature have been discussed. It is known that the pineal gland is implicated in the control of circadian rhythms, including the sleep-waking cycle, and that during this cycle there are prominent changes in postural activity, which affect not only the limbs, but also the axial musculature. These changes are characterized by a decrease followed by a suppression of postural activity, which occur particularly during transition from wakefulness to synchronized sleep and, more prominently, to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Episodes of postural atonia may also occur during the cataplectic episodes, which are typical of narcolepsy. Cholinergic and/or cholinoceptive neurons located in the dorsal pontine reticular formation (pRF) and the related medullary inhibitory reticulospinal (RS) system, intervene in the suppression of posture during REM sleep, as well as during the cataplectic episodes which occur in narcolepsy. These structures are under the modulatory (inhibitory) influence of the dorsomedial and the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum, where serotoninergic raphe nuclei (RN) neurons and noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons are located. We postulated that M may act not only on the circadian pacemaker, but also directly on the pontine tegmental structures involved in the

  12. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Neurosurgery, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu (China); Mao, Qing; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Liang-Xue; Liu, Yan-Hui, E-mail: liuyanhui9@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2014-03-01

    Objective: pineal region tumors (PRTs) are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS) as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method: seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6-9 months after GKS. Results: Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion: the findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications. (author)

  13. Gamma knife surgery for pineal region tumors: an alternative strategy for negative pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Pineal region tumors (PRTs are uncommon, and treatments vary among neoplasm types. The authors report their experience with gamma knife surgery (GKS as an initial treatment in a series of PRT patients with unclear pathological diagnoses. Method : Seventeen PRT patients with negative pathology who underwent GKS were retrospectively studied. Nine patients had further whole-brain and spinal cord radiotherapy and chemotherapy 6–9 months after GKS. Results : Sixteen of 17 cases were followed up over a mean of 33.3 months. The total response rate was 75%, and the control rate was 81.3%. No obvious neurological deficits or complications were attributable to GKS. Conclusion : The findings indicate that GKS may be an alternative strategy in selected PRT patients who have negative pathological diagnoses, and that good outcomes and quality of life can be obtained with few complications.

  14. Functional characterization of P2X7 receptors in the rat pineal gland

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Henrique de Souza Teodoro

    2013-01-01

    A sinalização purinérgica tem sido demonstrada como um um importante modulador dediversos processos fisiológicos e fisiopatológicos. Dentre os receptores purinérgicos, o receptor P2X7 distingui-se por requerir altas concentrações de ATP em sua ativação. As demonstrações prévias de que a glândula pineal responde a diferentes estímulos purinérgicose a altas concentrações de ATP sugere um papel para os receptores P2X7 nesta glândula, embora sua expressão e função não estivesse estabelecida. O ob...

  15. The MSH-like activity of pineal hormone E5 in vivo and in vitro experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neacşu, C

    1992-01-01

    Further experiments have revealed that the polypeptidic hormone E5 has a MSK-like effect, as experimentally demonstrated on the frog skin. In Rana esculenta, 30-120 min after a subcutaneous injection of 0.2 mg purified E5B or E5P/100 g b.w., the skin blackened and the effect lasted for about two hours. A comparable effect was induced by incubating the fragment of frog abdominal skin with a similar solution of E5. This MSK-like effect appears to be identical upon mammalian melanocytes in C57/B16 mice strain valves in vitro experiment. The results obtained indicate that pineal gland can influence melanocyte activity directly and suggest the possible implication in such pathological conditions as melanomas, vitiligo, etc.

  16. Radiation-induced vasculopathy implicated by depressed blood flow and metabolism in a pineal glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mineura, K.; Sasajima, T.; Kowada, M. (Akita University Hospital (Japan). Neurosurgical Service); Saitoh, H. (Oodate Municipal Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery); Shishido, F. (Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    A case of radiation-induced vasculopathy of a pineal glioma was presented with haemodynamic and metabolic changes before and after radiotherapy. After radiation of 60 Gy with conventional fractionation (1.8-2.0 Gy daily, 5 days per week), regional blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction, metabolic rate of oxygen, kinetic metabolic rate of glucose and the rate constants (K2, K3) were markedly depressed (20% or greater) compared with the pre-irradiated study. 7 months after radiotherapy, the patient developed transient episodes of both right and left upper limb convulsion, terminating in generalized convulsion. When she developed status epilepticus, computed tomography showed extensive low density areas in the territory supplied by the right middle cerebral and the right posterior cerebral arteries. (author).

  17. Increased melatonin synthesis in pineal glands of rats in streptozotocin induced type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschke, Elmar; Wolgast, Sabine; Bazwinsky, Ivonne; Pönicke, Klaus; Muhlbauer, Eckhard

    2008-11-01

    It is well-documented that melatonin influences insulin secretion. The effects are mediated by specific, high-affinity, pertussis-toxin-sensitive, G protein-coupled membrane receptors (MT(1) as well MT(2)), which are present in both the pancreatic tissue and islets of rats and humans, as well as in rat insulinoma cells (INS1). Via the Gi-protein-adenylatecyclase-3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and, possibly, the guanylatecyclase-cGMP pathways, melatonin decreases insulin secretion, whereas, by activating the Gq-protein-phospholipase C-IP(3) pathway, it has the opposite effect. For further analysis of the interactions between melatonin and insulin, diabetic rats were investigated with respect to melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland and plasma insulin levels. In this context, recent investigations have proven that type 2 diabetic rats and humans display decreased melatonin levels, whereas type 1 diabetic IDDM rats or those with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) of the present study show increased plasma melatonin levels and elevated AA-NAT-mRNA. Furthermore, the mRNA of pineal insulin receptors and beta1-adrenoceptors, including the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1 and the clock-controlled output gene Dbp, increases in both young and middle-aged STZ rats. The results therefore indicate that the decreased insulin levels in STZ-induced type 1 diabetes are associated with higher melatonin plasma levels. In good agreement with earlier investigations, it was shown that the elevated insulin levels observed in type 2 diabetes, are associated with decreased melatonin levels. The results thus prove that a melatonin-insulin antagonism exists. Astonishingly, notwithstanding the drastic metabolic disturbances in STZ-diabetic rats, the diurnal rhythms of the parameters investigated are maintained.

  18. Morfologia da glândula pineal de gambás (Didelphis sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Almeida Furlanetto Mançanares

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A glândula pineal deve ser analisada e estudada em animais da fauna brasileira, para que dados da pesquisa básica possam ser aplicados em novas técnicas de manejo reprodutivo destes animais, inclusive em cativeiro, face à íntima relação deste órgão fotorreceptor com o ciclo reprodutivo. Para este estudo, foram utilizados 10 gambás (Didelphis sp, provenientes do Departamento de Anatomia da USP e da UNIFEOB, já mortos e fixados. Nenhum animal foi submetido a situações de dor/sofrimento e ao sacrifício de sua vida. A glândula pineal foi encontrada em todos animais estudados e apresentou-se com diminutas dimensões, não sendo possível, portanto descrever-lhe características macroscópicas. Através da análise microscópica pudemos localizar a glândula no espaço correspondente ao plano mediano, em relação ao encéfalo, rostral e dorsalmente aos colículos rostrais, ventralmente aos hemisférios cerebrais e caudalmente à comissura habenular. Consiste de uma evaginação do teto do diencéfalo e mostra-se em forma de "U" invertido. Comparativamente a características de glândulas pineais de outras espécies animais, a do Didelphis genus, que estudamos, revela peculiaridades tanto em relação ao seu tamanho, apenas perceptível microscopicamente, quanto ao fato de apresentar células semelhantes às secretoras, dispersas também em áreas vizinhas. Tais peculiaridades motivam reflexões sobre o papel funcional da glândula, na espécie considerada.

  19. Pineal yolk sac tumor: correlation between neuroimaging and pathological findings Tumor do seio endodérmico da pineal: correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taísa Davaus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A 17-year-old boy presented with somnolence and mental confusion. Physical examination demonstrated motor disturbances. Laboratorial investigation showed elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. The CT scan revealed a heterogeneous mass at the pineal region. At the MRI, this lesion was hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2-weighted images, enhancing after contrast administration. The patient underwent a surgical biopsy, which defined the diagnosis of yolk sac tumor. We emphasize the correlation of neuroimaging and pathological findings of this rare pineal region tumor.Um menino de 17 anos de idade apresentou-se com sonolência e confusão mental. O exame físico demonstrou distúrbios motores. A investigação laboratorial revelou aumento dos níveis de alfafetoproteína no soro e no líquor. A TC de crânio revelou massa heterogênea na região pineal. À RM, a lesão era hipointensa em T1 e hiperintensa em T2, com realce após a administração de contraste. O paciente foi submetido a biópsia cirúrgica, a qual definiu o diagnóstico de tumor do seio endodérmico. Enfatizamos a correlação entre os achados patológicos e de neuroimagem deste raro tumor da região pineal.

  20. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  1. Potassium physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, S O

    1986-04-25

    Potassium is the most abundant exchangeable cation in the body. It exists predominantly in the intracellular fluid at concentrations of 140 to 150 meq/liter and in the extracellular fluid at concentrations of 3.5 to 5 meq/liter. The maintenance of the serum potassium concentration is a complex bodily function and results from the balance between intake, excretion, and distribution between intracellular and extracellular space. Ingested potassium is virtually completely absorbed from and minimally excreted through the intestine under nonpathologic circumstances. Renal excretion of potassium, which is the major chronic protective mechanism against abnormalities in potassium balance, depends on filtration, reabsorption, and a highly regulated distal nephron secretory process. Factors regulating potassium secretion include prior potassium intake, intracellular potassium, delivery of sodium chloride and poorly reabsorbable anions to the distal nephron, the urine flow rate, hormones such as aldosterone and beta-catecholamines, and the integrity of the renal tubular cell. The maintenance of distribution between the inside and outside of cells depends on the integrity of the cell membrane and its pumps, osmolality, pH, and the hormones insulin, aldosterone, beta 2-catecholamines, alpha-catecholamines, and prostaglandins. Both distribution across cell membranes and/or renal excretion of potassium may be altered by pharmacologic agents such as diuretics, alpha- and beta-catechol antagonists and agonists, depolarizing agents, and digitalis. Problems with hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can be analyzed on the basis of potassium physiology and pharmacology; proper treatment depends on an accurate analysis.

  2. A novel function for the pineal organ in the control of swim depth in the Atlantic halibut larva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novales Flamarique, Iñigo

    2002-02-01

    The pineal organ of vertebrates is a photo-sensitive structure that conveys photoperiod information to the brain. This information influences circadian rhythm and related metabolic processes such as thermoregulation, hatching time, body growth, and the timing of reproduction. This study demonstrates extra-ocular light responses that control swim depth in the larva of the Atlantic halibut, Hyppoglosus hyppoglosus. Young larvae without a functional eye (=29 days), which possess a functional eye, swim immediately downwards (microsecond delay) following the onset of the light stimulus, but proceed to swim upwards several seconds later. These two response patterns are thus opposite in polarity and have different time kinetics. Because the pineal organ of the Atlantic halibut develops during the embryonic stage, and because it is the only centre in the brain that expresses functional visual pigments (opsins) at early larval stages, it is the only photosensory organ capable of generating the extra-ocular responses observed.

  3. Pineal gland as an endocrine gravitational lunasensor: manifestation of moon-phase dependent morphological changes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, A V; Kostyuchenko, V P; Solovieva, A S; Olovnikov, A M

    2014-10-01

    We found that some morphological properties of the pineal gland and submandibular salivary gland of mice are significantly distinct at the new and full moon. We suppose that the differences are initiated by the displacements of the electron-dense concretions in the secretory vesicles of pinealocytes. This presumably occurs under the influence of the gravitational field, which periodically changes during different phases of the moon. It seems that the pinealocyte is both an endocrine and gravisensory cell. A periodic secretion of the pineal gland probably stimulates, in a lunaphasic mode, the neuroendocrine system that, in turn, periodically exerts influence on different organs of the body. The observed effect probably serves, within the lifelong clock of a brain, to control development and aging in time.

  4. Lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach for microsurgical resection of large midline pineal region tumors: techniques to expand the operative corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulwin, Charles; Matsushima, Ken; Malekpour, Mahdi; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2016-01-01

    Pineal region tumors pose certain challenges in regard to their resection: a deep surgical field, associated critical surrounding neurovascular structures, and narrow operative working corridor due to obstruction by the apex of the culmen. The authors describe a lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach that was successfully used in the treatment of 10 large (> 3 cm) midline pineal region tumors. The patients were placed in a modified lateral decubitus position. A small lateral suboccipital craniotomy exposed the transverse sinus. Tentorial retraction sutures were used to gently rotate and elevate the transverse sinus to expand the lateral supracerebellar operative corridor. This approach placed only unilateral normal structures at risk and minimized vermian venous sacrifice. The surgeon achieved generous exposure of the caudal midline mesencephalon through a "cross-court" oblique trajectory, while avoiding excessive retraction on the culmen. All patients underwent the lateral approach with no approach-related complication. The final pathological diagnoses were consistent with meningioma in 3 cases, pilocytic astrocytoma in 3 cases, intermediate grade pineal region tumor in 2 cases, and pineoblastoma in 2 cases. The entire extent of these tumors was readily reachable through the lateral supracerebellar route. Gross-total resection was achieved in 8 (80%) of the 10 cases; in 2 cases (20%) near-total resection was performed due to adherence of these tumors to deep diencephalic veins. Large midline pineal region tumors can be removed through a unilateral paramedian suboccipital craniotomy. This approach is simple, may spare some of the midline vermian bridging veins, and may be potentially less invasive and more efficient.

  5. Comparison of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) and Fluorescent Light on Suppression of Pineal Melatonin in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winget, Charles M.; Heeke, D. S.; Holley, D. C.; Mele, G.; Brainard, G. C.; Hanifin, J. P.; Rollag, M. D.; Savage, Paul D. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    To validate a novel LED array for use in animal habitat lighting by comparing its effectiveness to cool-white fluorescent (CWF) lighting in suppressing pineal gland melatonin. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 175-200 g, were maintained under control conditions for 2 weeks (food and water ad lib, 12L: 12D CWF, 18 uW/square cm). Dark adapted animals (animals before lights on) were exposed to 5 min of LED or CWF light of similar spectral power distribution. Two groups of rats (LED vs. CWF) were compared at 5 light intensities (100, 40, 1, 1.0, and 0. 1 lux). A control group was placed into the exposure apparatus but not exposed to light. After exposure, pineal glands were rapidly removed and assayed for melatonin by RIA. Results. The dark-exposed control groups matched with the 5 intensity groups (100, 40, 10, 1.0, and 0.1 lux) showed mean + SEM pineal melatonin values of 1167 +/- 136, 1569 +/- 126, 353 +/- 34, 650 +/- 124, and 464 +/- 85, pg/ml respectively. The corresponding CWF exposure data were 393 1 41, 365 +34, 257 +/- 13, 218 +/- 42, and 239 +/- 71 pg/ml, respectively. Corresponding LED exposure data were 439 +/- 25, 462 +/- 50, 231 +/- 6, 164 +/- 12, and 158 +/- 12 pg/ml, respectively. Rats exposed to both experimental light conditions at all illuminances studied showed significant melatonin suppression (p less than 0.01, ANOVA). In no case was the melatonin suppression induced by LED illuminance significantly different from the melatonin suppression elicited by the same intensity of CWF light. The results show that a novel LED light source can suppress pineal melatonin equal to that of a conventional CWF light source.

  6. A relationship between bruxism and orofacial-dystonia? A trigeminal electrophysiological approach in a case report of pineal cavernoma

    OpenAIRE

    Frisardi, Gianni; Iani, Cesare; Sau, Gianfranco; Frisardi, Flavio; Leonardis, Carlo; Lumbau, Aurea Maria Immacolata; Enrico, Paolo; Sirca, Donatella; Staderini, Enrico Maria; Chessa, Giacomo Innocenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background: In some clinical cases, bruxism may be correlated to central nervous system hyperexcitability, suggesting that bruxism may represent a subclinical form of dystonia. To examine this hypothesis, we performed an electrophysiological evaluation of the excitability of the trigeminal nervous system in a patient affected by pineal cavernoma with pain symptoms in the orofacial region and pronounced bruxism. Methods: Electrophysiological studies included bilateral electrical transcrania...

  7. Effect of L-NAME-induced hypertension on melatonin receptors and melatonin levels in the pineal gland and the peripheral organs of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, Miroslava; Herichova, Iveta; Stebelova, Katarina; Paulis, Ludovit; Krajcirovicova, Kristina; Simko, Fedor; Zeman, Michal

    2009-04-01

    Melatonin plays a role in blood pressure (BP) control. The aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin concentrations and melatonin receptor levels are altered in L-NAME-treated, NO-deficient hypertensive rats. Two groups of male adult Wistar rats were investigated: rats (n=36) treated with NO-synthase inhibitor L-NAME (40 mg kg(-1)) and age-matched controls (n=36). BP was measured weekly by tail-cuff plethysmography. After 4 weeks, L-NAME administration increased BP (178+/-1 vs. control 118+/-1 mm Hg). At the end of treatment, rats were killed in regular 4 h intervals over a 24-h period. Melatonin concentrations in the plasma, pineal gland, heart and kidney and melatonin receptor (MT(1)) density in the aorta were determined. A significant daily rhythm of melatonin concentrations was found in the blood, pineal gland, kidney and heart of both control and hypertensive rats. Peak nighttime pineal melatonin concentrations were higher in L-NAME-treated rats than in controls (3.38+/-0.48 vs. 1.75+/-0.33 ng per pineal gland). No differences between both groups were found in melatonin concentrations in blood, kidney and heart or in the MT(1) receptor density in the aorta. Our results suggest that L-NAME treatment enhances melatonin production in the pineal gland, potentially by decreasing an inhibitory effect of NO on melatonin production in the pineal gland. However, the enhanced pineal melatonin formation was insufficient to increase melatonin concentrations in circulation, heart and kidney of L-NAME-treated rats, indicating an increased use of melatonin in hypertensive animals.

  8. The dielectric properties of human pineal gland tissue and RF absorption due to wireless communication devices in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Gernot [Austrian Research Centers GmbH-ARC, ITM, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Ueberbacher, Richard [Austrian Research Centers GmbH-ARC, ITM, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Samaras, Theodoros [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tschabitscher, Manfred [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mazal, Peter R [Department of Clinical Pathology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-09-07

    In order to enable a detailed analysis of radio frequency (RF) absorption in the human pineal gland, the dielectric properties of a sample of 20 freshly removed pineal glands were measured less than 20 h after death. Furthermore, a corresponding high resolution numerical model of the brain region surrounding the pineal gland was developed, based on a real human tissue sample. After inserting this model into a commercially available numerical head model, FDTD-based computations for exposure scenarios with generic models of handheld devices operated close to the head in the frequency range 400-1850 MHz were carried out. For typical output power values of real handheld mobile communication devices, the obtained results showed only very small amounts of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland when compared to SAR limits according to international safety standards. The highest absorption was found for the 400 MHz irradiation. In this case the RF power absorbed inside the pineal gland (organ mass 96 mg) was as low as 11 {mu}W, when considering a device of 500 mW output power operated close to the ear. For typical mobile phone frequencies (900 MHz and 1850 MHz) and output power values (250 mW and 125 mW) the corresponding values of absorbed RF power in the pineal gland were found to be lower by a factor of 4.2 and 36, respectively. These results indicate that temperature-related biologically relevant effects on the pineal gland induced by the RF emissions of typical handheld mobile communication devices are unlikely.

  9. Expression of protein gene product 9.5, tyrosine hydroxylase and serotonin in the pineal gland of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Mang-Hung; Wei, I-Hua; Jiang-Shieh, Ya-Fen; Jou, Ming-Jia; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Chen, Hui-Min; Wu, Ching-Hsiang

    2008-03-01

    Hyperglycemia is a well-known factor in reducing nocturnal pineal melatonin production. However, the mechanism underlying diabetes-induced insufficiency of pineal melatonin has remained uncertain. This study was undertaken to examine the structure, innervation and functional activity of the pineal gland in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and image analysis. The number of the pinealocytes and the volume of pineal were also estimated using stereologic quantification including the optical fractionator and Cavalieri's method. It has also shown a progressive reduction of the total area of the pineal gland and the nuclear size of pinealocytes beginning at 4 weeks of induced diabetes. Surprisingly, the immunoreactive intensities and protein amounts of serotonin (5-HT) and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 in the pineal gland were progressively increased from 4 weeks of diabetes. Meanwhile, nerve fibers immunoreactive for PGP 9.5 had disappeared. Diabetes-induced neuropathy was observed in nerve fibers containing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). The affected nerve fibers appeared swollen and smooth in outline but they showed a distribution pattern, packing density and protein levels comparable to those of the age-matched control animals. Ultrastructural observations have revealed diabetes-induced deformity of Schwann cells and basal lamina, accumulation of synaptic vesicles and deprivation of the dense-core vesicles in the axon terminals and varicosities. The increase in immunoreactivities in 5-HT and PGP 9.5 and shrinkage of pineal gland in the diabetic rats suggest an inefficient enzyme activity of the pinealocytes. This coupled with the occurrence of anomalous TH nerve fibers, may lead to an ineffective sympathetic innervation of the pinealocytes resulting in reduced melatonin production in STZ-induced diabetes.

  10. [Human physiology: kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V

    2010-01-01

    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  11. CSF generation by pineal gland results in a robust melatonin circadian rhythm in the third ventricle as an unique light/dark signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dun-Xian; Manchester, Lucien C; Reiter, Russel J

    2016-01-01

    Pineal gland is an important organ for the regulation of the bio-clock in all vertebrate species. Its major secretory product is melatonin which is considered as the chemical expression of darkness due to its circadian peak exclusively at night. Pineal melatonin can be either released into the blood stream or directly enter into the CSF of the third ventricle via the pineal recess. We have hypothesized that rather than the peripheral circulatory melatonin circadian rhythm serving as the light/dark signal, it is the melatonin rhythm in CSF of the third ventricle that serves this purpose. This is due to the fact that melatonin circadian rhythm in the CSF is more robust in terms of its extremely high concentration and its precise on/off peaks. Thus, extrapineal-generated melatonin or diet-derived melatonin which enters blood would not interfere with the bio-clock function of vertebrates. In addition, based on the relationship of the pineal gland to the CSF and the vascular structure of this gland, we also hypothesize that pineal gland is an essential player for CSF production. We feel it participates in both the formation and reabsorption of CSF. The mechanisms associated with these processes are reviewed and discussed in this brief review.

  12. The morphology of the pineal gland of the yellow-toothed cavy (Galea Spixii Wagler, 1831) and red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Felipe Venceslau; Lopes, Igor Renno Guimarães; de Oliveira, Gleidson Benevides; Bezerra, Ferdinando Vinicius Fernandes; de Oliveira, Radan Elvis Matias; Oliveira Júnior, Carlos Magno; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco

    2015-08-01

    The pineal gland is an endocrine gland found in all mammals. This article describes the morphology of this important gland in two species of Caviideae, namely the yellow-toothed cavy and the red-rumped agouti. Ten adult animals of the two species used in current analysis were retrieved from the Center for the Multiplication of Wild Animals (CEMAS/UFERSA) and euthanized. The glands were removed and photographed in situ and ex situ. They were fixed in a paraformaldehyde solution 4% or glutaraldehyde 2.5% solution and submitted to routine histological techniques respectively for light and scanning electron microscopy. Macroscopically, the pineal gland with its elongated structure may be found between the cerebral hemispheres facing the rostral colliculi. Microscopically, pinealocytes and some glia cells were predominant. Contrastingly, to the cavy's pineal gland, a capsule covered the organ in the agouti, with the emission of incomplete septa to the interior, which divided it into two lobules. Light and scanning electron microscopes failed to show calcareous concretions in the pineal gland. Based on the topography of the cavy's and agouti's pineal gland, it may be classified as supra-callosum and ABC type.

  13. Adrenoceptor expression and diurnal rhythms of melatonin and its precursors in the pineal gland of type 2 diabetic goto-kakizaki rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Andreas Gunter; Mühlbauer, Eckhard; Peschke, Elmar

    2010-06-01

    A decrease in the nighttime release of the pineal hormone melatonin is associated with aging and chronic diseases in animals an humans. Melatonin has a protective role in type 2 diabetes; however, its synthesis itself is affected in the disease. The aim of this study was to detect crucially impaired steps in the pineal melatonin synthesis of type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Therefore, plasma melatonin concentrations and the pineal content of melatonin and its precursors (tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and N-acetylserotonin) were quantified in GK rats compared with Wistar rats (each group 8 and 50 wk old) in a diurnal manner (four animals per group and per time point). Additionally, the expression of pineal adrenoceptor subtype mRNA was investigated. We found that in diabetic GK rats, 1) inhibitory alpha-2-adrenoceptors are significantly more strongly expressed than in Wistar rats, 2) the formation of 5-hydroxytryptophan is crucially impaired, and 3) the pineal gland protein content is significantly reduced compared with that in Wistar rats. This is the first time that melatonin synthesis is examined in a type 2 diabetic rat model in a diurnal manner. The present data unveil several reasons for a reduced melatonin secretion in diabetic animals and present an important link in the interaction between melatonin and insulin.

  14. Pineal gland expression of the transcription factor Egr-1 is restricted to a population of glia that are distinct from nestin-immunoreactive cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Pui-Sin; Carter, David A

    2008-02-01

    Egr-1 is a plasticity-related transcription factor that has been implicated in circadian regulation of the pineal gland. In the present study we have investigated the cellular expression pattern of Egr-1 in the adult rat pineal. Egr-1 protein is restricted to the nucleus of a sub-population of cells. These cells were characterised using a new transgenic rat model (egr-1-d2EGFP) in which green fluorescent protein is driven by the egr-1 promoter. Cellular filling by GFP revealed that Egr-1-positive cells exhibited processes, indicating a glial cell-type morphology. This was confirmed by co-localizing the GFP-filled processes with vimentin and S-100beta. However, GFP/Egr-1 is expressed in only a tiny minority of the previously identified Id-1/vimentin-positive glial cells and therefore represents a novel sub-set of this (GFAP-negative) glial population. We have also demonstrated for the first time an extensive network of nestin-positive cells throughout the adult pineal gland, however these cells do not co-express Egr-1. Our studies have therefore broadened our understanding of the cell populations that constitute the adult pineal. Cellular localization of Egr-1 has revealed that this factor does not appear to be directly involved in pinealocyte production of melatonin but is required in a sub-set of pineal glia.

  15. Critical time delay of the pineal melatonin rhythm in humans due to weak electromagnetic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can increase free radicals, activate the stress response and alter enzyme reactions. Intracellular signalling is mediated by free radicals and enzyme kinetics is affected by radical pair recombination rates. The magnetic field component of an external EMF can delay the "recombination rate" of free radical pairs. Magnetic fields thus increase radical life-times in biological systems. Although measured in nanoseconds, this extra time increases the potential to do more damage. Melatonin regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle or circadian rhythm. The World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed that prolonged alterations in sleep patterns suppress the body's ability to make melatonin. Considerable cancer rates have been attributed to the reduction of melatonin production as a result of jet lag and night shift work. In this study, changes in circadian rhythm and melatonin concentration are observed due to the external perturbation of chemical reaction rates. We further analyze the pineal melatonin rhythm and investigate the critical time delay or maturation time of radical pair recombination rates, exploring the impact of the mRNA degradation rate on the critical time delay. The results show that significant melatonin interruption and changes to the circadian rhythm occur due to the perturbation of chemical reaction rates, as also reported in previous studies. The results also show the influence of the mRNA degradation rate on the circadian rhythm's critical time delay or maturation time. The results support the hypothesis that exposure to weak EMFs via melatonin disruption can adversely affect human health.

  16. Novel hypophysiotropic AgRP2 neurons and pineal cells revealed by BAC transgenesis in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shainer, Inbal; Buchshtab, Adi; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Wilson, Stephen W.; Cone, Roger D.; Gothilf, Yoav

    2017-01-01

    The neuropeptide agouti-related protein (AgRP) is expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus and plays a key role in regulating food consumption and energy homeostasis. Fish express two agrp genes in the brain: agrp1, considered functionally homologous with the mammalian AgRP, and agrp2. The role of agrp2 and its relationship to agrp1 are not fully understood. Utilizing BAC transgenesis, we generated transgenic zebrafish in which agrp1- and agrp2-expressing cells can be visualized and manipulated. By characterizing these transgenic lines, we showed that agrp1-expressing neurons are located in the ventral periventricular hypothalamus (the equivalent of the mammalian arcuate nucleus), projecting throughout the hypothalamus and towards the preoptic area. The agrp2 gene was expressed in the pineal gland in a previously uncharacterized subgroup of cells. Additionally, agrp2 was expressed in a small group of neurons in the preoptic area that project directly towards the pituitary and form an interface with the pituitary vasculature, suggesting that preoptic AgRP2 neurons are hypophysiotropic. We showed that direct synaptic connection can exist between AgRP1 and AgRP2 neurons in the hypothalamus, suggesting communication and coordination between AgRP1 and AgRP2 neurons and, therefore, probably also between the processes they regulate. PMID:28317906

  17. [Coexistence of acoustic neuroma and pineal region tumor in patient with sudden deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durko, Marcin; Jankowski, Andrzej; Durko, Tomasz; Gajewicz, Witold; Pajor, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic neuroma usually presents as an unilateral tumor, seldom - bilateral and rarely in coexistence with other central nervous system neoplasms. The following paper reports such a case of a 21-year-old male patient presented with sudden deafness in left ear accompanied with tinnitus and vertigo. Symptoms started 4 weeks prior hospitalization. Their aggravation has been observed 7 days before admission to the hospital. Audiometry revealed moderate sensorineural hearing loss in left ear (for low and middle frequencies), brainstem auditory evoked potentials were absent on the left side and ENG examination showed left peripheral vestibular impairment. Initially patient received i.v. vasodilatators showing 20-25 dB improvement in low frequencies after 3 days of treatment. MRI study revealed in the left internal acoustic meatus mass (7 x 7 x 14 mm) suggesting acoustic neuroma and an oval mass (7 x 9 x 14 mm) in the pineal gland presenting radiological features of pinealoma. Patient has been qualified for neurosurgical treatment. Acoustic neuroma has been removed by suboccipital approach and pinealoma has been left for further observation as it was found incidentally. Histopathological examination confirmed diagnosis of left VIII nerve schwannoma. The left facial palsy (House-Brackmann III/IV grade) and profound hearing loss appeared after surgery. The postoperative course shows no evidence of acoustic neuroma recurrence.

  18. Determination of Melatonin in Rat Pineal Gland and Drug with Flow-Injection Chemiluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI,Shou-Lian; ZHAO,LI-Xia; CHENG,Xiang-Lei; LIN,Jin-Ming

    2007-01-01

    A flow-injection chemiluminescence(CL)method for the determination of melatonin based on the CL reaction of melatonin with hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite(NaOCl)in a basic alkaline solution was developed.The possible CL mechanism has been discussed,and a proposal for the reaction pathway was given that singlet oxygen was clarified to be produced in this reaction system and was responsible for the CL emission.Under the optimized conditions.the linear concentration range of application was 1.0 X 10-7-2.5×10-4 mol·L-1 with a detection Iimit of 5.0X 10-8 mol·L-1(S/N=3).The relative standard deviation for eight repeated measurements of 1.0×10-6 mol·L-1 melatonin was 2.8%.The interferences of several important biological substances.some indole compound,cations and anions were studied.No interference was found for the anions,glucose,starch,most of cations and low concentration(less than 3.0×10-6 mol·L-1)of some biological substances and indole compound.The method was applied to the determination of melatonin in rat pineal gland and drug with satisfactory results.The sample throughput was 90 injections per hour.

  19. Fluoride concentrations in the pineal gland, brain and bone of goosander (Mergus merganser) and its prey in Odra River estuary in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Bosiacka-Baranowska, Irena; Lanocha, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Krolaczyk, Katarzyna; Wilk, Aleksandra; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Budis, Halina; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate fluoride concentrations in bone, brain and pineal gland of goosander Mergus merganser wintering in the Odra estuary (Poland) as well as in fish originating from its digestive tract. The fluoride concentrations were determined with potentiometric method. Medians of concentrations in goosander had the highest and the lowest values in pineal gland and brain (>760 and pineal gland was significantly greater than in the bone and the brain of the duck. In fish, the fluoride concentration ranged from 37 to 640 mg/kg and significant correlation was revealed between the fluoride concentration and fish weight and length. Based on own results and data of other authors, a daily fluoride intake by the goosander in the Odra estuary was estimated at 15 mg. So high fluoride concentrations like in the duck have not been found in mammal brains.

  20. [The sexual peculiarities of aging changes in circannual rhythms of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus functions in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labunets, I F

    2013-01-01

    The interrelations of circannual rhythms of the functional state of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex, thymus in healthy women and men from 20 to 79 years were studied. Fluctuations of melatonin, ACTH, cortisol and thymic serum factor, which were exchanged in aging (the season peaks of hormones and its acrophase) were found in blood of healthy 20-29 years old people. The changes of rhythmicity of indices were in male earlier (pineal gland and hypophysis over 30 years, thymus and adrenal cortex over 40 years) and more impressive than in women. The aging changes of pineal gland function's rhythm in healthy subjects have important role for changes of interrelations of circannual rhythms hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus.

  1. Melatonin synthesis: Acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT) is strongly expressed in a subpopulation of pinealocytes in the male rat pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Coon, Steven L.; Amaral, Fernanda G.

    2016-01-01

    The rat pineal gland has been extensively used in studies of melatonin synthesis. However, the cellular localization of melatonin synthesis in this species has not been investigated. Here we focus on the localization of melatonin synthesis using immunohistochemical methods to detect the last enzyme...... in melatonin synthesis, acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT), and in situ hybridization techniques to study transcripts encoding ASMT and two other enzymes in melatonin synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH)-1 and aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase. In sections of the rat pineal gland, marked cell...... and TPH protein was also detected in the pineal gland. ASMT protein was not detected in extraepithalamic parts of the central nervous system or in peripheral tissues. The findings in this report are of special interest because they provide reason to suspect that melatonin synthesis varies significantly...

  2. Melatonin rhythm onset in the adult siberian hamster: influence of photoperiod but not 60-Hz magnetic field exposure on melatonin content in the pineal gland and in circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yellon, S M; Truong, H N

    1998-02-01

    To determine the relationship between pineal melatonin production and its appearance in circulation, the rising phase of the pineal and serum melatonin rhythm was studied in the adult Siberian hamster. Melatonin concentrations increased in the pineal gland and in serum at 1.50 and 1.75 h, respectively, relative to lights off in long days (16 h of light/day) and at 2.00 and 2.75 h, respectively, in short days (10 h of light/day). Thus, a photoperiod-dependent melatonin rise in circulation lagged production by the pineal gland by 0.50 h--a delay of 0.75 h in short-day hamsters versus 0.25 h in long-day hamsters. Following initiation of this rise, concentrations that were typical of the nighttime peak were achieved within 2 h of melatonin rhythm onset, regardless of photoperiod. To determine whether clock control of the rising phase of the melatonin rhythm, in the absence of photoperiod cues, may be disrupted by perturbations in the ambient magnetic field, hamsters in constant darkness were acutely exposed to a 1-Gauss, 60-Hz magnetic field for 15 min or were daily exposed to this treatment for 14 or 21 days. Neither the melatonin rise in pineal content or circulation during subjective night was affected by acute or chronic magnetic field exposures; testes regression similarly occurred in sham and daily magnetic field-exposed hamsters in constant darkness. These findings indicate that magnetic field exposures are unlikely to serve as a zeitgeber for the circadian mechanism that controls onset of the melatonin rhythm; rather, photoperiod is a predominant cue that may differentially regulate the rising phase of melatonin production in the pineal gland and concentration in circulation.

  3. Ultradian oscillation in expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, a semilunar-synchronized spawner, under constant darkness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Taro; Maruyama, Yusuke; Doi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Ando, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin receptor gene expression as well as melatonin synthesis and secretion activities were examined in the pineal gland of the grass puffer, which exhibits unique lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawing: spawning occurs before high tide on the day of spring tide during spawing season. Melatonin synthesizing activity was assessed by the abundance of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (AANAT2) mRNA. The amount of aanat2 mRNA was low during light phase and initiated to increase after the light was turned off. The secretion of melatonin from primary pineal organ culture was stimulated after the light was turned off and ceased immediately after the light was turned on. The expression levels of four melatonin receptor subtype genes (mel 1a 1.4, mel 1a 1.7, mel1b, and mel1c) showed synchronous variations, and the levels tended to be high during the dark phase under light/dark conditions. These results suggest that the action of melatonin on the pineal gland is highly dependent on light and photoperiod, possibly with stronger action during night time. Under constant darkness, the expression of four melatonin receptor subtype genes showed unique ultradian oscillations with the period of 14.0-15.4 h, suggesting the presence of a circatidal oscillator in the pineal gland. The present results indicate that melatonin may serve local chronobiological functions in the pineal gland. These cyclic expressions of melatonin receptor genes in the pineal gland may be important in the control of the lunar/tidal cycle-synchronized mass spawning in the grass puffer.

  4. Steroid Hormones and Antihormones can Reverse the Castration Induced Stimulation of the Pineal and Adrenal Karyomorphology and Cell Proliferation in Mice (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, influence of castration and castrated animals supplemented with steroid hormones and antihormones on pineal-adrenal karyomorphology and dynamics were studied in post pubertal male mice. A group of thirty five mice were orchidectomized and (N = 7 sham operated, were kept in laboratory condition for 30 days. Such castrated were separately supplemented with estradiol at a dose of 5 g, testosterone at a dose of 100 g and antihormones, tamoxifen at a dose of 500 g and flutamide at 2 g daily (all at doses per 100 g.b.w. for ten consecutive days following thirty days of post castration. Present data reveal that both pineal and adrenal gland nuclear size and cell proliferation were significantly increased in thirty days post orchidectomized mice compared to control animals. The values are control pinealocyte nuclear diameter (dim: 4.750.06; castrated pinealocyte nuclear diameter (m: 5.340.04 (p<0.001. Control pineal M% 1.250.07; castrated pineal M% 2.020.11 (p<0.001. In control adrenal, representative of zones was Z. fasciculata nuclear diameter (m (5.110.04; castrated Z. fasciculata nuclear diameter (m 5.410.03 (p<0.001. Control adrenal M% (1.030.06 castrated adrenal M% (1.630.09 p<0.001. It was further observed that such pineal and adrenal stimulation in orchidectomized mice were significantly decreased when orchidectomized mice were administered with steroid hormones (estradiol and testosterone and antihormones (tamoxifen and flutamide compared to orchidectomized mice. Our study indicates that there exists a mutual stimulatory relationship between pineal and adrenal under conditions of steroid deprivation. However, exogenous administration of steroid hormones and antihormones to those castrated mice caused inhibition of these two peripheral endocrine glands.

  5. In silico genome wide mining of conserved and novel miRNAs in the brain and pineal gland of Danio rerio using small RNA sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Suyash; Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Srivastava, Prachi; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra; Pandey, Manmohan; Srivastava, Shreya

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that bind to the mRNA of the target genes and regulate the expression of the gene at the post-transcriptional level. Zebrafish is an economically important freshwater fish species globally considered as a good predictive model for studying human diseases and development. The present study focused on uncovering known as well as novel miRNAs, target prediction of the novel miRNAs and the differential expression of the known miRNA using the small RNA sequencing data of the brain and pineal gland (dark and light treatments) obtained from NCBI SRA. A total of 165, 151 and 145 known zebrafish miRNAs were found in the brain, pineal gland (dark treatment) and pineal gland (light treatment), respectively. Chromosomes 4 and 5 of zebrafish reference assembly GRCz10 were found to contain maximum number of miR genes. The miR-181a and miR-182 were found to be highly expressed in terms of number of reads in the brain and pineal gland, respectively. Other ncRNAs, such as tRNA, rRNA and snoRNA, were curated against Rfam. Using GRCz10 as reference, the subsequent bioinformatic analyses identified 25, 19 and 9 novel miRNAs from the brain, pineal gland (dark treatment) and pineal gland (light treatment), respectively. Targets of the novel miRNAs were identified, based on sequence complementarity between miRNAs and mRNA, by searching for antisense hits in the 3'-UTR of reference RNA sequences of the zebrafish. The discovery of novel miRNAs and their targets in the zebrafish genome can be a valuable scientific resource for further functional studies not only in zebrafish but also in other economically important fishes.

  6. [Substrates and possible mechanisms of pineal gland moon-sensory function in context of redusome hypothesis of aging and control of biological time in ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S V

    2008-01-01

    As a result of comparison of the normative factors on human pineal gland volume (8 age groups, n=411) with similar factors obtained in the days of the moon phase extremes (n=49) the following phenomena have been determined. As a rule all the moon phase extremes, in particular the new moon, are accompanied by an appreciable reduce of pineal gland volume, a sort of systole. These changes depend on the age factor. The results of the research advance indirect arguments for the redusome hypothesis of aging.

  7. Role of monochromatic light on daily variation of clock gene expression in the pineal gland of chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Dong, Yulan; Chen, Yaoxing

    2016-11-01

    The avian pineal gland is a master clock that can receive external photic cues and translate them into output rhythms. To clarify whether a shift in light wavelength can influence the circadian expression in chick pineal gland, a total of 240 Arbor Acre male broilers were exposed to white light (WL), red light (RL), green light (GL) or blue light (BL). After 2weeks light illumination, circadian expressions of seven core clock genes in pineal gland and the level of melatonin in plasma were examined. The results showed after illumination with monochromatic light, 24h profiles of all clock gene mRNAs retained circadian oscillation, except that RL tended to disrupt the rhythm of cCry2. Compared to WL, BL advanced the acrophases of the negative elements (cCry1, cCry2, cPer2 and cPer3) by 0.1-1.5h and delayed those of positive elements (cClock, cBmal1 and cBmal2) by 0.2-0.8h. And, RL advanced all clock genes except cClock and cPer2 by 0.3-2.1h, while GL delayed all clock genes by 0.5-1.5h except cBmal2. Meanwhile, GL increased the amplitude and mesor of positive and reduced both parameters of negative clock genes, but RL showed the opposite pattern. Although the acrophase of plasma melatonin was advanced by both GL and RL, the melatonin level was significantly increased in GL and decreased in RL. This tendency was consistent with the variations in the positive clock gene mRNA levels under monochromatic light and contrasted with those of negative clock genes. Therefore, we speculate that GL may enhance positive clock genes expression, leading to melatonin synthesis, whereas RL may enhance negative genes expression, suppressing melatonin synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Moonlight affects nocturnal Period2 transcript levels in the pineal gland of the reef fish Siganus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Nozomi; Park, Ji-Gweon; Park, Yong-Ju; Takeuchi, Yuki; Kim, Se-Jae; Takemura, Akihiro

    2008-09-01

    The golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus is a reef fish with a restricted lunar-synchronized spawning cycle. It is not known how the fish recognizes cues from the moon and exerts moon-related activities. In order to evaluate the perception and utilization of moonlight by the fish, the present study aimed to clone and characterize Period2 (Per2), a light-inducible clock gene in lower vertebrates, and to examine daily variations in rabbitfish Per2 (rfPer2) expression as well as the effect of light and moonlight on its expression in the pineal gland. The partially-cloned rfPer2 cDNA (2933 bp) was highly homologous (72%) to zebrafish Per2. The rfPer2 levels increased at ZT6 and decreased at ZT18 in the whole brain and several peripheral organs. The rfPer2 expression in the pineal gland exhibited a daily variation with an increase during daytime. Exposing the fish to light during nighttime resulted in a rapid increase of its expression in the pineal gland, while the level was decreased by intercepting light during daytime. Two hours after exposing the fish to moonlight at the full moon period, the rfPer2 expression was upregulated. These results suggest that rfPer2 is a light-inducible clock gene and that its expression is affected not only by daylight but also by moonlight. Since the rfPer2 expression level during the full moon period was higher than that during the new moon period, the monthly variation in the rfPer2 expression is likely to occur with the change in amplitude between the full and new moon periods.

  9. Morphological changes in the pineal gland of rats under conditions of long-term exposure to bright light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, A V; Logvinov, S V; Kostyuchenko, V P

    2010-12-01

    Changes in the diurnal light cycle affect the morphofunctional state of the pineal gland. The volume of the nucleus, Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria in pinealocytes decreases after 45-day exposure to bright light. After 90 days, the degree of nuclear polymorphism increased, the specific volume of the Golgi apparatus returned to normal, the volume of the granular endoplasmic reticulum decreased, while the volume of lysosomes, free ribosomes, and polysomes increased. These changes reflect plasticity of pinealocytes and adaptation of the gland to long-term 24-h light exposure.

  10. The pineal gland does not control rod outer segment shedding and phagocytosis in the rat retina and pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, M; Teirstein, P; Goldman, A; O'Brien, P; Chader, G

    1978-06-01

    Diurnal patterns of retinal outer segment shedding and phagocytosis by the pigment epithelium were examined in pinealectomized, superior-cervical-ganglionectomized, and sham-operated rats. Phagocytosis was quantitatively similar in all groups. Sharp increases in the number of large phagosomes were observed soon after lights were turned on in the tree sets of animals. Pinealectomized animals kept in constant darkness over a 24 hr period also exhibited normal shedding patterns. Our results suggest that the pineal does not exert a major influence on the daily rhythms of shedding and phagocytosis observed in the retina-pigment epithelium unit.

  11. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow pot...

  12. Developmental and Diurnal Dynamics of Pax4 Expression in the Mammalian Pineal Gland: Nocturnal Down-Regulation Is Mediated by Adrenergic-Cyclic Adenosine 3′,5′-Monophosphate Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Rath, Martin F.; Michael J Bailey; Kim, Jong-So; Ho, Anthony K.; Gaildrat, Pascaline; Coon, Steven L.; Møller, Morten; Klein, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Pax4 is a homeobox gene that is known to be involved in embryonic development of the endocrine pancreas. In this tissue, Pax4 counters the effects of the related protein, Pax6. Pax6 is essential for development of the pineal gland. In this study we report that Pax4 is strongly expressed in the pineal gland and retina of the rat. Pineal Pax4 transcripts are low in the fetus and increase postnatally; Pax6 exhibits an inverse pattern of expression, being more strongly expressed in the fetus. In ...

  13. LC/MS/MS analysis of the endogenous dimethyltryptamine hallucinogens, their precursors, and major metabolites in rat pineal gland microdialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Steven A; Borjigin, Jimo; Lomnicka, Izabela; Strassman, Rick

    2013-12-01

    We report a qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous analysis of the three known N,N-dimethyltryptamine endogenous hallucinogens, their precursors and metabolites, as well as melatonin and its metabolic precursors. The method was characterized using artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) as the matrix and was subsequently applied to the analysis of rat brain pineal gland-aCSF microdialysate. The method describes the simultaneous analysis of 23 chemically diverse compounds plus a deuterated internal standard by direct injection, requiring no dilution or extraction of the samples. The results demonstrate that this is a simple, sensitive, specific and direct approach to the qualitative analysis of these compounds in this matrix. The protocol also employs stringent MS confirmatory criteria for the detection and confirmation of the compounds examined, including exact mass measurements. The excellent limits of detection and broad scope make it a valuable research tool for examining the endogenous hallucinogen pathways in the central nervous system. We report here, for the first time, the presence of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in pineal gland microdialysate obtained from the rat. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Circadian-related heteromerization of adrenergic and dopamine D₄ receptors modulates melatonin synthesis and release in the pineal gland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio González

    Full Text Available The role of the pineal gland is to translate the rhythmic cycles of night and day encoded by the retina into hormonal signals that are transmitted to the rest of the neuronal system in the form of serotonin and melatonin synthesis and release. Here we describe that the production of both melatonin and serotonin by the pineal gland is regulated by a circadian-related heteromerization of adrenergic and dopamine D₄ receptors. Through α(₁B-D₄ and β₁-D₄ receptor heteromers dopamine inhibits adrenergic receptor signaling and blocks the synthesis of melatonin induced by adrenergic receptor ligands. This inhibition was not observed at hours of the day when D₄ was not expressed. These data provide a new perspective on dopamine function and constitute the first example of a circadian-controlled receptor heteromer. The unanticipated heteromerization between adrenergic and dopamine D₄ receptors provides a feedback mechanism for the neuronal hormone system in the form of dopamine to control circadian inputs.

  15. Aging and Oxidative Stress Decrease Pineal Elongation Factor 2: In Vivo Protective Effect of Melatonin in Young Rats Treated With Cumene Hydroperoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Mario F; Argüelles, Sandro; Cano, Mercedes; Marotta, Francesco; Ayala, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    We studied the alterations of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2) in the pineal gland of aged rats as well as the possible protective role of exogenous melatonin on these changes in young rats treated with cumene hydroperoxide (CH), a compound that promotes lipid peroxidation and inhibits protein synthesis. The study was performed using male Wistar rats of 3 (control), 12, and 24 months and 3-month-old rats treated with CH, melatonin, and CH plus melatonin. We found that pineal eEF-2 is affected by aging and CH, these changes being prevented by exogenous melatonin in the case of CH-treated rats. The proteomic studies show that many other proteins are affected by aging and oxidative stress in the pineal gland. The results suggest that one of the possible mechanisms underlying pineal gland dysfunction during aging is the effect of lipid peroxidation on eEF-2, which is a key component of protein synthesis machinery. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 182-190, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Expression of UV-sensitive parapinopsin in the iguana parietal eyes and its implication in UV-sensitivity in vertebrate pineal-related organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Wada

    Full Text Available The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identification of parapinopsin in the reptile lineage and show its expression in the parietal eye of the green iguana. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that iguana parapinopsin is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific to parapinopsin and parietopsin, a parietal eye green-sensitive pigment, revealed that parapinopsin and parietopsin are colocalized in the outer segments of the parietal eye photoreceptor cells in iguanas. These results strongly suggest that parapinopsin underlies the wavelength discrimination involving UV reception in the iguana parietal eye. The current findings support the idea that parapinopsin is a common photopigment underlying the UV-sensitivity in wavelength discrimination of the pineal-related organs found from lampreys to reptiles.

  17. Synchronization by low-amplitude light-dark cycles of 24-hour pineal and plasma melatonin rhythms of hatchling European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwinner, E.; Zeman, M.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    1997-01-01

    In young European starlings, as in other avian species, high- amplitude 24-hr rhythms in plasma and pineal melatonin are already present around the time of hatching. In chickens this rhythmicity results at least partly from the light sensitivity of the melatonin-producing and -secreting system. In c

  18. A microdialysis study on pineal melatonin rhythms in rats after an 8-h phase advance : New characteristics of the underlying pacemaker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, WJ; Brons, HF; Oakley, N; Hagan, RM; Westerink, BHC

    1997-01-01

    This study describes the use of the microdialysis technique to elucidate specific properties of the circadian pacemaking system in the hypothalamus, by measurement of melatonin production in the pineal gland. Melatonin has appeared to be a reliable marker of the pacemaker activity, which is influenc

  19. Circadian Dynamics of the Cone-Rod Homeobox (CRX) Transcription Factor in the Rat Pineal Gland and Its Role in Regulation of Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase (AANAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Kristian; Rovsing, Louise; Ho, Anthony K

    2014-01-01

    that the rhythmic nature of pineal CRX protein may directly modulate the daily profile of Aanat expression by inducing nighttime expression of this enzyme, thus facilitating nocturnal melatonin synthesis in addition to its role in ensuring a correct tissue distribution of Aanat expression....

  20. Daily oscillation and photoresponses of clock gene, Clock, and clock-associated gene, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene transcriptions in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Qing; Du, Yu-Zhen; Tong, Jian

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the circadian rhythms and light responses of Clock and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) gene expressions in the rat pineal gland under the environmental conditions of a 12 h light (05:00-17:00 h): 12 h-dark (17:00-05:00 h) cycle (LD) and constant darkness (DD). The pineal gland of Sprague-Dawley rats housed under a LD regime (n=42) for four weeks and of a regime (n=42) for eight weeks were sampled at six different times, every 4 h (n=7 animals per time point), during a 24 h period. Total RNA was extracted from each sample, and the semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine temporal changes in mRNA levels of Clock and NAT genes during different circadian or zeitgeber times. The data and parameters were analyzed by the cosine function software, Clock Lab software, and the amplitude F test was used to reveal the circadian rhythm. In the DD or LD condition, both the Clock and NAT mRNA levels in the pineal gland showed robust circadian oscillation (ppineal gland were significantly reduced (ppineal gland (p>0.05). These findings indicate that the transcriptions of Clock and NAT genes in the pineal gland not only show remarkably synchronous endogenous circadian rhythmic changes, but also respond to the ambient light signal in a reduced manner.

  1. [Circadian rhythms and light responses of clock gene and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene expressions in the pineal gland of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Qing; Du, Yu-Zhen; Tong, Jian

    2005-02-25

    This study was to investigate the circadian rhythms and light responses of Clock gene and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) gene expressions in the rat pineal gland under the 12 h-light : 12 h-dark cycle condition (LD) and constant darkness (DD). Sprague-Dawley rats housed under the light regime of LD (n=36) for 4 weeks and of DD (n=36) for 8 weeks were sampled for the pineal gland once a group (n=6) every 4 h in a circadian day. The total RNA was extracted from each sample and the semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the temporal changes in mRNA levels of Clock and NAT genes during different circadian times or zeitgeber times. The data were analysed by the cosine function software, Clock Lab software and the amplitude F test was used to reveal the circadian rhythm. The main results obtained are as follows. (1) In DD or LD condition, both of Clock and NAT genes mRNA levels in the pineal gland showed robust circadian oscillation (Ppineal gland were significantly reduced (Ppineal gland (P> 0.05). These findings suggest that the expressions of Clock and NAT genes in the pineal gland not only show remarkably synchronous endogenous circadian rhythmic changes, but also response to the ambient light signal in a reduced manner.

  2. Expression of UV-sensitive parapinopsin in the iguana parietal eyes and its implication in UV-sensitivity in vertebrate pineal-related organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Seiji; Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Terakita, Akihisa

    2012-01-01

    The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identification of parapinopsin in the reptile lineage and show its expression in the parietal eye of the green iguana. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that iguana parapinopsin is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific to parapinopsin and parietopsin, a parietal eye green-sensitive pigment, revealed that parapinopsin and parietopsin are colocalized in the outer segments of the parietal eye photoreceptor cells in iguanas. These results strongly suggest that parapinopsin underlies the wavelength discrimination involving UV reception in the iguana parietal eye. The current findings support the idea that parapinopsin is a common photopigment underlying the UV-sensitivity in wavelength discrimination of the pineal-related organs found from lampreys to reptiles.

  3. [Ultrastructure of the "rudimentary secretory photoreceptors" (RSP) of the embryonic pineal body of Lacerta vivipara J. (Reptilia, Lacertilia) and the origin of the RSP of Sauropsida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiniel, A

    1975-10-20

    The "secretory rudimentary photoreceptor-cells" of Lacerta vivipara J., during embryonic stages, exhibit photosensory differentiations (disks). Our ontogenetic observations agree with the phylogenetic studies and support the concept of a "sensory cell line" (Colin, 1969) in the pineal organ of vertebrates.

  4. 大弹涂鱼松果体形态结构研究%Observation on Morphological Structure of Pineal Organ of Mudskipper(Boleophthalmus pectinirostris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连惠波; 洪万树; 朱文博; 陈原; 洪鹭燕; 张其永

    2011-01-01

    鱼类松果体是传达外界信息到体内的主要传感器之一,其分泌的褪黑激素与鱼类生殖活动密切相关.为了阐明大弹涂鱼松果体形态结构与其功能的关系,运用组织细胞学方法研究了大弹涂鱼松果体的形态结构.结果表明,大弹涂鱼松果体位于端脑和中脑之间,由松果体柄和终囊两部分组成,具有背囊结构.松果体柄细长,细胞排列紧密,柄中有空腔,开口与第三脑室相通;松果体终囊膨大成梨形,且有空腔,腔内有皱褶,终囊顶部表面有黑色素细胞;背囊位于终囊下方,形状不规则,其囊壁向囊腔内反复折叠,形成许多复杂、盘旋曲折的内褶,背囊内部可见血细胞.研究结果为将来揭示大弹涂鱼半月周期产卵的机制提供了基础资料.%Pineal gland is a transducer that transmits environmental message to the brain in fishes. It produces melatonin to regulate fish spawning behaviors. In order to elucidate the relationship between the structure and functions of the pineal gland in the mudskip-per (Boleophlhalmus pectinirostris) ,the morphological structure of pineal organ of the mudskipper was studied using histocytology. Results showed that pineal organ of the mudskipper located between telencephalon and midbrain,was composed of pineal stalk and pineal vesicle,and had a dorsal sac. The pineal stalk was long and thin in shape.the cells arrangement was tight,and there was a ca-vum in the middle of the stalk. The opening of pineal organ was connected with the ventriculus tertius. Pineal vesicle was expanded as a pear in shape and had a cavum with rugas inside. The top surface of the vesicle was covered by melanophore. The dorsal sac lied under the pineal vesicle and was irregular in shape with a cavum. The inner wall of the sac cavum had many complicated,spiral and tortuous emboles. The blood cells were visible inside the dorsal sac. The data from the present study will be useful to future research on the

  5. Seasonal changes in reindeer physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Reeta Pösö

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal changes in the photoperiod, temperature and availability of food need to be converted to hormonal signals in order to induce adaptations in the physiology of the reindeer. The most reliable of the seasonal changes in the environment is the photoperiod, which affects the reindeer physiology through pineal gland and its hormone, melatonin. Usually there are large diurnal changes in the concentration of melatonin, but in the reindeer the daily rhythm disappears during the arctic summer to return again in the autumn. Seasonal changes in melatonin secretion are involved in the regulation of reproduction, the growth of pelage, thermogenesis, body mass and immune function. Melatonin may exert its effects through gene activation, but the mechanisms are not completely understood. Other hormones that show seasonality are thyroid hormones, insulin and leptin. Thus the observed physiological changes are a result of actions of several hormones. Appetite, energy production and thermogenesis are all vital for survival. During winter, when energy balance is negative, the reindeer uses mainly body fat for energy production. The use of fat stores is economical as the rate of lipolysis is controlled and the use of fatty acids in tissues such as muscle decreases. Only in severe starvation the rate of lipolysis increases enough to give rise to accumulation of ketone bodies. The protein mass is maintained and only in starved individuals muscle protein is used for energy production. The winter feed of the reindeer, the lichens, is poor in nitrogen and the nitrogen balance during winter is strongly negative. Reindeer responds to limited availability of nitrogen by increasing the recycling of urea into rumen. In general the adaptation of reindeer physiology enables the reindeer to survive the winter and although several aspects are known many others require further studies.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: Valaistus, lämpötila ja ravinnon saatavuus

  6. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  7. MRI diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors%松果体区肿瘤MRI诊断与鉴别诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海洋; 任英红; 张劲松

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析松果体区肿瘤的MRI表现,提高临床诊断及鉴别诊断水平.方法 回顾性分析经手术及病理证实的松果体区肿瘤21例,均行MRI平扫及增强扫描.结果 本组病例包括囊肿1例,生殖细胞瘤5例,松果体细胞瘤3例,星形细胞瘤(包括多形性和间变性)3例,松果体母细胞瘤2例,原始神经外胚层肿瘤(PNET)1例,畸胎瘤2例,脑膜瘤1例,孤立性纤维瘤1例,转移瘤2例.结论 松果体区肿瘤具有一定特征性的MRI表现,结合患者临床和发病年龄、性别、部位等特点,可进一步提高其诊断准确率.%Objective To improve the diagnosis and differential diagnosis rate of pineal region tumor by analyzing the MRI findings. Methods 21 cases of pineal region neoplasms confirmed by operation and pathology were retrospectively analyzed. All the cases were performed plain and enhanced MR scan. Results Our series consisted of 1 pineal cyst ,5 pineal germinomas, 3 pinealocyto-mas, 3 astrocytomas (including pleomorphic and anaplastic) , 2 pineoblastomas, 1 primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) ,2 ter-atomas, 1 meningioma, 1 solitary fibroma and 2 metastatic tumors. Conclusion Depending on their characteristics MRI findings and combining clinical features, the accuracy of diagnosis of pineal region neoplasms can be further improved.

  8. Effect of TNF-alpha on the melatonin synthetic pathway in the rat pineal gland: basis for a 'feedback' of the immune response on circadian timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Pedro A C M; Cecon, Erika; Markus, Regina P; Ferreira, Zulma S

    2006-11-01

    A retino-hypothalamic-sympathetic pathway drives the nocturnal surge of pineal melatonin production that determines the synchronization of pineal function with the environmental light/dark cycle. In many studies, melatonin has been implicated in the modulation of the inflammatory response. However, scant information on the feedback action of molecules present in the blood on the pineal gland during the time course of an inflammatory response is available. Here we analyzed the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and corticosterone on the transcription of the Aa-nat, hiomt and 14-3-3 protein genes in denervated pineal glands of rats stimulated for 5 hr with norepinephrine, using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The transcription of Aa-nat, a gene encoding the key enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis, together with the synthesis of the melatonin precursor N-acetylserotonin, was inhibited by TNF-alpha. This inhibition was transient, and a preincubation of TNF-alpha for more than 24 hr had no detectable effect. In fact, a protein(s) transcribed, later on, as shown by cycloheximide, was responsible for the reversal of the inhibition of Aa-nat transcription. In addition, corticosterone induced a potentiation of norepinephrine-induced Aa-nat transcription even after 48 hr of incubation. These data support the hypothesis that the nocturnal surge in melatonin is impaired at the beginning of an inflammatory response and restored either during the shutdown of an acute response or in a chronic inflammatory pathology. Here, we introduce a new molecular pathway involved in the feedback of an inflammatory response on pineal activity, and provide a molecular basis for understanding the expression of circadian timing in injured organisms.

  9. Distribution of components of basal lamina and dystrophin-dystroglycan complex in the rat pineal gland: differences from the brain tissue and between the subdivisions of the gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagyura, Zsolt; Pócsai, Károly; Kálmán, Mihály

    2010-01-01

    The pineal gland is an evagination of the brain tissue, a circumventricular neuroendocrine organ. Our immunohistochemical study investigates basal lamina components (laminin, agrin, perlecan, fibronectin), their receptor, the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex (beta-dystroglycan, dystrophin utrophin), aquaporins (-4,-9) and cellular markers (S100, neurofilament, GFAP, glutamine synthetase) in the adult rat corpus pineale. The aim was to compare the immunohistochemical features of the cerebral and pineal vessels and their environment, and to compare their features in the distal and proximal subdivisions of the so-called 'superficial pineal gland'. In contrast to the cerebral vessels, pineal vessels proved to be immunonegative to alpha1-dystrobrevin, but immunoreactive to laminin. An inner, dense, and an outer, loose layer of laminin as two basal laminae were present. The gap between them contained agrin and perlecan. Basal lamina components enmeshed the pinealocytes, too. Components of dystrophin-dystroglycan complex were also distributed along the vessels. Dystrophin, utrophin and agrin gave a 'patchy' distribution rather than a continuous one. The vessels were interconnected by wing-like structures, composed of basal lamina-components: a delicate network forming nests for cells. Cells immunostained with glutamine synthetase, S100-protein or neurofilament protein contacted the vessels, as well as GFAP- or aquaporin-immunostained astrocytes. Within the body a smaller, proximal, GFAP-and aquaporin-containing subdivision, and a larger, distal, GFAP-and aquaporin-free subdivision could be distinguished. The vascular localization of agrin and utrophin, as well as dystrophin, delineated vessels unequally, preferring the proximal or distal end of the body, respectively.

  10. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  11. Chewing Over Physiology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; de Arcisio Miranda, Manoel; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-01-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the differentareas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it…

  12. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapanee Hongratanaworakit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow potential brain waves (contingent negativevariation, and eye blink rate or pupil functions, are used as indices for the measurement of the aroma effects

  13. Doppler radar physiological sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Lubecke, Victor M; Droitcour, Amy D; Park, Byung-Kwon; Singh, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring. This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications.

  14. Daily and circadian melatonin release in vitro by the pineal organ of two nocturnal teleost species: Senegal sole (Solea senegalensis) and tench (Tinca tinca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Catarina; Garcia, Eva M; López-Olmeda, José Fernando; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier

    2009-07-01

    This research aimed to investigate melatonin rhythms in the pineal organ of two nocturnal fish species, sole and tench, which show high sensitivity to light. Pineal organs were cultured in vitro under an LD (12 h light:12 h dark) cycle to study the daily rhythmicity of melatonin release. In addition, the in vitro culture was performed under conditions of constant darkness (DD) to study the endogenous control of the rhythm. In the pineal organs cultured under an LD cycle, rhythmic melatonin release was evident in both species, with low values observed during the photophase (15.6+/-7.2 and 22.6+/-2.6 pg/mL for sole and tench, respectively) and high values coinciding with the scotophase (74.0+/-8.2 and 82.1+/-9.1 pg/mL, for sole and tench, respectively). Under LD, the rhythm had a period of 24 h (p<0.001) and presented similar acrophases for both species, located around 9-10 h after lights off (2 and 3 h before the end of the dark phase). When the pineal organs were cultured under DD, the results differed between the species studied. A marked circadian rhythm in melatonin release by the pineal was registered in tench, with lower values during the subjective day, i.e. the period that was previously day (6.2+/-1.6 pg/mL) and higher values during the subjective night, i.e. the period that was previously night (20.4+/-5.5 pg/mL). The rhythm had a mean tau of 24.1 h (p<0.01) and the acrophase was located around 12 h after lights off (the beginning of the subjective day), slightly later than that registered under LD conditions. In contrast, melatonin values in sole remained high during darkness (around 92.0+/-6.9 pg/mL) for four consecutive days, including subjective day periods. In short, these findings revealed that the rhythm of melatonin release in tench is under endogenous control by a circadian oscillator within the pineal organ, while no such pacemaker was evident in sole, which melatonin rhythm appeared to be exclusively light-driven.

  15. Characterization of the molecular effects of interferon-gamma on the production of melatonin by rat pineal glands

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A produção noturna de melatonina pela glândula pineal é fundamental no controle do sistema oscilatório endógeno de mamíferos. Sua síntese é iniciada pela ativação de receptores adrenérgicos em resposta à liberação noturna de noradrenalina (NA) por terminais simpáticos. A ativação adrenérgica induz, em roedores, a transcrição do gene e a ativação da enzima arilalquil-N-acetiltransferase (AA-NAT) que converte a serotonina em N-acetilserotonina (NAS). A NAS é então convertida em melatonina pela ...

  16. Opposite effects of EGTA and neutral surfactants on the loss of chicken pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Cabello, J C; Arpa, F; Agapito, M T; Recio, J M

    1990-01-01

    The effects of some general purpose drugs on the deactivation and activity measurement of the chicken pineal gland enzyme serotonin N-acetyl transferase (EC 2.3.1.5.) were studied. The drugs used were EGTA and two neutral surfactants, Nonidet P40 and Triton X-100. Enzyme activity showed significant variations ranging from 2.8 +/- 1.3 nmol/gland/h when Nonidet P40 was added to the homogenate buffer, to 31.8 +/- 1.7 nmol/gland/h when EGTA was present. This striking variation seemed to be caused by the ability of these compounds to modify the rate of NAT deactivation acting either as accelerating agents, as in the case of the detergents or as braking agent, as in the case of EGTA.

  17. Quantitative imaging values of CT, MR, and FDG-PET to differentiate pineal parenchymal tumors and germinomas: are they useful?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakigi, Takahide; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Sakamoto, Ryo; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto (Japan); Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C. [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto (Japan); Mikami, Yoshiki [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Kyoto (Japan); Shimono, Taro [Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Quantitative values of CT attenuation, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and standardized uptake value (SUV) were investigated for differentiation between pineal parenchymal tumors (PPTs) and germinomas. Differences in age, sex, and calcification pattern were also evaluated. Twenty-three patients with PPTs and germinomas in 20 years were retrospectively enrolled under the approval of the institutional review board. CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV (20, 13, and 10 patients, respectively) were statistically compared between the two tumors. Differences in sex and patterns of calcification (''exploded'' or ''engulfed'') were also examined. Mean patient ages were compared among three groups of pineoblastoma, pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation, (PPTID) and pineocytoma and germinoma. None of the quantitative values of CT attenuation, ADC, and SUV showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p >.05). However, there was a significant difference in age (p <.05) among the three groups of pineoblastoma (mean age ± standard deviation 7.0 ± 8.7 years), PPTID, and pineocytoma (53.7 ± 11.4 years) and germinoma (19.1 ± 8.1 years). Sex also showed significant differences between PPTs and germinomas (p =.039). Exploded pattern of calcification was found in 9 of 11 PPT patients and engulfed pattern in 7 of 9 patients with germinomas. No reverse pattern was observed, and the patterns of calcification were considered highly specific of tumor types. None of the quantitative imaging values could differentiate PPTs from germinomas. Age, sex, and calcification patterns were confirmed useful in differentiating these tumors to some degree. (orig.)

  18. Detection and high performance liquid chromatography identification of the summer rises of vasopressin and oxytocin immunoreactivity in the rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Burbach, J P

    1987-11-01

    The vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) contents of the rat pineal gland during the summer period were determined by RIAs. Both the levels of VP immunoreactivity and OT immunoreactivity rose markedly in August. The highest level of VP immunoreactivity occurred on August 6 [82 +/- 19 fmol/gland (+/- SEM)], compared to basal levels of 14 +/- 2 fmol/gland. Basal levels of OT immunoreactivity of 20 +/- 8 fmol/gland increased to a peak level of 193 +/- 72 fmol/gland on August 14. Analysis of immunoreactive components by HPLC demonstrated that rises were due to the peptides coeluting with authentic VP and OT, respectively. Levels of immunoreactive VP and OT in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and hippocampus did not show variation during the summer. The results show that the VP and OT content of the pineal gland is regulated in a tissue-specific fashion by seasonal influences.

  19. The role of miR-182 in regulating pineal CLOCK expression after hypoxia-ischemia brain injury in neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xin; Sun, Bin; Huang, Jian; Xu, Lixiao; Pan, Jian; Fang, Chen; Tao, Yanfang; Hu, Shukun; Li, Ronghu; Han, Xing; Miao, Po; Wang, Ying; Yu, Jian; Feng, Xing

    2015-03-30

    Circadian rhythm disorder is a common neurological deficit caused by neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). However, little is known about its underlying mechanisms. Our previous studies revealed a significant elevation of clock genes at the protein, but not mRNA, levels in the pineal gland after neonatal HIBD. To investigate the mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation on clock genes, we screened changes of miRNA levels in the pineal gland after neonatal HIBD using high-throughput arrays. Within the miRNAs whose expression was significantly down-regulated, we identified one miRNA (miR182) that targeted the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Clock, a key component of clock genes, and played a crucial role in regulating CLOCK expression after oxygen-glucose deprivation in primarily cultured pinealocytes. Our findings therefore provide new insight on studies of therapeutic targets for circadian rhythm disturbance after neonatal HIBD.

  20. Efeito da poluição atmosférica de São Paulo sobre o Eixo Imune-Pineal

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Emanuele Carvalho de Sousa

    2015-01-01

    Padrões moleculares associados à patógenos (PAMPs) e citocinas pró-inflamatórias ativam o Eixo Imune-Pineal promovendo uma alternância temporária da síntese de melatonina da glândula pineal para células imuno-competentes. Esta regulação é mediada pela ativação do fator de transcrição factor nuclear kappa B (NF-κB), que de acordo com contexto fisiológico controla a transcrição do gene que codifica a enzima-chave na síntese de melatonina (arilalquilamina-N-acetiltransferase, AA-NAT), e al...

  1. Radiometric assay for phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase and catechol O-methyltransferase in a single tissue sample: application to rat hypothalamic nuclei, pineal gland, and heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culman, J.; Torda, T.; Weise, V.K.

    1987-08-01

    A simple and highly sensitive method for simultaneous assay of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) is described. These enzymes are determined in a single tissue homogenate using S-(methyl-/sup 3/H) adenosyl-L-methionine as methyl donor and sequentially incubating with the substrates phenylethanolamine and epinephrine. The radioactive products of the enzymatic reactions, N-methylphenylethanolamine and metanephrine, are extracted and then separated by thin-layer chromatography. The identity of the reaction products has been established chromatographically and the conditions for both enzymatic reactions in the assay procedure have been defined. Measurement of PNMT activity in the rat pineal gland or in minute fragments of other tissues (e.g., brain nuclei) has not been possible using previously described methods. Activities of PNMT and COMT in the rat pineal gland, various hypothalamic nuclei, and the auricular and ventricular myocardia are herein reported.

  2. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  3. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  4. Physiology of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ron

    2007-07-01

    The elite athlete represents the extreme of the human gene pool, where genetic endowment is developed by an intensive training programme. Sport encompasses many different activities, calling for different physical and mental attributes. Understanding the physiology of exercise provides insights into normal physiological function.

  5. Physiological changes in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    SOMA-PILLAY, Priya; Catherine, Nelson-Piercy; Tolppanen, Heli; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Physiological changes occur in pregnancy to nurture the developing foetus and prepare the mother for labour and delivery. Some of these changes influence normal biochemical values while others may mimic symptoms of medical disease. It is important to differentiate between normal physiological changes and disease pathology. This review highlights the important changes that take place during normal pregnancy.

  6. PG25, a pineal-specific cDNA, cloned by differential display PCR (DDPCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Brownstein, M J; Young, W S

    1997-05-16

    Synthesis of melatonin in the mammalian pineal gland is regulated by the rhythmic expression of acetyl-CoA: serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and other unknown factors. To screen for pineal-specific mRNAs potentially involved in melatonin synthesis and/or regulation, differential display PCR (DDPCR) was employed. We used 80 primer pairs and examined 40 bands of interest. One of the pineal specific clones (relative to brain and eye), PG25, was studied further. Hybridization histochemical and Northern analyses confirmed its tissue specificity. The size of the corresponding mRNA is 2.4 kb. A cDNA (2 kb) containing the coding region was obtained using a long-template PCR-based RACE technique. A data base search indicates that PG25 is highly homologous to a recently identified human lung endothelial cell-specific gene, ESM-1. Interestingly, not only the amino acid sequences but also the cDNA sequences, including the long 3' untranslated regions, are highly similar. This suggests that the conserved 3' untranslated region may carry information to regulate its own expression. Northern analysis revealed that PG25 is also expressed in the rat lung, but at a much lower (10%) level compared to the pineal. Finally, our work shows the feasibility of a fast, integrated PCR-based cloning method for obtaining long, potentially full-length cDNAs with restricted expression in anatomically complex regions of the brain. This protocol combining several existing methodologies is suitable for use with limited tissue sources and uses minimal amounts of isotopes.

  7. Immune-Pineal Axis: Nuclear Factor κB (NF-kB Mediates the Shift in the Melatonin Source from Pinealocytes to Immune Competent Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina P. Markus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pineal gland melatonin is the darkness hormone, while extra-pineal melatonin produced by the gonads, gut, retina, and immune competent cells acts as a paracrine or autocrine mediator. The well-known immunomodulatory effect of melatonin is observed either as an endocrine, a paracrine or an autocrine response. In mammals, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB blocks noradrenaline-induced melatonin synthesis in pinealocytes, which induces melatonin synthesis in macrophages. In addition, melatonin reduces NF-κB activation in pinealocytes and immune competent cells. Therefore, pathogen- or danger-associated molecular patterns transiently switch the synthesis of melatonin from pinealocytes to immune competent cells, and as the response progresses melatonin inhibition of NF-κB activity leads these cells to a more quiescent state. The opposite effect of NF-κB in pinealocytes and immune competent cells is due to different NF-κB dimers recruited in each phase of the defense response. This coordinated shift of the source of melatonin driven by NF-κB is called the immune-pineal axis. Finally, we discuss how this concept might be relevant to a better understanding of pathological conditions with impaired melatonin rhythms and hope it opens new horizons for the research of side effects of melatonin-based therapies.

  8. Effects of Melatonin on Morphological and Functional Parameters of the Pineal Gland and Organs of Immune System in Rats During Natural Light Cycle and Constant Illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, G I; Shurlygina, A V; Gritsyk, O B; Mel'nikova, E V; Tenditnik, M V; Avrorov, P A; Trufakin, V A

    2015-10-01

    We studied the response of the pineal gland and organs of the immune system to melatonin treatment in Wistar rats kept under conditions of abnormal illumination regimen. The animals were kept under natural light regimen or continuous illumination for 14 days and then received daily injections of melatonin (once a day in the evening) for 7 days. Administration of melatonin to rats kept at natural light cycle was followed by a decrease in percent ratio of CD4+8+ splenocytes and CD4-8+ thymocytes. In 24-h light with the following melatonin injections were accompanied by an increase in percent rate and absolute amount of CD4+8+ cells in the spleen, and a decrease in percent rate of CD11b/c and CD4-8+ splenocytes. In the thymus amount of CD4-8+ cells increased, and absolute number of CD4+25+ cells reduced. Melatonin significantly decreased lipofuscin concentration in the pineal gland during continuous light. Direction and intensity of effects of melatonin on parameters of cell immunity and state of the pineal gland were different under normal and continuous light conditions. It should be taken into account during using of this hormone for correction of immune and endocrine impairments developing during change in light/dark rhythm.

  9. Pink spot, white spot: the pineal skylight of the leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea Vandelli 1761) skull and its possible role in the phenology of feeding migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, John; Jones, T. Todd; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, which have an irregular pink area on the crown of the head known as the pineal or ‘pink spot’, forage upon jellyfish in cool temperate waters along the western and eastern margins of the North Atlantic during the summer. Our study showed that the skeletal structures underlying the pink spot in juvenile and adult turtles are compatible with the idea of a pineal dosimeter function that would support recognition of environmental light stimuli. We interrogated an extensive turtle sightings database to elucidate the phenology of leatherback foraging during summer months around Great Britain and Ireland and compared the sightings with historical data for sea surface temperatures and day lengths to assess whether sea surface temperature or light periodicity/levels were likely abiotic triggers prompting foraging turtles to turn south and leave their feeding grounds at the end of the summer. We found that sea temperature was too variable and slow changing in the study area to be useful as a trigger and suggest that shortening of day lengths as the late summer equilux is approached provides a credible phenological cue, acting via the pineal, for leatherbacks to leave their foraging areas whether they are feeding close to Nova Scotia or Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Effect of dark exposure in the middle of the day on Period1, Period2, and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase mRNA levels in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Chiaki

    2004-11-04

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the mammalian hypothalamus contains a central circadian pacemaker, which adjusts circadian rhythms within the body to environmental light-dark cycles. It has been shown that dark exposure in the day causes phase shifts in circadian rhythms, but it does not induce changes in the melatonin levels in the pineal gland. In this study, we examined the effect of dark exposure on two "circadian clock" genes Period1 and Period2 mRNA levels in the rat SCN, and on Period1, Period2, and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aa-Nat, the rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin synthesis) gene expression in the pineal gland. Period1 and Period2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the SCN after 0.5 and 2 h, respectively, therefore suggesting that changes in those mRNA levels may be the part of the mechanisms of dark-induced phase shifts. Period1 and Aa-Nat mRNA levels in the pineal gland were not affected by darkness, but Period2 was moderately affected. Since Period1 and Aa-Nat mRNA levels in the pineal gland did not respond to dark stimulation, we further examined whether the pineal gland itself is capable of responding to adrenergic stimulation at this time of the day. Isoproterenol significantly induced Period1 and Aa-Nat mRNA levels; however, it did not affect Period2. Although previous studies have reported that during the day the SCN "gates" the dark information reaching the pineal, our data demonstrate that dark information may reach the pineal during the daytime.

  11. 松果体区神经内镜解剖学研究%Neuroendoscopic anatomy of the pineal region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红庆; 师蔚; 刘重霄; 王睿智; 宋琴; 方进玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the charateristics of neuroendoscopic anatomy of the pineal region,discuss the anatomy passage and surgical tips of 2 different procedures,and provide anatomical application fundamentals for neuroendoscope-assisted operation of the pineal region.Methods Fifteen specimens of Chinese adult cadaveric head were selected randomly to simulate neuroendoscope-assisted microneurosurgery via suboccipital transtentorial and infratentorial supracerebellar routes.The exposure range and endoscopic adjustable degrees of anatomical structure of the pineal region through different routes were obsevred,and the related data of the anatomical structure via different routes were measured.Results In the simulating operation through suboccipital transtentorial route,the regulation of neuroendoscopy was flexible and both lateral anatomical structures of the pineal region were exposed clearly; in the simulating operation through inffatentorial supracerebellar route,inferior colliculis were not exposed clearly and the view of this route was stiffness and fixed with difficult regulation of the endoscope.The lengh of Galen's vein (GV) is (10.2±4.1) mm,that of internal cerebral vein (ICV) is (35.0±2.8) mm,that of basal vein (BV) is (35.4±6.4) mm and that of straight sinus is (51.1 ±5.2) mm; the angle GV and straight sinus formed (75.20±10.4)°,including acute angle in 14 cases and obtuse angle in 1.The imaginary extension of straight sinus located inferiorly to the splenium of corpus callosum was observed in 3 cases,located tangently to the splenium of corpus callosum in 11 cases,and located superiorly to the splenium of corpus callosum in 1 case.Conclusion Anatomic structures of the pineal region via neuroendosopic suboccipital transtentorial approach are exposed clearly than those via infratentorial supracerebellar approach,however,dissection oftentorium can improve the regulation ofneuroendoscope and exposition ofcontralateral anatomic structure.%目的 观察

  12. Distribution, function and physiological role of melatonin in the lower gut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Qiu Chen; Jakub Fichna; Mohammad Bashashati; Yong-Yu Li; Martin Storr

    2011-01-01

    Melatonin is a hormone with endocrine, paracrine and autocrine actions. It is involved in the regulation of multiple functions, including the control of the gastrointestinal (GI) system under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Since the gut contains at least 400 times more melatonin than the pineal gland, a review of the functional importance of melatonin in the gut seems useful, especially in the context of recent clinical trials. Melatonin exerts its physiological effects through specific membrane receptors, named melatonin-1 receptor (MT1), MT2 and MT3. These receptors can be found in the gut and their involvement in the regulation of GI motility, inflammation and pain has been reported in numerous basic and clinical studies. Stable levels of melatonin in the lower gut that are unchanged following a pinealectomy suggest local synthesis and, furthermore, furthermore, implicate physiological importance of endogenous melatonin in the GI tract. Presently, only a small number of human studies report possible beneficial and also possible harmful effects of melatonin in case reports and clinical trials. These human studies include patients with lower GI diseases, especially patients with irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. In this review, we summarize the presently available information on melatonin effects in the lower gut and discuss available in vitro and in vivo data. We furthermore aim to evaluate whether melatonin may be useful in future treatment of symptoms or diseases involving the lower gut.

  13. Fetal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychik, J

    2004-01-01

    The cardiovascular system of the fetus is physiologically different than the adult, mature system. Unique characteristics of the myocardium and specific channels of blood flow differentitate the physiology of the fetus from the newborn. Conditions of increased preload and afterload in the fetus, such as sacrococcygeal teratoma and twin-twin transfusion syndrome, result in unique and complex pathophysiological states. Echocardiography has improved our understanding of human fetal cadiovasvular physiology in the normal and diseased states, and has expanded our capability to more effectively treat these disease processes.

  14. 阿尔茨海默病患者松果体MRI研究%The pineal gland MRI study in Alzheimer's patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓玲; 钱学华; 郭轶; 徐玉玉; 吕发金

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer’s disease,AD)发病进程中松果体的MRI形态学改变。方法依据AD发病进程,分别采集NC组24例、MCI组18例、轻度AD组16例、中-重度AD组20例受试者大脑MRI扫描图像,测量松果体矢径、横径、高、体积,并分析组间各测量值变化趋势。结果松果体标化高MCI期、轻度AD期较NC组增大(P<0.05),中-重度AD期标化高较MCI期、轻度AD缩小(P<0.05);松果体标化矢径、标化横径、标化体积MCI期、轻度AD、中-重度AD与NC组比无明显变化(P>0.05),但中-重度AD较MCI期组缩小(P<0.05)。结论在AD发病进程中松果体高先增大再萎缩,松果体高对MCI期、轻度AD患者的诊断有较大价值。%Objective To observe morphological changes of pineal gland in the process of Alzheimer' s disease (AD) by MRI. Methods According to the process of AD, brain MRI images of 24 cases, 18 cases, 16 cases and 20 cases from the normal control group, MCI group, mild AD group and moderate-severe AD group, respectively. Length, width, height and volume of the pineal gland had been measured, the change trend of the measurement between each group was then analyzed. Results The standardized height of pineal gland had an increase in the MCI and mild AD compared with NC group(P0.05),but had a reduction in the moderate-severe AD compared with MCI(P<0.05). Conclusion The height of pineal gland has a growth tendency at the incipient stage of the process of AD, and then will shrink. Measurement the height of pineal gland by MRI was helpful in the diagnosis of MCI and mild AD patients.

  15. Estudo da glândula pineal de suíno por meio de microscopia de luz - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2038 Study of the swine pineal gland by means of light microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Fernando Pereira

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas dez glândulas pineais de suínos da raça Landrace com 180 dias de idade, sendo cinco machos e cinco fêmeas. Após a coleta, o material foi fixado em solução de formalina a 10% por um período de 48 horas e, em seguida, submetido a tratamento de rotina para inclusão em parafina e realização de cortes histológicos, que foram corados por hematoxilina-eosina e Sírius-Red F3BA. As lâminas selecionadas foram fotografadas em fotomicroscópio do Departamento de Ciências Morfofisiológicas da Universidade Estadual de Maringá. O presente estudo teve por objetivo verificar a morfologia da glândula pineal de suínos por meio de microscopia de luz. Os resultados permitem verificar que a glândula pineal de suínos apresenta-se revestida pela pia-máter que emite projeções para o interior da glândula, constituindo septos de tecido conjuntivo. A distribuição dos elementos celulares no parênquima da glândula pineal apresenta-se de maneira heterogênea, na qual se observam regiões com escassez celular e predominância de pequenos feixes de fibras conjuntivas e concreções calcárias. Os resultados permitem concluir que a glândula pineal de suínos apresenta-se delimitada por septações de tecido conjuntivo proveniente da pia-máter, e que no interior da glândula é comum a presença de concreções calcáriasTen swine pineal glands from Landrace breed at the age of 180 days were collected, 5 males and 5 females. After the collection, the material was fastened in formaline solution at 10% for a period of 48 hours, and soon after it was undergone a routine treatment for inclusion in paraffin and accomplishment of histologic courts that have been red-faced for hematoxylin-eosin and Sírius-Red F3BA. The selected sheets were photographed in fotomicroscopy from the Department of Morphologic Sciences of Universidade Estadual de Maringá (State University of Maringá. The present study aimed to verify the morphology of swine

  16. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  17. Clinical pathology of pineal region tumors%松果体区肿瘤的临床病理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢彬; 漆松涛; 邱炳辉; 方陆雄; 陆云涛

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究松果体区肿瘤(PRTs)的病理分布特点及不同病理类型的临床特点.方法 回顾性分析南方医院神经外科自2000年1月至2009年1月经手术治疗并取得完整病理资料的133例PRTs患者的临床资料及病理特点.结果 133例患者中生殖细胞肿瘤61例(45.9%),松果体实质肿瘤17例(12.8%),神经上皮肿瘤28例(21.1%),其他肿瘤27例(20.2%).生殖细胞肿瘤中男女比例为14.25:1,平均15.3岁.松果体实质肿瘤中男女比例为2.4:1,平均24.7岁.神经上皮肿瘤中男女比例为1.15:1,平均28.1岁.有33例血清免疫学检查异常,除1例为转移瘤外,其余均为生殖细胞肿瘤.结论 PRTs病理类型多样,以生殖细胞肿瘤为主;影像学检查、血清免疫学检查及活检均不能准确判断病理类型,积极手术获得完整病理标本对于PRTs的病理研究有重要意义.%Objective To investigate the pathological distribution and clinical characteristics of pineal region tumors (PRTs) with variant pathology.Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and pathological data of 133 patients with PRTs that were performed surgical removal from January 2000 to January 2009 in our hospital.Results Sixty-one patients (45.9%) were diagnosed as having germ cell tumors,17 (12.8%) pineal parenchymal tumors,28 (21.1%) gliomas and 27 (20.2%)other resource tumors.Sex ratio of patients with germ cell tumors,pineal parenchymal tumors and gliomas were 14.25:1 (male:female),2.4:1 and 1.15:1,respectively; their median ages were 15.3,24.7 and 28.1,respectively.The serum immunologic test showed abnormal results in 33 patients; except for 1 with metastatic tumors,the others were diagnosed as having germ cell tumors.Conclusion PRTs have many pathological types and patients with PRTs are mainly diagnosed as having germ cell tumors.Correct diagnosis can not be made by imaging,serum immunologic test or biopsy, thus,obtaining complete clinical specimen during the total tumor removal is

  18. Physiological mechanisms of prosociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G

    2017-08-12

    Psychophysiological perspectives can provide unique insights into the nature and motivations of children's prosociality and inform our understanding of individual differences. Here, I review current research on prosociality involving some of the most common physiological measures in developmental psychology, including cortisol, various sympathetic nervous system measures, and high-frequency heart rate variability. The literature has been quite mixed, in part because the link between physiology and prosociality is context-dependent and person-dependent. However, recent advances are refining our understanding of the basic physiological mechanisms of prosociality. Resting physiology that contributes to a balance of regulation and vigilance prepares children to effectively cope with future social challenges, like noticing and attending to the needs of others. Experiencing some arousal is an important aspect of empathy-related responding, but physiological patterns of both heightened and hypoarousal can undermine prosociality. Physiological flexibility in response to others' needs may support emotional and behavioral flexibility important for prosociality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 人松果体组织结构的退行性变化及其意义%Degenerative pathological change of human pineal body and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申新华; 马超; 李文婷; 王乃利; 鲍双振; 王保芝

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the size, amount, distribution of brain sands and other morphology features in the human pineal body. Methods: Micro-and ultra-structure of 43 pineal bodies from human cadaver was observed under a light microscope, scanning-and transmission electron microscope. Results: The human pineal body was mainly composed of two elements of parenchyma and interstitium. The pineal parenchyma consisted of many pinealocytes and a few neurogliocytes. The pineal interstitium was made up of connective tissues through which the blood vessels and nerve fibers went The brain sands usually clustered together and formed large plaques in the central part of the pineal body. The number and size of brain sands varied individually. In the samples from aged people, we observed an increase in the number and size of brain sands together with proliferation of connective tissues in the interstitium. However, the pinealocytes of parenchyma decreased with aging. In addition, granulovacuolar degeneration was also seen in the pinealocytes. Conclusion: These degenerative pathological changes observed in the human pineal body may lead to progressive degradation of its neuroendo-crine function.%目的:观察人松果体的细微和超微结构,探讨松果体内脑砂的形态特点、大小、多少及分布规律.方法:取人尸体的松果体,光镜、扫描和透射电镜观察其结构特征.结果:松果体主要由实质和间质两种成分构成;松果体实质由松果体细胞和神经胶质细胞组成,间质为结缔组织和穿行其中的神经和血管.脑砂多分布于松果体的中央部,常聚集形成较大的斑块.脑砂的大小、多少个体差异较大.变化趋势为随着年龄的增加,松果体内脑砂增多、增大,并伴有间质成分的结缔组织增生;然而,松果体实质成分减少;而且,在大量的松果体细胞内,可观察到颗粒空泡样变性.结论:松果体组织结构出现的退行性变化,可造成松果体神经内分泌功能的进行性减退.

  20. Use of 3D-computed tomography angiography for planning the surgical removal of pineal region meningiomas using Poppen's approach: a report of ten cases and a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several treatment approaches for pineal region meningiomas, such as Poppen's approach, Krause's approach and combinations of the two approaches. We present our experience with the use of 3D-computed tomography angiography for planning the surgical removal of pineal region meningiomas using a suboccipital transtentorial approach (Poppen's approach and evaluate the role of Poppen's approach. Methods During the period from January 2005 to June 2010, ten patients presented to us with pineal region meningioma. MRI was routinely used to define the tumor size, position, and its relevant complications while 3D-CTA was applied to define the blood supply of the tumor and the venous complex (VC shift before operations. Most of the meningiomas had developed at both sides of the tentorial plane and extended laterally with typical characteristics of a pineal region tumor. Results All tumors were completely removed surgically without any injury to the VC. Postoperative intracranial infection occurred in one case who recovered after antibiotics were given. Postoperative intraventricular hemorrhage and pneumocephalus were found in one case, but fully recovered after conservative treatment. In the nine cases of concurrent hydrocephalus, this was gradually relieved in eight patients and the single case that became aggravated was successfully treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Moreover, the follow-up MRI examinations did not indicate any recurrence of the meningiomas. Conclusion We found that the use of Poppen's approach is strongly supported for the successful removal of pineal region meningiomas without serious complications.

  1. Neuropeptide physiology in helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Angela; Novozhilova, Ekaterina; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic worms come from two distinct, distant phyla, Nematoda (roundworms) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The nervous systems of worms from both phyla are replete with neuropeptides and there is ample physiological evidence that these neuropeptides control vital aspects of worm biology. In each phyla, the physiological evidence for critical roles for helminth neuropeptides is derived from both parasitic and free-living members. In the nematodes, the intestinal parasite Ascaris suum and the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans have yielded most of the data; in the platyhelminths, the most physiological data has come from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) have many varied effects (excitation, relaxation, or a combination) on somatic musculature, reproductive musculature, the pharynx and motor neurons in nematodes. Insulin-like peptides (INSs) play an essential role in nematode dauer formation and other developmental processes. There is also some evidence for a role in somatic muscle control for the somewhat heterogeneous grouping ofpeptides known as neuropeptide-like proteins (NLPs). In platyhelminths, as in nematodes, FLPs have a central role in somatic muscle function. Reports of FLP physiological action in platyhelminths are limited to a potent excitation of the somatic musculature. Platyhelminths are also abundantly endowed with neuropeptide Fs (NPFs), which appear absent from nematodes. There is not yet any data linking platyhelminth NPF to any particular physiological outcome, but this neuropeptide does potently and specifically inhibit cAMP accumulation in schistosomes. In nematodes and platyhelminths, there is an abundance of physiological evidence demonstrating that neuropeptides play critical roles in the biology of both free-living and parasitic helminths. While it is certainly true that there remains a great deal to learn about the biology of neuropeptides in both phyla, physiological evidence presently available points

  2. Modulation of Pineal Melatonin Synthesis by Glutamate Involves Paracrine Interactions between Pinealocytes and Astrocytes through NF-κB Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darine Villela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The glutamatergic modulation of melatonin synthesis is well known, along with the importance of astrocytes in mediating glutamatergic signaling in the central nervous system. Pinealocytes and astrocytes are the main cell types in the pineal gland. The objective of this work was to investigate the interactions between astrocytes and pinealocytes as a part of the glutamate inhibitory effect on melatonin synthesis. Rat pinealocytes isolated or in coculture with astrocytes were incubated with glutamate in the presence of norepinephrine, and the melatonin content, was quantified. The expression of glutamate receptors, the intracellular calcium content and the NF-κB activation were analyzed in astrocytes and pinealocytes. TNF-α's possible mediation of the effect of glutamate was also investigated. The results showed that glutamate's inhibitory effect on melatonin synthesis involves interactions between astrocytes and pinealocytes, possibly through the release of TNF-α. Moreover, the activation of the astrocytic NF-κB seems to be a necessary step. In astrocytes and pinealocytes, AMPA, NMDA, and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors were observed, as well as the intracellular calcium elevation. In conclusion, there is evidence that the modulation of melatonin synthesis by glutamate involves paracrine interactions between pinealocytes and astrocytes through the activation of the astrocytic NF-κB transcription factor and possibly by subsequent TNF-α release.

  3. Acute melatonin and para-chloroamphetamine interactions on pineal, brain and serum serotonin levels as well as stress hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzana, E J; Chen, W J; Champney, T H

    2001-08-03

    para-Chloroamphetamine, an amphetamine analog, alters serotonergic neurochemistry. In previous reports, melatonin (MEL), when administered with other amphetamine analogs, altered the decline in serotonin content produced by these analogs. The present studies assessed the effects of various doses of melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine on serotonin levels in numerous brain regions in male rats. Melatonin (10, 25 or 50 mg/kg, s.c.) and p-chloroamphetamine (3 or 5 mg/kg, s.c.) were administered and, 3 h later, brain samples and serum were collected. Serotonin levels in the serum and various regions of the brain were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Melatonin in combination with a high dose of p-chloroamphetamine (5 mg/kg) produced cumulative deficits in serotonin levels in the serum. However, serotonin levels in the pineal, cortex or brain stem in all combined melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine groups were not significantly different from groups that received p-chloroamphetamine alone. Serum adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone levels were significantly elevated in the melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine combined groups, suggesting that animals receiving both treatments were more stressed than control animals or animals receiving melatonin or p-chloroamphetamine alone. These results indicate that melatonin does not alter p-chloroamphetamine-induced deficits in central serotonin levels. The increased serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and serotonin levels observed following melatonin and p-chloroamphetamine treatment suggest that this combination may have adverse peripheral effects.

  4. Diurnal Profiles of Melatonin Synthesis-Related Indoles, Catecholamines and Their Metabolites in the Duck Pineal Organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Lewczuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the diurnal profiles of ten melatonin synthesis-related indoles, the quantitative relations between these compounds, and daily variations in the contents of catecholamines and their metabolites in the domestic duck pineal organ. Fourteen-week-old birds, which were reared under a 12L:12D cycle, were killed at two-hour intervals. The indole contents were measured using HPLC with fluorescence detection, whereas the levels of catecholamines and their metabolites were measured using HPLC with electrochemical detection. All indole contents, except for tryptophan, showed significant diurnal variations. The 5-hydroxytryptophan level was approximately two-fold higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. The serotonin content increased during the first half of the photophase, remained elevated for approximately 10 h and then rapidly decreased in the middle of the scotophase. N-acetylserotonin showed the most prominent changes, with a more than 15-fold increase at night. The melatonin cycle demonstrated only an approximately 5-fold difference between the peak and nadir. The 5-methoxytryptamine content was markedly elevated during the scotophase. The 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, 5-hydroxytryptophol, 5-methoxyindole acetic acid and 5-methoxytryptophol profiles were analogous to the serotonin rhythm. The norepinephrine and dopamine contents showed no significant changes. The DOPA, DOPAC and homovanillic acid levels were higher during the scotophase than during the photophase. Vanillylmandelic acid showed the opposite rhythm, with an elevated level during the daytime.

  5. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  6. Circadian physiology of metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satchidananda

    2016-11-25

    A majority of mammalian genes exhibit daily fluctuations in expression levels, making circadian expression rhythms the largest known regulatory network in normal physiology. Cell-autonomous circadian clocks interact with daily light-dark and feeding-fasting cycles to generate approximately 24-hour oscillations in the function of thousands of genes. Circadian expression of secreted molecules and signaling components transmits timing information between cells and tissues. Such intra- and intercellular daily rhythms optimize physiology both by managing energy use and by temporally segregating incompatible processes. Experimental animal models and epidemiological data indicate that chronic circadian rhythm disruption increases the risk of metabolic diseases. Conversely, time-restricted feeding, which imposes daily cycles of feeding and fasting without caloric reduction, sustains robust diurnal rhythms and can alleviate metabolic diseases. These findings highlight an integrative role of circadian rhythms in physiology and offer a new perspective for treating chronic diseases in which metabolic disruption is a hallmark.

  7. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from......Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...

  8. The foetal pig pineal gland is richly innervated by nerve fibres containing catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY, but it does not secrete melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulc, Michał; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Prusik, Magdalena; Całka, Jarosław

    2013-05-01

    Innervation of the mammalian pineal gland during prenatal development is poorly recognized. Therefore, immunofluorescence studies of the pineals of 70- and 90-day-old foetuses of the domestic pig were performed using antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-terminal flanking peptide of NPY (CPON). The investigated glands were supplied by numerous nerve fibres containing TH and DβH. The density of these fibres was higher in the distal and middle parts of the gland than in the proximal one. NPY and CPON were identified in the majority of DβH-positive fibres as well as in a small population of DβH-negative fibres localized mainly in the proximal part of the pineal. The immunoreactive fibres were more numerous in 90-day-old foetuses than in 70-day-old ones. The effect of norepinephrine on melatonin secretion by the foetal pineals in the short-term organ culture was studied to determine the role of DβH-positive fibres during prenatal life. For the same purpose melatonin was measured in the blood in the umbilical cords and in the jugular vein of the mother. The pineals of both groups of foetuses did not secrete melatonin in the organ culture, independently of the presence or absence of norepinephrine in the medium. Melatonin concentrations in the blood in the umbilical cords of foetuses from the same litter and in the jugular vein of their mother were similar. The presence of adrenergic nerve fibres in the pig pineal during gestation does not seem to be associated with the control of melatonin secretion.

  9. 褪黑素生理活性及其作用机制的研究进展%Progress on physiological activities of melatonin and its mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天宝; 侯鹏高

    2015-01-01

    松果体是人体重要的神经内分泌腺,褪黑素是松果体分泌的一种吲哚类神经内分泌激素,具有十分广泛的生理作用。研究发现,褪黑素在催眠、重建和稳定生物节律、免疫调节、生殖系统、神经系统、消化系统,以及抗氧化、抗衰老、抗肿瘤等方面都具有一定的生物学效应。本文综述了有关褪黑素研究的国内外最新进展,对其主要的生物学作用及机制进行了探讨。%The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine gland.Melatonin is a kind of neuroendocrine hormone secreted by the pineal gland, which has a wide range of physiological effects.Many researches found that melatonin have certain biological effects in hypnosis, reconstruction and stabilization of biological rhythm, immune regulation, reproductive system, nervous system, digestive system, and antioxidant, anti-aging, anti -tumor etc..This paper reviewed the latest progress of the domestic and foreign research related to melatonin, and discussed its biological effects and mechanisms.

  10. 松果体实质肿瘤的诊断与治疗%Diagnosis and treatment for pineal parenchymal tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洮; 王光华; 任晓辉; 姜中利; 张懋植; 林松

    2012-01-01

    Objective Pineal parenchymal tumors are rare intracranial tumors.We studied the clinical features,neuro- radiology and pathology of pineal parenchymal tumors and discussed the treatment strategy.Methods There were 35 pineal parenchymal tumors patients (10 pineocytoma,13 pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation,12 pineoblastoma) involved in this study.CT and MRI revealed pineocytoma to be round and have regular margins. Pineal paranchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation and pineoblastoma were lobular,irregular marginal and heterogenous enhancement.Poppen approach was performed in 16 cases,transcallosum approach in 16 cases,subtentorial -supracerebellar approach in 1 case and transtrigone lateral ventricle approach in 1 case.Results All of the tumors were surgically removed,including 13 totally removed,16 subtotally removed and 6 partially removed.23 patients received radiotherapy after operation.During the follow up there was 7 patients died because of tumor recurrence.Conclusions Pineocytoma patients have good survival prognosis after surgical treatment.Microsurgery combining with radiotherapy represents the most effective therapy for pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation and pineoblastoma.Although these tumors have poor prognosis and more efforts should be made to improve the level of treatment.%目的 探讨松果体实质肿瘤的诊断和治疗方法.方法 回顾性分析35例松果体实质肿瘤患者(松果体细胞瘤10例,中分化松果体实质肿瘤13例,松果体母细胞瘤12例).CT及MRI示松果体区团块样肿物,松果体细胞瘤边界规则、清楚,增强均匀.恶性松果体实质肿瘤边界不清、分叶状,不均匀增强.手术选择Poppen入路16例,经胼胝体-穹窿间入路16例,幕下小脑上入路1例和三角区入路2例.结果 肿瘤全切除13例,近全切除16例,部分切除6例.术中多数肿瘤与周围组织有粘连.术后23例患者进行了放射治疗.随访7例患者因

  11. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  12. Starting Physiology: Bioelectrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-01-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The…

  13. Physiology of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, David W; Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF Far from a simple absence of wakefulness, sleep is an active, regulated, and metabolically distinct state, essential for health and well-being. In this article, the authors review the fundamental anatomy and physiology of sleep and its regulation, with an eye toward interactions between sleep and metabolism.

  14. Integrative Physiology of Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Stephen M; Carey, Hannah V

    2016-03-15

    Extended bouts of fasting are ingrained in the ecology of many organisms, characterizing aspects of reproduction, development, hibernation, estivation, migration, and infrequent feeding habits. The challenge of long fasting episodes is the need to maintain physiological homeostasis while relying solely on endogenous resources. To meet that challenge, animals utilize an integrated repertoire of behavioral, physiological, and biochemical responses that reduce metabolic rates, maintain tissue structure and function, and thus enhance survival. We have synthesized in this review the integrative physiological, morphological, and biochemical responses, and their stages, that characterize natural fasting bouts. Underlying the capacity to survive extended fasts are behaviors and mechanisms that reduce metabolic expenditure and shift the dependency to lipid utilization. Hormonal regulation and immune capacity are altered by fasting; hormones that trigger digestion, elevate metabolism, and support immune performance become depressed, whereas hormones that enhance the utilization of endogenous substrates are elevated. The negative energy budget that accompanies fasting leads to the loss of body mass as fat stores are depleted and tissues undergo atrophy (i.e., loss of mass). Absolute rates of body mass loss scale allometrically among vertebrates. Tissues and organs vary in the degree of atrophy and downregulation of function, depending on the degree to which they are used during the fast. Fasting affects the population dynamics and activities of the gut microbiota, an interplay that impacts the host's fasting biology. Fasting-induced gene expression programs underlie the broad spectrum of integrated physiological mechanisms responsible for an animal's ability to survive long episodes of natural fasting.

  15. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Gibbons, Edward F.; Durrant, Barbara S.; Demarest, Jack

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  16. Physiological attributes of triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriano, R; Bishop, D

    2010-05-01

    Triathlons of all distances can be considered endurance events and consist of the individual disciplines of swimming, cycling and running which are generally completed in this sequential order. While it is expected that elite triathletes would possess high values for submaximal and maximal measures of aerobic fitness, little is known about how these values compare with those of single-sport endurance athletes. Earlier reviews, conducted in the 1980s, concluded that triathletes possessed lower V(O2(max)) values than other endurance athletes. An update of comparisons is of interest to determine if the physiological capacities of elite triathletes now reflect those of single-sport athletes or whether these physiological capacities are compromised by the requirement to cross-train for three different disciplines. It was found that although differences in the physiological attributes during swimming, cycling and running are evident among triathletes, those who compete at an international level possess V(O2(max)) values that are indicative of success in endurance-based individual sports. Furthermore, various physiological parameters at submaximal workloads have been used to describe the capacities of these athletes. Only a few studies have reported the lactate threshold among triathletes with the majority of studies reporting the ventilatory threshold. Although observed differences among triathletes for both these submaximal measures are complicated by the various methods used to determine them, the reported values for triathletes are similar to those for trained cyclists and runners. Thus, from the limited data available, it appears that triathletes are able to obtain similar physiological values as single-sport athletes despite dividing their training time among three disciplines.

  17. Early-life sleep deprivation persistently depresses melatonin production and bio-energetics of the pineal gland: potential implications for the development of metabolic deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-You; Tiong, Cheng; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Liao, Wen-Chieh; Yang, Shun-Fa; Youn, Su-Chung; Mai, Fu-Der; Chang, Hung-Ming

    2015-03-01

    Early-life sleep deprivation (ESD) is a serious condition with severe metabolic sequelae. The pineal hormone melatonin plays an important role in homeostatic regulation of metabolic function. Considering norepinephrine-mediated Ca(2+) influx and subsequent protein kinase A (PKA) activation is responsible for downstream cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and melatonin biosynthesis, the present study determined whether Ca(2+) expression, together with the molecular machinery participated in melatonin production would significantly alter after ESD. Weaning rats subjected to chronic ESD and maintained naturally (light:dark cycle = 12:12) to adulthood were processed for time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry together with spectrometric assay to detect the Ca(2+) signaling, adrenoreceptors, PKA, phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) as well as the serum level of melatonin, respectively. Pineal bio-energetics and metabolic function were determined by measuring the cytochrome oxidase activity and serum level of glucose, triglyceride, insulin, high- and low-density lipoproteins, respectively. Results indicated that in normal rats, strong Ca(2+) signaling along with intense adrenoreceptors, PKA, and pCREB activities were all detected in pinealocytes. Enhanced Ca(2+) imaging and signaling pathway corresponded well with intact bio-energetics, normal melatonin production and metabolic activity. However, following ESD, not only Ca(2+) but also pineal signaling activities were all significantly decreased. Blood analysis showed reduced melatonin level and impaired metabolic function after ESD. As depressed Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway and melatonin biosynthesis are positively correlated with the development of metabolic dysfunction, supplementary use of melatonin in childhood may thus serve as a practical way to prevent or counteract the ESD-induced metabolic deficiency.

  18. Treatment of hydrocephalus caused by pineal region tumors%松果体区肿瘤导致脑积水的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治元; 王汉东; 史继新; 杭春华; 成惠林; 樊友武; 潘云曦; 孙康健

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the treatment of hydrocephalus caused by pineal region tumors.Methods The treatment of hydrocephalus caused by 56 pathologically confirmed pineal region tumors were analyzed retrospectively.Results Before operation,ventricular drainage was performed in 1 case.ventriculo -peritoneal shunt was in 2 cases.During operation,ventriculo- cisternal shunt was done in 35 cases,no treatment in 15 cases,ventricular drainage in 3 cases.Ventriculo - peritoneal shunt was carried in 12 cases,in which hydrocephalus was not relieved after tumor remove.Conclusions Intraoperative ventriculo-cisternal shunt (Torkildsen's procedure) is safe and effective for the majority of patients with obstructive hydrocephalus caused by pineal region tumors.%目的 探讨松果体区肿瘤脑积水的治疗.方法 回顾性分析56例经手术病理证实的松果体区肿瘤脑积水的处理.结果 术前行脑室外引流1例,脑室-腹腔分流术2例;术中行侧脑室-枕大池分流35例,未作处理15例,行侧脑室外引流3例;术后因脑积水不能缓解行脑室-腹腔分流术12例.结论 术中行脑室-枕大池分流术对大多数松果体区肿瘤脑积水患者是安全有效的.

  19. MRI diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors%松果体区肿瘤的MRI诊断与鉴别诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑家定

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the MRI diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pineal region tumors. Methods Retrospected and analysed 28 cases of pineal region tumors diagnosed with MRI data. Results 8 cases of germ cell tumor, glioma with teratoma in 5 cases, 2 cases of meningioma, 4 cases of choriocarcinoma, neuroblastoma, pinealoblastoma, arachnoid cyst and skin itching cyst in 1 cases. The diagnostic results showed that only rely on the MRI signal was difficult to accurately diagnose,combined with clinical data was still needed. Conclusion MRI examination could accurately display the pineal region tumor morphology and location, diagnosis and differential diagnosis could be combined with the source to determine the tumor tissue, effectively improved the accuracy diagnosis and differential diagnosis.%  目的探讨松果体区肿瘤的MRI诊断与鉴别诊断。方法回顾分析28例松果体区肿瘤患者MRI诊断资料。结果生殖细胞瘤8例,胶质瘤及畸胎瘤各5例,脑膜瘤2例,绒毛膜癌4例,神经母细胞瘤、松果体母细胞瘤、蛛网膜囊肿及皮痒囊肿各1例。诊断结果显示,仅依靠MRI信号难以准确诊断,还需结合临床资料,有助于准确诊断。结论 MRI检查能够准确显示松果体区肿瘤的形态以及位置,诊断与鉴别诊断可以结合肿瘤的组织学来源确定,有效提高诊断以及鉴别诊断的准确性。

  20. Nocturnal activation of aurora C in rat pineal gland: its role in the norepinephrine-induced phosphorylation of histone H3 and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, D M; Kanyo, R; Steinberg, N; Chik, C L; Ho, A K

    2009-05-01

    We have shown previously that Ser10 phosphorylation of histone H3 occurs in rat pinealocytes after stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) and that histone modifications such as acetylation appear to play an important role in pineal gene transcription. Here we report the nocturnal phosphorylation of a Ser10 histone H3 kinase, Aurora C, in the rat pineal gland. The time profile of this phosphorylation parallels the increase in the level of phospho-Ser10 histone H3. Studies with cultured pinealocytes indicate that Aurora C phosphorylation is induced by NE and this induction can be blocked by cotreatment with propranolol or KT5720, a protein kinase A inhibitor. Moreover, only treatment with dibutyryl cAMP, but not other kinase activators, mimics the effect of NE on Aurora C phosphorylation. These results indicate that Aurora C is phosphorylated primarily by a beta-adrenergic/protein kinase A-mediated mechanism. Treatment with an Aurora C inhibitor reduces the NE-induced histone H3 phosphorylation and suppresses the NE-stimulated induction of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), the rhythm-controlling enzyme of melatonin synthesis, and melatonin production. The effects of Aurora C inhibitors on adrenergic-induced genes in rat pinealocytes are gene specific: inhibitory for Aa-nat and inducible cAMP repressor but stimulatory for c-fos. Together our results support a role for the NE-stimulated phosphorylation of Aurora C and the subsequent remodeling of chromatin in NE-stimulated Aa-nat transcription. This phenomenon suggests that activation of this mitotic kinase can be induced by extracellular signals to participate in the transcriptional induction of a subset of genes in the rat pineal gland.

  1. Massa expansiva da região posterior do terceiro ventrículo (tumores da região da pineal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ronaldo Spotti

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumores da região da pineal não são comuns. São descritos aspectos clínicos, tomográficos e dos resultados terapêuticos em 12 casos observados num período de 5 anos (1979-1984. Os autores consideram que a via de acesso supracerebelar infratentorial, descrita por Krause em 1926 e reintroduzida por Stein em 1971, é a melhor para a abordagem cirúrgica desse tipo de tumor.

  2. MRI Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Rare Tumors in Pineal Region%松果体区少见肿瘤MRI诊断与鉴别诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李松涛; 汪文胜; 黄泽春

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨松果体区少见肿瘤的MRI诊断与鉴别诊断情况。方法回顾性分析我院于2007年1月至2013年7月收治的15名松果体区肿瘤患者的临床资料,总结这些患者的临床表现和MRI检查结果。结果诊断结果显示,这些患者患有松果体实质瘤、松果体细胞瘤、成熟与未成熟的畸胎瘤、胚胎发育不良性神经上皮瘤、胶质母细胞瘤、节细胞胶质瘤、神经母细胞瘤、精原细胞瘤、松果体母细胞瘤、胆脂瘤和胚胎癌等松果体区肿瘤。结论单一靠MRI检查无法明确诊断松果体区少见肿瘤, DWI及MRS等功能磁共振检查可以帮助诊断,确诊依旧需要依靠病理检查结果。%Objective To discuss the MRI diagnosis and differential diagnosis of rare tumors in pineal region. Methods Clinical data of 15 patients with pineal region tumor were retrospectively analyzed in our hospital from 2007 January to 2013 July, and their clin-ical manifestations and MRI findings were summarized. Results The diagnosis results showed that the tumors included pineal paren-chymal tumor, pineocytoma, mature or immature teratoma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, glioblastoma, ganglioglioma, neu-roblastoma, seminoma, pinealoblastoma, cholesteatoma and embryonal carcinoma. Conclusion Rare tumor in pineal region could not be definitely diagnosed only by MRI check;DWI and MRS functional magnetic resonance imaging examination could also contribute to its diagnosis. However, the diagnosis still depends on the pathological examination results.

  3. Pineal gland involvement in Erdheim-Chester disease detected on (18)F-FDG PET-CT imaging: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Dhull, Varun Singh; Karunanithi, Sellam; Sharma, Punit; Durgapal, Prashant; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhan's cell histiocytosis affecting multiple organ systems. The most common systemic manifestations are bone lesions, infiltration of the pituitary stalk sometimes leading to diabetes insipidus, pulmonary fibrosis, cardiac failure and exophthalmus. Neurological symptoms as the first clinical manifestations of ECD have been reported in less than one third of cases. We report a rare presentation of a patient of ECD on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography which revealed abnormal (18)F-FDG accumulation in the region of pineal gland, pericardium and bilateral distal tibiae.

  4. Microsurgery for Pineal Region Tumors: Report of 21 Cases%松果体区肿瘤的显微手术治疗:21例经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏永永; 白凯; 袁绍纪; 魏亚辉; 吴鹏昌; 刘江峰

    2009-01-01

    背景与目的:松果体区肿瘤治疗目前仍存在争议,为此我们进一步探讨松果体区肿瘤的临床特点及显微手术治疗.方法:回顾性分析2002~2008年收治的21例松果体区肿瘤患者的临床资料.结果:肿瘤全切除15例,次全切除4例,部分切除2例.21例的手术病理结果中,生殖细胞瘤9例、松果体母细胞瘤5例、胶质瘤2例及其他肿瘤5例.结论:松果体区肿瘤的诊断须以病理组织学分类为依据,松果体区静脉系统是阻碍手术操作的主要结构,显微外科手术应可良好地保护此区静脉,是松果体区肿瘤全切除的关键所在.%BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: The management of tumors in pineal region remain a challenge for neurosurgeons. In this article, we discussed the clinical characteristics and mierosurgery of these tumors.METHODS: The clinical date of 21 patients with tumors in pineal region treated in our hospital from 2002 to 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULT: Among 21 patients, total removal was achieved in 15 cases,subtotal removal in 5 cases and partial removal in 2 cases, respectively. As for pathology, 9 cases were diagnosed as germ cell tumor, 5 cases as pinealoblastoma, 2 casess as glioma, and 5 cases as others tumor types,respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of tumors in pineal region should be confirmed by pathology. It,s important to protect the venous system around the pineal region during the tumor resection.

  5. Effect of melatonin and 5-methoxytryptamine administration on the testis and pineal gland activity of the fresh-water snake, Natrix piscator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, C; Pandey, R

    1988-01-01

    Effects of melatonin (aMT) and 5-methoxytryptamine (MT) were studied on the testicular activity cycle of the fresh-water snake, Natrix piscator. The subcutaneous implantation and the injections (morning as well as evening) of these two methoxyindoles prevented testicular recrudescence, retarded the testicular active phase, and accelerated the rate of regression of testes, while having no effect on the inactive testes. Contrary to this, these two compounds increased the pineal gland weight during different reproductive phases. These results revealed that both aMT and MT, whether they were continuously released through silastic capsule implants or administered through daily periodic injections, produced inhibitory effects on the testicular function.

  6. A relationship between bruxism and orofacial-dystonia? A trigeminal electrophysiological approach in a case report of pineal cavernoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In some clinical cases, bruxism may be correlated to central nervous system hyperexcitability, suggesting that bruxism may represent a subclinical form of dystonia. To examine this hypothesis, we performed an electrophysiological evaluation of the excitability of the trigeminal nervous system in a patient affected by pineal cavernoma with pain symptoms in the orofacial region and pronounced bruxism. Methods Electrophysiological studies included bilateral electrical transcranial stimulation of the trigeminal roots, analysis of the jaw jerk reflex, recovery cycle of masseter inhibitory reflex, and a magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain. Results The neuromuscular responses of the left- and right-side bilateral trigeminal motor potentials showed a high degree of symmetry in latency (1.92 ms and 1.96 ms, respectively) and amplitude (11 mV and 11.4 mV, respectively), whereas the jaw jerk reflex amplitude of the right and left masseters was 5.1 mV and 8.9 mV, respectively. The test stimulus for the recovery cycle of masseter inhibitory reflex evoked both silent periods at an interstimulus interval of 150 ms. The duration of the second silent period evoked by the test stimulus was 61 ms and 54 ms on the right and left masseters, respectively, which was greater than that evoked by the conditioning stimulus (39 ms and 35 ms, respectively). Conclusions We found evidence of activation and peripheral sensitization of the nociceptive fibers, the primary and secondary nociceptive neurons in the central nervous system, and the endogenous pain control systems (including both the inhibitory and facilitatory processes), in the tested subject. These data suggest that bruxism and central orofacial pain can coexist, but are two independent symptoms, which may explain why numerous experimental and clinical studies fail to reach unequivocal conclusions. PMID:24165294

  7. Tuna comparative physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey B; Dickson, Kathryn A

    2004-11-01

    Thunniform swimming, the capacity to conserve metabolic heat in red muscle and other body regions (regional endothermy), an elevated metabolic rate and other physiological rate functions, and a frequency-modulated cardiac output distinguish tunas from most other fishes. These specializations support continuous, relatively fast swimming by tunas and minimize thermal barriers to habitat exploitation, permitting niche expansion into high latitudes and to ocean depths heretofore regarded as beyond their range.

  8. Neonatal cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Michael H

    2013-11-01

    The pediatric surgeon deals with a large number and variety of congenital defects in neonates that frequently involve early surgical intervention and care. Because the neonatal cardiac physiology is unique, starting with the transition from fetal circulation and including differences in calcium metabolism and myocardial microscopic structure and function, it serves the pediatric surgeon well to have a sound understanding of these principles and how they directly and indirectly affect their plans and treatments. In addition, many patients will have associated congenital heart disease that can also dramatically influence not only the surgical and anesthetic care but also the timing and planning of procedures. Finally, the pediatric surgeon is often called upon to treat conditions and complications associated with complex congenital heart disease such as feeding difficulties, bowel perforations, and malrotation in heterotaxy syndromes. In this article, we will review several unique aspects of neonatal cardiac physiology along with the basic physiology of the major groups of congenital heart disease to better prepare the training and practicing pediatric surgeon for care of these complex and often fragile patients.

  9. Adrenergic Activation of Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Explants in Short-Term Superfusion Culture Occurs via Protein Synthesis Independent and Dependent Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Lewczuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ovine pineal is generally considered as an interesting model for the study on adrenergic regulation of melatonin secretion due to some functional similarities with this gland in the human. The present investigations, performed in the superfusion culture of pineal explants, demonstrated that the norepinephrine-induced elevation of melatonin secretion in ovine pinealocytes comprised of two subsequent periods: a rapid increase phase and a slow increase phase. The first one included the quick rise in release of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin, occurring parallel to elevation of NE concentration in the medium surrounding explants. This rapid increase phase was not affected by inhibition of translation. The second, slow increase phase began after NE level had reached the maximum concentration in the culture medium and lasted about two hours. It was completely abolished by the treatment with translation inhibitors. The obtained results showed for the first time that the regulation of N-acetylserotonin synthesis in pinealocytes of some species like the sheep involves the on/off mechanism, which is completely independent of protein synthesis and works very fast. They provided strong evidence pointing to the need of revision of the current opinion that arylalkylamines N-acetyltransferase activity in pinealocytes is controlled exclusively by changes in enzyme abundance.

  10. 松果体实质肿瘤25例临床病理观察%Pineal parenchymal tumors: a clinicopathologic analysis of 25 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴楠; 彭李博; 吴晋蓉; 余波; 陆珍凤; 马恒辉; 石群立

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察松果体实质肿瘤(pineal parenchymal tumors,PPTs)的临床病理学特征、免疫表型,探讨其诊断、鉴别诊断、治疗和预后.方法 回顾性分析25例PPTs的临床病理资料、免疫表型等,结合文献分析其临床病理学特征.结果 25例PPTs中,男性14例,女性11例,年龄1.3~63岁,中位年龄42岁.其中,13例为松果体细胞瘤(52%),4例为中分化松果体实质肿瘤(pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation,PPTID)(16%),8例为松果体母细胞瘤(32%).结论 PPTs以松果体细胞瘤最常见,多见于成人,其次为松果体母细胞瘤,多发生于婴幼儿及青少年,PPTID最罕见.PPTs确诊依赖病理检查和免疫表型,电镜检查对确诊有一定帮助.肿块完整切除是PPTs适宜的治疗方法.

  11. In vitro seasonal variations of LH, FSH and prolactin secretion of the male rat are dependent on the maternal pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, E; Vázquez, N; Fernández, C; Jiménez, V; Esquifino, A; Díaz, B

    2012-01-17

    The maternal pineal gland is involved in the seasonal rhythms entrainment. We evaluate the effect of maternal pinealectomy (PIN-X), also melatonin replacement (PIN-X+MEL) during pregnancy on "in vitro" gonadotropins and prolactin seasonal variations. Male offspring from control, PIN-X and PIN-X+MEL mother Wistar rats were studied at 31 and 60 days of age. In vitro LH release from controls was season-dependent during prepubertal and pubertal periods showing reduced values in winter. The mother pineal gland seems to be important in the entrainment of seasonal variations of in vitro pituitary LH release, since altered secretion showing very high values was observed in summer. Melatonin treatment to PIN-X mothers partially restored the LH response. The effect of pinealectomy upon LH secretion disappears at the pubertal phase. A different pattern was observed for FSH release, without seasonal variations at 31 or at 60 days of age in control offspring, but pinealectomy to mothers or melatonin treatment resulted in seasonal variations. Seasonal influence was also observed in the prolactin pituitary release of controls. PIN-X mother offspring showed delayed seasonal variations at 31 and 60 days of age. The effect of maternal melatonin treatment during pregnancy was observed up to 60 days of age.

  12. Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor of the Pineal Region in a Young Adult Male Patient: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebigt, Susan; Florschütz, Axel; Arndt, Nicole; Stock, Karsten; Renner, Christof

    2017-01-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) represents a highly malignant and aggressive embryonal neoplasm of the central nervous system (CNS). Histologically it consists of rhabdoid cells with a varying combination of neuroectodermal, epithelial, and mesenchymal tissue. Histologic features and the poor clinical outcome indicate that this tumor corresponds to World Health Organization grade IV. AT/RT mainly occurs in children adults. It often arises from the posterior fossa of infants and has the tendency to spread through the subarachnoid space. In contrast to pediatric cases, most of the AT/RTs in adults are located in the cerebral hemispheres; infratentorial appearance or localization in the spinal cord is relatively uncommon. Likewise there are only a few reports of AT/RT in the pineal region. We present another interesting case of this tumor occurring in the pineal region of a 19-year-old man and discuss our case in the context of the current literature. The patient is alive 18 months since his initial diagnosis without any signs of tumor relapse.

  13. Eight hours of nocturnal 915 MHz radiofrequency identification (RFID) exposure reduces urinary levels of melatonin and its metabolite via pineal arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Sun; Paik, Man-Jeong; Lee, Yu Hee; Lee, Yun-Sil; Choi, Hyung Do; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Kim, Nam; Ahn, Young Hwan

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of whole-body exposure to the 915 MHz radiofrequency identification (RFID) on melatonin biosynthesis and the activity of rat pineal arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). Rats were exposed to RFID (whole-body specific absorption rate, 4 W/kg) for 8 h/day, 5 days/week, for weeks during the nighttime. Total volume of urine excreted during a 24-h period was collected after RFID exposure. Urinary melatonin and 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS) was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. AANAT enzyme activity was measured using liquid biphasic dif-13 fusion assay. Protein levels and mRNA expression of AANAT was 14 measured by Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase 15 chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, respectively. Eight hours of nocturnal RFID exposure caused a significant reduction in both urinary melatonin (p = 0. 003) and 6-OHMS (p = 0. 026). Activity, protein levels, and mRNA expression of AANAT were suppressed by exposure to RFID (p RFID exposure can cause reductions in the levels of both urinary melatonin and 6-OHMS, possibly due to decreased melatonin biosynthesis via suppression of Aanat gene transcription in the rat pineal gland.

  14. In vitro effects of steroid hormones on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity in the pineal of fish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) during different phases of breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanthan, L; Gupta, B B P

    2007-08-01

    In vitro effects of gonadal hormones (testosterone, 17beta-estradiol estriol and estrone) and corticosteroid hormones (corticosterone and cortisol) were studied on arylalklyamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity in the pineal organ of the fish, C. gariepinus during quiescent, progressive, breeding and regressive phases of its annual breeding cycle. The pineals were collected under dim red light, maintained in organ culture for 7 hr and incubated with three concentrations (10(-6), 10(-5) and 10(-4) M) of hormones for 6 hr. The treatments with gonadal hormones and corticosteroid hormones inhibited pineal AA-NAT activity in a dose-dependent manner during all the phases of the breeding cycle. AA-NAT activity was comparatively more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of the gonadal hormones during the regressive phase and less sensitive during the quiescent phase. Further, the enzyme activity was more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of corticosteroid hormones (corticosterone and cortisol) during the breeding phase and less sensitive during the quiescent phase. These findings seem to suggest that gonadal hormones and corticosteroid hormones have direct inhibitory influence on AA-NAT activity and, hence melatonin synthesis in the photoreceptive pineal organ of C. gariepinus.

  15. 松果体区肿瘤显微手术治疗相关因素分析%Analysis of related factors in the microsurgical treatment of pineal region tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治元; 王汉东; 史继新; 杭春华; 成惠林; 樊友武; 潘云曦

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analysis the related factors in the microsurgical treatment of pineal region tumors. Methods The clinical data of 69 patients with pineal region tumors performed microsurgery were analyzed retrospectively. The tumors and the texture, blood supply, pathology in pineal region and the relationship with microsurgery were analyzed. Results The tumors were totally removed in 43 cases, subtotal in 19 and partial in 7. Conclusion The microsurgical difficulty and degree of resection are closely related to the size, texture, blood supply and pathology of pineal region tumors.%目的 分析松果体区肿瘤显微手术治疗的相关因素.方法 回顾性分析显微手术治疗69 例松果体区肿瘤的临床资料,探讨松果体区肿瘤大小、质地、血供及病理类型与显微手术的关系.结果 肿瘤全切除43 例,次全切除19 例,部分切除7 例.结论 松果体区肿瘤的大小、质地、血供、病理类型与显微手术难度和切除程度密切相关.

  16. Expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) GluR2/3 receptors in the developing rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, C; Sivakumar, V; Ling, E A

    2005-10-01

    The expression of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) type glutamate (GluR2/3) receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype 1 (NMDAR1) was carried out by immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence and real-time RT-PCR analysis in the pineal glands of 1-day to 6-wk-old rats in the present study. GluR2/3 immunopositive cells were distributed throughout the pineal gland and showed branching processes in all age groups. The NMDAR1 immunoreactivity, however, was observed in fewer branched cells. A constitutive mRNA expression of NMDAR1, GluR2 and GluR3 was detected in the pineal glands of various ages and showed no significant difference between the age groups studied. Immunohistochemical and double immunofluorescence results showed that the GluR2/3 were mainly expressed and co-localized with OX-42-positive microglia/macrophages and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes. Co-localization of NMDAR1 with OX-42- and GFAP-positive cells was much less. The expression of these receptors on the glial cells suggests that they may be involved in the development and growth of the pineal gland in the early postnatal period (1 day to 3 wk) and subsequently in the regulation of melatonin synthesis.

  17. 松果体区脑池和蛛网膜的显微解剖研究%Microsurgical anatomy of cisterns and arachnoid membranes in pineal region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊俊; 漆松涛; 张喜安; 石瑾

    2011-01-01

    目的 系统研究松果体区脑池及其蛛网膜结构的显微解剖学特点,为手术入路及手术操作提供解刮学依据.方法 在手术显微镜下观察20例尸头松果体区各个脑池的形态、边界、内容物及相关蛛网膜结构.结果 松果体区的蛛网膜结构包括蛛网膜袖套、环中脑后膜和小脑前中央膜.其中蛛网膜袖套由枕叶底、内侧面及小脑上表面蛛网膜在幕尖处汇合而成,包裹Galen静脉系统、松果体及松果体七隐窝;环中脑后膜由枕叶底面及小脑上表面蛛网膜在幕切迹处汇合形成,环绕并附着于中脑背侧;小脑前中央膜由小脑上表面蛛网膜和蛛网膜袖套汇合处发出,前下方附着于下丘.四叠体池与小脑上池通过小脑前中央膜分隔,与后胼周池通过蛛网膜袖套分隔.与环池后部通过环中脑后膜的升段分隔,环池后部与小脑中脑裂池通过环中脑后膜的水平段分隔.结论 重新划分了松果体区各个脑池的范围与交通情况,明确了蛛网膜的形态与分布.%Objective To study micro-anatomical features of cisterns and their arachnoid membranes in pineal region. Methods Cisterns in pineal region including their shapes, borders, contents and arachnoidal membranes were observed in 20 cadaveric brains using an operating microscope. Results Arachnoid membranes of the pineal region include the arachnoidal envelope, the posterior perimesencephalic membrane and the cerebellar precentral membrane. At the level of the tentorial apex, arachnoid membranes covering the inferior-medial surface of occipital lobe and the superior surface of cerebellum converge to form the arachnoidal envelope, which encloses the vein of Galen with its tributaries, the pineal gland and the suprapineal recess. The posterior perimesencephalic membrane arises from the outer arachnoid membranes covering the inferior occipital lobe and the superior cerebellum at the tentorial edge. It surrounds and is attached

  18. 松果体区肿瘤诊治策略的探讨%Discussion of the diagnosis and therapy strategy for pineal region tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱炳辉; 漆松涛; 方陆雄; 谢彬

    2011-01-01

    Objective To define the optimal diagnosis and theraputic strategy of pineal region tumors.Method Clinical materials of 154 cases with pineal region tumors were analyzed retrospectively.Results The patients with pineal region tumors often complained with increased intracranial pressure and ocular movement deficiency.The procedure of diagnosis was imaging checking included CT and MRI,tumor mark testing.23 cases which were essential exact diagnosed or high doubt germinomas were choosed to direct radiotherapy or radiotherapy after biopsy.All the tumors disappeared during the follow up time.5 years survival rate was 88.9%.Other 131 cases were chosen for operation treatment.Total removal were achieved in 124 cases and subtotal were achieved in 7 cases.The 5 years survival rate was 84.4%.The operation pathological result included 60 germ cell tumors, 17 pineal parenchymal tumors, 27 neural epithelium tumors and 27 other tumors.Conclusions Pineal region tumors are often combined with hydrocephalus.There was some characteristic feature in the imaging appearance.The cases should be chosen to direct radiotherapy and chemotherapy if was diagnosed germinomas, and be choosed to radiotherapy after biopsy or experimental radiotherapy if was high doubt germinomas.The cases which unable determined germionmas should be choosed microsurgery and assist radiotherapy and chemotherapy postoperation.Hydrocephalus should be treated in consideration during the procedure of tumor treatment.%目的 探讨松果体区肿瘤的诊治策略.方法 回顾性分析154例松果体区肿瘤的病例资料.结果 松果体区肿瘤多以颅高压、眼球运动障碍起病,诊断需进行CT、MRI及肿瘤标记物检查.基本确诊或高度怀疑生殖细胞瘤时直接放疗或活检后放疗23例,肿瘤均消失,5年生存率88.9%;其他肿瘤手术治疗131例,肿瘤全切除124例,次全切除7例,5年生存率84.4%.手术患者的病理结果:生殖细胞肿瘤60例,松果体实质肿瘤17

  19. 哺乳动物昼夜节律组构中的下丘脑视交叉上核和松果腺%The Hypothalamic Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Pineal Gland in the Circadian Rhythmic Organiza tion of Mammals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先举; 俞光第; 印其章

    2001-01-01

    哺乳动物下丘脑视交叉上核(SCN)是昼夜节律最主要的起搏器,控制着机体的生理和行为的节律。它具有自身内在的节律性,同时也受光照周期信号和一些内源性化学物质的调节。松果腺分泌褪黑素(MEL)受SCN的调控,MEL通过作用于SCN上高亲和性MEL受体,启动第二、第三信使系统,调整SCN的昼夜节律活动。这种调整具有时间敏感性。%The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a most important circadian pacemaker, which controls physiological and behaviour rhythm in mammals. SCN owns a intrinsic rhythm itself, and is entrained by photoperiodic signal and some endogenous chemicalsubstances. Melatonin (MEL) is secreted by pineal gland, which is regulated by SCN. MEL triggers the second and third message systems, and regulates SCN circadian activity through high affinity MEL receptor within SCN. This regulation is time-sensitive.

  20. Vasogenic shock physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiria Gkisioti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sotiria Gkisioti, Spyros D MentzelopoulosDepartment of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, Evaggelismos General Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Shock means inadequate tissue perfusion by oxygen-carrying blood. In vasogenic shock, this circulatory failure results from vasodilation and/or vasoplegia. There is vascular hyporeactivity with reduced vascular smooth muscle contraction in response to α1 adrenergic agonists. Considering vasogenic shock, one can understand its utmost importance, not only because of its association with sepsis but also because it can be the common final pathway for long-lasting, severe shock of any cause, even postresuscitation states. The effective management of any patient in shock requires the understanding of its underlying physiology and pathophysiology. Recent studies have provided new insights into vascular physiology by revealing the interaction of rather complicated and multifactorial mechanisms, which have not been fully elucidated yet. Some of these mechanisms, such as the induction of nitric oxide synthases, the activation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels, and vasopressin deficiency, have gained general acceptance and are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of vasodilatory shock. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the pathogenesis of vasogenic shock.Keywords: nitric oxide synthases, KATP channels, vasopressin, H2S, vasoplegic syndrome

  1. Physiology of bile secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alejandro Esteller

    2008-01-01

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment,in different situations,results in the syndrome of cholestasis.The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed.Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane.This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation.The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bileduct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts.The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed.In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled,cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves.A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included.The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  2. Network Physiology: Mapping Interactions Between Networks of Physiologic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Bartsch, Ronny P.

    The human organism is an integrated network of interconnected and interacting organ systems, each representing a separate regulatory network. The behavior of one physiological system (network) may affect the dynamics of all other systems in the network of physiologic networks. Due to these interactions, failure of one system can trigger a cascade of failures throughout the entire network. We introduce a systematic method to identify a network of interactions between diverse physiologic organ systems, to quantify the hierarchical structure and dynamics of this network, and to track its evolution under different physiologic states. We find a robust relation between network structure and physiologic states: every state is characterized by specific network topology, node connectivity and links strength. Further, we find that transitions from one physiologic state to another trigger a markedly fast reorganization in the network of physiologic interactions on time scales of just a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. This reorganization in network topology occurs simultaneously and globally in the entire network as well as at the level of individual physiological systems, while preserving a hierarchical order in the strength of network links. Our findings highlight the need of an integrated network approach to understand physiologic function, since the framework we develop provides new information which can not be obtained by studying individual systems. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate the development of a new field, Network Physiology.

  3. Single Cell Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, Pierre; Sinha, Deepak Kumar; Kettunen, Petronella; Vriz, Sophie; Jullien, Ludovic; Bensimon, David

    The possibility to control at specific times and specific places the activity of biomolecules (enzymes, transcription factors, RNA, hormones, etc.) is opening up new opportunities in the study of physiological processes at the single cell level in a live organism. Most existing gene expression systems allow for tissue specific induction upon feeding the organism with exogenous inducers (e.g., tetracycline). Local genetic control has earlier been achieved by micro-injection of the relevant inducer/repressor molecule, but this is an invasive and possibly traumatic technique. In this chapter, we present the requirements for a noninvasive optical control of the activity of biomolecules and review the recent advances in this new field of research.

  4. [Physiology of the neuropeptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, M J; Martínez-Martos, J M; Mayas, M D; Carrera, M P; Ramírez- Expósito, M J

    In the present review, the characteristics of mammalian neuropeptides have been studied. Neuropeptides are widely distributed not only in the nervous system but also in the periphery. They are synthesised by neurons as large precursor molecules (pre propeptides) which have to be cleaved and modified in order to form the mature neuropeptides. Neuropeptides may exert actions as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and/or neurohormones. In the neurons, they coexist with classic transmitters and often with other peptides. After their releasing, they bind to especific receptors to exert their action in the target cell. Most of these receptors belongs to a family of G protein coupled receptors. Finally, peptidases are the enzymes involved in the degradation of neuropeptides. Conclusions. In the last years, the number of known neuropeptides and the understanding of their functions have been increased. With these data, present investigations are looking for the treatment of different pathologies associated with alterations in the physiology of neuropeptides.

  5. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  6. Network Physiology reveals relations between network topology and physiological function

    CERN Document Server

    Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; 10.1038/ncomms1705

    2012-01-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate the development of a new field, Network Physiology.

  7. Network physiology reveals relations between network topology and physiological function

    OpenAIRE

    Bashan, Amir; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-01-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiological systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiological network. We find that each physiological state is...

  8. Absence of pineal-independent mediation of seasonal differences in suprachiasmatic nucleus AVP and VIP mRNA expression in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, David A; Herron, Jana M; Duncan, Marilyn J

    2002-05-30

    Assessment of seasonal variations in expression of brain neuropeptide mRNA is complicated by concurrent circadian variations. Because entrainment of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) based rhythms differs in long versus short day lengths, valid seasonal comparisons must be made at equivalent circadian phases. We used a novel experimental design which permitted sampling at identical circadian phases of animals exhibiting opposite seasonal reproductive responses to the same intermediate day length. This allowed us to test whether seasonal changes in arginine vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) mRNA expression in the SCN occur in the absence of the pineal gland. Juvenile Siberian hamsters were gestated and maintained postnatally in either a long photoperiod (16 h light/day) or short photoperiod (10 h light/day). At the time of weaning (18 days of age), the hamsters were pinealectomized and either transferred to a new photoperiod (10-, 16- or 14-h light/day) or left in the original photoperiod. Hamsters from 10L had substantially smaller and lighter testes than those from 16L. If photoperiodic modulation of AVP and VIP mRNA expression occurs in the absence of the pineal, then transfer of pinealectomized hamsters from a longer (16L) or shorter (10L) photoperiod to an intermediate photoperiod (14L) should result in a differential response with respect to SCN AVP and VIP mRNA expression but not testis size. When sampled at an identical circadian phase (3 h after lights on) in 14L there was no difference in the expression of AVP or VIP mRNA in the SCN between animals previously housed in long versus short day lengths. In contrast to a previous study that did not carefully control for circadian phase, the present findings suggest that seasonal photoperiodic control of SCN neuropeptide mRNA expression depends upon the pineal gland. In addition, the present findings demonstrate a significant, negative correlation between AVP mRNA expression in the SCN and

  9. Pineal attrition, loss of cognitive plasticity, and onset of puberty during the teen years: is it a modern maladaptation exposed by evolutionary displacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, A Joon; Bazar, Kimberly A; Lee, Patrick Y

    2004-01-01

    Cognitive plasticity, a developmental trait that promotes acquisition of complex skills such as language or playing musical instruments, diminishes substantially during puberty. The loss of plasticity has been attributed to surge of sex steroids during adolescence, but the phenomenon remains poorly understood. We hypothesize that pineal involution during puberty may contribute to plasticity decay. The pineal gland produces melatonin, the level of which declines dramatically during onset of puberty. Emerging evidence suggest that melatonin may modulate cognitive plasticity, independent of the effects of sex steroids, and low sex steroids and high melatonin may be simultaneously required to maintain cognitive plasticity. Potential mechanisms by which melatonin may modulate plasticity are examined within the sleep and hippocampal long-term potentiation frameworks. Implications for psychiatric conditions that involve sleep disorders and learning dysfunctions such as schizophrenia and autism are discussed, and the potential adaptive roles of postprandial and postcoital sleep are explored. From the Darwinian perspective, development and reproductive maturity may represent distinct phases that require tailored cognitive strategies to maximize fitness. While cognitive flexibility and susceptibility to new skills may be paramount during development, reduced cognitive flexibility and increased cognitive determinism may enable more efficient responses to stimuli during adulthood. Thus, cognitive plasticity and cognitive determinism may represent trade-off adaptations and different dimensions of intelligence. The decline of plasticity and emergence of puberty during the second decade may be relics of prehistoric times when the human lifespan was short and the environment was relatively simple and static. Today, when the environment is more complex and dynamic, and humans are living far longer, the early obsolescence of plasticity during puberty may represent a Darwinian

  10. 松果体区肿瘤显微手术治疗及入路比较%Microsurgical treatment of pineal region tumor and comparison of approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈传新; 虞正权; 王中; 孙雪波; 高薇; 毕永峰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the technique,approach and attention of surgical treatment for pineal region tumors.Methods The clinical characteristic,surgical approach and prognosis of 12 patients with pineal region tumors were analyzed retrospectively.Of 12 patients,suboccipital supratentorial approach were underwent in 7,transcallosal-interfornix approach in 3,infratentorial supracerebellar approach in 1 and lateral transventricular approach in 1.Results The tumors were totally resected in 11 patients.One patient died of postoperation complications.The follow up from 8 to 41 months showed 10 patients recovered well,one could care of himself and 1 died at three months after operation.Conclusion Mircrosurgical treatment is an effective method for pineal region tumors.Correct choice of microsurgical approach and skillful microsurgical technique are the key to the success of operation.%目的 探讨松果体区肿瘤外科治疗的方法、入路和注意事项.方法 回顾分析12例松果体区肿瘤直接手术患者的临床特点、手术及预后情况.12例患者中,枕下经小脑幕入路(Poppen入路)7例,经胼胝体-穹窿间入路3例,颞部侧脑室三角部入路1例,幕下小脑上入路(krause入路)1例.结果 肿瘤全切除11例.术后死于并发症1例;随访8个月至3.5年,10例恢复良好,1例生活基本自理,1例术后3月死亡.结论 松果体区肿瘤的手术治疗效果较好,选择合适的手术入路及体位,熟练的显微外科手术技巧是手术成功的关键.

  11. 成人松果体实质细胞肿瘤的治疗%Treatment for pineal parenchymal tumors in adult patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 林松; 于洮

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨成人松果体实质肿瘤的手术疗效.方法 回顾性分析北京天坛医院神经外科2007年1月至2013年10月收治了39例成人(≥18岁)松果体实质细胞肿瘤的临床资料并进行随访.结果 肿瘤全切除19例,次全切除12例,部分切除6例,仅行肿瘤活检2例,无手术死亡病例.术后病理结果:松果体细胞瘤14例,中分化松果体实质肿瘤15例,松果体母细胞瘤10例.随访到的32例患者中,5例患者因肿瘤复发而死亡,中分化和松果体母细胞瘤中位生存期分别为34.5个月和29.8个月.结论 松果体细胞瘤手术治疗效果良好,中分化松果体实质肿瘤和松果体母细胞瘤治疗应首选手术,放化疗的效果尚待确定.%Objective To study the clinical characteristics,surgical treatment and outcome of pineal parenchymal tumors(PPT) in adult patients.Methods The adult patients (≥18 years old) with PPT diagnosed between 2007 and 2013 were retrospectively studied and their surgical results were followed-up.Results 37 PPT tumors were surgically removed,including 19 total removal,12 subtotal removal and 6 partial removal.The biopsy was made in 2 patients.The pathological type of 14 cases was pineocytoma,15 pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation,and 10 pinealoblastoma.In 32 patients of follow-up,there were 5 patients died because of tumor recurrence.The median overall survival was 34.5 months for intermediate differentiation and 29.8 months for pinealoblastoma.Conclusions Pineocytomas' patients have good survival prognosis after surgical treatment.Microsurgery is the most effective therapy for pineal parenchymal tumor of intermediate differentiation and pineoblastoma.The role of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy remains to be defined.

  12. Cardiovascular physiology and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Narayana S; Svatikova, Anna; Somers, Virend K

    2003-05-01

    Sleep is a natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which processes of rest and restoration occur. The cognitive, reparative and regenerative accompaniments of sleep appear to be essential for maintenance of health and homeostasis. This brief overview will examine the cardiovascular responses to normal and disordered sleep, and their physiologic and pathologic implications. In the past, sleep was believed to be a passive state. The tableau of sleep as it unfolds is anything but a passive process. The brain's activity is as complex as wakefulness, never "resting" during sleep. Following the demise of the 'passive theory of sleep' (the reticular activating system is fatigued during the waking day and hence becomes inactive), there arose the 'active theory of sleep' (sleep is due to an active general inhibition of the brain) (1). Hess demonstrated the active nature of sleep in cats, inducing "physiological sleep" with electrical stimulation of the diencephalon (2). Classical experiments of transection of the cat brainstem (3) at midpontine level inhibited sleep completely, implying that centers below this level were involved in the induction of sleep (1, 4). For the first time, measurement of sleep depth without awakening the sleeper using the electroencephalogram (EEG) was demonstrated in animals by Caton and in humans, by Berger (1). This was soon followed by discovery of the rapid eye movement sleep periods (REM) by Aserinski and Kleitman (5), demonstration of periodical sleep cycles and their association with REM sleep (6, 7). Multiple studies and steady discoveries (4) made polysomnography, with its ability to perform simultaneous whole night recordings of EEG, electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOC), a major diagnostic tool in study of sleep disorders. This facility has been of further critical importance in allowing evaluation of the interaction between sleep and changes in hemodynamics and autonomic cardiovascular control. Consequently the

  13. Physiology of vitreous surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, Einar

    2009-02-01

    Vitreous surgery has various physiological and clinical consequences, both beneficial and harmful. Vitrectomy reduces the risk of retinal neovascularization, while increasing the risk of iris neovascularization, reduces macular edema and stimulates cataract formation. These clinical consequences may be understood with the help of classical laws of physics and physiology. The laws of Fick, Stokes-Einstein and Hagen-Poiseuille state that molecular transport by diffusion or convection is inversely related to the viscosity of the medium. When the vitreous gel is replaced with less viscous saline, the transport of all molecules, including oxygen and cytokines, is facilitated. Oxygen transport to ischemic retinal areas is improved, as is clearance of VEGF and other cytokines from these areas, thus reducing edema and neovascularization. At the same time, oxygen is transported faster down a concentration gradient from the anterior to the posterior segment, while VEGF moves in the opposite direction, making the anterior segment less oxygenated and with more VEGF, stimulating iris neovascularization. Silicone oil is the exception that proves the rule: it is more viscous than vitreous humour, re-establishes the transport barrier to oxygen and VEGF, and reduces the risk for iris neovascularization in the vitrectomized-lentectomized eye. Modern vitreous surgery involves a variety of treatment options in addition to vitrectomy itself, such as photocoagulation, anti-VEGF drugs, intravitreal steroids and release of vitreoretinal traction. A full understanding of these treatment modalities allows sensible combination of treatment options. Retinal photocoagulation has repeatedly been shown to improve retinal oxygenation, as does vitrectomy. Oxygen naturally reduces VEGF production and improves retinal hemodynamics. The VEGF-lowering effect of photocoagulation and vitrectomy can be augmented with anti-VEGF drugs and the permeability effect of VEGF reduced with corticosteroids

  14. Procedures of Exercise Physiology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.; Fortney, Suzanne; Greenisen, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Moore, Alan D., Jr.; Squires, William

    1998-01-01

    This manual describes the laboratory methods used to collect flight crew physiological performance data at the Johnson Space Center. The Exercise Countermeasures Project Laboratory is a standard physiology laboratory; only the application to the study of human physiological adaptations to spaceflight is unique. In the absence of any other recently published laboratory manual, this manual should be a useful document staffs and students of other laboratories.

  15. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  16. 松果体区畸胎瘤的诊断和治疗%Diagnosis and treatment of pineal region teratomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆松涛; 邱炳辉; 方陆雄; 张喜安

    2008-01-01

    Objective To discuss the clinical diagnosis and treatment method of pineal region teratomas. Methods 16 cases of pineal region teratomas were surgically treated. The clinical data and long-term follow-up of these patients were reviewed. Results All 16 patients complained of intracranial hypertension. 14 cases with calcification on CT scan, 7 cases with cystic change and all with distinct degree enhancement on MRI scan. 2 cases with high levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in serum. All cases were received microneurosurgical operations via occipital transtentorial approach and were achieved total resection. There were 6 cases with mature teratomas and 10 with immature teratomas. There was no operative death, only 3 cases complicated with defect of field vision. During followed-up period, there were 5 cases with tumor recurrence and 3 cases of death. Conclusion Pineal region teratomas patients were predominantly boy and children. Signs of intracranial hypertension and ataxia are the common clinical manifestation. There are some special appearance on imaging, such as irregular shape, calcification, cystic change and uneven enhancement. Imaging and serum examination can be useful to distinguish mature and immature types. When radiation therapy is not effective, the patient should be actively received surgical treatment. Early diagnosis and early operative treatment with postoperative adjacent treatment can provide a good prognosis in pineal region teratomas.%目的 探讨松果体区畸胎瘤的临床特征和治疗方法.方法 对16例开颅手术的松果体区畸胎瘤的临床资料及其随访结果进行回顾性分析.结果 以颅高压起病16例,CT扫描钙化14例,MRI囊变7例,血清学甲胎蛋白(AFP)增高2例.行枕部经小脑幕入路手术,成熟畸胎瘤6例,未成熟畸胎瘤10例,无手术死亡,术后并发视野缺损3例,随访6个月至5年,复发5例,死亡3例.结论 松果体区畸胎瘤多见于儿童男性,常见临床表现是颅高压

  17. Starting physiology: bioelectrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-12-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The topic of bioelectrogenesis encompasses multidisciplinary concepts, involves several mechanisms, and is a dynamic process, i.e., it never turns off during the lifetime of the cell. Therefore, to improve the transmission and acquisition of knowledge in this field, I present an alternative didactic model. The design of the model assumes that it is possible to build, in a series of sequential steps, an assembly of proteins within the membrane of an isolated cell in a simulated electrophysiology experiment. Initially, no proteins are inserted in the membrane and the cell is at a baseline energy state; the extracellular and intracellular fluids are at thermodynamic equilibrium. Students are guided through a sequence of four steps that add key membrane transport proteins to the model cell. The model is simple at the start and becomes progressively more complex, finally producing transmembrane chemical and electrical gradients. I believe that this didactic approach helps instructors with a more efficient tool for the teaching of the mechanisms of resting membrane potential while helping students avoid common difficulties that may be encountered when learning this topic.

  18. Hypertension: physiology and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John E; Granger, Joey P; do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Dubinion, John; George, Eric; Hamza, Shereen; Speed, Joshua; Hall, Michael E

    2012-10-01

    Despite major advances in understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension and availability of effective and safe antihypertensive drugs, suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control is still the most important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and is globally responsible for more than 7 million deaths annually. Short-term and long-term BP regulation involve the integrated actions of multiple cardiovascular, renal, neural, endocrine, and local tissue control systems. Clinical and experimental observations strongly support a central role for the kidneys in the long-term regulation of BP, and abnormal renal-pressure natriuresis is present in all forms of chronic hypertension. Impaired renal-pressure natriuresis and chronic hypertension can be caused by intrarenal or extrarenal factors that reduce glomerular filtration rate or increase renal tubular reabsorption of salt and water; these factors include excessive activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems, increased formation of reactive oxygen species, endothelin, and inflammatory cytokines, or decreased synthesis of nitric oxide and various natriuretic factors. In human primary (essential) hypertension, the precise causes of impaired renal function are not completely understood, although excessive weight gain and dietary factors appear to play a major role since hypertension is rare in nonobese hunter-gathers living in nonindustrialized societies. Recent advances in genetics offer opportunities to discover gene-environment interactions that may also contribute to hypertension, although success thus far has been limited mainly to identification of rare monogenic forms of hypertension. © 2012 American Physiological Society

  19. Physiology in Modelica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Mateják

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modelica is an object-oriented language, in which models can be created and graphically represented by connecting instances of classes from libraries. These connections are not only assignments of values; they can also represent acausal equality. Even more, they can model Kirchhoff’s laws of circuits. In Modelica it is possible to develop library classes which are an analogy of electrical circuit components. The result of our work in this field is Physiolibrary (www.physiolibrary.org – a free, open-source Modelica library for human physiology. By graphical joining instances of Physiolibrary classes, user can create models of cardiovascular circulation, thermoregulation, metabolic processes, nutrient distribution, gas transport, electrolyte regulation, water distribution, hormonal regulation and pharmacological regulation. After simple setting of the parameters, the models are ready to simulate. After simulation, the user can examine variables as their values change over time. Representing the model as a diagram has also great educational advantages, because students are able to better understand physical principles when they see them modeled graphically.

  20. Smolt physiology and endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen D.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Farrell, Anthony Peter; Brauner, Colin J.

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play a critical role in maintaining body fluid balance in euryhaline fishes during changes in environmental salinity. The neuroendocrine axis senses osmotic and ionic changes, then signals and coordinates tissue-specific responses to regulate water and ion fluxes. Rapid-acting hormones, e.g. angiotensins, cope with immediate challenges by controlling drinking rate and the activity of ion transporters in the gill, gut, and kidney. Slow-acting hormones, e.g. prolactin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, reorganize the body for long-term acclimation by altering the abundance of ion transporters and through cell proliferation and differentiation of ionocytes and other osmoregulatory cells. Euryhaline species exist in all groups of fish, including cyclostomes, and cartilaginous and teleost fishes. The diverse strategies for responding to changes in salinity have led to differential regulation and tissue-specific effects of hormones. Combining traditional physiological approaches with genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses will elucidate the patterns and diversity of the endocrine control of euryhalinity.

  1. Polyamines in plant physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  2. DOSHIC PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivprasad Chiplunkar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of dosha  represents the healthy state and imbalance will cause various diseases. In normalcy doshas will be performing their own functions and individual doshas will be having their own specific sites. By telling the various sthana of each dosha, different function that is taken up by individual dosha in different sites has been highlighted.By mentioning ‘sparshanendriyam’ as one of the sthana of vata dosha the sensory functions of skin to vata dosha has been emphasised. By mentioning ‘sparshanam’ as one of the sthana of pittadosha, the function of colouring/pigmentation of skin, which is majorly carried out  by melanocytes by secreting melanin pigment has been highlighted. Meda is one among the sthanas of kapha dosha; this can be considered as the adipose tissue of skin/below skin. Since sweda is mala of meda it can be also considered as the secretions from the eccrine glands.With respect to skin, sensory functions, both tactile and thermal is carried out by vata dosha more specifically vyana vata, pigmentation to the skin carried out by meloncytes by secreting melanin, it is nothing but function of pitta dosha more specifically brajaka pitta with the help of udana vata and finally production of sweat in sweat glands is the function of kapha. So there is the need for further study and research regarding the sthanas of all three doshas in different structures/organs in the body and its physiology.

  3. Physiology of Volition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    The idea of free will is a conscious awareness of the brain concerning the nature of the movement that it produces. There is no evidence for it to be a driving force in movement generation. This review considers the physiology of movement generation and how the concepts of willing and agency might arise. Both the anatomical substrates and the timing of events are considered. Movement initiation and volition are not necessarily linked, and one line of evidence comes from consideration of patients with disorders of volition. Movement is generated subconsciously, and the conscious sense of willing the movement comes later, but the exact time of this event is difficult to assess because of the potentially illusory nature of introspection. The evidence suggests that movement is initiated in frontal lobe, particularly the mesial areas, and the sense of volition arises as the result of a corollary discharge from premotor and motor areas likely involving the parietal lobe. Agency probably involves a similar region in the parietal lobe and requires both the sense of volition and movement feedback.

  4. CT and MRI Diagnosis of Congenital Pineal Cyst%松果体先天性囊肿的CT与MRI诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智惠; 林超; 李静伟; 王永奇

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨松果体先天性囊肿的CT与MRI表现和特征。 材料与方法 搜集38例松果体先天性囊肿,回顾性对照分析其CT与MRI表现。 结果 38例松果体先天性囊肿均表现为囊性病变,有完整光滑均匀的囊壁且无异常强化,囊壁信号强度变化或CT值类似于灰质;囊液为长T1长T2水样信号,CT值与脑脊液近似。 结论 MRI是诊断松果体先天性囊肿的有效方法。%Objective To study CT and MRI signs and features of congenitalpineal cyst. Materials and Methods CT and MRI findings in 38 cases with congenital pineal cyst were retrospectively analyzed. Results The lesion in all cases presented as a cystic mass with an intact, smooth and sharp cystic wall which showed no abnormal enhancement. The signal intensity and CT value of the cyst wall were similar to those of gray matter of the brain. The cystic fluid displayed water signal intensity of long T1 and long T2, with its CT value similar to CSF. Conclusion MRI is an effective method for the diagnosis of congenital pineal cyst.

  5. Expression of tranferrin receptors in the pineal gland of postnatal and adult rats and its alteration in hypoxia and melatonin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, C; Sivakumar, V; Ling, E A

    2007-02-01

    Transferrin receptors (Tfrc) are membrane bound glycoproteins which function to mediate cellular uptake of iron from transferrin. We examined expression of Tfrc in the pineal gland of rats of different ages from 1 day to 12 weeks. The mRNA and protein expression of Tfrc increased up to 6 weeks of age and decreased in 12 week rats. Tfrc immunoreactivity was observed on pinealocytes and macrophages/microglia. By immunoelectron microscopy, the immunoreaction in pinealocytes was observed in the cytosol, on mitochondria and plasma membrane whereas in macrophages/microglia it was localized on the plasma membrane in 1-day to 2-week old rats. In older rats, the immunoreaction product in pinealocytes was associated with the plasma membrane and mitochondria only. Iron localization was observed in pinealocytes as well as macrophages/microglia. It is suggested that Tfrc are required for uptake of iron for cell proliferation and maturation in the pineal gland upto 6 weeks of age. The significance of Tfrc expression on mitochondria is speculative. They may be involved in iron transport to the mitochondria or for regulation of the secretory activity of pinealocytes. The TfrcmRNA and protein expression increased significantly in response to hypoxia in 12-week rats and this coincided with intense iron staining of the pinealocytes and macrophages/microglia. It is concluded that increased expression of Tfrc in response to hypoxia leads to excess cellular uptake of iron which may be damaging to the cells. Melatonin administration in hypoxic rats may prove to be beneficial as it reduced the Tfrc expression.

  6. Computed Tomography of the Human Pineal Gland for Study of the Sleep-Wake Rhythm: Reproducibility of a Semi-Quantitative Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, S.A.; Platzek, I.; Kunz, D.; Mahlberg, R.; Wolf, K.J.; Heidenreich, J.O. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2006-10-15

    Purpose: To propose a semi-quantitative computed tomography (CT) protocol for determining uncalcified pineal tissue (UCPT), and to evaluate its reproducibility in modification of studies showing that the degree of calcification is a potential marker of deficient melatonin production and may prove an instability marker of circadian rhythm. Material and Methods: Twenty-two pineal gland autopsy specimens were scanned in a skull phantom with different slice thickness twice and the uncalcified tissue visually assessed using a four-point scale. The maximum gland density was measured and its inverse graded on a non-linear four-point scale. The sum of both scores was multiplied by the gland volume to yield the UCPT. The within-subject variance of UCPT was determined and compared between scans of different slice thickness. Results: The UCPT of the first measurement, in arbitrary units, was 39{+-}52.5 for 1 mm slice thickness, 44{+-}51.1 for 2 mm, 45{+-}34.8 for 4 mm, and 84{+-}58.0 for 8 mm. Significant differences of within-subject variance of UCPT were found between 1 and 4 mm, 1 and 8 mm, and 2 and 8 mm slice thicknesses ( P <0.05). Conclusion: A superior reproducibility of the semi-quantitative CT determination of UCPT was found using 1 and 2 mm slice thicknesses. These data support the use of thin slices of 1 and 2 mm. The benefit in reproducibility from thin slices has to be carefully weighted against their considerably higher radiation exposure.

  7. Causality in physiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Kraemer, Jan F; Penzel, Thomas; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Kurths, Jürgen; Wessel, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Health is one of the most important non-material assets and thus also has an enormous influence on material values, since treating and preventing diseases is expensive. The number one cause of death worldwide today originates in cardiovascular diseases. For these reasons the aim of understanding the functions and the interactions of the cardiovascular system is and has been a major research topic throughout various disciplines for more than a hundred years. The purpose of most of today's research is to get as much information as possible with the lowest possible effort and the least discomfort for the subject or patient, e.g. via non-invasive measurements. A family of tools whose importance has been growing during the last years is known under the headline of coupling measures. The rationale for this kind of analysis is to identify the structure of interactions in a system of multiple components. Important information lies for example in the coupling direction, the coupling strength, and occurring time lags. In this work, we will, after a brief general introduction covering the development of cardiovascular time series analysis, introduce, explain and review some of the most important coupling measures and classify them according to their origin and capabilities in the light of physiological analyses. We will begin with classical correlation measures, go via Granger-causality-based tools, entropy-based techniques (e.g. momentary information transfer), nonlinear prediction measures (e.g. mutual prediction) to symbolic dynamics (e.g. symbolic coupling traces). All these methods have contributed important insights into physiological interactions like cardiorespiratory coupling, neuro-cardio-coupling and many more. Furthermore, we will cover tools to detect and analyze synchronization and coordination (e.g. synchrogram and coordigram). As a last point we will address time dependent couplings as identified using a recent approach employing ensembles of time series. The

  8. Applied physiology of cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, I E

    1984-01-01

    Historically, the bicycle has evolved through the stages of a machine for efficient human transportation, a toy for children, a finely-tuned racing machine, and a tool for physical fitness development, maintenance and testing. Recently, major strides have been made in the aerodynamic design of the bicycle. These innovations have resulted in new land speed records for human powered machines. Performance in cycling is affected by a variety of factors, including aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and body composition. Bicycle races range from a 200m sprint to approximately 5000km. This vast range of competitive racing requires special attention to the principle of specificity of training. The physiological demands of cycling have been examined through the use of bicycle ergometers, rollers, cycling trainers, treadmill cycling, high speed photography, computer graphics, strain gauges, electromyography, wind tunnels, muscle biopsy, and body composition analysis. These techniques have been useful in providing definitive data for the development of a work/performance profile of the cyclist. Research evidence strongly suggests that when measuring the cyclist's aerobic or anaerobic capacity, a cycling protocol employing a high pedalling rpm should be used. The research bicycle should be modified to resemble a racing bicycle and the cyclist should wear cycling shoes. Prolonged cycling requires special nutritional considerations. Ingestion of carbohydrates, in solid form and carefully timed, influences performance. Caffeine appears to enhance lipid metabolism. Injuries, particularly knee problems which are prevalent among cyclists, may be avoided through the use of proper gearing and orthotics. Air pollution has been shown to impair physical performance. When pollution levels are high, training should be altered or curtailed. Effective training programmes simulate competitive conditions. Short and long interval training, blended with long

  9. Physiology of Visceral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, G F; Bielefeldt, Klaus

    2016-09-15

    Pain involving thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic organs is a common cause for physician consultations, including one-third of chronic pain patients who report that visceral organs contribute to their suffering. Chronic visceral pain conditions are typically difficult to manage effectively, largely because visceral sensory mechanisms and factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of visceral pain are poorly understood. Mechanistic understanding is particularly problematic in "functional" visceral diseases where there is no apparent pathology and pain typically is the principal complaint. We review here the anatomical organization of the visceral sensory innervation that distinguishes the viscera from innervation of all other tissues in the body. The viscera are innervated by two nerves that share overlapping functions, but also possess notably distinct functions. Additionally, the visceral innervation is sparse relative to the sensory innervation of other tissues. Accordingly, visceral sensations tend to be diffuse in character, are typically referred to nonvisceral somatic structures and thus are difficult to localize. Early arguments about whether the viscera were innervated ("sensate") and later, whether innervated by nociceptors, were resolved by advances reviewed here in the anatomical and functional attributes of receptive endings in viscera that contribute to visceral pain (i.e., visceral nociceptors). Importantly, the contribution of plasticity (i.e., sensitization) of peripheral and central visceral nociceptive mechanisms is considered in the context of persistent, chronic visceral pain conditions. The review concludes with an overview of the functional anatomy of visceral pain processing. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1609-1633, 2016. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Assessing prebaccalaureate human physiology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, V L

    1998-12-01

    Two surveys were conducted between 1994 and 1996. The purpose of the initial survey was to obtain demographic information about prebaccaulareate human physiology courses. Of the 117 responding physiology departments, 50% offered human physiology at the prebaccalaureate level to 14,185 students during the 1994-1995 academic year. The mean was 245 students per year (+/- 30 SE). Class size was limited by 44% of the respondents. Prebaccaluareate human physiology was offered as a separate course from anatomy by 93% of the departments. Sixty-one percent scheduled the course once a year. The purpose of the second survey was to determine how physiology departments evaluated prebaccalaureate physiology courses and faculty. All responding departments utilized student feedback; 38% of the departments included physiology chair review, 38% peer review, and 9% allied health faculty review. Twenty-eight percent of allied health programs evaluated the course. Results indicated that, whereas a significant number of undergraduate students are enrolled in prebaccaluareate physiology courses annually, those courses appear to lack formal, consistent formative evaluation.

  11. Contrasted study between thin coronal sectional anatomy of the pineal region and MRI image%松果体区的薄层冠状断层解剖与MRI的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙博; 刘树伟; 汤煜春; 樊令仲; 林祥涛; 李振平; 亓恒涛

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the morphology and relationships with the adjacent structures in the pineal region on the thin sections and to provide anatomic data for imaging diagnosis and surgical treatment of diseases in this region. Methods By CT and MRI examination, one normal head specimen was selected for this study. Using the computerized freezing milling technique, the specimen was sliced from anterior to posterior. The in vivo MR images were obtained from ten normal Chinese male adult volunteers using a 3.0 T GE scanner. The base lines of the sectioning and the MR scan were perpendicular to the AC-PC line. Then primary sections were contrasted with the corresponding MR images. Results By the appearance of the pineal peduncle and the disappearance of the pineal gland, the pineal region could be divided into three parts from anterior to posterior, and the shape changed from an inverted triangle to a trapezoid and a triangle gradually. The first interspace was getting wider in the anterior and middle parts of the pineal region, while in the posterior part of the pineal region, it was getting narrower and disappeared finally. From anterior to posterior, the bilateral internal cerebral veins were always in the midline of the pineal region and descended gradually.Conclusion By the computerized freezing milling technique, the anatomic details and adjacent relationships of the pineal region could be exhibited clearly in the thin serial sections, which could help the imaging diagnosis and surgical treatments for minute diseases in this region.%目的 探讨松果体区结构在连续薄层冠状断面上形态结构的变化规律,为该区病变的影像学诊断和外科治疗提供解剖学依据. 方法 选择1例成人头部标本,应用冷冻数控铣削技术由前向后垂直于连合间线(AC-PC线)进行铣削.另选择健康成年男性10名,应用3D SPGR序列行与标本基线一致的3.0 T MR扫描.选取典型的断面标本图像与相应活体的MRI图

  12. Treatment of Tumors in the Pineal Region by X- Knife Radiosurgery%X-刀立体定向放射神经外科技术治疗松果体区肿瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立根; 郭艳; 章翔; 宋少军; 石梅; 魏丽春

    2001-01-01

    Within three years ,86 cases of tumors in the pineal region were treated by X- Knife radiosurgical technique,using the standard axial serial CT scan for stereotactic localization,the target were localized by the BRW coordinate system.Radionics RSA- 3 X- Knife treatment planning system were used to make plan,Philips SL- 75- 14 Linac was used to produce X- ray.After treatment, follow- up ranged 6~ 42 months (meanly 24 months),most of the patients showed improvements within 1` 6 months. The results of this report proved that the X- Knife treatment for tumors in the pineal region might be an effective,economical and reliable method.

  13. Applied physiology of swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, J M; Montpetit, R R

    1986-01-01

    Scientific research in swimming over the past 10 to 15 years has been oriented toward multiple aspects that relate to applied and basic physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, and endocrinology. This review considers recent findings on: 1) specific physical characteristics of swimmers; 2) the energetics of swimming; 3) the evaluation of aerobic fitness in swimming; and 4) some metabolic and hormonal aspects related to swimmers. Firstly, the age of finalists in Olympic swimming is not much different from that of the participants from other sports. They are taller and heavier than a reference population of the same age. The height bias in swimming may be the reason for lack of success from some Asian and African countries. Experimental data point toward greater leanness, particularly in female swimmers, than was seen 10 years ago. Overall, female swimmers present a range of 14 to 19% body fat whereas males are much lower (5 to 10%). Secondly, the relationship between O2 uptake and crawl swimming velocity (at training and competitive speeds) is thought to be linear. The energy cost varies between strokes with a dichotomy between the 2 symmetrical and the 2 asymmetrical strokes. Energy expenditure in swimming is represented by the sum of the cost of translational motion (drag) and maintenance of horizontal motion (gravity). The cost of the latter decreases as speed increases. Examination of the question of size-associated effects on the cost of swimming using Huxley's allometric equation (Y = axb) shows an almost direct relationship with passive drag. Expressing energy cost in litres of O2/m/kg is proposed as a better index of technical swimming ability than the traditional expression of VO2/distance in L/km. Thirdly, maximal direct conventional techniques used to evaluate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in swimming include free swimming, tethered swimming, and flume swimming. Despite the individual peculiarities of each method, with similar experimental conditions

  14. Cassava biology and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2004-11-01

    Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a perennial shrub of the New World, currently is the sixth world food crop for more than 500 million people in tropical and sub-tropical Africa, Asia and Latin America. It is cultivated mainly by resource-limited small farmers for its starchy roots, which are used as human food either fresh when low in cyanogens or in many processed forms and products, mostly starch, flour, and for animal feed. Because of its inherent tolerance to stressful environments, where other food crops would fail, it is often considered a food-security source against famine, requiring minimal care. Under optimal environmental conditions, it compares favorably in production of energy with most other major staple food crops due to its high yield potential. Recent research at the Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) in Colombia has demonstrated the ability of cassava to assimilate carbon at very high rates under high levels of humidity, temperature and solar radiation,which correlates with productivity across all environments whether dry or humid. When grown on very poor soils under prolonged drought for more than 6 months, the crop reduce both its leaf canopy and transpiration water loss, but its attached leaves remain photosynthetically active, though at greatly reduced rates. The main physiological mechanism underlying such a remarkable tolerance to drought was rapid stomatal closure under both atmospheric and edaphic water stress, protecting the leaf against dehydration while the plant depletes available soil water slowly during long dry periods. This drought tolerance mechanism leads to high crop water use efficiency values. Although the cassava fine root system is sparse, compared to other crops, it can penetrate below 2 m soil,thus enabling the crop to exploit deep water if available. Leaves of cassava and wild Manihot possess elevated activities of the C4 enzyme PEP carboxylase but lack the leaf Kranz anatomy typical of C4

  15. The Pineal Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, T. Daniel; Llewellyn, Gerald C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a surgical technique for performing pinealectomics, applicable to classroom and laboratory studies, by using a head-holding device for small animals and a flat dissecting tray outfitted with holding straps for larger animals. (CC)

  16. Facilitated physiological adaptation to prolonged circadian disruption through dietary supplementation with essence of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Yao, Cencen; Tsang, Fai; Huang, Liangfeng; Zhang, Wanjing; Jiang, Jianguo; Mao, Youxiang; Shao, Yujian; Kong, Boda; Singh, Paramjeet; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-01-01

    Synchrony between circadian and metabolic processes is critical to the maintenance of energy homeostasis. Studies on essence of chicken (EC), a chicken meat extract rich in proteins, amino acids and peptides, showed its effectiveness in alleviating fatigue and promoting metabolism. A recent study revealed that it facilitated the re-entrainment of clock genes (Bmal1, Cry1, Dec1, Per1 and Per2) in the pineal gland and liver in a rat model of circadian disruption. Here, we investigated the role of EC-facilitated circadian synchrony in the maintenance of the energy homeostasis using a mouse model of prolonged circadian disruption. Prolonged circadian disruption (12 weeks) resulted in hepatic maladaptation, manifested by a mild but significant (p < 0.05) hepatomegaly, accompanied by disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and liver injury (indicated by increased circulating hepatic enzymes). Evidently, there was marked elevations of hepatic inflammatory mediators (interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6), suggesting an underlying inflammation leading to the hepatic injury and functional impairment. Importantly, the disruption paradigm caused the decoupling between key metabolic regulators (e.g. mTOR and AMPK) and hepatic clock genes (Per1, Cry1, Dec1, Bmal1). Further, we showed that the loss of circadian synchrony between the master and hepatic clock genes (Per1, Cry1, Dec1, Bmal1) could be the underlying cause of the maladaptation. When supplemented with EC, the functional impairment and inflammation were abolished. The protective effects could be linked to its effectiveness in maintaining the synchrony between the master and hepatic clocks, and the resultant improved coupling of the circadian oscillators (Per1, Cry1, Dec1, Bmal1) and metabolic regulators (mTOR, AMPK). Overall, EC supplementation promoted the physiological adaptation to the prolonged circadian disruption through facilitation of endogenous circadian synchrony and the coupling of circadian oscillators and

  17. Analyses of signal transduction cascades reveal an essential role of calcium ions for regulation of melatonin biosynthesis in the light-sensitive pineal organ of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeber, S; Meissl, H; Maronde, E; Korf, H W

    2000-06-01

    Signal transduction processes regulating melatonin production in the light-sensitive trout pineal organ were investigated by immunocytochemical and immunochemical demonstration of phosphorylated cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (pCREB) and measurements of cyclic AMP, melatonin, and calcium levels. Melatonin levels were tightly controlled by light and darkness. Elevation of cyclic AMP levels by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP, forskolin, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine increased the levels of pCREB and melatonin in light- or dark-adapted pineal organs in vitro. Without pharmacological treatment, the levels of pCREB and cyclic AMP remained constant for several hours before and after light onset. Inhibition of cyclic AMP-dependent proteasomal proteolysis by lactacystin, MG 132, and calpain inhibitor I did not prevent the rapid, light-induced suppression of melatonin biosynthesis. However, changes in the intracellular calcium concentration by drugs affecting voltage-gated calcium channels of the L type and intracellular calcium oscillations (cobalt chloride, nifedipine, Bay K 8644) had dramatic effects on the rapid, light-dependent changes in melatonin levels. These effects were not accompanied by changes in cyclic AMP levels. Thus, the rapid, light-dependent changes in melatonin levels in the trout pineal organ are regulated apparently by a novel calcium signaling pathway and do not involve changes in cyclic AMP levels, cyclic AMP-dependent proteasomal proteolysis, or phosphorylation of cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein.

  18. Differential resetting process of circadian gene expression in rat pineal glands after the reversal of the light/dark cycle via a 24 h light or dark period transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Dong, Yue; Yang, Zhiqiu; Kato, Hisanori; Ni, Yinhua; Fu, Zhengwei

    2009-07-01

    Although studies involving the circadian response to time-zone transitions indicate that the circadian clock usually takes much longer to phase advance than delay, the discrepancy between the circadian resetting induced by photoperiod alteration via a dark or light period transition has yet to be investigated. In mammals, the pineal gland is an important component in the photoneuroendocrine axis, regulating biological rhythms. However, few studies have systematically examined the resetting process of pineal clock-gene expression to date. We investigated the resetting processes of four clock genes (Bmal1, Cry1, Per1, Dec1) and AANAT in the rat pineal gland after the light-dark (LD) reversal via a 24 h light or dark period transition. The resynchronization of the SCN-driven gene AANAT was nearly complete in three days in both situations, displaying similar resetting rates and processes after the differential LD reversals. The resetting processes of the clock genes were characterized by gene-specific, phase-shift modes and differential phase-shift rates between the two different LD reversal modes. The resetting processes of these clock genes were noticeably lengthened after the LD reversal via the light period transition in comparison to via the dark period transition. In addition, among the four examined clock genes, Per1 adjusted most rapidly after the differential LD reversals, while the rhythmic Cry1 expression adjusted most slowly.

  19. 合并梗阻性脑积水的松果体区脑膜瘤的手术治疗%Surgery of pineal region meningioma combining obstructive hydrocephelus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xiang; Gang Zhao; Xianli Lv

    2011-01-01

    Objective:The aim of our study was to find out the best operative therapeutic regimen by reviewing the comprehension of operation, the improvement of operative method and the selection of operative approach concerning pineal region meningioma combining obstructive hydrocephalus. Methods:We retrospected the clinic data, comprehension of operation and prognosis of 6 cases of pineal region meningioma. Results:Six tumors were all removed, after that the back wall of the up, the manifestation of hydrocephalus disappeared, other symptoms were relieved more or less without any complication with one patient dismissing. The regular MRI examination indicated that the lesions had not reoccur and the cerebral ventricles had been normal. Conclusion:We identify the nourish arteries of the tumor and anatomy relationship between the tumor and its peripheral blood vessels through modern imaging devices, to select reasonable operative method are the premier therapy of pineal region meningioma. The back wall of the third ventricle becomes thin and the suprapineal recess develops shallow and wide, so the third ventricle-quadrigeminal cistern fistulation can effectively eliminate the obstructive hydrocephalus due to the long-term compression on the aqueduct after removing the tumor.

  20. Application of endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy in the diagnosis and treatment of pineal germ cell tumor%神经内镜在松果体区生殖细胞瘤诊治中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵虎林; 田增民; 徐永革

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨神经内镜在松果体区生殖细胞瘤诊治中的应用价值. 方法 对20例松果体区占位患者运用神经内镜行第三脑室底造瘘,解除梗阻性脑积水,同时在神经内镜下行活检以明确肿瘤的性质. 结果 20例患者均解除脑积水,并同时明确病理,均为生殖细胞瘤. 结论 在松果体区生殖细胞瘤的诊治中,神经内镜是一种安全有效的微侵袭诊疗方法 .%Objective To investigate the value of endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy in the diagnosis and treatment of pineal germ cell tumors. Methods Endoscopic biopsy and third ventricuiostomy were performed in 20 patients with pineal tumors to relieve obstructive hydrocephalus and determine the nature of the neoplasms. Results CT and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed successful third ventriculostomy and biopsy in the 20 cases with total relief of obstructive hydrocephalus. The diagnoses of germ cell tumors were established in all this cases. Conclusions Endoscopic biopsy and third ventriculostomy are effective and safe neuroendoscopic procedures in minimally invasive management of pineal region germ cell tumors.