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Sample records for k-6-14 hepatic function

  1. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  2. Infectious mononucleosis and hepatic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Zhou, Pingping; Meng, Zhaowei; Pang, Chongjie; Gong, Lu; Zhang, Qing; Jia, Qiyu; Song, Kun

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal hepatic function is common in infectious mononucleosis (IM). However, it remains unknown why increased transferase levels are more common than bilirubin abnormalities in IM. The current study aimed to investigate these associations in the Chinese population. A total of 95 patients with IM (47 males and 48 females) were enrolled in the current study, as well as 95 healthy controls. Patients were sorted by sex. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine cut-off values for IM diagnosis and prediction. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) for IM were analyzed using binary logistic regression. It was determined that alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels were significantly higher in patients with IM compared with controls; however, total bilirubin (TB) levels were significantly lower in patients with IM. ROCs demonstrated that, if ALT, AST and GGT concentrations were higher than, or if TB was lower than, cut-off values, they were predictive of IM. Binary logistic regression identified that the risk of IM in patients exhibiting high levels of transferases was significantly increased, particularly in males. Crude ORs in ALT quartile 4 were 21.667 and 10.111 for males and females, respectively and adjusted ORs were 38.054 and 9.882, respectively. A significant IM risk of IM was evident in patients with low bilirubin levels and females appeared to be particularly susceptible. For example, crude ORs in quartile 1 were 8.229 and 8.257 for males and females, respectively and adjusted ORs were 8.883 and 10.048, respectively. Therefore, the current study identified a positive association between transferase levels and IM and a negative association between TB and IM. Therefore, the results of the current study indicate that high transferases are suggestive of IM, particularly in males, whereas low TB is suggestive for IM, particularly in females. PMID:29456696

  3. Tissue hepatic blood volume and liver function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuyama, Mamoru

    1997-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) scan has an advantage that it can measure regional organ blood flow and volume not only quantitatively but also non-invasively. In order to estimate the liver function, tissue hepatic blood volume was measured using C 15 O inhalation in conjunction with positron emission tomography. PET scans of the liver were performed after the single breath inhalation of 20 mCi of high specific activity 15 O-labeled carbon monoxide in 105 patients which were classified 3 groups; normal, chronic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. They consist of 61, 14, and 30 patients, respectively. Significant differences between normal and cirrhotic patients were noted in tissue hepatic blood volume (mean 20.4, 18.2, 16.0 ml/100 g, respectively). Tissue hepatic blood volume (tHBV) correlated with the reaction of the peripheral reticuloendothelial compartment and protein synthesis, because there was a potent correlation between tHBV and hepatic fibrosis. In normal livers, we were able to demonstrate significant differences in tissue hepatic blood volume among liver segments. (author)

  4. The functional hepatic volume assessed by 99mTc-GSA hepatic scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jin; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Tohoru; Pan, Xiao-Qing; Sato, Motohiro; Todoroki, Takeshi; Itai, Yuji; Tanaka, Yumiko; Hatakeyama, Rokurou.

    1995-01-01

    The accuracy of measurement of the functional hepatic volume by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-galactosyl serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) was evaluated. 99m Tc-GSA planar scintigraphic images were obtained dynamically and the hepatic SPECT imaging was then performed in 25 patients with hepatobiliary tumors. The patients were divided into 4 groups with normal hepatic function, mild, moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction. The functional hepatic volume determined by SPECT was compared with the morphological hepatic volume determined by computed tomography. The ratio of the hepatic volumes obtained by the two methods was calculated. The mean hepatic volume ratio was 96.6±2.3% in the normal hepatic function group and 95.9±2.2% in the mild dysfunction group (n.s.). In both the moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction groups, the hepatic volume ratio was smaller than that in the normal group (87.9±5.2%, p 15 (r=0.83, p 15 (r=0.74, p 15 (r=0.75, p 99m Tc-GSA faithfully reflects the functioning hepatocyte mass. 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy and hepatic SPECT therefore provide information regarding global and regional reserve hepatic function. (author)

  5. /sup 131/I-Bromsulphalein in the evaluation of hepatic function during reconvalescence after viral hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernysheva, N N; Pal' tseva, T F; Nonikova, T B; Aleshkovich, T V; Kuandykova, S Zh; Rumyantseva, L A; Kal' nitskaya, E F [Tsentral' nyj Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej, Moscow (USSR)

    1982-10-01

    The combined use of biochemical and radionuclide tests (the clearance of /sup 131/I-bromsulphalein) made it possible to reveal significant differences in 53 patients in the time of complete reparation of hepatic function and the period of reconvalescence after hepatitis A and B. The period of reconvalescence in patients with hepatitis B was more prolonged. Dynamic observation and appropriate treatment is recommended for these patients.

  6. Hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function following injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, B G; Loegering, D J; Blumenstock, F A; Shah, D M

    1986-03-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that in vivo hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function is depressed following thermal injury. The present study was carried out to determine if complement receptor function depression is associated with other states of depressed host defense. Hepatic complement receptor clearance function was determined from the hepatic uptake of rat erythrocytes coated with antierythrocyte IgM (EIgM) in rats. Receptor function was determined following cannulation of a carotid artery, laparotomy plus enterotomy, hemorrhagic shock, trauma, thermal injury, acute bacteremia, acute endotoxemia, and injection of erythrocyte stroma, gelatinized lipid emulsion, or colloidal carbon. Hepatic uptake of EIgM was depressed following each of these experimental interventions except arterial cannulation. This effect was shown not to be due to a decrease in hepatic blood flow or depletion of complement and was therefore due to a depression in hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function. Thus, impairment of hepatic macrophage complement receptor function is associated with several states of depressed host defense.

  7. Hepatic function and the cardiometabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiernsperger N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas WiernspergerINSERM French Institute of Health and Medical Research, U1060, National Institute of Applied Sciences, Lyon, University of Lyon, Villeurbanne, FranceAbstract: Despite skeletal muscle being considered by many as the source of insulin resistance, physiology tells us that the liver is a central and cardinal regulator of glucose homeostasis. This is sometimes underestimated because, in contrast with muscle, investigations of liver function are technically very difficult. Nevertheless, recent experimental and clinical research has demonstrated clearly that, due in part to its anatomic position, the liver is exquisitely sensitive to insulin and other hormonal and neural factors, either by direct intrahepatic mechanisms or indirectly by organ cross-talk with muscle or adipose tissue. Because the liver receives absorbed nutrients, these have a direct impact on liver function, whether via a caloric excess or via the nature of food components (eg, fructose, many lipids, and trans fatty acids. An emerging observation with a possibly great future is the increase in intestinal permeability observed as a consequence of high fat intake or bacterial modifications in microbiota, whereby substances normally not crossing the gut gain access to the liver, where inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid accumulation leads to fatty liver, a situation observed very early in the development of diabetes. The visceral adipose tissue located nearby is another main source of inflammatory substances and oxidative stress, and also acts on hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, resulting in stimulation of macrophages. Liberation of these substances, in particular triglycerides and inflammation factors, into the circulation leads to ectopic fat deposition and vascular damage. Therefore, the liver is directly involved in the development of the prediabetic cardiometabolic syndrome. Treatments are mainly metformin, and possibly statins and vitamin D. A very promising

  8. Research progress of BOLD-functional MRI of hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Ling; Zhang Longjiang; Lu Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from behavior abnormality, conscious disorder and even coma, is a consequence of liver dysfunction in both acute and chronic hepatic diseases. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) refers to a subgroup of cirrhotic patients without clinical overt hepatic encephalopathy symptoms hut with abnormalities in neuro -cognitive functions. HE/MHE can have a far-reaching impact on quality of life and prognosis. The exact neuropathology mechanism was still unclear. Recently, functional MRI (fMRI) has been increasingly applied for investigating the neuro-pathophysiological mechanism of HE. This paper will review the fMRI research applied on uncovering the neuropathology mechanism of HE. (authors)

  9. Fibronectin and Kupffer cell function in fulminant hepatic failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imawari, M.; Hughes, R.D.; Gove, C.D.; Williams, R.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between plasma fibronectin, in vitro plasma opsonic activity, which measures the biological activity of fibronectin, and in vivo Kupffer cell function, as assessed by the systemic clearance of microaggregated [ 125 I]albumin, were determined simultaneously in 15 patients with fulminant hepatic failure and 12 normal subjects. Both the plasma fibronectin and plasma opsonic activity were significantly reduced in patients with fulminant hepatic failure, while the systemic clearance of microaggregated albumin was decreased. There was a significant correlation between plasma fibronectin and the plasma opsonic activity on admission, but no correlation could be detected between either parameter and the clearance of microaggregated albumin. A gelatin-derived plasma expander was shown to block the plasma opsonic activity both in vitro and in vivo. The low plasma fibronectin and decreased clearance of microaggregated albumin in fulminant hepatic failure reflect different aspects of the overall impairment of Kupffer cell function

  10. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most common types of viral hepatitis. What Is Hepatitis A? For kids, hep A is the most common ... they recover, it does not come back. Can Hepatitis A Be Prevented? The following will help keep people ...

  11. Effect of Ganfukang on liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in SD rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Ying; Wang Shanju; Xu Tingting; Jiang Miaona; Jia Yujie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Ganfukang on liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in SD rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis. Methods: SD rat models of liver fibrosis was induced by CCl 4 (n=57). Liver function (GPT, GOT) and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels (HA, LN, C-IV, PC-III, with RIA) were tested in these models and 10 control rats. Eleven model rats were left untreated, the others were treated with Ganfukang of different concentrations and the above hepatic parameters were again determined after completion of treatment. Results: Lever function was much deteriorated and serum markers levels significantly increased in the model rats (vs controls, P<0.01). After treatment with Ganfukang, the improvement was significant (vs untreated models, P<0.01). Conclusion: Ganfukang is of definite therapeutic value for experimental hepatic fibrosis in rat models. (authors)

  12. Hepatitis B and C virus infections and liver function in AIDS patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Impaired liver function tests and co-infection with hepatitis viruses in AIDS patients are common in western countries. Objective: To assess liver function and prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in AIDS patients at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital. Design: A prospective study.

  13. [Impaired cognitive function in hepatitis C - a review.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renvillard, Signe Groth; Leutscher, Peter; Hjerrild, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Impaired cognitive function is commonly seen in patients with hepatitis C-virus (HCV). This might be due to a toxic effect of the virus itself or to neuroinflammatory processes with a direct damaging cerebral effect. The symptoms appear in the pre-cirrhotic stage and impair the patient's level...... of functioning. Therefore, doctors in contact with HCV patients should be up to date on the existing knowledge in the field to be able to inform patients about their cognitive deficits and take them into consideration. It is unknown if the cognitive deficits decline when the virus is eradicated. Udgivelsesdato...

  14. How I do it: assessment of hepatic functional reserve for indication of hepatic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Gyu; Hwang, Shin

    2005-01-01

    Liver resection of up to 75% of the total liver volume (TLV) has been regarded as safe in normal livers, but this concept was challenged by the results of living donor hepatectomies. In normal livers or livers with resolved jaundice, hepatectomy of 65% of TLV may be safe, except for patients with an indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (ICG R15) of over 15%, excessive hepatic steatosis, and age of over 70 years. However, the permissible extent of hepatectomy has been much restricted in cirrhotic livers because most post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) has occurred in cirrhotic livers. Our routine protocols for the assessment of functional hepatic reserve (FHR) include biochemical liver function tests, ICG R15, Doppler ultrasonography, and triphasic liver computed tomogram (CT) with volumetry. Blood cell count and gastroesophageal endoscopic findings are taken into consideration for cirrhotic livers, as well as age, diabetes, cardiopulmonary function, and general performance. Preoperative portal vein embolization has been used for safe hepatectomy even in cirrhotic livers. We think that any cirrhotic liver showing optimal FHR should have a remnant liver of 40% of TLV to prevent PHLF. ICG R15 and triphasic CT with volumetry have been the most useful methods for assessment of FHR and determination of hepatectomy extent in our institution.

  15. 99mTc-GSA dynamic SPECT for regional hepatic functional reserve estimation. Assessment of quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Eui-Hyo

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is the assessment of the physiological implication of estimated parameters and the clinical value of this analyzing method for hepatic functional reserve estimation. After venous injection of 185 MBq of GSA, fifteen sequential sets of SPECT data were acquired for 15 minutes. First 5 sets SPECT images were analyzed by Patlak plot and hepatic GSA clearance was obtained in each matrix. The sum of hepatic GSA clearance in each matrix (total hepatic GSA clearance) was calculated as an index of whole liver functional reserve. Total hepatic GSA clearance was compared with receptor index or effective blood flow (EHBF) of whole liver which were analyzed by Direct Integral Linear Least Square Regression (DILS) method for the assessment of the physiological implications of hepatic GSA clearance. The clinical value of total hepatic GSA clearance was assessed in comparisons with the conventional hepatic function test. A very good correlations were observed between total hepatic GSA clearance and receptor index, whereas the correlations between total hepatic GSA clearance and EHBF were not significant. Significant correlations were also observed between total hepatic GSA clearance and the conventional hepatic function tests, such as choline esterase, albumin, hepaplastin test, ICG R15. (K.H.)

  16. Evaluation of reserved hepatic function in patients with hepatobiliary tumor by {sup 99m}Tc-GSA. Effect of hyperbilirubinemia and usefulness of regional reserved hepatic functional imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Wu; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Tohoru; Sato, Motohiro; Todoroki, Takeshi; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Hatakeyama, Rokurou

    1996-02-01

    The evaluation of the reserved hepatic function was performed by {sup 99m}Tc-galactosyl serum albumin ({sup 99m}Tc-GSA) in 70 patients with hepatobiliary tumor. The dynamic study was performed to evaluate global reserved hepatic function following the intravenous bolus injection of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA, and the hepatic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was obtained to assess the regional reserved hepatic function. The functional hepatic index (LHL{sub 15}) was derived from liver time-activity data, and it was compared with serum total-bilirubin level, serum albumin level and plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green (ICG{sub 15}). In the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, LHL{sub 15} value agreed well with ICG{sub 15} value, serum total-bilirubin level, and serum albumin level. Moderate or severe hepatic dysfunction was observed at 65.4% of these patients. In the patients with cholangiocellular carcinoma, a discrepancy of LHL{sub 15} value and ICG{sub 15} value was observed. Increment of the ICG{sub 15} value was correlated with that of the serum total-bilirubin level, whereas the correlation was not observed between the LHL{sub 15} value and the serum total-bilirubin level. These results indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-GSA scintigraphy can evaluate the reserved hepatic function without the embellishment of jaundice. This method is useful for assessing the global and regional reserved hepatic function. (author).

  17. Evaluation of reserved hepatic function in patients with hepatobiliary tumor by 99mTc-GSA. Effect of hyperbilirubinemia and usefulness of regional reserved hepatic functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wu; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Takeda, Tohoru; Sato, Motohiro; Todoroki, Takeshi; Itai, Yuji; Fukunaga, Kiyoshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Hatakeyama, Rokurou.

    1996-01-01

    The evaluation of the reserved hepatic function was performed by 99m Tc-galactosyl serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) in 70 patients with hepatobiliary tumor. The dynamic study was performed to evaluate global reserved hepatic function following the intravenous bolus injection of 99m Tc-GSA, and the hepatic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was obtained to assess the regional reserved hepatic function. The functional hepatic index (LHL 15 ) was derived from liver time-activity data, and it was compared with serum total-bilirubin level, serum albumin level and plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green (ICG 15 ). In the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, LHL 15 value agreed well with ICG 15 value, serum total-bilirubin level, and serum albumin level. Moderate or severe hepatic dysfunction was observed at 65.4% of these patients. In the patients with cholangiocellular carcinoma, a discrepancy of LHL 15 value and ICG 15 value was observed. Increment of the ICG 15 value was correlated with that of the serum total-bilirubin level, whereas the correlation was not observed between the LHL 15 value and the serum total-bilirubin level. These results indicate that 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy can evaluate the reserved hepatic function without the embellishment of jaundice. This method is useful for assessing the global and regional reserved hepatic function. (author)

  18. Functional RNA structures throughout the Hepatitis C Virus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rebecca L; Pirakitikulr, Nathan; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2017-06-01

    The single-stranded Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) genome adopts a set of elaborate RNA structures that are involved in every stage of the viral lifecycle. Recent advances in chemical probing, sequencing, and structural biology have facilitated analysis of RNA folding on a genome-wide scale, revealing novel structures and networks of interactions. These studies have underscored the active role played by RNA in every function of HCV and they open the door to new types of RNA-targeted therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Correlations of Hepatic Hemodynamics, Liver Function, and Fibrosis Markers in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Comparison with Chronic Hepatitis Related to Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Shigefuku

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The progression of chronic liver disease differs by etiology. The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in disease progression between chronic hepatitis C (CHC and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD by means of fibrosis markers, liver function, and hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF. Xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT was performed in 139 patients with NAFLD and 152 patients with CHC (including liver cirrhosis (LC. The cutoff values for fibrosis markers were compared between NAFLD and CHC, and correlations between hepatic TBF and liver function tests were examined at each fibrosis stage. The cutoff values for detection of the advanced fibrosis stage were lower in NAFLD than in CHC. Although portal venous TBF (PVTBF correlated with liver function tests, PVTBF in initial LC caused by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH-LC was significantly lower than that in hepatitis C virus (C-LC (p = 0.014. Conversely, the liver function tests in NASH-LC were higher than those in C-LC (p < 0.05. It is important to recognize the difference between NAFLD and CHC. We concluded that changes in hepatic blood flow occurred during the earliest stage of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD; therefore, patients with NAFLD need to be followed carefully.

  20. Correlations of Hepatic Hemodynamics, Liver Function, and Fibrosis Markers in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Comparison with Chronic Hepatitis Related to Hepatitis C Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Shigefuku, Ryuta; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Kato, Masaki; Morita, Ryo; Michikawa, Yousuke; Tamura, Tomohiro; Hiraishi, Tetsuya; Hattori, Nobuhiro; Noguchi, Yohei; Nakahara, Kazunari; Ikeda, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    The progression of chronic liver disease differs by etiology. The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in disease progression between chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by means of fibrosis markers, liver function, and hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF). Xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT) was performed in 139 patients with NAFLD and 152 patients with CHC (including liver cirrhosis (LC)). The cutoff values for fibrosis markers were compared between ...

  1. Hepatic mitochondrial function analysis using needle liver biopsy samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J J Chu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS AND AIM: Current assessment of pre-operative liver function relies upon biochemical blood tests and histology but these only indirectly measure liver function. Mitochondrial function (MF analysis allows direct measurement of cellular metabolic function and may provide an additional index of hepatic health. Conventional MF analysis requires substantial tissue samples (>100 mg obtained at open surgery. Here we report a method to assess MF using <3 mg of tissue obtained by a Tru-cut® biopsy needle making it suitable for percutaneous application. METHODS: An 18G Bard® Max-core® biopsy instrument was used to collect samples. The optimal Tru-cut® sample weight, stability in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution, reproducibility and protocol utility was initially evaluated in Wistar rat livers then confirmed in human samples. MF was measured in saponin-permeabilized samples using high-resolution respirometry. RESULTS: The average mass of a single rat and human liver Tru-cut® biopsy was 5.60±0.30 and 5.16±0.15 mg, respectively (mean; standard error of mean. Two milligram of sample was found the lowest feasible mass for the MF assay. Tissue MF declined after 1 hour of cold storage. Six replicate measurements within rats and humans (n = 6 each showed low coefficient of variation (<10% in measurements of State-III respiration, electron transport chain (ETC capacity and respiratory control ratio (RCR. Ischemic rat and human liver samples consistently showed lower State-III respiration, ETC capacity and RCR, compared to normal perfused liver samples. CONCLUSION: Consistent measurement of liver MF and detection of derangement in a disease state was successfully demonstrated using less than half the tissue from a single Tru-cut® biopsy. Using this technique outpatient assessment of liver MF is now feasible, providing a new assay for the evaluation of hepatic function.

  2. Correlations of Hepatic Hemodynamics, Liver Function, and Fibrosis Markers in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Comparison with Chronic Hepatitis Related to Hepatitis C Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigefuku, Ryuta; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Watanabe, Tsunamasa; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Kato, Masaki; Morita, Ryo; Michikawa, Yousuke; Tamura, Tomohiro; Hiraishi, Tetsuya; Hattori, Nobuhiro; Noguchi, Yohei; Nakahara, Kazunari; Ikeda, Hiroki; Ishii, Toshiya; Okuse, Chiaki; Sase, Shigeru; Itoh, Fumio; Suzuki, Michihiro

    2016-09-14

    The progression of chronic liver disease differs by etiology. The aim of this study was to elucidate the difference in disease progression between chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by means of fibrosis markers, liver function, and hepatic tissue blood flow (TBF). Xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT) was performed in 139 patients with NAFLD and 152 patients with CHC (including liver cirrhosis (LC)). The cutoff values for fibrosis markers were compared between NAFLD and CHC, and correlations between hepatic TBF and liver function tests were examined at each fibrosis stage. The cutoff values for detection of the advanced fibrosis stage were lower in NAFLD than in CHC. Although portal venous TBF (PVTBF) correlated with liver function tests, PVTBF in initial LC caused by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH-LC) was significantly lower than that in hepatitis C virus (C-LC) (p = 0.014). Conversely, the liver function tests in NASH-LC were higher than those in C-LC (p blood flow occurred during the earliest stage of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD; therefore, patients with NAFLD need to be followed carefully.

  3. Estimation of Hepatic Function Using 99mTc-DISIDA Plasma Clearance Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. S.; Yoo, H. S.; Lee, J. T.; Park, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Various methods to determine hepatic function have been studied, and among these, calculated maximal removal rate of ICG (ICG R-max) is more accurate and sensitive index for quantification of hepatic function. But calculation of ICG R-max is time-consuming, invasive, and expensive study, and even ICG R-max 1 day study is still complicated. So we tried to evaluated of hepatic function test using 99mTc-DISIDA plasma clearance rate. The author studied 11 cases of normal control, 4 cases of acute hepatitis, 8 cases of chronic hepatitis, and 19 cases of liver cirrhosis. The results were as follows: 1. In normal control, DISIDA-K was 0.70 min -1 , in liver cirrhosis 0.25 min -1 , in acute hepatitis 0.46 min -1 , and in chronic hepatitis 0.14min -1 . The most severe depressed DISIDA-K value was observed in liver cirrhosis. 2. Comparison of DISIDA-K value to liver function indices revealed no correlation between DISIDA-K value and serum albumin, prothrombin time, total bilirubin, SGOT, and alkaline phosphatase. 3. DISIDA-K value in liver cirrhosis with complication such as ascites, splenomegaly, esophageal varices, and hepatic coma was more decreased than without complication. With the above result, calculation of DISIDA-K value was found easily available, accurate, and simple index for quantification of hepatic function.

  4. Functional assessment of the hepatic arterial blood flow by pharmacoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stellamor, K; Hruby, W; Peschl, L

    1981-12-01

    By means of celiacography it was possible to demonstrate that parenteral medication with parathormone creates a selective dilatation of the liver vessels in man, provided that they are dilatable. This hemodynamic hormone effect could not be traced in the other mesenteric vessels. The increase of portal hypertension resulting from cirrhosis leads to a loss of the dilating ability of liver vessels. This regressive reaction is well demonstrated on the parathormone-celiacogram. Thus a functional assessment of the hepatic blood flow is possible. The extent of the dilatability of the liver artery seems to be of great importance for the prognosis and indication of the porto-systemic shunt-operation. Moreover we could show that an increase in the liver perfusion demonstrates pathologic liver processes in a better way.

  5. Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Y; Grigoriadis, Nc; Poutahidis, T; Vorobiev, L; Magen, I; Ilan, Y; Mechoulam, R; Berry, Em

    2011-04-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric disorder of complex pathogenesis caused by acute or chronic liver failure. We investigated the effects of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa with anti-inflammatory properties that activates the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 5-HT(1A) , on brain and liver functions in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure induced in mice by thioacetamide. Female Sabra mice were injected with either saline or thioacetamide and were treated with either vehicle or cannabidiol. Neurological and motor functions were evaluated 2 and 3 days, respectively, after induction of hepatic failure, after which brains and livers were removed for histopathological analysis and blood was drawn for analysis of plasma liver enzymes. In a separate group of animals, cognitive function was tested after 8 days and brain 5-HT levels were measured 12 days after induction of hepatic failure. Neurological and cognitive functions were severely impaired in thioacetamide-treated mice and were restored by cannabidiol. Similarly, decreased motor activity in thioacetamide-treated mice was partially restored by cannabidiol. Increased plasma levels of ammonia, bilirubin and liver enzymes, as well as enhanced 5-HT levels in thioacetamide-treated mice were normalized following cannabidiol administration. Likewise, astrogliosis in the brains of thioacetamide-treated mice was moderated after cannabidiol treatment. Cannabidiol restores liver function, normalizes 5-HT levels and improves brain pathology in accordance with normalization of brain function. Therefore, the effects of cannabidiol may result from a combination of its actions in the liver and brain. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. [Abnormal hepatic function tests in pregnancy: causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemesánszky, Elemér

    2013-07-21

    The well-known normal ranges of laboratory parameters are altered due to the broad spectrum of physiological changes as well as proinflammatory and procoagulant effects of pregnancy. Hepatic disorders of any aetiology can cause potential problems during gravidity. Most frequently toxic-effects, hepatotrop viruses (such as hepatitis B and C), metabolic syndrome and diseases with autoimmune background can be observed. When dealing with "pregnancy-specific hepatic syndromes", it is very important to consider the "timing-factors" of pathologic changes and deterioration of clinical pictures as well. Due to the progress in cholestasis management, early termination of pregnancy can be avoided in many cases. As the overlap is really broad between various hepatic disorders, a multidisciplinary cooperation of different sub-disciplines is emphasized in order to achieve proper diagnosis and curative measures at early phase.

  7. Capsaicin affects brain function in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Y; Grigoriadis, NC; Magen, I; Poutahidis, T; Vorobiav, L; Zolotarev, O; Ilan, Y; Mechoulam, R; Berry, EM

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric syndrome caused by liver failure. In view of the effects of cannabinoids in a thioacetamide-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy and liver disease and the beneficial effect of capsaicin (a TRPV1 agonist) in liver disease, we assumed that capsaicin may also affect hepatic encephalopathy. Experimental approach: Fulminant hepatic failure was induced in mice by thioacetamide and 24 h later, the animals were injected with one of the following compound(s): 2-arachidonoylglycerol (CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptor agonist); HU308 (CB2 receptor agonist), SR141716A (CB1 receptor antagonist); SR141716A+2-arachidonoylglycerol; SR144528 (CB2 receptor antagonist); capsaicin; and capsazepine (TRPV1 receptor agonist and antagonist respectively). Their neurological effects were evaluated on the basis of activity in the open field, cognitive function in an eight-arm maze and a neurological severity score. The mice were killed 3 or 14 days after thioacetamide administration. 2-arachidonoylglycerol and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, respectively. Results: Capsaicin had a neuroprotective effect in this animal model as shown by the neurological score, activity and cognitive function. The effect of capsaicin was blocked by capsazepine. Thioacetamide induced astrogliosis in the hippocampus and the cerebellum and raised brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, which were decreased by capsaicin, SR141716A and HU-308. Thioacetamide lowered brain 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels, an effect reversed by capsaicin. Conclusions: Capsaicin improved both liver and brain dysfunction caused by thioacetamide, suggesting that both the endocannabinoid and the vanilloid systems play important roles in hepatic encephalopathy. Modulation of these systems may have therapeutic value. PMID:19764982

  8. Novel Index (Hepatic Receptor: IHR) to Evaluate Hepatic Functional Reserve Using (99m)Tc-GSA Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Onishi, Hideo; Matsutomo, Norikazu

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the novel index of hepatic receptor (IHR) on the regression analysis derived from time activity curve of the liver for hepatic functional reserve. Sixty patients had undergone (99m)Tc-galactosyl serum albumin ((99m)Tc-GSA) scintigraphy in the retrospective clinical study. Time activity curves for liver were obtained by region of interest (ROI) on the whole liver. A novel hepatic functional predictor was calculated with multiple regression analysis of time activity curves. In the multiple regression function, the objective variables were the indocyanine green (ICG) retention rate at 15 min, and the explanatory variables were the liver counts in 3-min intervals until end from beginning. Then, this result was defined by IHR, and we analyzed the correlation between IHR and ICG, uptake ratio of the heart at 15 minutes to that at 3 minutes (HH15), uptake ratio of the liver to the liver plus heart at 15 minutes (LHL15), and index of convexity (IOC). Regression function of IHR was derived as follows: IHR=0.025×L(6)-0.052×L(12)+0.027×L(27). The multiple regression analysis indicated that liver counts at 6 min, 12 min, and 27 min were significantly related to objective variables. The correlation coefficient between IHR and ICG was 0.774, and the correlation coefficient between ICG and conventional indices (HH15, LHL15, and IOC) were 0.837, 0.773, and 0.793, respectively. IHR had good correlation with HH15, LHL15, and IOC. The finding results suggested that IHR would provide clinical benefit for hepatic functional assessment in the (99m)Tc-GSA scintigraphy.

  9. Hepatitis C virus RNA functionally sequesters miR-122

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna, Joseph M; Scheel, Troels K H; Danino, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) uniquely requires the liver-specific microRNA-122 for replication, yet global effects on endogenous miRNA targets during infection are unexplored. Here, high-throughput sequencing and crosslinking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) experiments of human Argonaute (AGO) during...

  10. Structural and functional cerebral impairments in cirrhotic patients with a history of overt hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-Jun [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zhu, Xi-Qi [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Department of Radiology, The Second Hospital of Nanjing, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Shu, Hao [Department of Neurology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yang, Ming; Zhang, Yi; Ding, Jie; Wang, Yu [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Teng, Gao-Jun, E-mail: gjteng@vip.sina.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: Diffuse brain atrophy has been observed in cirrhotic patients and recent reports have revealed the persistence of cognitive impairment after clinical resolution of overt hepatic encephalopathy. We sought to explore the continued influence of overt hepatic encephalopathy on neurological function by measuring brain resting-state inherent connectivity, based on an investigation of structural abnormalities. Methods: Neuropsychological tests and structural and functional magnetic resonance scanning were conducted in 20 healthy controls and 21 cirrhotic patients with a history of overt hepatic encephalopathy. The analysis of voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity were performed to detect the alterations in brain structure and function, respectively. Results: Patients showed significantly worse performance in neuropsychological tests as compared with controls, despite apparently normal mental status. Analysis of voxel-based morphometry revealed a decrease in gray matter volume primarily in the midline regions, bilateral insular cortex and caudates, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right cerebellum posterior lobe, while the volume of the bilateral thalamus showed an increase. Of these regions, the posterior cingulate cortex with peak atrophy was selected as the origin for the analysis of functional connectivity. Typical patterns of a default mode network were identified in both groups. Decreased functional connectivity was found in the medial prefrontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and left middle temporal gyrus in the patients. Conclusions: Both functional and structural impairments were evident after apparent recovery from overt hepatic encephalopathy, demonstrating that brain dysfunction induced by hepatic encephalopathy persisted after clinical resolution and provided a basis for further evolution of the disease.

  11. Structural and functional cerebral impairments in cirrhotic patients with a history of overt hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Zhu, Xi-Qi; Shu, Hao; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Yi; Ding, Jie; Wang, Yu; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Diffuse brain atrophy has been observed in cirrhotic patients and recent reports have revealed the persistence of cognitive impairment after clinical resolution of overt hepatic encephalopathy. We sought to explore the continued influence of overt hepatic encephalopathy on neurological function by measuring brain resting-state inherent connectivity, based on an investigation of structural abnormalities. Methods: Neuropsychological tests and structural and functional magnetic resonance scanning were conducted in 20 healthy controls and 21 cirrhotic patients with a history of overt hepatic encephalopathy. The analysis of voxel-based morphometry and functional connectivity were performed to detect the alterations in brain structure and function, respectively. Results: Patients showed significantly worse performance in neuropsychological tests as compared with controls, despite apparently normal mental status. Analysis of voxel-based morphometry revealed a decrease in gray matter volume primarily in the midline regions, bilateral insular cortex and caudates, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right cerebellum posterior lobe, while the volume of the bilateral thalamus showed an increase. Of these regions, the posterior cingulate cortex with peak atrophy was selected as the origin for the analysis of functional connectivity. Typical patterns of a default mode network were identified in both groups. Decreased functional connectivity was found in the medial prefrontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and left middle temporal gyrus in the patients. Conclusions: Both functional and structural impairments were evident after apparent recovery from overt hepatic encephalopathy, demonstrating that brain dysfunction induced by hepatic encephalopathy persisted after clinical resolution and provided a basis for further evolution of the disease

  12. The Effect of Hypotensive Anesthesia on Hepatic Function in Hip Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Zagrekov V.I.; Zhirova T.A.; Ezhov I.Y.; Taranyuk А.V.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the work is to assess the influence of spinal and epidural anesthesia with controlled hypotensive effect on hepatic function in patients in total hip replacement. Materials and Methods. There has been studied the dynamics of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin indexes in 80 patients in hip replacement. Depending on the anesthesia method, three groups were considered: with spinal and epidural anesthesia with controlled hypotensive effect and normotensive spinal anesthesia using ...

  13. Combined functional CT/FDG-PET: demonstrates reduced hepatic phosphorylation of glucose in advanced colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.; Keith, C.J.; Griffiths, M.R.; Fuentes, M.; Bunce, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: This study describes a technique to quantify hepatic glucose phosphorylation using combined data from functional CT and FDG-PET and assesses the differences in phosphorylation between patients with either early or advanced colorectal cancer. Functional CT and FDG-PET were utilised to obtain measurements of perfusion and glucose uptake respectively within the livers of a series of 35 patients with colorectal cancer. Patients with PET evidence of extrahepatic tumour were considered to have advanced disease. The net influx constant (Ki) for FDG was determined from the liver SUV. CT measurements of hepatic perfusion were incorporated into FDG kinetic analysis to determine hepatic glucose phosphorylation fraction. SUV and Ki were significantly lower in the 12 patients with advanced disease (p=0.015 and p=0.013 respectively) whereas portal and total hepatic perfusion were increased (p=0.013 and p=0.008 respectively). Combining the PET and CT data yielded phosphorylation fractions of 1.14% and 0.74% for early and advanced disease respectively (p=0.002). Hepatic glucose phosphorylation can be determined by combining functional CT measurements of perfusion with PET measurements of FDG and is significantly reduced in patients with more advanced malignancy. Reduced hepatic glucose phosphorylation may be an important mechanism in the development of cancer cachexia. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  14. Combined functional CT/FDG-PET: demonstrates reduced hepatic phosphorylation of glucose in advanced colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, K A [Southernex Imaging Group, QLD (Australia); Queensland University of Technology, QLD (Australia); Keith, C J [Southernex Imaging Group, QLD (Australia); Wesley Research Institute, QLD (Australia); Griffiths, M R [Queensland University of Technology, QLD (Australia); Fuentes, M [Southernex Imaging Group, QLD (Australia); Bunce, I [Wesley Research Institute, QLD (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    Full text: This study describes a technique to quantify hepatic glucose phosphorylation using combined data from functional CT and FDG-PET and assesses the differences in phosphorylation between patients with either early or advanced colorectal cancer. Functional CT and FDG-PET were utilised to obtain measurements of perfusion and glucose uptake respectively within the livers of a series of 35 patients with colorectal cancer. Patients with PET evidence of extrahepatic tumour were considered to have advanced disease. The net influx constant (Ki) for FDG was determined from the liver SUV. CT measurements of hepatic perfusion were incorporated into FDG kinetic analysis to determine hepatic glucose phosphorylation fraction. SUV and Ki were significantly lower in the 12 patients with advanced disease (p=0.015 and p=0.013 respectively) whereas portal and total hepatic perfusion were increased (p=0.013 and p=0.008 respectively). Combining the PET and CT data yielded phosphorylation fractions of 1.14% and 0.74% for early and advanced disease respectively (p=0.002). Hepatic glucose phosphorylation can be determined by combining functional CT measurements of perfusion with PET measurements of FDG and is significantly reduced in patients with more advanced malignancy. Reduced hepatic glucose phosphorylation may be an important mechanism in the development of cancer cachexia. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc.

  15. Hepatitis E Virus Mutations: Functional and Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang van Tong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis and affects more than 20 million individuals, with three million symptomatic cases and 56,000 recognized HEV-related deaths worldwide. HEV is endemic in developing countries and is gaining importance in developed countries, due to increased number of autochthone cases. Although HEV replication is controlled by the host immune system, viral factors (especially specific viral genotypes and mutants can modulate HEV replication, infection and pathogenesis. Limited knowledge exists on the contribution of HEV genome variants towards pathogenesis, susceptibility and to therapeutic response. Nonsynonymous substitutions can modulate viral proteins structurally and thus dysregulate virus-host interactions. This review aims to compile knowledge and discuss recent advances on the casual role of HEV heterogeneity and its variants on viral morphogenesis, pathogenesis, clinical outcome and antiviral resistance.

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  17. Effect of liniment levamisole on cellular immune functions of patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Xia; Zhang, Li-Hua; Peng, Jiang-Long; Liang, Yong; Wang, Xue-Feng; Zhi, Hui; Wang, Xiang-Xia; Geng, Huan-Xiong

    2005-12-07

    To explore the effects of liniment levamisole on cellular immune functions of patients with chronic hepatitis B. The levels of T lymphocyte subsets and mIL-2R in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured by biotin-streptavidin (BSA) technique in patients with chronic hepatitis B before and after the treatment with liniment levamisole. After one course of treatment with liniment levamisole, the levels of CD3(+), CD4(+), and the ratio of CD4(+)/CD8(+) increased as compared to those before the treatment but the level of CD8(+) decreased. The total expression level of mIL-2R in PBMCs increased before and after the treatment with liniment levamisole. Liniment levamisole may reinforce cellular immune functions of patients with chronic hepatitis B.

  18. Deciduous and permanent dental pulp mesenchymal cells acquire hepatic morphologic and functional features in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkitiev, Nikolay; Yaegaki, Ken; Calenic, Bogdan; Nakahara, Taka; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Mitiev, Vanyo; Haapasalo, Markus

    2010-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells display extensive proliferative capacity of multilineage differentiation. The stromal compartment of mesenchymal tissues is considered to harbor stem cells. We assessed the endodermal differentiation of mesenchymal cells from deciduous and wisdom tooth pulp. Dental mesenchymal cells were isolated and expanded in vitro. After cell cultures had been established, cells were characterized using known stem cell markers. For hepatic differentiation the media was supplemented with hepatic growth factor, dexamethasone, Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium-X, and oncostatin. Both cultures showed a number of cells positive for specific hepatic markers including alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, and hepatic nuclear factor 4alpha after differentiation. Also, small clusters of cells positive for insulin-like growth factor 1 were found. The concentration of urea increased significantly in the media. Moreover, a significant amount of glycogen was found in the cells. Because the cells proved to produce specific hepatic proteins and to start functions specific for hepatocytes, such as storing glycogen and urea production, we may state that the mesenchymal cell cultures from wisdom and deciduous tooth pulp acquired morphologic and functional characteristics of hepatocytes. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Phenobarbital alters hepatic Mrp2 function by direct and indirect interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, NJ; Zamek-Gliszczynski, MJ; Zhang, PJ; Han, YH; Jansen, PLM; Meier, PJ; Stieger, B; Brouwer, KLR

    Phenobarbital (PB) treatment impairs the biliary excretion of some organic anions. One mechanism may involve direct competition for biliary excretion by PB and/or a PB metabolite. Alternatively, PB may alter the expression and/or function of hepatic organic anion transport proteins. The role of

  20. Phenobarbital alters hepatic Mrp2 function by direct and indirect interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, Nita J.; Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J.; Zhang, Peijin; Han, Yong-Hae; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Meier, Peter J.; Stieger, Bruno; Brouwer, Kim L. R.

    2003-01-01

    Phenobarbital (PB) treatment impairs the biliary excretion of some organic anions. One mechanism may involve direct competition for biliary excretion by PB and/or a PB metabolite. Alternatively, PB may alter the expression and/or function of hepatic organic anion transport proteins. The role of

  1. Absence of correlation between hepatic function and characteristics of migrating motor complexes in the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Mortensen, P

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclic changes in gallbladder filling and emptying during the migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle have been demonstrated by scintigraphy. However, a possible cyclic change in the hepatic function and handling of the pharmacologic agents used for scintigraphy during the MMC cycle could...

  2. Study on the peripheral dendritic cell function in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ruihai; Chen Miaotian; Li Rui; Zheng Jiashui

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of peripheral dendritic cell function on the clinical course and anti-viral treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: Dendritic cells (DCs) were cultured from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and surface markers (phenotype) examined with flow-cytometry in 71 patients with chronic hepatitis B, 17 chronic HBV carriers and 42 controls. Those patients with positive HBV-DNA (57/71) were treated with lamivudine or interferon-α and DCs reexamined after completion of treatment. Results: The expression of DCs phenotypes CD1a and CD86 in chronic hepatitis B patients and chronic carriers were significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Among the 71 patients, CD1a, CD40, CD80 and CD86 expressions in the 57 HBV - DNA positive patients were all lower than those in the 14 HBV-DNA negative patients, but the difference was significant only in the case of CD86 (P<0.05). After a course of lamivudine treatment (six months, 38 patients), only CD40 expression was significantly increased, but both CD40 and CD86 expressions were significantly higher than those before treatment in the 19 patients treated with interferon-α. Conclusion: DCs function impairment could be demonstrated in patients with chronic hepatitis B, especially in those with positive HBV-DNA. Lamivudine or interferon-α treatment could improve the DCs function. (authors)

  3. Hepatitis E virus ORF3 is a functional ion channel required for release of infectious particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Qiang; Heller, Brigitte; Capuccino, Juan M V; Song, Bokai; Nimgaonkar, Ila; Hrebikova, Gabriela; Contreras, Jorge E; Ploss, Alexander

    2017-01-31

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the leading cause of enterically transmitted viral hepatitis globally. Of HEV's three ORFs, the function of ORF3 has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that via homophilic interactions ORF3 forms multimeric complexes associated with intracellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived membranes. HEV ORF3 shares several structural features with class I viroporins, and the function of HEV ORF3 can be maintained by replacing it with the well-characterized viroporin influenza A virus (IAV) matrix-2 protein. ORF3's ion channel function is further evidenced by its ability to mediate ionic currents when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Furthermore, we identified several positions in ORF3 critical for its formation of multimeric complexes, ion channel activity, and, ultimately, release of infectious particles. Collectively, our data demonstrate a previously undescribed function of HEV ORF3 as a viroporin, which may serve as an attractive target in developing direct-acting antivirals.

  4. HEPATIC FUNCTION AFTER GENETICALLY-ENGINEERED PIG LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN BABOONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekser, Burcin; Echeverri, Gabriel J.; Hassett, Andrea Cortese; Yazer, Mark H.; Long, Cassandra; Meyer, Michael; Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Lin, Chih Che; Hara, Hidetaka; van der Windt, Dirk J.; Dons, Eefje M.; Phelps, Carol; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K.C.; Gridelli, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Background If ‘bridging’ to allotransplantation is to be achieved by a pig liver xenograft, adequate hepatic function needs to be assured. Methods We have studied hepatic function in baboons after transplantation of livers from α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO,n=1) or GTKO pigs transgenic for CD46 (GTKO/CD46,n=5). Monitoring was by liver function tests and coagulation parameters. Pig-specific proteins in the baboon serum/plasma were identified by Western blot. In 4 baboons, coagulation factors were measured. The results were compared with values from healthy humans, baboons, and pigs. Results Recipient baboons died or were euthanized after 4-7 days following internal bleeding associated with profound thrombocytopenia. However, parameters of liver function, including coagulation, remained in the near-normal range, except for some cholestasis. Western blot demonstrated that pig proteins (albumin, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, plasminogen) were produced by the liver from day 1. Production of several pig coagulation factors was confirmed. Conclusions After the transplantation of genetically-engineered pig livers into baboons (1) many parameters of hepatic function, including coagulation, were normal or near-normal; (2) there was evidence for production of pig proteins, including coagulation factors, and (3) these appeared to function adequately in baboons, though inter-species compatibility of such proteins remains to be confirmed. PMID:20606605

  5. Cryo-chemical decellularization of the whole liver for mesenchymal stem cells-based functional hepatic tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Cheng; Cheng, Yu-Hao; Yen, Meng-Hua; Chang, Yin; Yang, Vincent W; Lee, Oscar K

    2014-04-01

    Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for severe hepatic failure to date. However, the limited supply of donor organs has severely hampered this treatment. So far, great potentials of using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to replenish the hepatic cell population have been shown; nevertheless, there still is a lack of an optimal three-dimensional scaffold for generation of well-transplantable hepatic tissues. In this study, we utilized a cryo-chemical decellularization method which combines physical and chemical approach to generate acellular liver scaffolds (ALS) from the whole liver. The produced ALS provides a biomimetic three-dimensional environment to support hepatic differentiation of MSCs, evidenced by expression of hepatic-associated genes and marker protein, glycogen storage, albumin secretion, and urea production. It is also found that hepatic differentiation of MSCs within the ALS is much more efficient than two-dimensional culture in vitro. Importantly, the hepatic-like tissues (HLT) generated by repopulating ALS with MSCs are able to act as functional grafts and rescue lethal hepatic failure after transplantation in vivo. In summary, the cryo-chemical method used in this study is suitable for decellularization of liver and create acellular scaffolds that can support hepatic differentiation of MSCs and be used to fabricate functional tissue-engineered liver constructs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of 131I treatment for 840 cases of Graves' disease combined with hepatic function injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Liang; Tan Jian; Wang Renfei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of 131 I treatment for Graves' disease (GD) complicated with hepatic function injury in order to provide guidance for clinical practice. Methods: A total of 840 GD cases complicated with hepatic function injury were retrospectively reviewed after 131 I treatment. Analysis of variance and Dunnett t test were used to compare serum FT 3 , FT 4 , and TSH levels before and 1, 3, and 6 months after 131 I therapy. R × C table χ 2 test was used to compare therapeutic efficacies among cases with different degrees and types of hepatic function injuries. Analysis of variance and Dunnett t test were used to evaluate recovery time of different degrees of hepatic function injuries. Cross classification 2 × 2 table correlation analysis was adopted to assess the correlation between 131 I therapeutic efficacies of GD and recovery efficacies of hepatic function. Results: The curative rate for GD was 76.8% (645/840). There were significant changes of FT 3 ((25.74 ± 5.81), (15.54 ± 4.12), (12.76 ± 2.35) and (7.95 ± 1.64) pmol/L, respectively; F=5007.958, t=54.455, 69.297 and 94.976, all P<0.05), FT 4 ((75.84 ± 16.78), (45.69 ±8.96), (36.81 ± 5.03) and (25.17 ±.4.46) pmol/L, respectively; F=3876.410, t=513.602, 664.871 and 863.157, all P<0.05) and TSH ((0.01 ±0.02), (0.02±0.08), (0.85 ±0.36) and (1.26 ± 0.54) mU/L, respectively; F=3050.430, t=2.627, 46.989 and 78.315, all P<0.05) before and 1,3,and 6 months after 131 I treatment. The curative rate of hepatic function abnormality was 79.2% (665/840). For mild, medium and severe hepatic function injury patients, curative rates were 88.4% (420/475), 68.8% (214/311) and 57.4% (31/54), respectively. The curative rate of patients with mild hepatic function injury was significantly higher than those with medium and severe hepatic function injury (χ 2 =46.338, 37.100, respectively, both P<0.01), and the recovery time was significantly shorter in patients with mild hepatic function injury

  7. Fractional excretion of beta-2-microglobulin in the urine of patients with normal or reduced renal function and hepatic coma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Dalhoff, K; Joffe, P

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2m) as a differential diagnostic indicator between hepatic nephropathy (HN) and acute tubulointerstitial nephropathy (ATIN) in patients with reduced renal function and hepatic coma, and to determine whether beta 2m e...

  8. Gallbladder Function and Hepatic Structural Changes in Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Zavgorodnya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, pediatric nonalcoholic liver disease has reached epidemic proportions, becoming one of the most frequent chronic liver diseases in the global child population. Purpose: to study the relationship of the functional state of the gallbladder with structural changes in the liver in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Materials and methods. We examined 34 children aged from 8 to 17 years old. Hepatic steatosis was determined using the FibroScan® 502 touch with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP. According to the results of transient elastometry and ultrasound of the abdomen with the gallbladder function study, patients were divided into 4 groups: the 1st group consisted of 7 patients with steatosis and hypofunction of gallbladder (20.5 %, group 2 included 6 patients with steatosis and gallbladder normofunction (17.65 %, group 3 consisted of 11 patients without hepatic steatosis with hypofunction of gallbladder (32.35 %, group 4 included 10 patients without hepatic steatosis with gallbladder normofunction (29.4 %. Results. The sonographic studies demonstrated children of the 1st group (steatosis with gallbladder hypokinesia to have significantly larger sizes of liver lobes compared to group 4 (children without steatosis with gallbladder normofunction. Also, the stiffness of the liver parenchyma was highest in patients with hepatic steatosis and gallbladder hypokinesia. Discussion. The combination of hepatic steatosis and hypokinesia of the gallbladder in children is accompanied by a significant increase in liver size, increased stiffness of the liver parenchyma and increasing degree of steatosis. The data indicate the relationship of the gallbladder function and the liver structural changes.

  9. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen impairs myeloid dendritic cell function: a possible immune escape mechanism of hepatitis B virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op den Brouw, Marjoleine L; Binda, Rekha S; van Roosmalen, Mark H; Protzer, Ulrike; Janssen, Harry L A; van der Molen, Renate G; Woltman, Andrea M

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the result of an inadequate immune response towards the virus. Myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) of patients with chronic HBV are impaired in their maturation and function, resulting in more tolerogenic rather than immunogenic responses, which may contribute to viral persistence. The mechanism responsible for altered mDC function remains unclear. The HBV-infected patients display large amounts of HBV particles and viral proteins in their circulation, especially the surface antigen HBsAg, which allows multiple interactions between the virus, its viral proteins and DC. To assess whether HBV directly influences mDC function, the effects of HBV and HBsAg on human mDC maturation and function were investigated in vitro. As already described for internalization of HBV by DC, the present study shows that peripheral blood-derived mDC of healthy controls also actively take up HBsAg in a time-dependent manner. Cytokine-induced maturation in the presence of HBV or HBsAg resulted in a significantly more tolerogenic mDC phenotype as demonstrated by a diminished up-regulation of costimulatory molecules and a decreased T-cell stimulatory capacity, as assessed by T-cell proliferation and interferon-γ production. In addition, the presence of HBV significantly reduced interleukin-12 production by mDC. These results show that both HBV particles and purified HBsAg have an immune modulatory capacity and may directly contribute to the dysfunction of mDC in patients with chronic HBV. The direct immune regulatory effect of HBV and circulating HBsAg particles on the function of DC can be considered as part of the mechanism by which HBV escapes immunity. PMID:18624732

  10. The utility of quantitative 99mTc-GSA liver scintigraphy in the evaluation of hepatic functional reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuke, Noriyuki; Aburano, Tamio; Nakajima, Kenichi

    1992-01-01

    Using data from 17 patients with liver cirrhosis and 3 patients with fatty liver, we have compared the utility of 3 hepatic imaging agents in the evalution of hepatic functional reserve. Evaluated here were 99m Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) which is a new ligand for hepatic binding protein, 99m Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyl tryptophan (PMT) of a hepatobiliary agent, and 99m Tc-Sn colloid. In each patient, we performed these 3 imaging studies within a week and also examined hepatic function tests (indocyanine green test, hepaplastin test, choline-esterase, etc). In each imaging study, serial images and dynamic data were obtained after the injection of 99m Tc-GSA (185 MBq/3 mg), 99m Tc-PMT (185 MBq), or 99m Tc-Sn colloid (185 MBq). Using the dynamic data obtained, we analyzed the liver kinetics of the 3 agents based on 1 compartment model with 3 parameters (hepatic clearance, hepatic excretion rate, non-specific volume of distribution). From fitting the liver and heart data to this model, three unknown parameters were determined. Patlak plot was also applied in order to estimate liver uptake rate. Both curve fitting and Patlak plot could determine appropriate parameters in every study. In 99m Tc-GSA, a nonlinear 3 compartment model was also applied in order to estimate hepatic blood flow, liver receptor density, and affinity of receptor-GSA binding separately. Using the parameters obtained, we analyzed the correlations between the parameters and the results of hepatic function tests. In all of the parameters, those obtained from 99m Tc-GSA imaging showed the most significant statistical correlation with the results of hepatic function tests. From the present results, 99m Tc-GSA imaging was concluded to be the best for evaluation of hepatic functional reserve. (author)

  11. Intra-uterine Growth Restriction Downregulates the Hepatic Toll Like Receptor-4 Expression and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Equils

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal starvation is a significant cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR in the world and increases the risk of infection in the neonate. We examined the effect of maternal starvation on Toll like receptor (TLR4 expression in hepatic, splenic and intestinal tissues obtained from the adult IUGR offspring of prenatal calorie restricted rats. The hepatic TLR4 protein concentration was undetectable in the IUGR rats that had restricted milk intake during the suckling period (SM/SP; n = 4, p < 0.05 as compared to the normal growth controls (CM/CP; n=4, and access to ad lib milk intake during the sucking period partially corrected the hepatic TLR4 expression (SM/CP; n = 4. IUGR had no effect on the splenic (n = 4 or intestinal (n = 4 TLR4 mRNA levels. In the liver, IUGR led to a 20% increase in baseline tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α mRNA expression ( p < 0.03 and a 70% increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β mRNA expression ( p < 0.008 as compared to the control rats (CM/CP; n = 7. LPS-induced hepatic TNF-α release was significantly higher in SM/SP as compared to CM/CP. We propose that IUGR dysregulates TLR4 expression and function in the offspring, which may help explain the increased risk of Gram-negative sepsis and inflammatory diseases in this population.

  12. The Hepatic Lymphatic Vascular System: Structure, Function, Markers, and LymphangiogenesisSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatake Tanaka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The lymphatic vascular system has been minimally explored in the liver despite its essential functions including maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis. The discovery of specific markers for lymphatic endothelial cells has advanced the study of lymphatics by methods including imaging, cell isolation, and transgenic animal models and has resulted in rapid progress in lymphatic vascular research during the last decade. These studies have yielded concrete evidence that lymphatic vessel dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many diseases. This article reviews the current knowledge of the structure, function, and markers of the hepatic lymphatic vascular system as well as factors associated with hepatic lymphangiogenesis and compares liver lymphatics with those in other tissues. Keywords: VEGF, Inflammation, Cirrhosis, Portal Hypertension

  13. Assessment of hepatic functional reserve for hepatic resection using {sup 99m}Tc-PMT scintigraphy in comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-GSA scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Atsushi [Dokkyo Univ. School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin({sup 99m}Tc-GSA) scintigraphy has been reported as a useful study of hepatic functional reserve recently. We have performed {sup 99m}Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyl-tryptophan({sup 99m}Tc-PMT) and {sup 99m}Tc-GSA preoperatively for evaluation of hepatic functional reserve and compared the usefulness of those scintigraphy study. Twenty-four patients who were the candidates of hepatic resection underwent {sup 99m}Tc-PMT scintigraphy preoperatively. Hepatic blood flow coefficient (K value), the amount of hepatic blood flow (HBF), and the ratio of portal blood flow (PVR) were computed. {sup 99m}Tc-GSA scintigraphy was also performed within two weeks of the {sup 99m}Tc-PMT scintigraphy, and the ratio of disappearance (HH{sub 15}) and the hepatic uptake ratio (LHL{sub 15}) were computed. The relationship between K value, HBF, PVR, HH{sub 15} and LHL{sub 15} was analyzed. Their correlation with other liver function tests was also examined. K value and HBF did not show statistically significant correlations with HH{sub 15} and LHL{sub 15}, PVR correlated statistically significantly HH{sub 15} and LHL{sub 15}. K value correlated with the preoperative values of cholinesterase, Fischer ratio, {gamma}-globulin, ICGR{sub 15}, albumin, and platelet count. There was a statistically significant correlation between LHL{sub 15} and the value of cholinesterase, {gamma}-globulin, platelet count, and Fischer ratio. When the liver resection of subsegmentectomy or more was indicated in 10 patients, nine patients had LHL{sub 15} value less than 0.9 which delineated possibility of poor prognosis. However, judging from K value and HBF, liver resection was considered feasible and it was all successfully performed, resulting in good prognosis. From this study, it is suspected that {sup 99m}Tc-GSA scintigraphy reflect the severity of liver fibrosis and the amount of portal blood flows, and {sup 99m}Tc-PMT scintigraphy

  14. Assessment of hepatic functional reserve for hepatic resection using 99mTc-PMT scintigraphy in comparison with 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Atsushi

    2000-01-01

    99m Tc-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin( 99m Tc-GSA) scintigraphy has been reported as a useful study of hepatic functional reserve recently. We have performed 99m Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyl-tryptophan( 99m Tc-PMT) and 99m Tc-GSA preoperatively for evaluation of hepatic functional reserve and compared the usefulness of those scintigraphy study. Twenty-four patients who were the candidates of hepatic resection underwent 99m Tc-PMT scintigraphy preoperatively. Hepatic blood flow coefficient (K value), the amount of hepatic blood flow (HBF), and the ratio of portal blood flow (PVR) were computed. 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy was also performed within two weeks of the 99m Tc-PMT scintigraphy, and the ratio of disappearance (HH 15 ) and the hepatic uptake ratio (LHL 15 ) were computed. The relationship between K value, HBF, PVR, HH 15 and LHL 15 was analyzed. Their correlation with other liver function tests was also examined. K value and HBF did not show statistically significant correlations with HH 15 and LHL 15 , PVR correlated statistically significantly HH 15 and LHL 15 . K value correlated with the preoperative values of cholinesterase, Fischer ratio, γ-globulin, ICGR 15 , albumin, and platelet count. There was a statistically significant correlation between LHL 15 and the value of cholinesterase, γ-globulin, platelet count, and Fischer ratio. When the liver resection of subsegmentectomy or more was indicated in 10 patients, nine patients had LHL 15 value less than 0.9 which delineated possibility of poor prognosis. However, judging from K value and HBF, liver resection was considered feasible and it was all successfully performed, resulting in good prognosis. From this study, it is suspected that 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy reflect the severity of liver fibrosis and the amount of portal blood flows, and 99m Tc-PMT scintigraphy reflect the hepatic blood flow and ability of protein synthesis. It was proved that 99m Tc-PMT scintigraphy is

  15. Natural products, an important resource for discovery of multitarget drugs and functional food for regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Yu, Haiyang; Wang, Sijian; Wang, Wei; Chen, Qian; Ma, Yanmin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    Imbalanced hepatic glucose homeostasis is one of the critical pathologic events in the development of metabolic syndromes (MSs). Therefore, regulation of imbalanced hepatic glucose homeostasis is important in drug development for MS treatment. In this review, we discuss the major targets that regulate hepatic glucose homeostasis in human physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, involving hepatic glucose uptake, glycolysis and glycogen synthesis, and summarize their changes in MSs. Recent literature suggests the necessity of multitarget drugs in the management of MS disorder for regulation of imbalanced glucose homeostasis in both experimental models and MS patients. Here, we highlight the potential bioactive compounds from natural products with medicinal or health care values, and focus on polypharmacologic and multitarget natural products with effects on various signaling pathways in hepatic glucose metabolism. This review shows the advantage and feasibility of discovering multicompound-multitarget drugs from natural products, and providing a new perspective of ways on drug and functional food development for MSs.

  16. Hepatic encephalopathy in a liver transplant recipient with stable liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Juan Pablo; Meneses, Luis; Pérez, Rosa M; Arrese, Marco; Benítez, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Postshunt hepatic encephalopathy after liver transplantation (LT) is an infrequent condition and is commonly associated with portal occlusion or stenosis and the presence of a patent portosystemic shunt. Portal vein stenosis (PVS) or thrombosis (PVT) are uncommon complications after LT. The overall frequency of both complications is reported to be less than 3%. When PVS or PVT develop early after LT, the occlusion of the portal vein can have catastrophic consequences to the graft including acute liver failure and graft loss. Late PVT/PVS are asymptomatic in approximately 50% of the cases and mainly diagnosed by a routine ultrasound. Symptomatic postshunt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a very infrequent condition after LT that has been scarcely reported in the literature. We present here the case of a liver recipient with normal graft function who presented with hepatic encephalopathy 3 months after LT with stable liver function but a severe portal stenosis and the presence of a spontaneous portosystemic shunt whose successful endovascular treatment was followed by the complete resolution of the HE.

  17. Changes of liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in patients with trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Senhua; Xie Guoqiang; Zeng Zeming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the liver function damage and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels changes in patients suffering from trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis. Methods: Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen type III (PC III), type IV collagen ( IV C) levels (with RIA), mono-amine oxidase (MAO) activity (with chemo-colorimetry) and liver function tests (including ALT, AGT, total protein, albumin, total bile acid, with automated biochemical analysis system) were determined in 30 controls and 30 patients with trichloroethylene induced drugrash-like dermatitis. Results: Severe liver function damage was demonstrated in all the patients. The serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels were significantly increased (vs controls, P<0.01) and correlated well with the degree of hepatic damage. Conclusion: Liver damage occurred early in patients with trichloroethylene induced dermatitis, accompanied with laboratory evidence of hepatic fibrosis. (authors)

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy ( ...

  19. Estimating functional liver reserve following hepatic irradiation: Adaptive normal tissue response models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; Cao, Yue; Wang, Hesheng; Jackson, Andrew; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the limit of functional liver reserve for safe application of hepatic irradiation using changes in indocyanine green, an established assay of liver function. Materials and methods: From 2005 to 2011, 60 patients undergoing hepatic irradiation were enrolled in a prospective study assessing the plasma retention fraction of indocyanine green at 15-min (ICG-R15) prior to, during (at 60% of planned dose), and after radiotherapy (RT). The limit of functional liver reserve was estimated from the damage fraction of functional liver (DFL) post-RT [1 − (ICG-R15 pre-RT /ICG-R15 post-RT )] where no toxicity was observed using a beta distribution function. Results: Of 48 evaluable patients, 3 (6%) developed RILD, all within 2.5 months of completing RT. The mean ICG-R15 for non-RILD patients pre-RT, during-RT and 1-month post-RT was 20.3%(SE 2.6), 22.0%(3.0), and 27.5%(2.8), and for RILD patients was 6.3%(4.3), 10.8%(2.7), and 47.6%(8.8). RILD was observed at post-RT damage fractions of ⩾78%. Both DFL assessed by during-RT ICG and MLD predicted for DFL post-RT (p < 0.0001). Limiting the post-RT DFL to 50%, predicted a 99% probability of a true complication rate <15%. Conclusion: The DFL as assessed by changes in ICG during treatment serves as an early indicator of a patient’s tolerance to hepatic irradiation

  20. Model and methods to assess hepatic function from indocyanine green fluorescence dynamical measurements of liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Chloe; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E

    2018-03-30

    The indocyanine green (ICG) clearance, presented as plasma disappearance rate is, presently, a reliable method to estimate the hepatic "function". However, this technique is not instantaneously available and thus cannot been used intra-operatively (during liver surgery). Near-infrared spectroscopy enables to assess hepatic ICG concentration over time in the liver tissue. This article proposes to extract more information from the liver intensity dynamics by interpreting it through a dedicated pharmacokinetics model. In order to account for the different exchanges between the liver tissues, the proposed model includes three compartments for the liver model (sinusoids, hepatocytes and bile canaliculi). The model output dependency to parameters is studied with sensitivity analysis and solving an inverse problem on synthetic data. The estimation of model parameters is then performed with in-vivo measurements in rabbits (El-Desoky et al. 1999). Parameters for different liver states are estimated, and their link with liver function is investigated. A non-linear (Michaelis-Menten type) excretion rate from the hepatocytes to the bile canaliculi was necessary to reproduce the measurements for different liver conditions. In case of bile duct ligation, the model suggests that this rate is reduced, and that the ICG is stored in the hepatocytes. Moreover, the level of ICG remains high in the blood following the ligation of the bile duct. The percentage of retention of indocyanine green in blood, which is a common test for hepatic function estimation, is also investigated with the model. The impact of bile duct ligation and reduced liver inflow on the percentage of ICG retention in blood is studied. The estimation of the pharmacokinetics model parameters may lead to an evaluation of different liver functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term culture of human liver tissue with advanced hepatic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Soon Seng; Xiong, Anming; Nguyen, Khanh; Masek, Marilyn; No, Da Yoon; Elazar, Menashe; Shteyer, Eyal; Winters, Mark A; Voedisch, Amy; Shaw, Kate; Rashid, Sheikh Tamir; Frank, Curtis W; Cho, Nam Joon; Glenn, Jeffrey S

    2017-06-02

    A major challenge for studying authentic liver cell function and cell replacement therapies is that primary human hepatocytes rapidly lose their advanced function in conventional, 2-dimensional culture platforms. Here, we describe the fabrication of 3-dimensional hexagonally arrayed lobular human liver tissues inspired by the liver's natural architecture. The engineered liver tissues exhibit key features of advanced differentiation, such as human-specific cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and the ability to support efficient infection with patient-derived inoculums of hepatitis C virus. The tissues permit the assessment of antiviral agents and maintain their advanced functions for over 5 months in culture. This extended functionality enabled the prediction of a fatal human-specific hepatotoxicity caused by fialuridine (FIAU), which had escaped detection by preclinical models and short-term clinical studies. The results obtained with the engineered human liver tissue in this study provide proof-of-concept determination of human-specific drug metabolism, demonstrate the ability to support infection with human hepatitis virus derived from an infected patient and subsequent antiviral drug testing against said infection, and facilitate detection of human-specific drug hepatotoxicity associated with late-onset liver failure. Looking forward, the scalability and biocompatibility of the scaffold are also ideal for future cell replacement therapeutic strategies.

  2. Occupational coke oven emissions exposure and risk of abnormal liver function: modifications of body mass index and hepatitis virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Hu; B. Chen; J. Qian; L. Jin; T. Jin; D. Lu [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Department of Occupational and Environmental Health

    2010-03-15

    Occupational coke oven emissions (COEs) have been considered an important health issue. However, there are no conclusive data on human hepatic injury due to COE exposure. The association of COE exposure with liver function was explored and the effects of modification of potential non-occupational factors were assessed. 705 coke oven workers and 247 referents were investigated. Individual cumulative COE exposure was quantitatively estimated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), {gamma}-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody were measured. Among those with high COE exposure, the adjusted ORs of abnormal ALT and AST were 5.23 (95% CI 2.66 to 10.27) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.52), respectively. Overweight individuals (body mass index (BMI) {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}) with high COE exposure had elevated risks of abnormal ALT (adjusted OR 23.93, 95% CI 8.73 to 65.62) and AST (adjusted OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.32 to 11.58). Risk of liver damage in hepatitis B virus- or hepatitis C virus-positive individuals with COE exposure was also elevated. Long-term exposure to COE increases the risk of liver dysfunction, which is more prominent among those with higher BMI and hepatitis virus infection. The risk assessment of liver damage associated with COE exposure should take BMI and hepatitis virus infection into consideration.

  3. Clinical and CT evaluation of hepatic reserve function in patients with cirrhosis and liver cancer undergoing interventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changxue; Tu Rong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of clinical and CT assessment of hepatic reserve function in patients with cirrhosis and liver cancer undergoing transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with cirrhosis and primary liver cancer treated using TACE were studied prospectively. The hepatic reserve function was evaluated using Child-Pugh classification and modified Child-Pugh classification before and after TACE respectively. The modified Child-Pugh classification was an integration of Child-Pugh classification, morphological evaluation of the cirrhotic liver and measurement of tumor-free liver volume by CT. Agreement rates of the two methods for assessing the hepatic reserve function peri-operatively and the survival time were calculated. Results: The agreement rates of Child-Pugh classification and modified Child-Pugh classification for assessing the postoperative hepatic reserve function were 55.6% and 83.3% respectively in well-compensated cases (P 2 =11.2, 8.7, 13.5, P<0.001) shorter than that of patients in modified Child-Pugh classes A (71 months), B (46 months) and C (7.6 months). Conclusion: Modified Child-Pugh classification is better than Child-Pugh classification for assessing the hepatic reserve function in patients with cirrhosis and liver cancer undergoing TACE. (authors)

  4. Hepatic S1P deficiency lowers plasma cholesterol levels in apoB-containing lipoproteins when LDLR function is compromised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debapriya; Huq, Afroza; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, M Mahmood; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Jin, Weijun

    2015-01-01

    expression through activation of the SREBPs. In the LDLR(-/-) background, hepatic S1P KD significantly reduced Blp-c levels. Hepatic S1P is a physiological modulator of plasma Blp metabolism through its regulation of LDLR and PCSK9. Hepatic S1P is a valid target for lowering plasma Blp-c levels in the situation where LDLR function is compromised.

  5. Influence of distal ileum exclusion on hepatic and renal functions in presence of extrahepatic cholestasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Luis de Oliveira Costa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the ileal exclusion interferes with liver and kidney functional changes secondary to extrahepatic cholestasis.METHODS: We studied 24 rats, divided into three groups with eight individuals each: Group 1 (control, Group 2 (ligation of the hepatic duct combined with internal biliary drainage, and Group 3 (bile duct ligation combined with internal biliary drainage and exclusion of the terminal ileum. Animals in Group 1 (control underwent sham laparotomy. The animals of groups 2 and 3 underwent ligation and section of the hepatic duct and were kept in cholestasis for four weeks. Next, they underwent an internal biliary bypass. In Group 3, besides the biliary-enteric bypass, we associated the exclusion of the last ten centimeters of the terminal ileum and carried out an ileocolic anastomosis. After four weeks of monitoring, blood was collected from all animals of the three groups for liver and kidney biochemical evaluation (albumin, ALT, AST, direct and indirect bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, cGT, creatinine and urea.RESULTS: there were increased values of ALT, AST, direct bilirubin, cGT, creatinine and urea in rats from Group 3 (p < 0.05.CONCLUSION: ileal exclusion worsened liver and kidney functions in the murine model of extrahepatic cholestasis, being disadvantageous as therapeutic procedure for cholestatic disorders.

  6. Cognitive function and endogenous cytokine levels in children with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Faddan, N H; Shehata, G A; Abd Elhafeez, H A; Mohamed, A O; Hassan, H S; Abd El Sameea, F

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about how hepatitis C (HCV) infection affects cognitive function in children. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of HCV infection on cognitive function of children with normal liver functions and their relationships to endogenous IFN-α, IL-6 and TNF-α. IFN-α, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured and the Arabic version of the Stanford-Binet test used to assess cognitive functions in 35 children with HCV infection and 23 controls. Serum levels of IL-6 and IFN-α were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. There was a significant effect on vocabulary, comprehension, and abstract visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning and bead memory tests, as well as total short-term memory and intelligence quotient in patients compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between IFN-α and IL-6. Also there were significant negative correlations between IFN-α and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test, Bead memory test, Total short-term memory and Intelligence quotient; and between IL-6 and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test and Intelligence quotient. There was no significant correlation between TNF-α and any of the cognitive functions. Cytokine levels were not related to demographic characteristics of the patients or viral load (PCR). Children with chronic hepatitis C infection in its early stages showed signs of cognitive impairment, with the memory tasks being mostly affected. There was a significant correlation between endogenous cytokines and cognitive impairment in these children. Further studies are needed to define the effect of successful antiviral treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Correlation between liver function tests and metabolic syndrome in hepatitis-free elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Sheng Shang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to investigate the relationship between liver function tests (LFTs and metabolic syndrome (MetS as several studies have shown positive correlations between some of the LFTs, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT, and MetS but have not fully explored the same in the elderly. Owing to the progress in public health, the aging of the general population becomes a major issue. Design: We enrolled subjects aged over 60 years who underwent routine health checkups in a Health Screening Center after excluding subjects with a history of hepatitis B or C infection, excessive alcohol consumption, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, acute hepatitis, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, or receiving medications for these diseases. Finally, 9,282 participants were eligible for analysis. Statistical Analysis: All data were tested for normal distribution with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and for homogeneity of variances with the Levene′s test. A t-test was used to evaluate the differences between the two groups. Univariate and multivariate regressions were used to observe correlations between different parameters. Receiver operating characteristic curves of each LFT were used to predict MetS. Areas under curves and 95% confidence interval were also estimated and compared. Results: With the exception of aspartate aminotransferase and α-fetal protein, the results of LFTs, including total and direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALT, and γ-GT, were altered in the group with MetS. Furthermore, the levels of γ-GT in men and ALP in women were independently associated with all MetS components and had the highest areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Conclusion: Abnormal LFTs are highly correlated with MetS in the hepatitis-free elderly, with levels of γ-GT in men and ALP in women being the most important factors. LFTs may represent an auxiliary tool for the

  8. Effects of hepatitis B virus S protein exposure on sperm membrane integrity and functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiangJin Kang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a public health problem worldwide. Viral infection can affect a man's fertility, but only scant information about the influence of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection on sperm quality is available. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hepatitis B virus S protein (HBs on human sperm membrane integrity and functions. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reactive oxygen species (ROS, lipid peroxidation (LP, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and phosphatidylserine (PS externalization were determined. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assays and flow cytometric analyses were performed. (1 After 3 h incubation with 25 µg/ml of HBs, the average rates of ROS positive cells, annexin V-positive/propidium iodide (PI-negative cells, Caspases-3,-8,-9 positive cells and TUNEL-positive cells were significantly increased in the test groups as compared to those in the control groups, while TAC level was decreased when compared with the control. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA in the sperm cells exposed to 50 µg/ml of HBs for 3 h was significantly higher than that in the control (P<0.05-0.01. (2 HBs increased the MDA levels and the numbers of ROS positive cells, annexin V-positive/PI-negative cells, caspases-3, -8, -9 positive cells and TUNEL-positive cells in a dose-dependent manner. (3 HBs monoclonal antibody (MAb and N-Acetylcysteine (NAC reduced the number of ROS-positive sperm cells. (4 HBs decreased the TAC levels in sperm cells in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: HBs exposure could lead to ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, TAC reduction, PS externalization, activation of caspases, and DNA fragmentation, resulting in increased apoptosis of sperm cells and loss of sperm membrane integrity and causing sperm dysfunctions.

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  10. The Value of Circulating Nogo-B for Evaluating Hepatic Functional Reserve in Patients with Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoyao Wen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine Nogo-B in liver tissues and plasma of patients with liver cirrhosis and associate them with various clinical parameters. Materials and Methods. Nogo-B protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 24 human fibrotic/cirrhotic liver specimens and 10 healthy controls. We determined plasma Nogo-B levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 301 patients with liver cirrhosis and 153 healthy controls, and then analyzed various clinical parameters. Results. Nogo-B was mainly expressed in nonparenchymal cells in the liver and was marked increased in liver with significant fibrosis/cirrhosis compared to controls. Moreover, Metavir F4 showed a higher level of expression than F2. Plasma Nogo-B levels were significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in healthy controls and were the highest in Child-Pugh class C patients. Plasma Nogo-B levels were positively correlated with Child-Pugh scores. However, there was no relationship between plasma Nogo-B levels and etiology of liver diseases, ALT, AST, platelet counts, and the severity of esophagogastric varices. Conclusions. Nogo-B is mainly expressed in hepatic nonparenchymal cells and is present in plasma. Abnormally high plasma levels of Nogo-B are associated with hepatic cirrhosis and Child-Pugh score, but not correlated with the grade of liver inflammation or portal hypertension. Plasma Nogo-B may be a novel surrogate marker to reflect liver function reserve.

  11. Disrupted thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Rongfeng; Zhang, Long Jiang; Zhong, Jianhui; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ni, Ling; Zheng, Gang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Little is known about the role of thalamus in the pathophysiology of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the thalamic functional connectivity was disrupted in cirrhotic patients with MHE by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Materials and Methods: Twenty seven MHE patients and twenty seven age- and gender- matched healthy controls participated in the rs-fMRI scans. The functional connectivity of 11 thalamic nuclei were characterized by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method and compared between MHE patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the thalamic functional connectivity and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. Results: The ventral anterior nucleus (VAN) and the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPMN) in each side of thalamus showed abnormal functional connectivities in MHE. Compared with healthy controls, MHE patients demonstrated significant decreased functional connectivity between the right/left VAN and the bilateral putamen/pallidum, inferior frontal gyri, insula, supplementary motor area, right middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus. In addition, MHE patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity with the right/left VPMN in the bilateral middle temporal gyri (MTG), temporal lobe, and right superior temporal gyrus. The venous blood ammonia levels of MHE patients negatively correlated with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula. Number connecting test scores showed negative correlation with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula, and between the VPMN and the MTG. Conclusion: MHE patients had disrupted thalamic functional connectivity, which mainly located in the bilateral ventral anterior nuclei and ventral posterior medial nuclei. The decreased connectivity between thalamus and many

  12. Disrupted thalamic resting-state functional connectivity in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Rongfeng [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: kevinzhanglongjiang@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Zhong, Jianhui [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ni, Ling; Zheng, Gang [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210002 (China)

    2013-05-15

    Background and purpose: Little is known about the role of thalamus in the pathophysiology of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the thalamic functional connectivity was disrupted in cirrhotic patients with MHE by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Materials and Methods: Twenty seven MHE patients and twenty seven age- and gender- matched healthy controls participated in the rs-fMRI scans. The functional connectivity of 11 thalamic nuclei were characterized by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method and compared between MHE patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the thalamic functional connectivity and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. Results: The ventral anterior nucleus (VAN) and the ventral posterior medial nucleus (VPMN) in each side of thalamus showed abnormal functional connectivities in MHE. Compared with healthy controls, MHE patients demonstrated significant decreased functional connectivity between the right/left VAN and the bilateral putamen/pallidum, inferior frontal gyri, insula, supplementary motor area, right middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus. In addition, MHE patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity with the right/left VPMN in the bilateral middle temporal gyri (MTG), temporal lobe, and right superior temporal gyrus. The venous blood ammonia levels of MHE patients negatively correlated with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula. Number connecting test scores showed negative correlation with the functional connectivity between the VAN and the insula, and between the VPMN and the MTG. Conclusion: MHE patients had disrupted thalamic functional connectivity, which mainly located in the bilateral ventral anterior nuclei and ventral posterior medial nuclei. The decreased connectivity between thalamus and many

  13. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workshops Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  14. Physiological antioxidant system and oxidative stress in stomach cancer patients with normal renal and hepatic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Prabhakar Reddy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Role of free radicals has been proposed in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Gastric cancer is a common disease worldwide, and leading cause of cancer death in India. Severe oxidative stress produces reactive oxygen species (ROS and induces uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. Albumin, uric acid (UA and Bilirubin are important physiological antioxidants. We aimed to evaluate and assess the role of oxidative stress (OS and physiological antioxidant system in stomach cancer patients. Lipid peroxidation measured as plasma Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive substances (TBARS, was found to be elevated significantly (p=0.001 in stomach cancer compared to controls along with a decrease in plasma physiological antioxidant system. The documented results were due to increased lipid peroxidation and involvement of physiological antioxidants in scavenging free radicals but not because of impaired hepatic and renal functions.

  15. Cyclophilin B is a functional regulator of hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watashi, Koichi; Ishii, Naoto; Hijikata, Makoto; Inoue, Daisuke; Murata, Takayuki; Miyanari, Yusuke; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2005-07-01

    Viruses depend on host-derived factors for their efficient genome replication. Here, we demonstrate that a cellular peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase), cyclophilin B (CyPB), is critical for the efficient replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome. CyPB interacted with the HCV RNA polymerase NS5B to directly stimulate its RNA binding activity. Both the RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated reduction of endogenous CyPB expression and the induced loss of NS5B binding to CyPB decreased the levels of HCV replication. Thus, CyPB functions as a stimulatory regulator of NS5B in HCV replication machinery. This regulation mechanism for viral replication identifies CyPB as a target for antiviral therapeutic strategies.

  16. Outcomes of radioembolization for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with marginal functional hepatic reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Derek M; Posham, Raghuram; Durrani, Raisa J; Titano, Joseph J; Patel, Rahul S; Tabori, Nora E; Nowakowski, Francis S; Fischman, Aaron M; Lookstein, Robert A; Kim, Edward

    To evaluate the outcomes of radioembolization (RE) as a therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with marginal functional hepatic reserve. A retrospective review of 471 patients (1/2010-7/2015) treated with RE (Therasphere, BTG, UK) was performed. A total of 36 patients (mean age: 66.1±9.3, male: 86.1%) underwent therapy for HCC with a MELD≥15 (median: 16, range: 15-22). Baseline demographics of the study cohort were as follows: etiology (HCV: 26, 72.2%), cirrhosis (n=32, 88.9%), ECOG 0 (n=16, 44.4%), Child-Pugh class (A=15, B=19, C=2), unilobar distribution (n=27, 75%), AFP>200 (n=11, 30.6%), portal vein thrombosis (PVT, n=7, 19.4%), metastasis (n=3, 8.3%). Outcomes analyzed included CTCAEv4.03 laboratory toxicities (120-day), imaging response (mRECIST), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). A total of 42 treatments were performed with mean dose of 2.02±1.23GBq. The cumulative grade 3/4 toxicity was 28% overall and 21% for bilirubin at 120-days. The objective response and disease control rates were 48.3% (14/29) and 69% (20/29) respectively. The median (95% CI) PFS was 5.9 (4.4-7.7) months. Ten (27.8%) patients received additional locoregional therapy at a median (IQR) of 138 (102-243) days post RE. The mean (95% CI) OS was 21.9 (14.8-29.0) months. The absence of PVT was associated with improved OS (p=0.005) Disease control at 90-days was also associated with an OS benefit (p=0.037). Patients with unresectable HCC and marginal functional hepatic reserve treated with RE had favorable objective response and disease control rates, both predictive of overall survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical assessment of hepatic functional reserve using 99mTc DTPA galactosyl human serum albumin SPECT to prognosticate chronic hepatic diseases. Validation of the use of SPECT and a new indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Yuya; Tamaki, Nagara; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Takahashi, Kazuei; Sugai, Yukio; Togashi, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    It is generally known that scintigraphy of 99m Tc diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) is useful for assessing hepatic functional reserve. For hepatic functional indicators, the index of the calculated planar image has been used in previous studies. However, there have been few reports that suggest that the indicators calculated from static SPECT data would be useful for the assessment of hepatic function. The aims of this study were to establish a simple method for assessing hepatic functional reserve using the liver SPECT of 99m Tc-GSA and to apply this method for rich stratification in patients with chronic hepatic diseases. A liver phantom (a 50% concentration of 99m Tc solution) was used to compare the planar and SPECT methods. According to the definition of the new indicator, the liver SPECT of 99m Tc-GSA was divided by a syringe SPECT of 99m Tc-GSA and was called the liver uptake ratio (LUR). We correlated the LUR and the liver uptake ratio calculated according to the blood-sampling method. 99m Tc-GSA SPECT was performed in 137 patients with hepatic diseases, including chronic hepatic diseases, and 20 healthy volunteers. The LUR was correlated between the formed subtypes for all subjects. The acquired phantom-count ratio calculated by the SPECT method was more accurate than that acquired by the planar method. A good correlation was obtained between the LUR and the blood-sampling method (r=0.971). The LUR was significantly lower in subjects with severe cirrhosis than in healthy subjects or those with chronic hepatitis and mild cirrhosis, and it was significantly lower in subjects with chronic hepatitis and mild cirrhosis than in healthy subjects. The LUR was significantly correlated with other hepatic function tests. Based on LUR, the chronic hepatic diseases were divided into two groups: Group A, with LURs 30% and higher, and Group B, with LURs below 30%. An LUR of 30% marked the 25th percentile of the mild

  18. [EFFECT OF ACETYLCYSTEINE, CORVITIN AND THEIR COMBINATION ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATE OF LIVER IN RATS WITH PARACETAMOL INDUCED TOXIC HEPATITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonghadze, M; Antelava, N; Liluashvili, K; Okujava, M; Pachkoria, K

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays drug-induced hepatotoxicity is urgent problem worldwide. Currently more than 1000 drugs are hepatotoxic and most often are the reason of acute fulminant hepatitis and hepatocellular failure, the states requiring liver transplantation. The paracetamol induced liver toxicity is related with accumulation of its toxic metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), which is the free radical and enhances peroxidation of lipids, disturbs the energy status and causes death of hepatocytes. During our research we investigated and assessed the efficacy of acetylcysteine, corvitin and their combination in rat model of paracetamol induced acute toxic hepatitis. The study was performed on mature white male Wistar rates with body mass 150-180 g. 50 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (10 rats in each group). To get the model of acute toxic hepatitis single intraperitoneal injection of paracetamol solution was used (750 mg/kg). Toxic hepatitis was treated with intrapertoneal administration of 40mg/kg acetylcysteine or 100mg/kg corvitin, as well as with combination of these drugs. Monotherapy with acetylcysteine and corvitin of paracetamol induced toxic hepatitis improved the liver function, decreased relative mass of the liver and animal mortality. The treatment of toxic hepatitis was most effective in the case of simultaneous administration of acetylcysteine and corvitin. The normal value of laboratory tests (ALT, ACT, alkaline phosphatase, total and unconjugated bilirubin) was reached and mortality was not more observed. On the bases of obtained data was concluded that acetylcysteine and corvitin have almost equal hepatoprotective activity. The combination of two drugs actually improves the liver function. The most pronounced hepatoprotective effect may be due to synergic action of acetylcysteine and corvitin and such regime can be recommended for correction of liver function.

  19. Neural Mechanism of Cognitive Control Impairment in Patients with Hepatic Cirrhosis: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Jiang Zhang; Guifen Yang; Jianzhong Yin; Yawu Liu; Ji Qi

    2007-01-01

    Background: Many studies have claimed the existence of attention alterations in cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). No functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in this respect has been published. Purpose: To investigate the neural basis of cognitive control deficiency in cirrhotic patients using fMRI. Material and Methods: 14 patients with hepatic cirrhosis and 14 healthy volunteers were included in the study. A modified Stroop task with Chinese characters was used as the target stimulus, and block-design fMRI was used to acquire resource data, including four stimulus blocks and five control blocks, each presented alternatively. Image analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping 99. After fMRI examinations were complete, behavior tests of Stroop interference were performed for all subjects. Overall reaction time and error numbers were recorded. Results: Both healthy volunteers and patients with hepatic cirrhosis had Stroop interference effects. Patients with hepatic cirrhosis had more errors and longer reaction time in performing an incongruous color-naming task than healthy volunteers (P<0.001); there was no significant difference in performing an incongruous word-reading task (P 0.066). Compared with controls, patients with hepatic cirrhosis had greater activation of the bilateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex when performing the incongruous word-reading task. With increased conflict, activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal lobe, and temporal fusiform gyrus (TFG) was decreased when patients with hepatic cirrhosis performed the incongruous color-naming task. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that patients with hepatic cirrhostic have cognitive control deficiency. The abnormal brain network of the ACC-PFC-parietal lobe-TFG is the neural basis of cognitive control impairment in cirrhotic patients

  20. Neural Mechanism of Cognitive Control Impairment in Patients with Hepatic Cirrhosis: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long Jiang Zhang; Guifen Yang; Jianzhong Yin; Yawu Liu; Ji Qi [Dept. of Radiology, Tianjin First Central Hospital of Tianjin Medical Univ, Tianjin (China)

    2007-07-15

    Background: Many studies have claimed the existence of attention alterations in cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE). No functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in this respect has been published. Purpose: To investigate the neural basis of cognitive control deficiency in cirrhotic patients using fMRI. Material and Methods: 14 patients with hepatic cirrhosis and 14 healthy volunteers were included in the study. A modified Stroop task with Chinese characters was used as the target stimulus, and block-design fMRI was used to acquire resource data, including four stimulus blocks and five control blocks, each presented alternatively. Image analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping 99. After fMRI examinations were complete, behavior tests of Stroop interference were performed for all subjects. Overall reaction time and error numbers were recorded. Results: Both healthy volunteers and patients with hepatic cirrhosis had Stroop interference effects. Patients with hepatic cirrhosis had more errors and longer reaction time in performing an incongruous color-naming task than healthy volunteers (P<0.001); there was no significant difference in performing an incongruous word-reading task (P 0.066). Compared with controls, patients with hepatic cirrhosis had greater activation of the bilateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex when performing the incongruous word-reading task. With increased conflict, activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal lobe, and temporal fusiform gyrus (TFG) was decreased when patients with hepatic cirrhosis performed the incongruous color-naming task. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that patients with hepatic cirrhostic have cognitive control deficiency. The abnormal brain network of the ACC-PFC-parietal lobe-TFG is the neural basis of cognitive control impairment in cirrhotic patients.

  1. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease results in decreased hepatic uptake transporter expression and function in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Craig D.; Lickteig, Andrew J.; Augustine, Lisa M.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Besselsen, David G.; Erickson, Robert P.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of diagnoses ranging from simple fatty liver (SFL), to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to determine the effect of moderate and severe NAFLD on hepatic transporter expression and function in vivo. Rats were fed a

  2. Combining functional CT and FDG PET allows the calculation of FDG extraction fraction and hepatic glucose phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, M R [Centre for Medical and Health Physics, Queensland University of Technology (Australia); Wesley Research Institute, QLD (Australia); Miles, K A [Centre for Medical and Health Physics, Queensland University of Technology (Australia); Wesley Research Institute, QLD (Australia); Southern X-ray Clinics, Brisbane [Australia; Keith, C J [Wesley Research Institute, QLD (Australia)

    2002-09-01

    Perfusion data from Functional CT and FDG-PET data may be combined to provide additional information about the uptake of FDG. We have developed methods to calculate FDG extraction fraction in tissues and to quantify hepatic glucose phosphorylation in the liver. Extraction fraction: Functional CT and FDG-PET studies were used to obtain measurements of perfusion and glucose uptake respectively within ten pulmonary nodules. The net influx constant (Ki) was determined from SUV measurements for each lung mass Extraction fraction (E) for each mass lesion was determined from: E=Ki/(Px[1-Hct]). A pixel by pixel calculation allowed generation of extraction fraction maps. The extraction fraction measurements ranged (median) from 0.6% to 4.81% (2.7%). The values for a benign nodule and an organising pneumonia were 0.6% and 0.71% respectively. Extraction fraction measurements for the malignant nodules ranged from 2.01% to 4.81%. A clearer separation of benign and malignant lesions is seen with E values rather than with SUV. Hepatic Glucose Phosphorylation: Functional CT and FDG-PET were utilised to obtain measurements of perfusion and glucose uptake respectively within the livers of a series of 35 patients with colorectal cancer. Hepatic perfusion and the net influx constant were incorporated into FDG kinetic analysis to determine hepatic glucose phosphorylation fraction. SUV and Ki were significantly lower in the 12 patients with advanced disease (p=0.015 and p=0.013 respectively) whereas portal and total hepatic perfusion were increased (p=0.013 and p=0.008 respectively). Combining the PET and CT data yielded phosphorylation fractions of 1.14% and 0.74% for early and advanced disease respectively (p=0.002). By combining functional CT measurements of blood flow with PET measurements of FDG uptake, it is possible to calculate the extraction fraction of FDG and Hepatic glucose phosphorylation. The use of the extraction fraction has improved the distinction between malignant and

  3. Combining functional CT and FDG PET allows the calculation of FDG extraction fraction and hepatic glucose phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.R.; Miles, K.A.; Keith, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Perfusion data from Functional CT and FDG-PET data may be combined to provide additional information about the uptake of FDG. We have developed methods to calculate FDG extraction fraction in tissues and to quantify hepatic glucose phosphorylation in the liver. Extraction fraction: Functional CT and FDG-PET studies were used to obtain measurements of perfusion and glucose uptake respectively within ten pulmonary nodules. The net influx constant (Ki) was determined from SUV measurements for each lung mass Extraction fraction (E) for each mass lesion was determined from: E=Ki/(Px[1-Hct]). A pixel by pixel calculation allowed generation of extraction fraction maps. The extraction fraction measurements ranged (median) from 0.6% to 4.81% (2.7%). The values for a benign nodule and an organising pneumonia were 0.6% and 0.71% respectively. Extraction fraction measurements for the malignant nodules ranged from 2.01% to 4.81%. A clearer separation of benign and malignant lesions is seen with E values rather than with SUV. Hepatic Glucose Phosphorylation: Functional CT and FDG-PET were utilised to obtain measurements of perfusion and glucose uptake respectively within the livers of a series of 35 patients with colorectal cancer. Hepatic perfusion and the net influx constant were incorporated into FDG kinetic analysis to determine hepatic glucose phosphorylation fraction. SUV and Ki were significantly lower in the 12 patients with advanced disease (p=0.015 and p=0.013 respectively) whereas portal and total hepatic perfusion were increased (p=0.013 and p=0.008 respectively). Combining the PET and CT data yielded phosphorylation fractions of 1.14% and 0.74% for early and advanced disease respectively (p=0.002). By combining functional CT measurements of blood flow with PET measurements of FDG uptake, it is possible to calculate the extraction fraction of FDG and Hepatic glucose phosphorylation. The use of the extraction fraction has improved the distinction between malignant and

  4. Surgical hepatosplenic mansonic schistosomiasis in adolescents: repercussions of the post-treatment schistosomotic burden on the hepatic functional reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Teixeira Brandt

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni affects the hepatic functional reserve. Clinical treatment with oxamniquine is not 100% effective and there has been found strain of this parasite resistant to this drug. The aims of this investigation were: (1 to examine the presence of residual parasite burden after medical and surgical treatment on adolescents with surgical schistosomiasis mansoni and (2 to assess the effect on the hepatic functional reserve in patients with and without residual infection. Twenty nine children with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and bleeding esophageal varices were treated with oxamniquine. They underwent splenectomy, ligature of the left gastric vein and autologous implantation of spleen tissue into the greater omentum. After a mean post-operative follow up of five years they underwent rectal biopsy for schistosomotic egg search. They were divided in patients with and without infection. In 20 patients the submucosal egg search was negative, however, in 9 it was positive. The hepatic functional reserve in the patients without infection was as follows: 17 were Child-Pugh A and 3 Child-Pugh B. In the patients who were still infected 6 were Child-Pugh A and 3 Child-Pugh B. The chi2 analysis of the hepatic functional reserve showed chi2 = 3.19 - p= 0.07. From the results the following conclusion can be drawn: residual infection or reinfection in the follow up period had not interfered with the distribution of the hepatic functional reserve of the patients in this series. However, there was a trend for a decrease of this parameter in patients with residual infection.

  5. Testosterone receptor blockade after trauma-hemorrhage improves cardiac and hepatic functions in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, D E; Wang, P; Cioffi, W G; Bland, K I; Chaudry, I H

    1997-12-01

    Although studies have shown that testosterone receptor blockade with flutamide after hemorrhage restores the depressed immune function, it remains unknown whether administration of flutamide following trauma and hemorrhage and resuscitation has any salutary effects on the depressed cardiovascular and hepatocellular functions. To study this, male rats underwent a laparotomy (representing trauma) and were then bled and maintained at a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mmHg until the animals could not maintain this pressure. Ringer lactate was given to maintain a MAP of 40 mmHg until 40% of the maximal shed blood volume was returned in the form of Ringer lactate. The rats were then resuscitated with four times the shed blood volume in the form of Ringer lactate over 60 min. Flutamide (25 mg/kg) or an equal volume of the vehicle propanediol was injected subcutaneously 15 min before the end of resuscitation. Various in vivo heart performance parameters (e.g., maximal rate of the pressure increase or decrease), cardiac output, and hepatocellular function (i.e., the maximum velocity and the overall efficiency of indocyanine green clearance) were determined at 20 h after resuscitation. Additionally, hepatic microvascular blood flow (HMBF) was determined using a laser Doppler flowmeter. The results indicate that left ventricular performance, cardiac output, HMBF, and hepatocellular function decreased significantly at 20 h after the completion of trauma, hemorrhage, and resuscitation. Administration of the testosterone receptor blocker flutamide, however, significantly improved cardiac performance, HMBF, and hepatocellular function. Thus flutamide appears to be a novel and useful adjunct for improving cardiovascular and hepatocellular functions in males following trauma and hemorrhagic shock.

  6. Elevated TCA cycle function in the pathology of diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance and fatty liver[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapati, Santhosh; Sunny, Nishanth E.; Kucejova, Blanka; Fu, Xiaorong; He, Tian Teng; Méndez-Lucas, Andrés; Shelton, John M.; Perales, Jose C.; Browning, Jeffrey D.; Burgess, Shawn C.

    2012-01-01

    The manner in which insulin resistance impinges on hepatic mitochondrial function is complex. Although liver insulin resistance is associated with respiratory dysfunction, the effect on fat oxidation remains controversial, and biosynthetic pathways that traverse mitochondria are actually increased. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the site of terminal fat oxidation, chief source of electrons for respiration, and a metabolic progenitor of gluconeogenesis. Therefore, we tested whether insulin resistance promotes hepatic TCA cycle flux in mice progressing to insulin resistance and fatty liver on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 32 weeks using standard biomolecular and in vivo 2H/13C tracer methods. Relative mitochondrial content increased, but respiratory efficiency declined by 32 weeks of HFD. Fasting ketogenesis became unresponsive to feeding or insulin clamp, indicating blunted but constitutively active mitochondrial β-oxidation. Impaired insulin signaling was marked by elevated in vivo gluconeogenesis and anaplerotic and oxidative TCA cycle flux. The induction of TCA cycle function corresponded to the development of mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, hepatic oxidative stress, and inflammation. Thus, the hepatic TCA cycle appears to enable mitochondrial dysfunction during insulin resistance by increasing electron deposition into an inefficient respiratory chain prone to reactive oxygen species production and by providing mitochondria-derived substrate for elevated gluconeogenesis. PMID:22493093

  7. Elevated TCA cycle function in the pathology of diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance and fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapati, Santhosh; Sunny, Nishanth E; Kucejova, Blanka; Fu, Xiaorong; He, Tian Teng; Méndez-Lucas, Andrés; Shelton, John M; Perales, Jose C; Browning, Jeffrey D; Burgess, Shawn C

    2012-06-01

    The manner in which insulin resistance impinges on hepatic mitochondrial function is complex. Although liver insulin resistance is associated with respiratory dysfunction, the effect on fat oxidation remains controversial, and biosynthetic pathways that traverse mitochondria are actually increased. The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the site of terminal fat oxidation, chief source of electrons for respiration, and a metabolic progenitor of gluconeogenesis. Therefore, we tested whether insulin resistance promotes hepatic TCA cycle flux in mice progressing to insulin resistance and fatty liver on a high-fat diet (HFD) for 32 weeks using standard biomolecular and in vivo (2)H/(13)C tracer methods. Relative mitochondrial content increased, but respiratory efficiency declined by 32 weeks of HFD. Fasting ketogenesis became unresponsive to feeding or insulin clamp, indicating blunted but constitutively active mitochondrial β-oxidation. Impaired insulin signaling was marked by elevated in vivo gluconeogenesis and anaplerotic and oxidative TCA cycle flux. The induction of TCA cycle function corresponded to the development of mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, hepatic oxidative stress, and inflammation. Thus, the hepatic TCA cycle appears to enable mitochondrial dysfunction during insulin resistance by increasing electron deposition into an inefficient respiratory chain prone to reactive oxygen species production and by providing mitochondria-derived substrate for elevated gluconeogenesis.

  8. Natural course of changes hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic liver diseases evaluated by scintigraphy with GSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susumu Shiomi; Etsushi Kawamura; Takehiro Hayashi; Ai Oe; Jin Kotani; Hirotaka Ishizu; Kenji Torii; Joji Kawabe; Takashi Tanaka; Daiki Habu; Shubei Nishiguchi

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: When evaluating the efficacy of therapies for cirrhosis such as branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), knowledge of the natural history of hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic liver disease is essential. However, biochemical tests such as serum albumin level and prothrombin time do not faithfully reflect hepatic functional reserves since they are affected 'by the blood product supplementation used for treatment. On the other hand, hepatic receptor imaging with Tc-99m DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin (Tc-99m GSA) allows objective evaluation of hepatic functional reserve since it is not affected by blood preparations. This method allows hepatic functional reserve to be estimated quantitatively on the basis of the receptor index and index of blood clearance. The natural course of chronic liver diseases has been reported in terms of changes in liver histology and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, there has been no report on the natural course of changes in hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic liver disease. We monitored hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis using scintigraphy with Tc-99m GSA. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed for all subjects who underwent scintigraphy with Tc-99m GSA at our hospital. Of these, 324 were patients with chronic liver disease (86 with chronic hepatitis and 226 with cirrhosis) diagnosed at our hospital by examination of liver specimens obtained by laparoscopy or needle biopsy performed under ultrasonic guidance and 12 were subjects found to have a healthy liver when examined during the same period. Moreover, we selected for a longitudinal study all patients with underlying hepatic viral infection, without hepatocellular carcinoma, not treated by interferon, and not treated surgically or by sclerotherapy for varices, who agreed to return after discharge to our outpatient clinic for monitoring and who gave informed consent to

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Liver Disease Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Autoimmune Hepatitis Benign Liver Tumors Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis of the ... Disease Type 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of ...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns ... are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver ...

  11. Pharmacokinetics and safety of olodaterol administered with the Respimat Soft Mist inhaler in subjects with impaired hepatic or renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunz C

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Christina Kunz,1 Doreen Luedtke,1 Anna Unseld,2 Alan Hamilton,3 Atef Halabi,4 Martina Wein,5 Stephan Formella6 1Translational Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, 2Global Biometrics and Clinical Applications, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Biberach, Germany; 3Boehringer Ingelheim, Burlington, ON, Canada; 4CRS Clinical Research Services Kiel GmbH, Kiel, 5Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Biberach, 6Medicine Coordination, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH and Co KG, Ingelheim, Germany Purpose: In two trials, the influences of hepatic and renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of olodaterol, a novel long-acting inhaled β2-agonist for treatment of COPD, were investigated.Subjects and methods: The first trial included eight subjects with mild hepatic function impairment (Child–Pugh A, eight subjects with moderate impairment (Child–Pugh B, and 16 matched healthy subjects with normal hepatic function. The second trial included eight subjects with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL·min-1 and 14 matched healthy subjects with normal renal function. Subjects received single doses of 20 or 30 µg olodaterol administered with the Respimat Soft Mist inhaler.Results: Olodaterol was well tolerated in all subjects. The geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals of dose-normalized area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to 4 hours (AUC0–4 for subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment compared to healthy subjects were 97% (75%–125% and 105% (79%–140%, respectively. Corresponding values for dose-normalized maximum concentration (Cmax were 112% (84%–151% (mild impairment and 99% (73%–135% (moderate impairment. The geometric mean ratio (90% confidence interval of AUC0–4 for subjects with severe renal impairment compared to healthy subjects was 135% (94%–195%, and for Cmax was 137% (84%–222%. There was no significant relationship

  12. A multifaceted imbalance of T cells with regulatory function characterizes type 1 autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Silvia; Longhi, Maria Serena; De Molo, Chiara; Lalanne, Claudine; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Hussain, Munther J; Ma, Yun; Lenzi, Marco; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Bianchi, Francesco B; Vergani, Diego; Muratori, Luigi

    2010-09-01

    Immunotolerance is maintained by regulatory T cells (Tregs), including CD4(+)CD25(hi), CD8(+)CD28(-), gammadelta, and CD3(+)CD56(+) [natural killer T (NKT)] cells. CD4(+)CD25(hi) cells are impaired in children with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Little is known about Tregs in adults with AIH. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and function of Treg subsets in adult patients with AIH during periods of active disease and remission. Forty-seven AIH patients (16 with active disease and 31 in remission) and 28 healthy controls were studied. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate surface markers and function-related intracellular molecules in gammadelta, CD8(+)CD28(-), NKT, and CD4(+)CD25(hi) cells. CD4(+)CD25(hi) T cell function was determined by the ability to suppress proliferation and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) production by CD4(+)CD25(-) target cells. Liver forkhead box P3-positive (FOXP3(+)) cells were sought by immunohistochemistry. In AIH patients, particularly during active disease, CD4(+)CD25(hi) T cells were fewer, expressed lower levels of FOXP3, and were less effective at inhibiting target cell proliferation versus healthy controls. Moreover, although the numbers of CD8(+)CD28(-) T cells were similar in AIH patients and healthy controls, NKT cells were numerically reduced, especially during active disease, and produced lower quantities of the immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-4 versus controls. In contrast, gammadelta T cells in AIH patients were more numerous versus healthy controls and had an inverted Vdelta1/Vdelta2 ratio and higher IFN-gamma and granzyme B production; the latter was correlated to biochemical indices of liver damage. There were few FOXP3(+) cells within the portal tract inflammatory infiltrate. Our data show that the defect in immunoregulation in adult AIH is complex, and gammadelta T cells are likely to be effectors of liver damage.

  13. Natural Killer Cell Function and Dysfunction in Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla A. Holder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses must continually adapt against dynamic innate and adaptive responses of the host immune system to establish chronic infection. Only a small minority (~20% of those exposed to hepatitis C virus (HCV spontaneously clear infection, leaving approximately 200 million people worldwide chronically infected with HCV. A number of recent research studies suggest that establishment and maintenance of chronic HCV infection involve natural killer (NK cell dysfunction. This relationship is illustrated in vitro by disruption of typical NK cell responses including both cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine production. Expression of a number of activating NK cell receptors in vivo is also affected in chronic HCV infection. Thus, direct in vivo and in vitro evidence of compromised NK function in chronic HCV infection in conjunction with significant epidemiological associations between the outcome of HCV infection and certain combinations of NK cell regulatory receptor and class I human histocompatibility linked antigen (HLA genotypes indicate that NK cells are important in the immune response against HCV infection. In this review, we highlight evidence suggesting that selective impairment of NK cell activity is related to establishment of chronic HCV infection.

  14. Hepatitis C virus replication and Golgi function in brefeldin a-resistant hepatoma-derived cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan Farhat

    Full Text Available Recent reports indicate that the replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV depends on the GBF1-Arf1-COP-I pathway. We generated Huh-7-derived cell lines resistant to brefeldin A (BFA, which is an inhibitor of this pathway. The resistant cell lines could be sorted into two phenotypes regarding BFA-induced toxicity, inhibition of albumin secretion, and inhibition of HCV infection. Two cell lines were more than 100 times more resistant to BFA than the parental Huh-7 cells in these 3 assays. This resistant phenotype was correlated with the presence of a point mutation in the Sec7 domain of GBF1, which is known to impair the binding of BFA. Surprisingly, the morphology of the cis-Golgi of these cells remained sensitive to BFA at concentrations of the drug that allowed albumin secretion, indicating a dichotomy between the phenotypes of secretion and Golgi morphology. Cells of the second group were about 10 times more resistant than parental Huh-7 cells to the BFA-induced toxicity. The EC50 for albumin secretion was only 1.5-1.8 fold higher in these cells than in Huh-7 cells. However their level of secretion in the presence of inhibitory doses of BFA was 5 to 15 times higher. Despite this partially effective secretory pathway in the presence of BFA, the HCV infection was almost as sensitive to BFA as in Huh-7 cells. This suggests that the function of GBF1 in HCV replication does not simply reflect its role of regulator of the secretory pathway of the host cell. Thus, our results confirm the involvement of GBF1 in HCV replication, and suggest that GBF1 might fulfill another function, in addition to the regulation of the secretory pathway, during HCV replication.

  15. Frequency of worsening liver function in severe dengue hepatitis patients receiving paracetamol: A retrospective analysis of hospital data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, A.A.; Aslam, F.; Hakeem, H.; Siddiqui, F.; Nasir, N.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of worsening liver function among hospital in-patients with severe dengue hepatitis receiving paracetamol. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, and comprised records of dengue patients with severe hepatitis who received paracetamol for control of fever between June 2007 and December 2014. Alanine aminotransferase at baseline and following paracetamol administration was noted, as well as dosage and duration of paracetamol, along with participants' demographic details. Frequency of patients who developed worsening or improvement of alanine aminotransferase was also noted. SPSS 19 was used for data analysis. Results: Of the 113 subjects, 73(64.6%) were male and 40(35.4%) were female. Overall improvement was observed in subsequent alanine aminotransferase levels (491 units per litre, IQR 356.5 TO 775 vs 151 units per litre, IQR 49.5 to 299.5). Most commonly prescribed dose of paracetamol was 2g (IQR 1 to 5 grams), which was taken for a median duration of 1 day (IQR 1 to 3 days). Moreover, 100(88.5 %) patients showed improvement in alanine aminotransferase. Only 13(11.5 %) patients developed worsening of alanine aminotransferase. Of those with worsening liver function, 8(61.5 %) were discharged home with no clinical deterioration and 5(38.5 %) deaths were observed. However, causes of deaths were unrelated to liver dysfunction. Conclusion: The frequency of worsening liver function following paracetamol administration in patients with severe dengue hepatitis was relatively low. (author)

  16. Trans-activation function of a 3' truncated X gene-cell fusion product from integrated hepatitis B virus DNA in chronic hepatitis tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shinako; Koike, Katsuro

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the expression and transactivation function of the X gene in integrated hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA from chronic hepatitis tissues, a series of transfectants containing cloned integrated HBV DNAs was made and analyzed for X mRNA expression and trans-activation activity by using a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay. Most of the integrated HBV DNAs expressed X mRNA and encoded a product with trans-activation activity in spite of the loss of the 3' end region of the X gene due to integration. From cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of X mRNA transcribed from native or integrated HBV DNA, the X protein was found to be translated from the X open reading frame without splicing. For integrated HBV DNA, transcription was extended to a cellular flanking DNA and an X gene-cell fusion transcript was terminated by using a cellular poly(A) signal. The amino acid sequence deduced from an X-cell fusion transcript indicated truncation of the carboxyl-terminal five amino acids, but the upstream region of seven amino acids conserved among hepadnaviruses was retained in the integrated HBV DNA, suggesting that this conserved region is essential for the transactivation function of the X protein. These findings support the following explanation for hepatocarcinogenesis by HBV DNA integration: the expression of a cellular oncogene(s) is transactivated at the time of chronic infection by the increasing amounts of the integrated HBV gene product(s), such as the X-cell fusion product

  17. Activated NKT cells facilitated functional switch of myeloid-derived suppressor cells at inflammation sites in fulminant hepatitis mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Danxiao; Shi, Yu; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Hanwen; Liu, Qiaoyun; Liu, Jianhua; Zhang, Lihuang; Wu, Yihua; Xia, Dajing

    2017-02-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) confer immunosuppressive properties, but their roles in fulminant hepatitis have not been well defined. In this study, we systematically examined the distribution of MDSCs in bone marrow (BM), liver and spleen, and their functional and differentiation status in an acute fulminant hepatitis mouse model induced by lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine (LPS-GalN). Moreover, the interaction between NKT cells and MDSCs was determined. Our study revealed that BM contained the largest pool of MDSCs during pathogenesis of fulminant hepatitis compared with liver and spleen. MDSCs in liver/spleen expressed higher levels of chemokine receptors such as CCR2, CX3CR1 and CXCR2. At inflamed tissues such as liver or spleen, activated NKT cells induced differentiation of MDSCs through cell-cell interaction, which markedly dampened the immunosuppressive effects and promoted MDSCs to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and activate inflammatory cells. Our findings thus demonstrated an unexpected pro-inflammatory state for MDSCs, which was mediated by the activated NKT cells that precipitated the differentiation and functional evolution of these MDSCs at sites of inflammation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. In vivo evidence for a functional role of both tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors and transmembrane TNF in experimental hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsters, S; Tiegs, G; Alexopoulou, L; Pasparakis, M; Douni, E; Künstle, G; Bluethmann, H; Wendel, A; Pfizenmaier, K; Kollias, G; Grell, M

    1997-11-01

    The significance of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) for TNF function in vivo is well documented, whereas the role of TNFR2 so far remains obscure. In a model of concanavalin A (Con A)-induced, CD4+ T cell-dependent experimental hepatitis in mice, in which TNF is a central mediator of apoptotic and necrotic liver damage, we now provide evidence for an essential in vivo function of TNFR2 in this pathophysiological process. We demonstrate that a cooperation of TNFR1 and TNFR2 is required for hepatotoxicity as mice deficient of either receptor were resistant against Con A. A significant role of TNFR2 for Con A-induced hepatitis is also shown by the enhanced sensitivity of transgenic mice overexpressing the human TNFR2. The ligand for cytotoxic signaling via both TNF receptors is the precursor of soluble TNF, i.e. transmembrane TNF. Indeed, transmembrane TNF is sufficient to mediate hepatic damage, as transgenic mice deficient in wild-type soluble TNF but expressing a mutated nonsecretable form of TNF developed inflammatory liver disease.

  19. Relationship among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function during early lactation in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Felix Diaz; Muiño, Rodrigo; Pereira, Víctor; Campos, Rómulo; Benedito, José Luis

    2011-09-01

    Blood indicators are used as a tool to diagnose metabolic disorders. The present work was conducted to study the relationships among blood indicators of lipomobilization and hepatic function in high-yielding dairy cows. Two groups of Holstein cows were studied: 27 early lactation cows and 14 mid lactation cows from four different herds with similar husbandry characteristics in Galicia, Spain. Blood samples were obtained to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triglycerides (TG), and the activity of aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Cows in early lactation had higher levels of BHB and NEFA than mid lactation cows. High lipomobilization (NEFA > 400 µmol/L) was detected in 67% and 7% of early lactation and mid lactation cows, respectively, while subclinical ketosis (BHB > 1.2 mmol/L) was detected in 41% and 28% of the early lactation and lactation cows, respectively. TG concentrations were low in all cows suffering subclinical ketosis and in 61% of the cows with high lipomobilization. During early lactation, 30% of cows suffered hepatic lipidosis as detected by levels of AST. Compromised hepatic function was observed in early lactation cows as shown by lower concentrations of glucose, total protein, and urea.

  20. Preemptive antiviral therapy with entecavir can reduce acute deterioration of hepatic function following transarterial chemoembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hong Yoo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Hepatic damage during transarterial chemoembolization (TACE is a critical complication in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Apart from its role in preventing HBV reactivation, there is some evidence for the benefits of preemptive antiviral therapy in TACE. This study evaluated the effect of preemptive antiviral therapy on acute hepatic deterioration following TACE. Methods This retrospective observational study included a prospectively collected cohort of 108 patients with HBV-related HCC who underwent TACE between January 2007 and January 2013. Acute hepatic deterioration following TACE was evaluated. Treatment-related hepatic decompensation was defined as newly developed encephalopathy, ascites, variceal bleeding, elevation of the bilirubin level, prolongation of prothrombin time, or elevation of the Child-Pugh score by ≥2 within 2 weeks following TACE. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify factors influencing treatment-related decompensation. Preemptive antiviral therapy involves directing prophylaxis only toward high-risk chronic hepatitis B patients in an attempt to prevent the progression of liver disease. We regarded at least 6 months as a significant duration of preemptive antiviral treatment before diagnosis of HCC. Results Of the 108 patients, 30 (27.8% patients received preemptive antiviral therapy. Treatment-related decompensation was observed in 25 (23.1% patients during the follow-up period. Treatment-related decompensation following TACE was observed more frequently in the nonpreemptive group than in the preemptive group (29.5% vs. 6.7%, P=0.008. In the multivariate analysis, higher serum total bilirubin (Hazard ratio [HR] =3.425, P=0.013, hypoalbuminemia (HR=3.990, P=0.015, and absence of antiviral therapy (HR=7.597, P=0.006 were significantly associated with treatment-related hepatic decompensation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that

  1. Identification of a functional, CRM-1-dependent nuclear export signal in hepatitis C virus core protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cerutti

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. HCV core protein is involved in nucleocapsid formation, but it also interacts with multiple cytoplasmic and nuclear molecules and plays a crucial role in the development of liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. The core protein is found mostly in the cytoplasm during HCV infection, but also in the nucleus in patients with hepatocarcinoma and in core-transgenic mice. HCV core contains nuclear localization signals (NLS, but no nuclear export signal (NES has yet been identified.We show here that the aa(109-133 region directs the translocation of core from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by the CRM-1-mediated nuclear export pathway. Mutagenesis of the three hydrophobic residues (L119, I123 and L126 in the identified NES or in the sequence encoding the mature core aa(1-173 significantly enhanced the nuclear localisation of the corresponding proteins in transfected Huh7 cells. Both the NES and the adjacent hydrophobic sequence in domain II of core were required to maintain the core protein or its fragments in the cytoplasmic compartment. Electron microscopy studies of the JFH1 replication model demonstrated that core was translocated into the nucleus a few minutes after the virus entered the cell. The blockade of nucleocytoplasmic export by leptomycin B treatment early in infection led to the detection of core protein in the nucleus by confocal microscopy and coincided with a decrease in virus replication.Our data suggest that the functional NLS and NES direct HCV core protein shuttling between the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, with at least some core protein transported to the nucleus. These new properties of HCV core may be essential for virus multiplication and interaction with nuclear molecules, influence cell signaling and the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  2. Identification of a functional, CRM-1-dependent nuclear export signal in hepatitis C virus core protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Andrea; Maillard, Patrick; Minisini, Rosalba; Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Roohvand, Farzin; Pecheur, Eve-Isabelle; Pirisi, Mario; Budkowska, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. HCV core protein is involved in nucleocapsid formation, but it also interacts with multiple cytoplasmic and nuclear molecules and plays a crucial role in the development of liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. The core protein is found mostly in the cytoplasm during HCV infection, but also in the nucleus in patients with hepatocarcinoma and in core-transgenic mice. HCV core contains nuclear localization signals (NLS), but no nuclear export signal (NES) has yet been identified.We show here that the aa(109-133) region directs the translocation of core from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by the CRM-1-mediated nuclear export pathway. Mutagenesis of the three hydrophobic residues (L119, I123 and L126) in the identified NES or in the sequence encoding the mature core aa(1-173) significantly enhanced the nuclear localisation of the corresponding proteins in transfected Huh7 cells. Both the NES and the adjacent hydrophobic sequence in domain II of core were required to maintain the core protein or its fragments in the cytoplasmic compartment. Electron microscopy studies of the JFH1 replication model demonstrated that core was translocated into the nucleus a few minutes after the virus entered the cell. The blockade of nucleocytoplasmic export by leptomycin B treatment early in infection led to the detection of core protein in the nucleus by confocal microscopy and coincided with a decrease in virus replication.Our data suggest that the functional NLS and NES direct HCV core protein shuttling between the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, with at least some core protein transported to the nucleus. These new properties of HCV core may be essential for virus multiplication and interaction with nuclear molecules, influence cell signaling and the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  3. Estradiol improves cardiac and hepatic function after trauma-hemorrhage: role of enhanced heat shock protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, László; Shimizu, Tomoharu; Suzuki, Takao; Yu, Huang-Ping; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Schwacha, Martin G; Rue, Loring W; Bland, Kirby I; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2006-03-01

    Although studies indicate that 17beta-estradiol administration after trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) improves cardiac and hepatic functions, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Because the induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) can protect cardiac and hepatic functions, we hypothesized that these proteins contribute to the salutary effects of estradiol after T-H. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats ( approximately 300 g) underwent laparotomy and hemorrhagic shock (35-40 mmHg for approximately 90 min) followed by resuscitation with four times the shed blood volume in the form of Ringer lactate. 17beta-estradiol (1 mg/kg body wt) was administered at the end of the resuscitation. Five hours after T-H and resuscitation there was a significant decrease in cardiac output, positive and negative maximal rate of left ventricular pressure. Liver function as determined by bile production and indocyanine green clearance was also compromised after T-H and resuscitation. This was accompanied by an increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and liver perfusate lactic dehydrogenase levels. Furthermore, circulating levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 were also increased. In addition to decreased cardiac and hepatic function, there was an increase in cardiac HSP32 expression and a reduction in HSP60 expression after T-H. In the liver, HSP32 and HSP70 were increased after T-H. There was no change in heart HSP70 and liver HSP60 after T-H and resuscitation. Estradiol administration at the end of T-H and resuscitation increased heart/liver HSPs expression, ameliorated the impairment of heart/liver functions, and significantly prevented the increase in plasma levels of ALT, TNF-alpha, and IL-6. The ability of estradiol to induce HSPs expression in the heart and the liver suggests that HSPs, in part, mediate the salutary effects of 17beta-estradiol on organ functions after T-H.

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often ...

  5. Hepatitis C virus cure does not impact kidney function decline in HIV co-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carmine; Saeed, Sahar; Cox, Joseph; Vachon, Marie-Louise; Martel-Laferrière, Valérie; Walmsley, Sharon L; Cooper, Curtis; Gill, M John; Hull, Mark; Moodie, Erica E M; Klein, Marina B

    2018-03-27

    To examine the impact of sustained virologic response (SVR) and illicit (injection and noninjection) drug use on kidney function among hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV co-infected individuals. Longitudinal observational cohort study of HCV-HIV co-infected patients. Data from 1631 patients enrolled in the Canadian Co-Infection Cohort between 2003 and 2016 were analyzed. Patients who achieved SVR were matched 1 : 2 with chronically infected patients using time-dependent propensity scores. Linear regression with generalized estimating equations was used to model differences in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) between chronic HCV-infected patients and those achieving SVR. The relationship between illicit drug use and eGFR was explored in patients who achieved SVR. We identified 384 co-infected patients who achieved SVR (53% treated with interferon-free antiviral regimens) and 768 propensity-score matched patients with chronic HCV infection. Most patients were men (78%) and white (87%), with a median age of 51 years (interquartile range: 45-56). During 1767 person-years of follow-up, 4041 eGFR measurements were available for analysis. Annual rates of decline in eGFR were similar between patients with SVR [-1.32 (ml/min per 1.73 m)/year, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.75 to -0.90] and chronic infection [-1.19 (ml/min per 1.73 m) per year, 95% CI -1.55 to -0.84]. Among SVR patients, recent injection cocaine use was associated with rapid eGFR decline [-2.16 (ml/min per 1.73 m)/year, 95% CI -4.17 to -0.16]. SVR did not reduce the rate of kidney function decline among HCV-HIV co-infected patients. Increased risk of chronic kidney disease in co-infection may not be related to persistent HCV replication but to ongoing injection cocaine use.

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ... A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice In Newborns Diseases of the Liver ...

  7. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  8. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... in their blood (sometimes referred to as the hepatitis B viral load) and an unusually high level of a ...

  9. Analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic hepatic carcinoma via functional modules in a protein-protein interaction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aims to identify protein clusters with potential functional relevance in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and metastatic hepatic carcinoma using network analysis. Materials and Methods: We used human protein interaction data to build a protein-protein interaction network with Cytoscape and then derived functional clusters using MCODE. Combining the gene expression profiles, we calculated the functional scores for the clusters and selected statistically significant clusters. Meanwhile, Gene Ontology was used to assess the functionality of these clusters. Finally, a support vector machine was trained on the gold standard data sets. Results: The differentially expressed genes of HCC were mainly involved in metabolic and signaling processes. We acquired 13 significant modules from the gene expression profiles. The area under the curve value based on the differentially expressed modules were 98.31%, which outweighed the classification with DEGs. Conclusions: Differentially expressed modules are valuable to screen biomarkers combined with functional modules.

  10. Fractional excretion of beta-2-microglobulin in the urine of patients with normal or reduced renal function and hepatic coma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Dalhoff, K; Joffe, P

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2m) as a differential diagnostic indicator between hepatic nephropathy (HN) and acute tubulointerstitial nephropathy (ATIN) in patients with reduced renal function and hepatic coma, and to determine whether beta 2m...... excretion could be used as a marker of renal impairment before increased serum creatinine (S-Cr) concentration or decreased creatinine clearance (Cr-Cl). Finally, the use of beta 2m as a prognostic indicator was investigated. Eighteen patients in hepatic coma grade III-IV were entered in the study and were...... to the small number of patients. FE-beta 2m could not predict the development of renal failure earlier than the increase in S-Cr or decrease in Cr-Cl. However, a few patients who survived paracetamol intoxication had increased FE-beta 2M in the beginning of the coma and normal S-Cr and Cr-Cl. Patients who died...

  11. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A improves hepatic differentiation of immortalized adult human hepatocytes and improves liver function and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Hua-Lian; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hai-Tian; Xu, Ning; Bian, Jian-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Xia, Lei; Xia, Qiang

    2017-11-15

    Immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) could provide an unlimited supply of hepatocytes, but insufficient differentiation and phenotypic instability restrict their clinical application. This study aimed to determine the role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) in hepatic differentiation of IHH, and whether encapsulation of IHH overexpressing HNF4A could improve liver function and survival in rats with acute liver failure (ALF). Primary human hepatocytes were transduced with lentivirus-mediated catalytic subunit of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) to establish IHH. Cells were analyzed for telomerase activity, proliferative capacity, hepatocyte markers, and tumorigenicity (c-myc) expression. Hepatocyte markers, hepatocellular functions, and morphology were studied in the HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. Hepatocyte markers and karyotype analysis were completed in the primary hepatocytes using shRNA knockdown of HNF4A. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin was assessed. Rat models of ALF were treated with encapsulated IHH or HNF4A-overexpressing IHH. A HNF4A-positive IHH line was established, which was non-tumorigenic and conserved properties of primary hepatocytes. HNF4A overexpression significantly enhanced mRNA levels of genes related to hepatic differentiation in IHH. Urea levels were increased by the overexpression of HNF4A, as measured 24h after ammonium chloride addition, similar to that of primary hepatocytes. Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in primary hepatocytes transfected with HNF4A shRNA. HNF4α overexpression could significantly promote β-catenin activation. Transplantation of HNF4A overexpressing IHH resulted in better liver function and survival of rats with ALF compared with IHH. HNF4A improved hepatic differentiation of IHH. Transplantation of HNF4A-overexpressing IHH could improve the liver function and survival in a rat model of ALF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of radiological prognostic factors of hepatic metastases in patients with non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denecke, Timm [Klinik für Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Baur, Alexander D.J., E-mail: alexander.baur@charite.de [Klinik für Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Ihm, Claudia; Steffen, Ingo G. [Klinik für Radiologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Tischer, Elisabeth [Medizinische Klinik m.S. Hepatologie Gastroenterologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Arsenic, Ruza [Institut für Pathologie, Campus Charité Mitte, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Pascher, Andreas [Klinik für Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Transplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Wiedenmann, Bertram; Pavel, Marianne [Medizinische Klinik m.S. Hepatologie Gastroenterologie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: There are different therapeutic options in non-functional well to moderately differentiated (G1 and G2) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) with unresectable hepatic metastases including systemic chemotherapy and novel molecular targeted therapies. Treatment with somatostatin analogs (SSA) as antiproliferative agents is optional. At initial diagnosis watchful waiting until tumor progression is a well-established approach. Goal of this study was to evaluate imaging features as potential prognostic factors predicting early tumor progression in order to select patients that might benefit from an earlier initiation of medical treatment. Patients and methods: In 44 patients we correlated tumor grade, chromogranin A (CgA) levels, treatment with SSA and imaging features of hepatic metastases on contrast-enhanced multiphase CT and MR imaging with time to tumor progression (TTP) according to RECIST 1.0. Results: In the total patient cohort none of the tested imaging features was found to be a statistically significant prognostic factor for TTP. Since treatment with SSA was associated with an increased TTP we also analyzed a subgroup of 30 patients not treated with SSA. In this subgroup of patients hypoenhancement of hepatic metastases during early contrast phases was found to be a negative prognostic factor for early tumor progression within 12 months (p = 0.039). The other evaluated parameters including hepatic tumor load, number of metastases, and presence of regressive morphological changes did not reveal significant results. Conclusion: Hypovascularization of liver metastases from G1 and G2 pNET reflected by hypoenhancement during the early contrast phases seems to be associated with early tumor progression. In patients with hypoenhancing metastases repeated biopsy for reassessment of grading of these metastases, and early initiation of therapy should be considered.

  13. Influence of autologous blood transfusion in liver transplantation in patients with hepatitis B on the function and hemorheology of red blood cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiangfu; Fan, Ruifang; Lu, Ying; Kuang, Lihua; Yuan, Qing; Chen, Yuchan; Lin, Zhesheng; Lin, Dongjun

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the function and hemorheology of red blood cells (RBCs) recovered during liver transplantation surgery in patients with hepatitis B and decompensation. A total of 15 hepatitis B patients with decompensation who underwent liver transplantation surgery were included in the present study. Blood samples were recovered during the liver transplantation surgery using an Autologous Blood Recovery System. The morphology and structure of RBCs were characterized a...

  14. T-bet-mediated Tim-3 expression dampens monocyte function during chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wenjing; Zhang, Peixin; Liang, Yan; Zhou, Yun; Shen, Huanjun; Fan, Chao; Moorman, Jonathan P; Yao, Zhi Q; Jia, Zhansheng; Zhang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces a high rate of chronic infection via dysregulation of host immunity. We have previously shown that T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein-3 (Tim-3) is up-regulated on monocyte/macrophages (M/Mφ) during chronic HCV infection; little is known, however, about the transcription factor that controls its expression in these cells. In this study, we investigated the role of transcription factor, T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet), in Tim-3 expression in M/Mφ in the setting of HCV infection. We demonstrate that T-bet is constitutively expressed in resting CD14 + M/Mφ in the peripheral blood. M/Mφ from chronically HCV-infected individuals exhibit a significant increase in T-bet expression that positively correlates with an increased level of Tim-3 expression. Up-regulation of T-bet is also observed in CD14 + M/Mφ incubated with HCV + Huh7.5 cells, as well as in primary M/Mφ or monocytic THP-1 cells exposed to HCV core protein in vitro, which is reversible by blocking HCV core/gC1qR interactions. Moreover, the HCV core-induced up-regulation of T-bet and Tim-3 expression in M/Mφ can be abrogated by incubating the cells with SP600125 - an inhibitor for the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling pathway. Importantly, silencing T-bet gene expression decreases Tim-3 expression and enhances interleukin-12 secretion as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 phosphorylation. These data suggest that T-bet, induced by the HCV core/gC1qR interaction, enhances Tim-3 expression via the JNK pathway, leading to dampened M/Mφ function during HCV infection. These findings reveal a novel mechanism for Tim-3 regulation via T-bet during HCV infection, providing new targets to combat this global epidemic viral disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Neuropsychological functioning among individuals infected with hepatitis C: a comparison of pre- and post-transplant performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Sakamoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available t is well established that patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD experience cognitive and mood problems; however, little is known about changes in cognitive and emotional functioning following liver transplantation, especially over the past decade with the epidemic of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection taking over as the leading indication for liver transplantation. Seventeen patients with ESLD secondary to chronic HCV were assessed pre- and post-liver transplantation using a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. After an average of four years post-transplant, patients demonstrated significant improvements in most cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms. However, 18% of liver recipients continued to exhibit mild cognitive impairment mainly in areas of attention/executive functioning, motor speed, and learning. Liver transplantation is a life-extending surgery that reverses most, but not all, cognitive and mood difficulties. It is crucial to evaluate cognition after liver transplantation, especially in these three domains, and to consider the effect on daily functioning.

  16. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β deletion increases mitochondrial function and protects mice from LXR-induced hepatic steatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Shaikh M.; Choudhury, Mahua; Janssen, Rachel C.; Baquero, Karalee C.; Miyazaki, Makoto; Friedman, Jacob E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► LXR agonist activation increases liver TG accumulation by increasing lipogenesis. ► C/EBPβ −/− mouse prevents LXR activation-mediated induction of hepatic lipogenesis. ► C/EBPβ deletion increases mitochondrial transport chain function. ► Beneficial effects of LXR activation on liver cholesterol metabolism did not change. ► C/EBPβ inhibition might have important therapeutic potential. -- Abstract: Drugs designed specifically to activate liver X receptors (LXRs) have beneficial effects on lowering cholesterol metabolism and inflammation but unfortunately lead to severe hepatic steatosis. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) is an important regulator of liver gene expression but little is known about its involvement in LXR-based steatosis and cholesterol metabolism. The present study investigated the role of C/EBPβ expression in LXR agonist (T0901317)-mediated alteration of hepatic triglyceride (TG) and lipogenesis in mice. C/EBPβ deletion in mice prevented LXR agonist-mediated induction of lipogenic gene expression in liver in conjunction with significant reduction of liver TG accumulation. Surprisingly, C/EBPβ −/− mice showed a major increase in liver mitochondrial electron chain function compared to WT mice. Furthermore, LXR activation in C/EBPβ −/− mice increased the expression of liver ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG1, a gene implicated in cholesterol efflux and reducing blood levels of total and LDL-cholesterol. Together, these findings establish a central role for C/EBPβ in the LXR-mediated steatosis and mitochondrial function, without impairing the influence of LXR activation on lowering LDL and increasing HDL-cholesterol. Inactivation of C/EBPβ might therefore be an important therapeutic strategy to prevent LXR activation-mediated adverse effects on liver TG metabolism without disrupting its beneficial effects on cholesterol metabolism.

  17. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein {beta} deletion increases mitochondrial function and protects mice from LXR-induced hepatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Shaikh M., E-mail: rmizanoor@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Choudhury, Mahua; Janssen, Rachel C.; Baquero, Karalee C. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Miyazaki, Makoto [Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Friedman, Jacob E. [Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LXR agonist activation increases liver TG accumulation by increasing lipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mouse prevents LXR activation-mediated induction of hepatic lipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta} deletion increases mitochondrial transport chain function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Beneficial effects of LXR activation on liver cholesterol metabolism did not change. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C/EBP{beta} inhibition might have important therapeutic potential. -- Abstract: Drugs designed specifically to activate liver X receptors (LXRs) have beneficial effects on lowering cholesterol metabolism and inflammation but unfortunately lead to severe hepatic steatosis. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBP{beta}) is an important regulator of liver gene expression but little is known about its involvement in LXR-based steatosis and cholesterol metabolism. The present study investigated the role of C/EBP{beta} expression in LXR agonist (T0901317)-mediated alteration of hepatic triglyceride (TG) and lipogenesis in mice. C/EBP{beta} deletion in mice prevented LXR agonist-mediated induction of lipogenic gene expression in liver in conjunction with significant reduction of liver TG accumulation. Surprisingly, C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mice showed a major increase in liver mitochondrial electron chain function compared to WT mice. Furthermore, LXR activation in C/EBP{beta}{sup -/-} mice increased the expression of liver ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCG1, a gene implicated in cholesterol efflux and reducing blood levels of total and LDL-cholesterol. Together, these findings establish a central role for C/EBP{beta} in the LXR-mediated steatosis and mitochondrial function, without impairing the influence of LXR activation on lowering LDL and increasing HDL-cholesterol. Inactivation of C/EBP{beta} might therefore be an important therapeutic strategy to prevent LXR

  18. Biomarkers of fibrosis and impaired liver function in chronic hepatitis C: how well do they predict clinical outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, L.; Rockstroh, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent literature on the prognostic value of biomarkers of liver fibrosis and impaired liver function in patients with chronic hepatitis C with or without HIV coinfection. RECENT FINDINGS: A combination of standard blood tests seems to be useful in identifying...... levels of the fibrosis marker hyaluronic acid are a strong predictor of clinical complications. A smaller study found hyaluronic acid and two other fibrosis tests, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and Fib-4, to be independent predictors of mortality when included in models...

  19. Determination of the integrated CT number of the whole liver in patients with severe hepatitis. As an indicator of the functional reserve of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumahara, Tadashi; Muto, Yasutoshi; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Yoshida, Takashi; Tomita, Eiichi (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the functional reserve of the liver of patients with severe hepatitis by computed tomography (CT), in particular employing the integrated CT number of the whole liver (ICTN). ICTN was calculated by integrating the product of 'area' times 'mean CT number' of the liver in each CT slice for the entire height of the liver. The following results were obtained: (1) In patients with fulminant hepatitis (FH) as well as those with subacute hepatitis (SAH), ICTN was found to be significantly lower as compared to that of patients with acute hepatitis (AH) or non-hepatic diseases. In addition, in FH and SAH patients, ICTN showed a larger degree of decrease when compared with such conventional parameters as either estimated liver volume or mean hepatic CT number. Thus, ICTN seems to more sensitively reflect the changes in functional reserve of the liver. (2) ICTN showed significant positive correlations with prothrombin time and plasma BCAA/AAA ratio, and a significant negative correlation with plasma methionine level. (3) Time course of changes in ICTN correlated well with the clinical features of severe hepatitis. In particular, patients with initial ICTN values above 20 lcenter dotHU/m/sup 2/ of body surface area showed significantly higher survival rate than those with initial ICTN below 20. In conclusion, ICTN well indicates the functional reserve of the liver, and is further suggested to be valuable as a parameter to predict the prognosis of patients with severe hepatitis. (author).

  20. Methadone hydrochloride: acute administration, disposition and effects on hepatic function in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, R C; Ecobichon, D J

    1981-01-01

    d,1-Methadone hydrochloride was administered orally to adult female albino guinea pigs at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight every 12 h for 10 consecutive days. Twelve hours after a dose, subgroups of animals were sacrificed at 2, 5 and 10 days for tissue (blood plasma, brain, liver and kidney) methadone residue analysis and the in vitro measurement of hepatic microsomal p-nitroanisole O-demethylase (OD), aniline hydroxylase (AH) and glucuronosyltransferase (GT) activities. No overt toxicity was observed during treatment other than a decrease in body weight. Withdrawal signs were absent during the 14-day post-treatment regression period. Tissue methadone levels were constant except for a decreased concentration in the liver at 5 and 10 days. No effect on hepatic OD and AH was observed during treatment but a significant decrease in GT activity was measured which returned to normal values 14 days after terminating treatment.

  1. Alcohol alters hepatic FoxO1, p53, and mitochondrial SIRT5 deacetylation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieber, Charles S.; Leo, Maria Anna; Wang, Xiaolei; DeCarli, Leonore M.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption affects the gene expression of a NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuis 1 (SIRT1) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator1α (PGC-1α). Our aim was to verify that it also alters the forkhead (FoxO1) and p53 transcription factor proteins, critical in the hepatic response to oxidative stress and regulated by SIRT1 through its deacetylating capacity. Accordingly, rats were pair-fed the Lieber-DeCarli alcohol-containing liquid diets for 28 days. Alcohol increased hepatic mRNA expression of FoxO1 (p = 0.003) and p53 (p = 0.001) while corresponding protein levels remained unchanged. However phospho-FoxO1 and phospho-Akt (protein kinase) were both decreased by alcohol consumption (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively) while hepatic p53 was found hyperacetylated (p = 0.017). Furthermore, mitochondrial SIRT5 was reduced (p = 0.0025), and PGC-1α hyperacetylated (p = 0.027), establishing their role in protein modification. Thus, alcohol consumption disrupts nuclear-mitochondrial interactions by post-translation protein modifications, which contribute to alteration of mitochondrial biogenesis through the newly discovered reduction of SIRT5

  2. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salfeld, J.; Pfaff, E.; Noah, M.; Schaller, H.

    1989-01-01

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen [HBcAg]) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen [HBeAg]). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis virus nucleocapsid

  3. The role of PTEN in regulation of hepatic macrophages activation and function in progression and reversal of liver fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yahui; Tian, Yuanyao; Xia, Jialu; Wu, Xiaoqin; Yang, Yang; Li, Xiaofeng; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Ma, Taotao; Li, Jun, E-mail: lj@ahmu.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The progression and reversal of CCl{sub 4}-induced mouse liver fibrosis showed a mixed induction of hepatic classical (M1) and alternative (M2) macrophage markers. Although the role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in modulating myeloid cell activation has recently been identified, its function in macrophage activation during hepatic fibrosis remains to be fully appreciated. In our study, PTEN expression of KCs was remarkably decreased in CCl{sub 4}-induced mice but increased to a near-normal level in reversed mice. Moreover, PTEN was significantly decreased in IL4-induced RAW 264.7 cells in vitro and lower expression of PTEN was observed in M2 macrophages in vivo. In addition, loss- and gain-of-function studies suggested that PTEN regulates M2 macrophages polarization via activation of PI3K/Akt/STAT6 signaling, but had a limited effect on M1 macrophages polarization in vitro. Additionally, Ly294002, a chemical inhibitor of PI3K/Akt, could dramatically down-regulate the hallmarks of M2 macrophages. In conclusion, PTEN mediates macrophages activation by PI3K/Akt/STAT6 signaling pathway, which provides novel compelling evidences on the potential of PTEN in liver injury and opens new cellular target for the pharmacological therapy of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • CCl{sub 4} treatment triggered a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype in fibrosis. • Lower expression of PTEN in murine M2 macrophages in vivo and vitro. • PTEN modulates M2 macrophages activation via PI3K/Akt/STAT6 signaling. • Provide a new cellular target modulate macrophage mediated hepatic fibrosis.

  4. Dose-effect relationship between the thorium lung burden and the hepatic function of the miners at the Bayan Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yong-e; Chen, Xing-an

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the dose effect relationship between the thorium lung burden and the hepatic function of the miners at the Bayun Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine. The methods we used is to carry out the measurement of each miner.s exhaled thoron activity and the thorium lung burden along with the four hepatic functions (thymol turbidity test, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, thymol flocculation test and alkaline phosphatase)of the dust exposed miners in Bayun Obo Rare-earth Iron Mine. We have carried out three investigations in 1983, 1984-1987 and 1994 respectively. Results showed that during the period 1983-1994, 1158 measurements of thorium lung burden estimates and 1158 measurement of every four hepatic functions(altogether 4632 measurements) were performed on 638 dust-exposed miners. No adverse effects were observed. In the same time, none of the above-mentioned 638 exposed miners had a thorium lung burden higher than 11.11 Bq. It is concluded that if any miners. thorium lung burden not higher than 11.11 Bq, his four hepatic functions should not be affected. This first possible threshold for thorium lung burden affecting the hepatic functions was put forward by the authors and confirmed by the Information Center of Chinese Academy of Medical Science in 2003 after searching 23.6 million references. (author)

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 (von Gierke) Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Jaundice ... diseases. What are the common causes of cirrhosis? Hepatitis B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty ...

  6. Hepatic fibrosis and carcinogenesis in α1-antitrypsin deficiency: a prototype for chronic tissue damage in gain-of-function disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David H; Silverman, Gary A

    2011-03-01

    In α1-antitrypsin (AT) deficiency, a point mutation renders a hepatic secretory glycoprotein prone to misfolding and polymerization. The mutant protein accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells and causes hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma by a gain-of-function mechanism. Genetic and/or environmental modifiers determine whether an affected homozygote is susceptible to hepatic fibrosis/carcinoma. Two types of proteostasis mechanisms for such modifiers have been postulated: variation in the function of intracellular degradative mechanisms and/or variation in the signal transduction pathways that are activated to protect the cell from protein mislocalization and/or aggregation. In recent studies we found that carbamazepine, a drug that has been used safely as an anticonvulsant and mood stabilizer, reduces the hepatic load of mutant AT and hepatic fibrosis in a mouse model by enhancing autophagic disposal of this mutant protein. These results provide evidence that pharmacological manipulation of endogenous proteostasis mechanisms is an appealing strategy for chemoprophylaxis in disorders involving gain-of-function mechanisms.

  7. Effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on hepatic function in obstructive jaundice: an experimental study in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Erdal Birol; Yol, Sinan; Teke, Zafer; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Sakaogullari, Zisan; Ozel Turkcu, Ummuhani; Bilgihan, Ayse; Akoglu, Musa

    2010-08-01

    The physiology of the patient during laparoscopy differs from that of open surgery. Both pneumoperitoneum and obstructive jaundice impair the hepatic function, but the combined insult has not been previously examined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) pneumoperitoneum on hepatic function in a rat model of obstructive jaundice. Forty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: group 1 (n = 10), sham-operated group; group 2 (n = 12), obstructive jaundice group; group 3 (n = 10), CO(2) pneumoperitoneum group; and group 4 (n = 12), obstructive jaundice and CO(2) pneumoperitoneum group. Common bile duct was ligated and divided in the obstructive jaundice groups. After 6 days, a 12-mmHg pneumoperitoneum was induced, maintained for 60 min, and released for 120 min. Blood samples were drawn for the measurement of white blood cell and platelet counts, serum liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], total bilirubin). Tissue samples were obtained for analyses of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. We evaluated the degree of liver injury on a grading scale from 0 to 4, histopathologically. Pneumoperitoneum after biliary obstruction resulted in an increase in AST and ALT levels and a decrease in white blood cell and platelet counts. However, changes in liver tissue MDA, GSH, and SOD levels did not correlate with the changes in AST and ALT levels and white blood cell and platelet counts. After sham operation with pneumoperitoneum, the GSH levels in liver homogenate were significantly decreased in the group 3 when compared to the group 2. On the other hand, obstructive jaundice itself caused significant reduction in the SOD activity of liver homogenate in comparison to the group 3. Histopathologically, sinusoidal congestion and vacuolization were more severe in the group 3. Alterations in hepatic function occur in pneumoperitoneum applied

  8. [Phenotypic and functional features of NK and NKT cells in chronic hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaofei; Li, Man; Sun, Xuehua; Zhou, Zhenhua; Zhu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Xin; Gao, Yueqiu

    2015-06-01

    To detect the ratio of natural killer (NK)/natural killer T (NKT) cells in peripheral blood, the levels of NKG2D/NKG2A, interferon γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were harvested from CHB patients. The ratio of NK/NKT cells in PBMCs and the levels of NKG2D and NKG2A were detected by flow cytometry. The expressions of intracellular IFN-γ and TNF-α were analyzed by flow cytometry after the treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), brefeldin A (BFA) or ionomycin in vitro. The comparison between two groups was performed by independent sample t-test. The relationship of each index to hepatitis B virus load and serum alanine aminotransferase was analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Compared with healthy controls, CHB patients presented with significantly decreased peripheral blood NK/NKT cell ratio and significantly elevated proportions of NKG2A+ NK and NKG2A+NKT cells, and after the treatment with PMA/BFA/ionomycin, IFN-γ+ NK and IFN-γ+ NKT cells were significantly reduced in CHB patients. NK and NKT cells showed a reduced ratio, disordered receptor expressions and decreased cytokine secretion capacity in CHB patients.

  9. Chloride concentrations in human hepatic cytosol and mitochondria are a function of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Stephan C; Rowland-Faux, Laura; Stacpoole, Peter W; James, Margaret O

    2015-04-10

    We recently reported that, in a concentration-dependent manner, chloride protects hepatic glutathione transferase zeta 1 from inactivation by dichloroacetate, an investigational drug used in treating various acquired and congenital metabolic diseases. Despite the importance of chloride ions in normal physiology, and decades of study of chloride transport across membranes, the literature lacks information on chloride concentrations in animal tissues other than blood. In this study we measured chloride concentrations in human liver samples from male and female donors aged 1 day to 84 years (n = 97). Because glutathione transferase zeta 1 is present in cytosol and, to a lesser extent, in mitochondria, we measured chloride in these fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis following conversion of the free chloride to pentafluorobenzylchloride. We found that chloride concentration decreased with age in hepatic cytosol but increased in liver mitochondria. In addition, chloride concentrations in cytosol, (105.2 ± 62.4 mM; range: 24.7-365.7 mM) were strikingly higher than those in mitochondria (4.2 ± 3.8 mM; range 0.9-22.2 mM). These results suggest a possible explanation for clinical observations seen in patients treated with dichloroacetate, whereby children metabolize the drug more rapidly than adults following repeated doses, and also provide information that may influence our understanding of normal liver physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Direct vs. indirect pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis as a function of glucose infusion rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagby, G.J.; Lang, C.H.; Johnson, J.L.; Blakesly, H.L.; Spitzer, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was initiated to determine the influence of the rate of exogenous glucose administration on liver glycogen synthesis by the direct (glucose uptake and incorporation into glycogen) vs the indirect pathway (glucose degradation to 3-carbon intermediates, e.g., lactate, prior to incorporation into glycogen). Catheterized rats were fasted 2 days prior to receiving a 3 hr infusion of glucose at rates of 0 to 230 μmol/min/kg containing tracer [6- 3 H]- and [U- 14 C]-glucose. Plasma glucose (r = 0.80), insulin (r = 0.90) and lactate (r = 0.84) were correlated with glucose infusion rate. The rate of liver glycogen deposition (0.46 +/- 0.03 μmol/min/g) did not differ between a glucose infusion rate of 20 and 230 μmol/min/kg. At the lowest and highest glucose infusion rates hepatic glycogenesis accounted for 87 +/- 6 and 9 +/- 1% of the total glucose load, respectively. The percent contribution of the direct pathways to glycogen deposition ([ 3 H] specific activity in hepatic glycogen/[ 3 H] specific activity in plasma glucose) increased from 16 +/- 3 to 83 +/- 5% from lowest to highest glucose infusion rates (prevailing plasma glucose concentrations: 9 +/- 1 and 21 +/- 2 mM, respectively). The results indicate that the relative contribution of the direct and indirect pathways of glucogen synthesis are dependent upon the glucose load or plasma glucose concentration

  11. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  12. Administration of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells restores liver regeneration and improves liver function in obese mice with hepatic steatosis after partial hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezquer, Fernando; Bahamonde, Javiera; Huang, Ya-Lin; Ezquer, Marcelo

    2017-01-28

    The liver has the remarkable capacity to regenerate in order to compensate for lost or damaged hepatic tissue. However, pre-existing pathological abnormalities, such as hepatic steatosis (HS), inhibits the endogenous regenerative process, becoming an obstacle for liver surgery and living donor transplantation. Recent evidence indicates that multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) administration can improve hepatic function and increase the potential for liver regeneration in patients with liver damage. Since HS is the most common form of chronic hepatic illness, in this study we evaluated the role of MSCs in liver regeneration in an animal model of severe HS with impaired liver regeneration. C57BL/6 mice were fed with a regular diet (normal mice) or with a high-fat diet (obese mice) to induce HS. After 30 weeks of diet exposure, 70% hepatectomy (Hpx) was performed and normal and obese mice were divided into two groups that received 5 × 10 5 MSCs or vehicle via the tail vein immediately after Hpx. We confirmed a significant inhibition of hepatic regeneration when liver steatosis was present, while the hepatic regenerative response was promoted by infusion of MSCs. Specifically, MSC administration improved the hepatocyte proliferative response, PCNA-labeling index, DNA synthesis, liver function, and also reduced the number of apoptotic hepatocytes. These effects may be associated to the paracrine secretion of trophic factors by MSCs and the hepatic upregulation of key cytokines and growth factors relevant for cell proliferation, which ultimately improves the survival rate of the mice. MSCs represent a promising therapeutic strategy to improve liver regeneration in patients with HS as well as for increasing the number of donor organs available for transplantation.

  13. Functional and physical molecular size of the chicken hepatic lectin determined by radiation inactivation and sedimentation equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steer, C.J.; Osborne, J.C. Jr.; Kempner, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation inactivation and sedimentation equilibrium analysis were used to determine the functional and physical size of the chicken hepatic membrane receptor that binds N-acetylglucosamine-terminated glycoproteins. Purified plasma membranes from chicken liver were irradiated with high energy electrons and assayed for 125I-agalactoorosomucoid binding. Increasing the dose of ionizing radiation resulted in a monoexponential decay in binding activity due to a progressive loss of binding sites. The molecular mass of the chicken lectin, determined in situ by target analysis, was 69,000 +/- 9,000 Da. When the same irradiated membranes were solubilized in Brij 58 and assayed, the binding protein exhibited a target size of 62,000 +/- 4,000 Da; in Triton X-100, the functional size of the receptor was 85,000 +/- 10,000 Da. Sedimentation equilibrium measurements of the purified binding protein yielded a lower limit molecular weight of 79,000 +/- 7,000. However, the solubilized lectin was detected as a heterogeneous population of oligomers with molecular weights as high as 450,000. Addition of calcium or calcium plus N-acetylglucosamine decreased the higher molecular weight species, but the lower limit molecular weights remained invariant. Similar results were determined when the chicken lectin was solubilized in Brij 58, C12E9, or 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane-sulfonic acid (CHAPS). Results from the present study suggest that in the plasma membrane, the functional species of the chicken hepatic lectin exists as a trimer. However, in detergent solution, the purified receptor forms a heterogeneous population of irreversible oligomers that exhibit binding activity proportional to size

  14. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary ...

  15. Hepatic encephalopathy. Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Maria Claudia; Bermudez Munoz, Sonia; J Morillo, Anibal

    2007-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy occurs in patients with chronic hepatic insufficiency and can produce abnormalities in the central nervous system, which can be observed in MRI studies. Traditionally, these imaging findings include symmetrical hyper intensities in T1-weighted sequences in the basal ganglia (mainly globus pallidus), involving also the substantia nigra, mesencephalic tegmentum, frontal and occipital cortex. These areas appear of normal intensity in T2-weighted imaging sequences. Other entities that can lead to similar findings include manganese intoxication and type-1 neurofibromatosis. Currently, with the advent of MR spectroscopy, abnormalities in patients with clinical and subclinical hepatic encephalopathy have been described. After hepatic transplantation, hyper intensities of the basal ganglia and the MR spectroscopic findings may disappear within 3 months to 1 year, suggesting a functional, more than a structural damage. This article will demonstrate the MR findings of patients with hepatic encephalopathy due to chronic hepatic insufficiency.

  16. Hepatic regeneration and functional recovery following partial liver resection in an experimental model of hepatic steatosis treated with omega-3 fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, H. A.; de Graaf, W.; Heger, M.; van Golen, R. F.; ten Kate, F. J. W.; Bennink, R.; van Gulik, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) have been shown to reduce experimental hepatic steatosis and protect the liver from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of omega-3 FAs on regeneration of steatotic liver. Steatosis was induced in rats by a 3-week

  17. Alcohol-induced defects in hepatic transcytosis may be explained by impaired dynein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebner, Jennifer L; Fernandez, David J; Tuma, Dean J; Tuma, Pamela L

    2014-12-01

    Alcoholic liver disease has been clinically well described, but the molecular mechanisms leading to hepatotoxicity have not been fully elucidated. Previously, we determined that microtubules are hyperacetylated and more stable in ethanol-treated WIF-B cells, VL-17A cells, liver slices, and in livers from ethanol-fed rats. From our recent studies, we believe that these modifications can explain alcohol-induced defects in microtubule motor-dependent protein trafficking including nuclear translocation of a subset of transcription factors. Since cytoplasmic dynein/dynactin is known to mediate both microtubule-dependent translocation and basolateral to apical/canalicular transcytosis, we predicted that transcytosis is impaired in ethanol-treated hepatic cells. We monitored transcytosis of three classes of newly synthesized canalicular proteins in polarized, hepatic WIF-B cells, an emerging model system for the study of liver disease. As predicted, canalicular delivery of all proteins tested was impaired in ethanol-treated cells. Unlike in control cells, transcytosing proteins were observed in discrete sub-canalicular puncta en route to the canalicular surface that aligned along acetylated microtubules. We further determined that the stalled transcytosing proteins colocalized with dynein/dynactin in treated cells. No changes in vesicle association were observed for either dynein or dynactin in ethanol-treated cells, but significantly enhanced dynein binding to microtubules was observed. From these results, we propose that enhanced dynein binding to microtubules in ethanol-treated cells leads to decreased motor processivity resulting in vesicle stalling and in impaired canalicular delivery. Our studies also importantly indicate that modulating cellular acetylation levels with clinically tolerated deacetylase agonists may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating alcoholic liver disease.

  18. Functional proteomic analysis of corticosteroid pharmacodynamics in rat liver: Relationship to hepatic stress, signaling, energy regulation, and drug metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyar, Vivaswath S; Almon, Richard R; DuBois, Debra C; Sukumaran, Siddharth; Qu, Jun; Jusko, William J

    2017-05-08

    Corticosteroids (CS) are anti-inflammatory agents that cause extensive pharmacogenomic and proteomic changes in multiple tissues. An understanding of the proteome-wide effects of CS in liver and its relationships to altered hepatic and systemic physiology remains incomplete. Here, we report the application of a functional pharmacoproteomic approach to gain integrated insight into the complex nature of CS responses in liver in vivo. An in-depth functional analysis was performed using rich pharmacodynamic (temporal-based) proteomic data measured over 66h in rat liver following a single dose of methylprednisolone (MPL). Data mining identified 451 differentially regulated proteins. These proteins were analyzed on the basis of temporal regulation, cellular localization, and literature-mined functional information. Of the 451 proteins, 378 were clustered into six functional groups based on major clinically-relevant effects of CS in liver. MPL-responsive proteins were highly localized in the mitochondria (20%) and cytosol (24%). Interestingly, several proteins were related to hepatic stress and signaling processes, which appear to be involved in secondary signaling cascades and in protecting the liver from CS-induced oxidative damage. Consistent with known adverse metabolic effects of CS, several rate-controlling enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and fatty-acid metabolism were altered by MPL. In addition, proteins involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds, xenobiotics, and therapeutic drugs including cytochrome P450 and Phase-II enzymes were differentially regulated. Proteins related to the inflammatory acute-phase response were up-regulated in response to MPL. Functionally-similar proteins showed large diversity in their temporal profiles, indicating complex mechanisms of regulation by CS. Clinical use of corticosteroid (CS) therapy is frequent and chronic. However, current knowledge on the proteome-level effects of CS in liver and

  19. Structural and functional abnormalities of default mode network in minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a study combining DTI and fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfeng Qi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Live failure can cause brain edema and aberrant brain function in cirrhotic patients. In particular, decreased functional connectivity within the brain default-mode network (DMN has been recently reported in overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE patients. However, so far, little is known about the connectivity among the DMN in the minimal HE (MHE, the mildest form of HE. Here, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI to test our hypothesis that both structural and functional connectivity within the DMN were disturbed in MHE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty MHE patients and 20 healthy controls participated in the study. We explored the changes of structural (path length, tracts count, fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD] derived from DTI tractography and functional (temporal correlation coefficient derived from rs-fMRI connectivity of the DMN in MHE patients. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the structural/functional indices and venous blood ammonia levels/neuropsychological tests scores of patients. All thresholds were set at P<0.05, Bonferroni corrected. RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, MHE patients showed both decreased FA and increased MD in the tract connecting the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCUN to left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG, and decreased functional connectivity between the PCC/PCUN and left PHG, and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC. MD values of the tract connecting PCC/PCUN to the left PHG positively correlated to the ammonia levels, the temporal correlation coefficients between the PCC/PCUN and the MPFC showed positive correlation to the digital symbol tests scores of patients. CONCLUSION: MHE patients have both disturbed structural and functional connectivity within the DMN. The decreased functional connectivity was also detected between some regions without abnormal structural connectivity, suggesting that the

  20. Impact of hepatitis C virus infection on disease activity, functional status and ultrasonography findings in Egyptian rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila Abd EI-Hamid Gohar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is one of the most frequently encountered public health problems in Egypt. It is associated with many autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Aim of the work: To assess the impact of HCV infection in rheumatoid arthritis (RA Egyptian patients; its relation to disease activity, functional status and ultrasonography findings. Patients and methods: The study included 155 RA patients further classified according to the presence of concomitant HCV infection into 2 groups; rheumatoid arthritis (RA and rheumatoid arthritis/hepatitis C virus (RA/HCV groups. All patients were subjected to full history taking, thorough clinical examination, laboratory investigations, assessment of disease activity using the disease activity score 28 (DAS28 and assessment of functional status using the modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ. Ultrasonography (US assessment was done using the German US7 score. Results: Both DAS28 and MHAQ scores showed significant differences between both the RA and the RA/HCV groups (p < 0.001, with higher mean values observed in the RA/HCV group (5.4 ± 1.1 and 1.05 ± 0.79 respectively. Significantly higher US7 synovitis scores were found in the RA/HCV group compared to the RA group (p = 0.03. US7 synovitis tenosynovitis scores revealed significant correlations with DAS28 and US7 synovitis scores correlated with MHAQ in both groups. Conclusion: Concomitant HCV infection in RA patients had an impact on disease activity. RA patients with concomitant HCV infection (RA/HCV had higher DAS28 and MHAQ scores, with higher US7 synovitis scores compared to RA patients. US7 score is a valuable objective tool for the assessment of RA disease activity. Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, HCV infection, Ultrasonography, DAS28, MHAQ

  1. Plasma exchange combining with plasma bilirubin adsorption effectively removes toxic substances and improves liver functions of hepatic failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, X-Q; Li, Z-Q; Chen, Z; Guo, D; Jia, Q-Y; Jiang, S-C; Cai, J

    2018-02-01

    Hepatic failure (HF) is a kind of complex disease characterizing with liver dysfunction and a few clinical complications. Artificial liver support system (ALSS) has been applied to HF patients to improve dysfunctional liver in recent years. This study aims to evaluate therapeutic effects of ALSS approaches, including plasma exchange (PE), plasma diafiltration (PDF) and plasma bilirubin adsorption (PBA), on liver function of HF patients. This study is a retrospective analysis involving 516 patients diagnosed as HF between February 2014 and February 2015. Patients were randomly divided into PE, PDF, PE plus PBA, and PDF plus PBA group. Meanwhile, single-drug group and combined-drug group were also divided. The liver functions, capability of removing toxic substances and coagulation functions were evaluated both pre-treatment and post-treatment. The side effects and hospital improvement rate were also observed post-treatment. Hospital improvement rate achieves to 69.6%. TBIL levels and MELD scores were significantly decreased post-treatment compared to pre-treatment (phigher compared to PE and PDF group (p=0.002, 0.002, respectively). MELD scores were significantly decreased post-treatment compared to pre-treatment in each group (pbetter role in removing toxic substances, improving liver functions of HF patients.

  2. Hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are not associated with decline in renal function in people with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, S J; Conway, B R; Hor, T J; Williamson, R M; McLachlan, S; Robertson, C; Morling, J R; Strachan, M W J; Price, J F

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to determine whether the presence of hepatic steatosis and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was associated with decline in renal function or onset of microalbuminuria in a cohort of people with Type 2 diabetes, including those managed in both primary and secondary care. Nine hundred and thirty-three patients from the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study, a cohort of Scottish men and women aged 60-74 years with Type 2 diabetes, underwent assessment for hepatic steatosis by liver ultrasonography 1 year after recruitment. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was defined as the presence of steatosis following exclusion of secondary causes of liver disease. Patients were followed for 4 years and decline in renal function was assessed by the change in estimated glomerular filtration rate over time. Of the 933 subjects, 530 had hepatic steatosis and, of those with hepatic steatosis, 388 had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Neither hepatic steatosis nor non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were significantly associated with rate of decline in renal function, with the mean rate of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate being -1.55 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) per year for participants with hepatic steatosis compared with -1.84 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) for those without steatosis (P = 0.19). Similar results were obtained when the analysis was restricted to participants with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (-1.44 vs. -1.64 ml min(-1) 1.73 m(-2) per year, respectively; P = 0.44). Additionally, neither hepatic steatosis nor non-alcoholic fatty liver disease were associated with the onset or regression of albuminuria during follow-up (all P ≥ 0.05). The presence of hepatic steatosis/non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was not associated with decline in renal function during a 4-year follow-up in our cohort of older people with Type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  3. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  4. [Serological tests of functional activity of the digestive system (gastrin, pepsinogen-I, trypsin), general IgE and serum cortisol levels in children with hepatitis A and B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalagina, L S; Pavlov, Ch S; Fomin, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The mild form of hepatitis A and B with children is attended by a functional activity of pancreatic gland (tripsin), mucous coats of stomach and duodenum (gastrin) which permits to consider them as a factor of the risk of digestive organs combined pathology starting with the disease acuity. Differences in gastrin levels with children depending on hepatitis etiology were specified. Highest levels of gastrin were observed with persons suffering from hepatitis B.

  5. Acute and perinatal-programming effects of a fat-rich diet on rat muscle mitochondrial function and hepatic lipid accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Jensen, Runa I.; Waterstradt, Michelle S. G.

    2014-01-01

    respiratory control ratio with pyruvate, increased post weaning (p hepatic steatosis......Objective. Maternal high-fat intake during pregnancy may have long-term consequences in the offspring. Since this might relate to the capacity of mitochondrial metabolic adaptation and hepatic lipid metabolism, we investigated how maternal high-fat intake affected mitochondrial function and hepatic...... steatosis in the offspring. Design. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (20% w/w) or a control diet (chow, C) from 10 days before pregnancy and throughout lactation. At weaning the litters were split into two groups; one was continued on the maternal diet and the other was fed low-fat chow. Sample...

  6. Functional incorporation of green fluorescent protein into hepatitis B virus envelope particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Carsten; Thome, Nicole; Kluck, Christoph J.; Prange, Reinhild

    2004-01-01

    The envelope of hepatitis B virus (HBV), containing the L, M, and S proteins, is essential for virus entry and maturation. For direct visualization of HBV, we determined whether envelope assembly could accommodate the green fluorescent protein (GFP). While the C-terminal addition of GFP to S trans-dominant negatively inhibited empty envelope particle secretion, the N-terminal GFP fusion to S (GFP.S) was co-integrated into the envelope, giving rise to fluorescent particles. Microscopy and topogenesis analyses demonstrated that the proper intracellular distribution and folding of GFP.S, required for particle export were rescued by interprotein interactions with wild-type S. Thereby, a dual location of GFP, inside and outside the envelope, was observed. GFP.S was also efficiently packaged into the viral envelope, and these GFP-tagged virions retained the capacity for attachment to HBV receptor-positive cells in vitro. Together, GFP-tagged virions should be suitable to monitor HBV uptake and egress in live hepatocytes

  7. Toxicity of cadmium in Japanese quail: Evaluation of body weight, hepatic and renal function, and cellular immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Ana, M.G.; Moraes, R.; Bernardi, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that is able to alter the immune function. Previous studies have shown that, in mammals, chronic exposure to Cd decreases the release of macrophagic cytokines such as IL1 and TNα and decreases phagocytosis activity. On the other hand contradictory results showed an increase in the humoral response. The cellular response could be decreased by exposure to Cd. These alterations were observed in mammals. The present study aimed to investigate some of the toxic effects of Cd exposure in birds. In particular, the main objective of this work was to elucidate the effects of exposure to this pollutant on the cellular immune function of the Japanese quail as a model for the study of toxicity in animals exposed in nature. The animals were exposed to the metal (100 ppm, per os) during development, i.e., from 1 to 28 days old. Body weight, biochemical parameters, and cellular immune response were measured during and at the end of treatment. The results showed that the exposure to Cd for 28 days significantly reduced the body weight and induced hepatic toxicity. The kidney function and cellular immune response were not affected by the Cd exposure

  8. Systematic identification of anti-interferon function on hepatitis C virus genome reveals p7 as an immune evasion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hangfei; Chu, Virginia; Wu, Nicholas C; Chen, Zugen; Truong, Shawna; Brar, Gurpreet; Su, Sheng-Yao; Du, Yushen; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Olson, C Anders; Chen, Shu-Hua; Lin, Chung-Yen; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Ren

    2017-02-21

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes mechanisms to evade the multilayered antiviral actions of the host immune system. Great progress has been made in elucidating the strategies HCV employs to down-regulate interferon (IFN) production, impede IFN signaling transduction, and impair IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression. However, there is a limited understanding of the mechanisms governing how viral proteins counteract the antiviral functions of downstream IFN effectors due to the lack of an efficient approach to identify such interactions systematically. To study the mechanisms by which HCV antagonizes the IFN responses, we have developed a high-throughput profiling platform that enables mapping of HCV sequences critical for anti-IFN function at high resolution. Genome-wide profiling performed with a 15-nt insertion mutant library of HCV showed that mutations in the p7 region conferred high levels of IFN sensitivity, which could be alleviated by the expression of WT p7 protein. This finding suggests that p7 protein of HCV has an immune evasion function. By screening a liver-specific ISG library, we identified that IFI6-16 significantly inhibits the replication of p7 mutant viruses without affecting WT virus replication. In contrast, knockout of IFI6-16 reversed the IFN hypersensitivity of p7 mutant virus. In addition, p7 was found to be coimmunoprecipitated with IFI6-16 and to counteract the function of IFI6-16 by depolarizing the mitochondria potential. Our data suggest that p7 is a critical immune evasion protein that suppresses the antiviral IFN function by counteracting the function of IFI6-16.

  9. Total parenteral nutrition effect on hepatic function, intestinal adaption and tumor growth : an experimental study in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.U. Boelhouwer (Roelof Ubbo)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the experiments described in this thesis was to get an answer to the following questions: 1. Will nutrient substrates infused via the portal venous system prevent hepatic dysfunction as is associated with central venous infusion and optimize nitrogen balance and hepatic

  10. Genetic Diversity Underlying the Envelope Glycoproteins of Hepatitis C Virus: Structural and Functional Consequences and the Implications for Vaccine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Tarr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 26 years since the discovery of Hepatitis C virus (HCV a major global research effort has illuminated many aspects of the viral life cycle, facilitating the development of targeted antivirals. Recently, effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA regimens with >90% cure rates have become available for treatment of chronic HCV infection in developed nations, representing a significant advance towards global eradication. However, the high cost of these treatments results in highly restricted access in developing nations, where the disease burden is greatest. Additionally, the largely asymptomatic nature of infection facilitates continued transmission in at risk groups and resource constrained settings due to limited surveillance. Consequently a prophylactic vaccine is much needed. The HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 are located on the surface of viral lipid envelope, facilitate viral entry and are the targets for host immunity, in addition to other functions. Unfortunately, the extreme global genetic and antigenic diversity exhibited by the HCV glycoproteins represents a significant obstacle to vaccine development. Here we review current knowledge of HCV envelope protein structure, integrating knowledge of genetic, antigenic and functional diversity to inform rational immunogen design.

  11. Functional pathway analysis of genes associated with response to treatment for chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birerdinc, A; Afendy, A; Stepanova, M; Younossi, I; Manyam, G; Baranova, A; Younossi, Z M

    2010-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CH-C) is among the most common causes of chronic liver disease. Approximately 50% of patients with CH-C treated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG-IFN-α + RBV) achieve a sustained virological response (SVR). Several factors such as genotype 1, African American (AA) race, obesity and the absence of an early virological response (EVR) are associated with low SVR. This study elucidates molecular pathways deregulated in patients with CH-C with negative predictors of response to antiviral therapy. Sixty-eight patients with CH-C who underwent a full course of treatment with PEG-IFN-α + RBV were included in the study. Pretreatment blood samples were collected in PAXgene™ RNA tubes. EVR, complete EVR (cEVR), and SVR rates were 76%, 57% and 41%, respectively. Total RNA was extracted from pretreatment peripheral blood mononuclear cells, quantified and used for one-step RT-PCR to profile 154 mRNAs. The expression of mRNAs was normalized with six 'housekeeping' genes. Differentially expressed genes were separated into up and downregulated gene lists according to the presence or absence of a risk factor and subjected to KEGG Pathway Painter which allows high-throughput visualization of the pathway-specific changes in expression profiles. The genes were consolidated into the networks associated with known predictors of response. Before treatment, various genes associated with core components of the JAK/STAT pathway were activated in the cohorts least likely to achieve SVR. Genes related to focal adhesion and TGF-β pathways were activated in some patients with negative predictors of response. Pathway-centred analysis of gene expression profiles from treated patients with CH-C points to the Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription signalling cascade as the major pathogenetic component responsible for not achieving SVR. In addition, focal adhesion and TGF-β pathways are associated with some predictors of response.

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred ... disease is. It’s important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic ... Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Help ALF Improve This ...

  14. A trans-activator function is generated by integration of hepatitis B virus preS/S sequences in human hepatocellular carcinoma DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caselmann, W.H.; Meyer, M.; Kekule, A.S.; Lauer, U.; Hofschneider, P.H.; Koshy, R.

    1990-01-01

    The X gene of wild-type hepatitis B virus or integrated DNA has recently been shown to stimulate transcription of a variety of enhancers and promoters. To further delineate the viral sequences responsible for trans-activation in hepatomas, the authors cloned the single hepatitis B virus insert from human hepatocellular carcinoma DNA M1. The plasmid pM1 contains 2004 base of hepatitis B virus DNA subtype adr, including truncated preS/S sequences and the enhancer element. The X promoter and 422 nucleotides of the X coding region are present. The entire preC/C gene is deleted. In transient cotransfection assays using Chang liver cells (CCL 13), pM1 DNA exerts a 6- to 10-fold trans-activating effect on the expression of the pSV2CAT reporter plasmid. The transactivation occurs by stimulation of transcription and is dependent on the simian virus 40 enhancer in the reporter plasmid. Deletion analysis of pM1 subclones reveals that the transactivator is encoded by preS/S and not by X sequences. A frameshift mutation within the preS2 open reading frame shows that this portion is indispensable for the trans-activating function. Initiation of transcription has been mapped to the S1 promoter. A comparable trans-activating effect is also observed with cloned wild-type hepatitis B virus sequences similarly truncated. These results show that a transcriptional trans-activator function not present in the intact gene is generated by 3' truncation of integrated hepatitis B virus DNA preS/S sequences

  15. Changes in Hepatic Blood Flow and Liver Function during Closed Abdominal Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy following Cytoreduction Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Dupont

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP during closed abdominal hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC leads to major haemodynamic changes and potential organ dysfunction. We investigated these effects on hepatic blood flow (HBF and liver function in patients undergoing HIPEC following cytoreductive surgery and fluid management guided by dynamic preload indices. Methods. In this prospective observational clinical study including 15 consecutive patients, we evaluated HBF by transesophageal echocardiography and liver function by determination of the indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (ICG-PDR. Friedman’s two-way analysis of variance by ranks and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were performed for statistical analysis. Results. During HIPEC, HBF was markedly reduced, resulting in the loss of any pulsatile Doppler flow signal in all but one patient. The ICG-PDR, expressed as median (interquartile 25–75, decreased from 23 (20–30 %/min to 18 (12.5–19 %/min (p<0.001. Despite a generous crystalloid infusion rate (27 (22–35 ml/kg/h, cardiac index decreased during the increased IAP period, inferior vena cava diameter decreased, stroke volume variation and pulse pressure variation increased, lung compliance dropped, and there was an augmentation in plateau pressure. All changes were significant (p<0.001 and reversed to baseline values post HIPEC. Conclusion. Despite optimizing intravenous fluids during closed abdominal HIPEC, we observed a marked decrease in HBF and liver function. Both effects were transient and limited to the period of HIPEC but could influence the choice between closed or open abdominal cavity procedure for HIPEC and should be considered in similar clinical situations of increased IAP.

  16. The effects of single dose TBI on hepatic and renal function in non-human primates and patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Bakker, B.; Davelaar, J.; Leer, J.W.H.; Niemer-Tucker, M.M.B.; Noordijk, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are common procedures in the treatment of severe combined immune deficiency syndromes, leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and other hematological disorders. Improved results following TBI and BMT have increased the number of patients in long term follow up. Late detrimental effects of TBI have been investigated in non-human primates and patients with emphasis on vital organs like liver and kidney. The response of monkeys to radiation is not significantly different from that in man. Long term effects of TBI could be studied by keeping 84 monkeys of different ages under continuous observation for a period up to 25 years. Effects on hepatic and renal function were demonstrated using serological and histological parameters. The values of the liver function parameters such as alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase in the irradiated group are significantly increased after TBI. Also the parameters of kidney dysfunction, e.g., Ht and urea show a significant change in the irradiated old aged cohort with respect to the controls. Between 1967 and 1993, 336 bone marrow transplantations were performed at the University Hospital Leiden. The present Study was restricted to those patients who survived at least 18 months after transplantation. This retrospective analysis consequently amounts to 120 patients. The monkey data indicated subclinical organ damage for postirradiation intervals exceeding 15 years. However, up to the present time, the human data do not support these findings since the follow up time is still restricted to a median survival of 4,5 years. Detrimental effects in liver and kidney function at a later stage can not be excluded yet, and careful examinations of the patients remain indicated

  17. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  18. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  19. DYNAMICS OF CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE HEPATITIS B WITH CHRONIC ALCOHOL USE IN HEPATOTOXIC DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Furyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of hepatitis B due to the high incidence complexity of pathogenesis, ineffective treatment, severe consequences of the disease. Among combined lesions of the liver, special attention is paid to viral-alcoholic type. One of the mechanisms of chronic hepatitis of different etiology is violation of the functional activity of the autonomic nervous system. The aim of this work- to determine the dynamics of spectral indices of heart rate variability in patients with acute hepatitis B from chronic use of alcohol in hepatotoxic doses. Materials and methods. 133 patients with acute hepatitis B were under observation. Patients were divided into groups taking account the presence or absence of chronic use of alcohol in hepatotoxic doses and using the classification of alcohol consumption based on the frequency and dose of consumed alcohol. I group comprised 52 patients with chronic use of alcohol in the hepatotoxic doses, II group consisted of 81 patient without this factor. Heart rate variability was diagnosed using computer cardiointervalometry performed by electrocardiographic diagnostic system CardioLab-2000. 20 healthy individuals were in the control group. Results and discussion. Prodromal period in patients of the I group was longer (p0,05. However, only patients in group I had marked hemorrhagic manifestations (5,8 % and itching (7.7%. Average serum total bilirubin level was higher (p<0,05 in patients from the I group than in patients from II group. Functional state of autonomic nervous system in patients of both groups were decreased in acute period (vagotonia. Period of convalescence in patients from the I group was accompanied by more severe autonomic dysfunction in 33,6 % (p<0,05. Conclusions. 1. Acute hepatitis B in patients with chronic alcohol use in hepatotoxic doses is characterized by longer (p<0,05 prodrome, cholestatic (7,7% and hemorrhagic manifestations (5,8%, higher levels of hyperbilirubinemia (p<0,05, and during

  20. Embedded Disposable Functionalized Electrochemical Biosensor with a 3D-Printed Flow Cell for Detection of Hepatic Oval Cells (HOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Damiati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic oval cells (HOCs are considered the progeny of the intrahepatic stem cells that are found in a small population in the liver after hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited. Due to their small number, isolation and capture of these cells constitute a challenging task for immunosensor technology. This work describes the development of a 3D-printed continuous flow system and exploits disposable screen-printed electrodes for the rapid detection of HOCs that over-express the OV6 marker on their membrane. Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT electrodes have a chitosan film that serves as a scaffold for the immobilization of oval cell marker antibodies (anti-OV6-Ab, which enhance the sensitivity of the biomarker and makes the designed sensor specific for oval cells. The developed sensor can be easily embedded into the 3D-printed flow cell to allow cells to be exposed continuously to the functionalized surface. The continuous flow is intended to increase capture of most of the target cells in the specimen. Contact angle measurements were performed to characterize the nature and quality of the modified sensor surface, and electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry (CV and square wave voltammetry (SWV were performed to confirm the efficiency and selectivity of the fabricated sensor to detect HOCs. The proposed method is valuable for capturing rare cells and could provide an effective tool for cancer diagnosis and detection.

  1. Embedded Disposable Functionalized Electrochemical Biosensor with a 3D-Printed Flow Cell for Detection of Hepatic Oval Cells (HOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Martin; Leonhardt, Stefan; Damiati, Laila; Baghdadi, Mohammed A.; Schuster, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    Hepatic oval cells (HOCs) are considered the progeny of the intrahepatic stem cells that are found in a small population in the liver after hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited. Due to their small number, isolation and capture of these cells constitute a challenging task for immunosensor technology. This work describes the development of a 3D-printed continuous flow system and exploits disposable screen-printed electrodes for the rapid detection of HOCs that over-express the OV6 marker on their membrane. Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have a chitosan film that serves as a scaffold for the immobilization of oval cell marker antibodies (anti-OV6-Ab), which enhance the sensitivity of the biomarker and makes the designed sensor specific for oval cells. The developed sensor can be easily embedded into the 3D-printed flow cell to allow cells to be exposed continuously to the functionalized surface. The continuous flow is intended to increase capture of most of the target cells in the specimen. Contact angle measurements were performed to characterize the nature and quality of the modified sensor surface, and electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV)) were performed to confirm the efficiency and selectivity of the fabricated sensor to detect HOCs. The proposed method is valuable for capturing rare cells and could provide an effective tool for cancer diagnosis and detection. PMID:29443890

  2. Embedded Disposable Functionalized Electrochemical Biosensor with a 3D-Printed Flow Cell for Detection of Hepatic Oval Cells (HOCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiati, Samar; Peacock, Martin; Leonhardt, Stefan; Damiati, Laila; Baghdadi, Mohammed A; Becker, Holger; Kodzius, Rimantas; Schuster, Bernhard

    2018-02-14

    Hepatic oval cells (HOCs) are considered the progeny of the intrahepatic stem cells that are found in a small population in the liver after hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited. Due to their small number, isolation and capture of these cells constitute a challenging task for immunosensor technology. This work describes the development of a 3D-printed continuous flow system and exploits disposable screen-printed electrodes for the rapid detection of HOCs that over-express the OV6 marker on their membrane. Multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have a chitosan film that serves as a scaffold for the immobilization of oval cell marker antibodies (anti-OV6-Ab), which enhance the sensitivity of the biomarker and makes the designed sensor specific for oval cells. The developed sensor can be easily embedded into the 3D-printed flow cell to allow cells to be exposed continuously to the functionalized surface. The continuous flow is intended to increase capture of most of the target cells in the specimen. Contact angle measurements were performed to characterize the nature and quality of the modified sensor surface, and electrochemical measurements (cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV)) were performed to confirm the efficiency and selectivity of the fabricated sensor to detect HOCs. The proposed method is valuable for capturing rare cells and could provide an effective tool for cancer diagnosis and detection.

  3. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is Important The Connection Between HE and Liver ... Why it’s Important to Treat HE Symptoms of Liver Failure Glossary of terms ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  6. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  7. Altered dynamic functional connectivity in the default mode network in patients with cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Lin, Hai-Long; Chen, Qiu-Feng; Liu, Peng-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal brain intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) has been documented in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) by static connectivity analysis. However, changes in dynamic FC (dFC) remain unknown. We aimed to identify altered dFC within the default mode network (DMN) associated with MHE. Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from 20 cirrhotic patients with MHE and 24 healthy controls. DMN seed regions were defined using seed-based FC analysis (centered on the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)). Dynamic FC architecture was calculated using a sliding time-window method. K-means clustering (number of clusters = 2-4) was applied to estimate FC states. When the number of clusters was 2, MHE patients presented weaker connectivity strengths compared with controls in states 1 and 2. In state 1, decreased FC strength was found between the PCC/precuneus (PCUN) and right medial temporal lobe (MTL)/bilateral lateral temporal cortex (LTC); left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and right MTL/left LTC; right IPL and right MTL/bilateral LTC; right MTL and right LTC; and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and right MTL/bilateral LTC. In state 2, reduced FC strength was observed between the PCC/PCUN and bilateral MTL/bilateral LTC; left IPL and left MTL/bilateral LTC/MPFC; and left LTC and right LTC. Altered connectivities from state 1 were correlated with patient cognitive performance. Similar findings were observed when the number of clusters was set to 3 or 4. Aberrant dynamic DMN connectivity is an additional characteristic of MHE. Dynamic connectivity analysis offers a novel paradigm for understanding MHE-related mechanisms. (orig.)

  8. Altered dynamic functional connectivity in the default mode network in patients with cirrhosis and minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Lin, Hai-Long [Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fuzhou (China); Chen, Qiu-Feng; Liu, Peng-Fei [Central South University, School of Information Science and Engineering, Changsha (China)

    2017-09-15

    Abnormal brain intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) has been documented in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) by static connectivity analysis. However, changes in dynamic FC (dFC) remain unknown. We aimed to identify altered dFC within the default mode network (DMN) associated with MHE. Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from 20 cirrhotic patients with MHE and 24 healthy controls. DMN seed regions were defined using seed-based FC analysis (centered on the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)). Dynamic FC architecture was calculated using a sliding time-window method. K-means clustering (number of clusters = 2-4) was applied to estimate FC states. When the number of clusters was 2, MHE patients presented weaker connectivity strengths compared with controls in states 1 and 2. In state 1, decreased FC strength was found between the PCC/precuneus (PCUN) and right medial temporal lobe (MTL)/bilateral lateral temporal cortex (LTC); left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and right MTL/left LTC; right IPL and right MTL/bilateral LTC; right MTL and right LTC; and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and right MTL/bilateral LTC. In state 2, reduced FC strength was observed between the PCC/PCUN and bilateral MTL/bilateral LTC; left IPL and left MTL/bilateral LTC/MPFC; and left LTC and right LTC. Altered connectivities from state 1 were correlated with patient cognitive performance. Similar findings were observed when the number of clusters was set to 3 or 4. Aberrant dynamic DMN connectivity is an additional characteristic of MHE. Dynamic connectivity analysis offers a novel paradigm for understanding MHE-related mechanisms. (orig.)

  9. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  10. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  11. The damage of the hepatic mixed functional oxygenase system by CCI4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fander, U.

    1981-01-01

    The relation between incorporation of C-14 from C-14-Cl 4 into liver lipids and the damage of the mixed functional oxygenase system of liver microsomes is investigated in rats depending on sex difference and method of pretreatment. Under the respective conditions of pretreatment C-14-incorporation rate and relative decrease of the cytochrome P-450 level as the parameter most influenced by CCl 4 are compared with untreated female rats. Induction by 3-MC does not alter both the parameters. Induction by PB enhances the C-14-incorporation rate as well as the cytochrome P-450 decrease but the latter is more affected. In male rats there is only the C-14-incorporation rate increased. Vitamine D 3 pretreated rats show a less decrease of cytochrome P-450 but an enhanced C-14 incorporation rate. Therefore there is no correlation between cytochrome P-450 decrease and C-14 incorporation rate. Reasons for the lack of that correlation are discussed with regard to the mechanism of liver cell damage by carbon tetrachloride. (orig./MG)

  12. A galactose-functionalized dendritic siRNA-nanovector to potentiate hepatitis C inhibition in liver cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Abirami; Reddy, B. Uma; Raghav, Nallani; Ravi, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Anuj; Maiti, Prabal K.; Sood, A. K.; Jayaraman, N.; Das, Saumitra

    2015-10-01

    A RNAi based antiviral strategy holds the promise to impede hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection overcoming the problem of emergence of drug resistant variants, usually encountered in the interferon free direct-acting antiviral therapy. Targeted delivery of siRNA helps minimize adverse `off-target' effects and maximize the efficacy of therapeutic response. Herein, we report the delivery of siRNA against the conserved 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of HCV RNA using a liver-targeted dendritic nano-vector functionalized with a galactopyranoside ligand (DG). Physico-chemical characterization revealed finer details of complexation of DG with siRNA, whereas molecular dynamic simulations demonstrated sugar moieties projecting ``out'' in the complex. Preferential delivery of siRNA to the liver was achieved through a highly specific ligand-receptor interaction between dendritic galactose and the asialoglycoprotein receptor. The siRNA-DG complex exhibited perinuclear localization in liver cells and co-localization with viral proteins. The histopathological studies showed the systemic tolerance and biocompatibility of DG. Further, whole body imaging and immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the preferential delivery of the nucleic acid to mice liver. Significant decrease in HCV RNA levels (up to 75%) was achieved in HCV subgenomic replicon and full length HCV-JFH1 infectious cell culture systems. The multidisciplinary approach provides the `proof of concept' for restricted delivery of therapeutic siRNAs using a target oriented dendritic nano-vector.A RNAi based antiviral strategy holds the promise to impede hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection overcoming the problem of emergence of drug resistant variants, usually encountered in the interferon free direct-acting antiviral therapy. Targeted delivery of siRNA helps minimize adverse `off-target' effects and maximize the efficacy of therapeutic response. Herein, we report the delivery of siRNA against the conserved 5'-untranslated

  13. Effect of allyl alcohol on hepatic transporter expression: Zonal patterns of expression and role of Kupffer cell function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campion, Sarah N.; Tatis-Rios, Cristina; Augustine, Lisa M.; Goedken, Michael J.; Rooijen, Nico van; Cherrington, Nathan J.; Manautou, Jose E.

    2009-01-01

    During APAP toxicity, activation of Kupffer cells is critical for protection from hepatotoxicity and up-regulation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (Mrp4) in centrilobular hepatocytes. The present study was performed to determine the expression profile of uptake and efflux transporters in mouse liver following treatment with allyl alcohol (AlOH), a periportal hepatotoxicant. This study also investigated the role of Kupffer cells in AlOH hepatotoxicity, and whether changes in transport protein expression by AlOH are dependent on the presence of Kupffer cells. C57BL/6J mice received 0.1 ml clodronate liposomes to deplete Kupffer cells or empty liposomes 48 h prior to dosing with 60 mg/kg AlOH, i.p. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by plasma ALT and histopathology. Hepatic transporter mRNA and protein expression were determined by branched DNA signal amplification assay and Western blotting, respectively. Depletion of Kupffer cells by liposomal clodronate treatment resulted in heightened susceptibility to AlOH toxicity. Exposure to AlOH increased mRNA levels of several Mrp genes, while decreasing organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) mRNA expression. Protein analysis mirrored many of these mRNA changes. The presence of Kupffer cells was not required for the observed changes in uptake and efflux transporters induced by AlOH. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed enhanced Mrp4 staining exclusively in centrilobular hepatocytes of AlOH treated mice. These findings demonstrate that Kupffer cells are protective from AlOH toxicity and that induction of Mrp4 occurs in liver regions away from areas of AlOH damage independent of Kupffer cell function. These results suggest that Kupffer cell mediators do not play a role in mediating centrilobular Mrp4 induction in response to periportal damage by AlOH

  14. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  15. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  16. HAVCR1 (CD365) and Its Mouse Ortholog Are Functional Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Cellular Receptors That Mediate HAV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costafreda, Maria Isabel; Kaplan, Gerardo

    2018-05-01

    The hepatitis A virus (HAV) cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), classified as CD365, was initially discovered as an HAV cellular receptor using an expression cloning strategy. Due to the lack of HAV receptor-negative replication-competent cells, it was not possible to fully prove that HAVCR1 was a functional HAV receptor. However, biochemistry, classical virology, and epidemiology studies further supported the functional role of HAVCR1 as an HAV receptor. Here, we show that an anti-HAVCR1 monoclonal antibody that protected African green monkey kidney (AGMK) cells against HAV infection only partially protected monkey Vero E6 cells and human hepatoma Huh7 cells, indicating that these two cell lines express alternative yet unidentified HAV receptors. Therefore, we focused our work on AGMK cells to further characterize the function of HAVCR1 as an HAV receptor. Advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 technology allowed us to knock out the monkey ortholog of HAVCR1 in AGMK cells. The resulting AGMK HAVCR1 knockout (KO) cells lost susceptibility to HAV infection, including HAV-free viral particles (vpHAV) and exosomes purified from HAV-infected cells (exo-HAV). Transfection of HAVCR1 cDNA into AGMK HAVCR1 KO cells restored susceptibility to vpHAV and exo-HAV infection. Furthermore, transfection of the mouse ortholog of HAVCR1, mHavcr1, also restored the susceptibility of AGMK HAVCR1 KO cells to HAV infection. Taken together, our data clearly show that HAVCR1 and mHavcr1 are functional HAV receptors that mediate HAV infection. This work paves the way for the identification of alternative HAV receptors to gain a complete understanding of their interplay with HAVCR1 in the cell entry and pathogenic processes of HAV. IMPORTANCE HAVCR1, an HAV receptor, is expressed in different cell types, including regulatory immune cells and antigen-presenting cells. How HAV evades the immune response during a long incubation period of up to 4 weeks and the

  17. Cranial MRI in hepatic disease; Relationship between MR imaging and clinical symptoms and laboratory analysis of liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, Masakazu; Kamitani, Toshiaki; Kamakura, Keiko; Nagata, Naokazu; Tsuchiya, Kazuhiro (National Defense Medical Coll., Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan))

    1993-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging studies on 12 cases with hepatic disease were performed. In 11 adult patients with chronic hepatic failure, T[sub 1]-weighted images demonstrated increased signal in the globus pallidus in 7 patients (63.6%) and in some parts of the cerebral peduncles in 6 patients (54.5%), in the substantia innominata in 4 patients (36.3%). There might be some correlation between the abnormality of MR imaging and clinical symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy. There was a significant correlation between the intensity of the signal and Fischer's ratio of amino acid analysis. In one patient with Wilson's disease, who developed symptoms of central nervous system, T[sub 1]-weighted images demonstrated increased signal in the globus pallidus. After treatment of D-penicillamine, the signal of the globus pallidus decreased. (author).

  18. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  19. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle T. Abegunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ...

  1. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... mother to child. Map 3-05. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  2. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 - Helminths, Soil-Transmitted Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Hepatitis A Noele P. Nelson INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis A ... hepatitis/HAV Table 3-02. Vaccines to prevent hepatitis A VACCINE TRADE NAME (MANUFACTURER) AGE (Y) DOSE ...

  3. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  4. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B virus ( ... progression of disease. Map 3-04. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  5. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  6. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  7. Disrupted functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex in cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy: a resting state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Jiang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the changes of functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in patients with cirrhosis without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE using resting state functional MRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants included 67 cirrhotic patients (27 minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE and 40 cirrhotic patients without MHE (non-HE, and 40 age- and gender- matched healthy controls. rsfMRI were performed on 3 Telsa scanners. The pregenual ACC resting-state networks (RSNs were characterized by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method and compared between cirrhotic patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the ACC RSNs and venous blood ammonia levels, neuropsychological tests (number connection test type A [NCT-A] and digit symbol test [DST] scores in cirrhotic patients. All thresholds were set at P<0.05, with false discovery rate corrected. Compared with controls, non-HE and MHE patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity in the bilateral ACC, bilateral middle frontal cortex (MFC, bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC, bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG/middle temporal gyri (MTG, bilateral thalami, bilateral putamen and bilateral insula, and increased functional connectivity of bilateral precuneus and left temporo-occipital lobe and bilateral lingual gyri. Compared with non-HE patients, MHE showed the decreased functional connectivity of right MCC, bilateral STG/MTG and right putamen. This indicates decreased ACC functional connectivity predominated with the increasing severity of HE. NCT-A scores negatively correlated with ACC functional connectivity in the bilateral MCC, right temporal lobe, and DST scores positively correlated with functional connectivity in the bilateral ACC and the right putamen. No correlation was found between venous blood ammonia levels and functional connectivity in ACC in cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSIONS

  8. Effects of administration of the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on hepatic antioxidant function after exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voces, J; Alvarez, A I; Vila, L; Ferrando, A; Cabral de Oliveira, C; Prieto, J G

    1999-06-01

    The effect of prolonged treatment with the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115 on the antioxidant capacity of the liver was investigated. For this purpose, rats that had received G115 orally at different doses for 3 months and untreated control rats were subjected to exhaustive exercise on a treadmill. A bell-shaped dose response on running time was obtained. The results showed that the administration of G115 significantly increases the hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity (GPX) and the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the liver, with a dose-dependent reduction of the thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARS). After the exercise, there is reduced hepatic lipid peroxidation, as evidenced by the TBARS levels in both the controls and the treated animals. The GPX (glutathione peroxidase) and SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity are also significantly increased in the groups receiving G115, compared with the controls. The hepatic transaminase levels, ALT (Alanine-amino-transferase) and AST (Aspartate-amino-transferase), in the recuperation phase 48 h after the exercise, indicate a clear hepatoprotective effect related to the administration of the standardized Panax ginseng extract G115. At hepatic level, G115 increases the antioxidant capacity, with a marked reduction of the effects of the oxidative stress induced by the exhaustive exercise.

  9. Effects of cigarette smoking and exposure to cadmium and lead on phenotypic variability of hepatic CYP2A6 and renal function biomarkers in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satarug, Soisungwan; Ujjin, Pailin; Vanavanitkun, Yuvaree; Nishijo, Muneko; Baker, Jason R.; Moore, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of cigarette smoking and exposure to dietary cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) on urinary biomarkers of renal function and phenotypic variability of cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) were investigated in a group of 96 healthy Thai men with mean age of 36.7 year (19-57 years). In non-smokers, Cd burden increased with age (r = 0.47, P < 0.001). In current smokers, Cd burden increased with both age (r = 0.45, P = 0.01) and number of cigarettes smoked per day (r = 0.32, P = 0.05). Cd-linked renal tubular dysfunction was seen in both smokers and non-smokers, but Pb-linked glomerular dysfunction was seen in smokers only, possibly due to more recent exposure to high levels of Cd and Pb, as reflected by 30-50% higher serum Cd and Pb levels in smokers than non-smokers (P < 0.05). Exposure to dietary Cd and Pb appeared to be associated with mild tubular dysfunction whereas dietary exposure plus cigarette smoking was associated with tubular plus glomerular dysfunction. Hepatic CYP2A6 activity in non-smokers showed a positive association with Cd burden (adjusted β = 0.38, P = 0.006), but it showed an inverse correlation with Pb (adjusted β = -0.29, P = 0.003), suggesting opposing effects of Cd and Pb on hepatic CYP2A6 phenotype. In contrast, CYP2A6 activity in current smokers did not correlate with Cd or Pb, but it showed a positive correlation with serum ferritin levels (r = 0.45, P = 0.01). These finding suggest that Pb concentrations in the liver probably were too low to inhibit hepatic synthesis of heme and CYP2A6 and that the concurrent induction of hepatic CYP2A6 and ferritin was probably due to cigarette smoke constituents other than Cd and Pb

  10. Screening of subclinical hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneweg, M; Moerland, W; Quero, J C; Hop, W C; Krabbe, P F; Schalm, S W

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy adversely affects daily functioning. The aim of this study was to determine which elements of daily life have predictive value for subclinical hepatic encephalopathy. METHODS: The study was performed in 179 outpatients with liver cirrhosis.

  11. Zinc transporter ZIP14 functions in hepatic zinc, iron and glucose homeostasis during the innate immune response (endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolunay Beker Aydemir

    Full Text Available ZIP14 (slc39A14 is a zinc transporter induced in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. ZIP14 induction accompanies the reduction in serum zinc (hypozincemia of acute inflammation. ZIP14 can transport Zn(2+ and non-transferrin-bound Fe(2+ in vitro. Using a Zip14(-/- mouse model we demonstrated that ZIP14 was essential for control of phosphatase PTP1B activity and phosphorylation of c-Met during liver regeneration. In the current studies, a global screening of ZIP transporter gene expression in response to LPS-induced endotoxemia was conducted. Following LPS, Zip14 was the most highly up-regulated Zip transcript in liver, but also in white adipose tissue and muscle. Using ZIP14(-/- mice we show that ZIP14 contributes to zinc absorption from the gastrointestinal tract directly or indirectly as zinc absorption was decreased in the KOs. In contrast, Zip14(-/- mice absorbed more iron. The Zip14 KO mice did not exhibit hypozincemia following LPS, but do have hypoferremia. Livers of Zip14-/- mice had increased transcript abundance for hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1, ferritin and transferrin receptor-1 and greater accumulation of iron. The Zip14(-/- phenotype included greater body fat, hypoglycemia and higher insulin levels, as well as increased liver glucose and greater phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and increased GLUT2, SREBP-1c and FASN expression. The Zip14 KO mice exhibited decreased circulating IL-6 with increased hepatic SOCS-3 following LPS, suggesting SOCS-3 inhibited insulin signaling which produced the hypoglycemia in this genotype. The results are consistent with ZIP14 ablation yielding abnormal labile zinc pools which lead to increased SOCS-3 production through G-coupled receptor activation and increased cAMP production as well as signaled by increased pSTAT3 via the IL-6 receptor, which inhibits IRS 1/2 phosphorylation. Our data show the role of ZIP14 in the hepatocyte is multi-functional since zinc and iron trafficking are

  12. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yellow color. Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy). A damaged liver has trouble removing toxins from your body. The ... of toxins can damage your brain. Severe hepatic encephalopathy can result in ... of the liver frequently leads to liver failure. Kidney failure. A ...

  13. The diverse functions of the hepatitis B core/capsid protein (HBc) in the viral life cycle: Implications for the development of HBc-targeting antivirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Ahmed; Foca, Adrien; Zoulim, Fabien; Durantel, David; Andrisani, Ourania

    2018-01-01

    Virally encoded proteins have evolved to perform multiple functions, and the core protein (HBc) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a perfect example. While HBc is the structural component of the viral nucleocapsid, additional novel functions for the nucleus-localized HBc have recently been described. These results extend for HBc, beyond its structural role, a regulatory function in the viral life cycle and potentially a role in pathogenesis. In this article, we review the diverse roles of HBc in HBV replication and pathogenesis, emphasizing how the unique structure of this protein is key to its various functions. We focus in particular on recent advances in understanding the significance of HBc phosphorylations, its interaction with host proteins and the role of HBc in regulating the transcription of host genes. We also briefly allude to the emerging niche for new direct-acting antivirals targeting HBc, known as Core (protein) Allosteric Modulators (CAMs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic Interaction of Stress Granules, DDX3X, and IKK-α Mediates Multiple Functions in Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pène, Véronique; Li, Qisheng; Sodroski, Catherine; Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Liang, T Jake

    2015-05-01

    The ubiquitous ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX3X is involved in many cellular functions, including innate immunity, and is a pivotal host factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Recently, we showed that DDX3X specifically recognizes the HCV 3' untranslated region (UTR), leading to the activation of IKK-α and a cascade of lipogenic signaling to facilitate lipid droplet biogenesis and viral assembly (Q. Li, V. Pene, S. Krishnamurthy, H. Cha, and T. J. Liang, Nat Med 19:722-729, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.3190). The interaction of DDX3X with HCV core protein seems to be dispensable for its proviral role. In this study, through systematic imaging and biochemical and virologic approaches, we identified a dynamic association between DDX3X and various cellular compartments and viral elements mediating multiple functions of DDX3X in productive HCV infection. Upon HCV infection, the HCV 3'UTR interacts with DDX3X and IKK-α, which redistribute to speckle-like cytoplasmic structures shown to be stress granules (SGs). As viral proteins accumulate in infected cells, DDX3X granules together with SG-associated proteins redistribute and colocalize with HCV core protein around lipid droplets (LDs). IKK-α, however, does not relocate to the LD but translocates to the nucleus. In HCV-infected cells, various HCV nonstructural proteins also interact or colocalize with DDX3X in close proximity to SGs and LDs, consistent with the tight juxtaposition of the replication complex and the assembly site at the surface of LDs. Short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of DDX3X and multiple SG components markedly inhibits HCV infection. Our data suggest that DDX3X initiates a multifaceted cellular program involving dynamic associations with HCV RNA and proteins, IKK-α, SG, and LD surfaces for its crucial role in the HCV life cycle. IMPORTANCE DDX3X is a proviral host factor for HCV infection. Recently, we showed that DDX3X binds to the HCV 3'UTR, activating IKK-α and

  15. IFN-λ: A New Class of Interferon with Distinct Functions-Implications for Hepatitis C Virus Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV is widely used to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection with notorious adverse reactions since the broad expression of IFN-α receptors on all nucleated cells. Accordingly, a Type III IFN with restricted receptors distribution is much safer as an alternative for HCV therapy. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs near the human IFN-λ3 gene, IL-28B, correlate strongly with the ability to achieve a sustained virological response (SVR to therapy with pegylated IFN-α plus ribavirin in patients infected with chronic hepatitis C. Furthermore, we also discuss the most recent findings: IFN-λ4 predicts treatment outcomes of HCV infection. In consideration of the apparent limitations of current HCV therapy, especially high failure rate and universal side effects, prediction of treatment outcomes prior to the initiation of treatment and developing new alternative drugs are two important goals in HCV research.

  16. Identification of functionally important amino acid residues in the mitochondria targeting sequence of Hepatitis B virus X protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sai Kam; Ho, Sai Fan; Tsui, Kwok Wing; Fung, Kwok Pui; Waye, M.Y. Mary

    2008-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been strongly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the X protein (HBx) is thought to mediate the cellular changes associated with carcinogenesis. Recently, isolation of the hepatitis B virus integrants from HCC tissue by others have established the fact that the X gene is often truncated at its C-terminus. Expression of the GFP fusion proteins of HBx and its truncation mutants with a GFP tag in human liver cell-lines in this study revealed that the C-terminus of HBx is indispensable for its specific localization in the mitochondria. A crucial region of seven amino acids at the C-terminus has been mapped out in which the cysteine residue at position 115 serves as the most important residue for the subcellular localization. When cysteine 115 of HBx is mutated to alanine the mitochondria targeting property of HBx is abrogated

  17. Effects of propylene glycol supplementation on blood indicators of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ionuţ Borş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of propylene glycol on metabolic variables of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows after ending administration. Postparturient dairy cows (n = 200 of Holstein Friesian breed were divided into two groups of 100 individuals. The experimental group received during days 0-7 post partum an oral daily dose of 600 ml of propylene glycol; the control group was without any supplement. The hepatic enzymes, glucose, cholesterol and serum albumin were measured on days 10-15, 45-50 and 70 post partum. Reproduction indicators of dairy cows were calculated from the farm recording data and the milk data record from a regular dairy control (days 10, 20, 30, and 50 post partum. Animals that received propylene glycol in the first 7 days post partum had reduced activities of aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, elevated cholesterol concentration (P 0.05 and low milk fat percentage (P P 0.05. Our results suggest that some blood indicators of hepatic function, milk fat concentration and calving to first oestrus interval can be improved for 70 days post partum by the use of propylene glycol drenching in the first 7 days post partum. The beneficial effect of this treatment could be evaluated by easily available data, which can be used by practitioners in the field to analyze fertility problems in dairy herds and more exactly to examine whether metabolic stress, among other factors, is involved in the fertility problem.

  18. Increased expressions of NKp44, NKp46 on NK/NKT-like cells are associated with impaired cytolytic function in self-limiting hepatitis E infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rumki; Tripathy, Anuradha

    2014-10-01

    We have characterized the NK/NKT-like cells in patients with self-limiting hepatitis E infection. The distribution of peripheral NK/NKT-like cells, expressions of activation receptors, cytotoxic potential and effector function of NK/NKT-like cells from fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 86 acute patients, 101 recovered and 54 control individuals were assessed. Activated NKT-like (CD16(+) CD56(+) CD3(+)) cells were high in the patient groups. On CD56(+) CD3(-) cells, NKp44 and NKp46 expressions were high in the acute patients, whereas NKp30, NKp44, NKp46 and NKG2D were high in the recovered individuals. On CD56(+) CD3(+) cells, NKp44, NKp46 and NKG2D expressions were high in the recovered but NKp30 was low in both the patient groups. Collectively, the current study elucidates the role of NK/NKT-like cells demonstrating phenotypic alterations of activated NKT-like cells and activation receptors, lack of CD107a expression and functional impairment of peripheral NK/NKT-like cells in self-limiting hepatitis E infection.

  19. Liver Function in Areas of Hepatic Venous Congestion After Hepatectomy for Liver Cancer: 99mTc-GSA SPECT/CT Fused Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Morikatsu; Beppu, Toru; Shiraishi, Shinya; Tsuda, Noriko; Sakamoto, Fumi; Kuramoto, Kunitaka; Okabe, Hirohisa; Nitta, Hidetoshi; Imai, Katsunori; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Baba, Hideo; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2018-05-01

    Background/Aim: The sacrifice of a major hepatic vein can cause hepatic venous congestion (HVC). We evaluated the effects of HVC on regional liver function using the liver uptake value (LUV), that was calculated from 99m Tc-labeled-galactosyl-human-serum-albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) /contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) fused images. Patients and Methods: Sixty-two patients underwent 99m Tc-GSA SPECT/CE-CT prior to hepatectomy for liver cancer and at 7 days after surgery were divided into groups with (n=8) and without HVC (n=54). In the HVC group, CT volume (CTv) and LUV were separately calculated in both congested and non-congested areas. Results: The remnant LUV/CTv of the HVC group was significantly smaller than that of the non-HVC group (pliver function per unit volume in the congested areas was approximately 40% of that in the non-congested areas. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatic blood flow with colloidal 198Au in the diagnosis of chronic hepatitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marian, L.; Szantay, V.

    1975-01-01

    Tracer quantities of colloidal 198 Au were used to estimate the hepatic blood flow in normal children and in children with active or progressive chronic hepatitis and also to obtain scintigrams of the liver. In active chronic hepatitis a significant decrease in HBF values was observed, suggesting that the method may be used as a diagnostic criterion which is superior to hepatic scintigraphy. In progressive chronic hepatitis HBF values even lower than those in active hepatitis were observed. Together with more characteristic clinical findings and abnormal results of biochemical function tests, they underline the value of the method in estimating the severity and the evolution of the disease. (orig.) [de

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to continue to work to my full capacity? Will I be able to drive? Patient Stories Angie M. Caregiver for Brother Charles DiAngelo Hepatic Encephalopathy Jason Dedmon Alcohol-related Cirrhosis ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your body when your liver isn’t working well, it may affect your brain and cause HE. ... it apparent that the liver is not doing well. These could be the symptoms of Hepatic Encephalopathy ( ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bad. It sends the good things – such as vitamins and nutrients – into your bloodstream for your body ... for Wife Joyce O. Caregiver for Mother Lynette K. Hepatic Encephalopathy Samantha W. Caregiver for Husband Stan ...

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if ... with continuous treatment, HE can usually be controlled. So it’s important to tell your doctor about any ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... build-up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more ... build up and painful swelling of the legs (edema) and abdomen (ascites) Bruising and bleeding easily Enlarged ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment ... treatment. Being a fully-informed participant in your medical care is an important factor in staying as ...

  8. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2018 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... important for you and your family to become familiar with the signs of Hepatic Encephalopathy so you ... team evaluates the person’s overall physical and mental health, plan to pay for transplant related medical expenses, ...

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... responsible for the daily needs of another person. Caregivers can be a friend, spouse, life partner, parent, sibling or other family member. What is HE? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as ...

  12. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viral load (the amount of HCV in your blood), imaging tests, and biopsy results. Treatment is especially important for people who are showing signs liver fibrosis or scarring. Medicines used to treat hepatitis C ...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that can be corrected . It may also occur as part of a chronic problem from liver disease ... worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that ...

  14. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute liver failure requires a stay in the hospital for monitoring and treatment. Some people with acute liver failure may need a liver transplant. Prevention The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent infection with the virus. The vaccine is typically given ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer Your Time The Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate ... problem from liver disease that gets worse over time. Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers How You Can Help OVERVIEW Donate Now Join an Event Volunteer ... Hepatic Encephalopathy is a short-term problem that can be corrected . It may also occur as part ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information Policies Advocacy Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers ... and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more information about cirrhosis of the liver and symptoms, call ...

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis Bile duct disease such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC) ... spleen (splenomegaly) Stone-like particles in gallbladder and bile duct (gallstones) Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) Chronic liver ...

  19. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hepatitis is the most common form in North America. Type 1 can occur at any age; however, ... eastern time, M-F Follow Us NIH… Turning Discovery Into Health ® Research & Funding Current Funding Opportunities Research ...

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My Loved Ones Resources Find ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... Site Map © COPYRIGHT 2017 AMERICAN LIVER FOUNDATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Your Liver Overview

    The Faces ...

  2. Coevolution analysis of Hepatitis C virus genome to identify the structural and functional dependency network of viral proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champeimont, Raphaël; Laine, Elodie; Hu, Shuang-Wei; Penin, Francois; Carbone, Alessandra

    2016-05-01

    A novel computational approach of coevolution analysis allowed us to reconstruct the protein-protein interaction network of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) at the residue resolution. For the first time, coevolution analysis of an entire viral genome was realized, based on a limited set of protein sequences with high sequence identity within genotypes. The identified coevolving residues constitute highly relevant predictions of protein-protein interactions for further experimental identification of HCV protein complexes. The method can be used to analyse other viral genomes and to predict the associated protein interaction networks.

  3. Hepatic and renal extraction of circulating type I procollagen aminopropeptide in patients with normal liver function and in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytte, S; Hansen, M; Møller, S

    1999-01-01

    40-65, palcoholic cirrhosis. Size-chromatography revealed no significant change in the ratio of the high and low molecular forms of PINP following extraction in liver and kidney......The circulating level and splanchnic and renal extraction of serum type I procollagen aminoterminal propeptide (PINP) was studied in 20 patients with normal liver function and in 15 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. In patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, the concentration of PINP....... It is concluded that circulating PINP is extracted in the normal liver and kidney, and that the serum concentration of PINP is significantly higher in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis than in patients with normal liver function. Both the hepatic and the renal clearance of PINP are seriously impaired...

  4. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  5. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Posters: Eliminate hepatitis World Hepatitis Day 2017 ...

  6. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  7. Acute Pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K.C.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association of acute viral hepatitis and acute pancreatitis is well described. This study was conducted to find out the frequency of pancreatic involvement in acute viral hepatitis in the Nepalese population. Methods: Consecutive patients of acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain between January 2005 and April 2010 were studied. Patients with history of significant alcohol consumption and gall stones were excluded. Acute viral hepatitis was diagnosed by clinical examination, liver function test, ultrasound examination and confirmed by viral serology. Pancreatitis was diagnosed by clinical presentation, biochemistry, ultrasound examination and CT scan. Results: Severe abdominal pain was present in 38 of 382 serologically-confirmed acute viral hepatitis patients. Twenty five patients were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. The pancreatitis was mild in 14 and severe in 11 patients. The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 18 and hepatitis A virus in 7 patients. Two patients died of complications secondary to shock. The remaining patients recovered from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis occurred in 6.5 % of patients with acute viral hepatitis. Cholelithiasis and gastric ulcers are the other causes of severe abdominal pain. The majority of the patients recover with conservative management. Keywords: acute viral hepatitis, acute pancreatitis, pain abdomen, hepatitis E, hepatitis A, endemic zone

  8. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  9. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  10. Hepatitis C: Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Diet and Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... have high cholesterol and have fatty liver. How hepatitis C affects diet If you have hepatitis, you ...

  11. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis ... Infections Sexually Transmitted Diseases Smoking Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People ...

  12. Innate immune function in placenta and cord blood of hepatitis C--seropositive mother-infant dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Christine Waasdorp; Golden-Mason, Lucy; Brocato, Megan; Krull, Mona; Narkewicz, Michael R; Rosen, Hugo R

    2010-08-30

    Vertical transmission accounts for the majority of pediatric cases of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. In contrast to the adult population who develop persistent viremia in approximately 80% of cases following exposure, the rate of mother-to-child transmission (2-6%) is strikingly low. Protection from vertical transmission likely requires the coordination of multiple components of the immune system. Placenta and decidua provide a direct connection between mother and infant. We hypothesized that innate immune responses would differ across the three compartments (decidua, placenta and cord blood) and that hepatitis C exposure would modify innate immunity in these tissues. The study was comprised of HCV-infected and healthy control mother and infant pairs from whom cord blood, placenta and decidua were collected with isolation of mononuclear cells. Multiparameter flow cytometry was performed to assess the phenotype, intracellular cytokine production and cytotoxicity of the cells. In keeping with a model where the maternal-fetal interface provides antiviral protection, we found a gradient in proportional frequencies of NKT and gammadelta-T cells being higher in placenta than cord blood. Cytotoxicity of NK and NKT cells was enhanced in placenta and placental NKT cytotoxicity was further increased by HCV infection. HCV exposure had multiple effects on innate cells including a decrease in activation markers (CD69, TRAIL and NKp44) on NK cells and a decrease in plasmacytoid dendritic cells in both placenta and cord blood of exposed infants. In summary, the placenta represents an active innate immunological organ that provides antiviral protection against HCV transmission in the majority of cases; the increased incidence in preterm labor previously described in HCV-seropositive mothers may be related to enhanced cytotoxicity of NKT cells.

  13. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  14. The association of exposure to hepatitis B and C viruses with lung function and respiratory disease: a population based study from the NHANES III database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Li Yen; Card, Tim; Fogarty, Andrew W; McKeever, Tricia M

    2014-12-01

    Globally, 500 million people are chronically infected with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV). While these viruses are notorious for their detrimental effect on the liver they are also known to affect multiple organs in the body including the lungs. To investigate if exposure to HBV and HCV is associated with lung function and respiratory diseases. Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) was analysed using multiple linear regressions to investigate the association between exposure to HBV and HCV with the various measures of lung function, while multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the association with the respiratory diseases asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exposure to HCV was significantly associated with an increase in Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 s, FEV1 (Coef: 97.94 ml, 95% CI: 38.87 to 157.01) and Full Vital Capacity, FVC (Coef: 90 ml, 95% CI: 14.50 to 166.24). Individuals who had been exposed to both HBV and HCV also had a significantly higher FEV1 (Coef: 145.82, CI: 60.68 to 230.94) and FVC (Coef: 195.09, CI: 78.91 to 311.26). There was also a significant association between exposure to HBV and asthma (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.58). These associations were no longer significant after additionally adjusting for cocaine and marijuana use as well as poverty income ratio. Our research implies that hepatotropic viruses may affect the respiratory system, but more work at a population level is needed to further explore these associations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Superselective transarterial chemoembolization vs hepatic resection for resectable early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with Child-Pugh class a liver function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Kuo-Feng; Chu, Chi-Hung; Chan, De-Chuan; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Shih, Ming-Lang; Hsieh, Huan-Fa; Hsieh, Tsai-Yuan; Yu, Chih-Yung; Hsieh, Chung-Bao

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In contrast to hepatic resection (HR) for resectable early-stage HCC, the efficacy of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is controversial. This study is designed to compare the long-term outcome of TACE using superselective technique with hepatic resection for the treating resectable early-stage HCC and Child-Pugh class A liver function. Methods: In total, 185 consecutive patients with resectable early-stage HCC and Child-Pugh class A liver function were included: 73 patients received superselective TACE (group I) and 112 patients underwent HR (group II). We evaluated the therapy-related recurrence and long-term outcome and in both groups. The risk factors of recurrence and mortality were assessed by Cox's model. Results: The mean survival time of group 1 patient was similar to that of group 2 patient (40.8 ± 19.8 vs 46.7 ± 24.6 months respectively, p = 0.91). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates after TACE (group I)and HR (group II) were 91%, 66%, and 52% and 93%, 71%, and 57%, respectively (p = 0.239). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year recurrence-free survival rates in groups 1 and 2 were 68%, 28%, and 17% and 78%, 55%, and 35%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Serum albumin, tumour size, tumour number and recurrence interval were independent risk factors for mortality. Serum albumin level, tumour size, tumour number, and treatment modality of TACE or HR could predict HCC recurrence. Conclusion: TACE is an efficient and safe treatment for resectable early-stage HCC with overall survival rates similar to that of HR. Thus, TACE is indicated in selected patients with resectable early-stage HCC.

  16. Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-e","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... E: recognition, investigation and control”. The manual gives information about the epidemiology, clinical manifestations of the disease, ...

  17. Hepatic haemangioma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    successful usage of transhepatic compression sutures using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pledgets and selective ligation of large feeding vessels from right hepatic artery. Surgical resection may not be technically safe or possible in certain cases due to the massive or diffuse nature of the lesion, proximity to vascular ...

  18. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can lower your chances of developing serious health problems. Your doctor may recommend screening for hepatitis B if you ... see a doctor who specializes in liver diseases. Doctors can treat the health problems related to cirrhosis with medicines, surgery, and other ...

  19. Chronic hepatitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection by four diagnostic systems: first generation and second generation. ELlSA, second generation recombinant immunoblot assay and nested polymerase chain reaction analysis. HepatoJogy 1992; 16: 300-305. 14. Van der Poel CL, ... Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Alcoholic hepatitis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  20. Radiogenic hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, G; Woellgens, P; Haase, W [Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (F.R. Germany). Strahlenklinik

    1976-08-01

    The article is about a patient who developed hepatitis after post-operative radiotherapy of a hypernephroma on the right side with /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. radiation. The scintigraph showed a normal-sized liver with parenchymal defects. Therapy consisted of anti-emetics and vitamin preparations.

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lipase Deficiency Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis What ... B & C Alcohol-related Liver Disease Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) & Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) Autoimmune Hepatitis ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... damages your liver over many years – such as long-term alcohol abuse or chronic hepatitis – can cause ... treated. It’s important to continue treatment for as long as necessary to keep HE from coming back. ...

  3. T2{sup *} mapping from multi-echo dixon sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the hepatic fat quantification: Can it be used for hepatic function assessment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Kang, Hyo Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Yang, Hyun Kyung; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of T2{sup *} mapping using 3D multi-echo Dixon gradient echo acquisition on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool to evaluate hepatic function. This retrospective study was approved by the IRB and the requirement of informed consent was waived. 242 patients who underwent liver MRIs, including 3D multi-echo Dixon fast gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequence at 3T, before and after administration of gadoxetic acid, were included. Based on clinico-laboratory manifestation, the patients were classified as having normal liver function (NLF, n = 50), mild liver damage (MLD, n = 143), or severe liver damage (SLD, n = 30). The 3D multi-echo Dixon GRE sequence was obtained before, and 10 minutes after, gadoxetic acid administration. Pre- and post-contrast T2{sup *} values, as well as T2{sup *} reduction rates, were measured from T2{sup *} maps, and compared among the three groups. There was a significant difference in T2{sup *} reduction rates between the NLF and SLD groups (−0.2 ± 4.9% vs. 5.0 ± 6.9%, p = 0.002), and between the MLD and SLD groups (3.2 ± 6.0% vs. 5.0 ± 6.9%, p = 0.003). However, there was no significant difference in both the pre- and post-contrast T2{sup *} values among different liver function groups (p = 0.735 and 0.131, respectively). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve for using T2{sup *} reduction rates to differentiate the SLD group from the NLF group was 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.63–0.83). Incorporation of T2{sup *} mapping using 3D multi-echo Dixon GRE sequence in gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI protocol may provide supplemental information for liver function deterioration in patients with SLD.

  4. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salles José Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  5. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Salles

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  6. Counter-attack on viral hepatitis. [Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozesky, O W [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology; Jupp, P G; Joubert, J J; Taylor, M B; Grabow, W O.K.

    1985-07-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  7. Separation of Hepatic parenchymal and Intrahepatic bile duct isotope activity: Studies of parenchymal function and bile duct flow using dynamic Tc-99m HIDA SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, E.; Naslund, E.; Freedman, J.; Hultcrantz, R.; Slezak, P.; Jacobsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    Currently used liver function tests have several shortcomings. Most of them are either insensitive or non-specific. The ultimate liver function test is probably a dynamic study, using a test substance with exclusive hepatic elimination and bile excretion, detected by means of a non?invasive method enabling sampling from all relevant compartments. In this paper we describe a method which enables measurements of parenchymal function and bile flow in different liver segments. The study was performed on 20 healthy volunteers. Tc-99m HIDA was used as test substrate and repeated Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) registrations as sampling method. Following injection of 120 MBq of Tc-99m HIDA, twelve liver SPECT examinations were performed at 6-minute intervals. Duct-representing peaks on images were detected by cranio-caudal activity scanning. Sampling from parenchyma and bile ducts in liver segments 2 to 8 was performed on consecutive examinations, creating time-activity graphs for parenchyma and ducts. Quantitative analysis of parenchymal and duct curves was performed and the results obtained from the left and right-sided liver segments were compared. Maximum counts/voxel (C max ) of left-sided segments (mean=33.2) were significantly lower than the values from right-sided segments (mean=24.7) and flow of isotope from parenchyma to bile ducts was significantly slower on the left. Furthermore, bile flow in ducts draining left-sided segments was slower than flow on the right side as reflected in significantly longer excretion t 1/2 (28.9 compared to 25.2 minutes) and delayed t max . (21.7 compared to 17.0 minutes). It has been concluded that the new method could provide a differential analysis of tracer flow in the hepatic parenchyma and the bile ducts. This pilot study on normal subjects has revealed interesting differences in both parenchymal accumulation as well as biliary excretion between left and right-sided segments. However, the value of the method

  8. Lower doses venlafaxine-associated toxic hepatitis in a patient with chronic hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sencan, I.; Sahin, I.; Ozcetin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis is observed with high doses of Venlafaxine. But toxic hepatitis has not been yet reported at lower doses of Venlafaxine such as 37.5 mg per day. In this case report, a case of Venlafaxine associated toxic hepatitis with lower doses in patient with history of chronic hepatitis is presented. We suggest that liver function should be regularly monitored in patients with history of chronic hepatitis receiving Venlafaxine even at lower doses and even when their liver enzymes are normal. (author)

  9. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis B KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis B What's in ... Prevented? Print en español Hepatitis B What Is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is an infection of the ...

  10. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  11. Functional analysis of miR-181a and Fas involved in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Juan; Chen, Ke; Wang, Sen; Cao, Yiyi; Zhang, Jinnan; Sheng, Yanrui; Huang, Ailong; Tang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for most of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether HBV plays an important role during hepatocarcinogenesis through effecting miRNAs remains unknown. Here, we reported that HBV up-regulated microRNA-181a (miR-181a) by enhancing its promoter activity. Simultaneously, we found that miR-181a inhibited apoptosis in vitro and promoted tumor cell growth in vivo. TNF receptor superfamily member 6 (Fas) was further identified as a target of miR-181a. We also found that Fas could reverse the apoptosis-inhibition effect induced by miR-181a. Moreover, HBV could inhibit cell apoptosis by down-regulating Fas expression, which could be reversed by miR-181a inhibitor. Our data demonstrated that HBV suppressed apoptosis of hepatoma cells by up-regulating miR-181a expression and down-regulating Fas expression, which may provide a new understanding of the mechanism in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis. - Highlights: • HBV could up-regulate miR-181a expression by interacting with nt−800 to +240 in its promoter region in HCC cell lines. • HBV could down-regulate Fas expression and suppress apoptosis of hepatoma cells, which could be reversed by miR-181a inhibitor. • Up-regulation of miR-181a promoted proliferation of hepatoma cells and repressed apoptosis, which could be reversed by Fas. • Our study provides a new understanding of the mechanism in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis

  12. Functional analysis of miR-181a and Fas involved in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Juan; Chen, Ke; Wang, Sen; Cao, Yiyi; Zhang, Jinnan; Sheng, Yanrui; Huang, Ailong; Tang, Hua, E-mail: tanghua86162003@aliyun.com

    2015-02-15

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is responsible for most of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, whether HBV plays an important role during hepatocarcinogenesis through effecting miRNAs remains unknown. Here, we reported that HBV up-regulated microRNA-181a (miR-181a) by enhancing its promoter activity. Simultaneously, we found that miR-181a inhibited apoptosis in vitro and promoted tumor cell growth in vivo. TNF receptor superfamily member 6 (Fas) was further identified as a target of miR-181a. We also found that Fas could reverse the apoptosis-inhibition effect induced by miR-181a. Moreover, HBV could inhibit cell apoptosis by down-regulating Fas expression, which could be reversed by miR-181a inhibitor. Our data demonstrated that HBV suppressed apoptosis of hepatoma cells by up-regulating miR-181a expression and down-regulating Fas expression, which may provide a new understanding of the mechanism in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis. - Highlights: • HBV could up-regulate miR-181a expression by interacting with nt−800 to +240 in its promoter region in HCC cell lines. • HBV could down-regulate Fas expression and suppress apoptosis of hepatoma cells, which could be reversed by miR-181a inhibitor. • Up-regulation of miR-181a promoted proliferation of hepatoma cells and repressed apoptosis, which could be reversed by Fas. • Our study provides a new understanding of the mechanism in HBV-related HCC pathogenesis.

  13. Hepatitis E virus coinfection with hepatotropic viruses in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Salama, Osama Saad; Mansour, Fathy Awaad; Hossein, Shaimaa

    2008-06-01

    Major hepatotropic viruses continue to be important causes of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. This work was carried out to detect the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) markers in children with acute viral hepatitis due to hepatotropic viruses (A, B and C) and non-A, non-B, non-C acute hepatitis, and to ascertain the influence of HEV superinfection in individuals infected with hepatitis viruses (A, B and C). We studied prospectively 162 children with sporadic acute hepatitis who reported to our hospital. Thirteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Laboratory investigations were performed, including complete liver function tests. Complete serological profiles for hepatitis viruses A, B, C and E were evaluated. HEV immunoglobulin G was detected with highest percentage among patients with hepatitis B (56.7%), followed by patients with hepatitis C virus (52.0%), hepatitis A virus (34.1%) and combined hepatitis B and C viruses (30.0%). The detection rate among patients with non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis was 7.1%. HEV immunoglobulin M was found in 4.5% of hepatitis A virus patients and in 3.3% of hepatitis B patients. The prevalence of HEV immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M correlated with the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in patients with dual markers of infection with hepatitis E and other viruses compared to patients with acute hepatitis due to A and C viruses. HEV serological markers are common among children with acute viral hepatitis, especially from hepatitis C and B viruses. There may be increased sensitivity to HEV coinfection in association with hepatitis B and C infections. Dual infection with HEV and other hepatotropic viruses was associated with greater elevation of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases.

  14. Functional contribution of elevated circulating and hepatic non-classical CD14CD16 monocytes to inflammation and human liver fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning W Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monocyte-derived macrophages critically perpetuate inflammatory responses after liver injury as a prerequisite for organ fibrosis. Experimental murine models identified an essential role for the CCR2-dependent infiltration of classical Gr1/Ly6C(+ monocytes in hepatic fibrosis. Moreover, the monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5 were recently recognized as important fibrosis modulators in mice. In humans, monocytes consist of classical CD14(+CD16(- and non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ cells. We aimed at investigating the relevance of monocyte subpopulations for human liver fibrosis, and hypothesized that 'non-classical' monocytes critically exert inflammatory as well as profibrogenic functions in patients during liver disease progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed circulating monocyte subsets from freshly drawn blood samples of 226 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD and 184 healthy controls by FACS analysis. Circulating monocytes were significantly expanded in CLD-patients compared to controls with a marked increase of the non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ subset that showed an activated phenotype in patients and correlated with proinflammatory cytokines and clinical progression. Correspondingly, CD14(+CD16(+ macrophages massively accumulated in fibrotic/cirrhotic livers, as evidenced by immunofluorescence and FACS. Ligands of monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR1 and CCR5 were expressed at higher levels in fibrotic and cirrhotic livers, while CCL3 and CCL4 were also systemically elevated in CLD-patients. Isolated monocyte/macrophage subpopulations were functionally characterized regarding cytokine/chemokine expression and interactions with primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSC in vitro. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes released abundant proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, CD14(+CD16(+, but not CD14(+CD16(- monocytes could directly activate collagen-producing HSC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data

  15. AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakHepatitis autoimun merupakan penyakit inflamasi hati yang berat dengan penyebab pasti yang tidak diketahui yang mengakibatkan morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Semua usia dan jenis kelamin dapat dikenai dengan insiden tertinggi pada anak perempuan usia prepubertas, meskipun dapat didiagnosis pada usia 6 bulan. Hepatitis autoimun dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 2 bagian berdasarkan adanya antibodi spesifik: Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA dengan anti-actin specificity dan/atau Anti Nuclear Antibody (ANA pada tipe 1 dan Liver-Kidney Microsome antibody (LKM1 dan/atau anti-liver cytosol pada tipe 2. Gambaran histologisnya berupa “interface hepatitis”, dengan infiltrasi sel mononuklear pada saluran portal, berbagai tingkat nekrosis, dan fibrosis yang progresf. Penyakit berjalan secara kronik tetapi keadaan yang berat biasanya menjadi sirosis dan gagal hati.Tipe onset yang paling sering sama dengan hepatitis virus akut dengan gagal hati akut pada beberapa pasien; sekitar sepertiga pasien dengan onset tersembunyi dengan kelemahan dan ikterik progresif ketika 10-15% asimptomatik dan mendadak ditemukan hepatomegali dan/atau peningkatan kadar aminotransferase serum. Adanya predominasi perempuan pada kedua tipe. Pasien LKM1 positif menunjukkan keadaan lebih akut, pada usia yang lebih muda, dan biasanya dengan defisiensi Immunoglobulin A (IgA, dengan durasi gejala sebelum diagnosis, tanda klinis, riwayat penyakit autoimun pada keluarga, adanya kaitan dengan gangguan autoimun, respon pengobatan dan prognosis jangka panjang sama pada kedua tipe.Kortikosteroid yang digunakan secara tunggal atau kombinasi azathioprine merupakan terapi pilihan yang dapat menimbulkan remisi pada lebih dari 90% kasus. Strategi terapi alternatif adalah cyclosporine. Penurunan imunosupresi dikaitkan dengan tingginya relap. Transplantasi hati dianjurkan pada penyakit hati dekom-pensata yang tidak respon dengan pengobatan medis lainnya.Kata kunci : hepatitis Autoimmune

  16. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2004-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterised histologically by interface hepatitis, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. Its onset is often ill-defined, frequently mimicing acute hepatitis. AIH usually responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 AIH) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1, type 2 AIH). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age and commonly have immunoglobulin A deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in the 2 groups. Susceptibility to AIH type 1 is conferred by possession of HLA DR3 and DR4, while to AIH type 2 by possession of HLA DR7. Liver damage is likely to derive from an immune reaction to liver cell antigens, possibly triggered by a mechanism of molecular mimicry, where immune responses to external pathogens, e.g. viruses, become directed towards structurally similar self-components. In AIH this process would be perpetuated by impairment in immune regulation.

  17. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Cdo to take care of their liver? People with Hepatitis C should not use alcohol or street drugs, as these can hurt the liver. Some other products can also hurt people with Hepatitis C, even if they appear to ...

  18. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  19. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  20. Using the Hepatitis C Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase as a Model to Understand Viral Polymerase Structure, Function and Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Sesmero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral polymerases replicate and transcribe the genomes of several viruses of global health concern such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and Ebola virus. For this reason they are key targets for therapies to treat viral infections. Although there is little sequence similarity across the different types of viral polymerases, all of them present a right-hand shape and certain structural motifs that are highly conserved. These features allow their functional properties to be compared, with the goal of broadly applying the knowledge acquired from studying specific viral polymerases to other viral polymerases about which less is known. Here we review the structural and functional properties of the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B in order to understand the fundamental processes underlying the replication of viral genomes. We discuss recent insights into the process by which RNA replication occurs in NS5B as well as the role that conformational changes play in this process.

  1. Altered regional homogeneity in the development of minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about how spontaneous brain activity progresses from non-hepatic encephalopathy (non-HE to minimal HE (MHE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evolution pattern of spontaneous brain activities in cirrhotic patients using resting-state fMRI with a regional homogeneity (ReHo method. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Resting-state fMRI data were acquired in 47 cirrhotic patients (minimal HE [MHE], n = 20, and non-HE, n = 27 and 25 age-and sex-matched healthy controls. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC was used to measure the regional homogeneity. The regional homogeneity maps were compared with ANOVA tests among MHE, non-HE, and healthy control groups and t-tests between each pair in a voxel-wise way. Correlation analyses were performed to explore the relationships between regional ReHo values and Child-Pugh scores, number connection test type A (NCT-A, digit symbol test (DST scores, venous blood ammonia levels. Compared with healthy controls, both MHE and non-HE patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal lobes and increased ReHo in the bilateral caudate. Compared with the non-HE, MHE patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral precuneus, cuneus and supplementary motor area (SMA. The NCT-A of cirrhotic patients negatively correlated with ReHo values in the precuneus, cuneus and lingual gyrus. DST scores positively correlated with ReHo values in the cuneus, precuneus and lingual gyrus, and negatively correlated with ReHo values in the bilateral caudate (P<0.05, AlphaSim corrected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Diffused abnormal homogeneity of baseline brain activity was nonspecific for MHE, and only the progressively decreased ReHo in the SMA and the cuneus, especially for the latter, might be associated with the development of MHE. The ReHo analysis may be potentially valuable for detecting the development from non-HE to MHE.

  2. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  3. Congenital Hepatic Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Recinos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hepatic cyst is a rare and nonsymptomatic condition in infants and children. Its incidence is 2.5% in the postnatal life with a much lower incidence in the prenatal period. Incidental finding on antenatal imaging is the most common presentation. We present a case of a newborn in whom fetal ultrasound detected a cyst within the fetal liver. Postnatal imaging revealed a liver cyst in the right lobe of the liver, with no other intrahepatic structure affected. Liver function tests were abnormal, but the patient was asymptomatic. Posterior follow-up imaging showed a minor decrease in size. Management of congenital hepatic cyst is usually conservative, done with periodic ultrasound monitoring. However, surgical treatment is the mainstay of treatment when hydrops, progressive enlargement, hemorrhage, torsion, or compression of adjacent structures occurs. Malignant transformation can occur, but it is extremely rare. Partial or total removal of the cyst is the preferred treatment in neonates with a large lesion.

  4. Normal hepatic vein patterns on ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae Jin; Chae, Yoo Soon; Park, Hea Yeoung; Park, Bok Hwan; Kim, Yang Sook

    1987-01-01

    Understanding of the anatomy of the hepatic vein is important in manipulation for transplantation of the liver, hepatectomy and the treatment of hepatic trauma with avulsion of the hepatic vein. Demonstrated of the inferior right hepatic vein (IRHV) is also important; in some cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, thrombus can be seen in the IRHV; in primary Budd-Chiari syndrome, the IRHV is main draining vein; during hepatectomy, the postero-inferior segment of the right lobe and draining IRHV can be preserved. For some 10 months ultrasound examination was done in a total of 124 patients with normal liver function with special emphasis on the hepatic vein, their branches, and the IRHV, and analysed in terms of branching pattern and relative size of the hepatic vein and the detection rate of the IRHV.

  5. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4.......5%) reports and unclassifiable in four (0.4%) reports. Hepatic injuries accounted for 5.9% of all adverse drug reactions reported, and 14.7% of the lethal adverse drug reactions. A total of 47.2% were classified as acute cytotoxic, 16.2% as acute cholestatic and 26.9% as abnormal hepatic function. In 52 (4.......7%) cases the hepatic injury was lethal; only 14 (1.3%) cases were chronic. Halothane accounted for 25% of the cases. The incidence of halothane-induced hepatic injury is decreasing, and only one lethal case has been reported since 1981. Next to halothane, sulfasalazine was the drug most often suspected...

  6. The effect of TACE plus PSE on the liver function of hepatic cancer with portal hypertension and hypersplenism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Zhenglong; Jin Hongxian; Cheng Yongde; Zhan Yingjiang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus partial spleen embolization (PSE) on the liver function in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: 85 patients with HCC complicated with portal hypertension and hypersplenism, including group A 45 patients with treatment of TACE plus PSE and group B 40 patients with single TACE were observed. The liver function was evaluated with Child Pugh scores before and after the procedure. Results: There was no difference in the levels of TBIL, ALT, ALB and Child Pugh scores between groups A and B (P>0.05) but remarkable change after therapy was shown at one week later (P<0.05, P<0.01). The liver function tests showed remarkable improvement in the TACE plus PSE group. Conclusion: TACE combined with PSE is a safe and effective procedure for patients with HCC associated with liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension and hypersplenism. (authors)

  7. Hepatitis C virus core protein regulates p300/CBP co-activation function. Possible role in the regulation of NF-AT1 transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Gonzalo, Marta; Benedicto, Ignacio; Carretero, Marta; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Alejandra; Moreno-Otero, Ricardo; Lai, Michael M.C.; Lopez-Cabrera, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core is a viral structural protein; it also participates in some cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation. However, the mechanisms of core-mediated transcriptional regulation remain poorly understood. Oncogenic virus proteins often target p300/CBP, a known co-activator of a wide variety of transcription factors, to regulate the expression of cellular and viral genes. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that HCV core protein interacts with p300/CBP and enhances both its acetyl-transferase and transcriptional activities. In addition, we demonstrate that nuclear core protein activates the NH 2 -terminal transcription activation domain (TAD) of NF-AT1 in a p300/CBP-dependent manner. We propose a model in which core protein regulates the co-activation function of p300/CBP and activates NF-AT1, and probably other p300/CBP-regulated transcription factors, by a novel mechanism involving the regulation of the acetylation state of histones and/or components of the transcriptional machinery

  8. Functional and toxicological consequences of metabolic bioactivation of methapyrilene via thiophene S-oxidation: Induction of cell defence, apoptosis and hepatic necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercer, Amy E.; Regan, Sophie L.; Hirst, Charlotte M.; Graham, Emma E.; Antoine, Daniel J.; Benson, Craig A.; Williams, Dominic P.; Foster, John; Kenna, J. Gerry; Park, B. Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Methapyrilene, [N,N-dimethyl-N'-pyridyl-N'(2-thienylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine] (MP) was withdrawn from, clinical use due to reported periportal hepatic necrosis and hepatocarcinogenicity in the rat, via S-oxidation of the thiophene group. In this study MP is used as a model hepatotoxin to further characterise the functional consequences of S-oxidation of the thiophene group in vivo, in rat models and in vitro, in freshly isolated rat hepatocyte suspensions. In vivo histological studies revealed the early depletion of glutathione (GSH), which was confined to the damaged periportal area, in contrast to an increase in GSH levels in the centrilobular region. Additionally, the induction of cell defence was demonstrated by an increase in the protein levels of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and glutamate cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit (GCLC) in vivo. Histological examination demonstrated that cytotoxicity progresses initially via apoptosis before an increase in necrosis over the 3-day administration. An apoptotic-like mechanism was observed in vitro via the measurement of cytochrome c release and caspase activation. Conclusion: This study provides evidence for a complex pathway of MP-induced hepatotoxicity which progresses through early adaptation, apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation, all underpinned by the zonal induction and depletion of GSH within the liver.

  9. Differential functions of C- and N-terminal hepatitis B x protein in liver cells treated with doxorubicin in normoxic or hypoxic condition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davor Kin-Fan Chau

    Full Text Available Hepatitis viral B x protein (HBx, a hepatocarcinogen, is frequently mutated. Hypoxia influences the growth of HCC and also the sensitivity of tumor cells to treatments. We aimed to test the role of HBx and acute hypoxia in the efficacy of chemotherapy. In this study, we established 4 Chang liver cell lines with the full-length HBx (HBx, the first 50 amino acids of N-terminal HBx (HBx/50, the last 104 amino acids of C-terminal HBx (HBx/51 and empty vector (CL, respectively. MTT and TNUEL assays were used to assess cell viability and apoptosis respectively. Western blot was used to determine the expression of relevant proteins. Results showed that among 4 cell lines, doxorubicin was most effective in decreasing the viability and enhancing apoptosis in HBx/51 cells, while HBx/50 cells were most resistant to the treatment. Cells in hypoxia were more susceptible to doxorubicin than cells in normoxia. Hypoxia facilitated the Bid cleavage especially in HBx/51 cells via phosphorylating p38 MAPK. p38 MAPK inhibitor significantly reduced the tBid level and increased cell viability. In conclusion, N-terminal HBx and C-terminal HBx function differentially in their ability to regulate cell growth, with the former being promotive but the latter being inhibitory. The acute hypoxia may overcome the HBx-induced resistance and facilitate the chemotherapy.

  10. Effect of food azo dyes tartrazine and carmoisine on biochemical parameters related to renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress biomarkers in young male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, K A; Abdel Hameid, H; Abd Elsttar, A H

    2010-10-01

    Tartrazine and carmoisine are an organic azo dyes widely used in food products, drugs and cosmetics. The present study conducted to evaluate the toxic effect of these coloring food additives; on renal, hepatic function, lipid profile, blood glucose, body-weight gain and biomarkers of oxidative stress in tissue. Tartrazine and carmoisine were administered orally in two doses, one low and the other high dose for 30 days followed by serum and tissue sample collection for determination of ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose in serum and estimation of GSH, catalase, SOD and MDA in liver tissue in male albino rat. Our data showed a significant increase in ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine total protein and albumin in serum of rats dosed with tartrazine and carmoisine compared to control rats and these significant change were more apparent in high doses than low, GSH, SOD and Catalase were decreased and MDA increased in tissue homogenate in rats consumed high tartrazine and both doses of carmoisine. We concluded that tartrazine and carmoisine affect adversely and alter biochemical markers in vital organs e.g. liver and kidney not only at higher doses but also at low doses. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hyperintensity of basal ganglia on T1-weighted images in patients with liver cirrhosis. Correlation with hepatic encephalopathy and liver function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hiroko; Kita, Keisuke; Mizobata, Toshiharu; Kimura, Masashi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazushi; Tanaka, Kayo; Sato, Morio; Yamada, Ryosaku

    1995-01-01

    Brain MR imaging was performed in 38 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients and 9 normal volunteers. On T 1 -weighted images, the signal intensity of globus pallidus (S1) and frontal white matter (S2) was measured and S1/S2 ratio was explored. We examined the relationship between S1/S2 ratio and liver function parameters. High signal intensity in bilateral globus pallidus was noted on T 1 W1 in 28 of 38 LC patients. The S1/S2 ratio of 1.186±0.097 in the 38 LC patients was significantly higher than 0.987±0.062 in the 9 normal volunteers (p 2 -weighted images showed no abnormal intensity. Compared with the LC patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (n=7) and without HE (n=31), the former S1/S2 ratio (1.239±0.057) was significantly higher than the latter (1.174±0.097) (p 15 (r=0.501, p 1 -WI and the degree of liver dysfunction. (author)

  12. Hepatic acute-phase proteins control innate immune responses during infection by promoting myeloid-derived suppressor cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sander, L.E.; Sackett, S.D.; Dierssen, U.; Beraza, N.; Linke, R.; Müller, M.R.; Blander, J.M.; Tacke, F.; Trautwein, C.

    2010-01-01

    Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins produced mainly in the liver in response to infection and inflammation. Despite vast pro- and antiinflammatory properties ascribed to individual APPs, their collective function during infections remains poorly defined.

  13. Hepatic acute phase proteins control innate immune responses during infection by promoting myeloid derived suppressor cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sander, Leif E.; Dutton Sackett, Sara; Dierssen, Uta; Beraza, Naiara; Linke, Reinhold P.; Muller, Michael; Magarian Blander, Julie; Tacke, Frank; Trautwein, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins produced mainly in the liver in response to infection and inflammation. Despite vast pro- and anti-inflammatory properties ascribed to individual APPs, their collective function during infections remains poorly defined.

  14. Polymorphisms in IRG1 gene associated with immune responses to hepatitis B vaccination in a Chinese Han population and function to restrain the HBV life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Zhang, Li; Wu, Xiao-Pan; Zhu, Xi-Lin; Pan, Li-Ping; Li, Tao; Yan, Bing-Yu; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Li, Hui; Liu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Vaccination against the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is extensively used as an effective method to prevent HBV infection. However, nearly 10% of healthy adults fail to produce a protective level of antibodies against the hepatitis B vaccine, and multiple genetic variants are known to affect the immune response to the hepatitis B vaccine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between polymorphisms in immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) gene and the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination in a Chinese Han population. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the IRG1 gene were genotyped in 1230 high-responders and 451 non-responders to hepatitis B vaccination. The SNPs rs17470171 and rs17385627 were associated with the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination (P = 0.014 and 0.029, respectively). In addition, the haplotypes G-A-A-A (rs614171-rs17470171-rs9530614-rs17385627, P = 0.0042, OR = 0.68) and A-A (rs17470171-rs17385627, P = 0.0065, OR = 0.72) exerted a protective role in the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination. Allele 'A' of rs17470171 and allele 'A' of rs17385627 show higher levels of expression for the IRG1 gene compared with allele 'C' of rs17470171 and allele 'T' of rs17385627 as demonstrated by luciferase reporter and overexpression assays. In addition, we observed that IRG1 inhibited the HBV life cycle and that IRG1 rs17385627 allele 'A' was more effective than rs17385627 allele 'T' at eliminating HBV in HepG2.2.15 cells. These findings suggest that polymorphisms in the IRG1 gene are associated with the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination. The antiviral effect of IRG1 was confirmed using HBV infection cell models. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common causes of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common ... gov/ mmwr/ preview/ mmwrhtml/ rr5516a1. htm? s_ cid= rr5516a1_ e. The Numbers • • Of people with HIV in the ...

  16. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-signal pathway mediates proliferation and secretory function of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells in rats after partial hepatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ping; Zhang Lin; Ding Jiming; Zhu Jin; Li Ying; Duan Shigang; Yan Hongtao; Huan Yongwei; Dong Jiahong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of AKT signaling pathway in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) early after partial hepatectomy in rats and the regulatory mechanisms involved. Methods: The animal model of 70% hepatectomy was made. Hepatic SECs were isolated and cultured according to Braet et al.'s method with some modifications. The cultured hepatic SECs were divided into two groups: 70% partial hepatectomy groups and LY294002 group (LY). We observed the expressions of AKT and NF-κB in cultured hepatic SECs by Western blot, measured the levels of NO, NOs, IL-6, and HGF in the supernatants of hepatic SEC cultures and [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, and analyzed cell cycle of cultured hepatic SECs by flow cytometer. The relationship of the Akt pathway with secretions and proliferation of hepatic SECs after partial hepatectomy was probed. Results: The levels of Akt protein expression increased significantly after partial hepatectomy in OG group and with a peak at 24 h post operation. Meanwhile, there was a markedly increase in phosphorylated Akt protein during 2-72 h after operation. But the expression and activity of Akt protein did not change significantly after partial hepatectomy in the LY group. So, partial hepatectomy can marked induce Akt expression and result in rapid and marked phosphorylation of Akt from 2 to 72 h thereafter. The changes of NF-κB expression in cultured hepatic SECs were similar to those of Akt expression after operation. The concentrations of HGF and IL-6 in the supernatants of cultured hepatic SECs were relatively low in the LY group, and were markedly increased after partial hepatectomy, with a peak at 24 h in the OG group. There were significant differences between the OG and LY groups at 6 and 24 h (P < 0.05). Both NO and NOS secretion was increased in the OG group compared to the LY group within 24 h after partial hepatectomy. But the secretion of NO and NOS was increased more markedly in the LY group than that in the OG

  17. Hepatic and renal function with successful long-term support on a continuous flow left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Salil V; Sharma, Vikas; Altarabsheh, Salah E; Hasin, Tal; Dillon, John; Shah, Ishan K; Durham, Lucian A; Stulak, John M; Daly, Richard C; Joyce, Lyle D; Park, Soon J

    2014-03-01

    Data regarding the long-term clinical effects of a continuous flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) on hepato-renal function is limited. Hence our aim was to assess changes in hepato-renal function over a one-year period in patients supported on a CF-LVAD. During the study period 126 patients underwent CF-LVAD implant. Changes in hepato-renal laboratory parameters were studied in 61/126 patients successfully supported on a CF-LVAD for period of one year. A separate cohort of a high-risk group (HCrB) of patients (56/126) with a serum creat>1.9 mg/dL (168 μmol/L) (75th percentile) or a serum bil>1.5 mg/dL (25.65 μmol/L) (75th percentile) was created. Changes in serum creatinine and bilirubin were analysed at regular intervals for this group along with the need for renal replacement therapy. Baseline creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) for the entire cohort was 1.4[1.2,1.9 mg/dL] [123.7(106,168) μmol/L) and 27[20,39.5 mg/dL] [9.6(7.1,14.1) mmol/L] respectively. After an initial reduction at the end of one month [1(0.8,1.2) mg/dL; 88(70,105) μmol/L] (passist device support for one year. High-risk patients demonstrate a higher 30-day mortality and temporary need for renal replacement therapy. Yet even in this cohort, improvement is present over a period of one year on the device, with a minimal need for permanent haemodialysis. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepatic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The past several years have seen significant advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology. These advances have been particularly rewarding for the study of liver disease. Improved imaging and therapeutic procedures in oncology have generated changes in treatment protocols and in evaluating the results of therapy for hepatic malignancies. The enriched understanding of the anatomic and hemodynamic aspects of the portal system has greatly benefited patients with portal hypertension. Now physicians are confidently more aggressive in the therapeutic approach to the variceal bleeder, and they have modified their approach to the preservation of portal flow following shunt. All of the diagnostic modalities used to evaluate the liver are represented in this book. In its structure and organization this volume goes beyond a historical overview of imaging to present greater insight into the current state of the art, as well as possible future developments. Each chapter is designed to elucidate the advantages and weaknesses of the various diagnostic modalities

  19. Clinical significance of measurement of hepatic volume by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Yoshiro; Takada, Akira

    1984-01-01

    Hepatic volumes were measured by computed tomography (CT) in 91 patients with chronic liver diseases. Mean hepatic volume in alcoholic liver disease was significantly larger than that in non-alcoholic liver disease. Hepatic volumes in the majority of decompensated liver cirrhosis were significantly smaller than those of compensated liver cirrhosis. In liver cirrhosis, significant correlations between hepatic volume and various hepatic tests which reflect the total functioning hepatic cell masses were found. Combinations of hepatic volume with ICG maximum removal rate and with serum cholinesterase activity were most useful for the assessment of prognosis in liver cirrhosis. These results indicated that estimation of hepatic volume by CT is useful for analysis of pathophysiology and prognosis of chronic liver diseases, and for diagnosis of alcoholic liver diseases. (author)

  20. Features of Hepatitis in Hepatitis-associated Aplastic Anemia: Clinical and Histopathologic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kalyani R; Bertuch, Alison; Sasa, Ghadir S; Himes, Ryan W; Wu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA) is a rare variant of aplastic anemia in which patients present with severe pancytopenia after an episode of acute hepatitis. The marrow failure is often rapid, severe, and usually fatal if untreated. The preceding hepatitis is largely under-studied. Retrospective study of the clinical and histopathologic features of hepatitis in pediatric patients who subsequently developed aplastic anemia and comparison with consecutive cases of acute liver failure and random cases of autoimmune hepatitis during the same time frame. All 7 patients of HAA had significant elevations in aminotransferases and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia at initial presentation. Echoing liver function indices, cholestatic hepatitis with sinusoidal obstruction-type endothelial injury was seen histomorphologically. Autoimmune hepatitis serology such as anti-F-actin, anti-liver/kidney microsome, and hypergammaglobulinemia was negative in all patients. Five of 7 patients (71.4%) had, however, elevated antinuclear antibody, all with a speckled pattern. Hepatitis virus serology was negative in all patients. By immunohistochemical staining, the lobular CD8/CD4 lymphocyte ratio was markedly elevated in all of the initial samples with significant reduction in this ratio (P = 0.03) in 3 patients post treatment (ursodiol, antibiotics, and/or immunosuppressive therapy). Hepatitis preceding HAA is characterized by marked elevation of aminotransferases, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, elevated antinuclear antibody with a speckled pattern, cholestatic hepatitis with sinusoidal obstruction morphology, and CD8 dominant lobular infiltrates. The present study suggests HAA may result from cytotoxic T-cell-mediated sinusoidal endothelial and hepatocytic injury.

  1. The influence of chronic intake of saccharin on rat hepatic and pancreatic function and morphology: gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana M. Andrejić

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available There are opposite hypotheses on the effect of saccharin. Our aim was reviewing the influence of chronically ingested saccharin on the function and histological structure of liver and pancreas and all this in light of gender differences.The rats were divided into control group – (Group C and saccharin-treated group – (Group S which was given a normal diet and 0.0005% saccharin in drinking water for 6 weeks. Liver and pancreas were histologically processed and quantitative histological analysis was performed. Glucose blood levels and plasma activities of aspartate transaminase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT, body weight, and food intake were analyzed.Quantitative histological analysis determined that the values of diameter and volume density of both Langerhans islets and exocrine acini were significantly higher in S group, especially in males. AST levels were significantly higher in treated group. Glucose levels were higher in treated group, mainly due to the values of the female subgroup. Food intake was significantly higher in control group, while weight gain was higher in treated group. Treated males had significantly higher food intake and weight gain in comparison with treated females.The data presented here suggests that chronic saccharin intake affects the examined parameters. Reported facts reflect various metabolic, hormonal and neural responses in males and females.

  2. Impairment of Hepatic and Renal Functions by 2,5-Hexanedione Is Accompanied by Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac A. Adedara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 2,5-Hexanedione (2,5-HD is the toxic metabolite of n-hexane which is widely used as solvent in numerous industries. The present study elucidated the precise mechanism of 2,5-HD in hepatorenal toxicity by determining the involvement of oxidative stress in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1% 2,5-HD in drinking water for 21 days. Exposure to 2,5-HD caused liver and kidney atrophy evidenced by significant elevation in serum aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, and electrolytes levels compared with control. The marked dose-dependent increase in total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL was accompanied with significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels in 2,5-HD-exposed animals when compared with the control. Administration of 2,5-HD significantly diminished glutathione (GSH level but increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST concomitantly with marked elevation in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA levels in liver and kidney of the treated groups compared with control. These findings suggest that undue exposure to 2,5-HD at environmentally relevant levels may impair liver and kidney functions through induction of oxidative stress.

  3. Novel function of the endoplasmic reticulum degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like proteins in the human hepatitis B virus life cycle, mediated by the middle envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Catalin; Uta, Mihaela; Petrescu, Stefana Maria; Branza-Nichita, Norica

    2017-02-01

    Cells replicating the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) express high levels of degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs), a family of proteins involved in the endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation, one of the pathways activated during the unfolded protein response. Owing to their α-1,2 mannosidase activity, the EDEM1-3 proteins are able to process the N-linked glycans of misfolded or incompletely folded proteins, providing the recognition signal for their subsequent degradation. The HBV small (S), medium (M), and large (L) surface proteins bear an N-linked glycosylation site in the common S domain that is partially occupied in all proteins. The M protein contains an additional site in its preS2 domain, which is always functional. Here, we report that these oligosaccharides are processed by EDEMs, more efficiently by EDEM3, which induces degradation of L and S proteins, accompanied by a reduction of subviral particles production. In striking contrast, M not only is spared from degradation but its trafficking is also accelerated leading to an improved secretion. This unusual behavior of the M protein requires strictly the mannose trimming of the preS2 N-linked glycan. Furthermore, we show that HBV secretion is significantly inhibited under strong endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions when M expression is prevented by mutagenesis of the viral genome. These observations unfold unique properties of the M protein in the HBV life cycle during unfolded protein response and point to alternative mechanisms employed by EDEMs to alleviate this stress in case of necessity by promoting glycoprotein trafficking rather than degradation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of dietary coenzyme Q10 supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial function and the activities of respiratory chain-related enzymes in ascitic broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, A L; Guo, Y M

    2005-10-01

    1. One hundred and sixty 1-d-old Arbor Acre male broiler chicks were fed with maize-soybean based diets for 6 weeks in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. The factors were CoQ10 supplementation (0 or 40 mg/kg) and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (LPS or saline). 2. CoQ10 was supplemented from d 1. From d 18, the chickens received three weekly i.p. injections of LPS (1.0 mg/kg BW) or an equivalent amount of sterile saline as control. From d 10 on, all chickens were exposed to low ambient temperature (12 to 15 degrees C) to induce ascites. 3. The blood packed cell volume and ascites heart index of broiler chickens were reduced by dietary CoQ10 supplementation. Mitochondrial State 3 and State 4 respiration, respiratory control ratio and phosphate oxygen ratio were not changed, but H+/site stoichiometry of complex II + III was elevated by dietary CoQ10 supplementation. 4. Cytochrome c oxidase and H+-ATPase activity were increased by CoQ10 supplementation, whereas NADH cytochrome c reductase and succinate cytochrome c reductase were not influenced. Mitochondrial anti-ROS capability was increased and malondialdehyde content was decreased by CoQ10 supplementation. 5. The work suggested that dietary CoQ10 supplementation could reduce broiler chickens' susceptibility to ascites, which might be the result of improving hepatic mitochondrial function, some respiratory chain-related enzymes activities and mitochondrial antioxidative capability.

  5. Hyperintensity of basal ganglia on T{sub 1}-weighted images in patients with liver cirrhosis. Correlation with hepatic encephalopathy and liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hiroko; Kita, Keisuke; Mizobata, Toshiharu; Kimura, Masashi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazushi; Tanaka, Kayo; Sato, Morio; Yamada, Ryosaku [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    Brain MR imaging was performed in 38 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients and 9 normal volunteers. On T{sub 1}-weighted images, the signal intensity of globus pallidus (S1) and frontal white matter (S2) was measured and S1/S2 ratio was explored. We examined the relationship between S1/S2 ratio and liver function parameters. High signal intensity in bilateral globus pallidus was noted on T{sub 1} W1 in 28 of 38 LC patients. The S1/S2 ratio of 1.186{+-}0.097 in the 38 LC patients was significantly higher than 0.987{+-}0.062 in the 9 normal volunteers (p<0.001), while T{sub 2}-weighted images showed no abnormal intensity. Compared with the LC patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (n=7) and without HE (n=31), the former S1/S2 ratio (1.239{+-}0.057) was significantly higher than the latter (1.174{+-}0.097) (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the value of the S1/S2 ratio and deterioration of ICG R{sub 15} (r=0.501, p<0.005), prolongation of prothrombine time (r=-0.392, p<0.05) and decrease of choline esterase (r=-0.336, p<0.05). There was, however, little correlation between the value of the S1/S2 ratio and ammonia and Fisher ratio. In conclusion, there is a significant relationship between high intensity of globus pallidus on T{sub 1}-WI and the degree of liver dysfunction. (author).

  6. HCVpro: Hepatitis C virus protein interaction database

    KAUST Repository

    Kwofie, Samuel K.; Schaefer, Ulf; Sundararajan, Vijayaraghava Seshadri; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Christoffels, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    It is essential to catalog characterized hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein-protein interaction (PPI) data and the associated plethora of vital functional information to augment the search for therapies, vaccines and diagnostic biomarkers

  7. Toolbox for non-intrusive structural and functional analysis of recombinant VLP based vaccines: a case study with hepatitis B vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke M Mulder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fundamental to vaccine development, manufacturing consistency, and product stability is an understanding of the vaccine structure-activity relationship. With the virus-like particle (VLP approach for recombinant vaccines gaining popularity, there is growing demand for tools that define their key characteristics. We assessed a suite of non-intrusive VLP epitope structure and function characterization tools by application to the Hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg VLP-based vaccine. METHODOLOGY: The epitope-specific immune reactivity of rHBsAg epitopes to a given monoclonal antibody was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR and quantitatively analyzed on rHBsAg VLPs in-solution or bound to adjuvant with a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The structure of recombinant rHBsAg particles was examined by cryo transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM and in-solution atomic force microscopy (AFM. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: SPR and competitive ELISA determined relative antigenicity in solution, in real time, with rapid turn-around, and without the need of dissolving the particulate aluminum based adjuvant. These methods demonstrated the nature of the clinically relevant epitopes of HBsAg as being responsive to heat and/or redox treatment. In-solution AFM and cryoTEM determined vaccine particle size distribution, shape, and morphology. Redox-treated rHBsAg enabled 3D reconstruction from CryoTEM images--confirming the previously proposed octahedral structure and the established lipid-to-protein ratio of HBsAg particles. Results from these non-intrusive biophysical and immunochemical analyses coalesced into a comprehensive understanding of rHBsAg vaccine epitope structure and function that was important for assuring the desired epitope formation, determinants for vaccine potency, and particle stability during vaccine design, development, and manufacturing. SIGNIFICANCE: Together, the methods presented here comprise a novel

  8. Targeted therapy for human hepatic carcinoma cells using folate-functionalized polymeric micelles loaded with superparamagnetic iron oxide and sorafenib in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lei Zhang,1 Faming Gong,2 Fang Zhang,3 Jing Ma,1 Peidong Zhang,1 Jun Shen3 1Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, 2PCFM Laboratory of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 3Department of Radiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of targeted folate-functionalized micelles containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs and sorafenib on human hepatic carcinoma (HepG2 cells in vitro, and to observe the feasibility of surveillance of this targeting therapeutic effect by magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: Sorafenib and SPIONs were loaded into polymeric micelles. The targeted nanocarrier was synthesized by functionalizing the micelles with folate. Folate-free micelles loaded with sorafenib and SPIONs were used as control (nontargeted micelles. Uptake of the nanocarrier by cells was assessed using Prussian blue staining after 1 hour of incubation with the polymeric micelles. The inhibitory effect of the targeted micelles on HepG2 cell proliferation at various concentrations of sorafenib was assessed in vitro using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay and apoptotic analysis using flow cytometry. Magnetic resonance imaging using a clinical 1.5 T scanner was performed to detect changes in the signal intensity of cells after incubation with the targeted micelles. Results: Prussian blue staining showed significantly more intracellular SPIONs in cells incubated with the targeted micelles than those incubated with nontargeted micelles. The MTT assay showed that the average inhibitory ratio in the targeted group was significantly higher than that in the nontargeted group (38.13% versus 22.54%, P = 0.028. The mean apoptotic rate in the targeted cells, nontargeted cells, and untreated cells was 17.01%, 11.04%, and 7.89%, respectively. The apoptotic rate in the

  9. No oxygen delivery limitation in hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Keiding, Susanne; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2010-01-01

    to choose between cause and effect in three groups of volunteers, including healthy control subjects (HC), patients with cirrhosis of the liver without hepatic encephalopathy (CL), and patients with cirrhosis with acute hepatic encephalopathy. Compared to HC subjects, blood flow and energy metabolism had......Hepatic encephalopathy is a condition of reduced brain functioning in which both blood flow and brain energy metabolism declined. It is not known whether blood flow or metabolism is the primary limiting factor of brain function in this condition. We used calculations of mitochondrial oxygen tension...

  10. Hepatic erythropoietin response in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risør, Louise M; Fenger, Mogens; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2016-01-01

    The main function of erythropoietin (EPO) is to maintain red blood cell mass, but in recent years, increasing evidence has suggested a wider biological role not solely related to erythropoiesis, e.g. angiogenesis and tissue protection. EPO is produced in the liver during fetal life, but the main...... production shifts to the kidney after birth. The liver maintains a production capacity of up to 10% of the total EPO synthesis in healthy controls, but can be up-regulated to 90-100%. However, the hepatic EPO synthesis has been shown not to be adequate for correction of anemia in the absence of renal......, which lead to arterial hypotension, hepatic nephropathy and anemia. An increase in EPO due to renal hypoperfusion, hypoxia and anemia or an EPO-mediated hepato-protective and regenerative mechanism is plausible. However, poor hepatic synthesis capacity, a decreasing co-factor level and inflammatory...

  11. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  12. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  13. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  14. The effect of adding fish oil to parenteral nutrition on hepatic mononuclear cell function and survival after intraportal bacterial challenge in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Tomoyuki; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Maeshima, Yoshinori; Ikezawa, Fumie; Hashiguchi, Yojiro; Saitoh, Daizoh; Miyazaki, Masaru; Hase, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Junji

    2012-05-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) is indispensable for meeting caloric and substrate needs of patients who cannot receive adequate amounts of enteral nutrition; however, PN impairs hepatic immunity. We examined the effects of ω-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, added individually to fat-free PN, on hepatic immunity in a murine model. We focused on serum liver enzymes, cytokine production, histopathology, and the outcomes after intraportal bacterial challenge. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomized into 4 groups; ad libitum chow (CHOW), fat-free PN (FF-PN), PN + fish oil (FO-PN), or PN + safflower oil (SO-PN). After the mice had been fed for 5 days, hepatic mononuclear cells (MNCs) were isolated. The number of MNCs was counted and cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α and interleukin [IL]-10) by hepatic MNCs in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured. Blood samples were analyzed for hepatobiliary biochemical parameters. Moreover, 1.0 × 10(7) pseudomonas aeruginosa were delivered by intraportal injection. Survival and histology were examined. Hepatic MNC numbers were significantly less in the FO-PN and FF-PN than in the CHOW group, whereas the SO-PN group showed moderate recovery of hepatic MNC numbers. The CHOW, FO-PN, and SO-PN groups showed LPS dose-dependent increases in TNF-α levels. These increases were blunted in the FF-PN group. IL-10 levels were increased LPS dose-dependently in the CHOW and FO-PN groups, but no marked changes were observed with LPS stimulation in the SO-PN and FF-PN groups. Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly greater in the FF-PN than in the FO- and SO-PN and CHOW groups. The FO-PN group showed significantly improved survival compared with the SO-PN and FF-PN groups, showing essentially no morphologic hepatic abnormalities. Addition of fish oil to PN was advantageous in terms of reversing PN-induced deterioration of hepatic

  15. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  16. Novel nucleotide and amino acid covariation between the 5'UTR and the NS2/NS3 proteins of hepatitis C virus: bioinformatic and functional analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yu Sun

    Full Text Available Molecular covariation of highly polymorphic viruses is thought to have crucial effects on viral replication and fitness. This study employs association rule data mining of hepatitis C virus (HCV sequences to search for specific evolutionary covariation and then tests functional relevance on HCV replication. Data mining is performed between nucleotides in the untranslated regions 5' and 3'UTR, and the amino acid residues in the non-structural proteins NS2, NS3 and NS5B. Results indicate covariance of the 243(rd nucleotide of the 5'UTR with the 14(th, 41(st, 76(th, 110(th, 211(th and 212(th residues of NS2 and with the 71(st, 175(th and 621(st residues of NS3. Real-time experiments using an HCV subgenomic system to quantify viral replication confirm replication regulation for each covariant pair between 5'UTR₂₄₃ and NS2-41, -76, -110, -211, and NS3-71, -175. The HCV subgenomic system with/without the NS2 region shows that regulatory effects vanish without NS2, so replicative modulation mediated by HCV 5'UTR₂₄₃ depends on NS2. Strong binding of the NS2 variants to HCV RNA correlates with reduced HCV replication whereas weak binding correlates with restoration of HCV replication efficiency, as determined by RNA-protein immunoprecipitation assay band intensity. The dominant haplotype 5'UTR₂₄₃-NS2-41-76-110-211-NS3-71-175 differs according to the HCV genotype: G-Ile-Ile-Ile-Gly-Ile-Met for genotype 1b and A-Leu-Val-Leu-Ser-Val-Leu for genotypes 1a, 2a and 2b. In conclusion, 5'UTR₂₄₃ co-varies with specific NS2/3 protein amino acid residues, which may have significant structural and functional consequences for HCV replication. This unreported mechanism involving HCV replication possibly can be exploited in the development of advanced anti-HCV medication.

  17. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  18. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology ... a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your ...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases ... Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases ...

  20. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  1. Hepatitis B - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B children; HBV children; Pregnancy - hepatitis B children; Maternal transmission - hepatitis B children ... growth and development. Regular monitoring plays an important role in managing the disease in children. You should ...

  2. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  3. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  4. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis A Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... IgG HAV-Ab total Anti-HAV Formal Name Viral Hepatitis A Antibody This article was last reviewed on ...

  5. Hepatic falciform artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaques, Paul F.; Mauro, Matthew A.; Sandhu, Jeet

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic falciform artery is an occasional terminal branch of the left or middle hepatic artery, and may provide an uncommon but important collateral route when the principal visceral arteries are occluded

  6. Hepatitis A -- children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007670.htm Hepatitis A - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis A in children is swelling and inflamed tissue of ...

  7. Autoimmune hepatitis vs. pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Adamczyk-Gruszka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH is a disease of unknown etiology. In pregnancy, it may have mild clinical course as well as can lead to liver failure, or exacerbation of clinical symptoms. In pregnant women the severity of symptoms is often observed between the second and third trimester, and in the puerperium. The disease is marked by enhanced activity of Th lymphocytes, which hepatocytes recognize as foreign antigens. This results in interleukin production activating B lymphocytes, and the production of specific antibodies attacking and destroying the hepatocytes. Case report A 35-year old patient, CII PII, 7 Hbd, with autoimmune hepatitis reported for a check-up. Her first pregnancy was 18 years ago, without history of underlying disease, carried to term without complications. The woman gave birth to a baby-son weighing 3,280g, 10 points Apgar. The delivery was spontaneous and uneventful. The patient got pregnant after an 18-year break. When she twice-tested positively for pregnancy, the treatment with azathioprine was switched to prednisolone. Over the pregnancy the patient was hospitalized 4 times, in 25, 29, 35, and 37 week of gestation due to a threat of preterm delivery, and pregnancy-related cholestasis associated with AIH. In 37 week of gestation, delivery was induced, and she gave birth to a healthy male, weighing 2,650 g, body height of 49 cm, 10 points Apgar scale. The liver function improved and stabilized after the delivery. Treatment with prednisolone has been continued, and the patient’s condition is still controlled. Pregnant patients with autoimmune hepatitis often experience exacerbation of the disease, especially in the third trimester, and in the postpartum period. This case shows that with proper care it is possible to continue and terminate pregnancy safely for the mother and her newly born baby.

  8. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  9. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  10. Aberrant hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Novelline, R.A.; Athanasoulis, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    In a patient undergoing selective hepatic arteriography for suspected liver trauma, a nonopacified area of the liver, initially thought to represent a hepatic hematoma, was later discovered to be due to the presence of an accessory right hepatic artery arising from the superior mesenteric artery. This case illustrates the need for a search for aberrant vasculature whenever a liver hematoma is suspected on the basis of a selective hepatic arteriogram. (orig.) [de

  11. Sortilin 1 Loss-of-Function Protects Against Cholestatic Liver Injury by Attenuating Hepatic Bile Acid Accumulation in Bile Duct Ligated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jibiao; Woolbright, Benjamin L; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Yifeng; Matye, David; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Li, Tiangang

    2018-01-01

    Sortilin 1 (Sort1) is an intracellular trafficking receptor that mediates protein sorting in the endocytic or secretory pathways. Recent studies revealed a role of Sort1 in the regulation of cholesterol and bile acid (BA) metabolism. This study further investigated the role of Sort1 in modulating BA detoxification and cholestatic liver injury in bile duct ligated mice. We found that Sort1 knockout (KO) mice had attenuated liver injury 24 h after bile duct ligation (BDL), which was mainly attributed to less bile infarct formation. Sham-operated Sort1 KO mice had about 20% larger BA pool size than sham-operated wildtype (WT) mice, but 24 h after BDL Sort1 KO mice had significantly attenuated hepatic BA accumulation and smaller BA pool size. After 14 days BDL, Sort1 KO mice showed significantly lower hepatic BA concentration and reduced expression of inflammatory and fibrotic marker genes, but similar degree of liver fibrosis compared with WT mice. Unbiased quantitative proteomics revealed that Sort1 KO mice had increased hepatic BA sulfotransferase 2A1, but unaltered phase-I BA metabolizing cytochrome P450s or phase-III BA efflux transporters. Consistently, Sort1 KO mice showed elevated plasma sulfated taurocholate after BDL. Finally, we found that liver Sort1 was repressed after BDL, which may be due to BA activation of farnesoid x receptor. In conclusion, we report a role of Sort1 in the regulation of hepatic BA detoxification and cholestatic liver injury in mice. The mechanisms underlying increased hepatic BA elimination in Sort1 KO mice after BDL require further investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  13. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Hepatitis B Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Known As HBV Tests Hep B anti-HBs Hepatitis B Surface Antibody HBsAg Hepatitis B Surface Antigen HBeAg ...

  14. Hepatitis Associated Aplastic Anemia: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAAA) is an uncommon but distinct variant of aplastic anemia in which pancytopenia appears two to three months after an acute attack of hepatitis. HAAA occurs most frequently in young male children and is lethal if leave untreated. The etiology of this syndrome is proposed to be attributed to various hepatitis and non hepatitis viruses. Several hepatitis viruses such as HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV and HGV have been associated with this set of symptoms. Viruses other than the hepatitis viruses such as parvovirus B19, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein bar virus, Transfusion Transmitted virus (TTV) and non-A-E hepatitis virus (unknown viruses) has also been documented to develop the syndrome. Considerable evidences including the clinical features, severe imbalance of the T cell immune system and effective response to immunosuppressive therapy strongly present HAAA as an immune mediated mechanism. However, no association of HAAA has been found with blood transfusions, drugs and toxins. Besides hepatitis and non hepatitis viruses and immunopathogenesis phenomenon as causative agents of the disorder, telomerase mutation, a genetic factor has also been predisposed for the development of aplastic anemia. Diagnosis includes clinical manifestations, blood profiling, viral serological markers testing, immune functioning and bone marrow hypocellularity examination. Patients presenting the features of HAAA have been mostly treated with bone marrow or hematopoietic cell transplantation from HLA matched donor, and if not available then by immunosuppressive therapy. New therapeutic approaches involve the administration of steroids especially the glucocorticoids to augment the immunosuppressive therapy response. Pancytopenia following an episode of acute hepatitis response better to hematopoietic cell transplantation than immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:21352606

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it ... a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it ...

  16. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  17. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  18. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OVERVIEW Programs About Liver Disease Ask the Experts People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information ... that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS Brochures for Patients YOUR HEALTH & WELLNESS Nutrition TAKE ACTION Advocacy READ, WATCH, LISTEN Brochures Webinars ... Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... filtering everything that enters your body, such as food, drink and medicine. After your intestines break down ... Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver Biopsy and Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases ...

  4. Primary hepatic lymphoma presenting as fulminant hepatic failure with hyperferritinemia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Fyeza S

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary hepatic lymphoma is an unusual form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that usually presents with constitutional symptoms, hepatomegaly and signs of cholestatic jaundice. Diffuse hepatic infiltration is uncommon and presentation with acute hepatic failure even more rare. The presence of markedly elevated ferritin levels can complicate the evaluation process and suggest alternative diagnoses. We present the case of a middle-aged woman exhibiting pancytopenia, hyperferritinemia and rapidly deteriorating to develop acute hepatic failure. Her initial clinical picture led to a working diagnosis of adult onset Still's disease with probable hemophagocytic syndrome before her worsening liver function necessitated a percutaneous liver biopsy and establishment of the final diagnosis of primary hepatic lymphoma. Conclusion Primary hepatic lymphoma is an uncommon malignancy and its manifestation as progressive hepatitis or acute fulminant hepatic failure can be difficult to diagnose. The presence of constitutional symptoms, pancytopenia and high ferritin levels can complicate the evaluation process. A liver biopsy early in the course of liver dysfunction may establish the diagnosis without a higher risk of bleeding complications seen once liver failure sets in.

  5. Hepatic infarction in HELLP syndrome; a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Kim, Hong [Keimyung Univ. School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-11-01

    Hepatic infarction is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of pregnancy-associated preeclampsia or HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver function tests, low platelets) syndrome. We present a case of hepatic infarction subsequent to HELLP syndrome and occurring during the immediate postpartum, and the associated radiologic findings. Sonography revealed poorly defined hypoechoic zones of infarction. Computed tomography(CT) demonstrated the characteristic features of nonenhancing, low attenuation, relatively well-defined, wedge shaped or geographic hepatic lesions, without mass effect.

  6. Hepatic infarction in HELLP syndrome; a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Kim, Hong

    2000-01-01

    Hepatic infarction is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of pregnancy-associated preeclampsia or HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver function tests, low platelets) syndrome. We present a case of hepatic infarction subsequent to HELLP syndrome and occurring during the immediate postpartum, and the associated radiologic findings. Sonography revealed poorly defined hypoechoic zones of infarction. Computed tomography(CT) demonstrated the characteristic features of nonenhancing, low attenuation, relatively well-defined, wedge shaped or geographic hepatic lesions, without mass effect

  7. [Comparison of clinical and laboratory characteristics of viral hepatitis A and E in Montenegro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzić, Dragica; Mijović, Gordana; Dupanović, Brankica; Drasković, Nenad; Svirtlih, Neda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis E has many similarities in with hepatitis A concerning clinical picture, route of transmission and nonexistence of chronicity. Comparison of clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with hepatitis A and E to estimate characteristics of these diseases. Total of 54 patients divided into two groups was investigated: 27 had hepatitis A, others had hepatitis E. Detailed history past, clinical examination, liver function tests and ultrasonography of the upper abdomen, were done in all patients. Aetiology of viral hepatitis was investigated serologically by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) using commercial kits for following viruses: Hepatitis A-E viruses, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus. Asymptomatic infections (29.6%) and clinical forms without jaundice (59.3%) were more frequent in patients with hepatitis E. Splenomegaly was found more frequent in patients with hepatitis A than in hepatitis E (66.7% vs. 33.3%). Patients with hepatitis E had significantly lower activity of aminotransferases than patients with hepatitis A. A significant increase of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase was found in patients with hepatitis E (mean value: 120 IU/L). Our results are in concordance with other reports that hepatitis E virus infection is more common asymptomatic disease than hepatitis A. In addition, hepatocyte necrosis in hepatitis E is less extensive than in hepatitis A measured by the activity of aminotransferases. Contrary to that the value of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase is more increased in hepatitis E than in hepatitis A without exact explanation so far: Viral hepatitis E and A have differences in some clinical features and laboratory parameters although both diseases principally have resolved without consequences after 6-8 weeks.

  8. Pathogenesis and Prevention of Hepatic Steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassir, Fatiha; Rector, R. Scott; Hammoud, Ghassan M.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is defined as intrahepatic fat of at least 5% of liver weight. Simple accumulation of triacylglycerols in the liver could be hepatoprotective; however, prolonged hepatic lipid storage may lead to liver metabolic dysfunction, inflammation, and advanced forms of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Several mechanisms are involved in the accumulation of intrahepatic fat, including increased flux of fatty acids to the liver, increased de novo lipogenesis, and/or reduced clearance through β-oxidation or very-low-density lipoprotein secretion. This article summarizes the mechanisms involved in the accumulation of triacylglycerols in the liver, the clinical implications, and the prevention of hepatic steatosis, with a focus on the role of mitochondrial function and lifestyle modifications. PMID:27099587

  9. Anti-inflammatory function of ginsenoside Rg1 on alcoholic hepatitis through glucocorticoid receptor related nuclear factor-kappa B pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Chu, Shifeng; Li, Jingwei; Li, Jianping; Zhang, Zhao; Xia, Congyuan; Heng, Yang; Zhang, Meijin; Hu, Jinfeng; Wei, Guining; Li, Yueting; Chen, Naihong

    2015-09-15

    Ginseng is the dried root of Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer. Since ancient times, ginseng has been used as one kind of treatment drug or tonic in China and even other eastern countries like Korea and Japan. Pharmacological active chemical ingredients and its extract of ginseng are a mixture of triterpenoid saponins, collectively called ginsenosides. Among them, ginsenoside Rg1 is the most pharmacological active one. Based on prior experimental results and the understanding of alcoholic hepatitis, the major aim of this study is to investigate whether Rg1 is beneficial in a rodent model mimic alcoholic hepatic injury associated with binge drinking and explore the underlying possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were given oral consumption of 6g/kg alcohol 1h after treated with Rg1 (10, 20 and 40mg/kg) or dexamethasone (1mg/kg) for 9 consecutive days. Biochemical analyses were performed and liver fragments were processed for microscopy, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. According to our data, Rg1 treatment significantly reversed the high mortality rate induced by alcohol consumption and also alleviated liver impairment as evidenced by the decrease of serum parameters. Meanwhile, histological and ultrastructural analysis of alcoholic groups showed hepatocellular impairment but restored in Rg1-treated groups. Overproductive inflammatory cytokines were also suppressed by Rg1 in alcohol-intoxicated mouse livers. In addition, changes of GR related NF-κB pathway, including phospho-IκB-α, were also modulated to normal levels. This study demonstrates that Rg1 might promote GR mediating the repression of NF-κB and inhibit the inflammatory reactions in alcoholic hepatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Niemann-Pick C1-deficient mice lacking sterol O-acyltransferase 2 have less hepatic cholesterol entrapment and improved liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Adam M; Jones, Ryan Dale; Repa, Joyce J; Turley, Stephen D

    2018-06-07

    Cholesteryl esters are generated at multiple sites in the body by sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1) or sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) in various cell types, and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in plasma. Esterified cholesterol (EC) and triacylglycerol (TAG) contained in lipoproteins cleared from the circulation via receptor-mediated or bulk-phase endocytosis are hydrolyzed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) within the late endosomal/lysosomal (E/L) compartment. Then, through the successive actions of Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2) and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), unesterified cholesterol (UC) is exported from the E/L compartment to the cytosol. Mutations in either NPC1 or NPC2 lead to continuing entrapment of UC in all organs, resulting in multisystem disease which includes hepatic dysfunction and in some cases liver failure. These studies investigated primarily whether elimination of SOAT2 in NPC1-deficient mice impacted hepatic UC sequestration, inflammation, and transaminase activities. Measurements were made in 7 wk-old mice fed a low-cholesterol chow diet or one enriched with cholesterol starting 2 wk before study. In the chow-fed mice, NPC1:SOAT2 double knockouts, compared to their littermates lacking only NPC1, had 20% less liver mass, 28% lower hepatic UC concentrations, and plasma ALT and AST activities that were decreased by 48% and 36%, respectively. mRNA expression levels for several markers of inflammation were all significantly lower in the NPC1 mutants lacking SOAT2. The existence of a new class of potent and selective SOAT2 inhibitors provides an opportunity for exploring if suppression of this enzyme could potentially become an adjunctive therapy for liver disease in NPC1 deficiency.

  11. Hepatitis isquémica Ischemic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amuchástegui (h

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis isquémica es una complicación sumamente infrecuente de cirugía cardiovascular. Las biopsias muestran necrosis centrolobulillar. El término de "hepatitis" fue propuesto debido al aumento de transaminasas similar a aquellas de origen infeccioso, e "isquémica" por falla en la perfusión hepática. Posteriormente se definió el término de hepatitis isquémica como cuadro de elevación aguda y reversible (dentro de las 72 horas de transaminasas de hasta 20 veces el valor normal, asociado a trastornos en la perfusión hepática, luego de haber excluido otras causas de hepatitis aguda o daño hepatocelular. Se describe el caso de un paciente de 53 años que consulta por dolor epigástrico de 12 h de evolución sin fiebre, náuseas ni vómitos, resistente a la medicación. Tenía antecedentes inmediatos de reemplazo de válvula aórtica, y estaba anticoagulado. Evolucionó con shock y fallo multiorgánico. El examen evidenció marcada ictericia y signos de taponamiento pericárdico, asociado a un aumento considerable de enzimas hepáticas. Un ecocardiograma informó signos de taponamiento cardíaco y ausencia de disección aórtica. Se decidió pericardiocentesis, extrayéndose 970 cc. de líquido sanguinolento, y hemodiálisis, con notable mejoría de su estado hemodinámico. Los valores enzimáticos disminuyeron. Los marcadores virales fueron negativos.Ischemic hepatitis is an uncommon cardiovascular surgery complication. Hepatic biopsies show centrolobulillar necrosis. The term "hepatitis" was proposed because of a raise in hepatic enzymes similar with infectious disease, and "ischemic" because of failure in hepatic perfusion. Ischemic hepatitis was then defined as an acute and reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes (within 72 h, associated with disturbance in hepatic perfusion after excluding other causes of acute hepatitis. A 53 year-old male presented complaining of a 12 h epigastric pain, without nausea or vomiting, resistant

  12. Hepatic Falciform Ligament Artery in Patients with Chronic Liver Diseases: Detection on Computed Tomography Hepatic Arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Yoshimitsu, K.; Irie, H.; Nishie, A.; Hirakawa, M.; Ishigami, K.; Ushijima, Y.; Okamoto, D.; Honda, H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The detection rate of hepatic falciform ligament artery (FLA) has been reported as ranging from 2-25%. The rate of FLA on laparotomy, however, is reported to be higher, at 68%. Purpose: To compare the detection rate of FLA on computed tomography hepatic arteriography (CTHA) with that on angiography and dynamic CT, and to clarify the clinical significance of FLA in patients with chronic liver disease. Material and Methods: 126 consecutive patients underwent CTHA angiography and dynamic CT to evaluate suspected liver tumors. Liver function was classified as follows: normal, n=5; Child-Pugh class A, n=94; B, n=21; and C, n=6. All CT images were obtained using multidetector (MDCT) scanners (Aquilion; Toshiba, Tokyo (JP)). For CTHA, CT images were obtained during contrast material injection through the left hepatic, proper, or common hepatic artery. On CT, FLAs were retrospectively identified within the hepatic falciform ligament and the hepatic round ligament by the paging method on a workstation (TWS-5000; Toshiba, Tokyo (JP)). The detection rates were compared among the three modalities (hepatic arterial phase of dynamic CT, CTHA, and angiography). The calibers of FLA were also correlated with the hepatic function of the patients. Results: The detection rates of FLA by angiography, dynamic CT, and CTHA were 37% (47/126), 10% (13/126), and 77% (97/126), respectively. The calibers of FLA increased as the hepatic function deteriorated (P=0.001). Conclusion: The detection rates of FLA with CTHA are far higher than those with angiography and dynamic CT. Careful interpretation with recognition of FLA on CTHA images is important, as inadvertent embolization or chemotherapeutic infusion of the FLA may result in supraumbilical skin rash

  13. Hepatic artery infusion (HAI) for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, H.W.; Dobelbower, R.R.; Ringleint, J.F.; Skeel, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    Renewed interest in hepatic artery infusion has been stimulated by the development of a totally implantable pump which eliminates many of the problems encountered by the external pumps and catheters. As the potential benefit of hepatic artery infusion would be greater if either all gross disease were removed by prior resection, or alternatively, if non-resectable disease were irradiated in conjunction with hepatic artery infusion, the authors initiated a phase I-II trial to evaluate combined modality therapy

  14. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  15. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.

  16. Primary isolated hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, A.S.F.; Qureshi, I.H.; Saba, K.; Bukhari, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated hepatic tuberculosis without pulmonary or bowel involvement is a diagnostic challenge and can cause considerable morbidity. A young lady from Lahore presented with fever, pain in right hypochondria, nausea and weight loss. CT scan of abdomen showed multiple small hypodense non-enhancing lesions and a heterogeneous texture of liver. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. It was concluded a case of isolated hepatic tuberculosis without evidence of other primary sites involvement. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis when suspecting lymphoproliferative or metastatic diseases in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal hepatic texture on CT. (author)

  17. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  18. Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Emerson, Suzanne U

    2006-01-01

    GB virus B (GBV-B), which infects tamarins, is the virus most closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV has a protein (p7) that is believed to form an ion channel. It is critical for viability. In vitro studies suggest that GBV-B has an analogous but larger protein (p13). We found...... plus part of p7) was nonviable. However, a mutant lacking amino acid 614-669 (p6) produced high titer viremia and acute resolving hepatitis; viruses recovered from both animals lacked the deleted sequence and had no other mutations. Thus, p6 was dispensable but p7 was essential for infectivity...... processing at both sites, suggesting that p13 is processed into two components (p6 and p7). Mutants with substitution at amino acid 669 or 681 were viable in vivo, but the recovered viruses had changes at amino acid 669 and 681, respectively, which restored cleavage. A mutant lacking amino acid 614-681 (p6...

  19. Functional analyses of GB virus B p13 protein: Development of a recombinant GB virus B hepatitis virus with a p7 protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takikawa, Shingo; Engle, Ronald E; Emerson, Suzanne U

    2006-01-01

    GB virus B (GBV-B), which infects tamarins, is the virus most closely related to hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV has a protein (p7) that is believed to form an ion channel. It is critical for viability. In vitro studies suggest that GBV-B has an analogous but larger protein (p13). We found...... plus part of p7) was nonviable. However, a mutant lacking amino acid 614-669 (p6) produced high titer viremia and acute resolving hepatitis; viruses recovered from both animals lacked the deleted sequence and had no other mutations. Thus, p6 was dispensable but p7 was essential for infectivity...... processing at both sites, suggesting that p13 is processed into two components (p6 and p7). Mutants with substitution at amino acid 669 or 681 were viable in vivo, but the recovered viruses had changes at amino acid 669 and 681, respectively, which restored cleavage. A mutant lacking amino acid 614-681 (p6...

  20. Primary Hepatic Lymphoma Mimicking Cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroogh Forghani1,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL presenting with obstructive jaundice is rare and can mimic a preoperative diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. We should consider PHL in patients with radiological hepatic disease with normal serum alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen levels, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. We present the case of a 67-year-old male with no significant medical history presented with abdominal pain, jaundice, fever, and abnormal liver function tests. Abdominal sonography and computed tomography scan suggested a diagnosis of obstructive jaundice and cholangitis due to cholangiocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor. A subsequent liver biopsy diagnosed PHL, and the patient was treated with combination chemotherapy, including rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP. PHL should be considered in patients presenting with biliary obstruction.

  1. Hepatic Shock Differential Diagnosis and Risk Factors: A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Safari, Saeid; Rahmani, Farzad; Nejabatian, Arezu; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2015-10-01

    Liver as an important organ has a vital role in physiological processes in the body. Different causes can disrupt normal function of liver. Factors such as hypo-perfusion, hypoxemia, infections and some others can cause hepatic injury and hepatic shock. Published research resources from 2002 to May 2015 in some databases (PubMed, Scopus, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL, Science direct, Cochrane library and Google scholar and Iranian search database like SID and Iranmedex) were investigated for the present study. Different causes can lead to hepatic shock. Most of these causes can be prevented by early resuscitation and treatment of underlying factors. Hepatic shock is detected in ill patients, especially those with hemodynamic disorders. It can be prevented by early treatment of underlying disease. There is no definite treatment for hepatic shock and should be managed conservatively. Hepatic shock in patients can increase the mortality rate.

  2. Hepatitis C virus infection in patients with oral lichen planus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disease of uncertain etiology. Recent reports suggest that LP is an extrahepatic manifestation of Hepatitis C infection. Objective: To determine the association of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with oral LP and to study the tests of liver function in patients with ...

  3. The hepatic bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2018-07-01

    The hepatic bridge forms a tunnel of liver parenchyma that may obscure peritoneal metastases associated with the round ligament. Visualization and then resection of nodules associated with this structure is necessary. The incidence of a hepatic bridge and the extent that it covered the round ligament was determined in consecutive patients. Extent of coverage of the round ligament by the hepatic bridge was determined: Class 1 indicates up to one-third of the round ligament obscured, Class 2 up to two-thirds and Class 3 more than two-thirds. In 102 patients in whom the round ligament of the liver could be completely visualized, 50 had a hepatic bridge. Class 1 was 22 (44%) of the bridges, Class 2 was 16 (32%) and Class 3 was 12 (24%). A hepatic bridge was more frequently present in 28 of 45 male patients (62%) vs. 22 of 57 female patients (38%). Approximately one-half of our patients having cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases were observed to have a hepatic bridge. Up to 56% of these patients have Class 2 or 3 hepatic bridge and may require division of the hepatic bridge to completely visualize the contents of the tunnel created by this structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatitis C Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention. Recommendations for the Identification of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Persons Born During 1945–1965. Prepared by ... Disease Control and Prevention. Vital Signs: Evaluation of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Testing and Reporting — Eight U.S. Sites, 2005–2011. ...

  5. [History of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  6. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  7. Hepatitis E og graviditet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, Ebba Elisabeth; Harritshøj, Lene Holm; Katzenstein, Terese Lea

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection among pregnant women is severe, often leading to fulminant hepatic failure and death, with mortality rates up to 15-25%. Studies suggest that differences in genotypes/subgenotypes, hormonal and immunological changes during pregnancy may contribute to the severe...

  8. Transcatheter hepatic arterial thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol embolization for the treatment of hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuan; Chen Xiaofei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of transcatheter hepatic arterial thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol embolization in the treatment of hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma. Methods: Sixty-eight cases with hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma were equally and randomly divided into two groups. The patients in study group were treated with transcatheter hepatic arterial thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol embolization, while the patients in control group were treated with conventional (normal temperature) transcatheter hepatic arterial chemotherapy lipiodol embolization. Results: The effective rate of study group and control group was 65%(22/34) and 32%(11/34) respectively, the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). No significant difference in the postoperative changes of hepatic function tests was found between the two groups. The survival rate at 6,12,18 and 24 months after the treatment was 100%, 82%, 44% and 18% respectively in study group, while it was 91%, 47%, 15% and 6% respectively in control group. Conclusion: Transcatheter hepatic arterial thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol embolization is an effective and safe treatment for the hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma and has no obvious damage to the hepatic function. (authors)

  9. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  10. Serum Hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute hepatitis is common in Nigeria and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has been a major aetiological factor. However, the role of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is yet undetermined. Forty-five consecutive Nigerian patients with acute Icteric hepatitis (AIH) attending the Medical Clinic of the University College Hospital, ...

  11. Study on parameters of L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test for quantitative assessment of liver function in healthy subjects and patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Weili; Fudan Univ., Shanghai; Lin Xiangtong; Jiang Yibin; Sun Su; Sun Dayu

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the feasibility and validity of the L-[1- 13 C] phenylalanine breath test ( 13 C-PheBT) which has been used to measure hepatocyte functional capacity in hepatitis B virus-related liver disease patients and to propose validity parameters of the test in 12 healthy volunteer, 8 chronic hepatitis and 26 liver cirrhotic patients. 100mg/body nonradiative L-[1- 13 C] phenylalanine ( 13 C-Phe) was administered orally to all subjects. Breath samples were taken before and different intervals within 360 min after administration. The 13 CO 2 / 12 CO 2 enrichment was assessed by isotope ratio mass spectrometer( The parameter percentage 13 C excretion rate 13 CERt (% 13 C dose/h) all peaked within 10-30 min after oral 13 C-Phe application)The parameters such as maximum value of 13 C excretion rate, 13 CER max (% 13 C dose/h) (controls: 18.0±3.3; Child A: 11.0±3.8; Child B: 5.0±0.5; Child C: 3.6±1.2), 13 C excretion rate at 30 min, 13 CER 30 (% dose/h) (controls: 11.9±2.1; Child A: 8.1±0.4; Child B: 6.1±0.9; Child C: 3.2±1.2), 13 C cumulative excretion of first 60 min, 13 C cum60 (% 13 C dose) (controls: 9.3±1.4; Child A: 6.6±0.7; Child B: 4.1±0.3; Child C: 2.6±0.9) and half time of 13 C excretion rate, T 1 / 2 (minutes) (controls: 40.4±4.4; chronic hepatitis: 53.4±4.4; Child A: 59.8±4.5; Child B: 102.0±17.3; Child C: 212.1±87.9) were effective indexes which could be employed to stage hepatocyte impairment and liver functional reserve of advanced HBV-related cirrhotic patients (i.e. healthy subjects, Child A, B, C); T 1/2 was also useful for distinguishing mild HBV-related liver injure. (authors)

  12. Hepatitis C and liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Silvia

    2018-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease represents the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the USA and Europe and HCV recurrence is universal in recipients who are viremic at LT. Until a few years ago, pegylated-interferon in association with ribavirin was the only therapeutic strategy, usable only in compensated cirrhotic patients, in order to prevent post-LT viral recurrence. The recent advent of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) has dramatically increased the chances of curative treatment for the transplant population and the debate about which should be the best time for treating the infection is still open: whether to pursue HCV eradication 1) before LT, in order to improve liver function, delist some patients and prevent graft infection; or 2) as early as possible after LT, rather than 3) waiting for hepatitis C recurrence before starting treatment. In addition, in the DAA era, the use of HCV-positive donors may represent a potential approach to safely expanding the donor pool. As more HCV patients achieve cure with DAA regimens, the LT trend for HCV in the future would be expected to mimic the trend observed for hepatitis B virus in the past decade and in the United States, during the DAA-period 2014-2015, the rate of LT wait-listing for HCV complicated by decompensated cirrhosis has already decreased by 32%. This review summarizes the published data and emphasizes DAA treatment applicability to patients with decompensated cirrhosis and to liver transplant recipients.

  13. Dopaminergic agonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  14. Normal variation of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong

    1987-01-01

    This study was an analyses of blood supply of the liver in 125 patients who received hepatic arteriography and abdominal aortography from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 at the Department of Radiology of Hanyang University Hospital. A. Variations in extrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal extrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 106 of 125 cases (84.8%) ; Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and hepatic artery proper arising from the common hepatic artery. 2. The most common type of variation of extrahepatic artery was replaced right hepatic artery from superior mesenteric artery: 6 of 125 cases (4.8%). B. Variations in intrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal intrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 83 of 125 cases (66.4%). Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and middle hepatic artery arising from lower portion of the umbilical point of left hepatic artery. 2. The most common variation of intrahepatic arteries was middle hepatic artery. 3. Among the variation of middle hepatic artery; Right, middle and left hepatic arteries arising from the same location at the hepatic artery proper was the most common type; 17 of 125 cases (13.6%)

  15. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  16. Factors Predicting HBsAg Seroclearance and Alanine Transaminase Elevation in HBeAg-Negative Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Patients with Persistently Normal Liver Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Long Chien

    Full Text Available A certain proportion of hepatitis B virus (HBV-infected patients with persistently normal alanine transaminase (ALT levels have significant fibrosis. Using liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan® and laboratory data, including serum ALT, quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg, and HBV DNA, we attempted to predict the natural histories of these patients.Non-cirrhotic HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently normal ALT were followed up prospectively with the end points of HBsAg seroclearance and ALT elevation above the upper limit of normal. The factors that were predictive of the end points were identified.A total of 235 patients with an average age of 48.1 +/- 10.7 years were followed up for 7 years. Eight patients (3.4% lost HBsAg, and 15 patients (6.4% experienced ALT elevation. The overall cumulative HBsAg seroclearances were 0.4%, 1.3% and 2.3% at years 1, 3 and 5, respectively. Regarding HBsAg seroclearance, the qHBsAg (< 30 IU/ml cutoff resulted in a hazard ratio (HR of 19.6 with a 95% confidence interval (CI of 2.2-166.7 (P = 0.008. The baseline ALT level (odd ratio (OR 1.075, 95% CI 1.020-1.132, P = 0.006 and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml (3.7, 1.1-12.4, P = 0.032 were associated with ALT elevation. Limited to men, the baseline liver stiffness (1.6, 1.0-2.5, P = 0.031 and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml (10.4, 2.1-52.4, P = 0.004 were factors that were independently associated with ALT elevation.A low qHBsAg level predicted HBsAg clearance. Baseline ALT and a qHBsAg above 1000 IU/ml were independent predictive factors for ALT elevation. Among the men, the independent predictive factors for ALT elevation were qHBsAg and liver stiffness.

  17. Feline Hepatic Lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtolina, Chiara; Favier, Robert P

    2017-05-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common and potentially fatal liver disorder. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of FHL remain elusive, there is an imbalance between the influx of fatty acids from peripheral fat stores into the liver, de novo liposynthesis, and the rate of hepatic oxidation and dispersal of hepatic TAG via excretion of very-low density lipoproteins. The diagnosis of FHL is based on anamnestic, clinical, and clinicopathologic findings, associated with diagnostic imaging of the liver, and cytology, or histological examination of liver biopsies. Fluid therapy, electrolyte correction and adequate early nutrition are essential components of the therapy for FHL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional analysis of microRNA-122 binding sequences of hepatitis C virus and identification of variants with high resistance against specific antagomir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yi-ping; Pham, Long; Uzcategui, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA miR-122 stimulates the replication and translation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA through binding to two adjacent sites S1 and S2 within the HCV 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). We previously demonstrated that the miR-122 antagomir miravirsen (SPC3649) suppressed the infection of JFH1-based...... recombinants with HCV genotype 1-6 5'UTR-NS2 in human hepatoma Huh7.5 cells. However, specific S1 mutations were permitted and conferred viral resistance to miravirsen treatment. Using the J6 (genotype 2a) 5'UTR-NS2 JFH1-based recombinant, we here performed reverse-genetics analysis of S1 (ACACUCCG...... or combined GA at positions 2-3 of 5'E were permitted. In S1 and S2, several single mutations were allowed at specific positions. UCC to CGA change at position 4-3-2 of S1, S2, or both S1 and S2 (S1/S2), as well as C to G change at position 2 of S1/S2 were permitted. We found that 5'E mutations did not confer...

  19. DA Negatively Regulates IGF-I Actions Implicated in Cognitive Function via Interaction of PSD95 and nNOS in Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Saidan; Zhuge, Weishan; Wang, Xuebao; Yang, Jianjing; Lin, Yuanshao; Wang, Chengde; Hu, Jiangnan; Zhuge, Qichuan

    2017-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been positively correlated with cognitive ability. Cognitive decline in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) was shown to be induced by elevated intracranial dopamine (DA). The beneficial effect of IGF-I signaling in MHE remains unknown. In this study, we found that IGF-I content was reduced in MHE rats and that IGF-I administration mitigated cognitive decline of MHE rats. A protective effect of IGF-I on the DA-induced interaction between postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was found in neurons. Ribosomal S6 protein kinase (RSK) phosphorylated nNOS in response to IGF-I by recruiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). In turn, DA inactivated the ERK1/2/RSK pathway and stimulated the PSD95-nNOS interaction by downregulating IGF-I. Inhibition of the interaction between PSD95 and nNOS ameliorated DA-induced memory impairment. As DA induced deficits in the ERK1/2/RSK pathway and the interaction between PSD95 and nNOS in MHE brains, IGF-I administration exerted a protective effect via interruption of the interaction between PSD95 and nNOS. These results suggest that IGF-I antagonizes DA-induced cognitive loss by disrupting PSD95-nNOS interactions in MHE.

  20. Alterations in endo-lysosomal function induce similar hepatic lipid profiles in rodent models of drug-induced phospholipidosis and Sandhoff disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecommandeur, Emmanuelle; Baker, David; Cox, Timothy M; Nicholls, Andrew W; Griffin, Julian L

    2017-07-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) is characterized by an increase in the phospholipid content of the cell and the accumulation of drugs and lipids inside the lysosomes of affected tissues, including in the liver. Although of uncertain pathological significance for patients, the condition remains a major impediment for the clinical development of new drugs. Human Sandhoff disease (SD) is caused by inherited defects of the β subunit of lysosomal β-hexosaminidases (Hex) A and B, leading to a large array of symptoms, including neurodegeneration and ultimately death by the age of 4 in its most common form. The substrates of Hex A and B, gangliosides GM2 and GA2, accumulate inside the lysosomes of the CNS and in peripheral organs. Given that both DIPL and SD are associated with lysosomes and lipid metabolism in general, we measured the hepatic lipid profiles in rodent models of these two conditions using untargeted LC/MS to examine potential commonalities. Both model systems shared a number of perturbed lipid pathways, notably those involving metabolism of cholesteryl esters, lysophosphatidylcholines, bis(monoacylglycero)phosphates, and ceramides. We report here profound alterations in lipid metabolism in the SD liver. In addition, DIPL induced a wide range of lipid changes not previously observed in the liver, highlighting similarities with those detected in the model of SD and raising concerns that these lipid changes may be associated with underlying pathology associated with lysosomal storage disorders. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. DA Negatively Regulates IGF-I Actions Implicated in Cognitive Function via Interaction of PSD95 and nNOS in Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidan Ding

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I has been positively correlated with cognitive ability. Cognitive decline in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE was shown to be induced by elevated intracranial dopamine (DA. The beneficial effect of IGF-I signaling in MHE remains unknown. In this study, we found that IGF-I content was reduced in MHE rats and that IGF-I administration mitigated cognitive decline of MHE rats. A protective effect of IGF-I on the DA-induced interaction between postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS was found in neurons. Ribosomal S6 protein kinase (RSK phosphorylated nNOS in response to IGF-I by recruiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2. In turn, DA inactivated the ERK1/2/RSK pathway and stimulated the PSD95–nNOS interaction by downregulating IGF-I. Inhibition of the interaction between PSD95 and nNOS ameliorated DA-induced memory impairment. As DA induced deficits in the ERK1/2/RSK pathway and the interaction between PSD95 and nNOS in MHE brains, IGF-I administration exerted a protective effect via interruption of the interaction between PSD95 and nNOS. These results suggest that IGF-I antagonizes DA-induced cognitive loss by disrupting PSD95–nNOS interactions in MHE.

  2. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

  3. Salmonella Hepatitis: An Uncommon Complication of a Common Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Karoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever is a very common infectious disease of tropics, associated with high morbidity and mortality. Typhoid fever is often associated with hepatomegaly and mildly deranged liver functions; a clinical picture of acute hepatitis is a rare complication. We report a young patient who presented with fever and jaundice and was found to have acute hepatitis secondary to typhoid fever. Recognition of Salmonella hepatitis is of clinical importance as it can mimic acute viral hepatitis. Early institution of specific therapy can improve the prognosis in these patients.Typhoid fever is a very common infectious disease of tropics, associated with high morbidity and mortality. Typhoid fever is often associated with hepatomegaly and mildly deranged liver functions; a clinical picture of acute hepatitis is a rare complication. We report a young patient who presented with fever and jaundice and was found to have acute hepatitis secondary to typhoid fever. Recognition of Salmonella hepatitis is of clinical importance as it can mimic acute viral hepatitis. Early institution of specific therapy can improve the prognosis in these patients.

  4. HIV and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis C Last Reviewed: July 25, 2017 ...

  5. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV and Opportunistic Infections, Coinfections, and Conditions Home Understanding ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV and Hepatitis B Last Reviewed: July 24, 2017 ...

  6. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, D.J.; Hanbidge, A.E.; O'Malley, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  7. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  8. hy viral hepatitis?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jelivery.6 They may be confused with surgical conditions and apart from being an ... of the viruses, the diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis, the relationship of .... myocarditis and cardiomyopathy, pancreatitis and CSF abnormalities!

  9. Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Luigi; Deleonardi, Gaia; Lalanne, Claudine; Barbato, Erica; Tovoli, Alessandra; Libra, Alessia; Lenzi, Marco; Cassani, Fabio; Muratori, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The detection of diagnostic autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibodies (SMA), anti-liver/kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1), anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) and anti-soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) is historically associated with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. When autoimmune hepatitis is suspected, the detection of one or any combination of diagnostic autoantibodies, by indirect immunofluorescence or immuno-enzymatic techniques with recombinant antigens, is a pivotal step to reach a diagnostic score of probable or definite autoimmune hepatitis. Diagnostic autoantibodies (ANA, SMA, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1, anti-SLA) are a cornerstone in the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Other ancillary autoantibodies, associated with peculiar clinical correlations, appear to be assay-dependent and institution-specific, and validation studies are needed. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Hepatic abscesses after adhesiolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonsen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Febrilia and pain in upper right quadrant of the abdomen days after a simple operation for bowel obstruction could be caused by translocation of intestinal bacteria and subsequent formation of hepatic abscesses.

  11. Hepatitis C pada Anak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusri Dianne Jurnalis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakInfeksi virus hepatitis C saat ini masih merupakan persoalan yang serius. Penularan infeksi HCV pada anak yang utama adalah melalui transfusi darah atau produk darah yang saat ini bertanggung jawab menyebabkan kasus hepatitis C kronis. Selain itu infeksi HCV pada anak dapat disebabkan oleh transmisi perinatal (vertikal. Infeksi HCV akut dapat berakhir dengan sirosis dan karsinoma hepatoselular setelah dekade ketiga (sekitar 20%, karena progresivitas infeksi HCV lebih lambat dari infeksi hepatitis B virus. Pada umumnya infeksi HCV bersifat asimptomatik termasuk pada anak. Karena tidak ada gejala yang jelas pada infeksi HCV tersebut maka diagnosis infeksi HCV hanya dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan awal laboratorium dan uji serologi, dan bila perlu dengan uji molekuler pada pasien dengan risiko tinggi. Kebijakan kuratif khusus terhadap HCV adalah terapi antivirus berupa interferon dan ribavirin yang diberikan bila diagnosis HCV sudah ditegakkanKata kunci: Hepatitis C, diagnosis and management problem, childrenAbstractHepatitis C virus infection is still a serious problem. Transmission of HCV infection in children is a major blood transfusion or blood products that are currently responsible for causing chronic hepatitis C cases. Additionally HCV infection in children can be caused by perinatal transmission (vertical. Acute HCV infection may end up with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma after the third decade (around 20%, due to a slower progression of HCV infection of hepatitis B virus infection. In most cases of HCV infection are asymptomatic, including in children. Since there are no obvious symptoms in the diagnosis of HCV infection HCV infection can only be confirmed by laboratory examinations and serologic testing early, and if necessary with molecular testing in patients at high risk. Curative policy is specific to HCV antiviral therapy such as interferon and ribavirin are given when the diagnosis of HCV has been establishedKeywords:Hepatitis

  12. Crioglobulinemia y hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau González, Georgina

    1998-01-01

    Se describieron las manifestaciones principales de la crioglobulinemia mixta esencial su clasificación inmunoquímica, su asociación con los distintos virus de la hepatitis, las distintas alteraciones inmunológicas asociadas y los principales tratamientos utilizados. The main manifestations of essential mixed cryoglobulinemia were described: its immunochemical classification, its association with different hepatitis virus, the different associated immunological alterations, and the main tre...

  13. Hepatic rupture in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winer-Muram, H.T.; Muram, D.; Salazar, J.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of hepatic rupture in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia and eclampsia) is rarely made preoperatively. Diagnostic imaging can be utilized in some patients to confirm the preoperative diagnosis. Since hematoma formation precedes hepatic rupture, then, when diagnostic modalities such as sonography and computed tomography identify patients with hematomas, these patients are at risk of rupture, and should be hospitalized until the hematomas resolve

  14. Torsed pedunculated hepatic hamartoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Lima, Ignacio; Vazquez, Jose L.; Gallego, Marta; Fernandez, Rebeca; Fernandez, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    We report a 9-year-old boy with a 6-h history of acute abdominal pain due to torsion of a pedunculated hepatic mesenchymal hamartoma. The lesion was seen, on US and CT, to connect to the liver through a pedicle. Mesenchymal hepatic hamartomas are unusual tumours that may be pedunculated, and this is a unique case complicated by torsion. The radiological and pathological findings, differential diagnosis, and clinical course are discussed. (orig.)

  15. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Masotti; M. O. Lima; A. M. Cruz; G. D. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by ja...

  16. CT in hepatic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hiromura, Tadao; Saitoh, Hiroya; Choji, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Hiromichi; Shinohara, Masahiro; Irie, Goroh; Nojima, Takayuki; Morita, Yuzuru.

    1987-01-01

    Fifteen CT pictures from 10 cases of hepatic abscess were reviewed. Rim enhancement was noted only in 2. On the other hand, ill defined low density surrounding central cystic structure was demonstrated in 11. Following contrast injection, this ill defined low density becomes isodense to the normal liver. Histologically, the ill defined low density was granulation tissue composed of neutrophils, lymphocytes and Macrophages. We emphasized the importance of the recognition of the granulation tissue surraounding a cyst of hepatic abscess. (author)

  17. Hepatitis C in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is a serious public health problem all over the world. It is caused by a single stranded RNA virus. Most acute infections are subclinical, but in 75% of individuals, infection leads to a chronic hepatitis, which in some cases can progress to cirrhosis and occasionally development of hepatoma. It has wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review article deals with the overview of epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, management and prevention.

  18. FELINE HEPATIC LIPIDOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Masotti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the first description of feline hepatic lipidosis occurred in 1977, it becames the most diagnosed liver disease in cats. Several factors have been proposed as causes of disease, and obesity being a predisposing factor. The disease can be considered primary or idiopathic when its underlying cause is unknown, or secondary when there is another concomitant disease lipidosis. Cats with hepatic lipidosis have anorexia usually ranging from several days to weeks and weight loss, followed by jaundice and varying degrees of dehydration, diarrhea and vomiting episodes may occur. A worsening of the disease shows signs of hepatic encephalopathy, drooling and retroflexion of the neck. In clinical examination can be observed depression, lethargy and hepatomegaly. The definitive diagnosis of the disease can be performed by fine needle aspiration biopsy guided by ultrasound and cytology or biopsy. The treatment of hepatic lipidosis is based on stabilizing the patient by supplying water and electrolyte losses and provide adequate nutritional support. The diet is usually provided through feeding tubes for a period ranging from 4 to 6 weeks may occur depending on the patient's condition. The prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favored in cases of identification followed by intensive treatment of underlying causes and for patients receiving therapy necessary in cases of idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  19. Non-invasive liver fibrosis score calculated by combination of virtual touch tissue quantification and serum liver functional tests in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Shintaro; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Miyaki, Daisuke; Nakahara, Takashi; Naeshiro, Noriaki; Murakami, Eisuke; Tanaka, Mio; Honda, Yohji; Yokoyama, Satoe; Nagaoki, Yuko; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Hiramatsu, Akira; Tsuge, Masataka; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Aikata, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Shoichi; Arihiro, Koji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2014-03-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) technology, involving the shear wave velocity (SWV) with virtual touch tissue quantification (VTTQ), are currently available for the assessment of liver fibrosis, while there is no index derived from the combination of SWV and blood tests. The aim of this study was to develop a new index for assessment of liver fibrosis. The subjects were 176 consecutive patients with hepatitis C (training set [n = 120] and validation set [n = 56]) who underwent liver biopsy in our institution. In the training set, SWV, international normalized ratio (INR) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) correlated independently and significantly with fibrosis. According to this, we developed the VIA index = -1.282 + 0.965 × SWV + 1.785 INR + 0.00185 ALT. The areas under the receiver-operator curve (AUROC) of the VIA index were 0.838 for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (≥F2), 0.904 for the severe fibrosis (≥F3) and 0.958 for the cirrhosis (F4) in the training set. While in the validation set, AUROC of the VIA index were 0.917 for F2 or higher, 0.906 for F3 or higher and 1.000 for F4, respectively. AUROC of the VIA index was improved compared to SWV alone, equivalent for VIA for the diagnosis of F2 or higher, and superior to that of FIB-4 index and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for the diagnosis of F3 or higher and F4. The VIA index is potentially more useful for assessment of liver fibrosis than SWV alone, and easily and accurately measures liver fibrosis stage. © 2013 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  20. Impaired plasma lipid profiles in acute hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongzhong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined plasma lipid profiles in thirty patients suffered from acute viral hepatitis. Patients' blood samples were collected at both the debut and recovery of diseases. Thirty sex and age matched normal subjects were included as controls. Plasma total triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, lipoprotein (a (Lp(a, blood coagulation status including prothrombin complex activity and activated partial tromboplastin time (APTT, and hepatic functions were determined by the automatic biochemical analytical instrument. It demonstrated that plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C and apoAI were significantly lower in the patients at the acute phase of hepatitis than those in normal subjects, whereas plasma levels of TG and LDL-C were obviously higher in the patients than in normal subjects (P

  1. Chemotherapy in patients with hepatic failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldán, G.; Sosa, A.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicity of chemotherapy in the liver may manifest as hepatocyte dysfunction with chemical hepatitis, veno-occlusive disease or chronic fibrosis. The hepatocyte dysfunction is caused by direct effect of the drug or its metabolites evidencing by increased bilirubin and liver enzymes (Sgot, SGPT). Prolonged effect leads to cholestasis and fatty infiltration. This dysfunction is concomitant enhanced by viral infection, liver metastases and other drugs as antiemetics. The vast majority of the indicated drugs in a cancer patient, cytostatics, antiemetics, analgésios, anticonvulsants, etc, are metabolized in the liver. The evidence of abnormal hepatocyte function in a patient in which involves chemotherapy raises the need for dose modification indicated and / or discontinuation. The aim of this paper is to review existing information on the use of cytostatics in cancer patients with hepatic impairment, classifying drugs according to their potential hepato toxicity and recommended dose modification in patients with hepatic dysfunction

  2. Resolution of Hepatic Encephalopathy Following Hepatic Artery Embolization in a Patient with Well-Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumor Metastatic to the Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erinjeri, Joseph P.; Deodhar, Ajita; Thornton, Raymond H.; Allen, Peter J.; Getrajdman, George I.; Brown, Karen T.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Reidy, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is considered a contraindication to hepatic artery embolization. We describe a patient with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor metastatic to the liver with refractory hepatic encephalopathy and normal liver function tests. The encephalopathy was refractory to standard medical therapy with lactulose. The patient's mental status returned to baseline after three hepatic artery embolization procedures. Arteriography and ultrasound imaging before and after embolization suggest that the encephalopathy was due to arterioportal shunting causing hepatofugal portal venous flow and portosystemic shunting. In patients with a primary or metastatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor whose refractory hepatic encephalopathy is due to portosystemic shunting (rather than global hepatic dysfunction secondary to tumor burden), hepatic artery embolization can be performed safely and effectively.

  3. Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  4. Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professional Resources Patient Education Resources Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for the Public Recommend ...

  5. Alternative and Complementary Therapies for Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Complementary Therapies Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans ... treatments which have been proven to reduce the hepatitis C viral load. Just because something is "natural" (an herb, ...

  6. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and serious. Drugs are available to treat chronic hepatitis. 4 Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond What else ...

  7. An experimental study on combined transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization and retrograde hepatic venous embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Maoqiang; Zhang Jinshan; Xing Zhanhai

    1997-01-01

    The experimental study is aimed at achieving the effect of hepatic tumor and tumor-bearing lobar or segmental resection by using combined transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization and retrograde hepatic venous embolization (THAE-RHVE) in experimental study. THAE-RHVE was carried out in 8 mongrel dogs. Hepatic arterial embolization was performed by injecting lipiodol followed by gelatin sponge particles, following complete occlusion of the hepatic vein with balloon catheter. Retrograde hepatic venous embolization (RHVE) was then performed by injecting a mixture of absolute ethanol and meglumini diatrizoatis (MD) via the inflated balloon catheter. Ethanol and MD were combined with a ratio of 1:1. RHVE alone was performed in 4 dogs as control. The animals were followed up for 1∼8 weeks with liver function test, CT, gross and microscopic examinations. There was no technical failure or procedural complications. Transient elevation of AST and ALT levels was seen immediately in both groups after the procedure. Follow-up CT after 3 weeks showed dense lipiodol accumulation in the embolized lobe or segment and the corresponding portal branches in the THAE-RHVE animals. At 1 week after THAE-RHVE, complete coagulation necrosis was seen at histologic examination in the embolized lobe. The hepatic vein and portal branches of the embolized area had thickened walls and were filled with thrombus. At 2 weeks, granulomatous tissue and inflammatory cell infiltration surrounding the necrotic area could be seen. At 4∼8 weeks, marked atrophy of the embolized lobe was found, and the necrotic area was progressively reducing in size and being replaced by fibrosis. In the control group, incomplete segmental coagulated necrosis was seen and the necrosis area wa smaller than that of THAE-REVE. Hepatic lobectomy or segmentectomy can be achieved with THAE-RHVE. This new method is safe and easy, and may be useful in the treatment of HCC

  8. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  9. Reversible cortical blindness in a case of hepatic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kanti Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy is a frequent and often fatal manifestation of chronic liver disease. The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is believed to be multifactorial including impaired blood-brain barrier function, imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in cortex, accumulation of various toxic and false neurotransmitters, and lack of nutrients like oxygen and glucose. Signs and symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy varies and commonly ranges from personality changes, disturbed consciousness, sleep pattern alternation, intellectual deterioration, speech disturbances, asterixis to frank coma and even death. Reversible or transient cortical blindness is rare manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy. It may even precede the phase of altered consciousness in such patients. Very few similar cases have been reported worldwide. Hence, we would like to report a case of transient cortical blindness in a patient of hepatic encephalopathy.

  10. Hepatic encephalopathy associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillitteri, C A; Craig, L E

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy has been listed as a differential for llamas displaying neurologic signs, but it has not been histopathologically described. This report details the neurologic histopathologic findings associated with 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis with concurrent neurologic signs and compares them to 3 cases of hepatic lipidosis in the absence of neurologic signs and 3 cases without hepatic lipidosis. Brain from all 3 llamas displaying neurologic signs contained Alzheimer type II cells, which were not detected in either subset of llamas without neurologic signs. Astrocytic immunohistochemical staining intensity for glial fibrillary acid protein was decreased in llamas with neurologic signs as compared to 2 of 3 llamas with hepatic lipidosis and without neurologic signs and to 2 of 3 llamas without hepatic lipidosis. Immunohistochemical staining for S100 did not vary between groups. These findings suggest that hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with hepatic lipidosis in llamas.

  11. Severe atrophy of right hepatic lobe simulating right hepatic lobectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, C.W.; Strashun, A.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1981-01-01

    Absence of the right hepatic lobe following blunt abdominal trauma without surgical resection is reported. The usual site of the right hepatic lobe is demonstrated to be occupied by bowel by hepatobiliary imaging

  12. Dynamic regulation of hepatic lipid droplet properties by diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunk, Amanda E; Monks, Jenifer; Murakami, Aya; Jackman, Matthew; Maclean, Paul S; Ladinsky, Mark; Bales, Elise S; Cain, Shannon; Orlicky, David J; McManaman, James L

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLD) are organelle-like structures that function in neutral lipid storage, transport and metabolism through the actions of specific surface-associated proteins. Although diet and metabolism influence hepatic CLD levels, how they affect CLD protein composition is largely unknown. We used non-biased, shotgun, proteomics in combination with metabolic analysis, quantitative immunoblotting, electron microscopy and confocal imaging to define the effects of low- and high-fat diets on CLD properties in fasted-refed mice. We found that the hepatic CLD proteome is distinct from that of CLD from other mammalian tissues, containing enzymes from multiple metabolic pathways. The hepatic CLD proteome is also differentially affected by dietary fat content and hepatic metabolic status. High fat feeding markedly increased the CLD surface density of perilipin-2, a critical regulator of hepatic neutral lipid storage, whereas it reduced CLD levels of betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, an enzyme regulator of homocysteine levels linked to fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Collectively our data demonstrate that the hepatic CLD proteome is enriched in metabolic enzymes, and that it is qualitatively and quantitatively regulated by diet and metabolism. These findings implicate CLD in the regulation of hepatic metabolic processes, and suggest that their properties undergo reorganization in response to hepatic metabolic demands.

  13. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  14. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Stauber, Rudolf E; Lackner, Carolin

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions, and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accur...

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undertaking blood transfusion, tattooing and sharing of needles were associated with hepatitis C infection (P=0.001). HBV was not associated with any of the risk factors (P>0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest a high prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C among pregnant women; blood transfusion, tattooing and ...

  16. Attitudes and Awareness Regarding Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in many cases hepatitis B and C can lead to permanent liver ... Department of Public Health Dentistry, Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital, 1Department of Oral Surgery, Gian ... training among HCWs to prevent the spread of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. ..... primary care physicians following the Department of.

  17. Primary hepatic artery embolization in pediatric blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Caroline C P; Toh, Luke; Lo, Richard H G; Yap, Te-Lu; Narasimhan, Kannan

    2012-12-01

    Non-operative management of isolated blunt hepatic trauma is recommended except when hemodynamic instability requires immediate laparotomy. Hepatic artery angioembolization is increasingly used for hepatic injuries with ongoing bleeding as demonstrated by contrast extravasation on the CT scan. It is used primarily or after laparotomy to control ongoing hemorrhage. Hepatic angioembolization as part of multimodality management of hepatic trauma is reported mainly in adults, with few pediatric case reports. We describe our institution experience with primary pediatric hepatic angioembolization and review the literature with regard to indications and complications. Two cases (3 and 8 years old), with high-grade blunt hepatic injuries with contrast extravasation on the CT scan were successfully managed by emergency primary hepatic angioembolization with minimal morbidity and avoided laparotomy. To date, the only reports of pediatric hepatic angioembolization for trauma are 5 cases for acute bleeding and 15 delayed cases for pseudoaneurysm. The role of hepatic angioembolization in the presence of an arterial blush on CT in adults is accepted, but contested in a pediatric series, despite higher transfusion rate and mortality rate. We propose that hepatic angioembolization should be considered adjunct treatment, in lieu of, or in addition to emergency laparotomy for hemostasis in pediatric blunt hepatic injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Primary hepatic pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimmelin, A.; Hartheiser, M.; Gangi, A.; Welsch, M.; Jeung, M.Y.; Jaeck, D.; Tongio, J.; Dietemann, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas are uncommon tumors that represent a potentially curable cause of hypertension. They are usually located in the adrenal glands, but 10% arise from extra-adrenal sites, located along the paravertebral sympathetic chains. We report a case of primary hepatic pheochromocytoma responsible for a severe hypertension in a 24-year-old man. Echotomography showed a lightly heterogeneous mass located in the segment 8 of the liver. Iodine 131 -metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy showed a large hepatic concentration of the tracer and no other localization. This tumor appeared highly vascularized on enhanced CT scan and on aortic angiography. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a hepatic tumor with a high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and with a signal isointense to the liver on T1-weighted images. The hepatic venous sampling contained the highest catecholamine level, whereas the adrenal venous samping was normal. After surgical resection of the hepatic tumor, the tension level and catecholamines plasmatic level normalized. No recurrent symptoms appeared during a 3-year follow-up. (orig.)

  19. Prevention of hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Estera Kowalska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B (Hepatitis B is a hepatitis B virus (HBV -based liver disease. This virus has an affinity for liver cells, it can cause both acute and chronic viral infections of varying severity. The consequences of chronic HBV infection can be cirrhosis and liver cancer. In Poland in 1989 a preventive program was implemented to reduce HBV infection. Universal vaccinations have been introduced to reduce the prevalence of Type B hepatitis B from 40.3 / 100,000 in 1989 to 7/100 in 2000. In the last 20 years in Poland there has been huge progress in the prevention and suppression of HBV infections. Decrease in the incidence of hepatitis B is mainly the result of the introduction of compulsory vaccination and improving hygiene procedures and improve sanitation aimed at aborting the pathways of the virus. However, still a large part of society is not immune on HBV infection acting potential group of the risk of infection. In addition, in the era of a growing group of followers. movements of the anti vaccine it is necessary to continue to promote knowledge of HBV and the efficacy and safety of vaccination.

  20. Hepatitis in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ain, F.U.; Amin, A.; Yasmin, F.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of viral hepatitis in general, spectrum of hepatitis E in particular, and to study the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality associated with it. In this prospective study, total number of pregnant women was 4723, sera of 35 pregnant women having clinical jaundice in pregnancy were analyzed for markers of hepatitis A , B, C and E viruses. Of the 35 pregnant women with jaundice HEV IgM were 60%,HA V IgM20%, Anti HCV 8.75%,Hbs Ag 5.71%, unexplained 5.71%. Amongst HEV 23.80% had hepatic encephalopathy DIC in 42.85%, PPH in 23.80%, renal failure in 9.52% an- maternal mortality in 4.76%. Approximately two third of pregnant women with HEV infection had preterm deliveries (76.19) % and perinatal mortality of 42.8%. Hepatitis E was the commonest etiological agent in those who had fulminant disease during pregnancy and was associated with high morbidity and mortality. (author)

  1. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,239 (2014) Number of new ...

  2. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  3. Hepatostomy for central hepatic hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewertz, B.L.; Olsen, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Two patients with central hepatic hematomas are presented. Hepatostomy tube drainage provided prompt healing of the cavities without complications. The technique is presented as a safe and effective alternative to hepatic resection without compromising the established principles of management

  4. Nitazoxanide for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolova, Kristiana; Gluud, Christian; Grevstad, Berit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C infection is a disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. The estimated number of chronically infected people with hepatitis C virus worldwide is about 150 million people. Every year, another three to four million people acquire the infection. Chronic hepatitis C......) and ribavirin was the approved standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. In 2011, first-generation direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have been licensed, for use in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin for treating hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Nitazoxanide is another antiviral drug with broad...... antiviral activity and may have potential as an effective alternative, or an addition to standard treatment for the treatment of the hepatitis C virus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nitazoxanide in people with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. SEARCH METHODS: We searched The Cochrane...

  5. The effect of social functioning and living arrangement on treatment intent, specialist assessment and treatment uptake for hepatitis C virus infection among people with a history of injecting drug use: The ETHOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Emmanuel; Alavi, Maryam; Micallef, Michelle; Dunlop, Adrian J; Balcomb, Annie C; Day, Carolyn A; Treloar, Carla; Bath, Nicky; Haber, Paul S; Dore, Gregory J; Bruneau, Julie; Grebely, Jason

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to assess social functioning and its association with treatment intent, specialist assessment and treatment uptake for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among people with a history of injecting drug use. ETHOS is a prospective observational cohort evaluating the provision of HCV assessment and treatment among people with chronic HCV and a history of injecting drug use, recruited from nine community health centres and opioid substitution treatment clinics (NSW, Australia). Social functioning was assessed using a short form of the Opioid Treatment Index social functioning scale. Those classified in the highest quartile (score >6) were considered having lower social functioning. Analyses were performed using logistic regression. Among 415 participants (mean age 41 years, 71% male), 24% were considered having lower social functioning, 70% had early HCV treatment intent (intention to be treated in the next 12 months), 53% were assessed by a specialist and 27% initiated treatment. Lower social functioning was independently associated with unemployment, unstable housing, recent injecting drug use and moderate to extremely severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress. Lower social functioning was independently associated with reduced early HCV treatment intent (aOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.30-0.84) and lower specialist assessment (aOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.79), but not HCV treatment uptake (aOR 0.76, 95% CI 0.40-1.43). Living with someone was independently associated with HCV treatment uptake (with someone and children: aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.01-5.14; with someone and no children: aOR 2.36, 95% CI 1.30-4.31), but not early HCV treatment intent or specialist assessment. This study highlights the need for the development and implementation of strategies targeting people who inject drugs with lower social functioning to enhance HCV treatment intent and specialist assessment. Further, strategies to enhance social support may play a role in increasing HCV treatment

  6. Research progress of BOLD-fMRI in minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhiming; Zhao Jiannong

    2013-01-01

    The minimal hepatic encephalopathy is the early stage of hepatic encephalopathy. It has few apparent clinical symptoms and specific manifestations, and is difficult to diagnose. In the recent years, BOLD-fMRI has been used to study hepatic encephalopathy gradually. Through detection of the brain neuron activities in different states, it can not only locate the abnormal activity of brain functional areas, but also can find the changes of brain functional connectivity. BOLD- fMRI combining with other MR technologies can explore the pathology and pathogenesis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy from micro to macro and from structure to function. (authors)

  7. Alcohol Use and Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Marion G.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2002-01-01

    Excess alcohol consumption can worsen the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis C. It is important to distinguish between alcohol abuse, which must be treated on its own merits, and the effect of alcohol use on progression, severity, and treatment of hepatitis C. Most studies on the effects of alcohol on hepatitis C have focused on patients, with high levels of daily alcohol intake. Indeed, the adverse effects of light and moderate amounts of alcohol intake on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect...

  8. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  9. Hepatic artery aneurysm repair: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaunoo SS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hepatic artery aneurysms remain a clinically significant entity. Their incidence continues to rise slowly and mortality from spontaneous rupture is high. Repair is recommended in those aneurysms greater than 2 cm in diameter. It is not surprising that vascular comorbidities, such as ischaemic heart disease, are common in surgical patients, particularly those with arterial aneurysms such as these. The decision of when to operate on patients who require urgent surgery despite having recently suffered an acute coronary syndrome remains somewhat of a grey and controversial area. We discuss the role of delayed surgery and postoperative followup of this vascular problem. Case presentation A 58-year-old man was admitted with a 5.5 cm hepatic artery aneurysm. The aneurysm was asymptomatic and was an incidental finding as a result of an abdominal computed tomography scan to investigate an episode of haemoptysis (Figure 1. Three weeks prior to admission, the patient had suffered a large inferior myocardial infarction and was treated by thrombolysis and primary coronary angioplasty. Angiographic assessment revealed a large aneurysm of the common hepatic artery involving the origins of the hepatic, gastroduodenal, left and right gastric arteries and the splenic artery (Figures 2 and 3. Endovascular treatment was not considered feasible and immediate surgery was too high-risk in the early post-infarction period. Therefore, surgery was delayed for 3 months when aneurysm repair with reconstruction of the hepatic artery was successfully performed. Graft patency was confirmed with the aid of an abdominal arterial duplex. Plasma levels of conventional liver function enzymes and of alpha-glutathione-S-transferase were within normal limits. This was used to assess the extent of any hepatocellular damage perioperatively. The patient made a good recovery and was well at his routine outpatient check-ups. Conclusion There is no significant

  10. Qualifying and quantifying minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Marsha Y; Amodio, Piero; Cook, Nicola A

    2016-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is the term applied to the neuropsychiatric status of patients with cirrhosis who are unimpaired on clinical examination but show alterations in neuropsychological tests exploring psychomotor speed/executive function and/or in neurophysiological variables. There is ......Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is the term applied to the neuropsychiatric status of patients with cirrhosis who are unimpaired on clinical examination but show alterations in neuropsychological tests exploring psychomotor speed/executive function and/or in neurophysiological variables...... analytical techniques may provide better diagnostic information while the advent of portable wireless headsets may facilitate more widespread use. A large number of other diagnostic tools have been validated for the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy including Critical Flicker Frequency......, the Inhibitory Control Test, the Stroop test, the Scan package and the Continuous Reaction Time; each has its pros and cons; strengths and weaknesses; protagonists and detractors. Recent AASLD/EASL Practice Guidelines suggest that the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy should be based on the PHES test...

  11. Hepatic angiography: Portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, T.W. Jr.; Sones, P.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Portal hypertension is usually a manifestation of underlying hepatic parenchymal disease, although it may be secondary to portal or hepatic venous thrombosis and rarely to hyperdynamic portal states. Portal hypertension may present as encephalopathy, ascites, jaundice, hepatic failure, or catastrophic upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Radiologic investigation should include indirect or direct measurements of portal pressure, assessment of portal venous perfusion, visualization of collaterals, and demonstration of arterial and venous anatomy for potential shunt procedure. Following survival of initial variceal bleeding, the most effective procedure to prevent recurrent hemorrhage is a shunt to decompress the varices. The decision whether to intervene medically or surgically during the acute hemorrhagic episode as well as the type of shunt used to prevent future hemorrhage is the subject of continuing controversy

  12. Prophylactic Hepatitis E Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E has been increasingly recognized as an underestimated global disease burden in recent years. Subpopulations with more serious infection-associated damage or death include pregnant women, patients with basic liver diseases, and elderly persons. Vaccine would be the most effective means for prevention of HEV infection. The lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV makes the development of classic inactive or attenuated vaccine infeasible. Hence, the recombinant vaccine approaches are explored deeply. The neutralizing sites are located almost exclusively in the capsid protein, pORF2, of the virion. Based on pORF2, many vaccine candidates showed potential of protecting primate animals; two of them were tested in human and evidenced to be well tolerated in adults and highly efficacious in preventing hepatitis E. The world's first hepatitis E vaccine, Hecolin ® (HEV 239 vaccine), was licensed in China and launched in 2012.

  13. [Hepatitis E as zoonosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The hepatitis E virus (HEV) the causative agent of hepatitis E, is a non-enveloped RNA virus. HEV is transmitted through oral consumption of contaminated food and water According to the currently knowledge now be considered as zoonosis. The main reservoir of HEV are pigs, boars and deer. For the first time HEV was isolated from animals (pigs) in 1997 in the U.S. Genetic analysis of strains isolated from pigs showed high similarity to strains HEV isolated from humans. This was the first evidence showing that HEV is a zoonosis. Further studies have shown that occupational groups e.g. veterinarians, swine breeders with close contact to pigs have an increased risk for HEV infections. The additional evidence supported the zoonotic potential of HEV were reports of acute hepatitis E after the consumption of undercooked meat from deer and wild boar. Infection of HEV in the domestic pig and wild boar population in Europe is widespread.

  14. Hepatic artery aneurysms (HAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosratini, H.

    2004-01-01

    The hepatic artery aneurysms are rare, especially in interahepatic branches, The frequency consists of 75-80% extrahepatic and 20-25% intrahepatic. Catheterization is achieved usually from common femoral artery, other methods implemented in the case of unsuccessful catheterization from femoral artery, are translumbar and brachial catheterization. The study consist of 565 patients that were referred to the angiography ward, During seven years of assessment, five cases of hepatic artery aneurysm were found; this is a rare condition reported in the English literature. In the literature as well as in this case report the hepatic artery aneurysms are rare. In reported series the extrahepatic artery aneurysms are found more often than in the intrahepatic artery aneurysm but in this case report intrahepatic artery aneurysms are more than extrahepatic one. (author)

  15. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  16. Canine Copper-Associated Hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirksen, Karen; Fieten, Hille

    2017-01-01

    Copper-associated hepatitis is recognized with increasing frequency in dogs. The disease is characterized by centrolobular hepatic copper accumulation, leading to hepatitis and eventually cirrhosis. The only way to establish the diagnosis is by histologic assessment of copper distribution and copper

  17. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fluids enter another person’s bloodstream. • Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections can cause chronic liver problems. Infection with hepa- ... there is no vaccine to protect people from hepatitis C virus infection. • There are medications that are approved by the ...

  18. Accessory hepatic vein: MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Rho, Tack Soo; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Cheol Min; Cha, In Ho

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the MR appearance of the accessory hepatic veins. The study included 87 consecutive patients for whom abdominal MR images were obtained. The subjects who had liver lesion or hepatic vascular abnormalities were excluded. Couinaud classified accessory hepatic veins into inferior and middle right hepatic veins. Our major interests were evaluation of the incidence, morphology, and location of the accessory hepatic vein. Inferior right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 43 out of 87 patients (49%). The morphology was linear in 35 patients (80.5%), and V-shaped in 8 patients (19.5%). In 40 patients (93%), the inferior right hepatic vein was located in the posteroinferior aspect of the right lobe. Middle right hepatic vein was demonstrated in 7 out of 87 patients (8%). All were single linear in morphology, combined with the inferior right hepatic vein, and located between the right hepatic vein and inferior right hepatic vein. The accessory hepatic vein was demonstrated in 49% among the Korean adult population, and was located in posteroinferior portion of the liver, in 93%

  19. Current concepts in the assessment and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cash, W J

    2012-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is defined as a metabolically induced, potentially reversible, functional disturbance of the brain that may occur in acute or chronic liver disease. Standardized nomenclature has been proposed but a standardized approach to the treatment, particularly of persistent, episodic and recurrent encephalopathy associated with liver cirrhosis has not been proposed. This review focuses on the pathogenesis and treatment of HE in patients with cirrhosis. The pathogenesis and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in fulminant hepatic failure is quite different and is reviewed elsewhere.

  20. LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN HEPATITIS DELTA: SOUTH AMERICA EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Souza LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The Amazon region is one of the main endemic areas of hepatitis delta in the world and the only one related to the presence of genotype 3 of the delta virus. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the profile, mortality and survival of cirrhotic patients submitted to liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis delta virus and compare with those transplanted by hepatitis B virus monoinfection. METHODS: Retrospective, observational and descriptive study. From May 2002 to December 2011, 629 liver transplants were performed at the Walter Cantídio University Hospital, of which 29 patients were transplanted due to cirrhosis caused by chronic delta virus infection and 40 by hepatitis B chronic monoinfection. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, MELD score, Child-Pugh score, upper gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence before the transplantation, perioperative platelet count, mortality and survival. RESULTS: The Delta Group was younger and all came from the Brazilian Amazon Region. Group B presented a higher proportion of male patients (92.5% compared to Group D (58.6%. The occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding before transplantation, MELD score, and Child-Pugh score did not show statistical differences between groups. The occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality were higher in the hepatitis B Group. The survival in 4 years was 95% in the Delta Group and 75% in the B Group, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.034. Patients with hepatitis delta presented more evident thrombocytopenia in the pre-transplantation and in the immediate postoperative period. CONCLUSION: The hepatitis by delta virus patients who underwent liver transplantation were predominantly male, coming from the Brazilian Amazon region and with similar liver function to the hepatitis B virus patients. They had a lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, more marked perioperative thrombocytopenia levels and frequent

  1. Changes in biomarkers of hepatic and renal function after prolonged general anesthesia for oral cancer surgery: A cohort comparison between desflurane and sevoflurane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hua Lin

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: Both desflurane and sevoflurane did not cause clinically significant nephrotoxicity but produced a transient deterioration in liver function after prolonged anesthesia for oral cancer surgery. Sevoflurane was associated with a more severe degree of liver damage than desflurane in this study.

  2. Blood lipids analysis in patients with hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlationship between blood hepatic fibrosis markers and blood lipids levels. Methods: Serum hepatic fibrosis markers (HA, PC III, IV-C, LN) levels were determined with RIA and serum lipids (TG, TCh HDL; LDL, apoA1, apoB) were measured with biochemical methods in 98 patients with hepatitis in various stages and 50 controls. Liver biopsy was done in all the hepatitis patients. Results: Hepatic fibrosis was classified into 5 grades (S0-S4) according to the pathology shown in the biopsy specimen. The serum lipid levels decreased along with the increase of severity of fibrosis from S0 to S4. Levels in S4 patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels increased and lipids levels decreased along with the progress of hepatitis from acute to cirrhosis. (authors)

  3. A model to study intestinal and hepatic metabolism of propranolol in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, P C; Siebert, G A; Roberts, M S

    2004-02-01

    A model to investigate hepatic drug uptake and metabolism in the dog was developed for this study. Catheters were placed in the portal and hepatic veins during exploratory laparotomy to collect pre- and posthepatic blood samples at defined intervals. Drug concentrations in the portal vein were taken to reflect intestinal uptake and metabolism of an p.o. administered drug (propranolol), while differences in drug and metabolite concentrations between portal and hepatic veins reflected hepatic uptake and metabolism. A significant difference in propranolol concentration between hepatic and portal veins confirmed a high hepatic extraction of this therapeutic agent in the dog. This technically uncomplicated model may be used experimentally or clinically to determine hepatic function and metabolism of drugs that may be administered during anaesthesia and surgery.

  4. [Management of severe alcoholic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Verena; Tilg, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Severe alcoholic hepatitis is still associated with high mortality and presence of liver failure manifested by jaundice, coagulopathy and encephalopathy is a poor prognostic indicator. The management of these patients includes at first hand several supportive measures as treatment of alcohol withdrawal, administration of fluid and vitamins and admission to an intensive care unit in the unstable patient. Glucocorticoids have been since decades the most intensively studied therapy in alcoholic hepatitis and are effective in certain subgroups. Indication for such a therapy is usually defined on a Maddrey Discriminant Function > 32. The Lille score at day 7 is used to decide whether corticosteroid therapy should be stopped or continued for a 1 month course. Nutritional supplementation is also likely to be beneficial. The main progress in better understanding its pathophysiology has come from cytokine studies. Various proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) or interleukin-1 (IL-1) have been proposed to play a role in this disease. This advancement has recently led to pilot studies investigating anti-TNF drugs such as pentoxifylline, infliximab (anti-TNF antibody) or etanercept in the treatment of this disease. These studies revealed besides for pentoxifylline rather negative results. Despite this fact, targeting of certain cytokines such as IL-1 remains an attractive treatment concept for this devastating disorder in the future.

  5. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see ... as hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or ...

  6. Recent Advances in the Assessment of Hepatic Steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Didenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a review of scientific works on the issue of hepatic steatosis verification. Nowadays, the problem of timely detection and treatment of chronic diffuse liver diseases, in the pathogenesis of which fibrosis and hepatic steatosis play key role, becomes more and more important. It is recognized that hepatic steatosis is characterized by the accumulation of lipids in hepatocytes exceeding 5 % of the liver mass. In recent years, special attention is paid to the methods for verification of hepatic steatosis, which can be divided into invasive, minimally invasive and non-invasive. Invasive methods are still relevant, they include liver core needle biopsy — the gold standard. Minimally invasive methods for hepatic steatosis verification are based on the biochemical study of venous blood. Minimally invasive methods can be conditionally divided into routine — triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins etc., and calculated coefficients: SteatoTest and others. Their results are calculated on the basis of several indicators. Non-invasive methods of verification include: ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, elastometry with CAP™function (Fibroscan, model 502. In our opinion, for verification of hepatic steatosis, it is promising to use the ultrasound with the option of measuring the parameters of arterial stiffness in the WТrack mode. Among the non-invasive methods of hepatic steatosis verification, liver elastometry using FibroScan-502-touch device with CAP™ function made a breakthrough in some specific sense. Opening possibilities for early detection of hepatic steatosis enable to place on timely preventive and therapeutic measures and to create the conditions for stopping the progression, and possibly for the regression of hepatic steatosis.

  7. Pattern recognition receptor responses in children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ida Louise; Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Paludan, Søren Riis

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects the expression and function of Toll like receptors (TLRs), but data on TLR function in HBV infection are mainly from adult patients. The natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection is distinctly different in childre...

  8. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    positivity rates in these patients, accounting for nearly 24-. 28% of cases. .... Author. Punjab. Blood donors. 44,064. ELISA. 1.09%. Gupta et al 2004. Delhi. Voluntary blood ... contribution of hepatitis C in these disease conditions is summarized ...

  9. XTC-induced hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oranje, W.A.; van Pol, V.; van der Wurff, A.A.; Zeijen, R.N.; Stockbrügger, R.W.; Arends, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    XTC-induced hepatitis. Oranje WA, von Pol P, vd Wurff A, Zeijen RN, Stockbrugger RW, Arends JW. Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Maastricht, Netherlands. An increasing number of severe complications associated with the use of XTC is being reported. After 11 earlier case reports

  10. Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE, the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease.

  11. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism

  12. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  13. Synthetic Polymer with a Structure-Driven Hepatic Deposition and Curative Pharmacological Activity in Hepatic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Camilla Frich; Halling Folkmar Andersen, Anna; Anegaard Rolskov, Lærke

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic polymers make strong contributions as tools for delivery of biological drugs and chemotherapeutics. The most praised characteristic of polymers in these applications is complete lack of pharmacological function such as to minimize the side effects within the human body. In contrast......, synthetic polymers with curative pharmacological activity are truly rare. Moreover, such activity is typically nonspecific rather than structure-defined. In this work, we present the discovery of poly(ethylacrylic acid) (PEAA) as a polymer with a suit of structure-defined, unexpected, pharmacological......, and pharmacokinetic properties not observed in close structural analogues. Specifically, PEAA reveals capacity to bind to albumin with ensuing natural hepatic deposition in vivo and exhibits concurrent inhibitory activity against the hepatitis C virus and inflammation in hepatic cells. Our findings provide a view...

  14. RECENT THEORIES OF PATHOGENESIS OF HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY IN HEPATITIS C VIRAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Popović Dragonjić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy is potentially reversible, or progressive neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by changes in cognitive function, behavior and personality changes, and transient neurologic symptoms and characteristic electroencephalographic patterns associated with acute and chronic liver failure. For some time, there has been controversy regarding the origin of toxins responsible for the change of mental state. It was found that the occurrence of hepatic encephalopathy is responsible for multiple organ peripheral changes (intestinal changes, abnormalities of portal-systemic circulation, liver failure, loss of muscle tissue, changes in brain intracellular communication (osmotic changes, astrocytes and axonal abnormalities in communication, changes in cerebral perfusion and ammonia, endogenous benzodiazepines, gamma amino butyric acid, derivatives of methionine and false neurotransmitters. The aforementioned metabolic factors that contribute to the development of hepatic encephalopathy are not mutually exclusive and multiple factors may be present at the same time.

  15. Arginase Inhibition Ameliorates Hepatic Metabolic Abnormalities in Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jiyoung; Do, Hyun Ju; Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether arginase inhibition influences hepatic metabolic pathways and whole body adiposity in diet-induced obesity. Methods and Results After obesity induction by a high fat diet (HFD), mice were fed either the HFD or the HFD with an arginase inhibitor, Nω-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA). Nor-NOHA significantly prevented HFD-induced increases in body, liver, and visceral fat tissue weight, and ameliorated abnormal lipid profiles. Furthermore, nor-NOHA treatment reduced lipid accumulation in oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro. Arginase inhibition increased hepatic nitric oxide (NO) in HFD-fed mice and HepG2 cells, and reversed the elevated mRNA expression of hepatic genes in lipid metabolism. Expression of phosphorylated 5′ AMPK-activated protein kinase α was increased by arginase inhibition in the mouse livers and HepG2 cells. Conclusions Arginase inhibition ameliorated obesity-induced hepatic lipid abnormalities and whole body adiposity, possibly as a result of increased hepatic NO production and subsequent activation of metabolic pathways involved in hepatic triglyceride metabolism and mitochondrial function. PMID:25057910

  16. Hepatic differentiation potential of commercially available human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Shin-Yeu; Dai, Hui; Leong, Kam W

    2006-12-01

    The ready availability and low immunogenicity of commercially available mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) render them a potential cell source for the development of therapeutic products. With cell source a major bottleneck in hepatic tissue engineering, we investigated whether commercially available human MSC (hMSC) can transdifferentiate into the hepatic lineage. Based on previous studies that find rapid gain of hepatic genes in bone marrow-derived stem cells cocultured with liver tissue, we used a similar approach to drive hepatic differentiation by coculturing the hMSC with rat livers treated or untreated with gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3)). After a 24-hour coculture period with liver tissue injured by GdCl(3) in a Transwell configuration, approximately 34% of the cells differentiated into albumin-expressing cells. Cocultured cells were subsequently maintained with growth factors to complete the hepatic differentiation. Cocultured cells expressed more hepatic gene markers, and had higher metabolic functions and P450 activity than cells that were only differentiated with growth factors. In conclusion, commercially available hMSC do show hepatic differentiation potential, and a liver microenvironment in culture can provide potent cues to accelerate and deepen the differentiation. The ability to generate hepatocyte-like cells from a commercially available cell source would find interesting applications in liver tissue engineering.

  17. Quantitative assessment of hepatic function: modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence for T1 mapping on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Munyoung [Siemens Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To determine whether multislice T1 mapping of the liver using a modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used as a quantitative tool to estimate liver function and predict the presence of oesophageal or gastric varices. Phantoms filled with gadoxetic acid were scanned three times using MOLLI sequence to test repeatability. Patients with chronic liver disease or liver cirrhosis who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI including MOLLI sequence at 3 T were included (n = 343). Pre- and postcontrast T1 relaxation times of the liver (T1liver), changes between pre- and postcontrast T1liver (ΔT1liver), and adjusted postcontrast T1liver (postcontrast T1liver-T1spleen/T1spleen) were compared among Child-Pugh classes. In 62 patients who underwent endoscopy, all T1 parameters and spleen sizes were correlated with varices. Phantom study showed excellent repeatability of MOLLI sequence. As Child-Pugh scores increased, pre- and postcontrast T1liver were significantly prolonged (P < 0.001), and ΔT1liver and adjusted postcontrast T1liver decreased (P< 0.001). Adjusted postcontrast T1liver and spleen size were independently associated with varices (R{sup 2} = 0.29, P < 0.001). T1 mapping of the liver using MOLLI sequence on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI demonstrated potential in quantitatively estimating liver function, and adjusted postcontrast T1liver was significantly associated with varices. (orig.)

  18. Production of Autoantibodies in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection Is Associated with the Augmented Function of Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei

    Full Text Available T follicular helper cells (Tfh provide help to B cells to support their activation, expansion and differentiation. However, the role of Tfh cells in chronic HBV infection is poorly defined. The aim of this research was to examine the function of Tfh cells and whether they are involved in HBV related disease. Blood CXCR5+CD4+T cells and B cells in 85 patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients and health controls (HC were examined by flow cytometry. The molecule expression in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was detected by real-time PCR. Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells and B cells were co-cultured and the production of Ig and cytokines was detected by ELISA. Autoantibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence and immunospot assay. We found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients expressed higher level of activation related molecules and cytokines than that from health controls (HC.In HBV patients, the frequency of blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was significantly correlated with serum ALT and AST. We also found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients could induce B cells to secret higher level of immunoglobulin than that from HC. Several autoantibodies, including ANA, ss-A, ss-B, Scl-70, Jo-1, ect, were indeed positive in 65% HBV patients. Among HBV patients, expression of function related molecules was significantly higher in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from patients with autoantibodies than that without autoantibodies. Our research indicated that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients were over activated and show augmented capacity to help B cells for antibody secreting, which might correlated with liver inflammation and the production of autoantibodies in extrahepatic manifestations.

  19. Flumazenil versus placebo or no intervention for people with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goh, Ee Teng; Andersen, Mette L.; Morgan, Marsha Y.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication of cirrhosis which results in poor brain functioning. The spectrum of changes associated with hepatic encephalopathy ranges from the clinically 'indiscernible' or minimal hepatic encephalopathy to the clinically 'obvious' or overt hepatic...... encephalopathy. Flumazenil is a synthetic benzodiazepine antagonist with high affinity for the central benzodiazepine recognition site. Flumazenil may benefit people with hepatic encephalopathy through an indirect negative allosteric modulatory effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor function. The previous...... version of this review, which included 13 randomised clinical trials, found no effect of flumazenil on all-cause mortality, based on an analysis of 10 randomised clinical trials, but found a beneficial effect on hepatic encephalopathy, based on an analysis of eight randomised clinical trials. Objectives...

  20. Detection of hepatitis C virus sequences in brain tissue obtained in recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Hugo E; Laskus, Tomasz; Radkowski, Marek; Wilkinson, Jeff; Balan, Vijay; Douglas, David D; Harrison, M Edwyn; Mulligan, David C; Olden, Kevin; Adair, Debra; Rakela, Jorge

    2002-11-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C frequently report tiredness, easy fatigability, and depression. The aim of this study is to determine whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication could be found in brain tissue in patients with hepatitis C and depression. We report two patients with recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation who also developed severe depression. One patient died of multiorgan failure and the other, septicemia caused by Staphylococcus aureussis. Both patients had evidence of severe hepatitis C recurrence with features of cholestatic fibrosing hepatitis. We were able to study samples of their central nervous system obtained at autopsy for evidence of HCV replication. The presence of HCV RNA-negative strand, which is the viral replicative form, was determined by strand-specific Tth-based reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Viral sequences were compared by means of single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing. HCV RNA-negative strands were found in subcortical white matter from one patient and cerebral cortex from the other patient. HCV RNA-negative strands amplified from brain tissue differed by several nucleotide substitutions from serum consensus sequences in the 5' untranslated region. These findings support the concept of HCV neuroinvasion, and we speculate that it may provide a biological substrate to neuropsychiatric disorders observed in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The exact lineage of cells permissive for HCV replication and the possible interaction between viral replication and cerebral function that may lead to depression remain to be elucidated.

  1. Ontogeny of the rat hepatic adrenoceptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillian, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Hepatic alpha-1, alpha-2, and beta-2 adrenoceptors were characterized during development of the rat through Scatchard analysis of ( 3 H)-prazosin, ( 3 H)-rauwolscine and ( 125 I)-pindolol binding to washed particle membrane preparations. Major changes in adrenoceptor number occur shortly before birth and at weaning. The fetal rat liver is characterized by a large number of alpha-2 adrenoceptors which falls 10-20 fold at birth. The number of hepatic beta adrenoceptors decreases 30-50% during the third week after birth increases slightly at weaning, then decreases gradually in the adult. Hepatic alpha-1 adrenoceptor number increases 3-5 fold at weaning to become the predominant adrenoceptor in the adult rat liver. The basis for the fall in alpha-2 number at birth remains unclear. The fall in beta receptor number at the end of the second week post-natally appears dependent on increased insulin and corticosterone secretion as well as increased NE release form nerve terminals. The basis for the increase in beta number at weaning and the sex-dependent loss of beta function but not receptor number in the adult rat remains unknown. The dramatic increases in alpha-1 number and function at weaning are dependent on increased adrenocortical secretion, adrenalectomy prevents the normal. This effect of adrenocorticoids might be mediated through glycogen, as glycogen depletion during fasting decreases alpha-1 receptor number and function at weaning are dependent on increased adrenocortical secretion, adrenalectomy prevents the normal. This effect of adrenocorticoids might be mediated through glycogen, as glycogen depletion during fasting decreases alpha-1 receptor number and function. These findings suggest that hepatic adrenoceptor number adapts from the low carbohydrate diet of the suckling rat to the high carbohydrate diet of the adult at weaning

  2. 77 FR 45895 - World Hepatitis Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Proclamation Worldwide, one in twelve people is living with viral hepatitis--a disease that threatens the... ourselves to the fight against viral hepatitis. Hepatitis prevention and control begins with awareness. Though all types of viral hepatitis are associated with serious health issues, hepatitis B and C can...

  3. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  4. Changing Epidemiology of Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E Viruses in China, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiang; Wu, Peng; Wang, Liping; Geng, Mengjie; Zeng, Lingjia; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ningshao; Lai, Shengjie; Dalton, Harry R; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yu, Hongjie

    2017-02-01

    We compared the epidemiology of hepatitis A and hepatitis E cases in China from 1990-2014 to better inform policy and prevention efforts. The incidence of hepatitis A cases declined dramatically, while hepatitis E incidence increased. During 2004-2014, hepatitis E mortality rates surpassed those of hepatitis A.

  5. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo small-animal SPECT evaluation of novel technetium labeled bile acid analogues to study (altered) hepatic transporter function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyt, Sara; Vliegen, Maarten; Verreet, Bjorn; De Lombaerde, Stef; Braeckman, Kim; Vanhove, Christian; Huisman, Maarten Thomas; Dumolyn, Caroline; Kersemans, Ken; Hulpia, Fabian; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Mannens, Geert; De Vos, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatobiliary transport mechanisms are crucial for the excretion of substrate toxic compounds. Drugs can inhibit these transporters, which can lead to drug–drug interactions causing toxicity. Therefore, it is important to assess this early during the development of new drug candidates. The aim of the current study is the (radio)synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of a technetium labeled chenodeoxycholic and cholic acid analogue: [ 99m Tc]-DTPA-CDCA and [ 99m ]Tc-DTPA-CA, respectively, as biomarker for disturbed transporter functionality. Methods: [99mTc]-DTPA-CDCA([ 99m Tc]-3a) and [99mTc]-DTPA-CA ([ 99m Tc]-3b) were synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Uptake of both tracers was investigated in NTCP, OCT1, OATP1B1, OATP1B3 transfected cell lines. K m and V max values were determined and compared to [ 99m Tc]-mebrofenin ([ 99m Tc]-MEB). Efflux was investigated by means of CTRL, MRP2 and BSEP transfected inside-out vesicles. Metabolite analysis was performed using pooled human liver S9. Wild type (n = 3) and rifampicin treated (n = 3) mice were intravenously injected with 37 MBq of tracer. After dynamic small-animal SPECT and short CT acquisitions, time–activity curves of heart, liver, gallbladder and intestines were obtained. Results: We demonstrated that OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 are the involved uptake transporters of both compounds. Both tracers show a higher affinity compared to [ 99m Tc]-MEB, but are in a similar range as endogenous bile acids for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. [ 99m Tc]-3a shows higher affinities compared to [ 99m Tc]-3b. V max values were lower compared to [ 99m Tc]-MEB, but in the same range as endogenous bile acids. MRP2 was identified as efflux transporter. Less than 7% of both radiotracers was metabolized in the liver. In vitro results were confirmed by in vivo results. Uptake in the liver and efflux to gallbladder + intestines and urinary bladder of both tracers was observed. Transport was inhibited by rifampicin

  6. Permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared to reduce blood glucose level and hepatic function in mus musculus with diabetic mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhariningsih; Basuki Notobroto, Hari; Winarni, Dwi; Achmad Hussein, Saikhu; Anggono Prijo, Tri

    2017-05-01

    Blood contains several electrolytes with positive (cation) and negative (anion) ion load. Both electrolytes deliver impulse synergistically adjusting body needs. Those electrolytes give specific effect to external disturbance such as electric, magnetic, even infrared field. A study has been conducted to reduce blood glucose level and liver function, in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients, using Biophysics concept which uses combination therapy of permanent magnetic field, electric field, and infrared. This study used 48 healthy mice (mus musculus), male, age 3-4 weeks, with approximately 25-30 g in weight. Mice was fed with lard as high fat diet orally, before Streptozotocin (STZ) induction become diabetic mice. Therapy was conducted by putting mice in a chamber that emits the combination of permanent magnetic field, electric field, and infrared, every day for 1 hour for 28 days. There were 4 combinations of therapy/treatment, namely: (1) permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared; (2) permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, without infrared; (3) permanent magnetic field, alternating electric field, and infrared; and (4) permanent magnetic field, alternating electric field, without infrared. The results of therapy show that every combination is able to reduce blood glucose level, AST, and ALT. However, the best result is by using combination of permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared.

  7. Permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared to reduce blood glucose level and hepatic function in mus musculus with diabetic mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhariningsih; Prijo, Tri Anggono; Notobroto, Hari Basuki; Winarni, Dwi; Hussein, Saikhu Achmad

    2017-01-01

    Blood contains several electrolytes with positive (cation) and negative (anion) ion load. Both electrolytes deliver impulse synergistically adjusting body needs. Those electrolytes give specific effect to external disturbance such as electric, magnetic, even infrared field. A study has been conducted to reduce blood glucose level and liver function, in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients, using Biophysics concept which uses combination therapy of permanent magnetic field, electric field, and infrared. This study used 48 healthy mice ( mus musculus ), male, age 3-4 weeks, with approximately 25-30 g in weight. Mice was fed with lard as high fat diet orally, before Streptozotocin (STZ) induction become diabetic mice. Therapy was conducted by putting mice in a chamber that emits the combination of permanent magnetic field, electric field, and infrared, every day for 1 hour for 28 days. There were 4 combinations of therapy/treatment, namely: (1) permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared; (2) permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, without infrared; (3) permanent magnetic field, alternating electric field, and infrared; and (4) permanent magnetic field, alternating electric field, without infrared. The results of therapy show that every combination is able to reduce blood glucose level, AST, and ALT. However, the best result is by using combination of permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared. (paper)

  8. HCVpro: Hepatitis C virus protein interaction database

    KAUST Repository

    Kwofie, Samuel K.

    2011-12-01

    It is essential to catalog characterized hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein-protein interaction (PPI) data and the associated plethora of vital functional information to augment the search for therapies, vaccines and diagnostic biomarkers. In furtherance of these goals, we have developed the hepatitis C virus protein interaction database (HCVpro) by integrating manually verified hepatitis C virus-virus and virus-human protein interactions curated from literature and databases. HCVpro is a comprehensive and integrated HCV-specific knowledgebase housing consolidated information on PPIs, functional genomics and molecular data obtained from a variety of virus databases (VirHostNet, VirusMint, HCVdb and euHCVdb), and from BIND and other relevant biology repositories. HCVpro is further populated with information on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) related genes that are mapped onto their encoded cellular proteins. Incorporated proteins have been mapped onto Gene Ontologies, canonical pathways, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) and extensively cross-referenced to other essential annotations. The database is enriched with exhaustive reviews on structure and functions of HCV proteins, current state of drug and vaccine development and links to recommended journal articles. Users can query the database using specific protein identifiers (IDs), chromosomal locations of a gene, interaction detection methods, indexed PubMed sources as well as HCVpro, BIND and VirusMint IDs. The use of HCVpro is free and the resource can be accessed via http://apps.sanbi.ac.za/hcvpro/ or http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/hcvpro/. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Recent advances in Hepatitis E virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, X J

    2010-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, belongs to the family Hepeviridae. At least four major genotypes of HEV have been recognized: genotypes 1 and 2 are restricted to humans and associated with epidemics in developing countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and infect humans and several other animals in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides humans, strains of HEV have been genetically identified from swine, chickens, sika deer, mongeese, and rabbits. The genome of HEV consists of three open reading frames (ORFs): ORF1 codes for nonstructural proteins, ORF2 codes for capsid protein, and ORF3 codes for a small multifunctional protein. The ORF2 and ORF3 proteins are translated from a single bicistronic mRNA and overlap each other but neither overlaps ORF1. The recent determination of the 3D crystal structure of the HEV capsid protein should facilitate the development of vaccines and antivirals. The identification and characterization of animal strains of HEV from pigs and chickens and the demonstrated ability of cross-species infection by swine HEV raise public health concerns for zoonosis. Accumulating evidence indicated that hepatitis E is a zoonotic disease and pigs and more likely other animal species are reservoirs for HEV. This article provides an overview of the recent advances in hepatitis E and its causative agent, including nomenclature and genomic organization, gene expression and functions, 3D structure of the virions, changing perspectives on higher mortality during pregnancy and chronic hepatitis E, animal reservoirs, zoonotic risk, food safety, and novel animal models.

  10. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  11. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  12. Hepatic lipidosis in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdzinski, P; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1994-01-01

    Two flocks of 14,000 twenty-week-old turkey hens each experienced increased mortality due to hepatic lipidosis. Some hens showed signs of dyspnea and cyanosis before death. Necropsy revealed dark muscles and enlarged livers with pale areas and numerous hemorrhages. Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages were also found on the abdominal fat and epicardium. Lung congestion and edema were prominent. In the heart and blood vessels, the blood was uncoagulated. Mortality was elevated for 12 days and resulted in the death of 0.7% of the turkey hens in one flock and 1.7% in the other. Vitamin E administered in water at a dose of 25 IU per hen appeared to reduce mortality. The nutritional and environmental factors that may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis in turkeys are discussed.

  13. Feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimski, D S; Taboada, J

    1995-03-01

    Feline IHL is a severe hepatopathy that can be treated by aggressive nutritional support. Until the underlying mechanisms of protein and lipid metabolism are understood in both healthy and ill cats, dietary therapy remains supportive. It is likely that the pathogenesis of IHL in cats is multifactorial, involving both increased fatty acid mobilization to the liver and a defect in oxidation of fatty acids or removal of VLDL. It is also possible that individual variation may play a role in the development of this disease in cats undergoing starvation. Continued studies will focus on the unique pathways of hepatic metabolism in the cat, and how these pathways are altered, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation and clinical disease. Hopefully, these studies can be applied to the prevention or treatment of IHL in cats.

  14. Experimental research of covered stent implanted in canine hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bing; Liu Linxiang; Li Minghua; Wang Yongli; Cheng Yongde

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of success rate of implantation, post-procedure stenosis rate, apposition ability and endothelialization level, etc. for implantation with balloon-expandable covered stent in canine hepatic artery. Methods: 8 adult canines were implanted with balloon-expendable stents covered by expandable poly Teflon ester membrane (e-PTFEM). Follow-up DSA was performed immediately, 2, 4 and 12 wk after the procedure. The canines were sacrificed for histopathologic examination and statistical analysis with correlation of implantation manenvor and angiographic manifestations. Results: 8 cases were all implanted with the covered stents in proper hepatic artery/right hepatic artery successfully; showing good apposition ability and non-opacification of the separated branches. 2 cases showed intraluminal obvious stenosis( > 50%)of the stent at 2 weeks follow-up, so did 3 cases at 12 weeks follow-up, and the total stenosis rate was 37.5% and 5 cases manifested full endothelialization (3 different locations of the sample all manifested full endothelialization), 3 cased manifested partial endothelialization (at least 1 location of the sample didn't show full endothelialization), and the two terminal parts were easier to get endothelialization than the central part. Before and after the stent implantation, hepatic function of all cases didn't demonstrate any obvious changes. Conclusions: Balloon-expandable covered stent can be implanted in canine hepatic artery. successfully, with good apposition ability, full endothelialization, and no influence on hepatic function. (authors)

  15. Alcoholic Hepatitis Markedly Decreases the Capacity for Urea Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Glavind

    Full Text Available Data on quantitative metabolic liver functions in the life-threatening disease alcoholic hepatitis are scarce. Urea synthesis is an essential metabolic liver function that plays a key regulatory role in nitrogen homeostasis. The urea synthesis capacity decreases in patients with compromised liver function, whereas it increases in patients with inflammation. Alcoholic hepatitis involves both mechanisms, but how these opposite effects are balanced remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate how alcoholic hepatitis affects the capacity for urea synthesis. We related these findings to another measure of metabolic liver function, the galactose elimination capacity (GEC, as well as to clinical disease severity.We included 20 patients with alcoholic hepatitis and 7 healthy controls. The urea synthesis capacity was quantified by the functional hepatic nitrogen clearance (FHNC, i.e., the slope of the linear relationship between the blood α-amino nitrogen concentration and urea nitrogen synthesis rate during alanine infusion. The GEC was determined using blood concentration decay curves after intravenous bolus injection of galactose. Clinical disease severity was assessed by the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis Score and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score.The FHNC was markedly decreased in the alcoholic hepatitis patients compared with the healthy controls (7.2±4.9 L/h vs. 37.4±6.8 L/h, P<0.01, and the largest decrease was observed in those with severe alcoholic hepatitis (4.9±3.6 L/h vs. 9.9±4.9 L/h, P<0.05. The GEC was less markedly reduced than the FHNC. A negative correlation was detected between the FHNC and MELD score (rho = -0.49, P<0.05.Alcoholic hepatitis markedly decreases the urea synthesis capacity. This decrease is associated with an increase in clinical disease severity. Thus, the metabolic failure in alcoholic hepatitis prevails such that the liver cannot adequately perform the metabolic up-regulation observed in other stressful

  16. Computed tomography in hepatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with hepatic injury from blunt upper abdominal trauma were examined by computed tomography (CT). The spectrum of CT findings was recorded, and the size of the hepatic laceration and the associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs nonoperative). While the need for surgery correlated roughly with the size of the hepatic laceration, the size of the associated hemoperitoneum was an important modifying factor. Fifteen patients with hepatic lacerations but little or no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. CT seems to have significant advantages over hepatic scintigraphy, angiography, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage. By combining inforamtion on the clinical state of the patient and CT findings, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased

  17. [Autoimmune hepatitis: Immunological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim, Imane; Brahim, Ikram; Hazime, Raja; Admou, Brahim

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatopathies (AIHT) including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC), represent an impressive entities in clinical practice. Their pathogenesis is not perfectly elucidated. Several factors are involved in the initiation of hepatic autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena such as genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or abnormalities of T-regulatory lymphocytes. AIHT have a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe acute liver failure. The diagnosis of AIHT is based on the presence of hyperglobulinemia, cytolysis, cholestasis, typical even specific circulating auto-antibodies, distinctive of AIH or PBC, and histological abnormalities as well as necrosis and inflammation. Anti-F actin, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1 antibodies permit to distinguish between AIH type 1 and AIH type 2. Anti-SLA/LP antibodies are rather associated to more severe hepatitis, and particularly useful for the diagnosis of seronegative AIH for other the antibodies. Due to the relevant diagnostic value of anti-M2, anti-Sp100, and anti-gp210 antibodies, the diagnosis of PBC is more affordable than that of PSC and AIC. Based on clinical data, the immunological diagnosis of AIHT takes advantage of the various specialized laboratory techniques including immunofluorescence, immunodot or blot, and the Elisa systems, provided of a closer collaboration between the biologist and the physician. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Type B Hepatitis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarestani

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B surface antigen CHBsAg was found in 1% of controls, 2.1% of professional blood donors, 2.0% of leprosy patients and 76.1% of acute hepatitis in Tehran and Mashhad, Iran. All HBsAg positive samples also possessed antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen and all were subtype ayw. Type B hepatitis and the HBsAg state aloe frequent in Iran, but most must be accounted for by u nonparenter- al" or "rnapparent'' parenteral exposure.

  19. Adaptive immunity in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Maria Serena; Ma, Yun; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2010-01-01

    The histological lesion of interface hepatitis, with its dense portal cell infiltrate consisting of lymphocytes, monocytes/macrophages and plasma cells, was the first to suggest an autoaggressive cellular immune attack in the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Immunohistochemical studies, focused on the phenotype of inflammatory cells infiltrating the liver parenchyma, have shown a predominance of alphabeta-T cells. Amongst these cells, the majority have been CD4 helper/inducers, while a sizeable minority have consisted of CD8 cytotoxic/suppressors. Lymphocytes on non-T cell lineage included natural killer cells, monocytes/macrophages and B lymphocytes. For autoimmunity to arise, the self-antigenic peptide, embraced by an human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecule, must be presented to an uncommitted T helper (T(H)0) lymphocyte by professional antigen-presenting cells. Once activated and according to the presence in the milieu of interleukin 12 (IL-12) or IL-4, T(H)0 lymphocytes can differentiate into T(H)1 cells, which are pivotal to macrophage activation; enhance HLA class I expression, rendering liver cells vulnerable to CD8 T-cell attack; and induce HLA class II expression on hepatocytes; or they can differentiate into T(H)2 cells, which produce IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13, cytokines favouring autoantibody production by B lymphocytes. Autoantigen recognition is tightly controlled by regulatory mechanisms, such as those exerted by CD4+CD25(high) regulatory T cells. Numerical and functional regulatory T cell impairment characterises AIH and permits the perpetuation of effector immune responses with ensuing persistent liver destruction. Advances in the study of autoreactive T cells stem mostly from AIH type 2, where the main autoantigen, cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6), is known to enable characterisation of antigen-specific immune responses. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Hepatite E Hepatitis E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Paraná

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da hepatite E (VHE é o segundo vírus de transmissão fecal-oral com hepatotropismo confirmado, após o vírus da hepatite A. As grandes epidemias de hepatite das décadas de 50 e 60 na Índia foram causadas pelo VHE. Observaram-se surtos da infecção na África Central, América Latina, Oriente Médio e Repúblicas independentes da ex-União Soviética. O quadro clínico da doença assemelha-se ao de outras hepatites virais. Não há casos descritos de hepatite E crônicas. Cerca de 20% das mulheres que adquirem a doença durante a gravidez desenvolvem formas graves, com insuficiência hepática fulminante. Confirma-se o diagnóstico quando se encontra no soro anticorpos (método de ELISA das classes IgM (fase aguda e/ou IgG (curados. O imunoblot e o PCR-RNA podem ser usados quando necessário. Não há tratamento específico. O uso de imunoglobulina hiperimune tem sido aconselhado por alguns autores. A prevenção se faz pelos cuidados higiênicos e dietéticos habituais. Não há vacina eficaz contra a doença.Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the second most frequent hepatotropic virus transmitted via fecal-oral route, following closely behind hepatitis A virus. The great epidemics of hepatitis described during the 50s and 60s, in India, were caused by this virus. Epidemic bursts have also been described in Central Africa, Latin America, Middle East and in the independent Republics of the ex-Soviet Union. The clinical features of the disease do not differ from those reported for other viral hepatitides. There have been no cases of chronic hepatitis E reported. Around 20% of women infected during pregnancy develop a severe form of hepatitis which courses to liver failure. Diagnosis of hepatitis is confirmed when antibodies (using ELISA of the IgM class (acute phase and/or IgG (infected and cured are found in the serum. Immunoblot and PCR-RNA may be used as necessary. There is no specific treatment for hepatitis E. Hyperimmune serum has

  1. CD40 dependent exacerbation of immune mediated hepatitis by hepatic CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells in tumor bearing mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Manns, Michael P.; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing mice. We studied hepatic MDSC in two murine models of immune mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of tumor bearing mice with Concanavalin A or α-Galactosylceramide resulted in increased ALT and AST serum levels in comparison to tumor free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC into naïve mice exacerbated Concanavalin A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells revealed a polarized pro-inflammatory gene signature after Concanavalin A treatment. An interferon gamma- dependent up-regulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells along with an up-regulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Concanavalin A treatment was observed. Concanavalin A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSC as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSC led to increased arginase activity upon Concanavalin A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40−/− tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased reactive oxygen species production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSC act as pro-inflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner. PMID:25616156

  2. Liver Function in the Pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-12

    Jun 12, 1974 ... The assessment of function of the isolated perfused liver remains complex. Much of this problem relates to an inability to compare function in vitro with that in vivo, because of a lack of knowledge of hepatic blood flow. This article documents measurement of total hepatic and portal blood flow in vivo in pigs, ...

  3. Fetomaternal Outcome with Hepatitis E in Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmeen, T.; Hashmi, H.A.; Taj, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the maternal morbidity and mortality and fetal outcome with hepatitis E (HEV) in pregnancy. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, from May 2008 to April 2010. Methodology: Thirty patients admitted at Gynae Ward with serologically proven HEV in pregnancy were included in the study. All these patients were followed during their hospital stay with liver function tests and coagulation profile. Maternal morbidity and mortality and fetal outcome were recorded. Results: Maximum maternal morbidities were noted in patients who presented in 3rd trimester, both clinically and derangement of haematological and biochemical tests. Out of 30 patients, 08 patients expired with maternal mortality rate of 29.3% and rest were discharged safely. Perinatal mortality rate was 30.3 per 1000 live births. Conclusion: Hepatitis E runs a fulminant course during pregnancy with very high mortality rate especially during third trimester and postpartum period. (author)

  4. Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV are common blood-borne infections unevenly distributed across regions in Nigeria. Few population-based prevalence studies have been done in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV and risk factors for infection with ...

  5. Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hemodialysis (HD) patients are associated with adverse outcomes, especially after kidney transplantation. Review: In the HD setting, cross-contamination to patients via environmental surfaces, supplies, equipment, multiple-dose medication vials ...

  6. Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiology of viral hepatitis and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during pregnancy is of great importance for health planners and program managers. However, few published data on viral hepatitis and HIV are available in Sudan especially during pregnancy. Objectives: The current study was ...

  7. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C and Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C viruses (HCV) are major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. They are also among the commonest transfusiontransmissible infectious agents. Students of higher institutions are often used as voluntary unpaid donors by many ...

  8. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  9. Hepatic diseases related to triglyceride metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Álvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Hernández-Godinez, Daniel; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Triglycerides participate in key metabolic functions such as energy storage, thermal insulation and as deposit for essential and non-essential fatty acids that can be used as precursors for the synthesis of structural and functional phospholipids. The liver is a central organ in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, and it participates in triglyceride synthesis, export, uptake and oxidation. The metabolic syndrome and associated diseases are among the main concerns of public health worldwide. One of the metabolic syndrome components is impaired triglyceride metabolism. Diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome promote the appearance of hepatic alterations e.g., non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. In this article, we review the molecular actions involved in impaired triglyceride metabolism and its association with hepatic diseases. We discuss mechanisms that reconcile the chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, and new concepts on the role of intestinal micro-flora permeability and proliferation in fatty liver etiology. We also describe the participation of oxidative stress in the progression of events leading from steatosis to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Finally, we provide information regarding the mechanisms that link fatty acid accumulation during steatosis with changes in growth factors and cytokines that lead to the development of neoplastic cells. One of the main medical concerns vis-a-vis hepatic diseases is the lack of symptoms at the onset of the illness and, as result, its late diagnosis. The understandings of the molecular mechanisms that underlie hepatic diseases could help design strategies towards establishing markers for their accurate and timely diagnosis.

  10. Estrogens regulate the hepatic effects of growth hormone, a hormonal interplay with multiple fates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Guerra, Borja; Díaz-Chico, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    The liver responds to estrogens and growth hormone (GH) which are critical regulators of body growth, gender-related hepatic functions, and intermediate metabolism. The effects of estrogens on liver can be direct, through the direct actions of hepatic ER, or indirect, which include the crosstalk...

  11. PPAR-alpha dependent regulation of vanin-1 mediates hepatic lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, van J.A.; Jansen, P.A.; Ballak, D.B.; Hijmans, A.; Hooiveld, G.J.E.J.; Rommelaere, S.; Kersten, A.H.; Stienstra, R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) is a key regulator of hepatic fat oxidation that serves as an energy source during starvation. Vanin-1 has been described as a putative PPARa target gene in liver, but its function in hepatic lipid metabolism is unknown.

  12. Effects of hepatic triglyceride content on myocardial metabolism in type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijzewijk, Luuk J.; Jonker, Jacqueline T.; van der Meer, Rutger W.; Lubberink, Mark; de Jong, Hugo W.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Bax, Jeroen J.; de Roos, Albert; Heine, Robert J.; Twisk, Jos W.; Windhorst, Albert D.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Diamant, Michaela; Lamb, Hildo J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between hepatic triglyceride content and both myocardial function and metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in T2DM. Central obesity and hepatic steatosis, both hallmark

  13. Aspiration sclerotherapy of hepatic cysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, T.F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic cysts are fluid-filled lesions in the liver that generally arise as congenital anomalies. Prevalence is estimated between 3 and 18%. Overall, cysts are benign and asymptomatic. However, hepatic cysts can increase to a volume of several liters as a result of continuous fluid production by the

  14. Blood transfusion and hepatitis viruses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    virus in blood donors: investigation of type-specific differences in serologic reactivity and rate of alanine aminotransferase abnormalities. Transfusion 1993;. 33: 7-13. 45. McFarlane IG, Smith HM, Johnson PJ, Bray GP, Vergani 0, Williams R. Hepatitis. C virus antibodies in chronic active hepatitis: pathogenetic factor or false-.

  15. Hepatitis B vaccination in travelers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonder, Gerard J. B.

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of travelers travel to hepatitis B-endemic countries. In travel medicine, vaccinations should be advised according to risks. The actual incidence of hepatitis B infection in short-term tourists is very low and probably not higher than it is for people who do not travel. There is

  16. Hepatitis B and skin: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and its complications have become a global health problem. The spectrum of HBV infection ranges from asymptomatic carrier state to chronic hepatitis. It is usually preceded by constitutional symptoms. It has a wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review includes the pathogenesis along with the pathophysiology with their clinical significance and overview of the treatment.

  17. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  18. Hepatic Lipodystrophy in Galloway Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, M; Mann, S; Hafner-Marx, A; Ignatius, A; Metzner, M

    2017-05-01

    Hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves is a fatal liver disease affecting a small proportion of the Galloway breed described in different parts of Europe and North America during the past decades. The clinical findings include a diversity of neurological signs. Clinical pathology findings frequently indicate hepatobiliary disease. Postmortem examination reveals an enlarged, pale yellow, and firm liver. Histologic lesions include hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. To date, the etiopathogenesis remains obscure. Infectious causes, intoxications, and a hereditary origin have been considered. We describe hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves from an extensively farmed cow-calf operation in southern Germany. Main clinical findings in 6 calves were consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Clinical pathology findings in 5 of 6 tested animals revealed increased concentration of total bilirubin (maximum value [MV], 54 μmol/l; reference range [RR], 250 U/g Hb). Postmortem examination in 6 calves revealed a firm, diffusely enlarged yellow liver with a finely nodular surface. Histologic lesions included hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. Our findings add to the existing data on hepatic lipodystrophy in the Galloway breed and outline a protocol to aid in the diagnosis of this disorder.

  19. Peg-interferon plus nucleotide analogue treatment versus no treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load: a randomised controlled, open-label trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, Annikki; Jansen, Louis; Stelma, Femke; Willemse, Sophie B.; Kuiken, Sjoerd D.; Weijer, Sebastiaan; van Nieuwkerk, Carin M. J.; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Molenkamp, Richard; Takkenberg, R. Bart; Koot, Maarten; Verheij, Joanne; Beuers, Ulrich; Reesink, Hendrik W.

    2017-01-01

    Antiviral treatment is currently not recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load. However, they might benefit from acquiring a functional cure (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] loss with or without formation of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen

  20. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Right hepatic artery aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Astrid Del Pilar Ardila; Loures, Paulo; Calle, Juan Cristóbal Ospina; Cunha, Beatriz; Córdoba, Juan Camilo

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of an aneurysm of the right hepatic artery and its multidisciplinary management by general surgery, endoscopy and radiology services. Being a case of extremely low incidence, it is important to show its diagnostic and therapeutic approach. RESUMO Relatamos um caso de aneurisma da artéria hepática direita conduzido de forma multidisciplinar pelos Serviços de Cirurgia Geral, Endoscopia e Radiologia. Em se tratando de caso de incidência baixíssima, é importante mostrar o enfoque diagnóstico e terapêutico usado em seu manejo.

  2. HEPATITIS ALOINMUNE FETAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez C., Dr.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La hepatitis aloinmune fetal, conocida anteriormente como hemocromatosis neonatal, ha demostrado en los últimos años ser una enfermedad completamente distinta a la hemocromatosis del adulto, tanto en su etiología como en su la fisiopatología. Este conocimiento abre nuevas perspectivas tanto en la prevención de la enfermedad en futuros embarazos, así como en el tratamiento con inmunoglobulina endovenosa en la madre durante el embarazo y eventualmente el tratamiento postnatal, en el que el trasplante de hígado juega un rol primordial.

  3. [Repeat hepatic resections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, I; Ciurea, S; Braşoveanu, V; Pietrăreanu, D; Tulbure, D; Georgescu, S; Stănescu, D; Herlea, V

    1998-01-01

    Five cases of iterative liver resections are presented, out of a total of 150 hepatectomies performed between 1.01.1995-1.01.1998. The resections were carried out for recurrent adenoma (one case), cholangiocarcinoma (two cases), hepatocellular carcinoma (one case), colo-rectal cancer metastasis (one case). Only cases with at least one major hepatic resection were included. Re-resections were more difficult than the primary resection due, first of all, to the modified vascular anatomy. Intraoperative ultrasound permitted localization of intrahepatic recurrences. Iterative liver resection appears to be the best therapeutical choice for patients with recurrent liver tumors.

  4. Current topics in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Luigi; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Giorgios; Cassani, Fabio; Lenzi, Marco

    2010-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic liver disease of unknown aetiology characterized by interface hepatitis, hypergammaglobulinaemia and circulating autoantibodies. In the last decade a number of advancements have been made in the field of clinical and basic research: the simplified diagnostic criteria, the complete response defined as normalization of transaminase levels, the molecular identification of the antigenic targets of anti-liver cytosol antibody type 1 and anti-soluble liver antigen, the detection of anti-actin antibodies, the description of de novo autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation for non-autoimmune liver diseases, the characterization of autoimmune hepatitis with overlapping features of primary biliary cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis, the preliminary experience with novel treatment strategies based on cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil and budesonide, the role played by "impaired" regulatory T cells and the development of novel animal models of autoimmune hepatitis. Copyright © 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Peracute Infectious Canine Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Cheema*, I. Ahmed, G. Mustafa and A. Aslam

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Peracute infectious canine hepatitis (ICH was diagnosed in two young male dogs out of 56 dead canines presented for necropsy examination during the period of April 2009 to June 2010. These dogs were purebred, one- month old Alsatian and 5-month old Labrador. None of the dogs had received any vaccination or deworming treatment; both had died after illness lasting for six hours and twenty four hours respectively. The dogs had shown signs of depression, anorexia and fever. At necropsy, lymph nodes were swollen, edematous and congested; livers were enlarged, bright red and mottled with numerous small white foci. Petechial hemorrhages were seen in the mucosa. Excessive serosanguinous fluid was present in the abdominal cavities. Histologically, the most significant lesion was necrohemorrhagic hepatitis with single cell necrosis of hepatocytes, lacunose dilation of sinusoids filled with blood and numerous large, solid intranuclear inclusion bodies (IIBs in the hepatocytes and macrophages. Both eosinophilic and basophilic (amphophilic inclusions were seen. It has been observed that ICH is re-emerging in some endemic countries. Pet dogs should be regularly protected by effective vaccination.

  6. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  7. Determination of the integrated CT number of the whole liver in patients with severe hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumahara, Tadashi; Muto, Yasutoshi; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Yoshida, Takashi; Tomita, Eiichi

    1989-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate the functional reserve of the liver of patients with severe hepatitis by computed tomography (CT), in particular employing the integrated CT number of the whole liver (ICTN). ICTN was calculated by integrating the product of 'area' times 'mean CT number' of the liver in each CT slice for the entire height of the liver. The following results were obtained: 1) In patients with fulminant hepatitis (FH) as well as those with subacute hepatitis (SAH), ICTN was found to be significantly lower as compared to that of patients with acute hepatitis (AH) or non-hepatic diseases. In addition, in FH and SAH patients, ICTN showed a larger degree of decrease when compared with such conventional parameters as either estimated liver volume or mean hepatic CT number. Thus, ICTN seems to more sensitively reflect the changes in functional reserve of the liver. 2) ICTN showed significant positive correlations with prothrombin time and plasma BCAA/AAA ratio, and a significant negative correlation with plasma methionine level. 3) Time course of changes in ICTN correlated well with the clinical features of severe hepatitis. In particular, patients with initial ICTN values above 20 l·HU/m 2 of body surface area showed significantly higher survival rate than those with initial ICTN below 20. In conclusion, ICTN well indicates the functional reserve of the liver, and is further suggested to be valuable as a parameter to predict the prognosis of patients with severe hepatitis. (author)

  8. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent disease ... know it. Some people who get infected with Hepatitis C are able to clear, or get rid ... or lifelong, infection. Over time, chronic Hepatitis C can cause serious ...

  9. 78 FR 46247 - World Hepatitis Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Hepatitis Day to bring attention to a disease that afflicts one in twelve people worldwide. Viral hepatitis... American deaths every year. Outcomes can significantly improve with treatment, but because viral hepatitis..., we raise awareness about preventing and treating viral hepatitis, and we renew our commitment to...

  10. 76 FR 46181 - World Hepatitis Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Proclamation Across our Nation, millions of Americans are living with viral hepatitis. As many as three-fourths... save lives and prevent the spread of viral hepatitis. Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, and.... While we have come far, work still needs to be done to prevent and treat this disease. Viral hepatitis...

  11. Orlistat-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, D; Wang, J; Rashkin, M; Welch, M; Droege, C; Schauer, D

    2014-12-01

    Orlistat was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1998 and has been shown to be superior to placebo in achieving weight loss. It is generally well tolerated. However, severe liver injury has been reported. We present a case of hepatic failure in a patient taking orlistat. A 54-year-old African-American woman with hypertension presented with hepatic failure. She had noticed increasing fatigue, jaundice and confusion. She used alcohol sparingly and denied tobacco or illicit drug use, but had been taking over-the-counter orlistat for the past two months. Physical examination revealed scleral icterus, jaundice, asterixis and slow speech. Laboratory testing showed markedly abnormal liver function tests with coagulopathy. Acute viral and autoimmune serologies were negative, as was toxicology screen. Liver biopsy showed necrotic hepatic parenchyma likely secondary to drug toxicity. Based upon her clinical presentation and time course, the pattern of liver injury seen on liver biopsy and lack of an alternative plausible explanation, her liver failure was most likely associated with orlistat use. She continued to deteriorate and ultimately underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. Fourteen cases of severe liver injury associated with orlistat use have been reported, four of which are detailed in the literature. This is the second published case of liver failure associated with over-the-counter orlistat usage. Clinicians should be aware of the growing number of cases associating liver injury and orlistat use and carefully monitor their patients on this medication for signs of hepatic dysfunction. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  12. Hepatic oxidative stress, genotoxicity and vascular dysfunction in lean or obese zucker rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Folkmann, Janne Kjærsgaard; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which could be related to oxidative stress. Here, we investigated the associations between hepatic oxidative stress and vascular function in pressurized mesenteric arteries from lean and obese Zucker rats at 14, 24 an......-generated DNA damage despite substantial hepatic steatosis.......Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which could be related to oxidative stress. Here, we investigated the associations between hepatic oxidative stress and vascular function in pressurized mesenteric arteries from lean and obese Zucker rats at 14, 24...... and 37 weeks of age. Obese Zucker rats had more hepatic fat accumulation than their lean counterparts. Nevertheless, the obese rats had unaltered age-related level of hepatic oxidatively damaged DNA in terms of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) or human oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1...

  13. Liver scintigraphy of fulminant hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Nagara; Ishihara, Takashi; Mori, Toru

    1980-01-01

    The liver scintigraphies of five patients with fulminant hepatitis were examined. Scintiphotos using sup(99m)Tc-phytate were taken within two weeks after the onset. Scintiphotos of 12 normal subjects, 11 cases with acute hepatitis, 17 cases with liver cirrhosis were served as control. Their scintiphotos showed reduction of the size, well-maintained uptake, mostly homogenous RI distribution, and no left lobe enlargement, which could differentiate them from the chronic liver dysfunction. In one of the cases chronological changes in liver scintigraphy were observed. The size of the liver was reduced progressively until the 16th day and re-enlarged at the 30th day and thereafter. Three indices [S/W, (R + L)/W, and L/R] were calculated. S: area of liver, R or L: longitudinal length of the right or left lobe, W: body width. Relative size of the liver expressed by S/W or (R + L)/W showed significant reduction in fulminant hepatitis compared with acute hepatitis. However, they were not different significantly from those of normal subjects. Except for liver cirrhosis, L/R (left lobe swelling index) did not show significant differences among fulminant hepatitis, normal subjects, and acute hepatitis. These indices were also useful in follow-up study of the liver scintigraphy. The liver scintigraphy in the early phase of fulminant hepatitis seems to reflect the degree of massive hepatic necrosis. It is also useful to differentiate chronic hepatic failure. Apparant reduction in scintigraphical liver size seems to suggest poor prognosis, however, it should also kept in mind that the size of the liver in this condition might change quite rapidly and greatly. (author)

  14. Asthenia in Children with Chronic Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Lembryk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article results of own researches concerning peculiarities of the course of asthenic syndrome in school-aged children with chronic hepatitis B, C and mixed forms are provided. It is established that chronic hepatitis C as well as a mixed hepatitis are accompanied by more evident symptoms of deadaptation and somatogenic asthenia than hepatitis B in which psychogenic manifestations prevailed. The degree of endogenous intoxication was also higher at hepatitis C.

  15. Failure to incriminate hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis E viruses in the aetiology of fulminant non-A non-B hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mutimer, D; Shaw, J; Neuberger, J; Skidmore, S; Martin, B; Hubscher, S; McMaster, P; Elias, E

    1995-01-01

    Sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis is the most common indication for liver transplantation in patients presenting with fulminant and subacute liver failure. This study used serological, histological, and molecular biological techniques to examine specimens from 23 consecutive patients transplanted for sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis. No evidence was found of hepatitis C virus, hepatitis E virus, or 'cryptic' hepatitis B virus infection.

  16. Extensive Mutagenesis of the Conserved Box E Motif in Duck Hepatitis B Virus P Protein Reveals Multiple Functions in Replication and a Common Structure with the Primer Grip in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yong-Xiang; Luo, Cheng; Zhao, Dan; Beck, Jürgen; Nassal, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including the pathogenic hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate their small DNA genomes through protein-primed reverse transcription, mediated by the terminal protein (TP) domain in their P proteins and an RNA stem-loop, ϵ, on the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). No direct structural data are available for P proteins, but their reverse transcriptase (RT) domains contain motifs that are conserved in all RTs (box A to box G), implying a similar architecture; however, experimental support for...

  17. Modulation of hepatic stellate cells and reversibility of hepatic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu, E-mail: 1293363632@QQ.com [Faculty of Graduate Studies of Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530001, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China); Deng, Xin, E-mail: Hendly@163.com [Ruikang Hospital Affiliated to Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, 10 East China Road, Nanning 530011, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China); Liang, Jian, E-mail: lj99669@163.com [Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530001, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (China)

    2017-03-15

    Hepatic fibrosis (HF) is the pathological component of a variety of chronic liver diseases. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are the main collagen-producing cells in the liver and their activation promotes HF. If HSC activation and proliferation can be inhibited, HF occurrence and development can theoretically be reduced and even reversed. Over the past ten years, a number of studies have addressed this process, and here we present a review of HSC modulation and HF reversal. - Highlights: • We present a review of the modulation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and reversibility of hepatic fibrosis (HF). • HSC are the foci of HF occurrence and development, HF could be prevented and treated by modulating HSC. • If HSC activation and proliferation can be inhibited, HF could theoretically be inhibited and even reversed. • Prevention or reversal of HSC activation, or promotion of HSC apoptosis, immune elimination, and senescence may prevent, inhibit or reverse HF.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase-14 mediates formation of bile ducts and hepatic maturation of fetal hepatic progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, Satoshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kakinuma, Sei, E-mail: skakinuma.gast@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department for Liver Disease Control, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kamiya, Akihide [Institute of Innovative Science and Technology, Tokai University, Isehara (Japan); Goto, Fumio; Kaneko, Shun; Miyoshi, Masato; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Asano, Yu; Kawai-Kitahata, Fukiko; Nitta, Sayuri; Nakata, Toru; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Itsui, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Mina; Azuma, Seishin [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Asahina, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department for Liver Disease Control, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki [Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Koshikawa, Naohiko [Division of Cancer Cell Research, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Seiki, Motoharu [Medical School, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Nakauchi, Hiromitsu [Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); and others

    2016-01-22

    Fetal hepatic stem/progenitor cells, called hepatoblasts, play central roles in liver development; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating the phenotype of these cells have not been completely elucidated. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 is a type I transmembrane proteinase regulating pericellular proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and is essential for the activation of several MMPs and cytokines. However, the physiological functions of MMP-14 in liver development are unknown. Here we describe a functional role for MMP-14 in hepatic and biliary differentiation of mouse hepatoblasts. MMP-14 was upregulated in cells around the portal vein in perinatal stage liver. Formation of bile duct-like structures in MMP-14–deficient livers was significantly delayed compared with wild-type livers in vivo. In vitro biliary differentiation assays showed that formation of cholangiocytic cysts derived from MMP-14–deficient hepatoblasts was completely impaired, and that overexpression of MMP-14 in hepatoblasts promoted the formation of bile duct-like cysts. In contrast, the expression of molecules associated with metabolic functions in hepatocytes, including hepatic nuclear factor 4α and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, were significantly increased in MMP-14–deficient livers. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly upregulated in MMP-14–deficient livers. We demonstrate that MMP-14–mediated signaling in fetal hepatic progenitor cells promotes biliary luminal formation around the portal vein and negatively controls the maturation of hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Loss of MMP-14 delayed formation of bile duct-like structures in perinatal liver. • Overexpression of MMP-14 in hepatobalsts promoted the biliary formation in vitro. • Loss of MMP-14 promoted hepatocyte maturation of hepatoblasts in vivo. • MMP-14–mediated signaling regulates terminal differentiation of

  19. Dengue fever with hepatitis E and hepatitis A infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoob, Javed; Jafri, Wasim; Siddiqui, Shaheer; Riaz, Mehmood

    2009-03-01

    Infection with dengue viruses produces a spectrum of clinical illness ranging from a nonspecific viral syndrome to severe and fatal haemorrhagic disease. Important risk factors include the strain and serotype of the infecting virus, as well as the age, immune status, and genetic predisposition of the patient. The teaching point in this case study was Dengue fever which occurred concomitantly with Hepatitis A and Hepatitis E virus infection.

  20. Hepatic glucose utilization in hepatic steatosis and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Keramida, Georgia; Hunter, James; Peters, Adrien?Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Whether hepatic glucose utilization rate (glucose phosphorylation rate; MRglu) is increased in steatosis and/or obesity is uncertain. Our aim was to determine the separate relationships of steatosis and obesity with MRglu. Sixty patients referred for routine PET/CT had dynamic PET imaging over the abdomen for 30?min post-injection of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), followed by Patlak?Rutland graphical analysis of the liver us...