WorldWideScience

Sample records for k-4 content standards

  1. From Inception to Reflection: Ohio's K-4 Content-Enriched Mandarin Chinese Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Deborah W.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 the Ohio Department of Education (ODE) submitted and received a three-year Foreign Language Assistance Program grant from the U.S. Department of Education to write and pilot a K-4 content-enriched Mandarin curriculum and to build online professional development modules to support the curriculum. Once funded, ODE formed an advisory…

  2. Data content standards in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Data content standards tend to be more accessible. Easier to understand. Used directly by many end users. Immediately applicable to Africa. More susceptible to culture and language – Hence, more important to have local standards...

  3. Construct Validation of Content Standards for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2011-01-01

    Current international demands to strengthen the teaching profession have led to an increased development and use of professional content standards. The study aims to provide insight in the construct validity of content standards by researching experts' underlying assumptions and preferences when participating in a delphi method. In three rounds 21…

  4. ESSEA K-4 Online Course: Polar Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, L.; Myers, R. J.; Schwerin, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) is a National Science Foundation-supported program implemented by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) to improve the quality of geoscience instruction for pre-service, middle, and high school teachers. ESSEA increases teachers' access to quality materials, standards-based instructional methods and content knowledge. Started in 2000 and based on a trio of online courses (for elementary, middle, and high school teachers), the courses have been used by 40 faculty at 20 institutions educating over 1,700 teachers in Earth system science. Program evaluation of original course participants indicated that the courses had significant impact on teachers Earth system content knowledge and beliefs about teaching and learning. Seventeen of the original participating institutions have continued to use the courses and many have developed new programs that incorporate the courses in Earth science education opportunities for teachers. Today the ESSEA program lists nearly 40 colleges and universities as participants. The original K-4 course and modules have been revised to include topics and resources focusing on the International Polar Year. The new K-4 Land, Living Things, Water and Air modules contain inquiry-based investigations exploring our polar regions. Each module lists a set of essential questions that guide teachers and their students as they build content knowledge. The course structure requires teachers to work individually and in teams to build content knowledge and pedagogical understanding of how their students learn. This group investigation approach and a "Teacher as Researcher" theme promote reflection and collaboration to develop criteria for effective concept building. By exploring the characteristics of polar landscapes, atmosphere, and polar life, teachers and their students will develop new understandings about the interactions and dependencies of the Earth spheres and our polar regions

  5. Teaching Strategies for K-4 General Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaching Music, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides a strategy, from the book entitled "Strategies for Teaching K-4 General Music," that addresses Standard 6A of the National Standards for Music Education. Explains that students will identify characteristics that enables them to make decisions about the form of the composition in listening examples longer than classroom songs. (CMK)

  6. Guidelines for data content standards for Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Fuel valve point Grain Elevator/Elevator Culvert centerline Gridilon Tunnel centerline Guide Wall Utility area Ice Area Annex B. Comparison of feature types from several data content standards Feature types that could not be matched to SANS 1880... Saltwater valve point Sand Bar Storm sewer armor point Sea Plane Landing area Storm sewer culvert line Seawall Storm sewer discharge point Slipway Storm sewer downspout point Slope Topline Storm sewer drainage basin area Small Craft Facility Storm...

  7. Standardizing Legal Content with OWL and RDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondros, Constantine

    Wolters Kluwer is one of the largest legal publishers in the world. Its various publishing units use a multitude of different formats to mark up what is effectively similar content. We describe a common content architecture based on OWL, RDF and XHTML that is used to build a standard representation of legal content, allowing publishable assets to be integrated across the enterprise. This architecture is governed by an OWL ontology that models the (occasionally complex) behaviour of legal documents and acts as a domain model of common legal metadata. How do OWL and RDF scale up to real-world publishing? We describe practical issues in producing and validating RDF on an industrial scale; in performance management; in handling fragmented ontologies; and the challenge of using RDF in a performant XSLT pipeline.

  8. Final report on EURAMET.M.P-K4.2010: Key and supplementary comparison of national pressure standards in the range 1 Pa to 15 kPa of absolute and gauge pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajíček, Zdeněk; Bergoglio, Mercede; Jousten, Karl; Otal, Pierre; Sabuga, Wladimir; Saxholm, Sari; Pražák, Dominik; Vičar, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a EURAMET comparison of five European National Metrology Institutes in low gauge and absolute pressure in gas (nitrogen), denoted as EURAMET.M.P-K4.2010. Its main intention is to state equivalence of the pressure standards, in particular those based on the technology of force-balanced piston gauges such as e.g. FRS by Furness Controls, UK and FPG8601 by DHI-Fluke, USA. It covers the range from 1 Pa to 15 kPa, both gauge and absolute. The comparison in absolute mode serves as a EURAMET Key Comparison which can be linked to CCM.P-K4 and CCM.P-K2 via PTB. The comparison in gauge mode is a supplementary comparison. The comparison was carried out from September 2008 till October 2012. The participating laboratories were the following: CMI, INRIM, LNE, MIKES, PTB-Berlin (absolute pressure 1 kPa and below) and PTB-Braunschweig (absolute pressure 1 kPa and above and gauge pressure). CMI was the pilot laboratory and provided a transfer standard for the comparison. This transfer standard was also the laboratory standard of CMI at the same time, which resulted in a unique and logistically difficult star comparison. Both in gauge and absolute pressures all the participating institutes successfully proved their equivalence with respect to the reference value and all also proved mutual bilateral equivalences in all the points. All the participating laboratories are also equivalent with the reference values of CCM.P-K4 and CCM.P-K2 in the relevant points. The comparison also proved the ability of FPG8601 to serve as a transfer standard. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  9. Content Standards for Adult ESL. NCLE Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, MaryAnn Cunningham, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography presents information related to content standards for adult learners of English as a Second Language (ESL), suggesting documents that adult ESL professionals can consult as they peruse the issues of standards and accountability in adult ESL education. The bibliography defines content standards as what students should…

  10. Refreshing the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Richard A.; Siegfried, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The second edition of the "Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics" was published by the Council for Economic Education in 2010. The authors examine the process for revising these precollege content standards and highlight several changes that appear in the new document. They also review the impact the standards have had on precollege…

  11. Assessing the Genetics Content in the Next Generation Science Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lontok, Katherine S; Zhang, Hubert; Dougherty, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Science standards have a long history in the United States and currently form the backbone of efforts to improve primary and secondary education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Although there has been much political controversy over the influence of standards on teacher autonomy and student performance, little light has been shed on how well standards cover science content. We assessed the coverage of genetics content in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) using a consensus list of American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) core concepts. We also compared the NGSS against state science standards. Our goals were to assess the potential of the new standards to support genetic literacy and to determine if they improve the coverage of genetics concepts relative to state standards. We found that expert reviewers cannot identify ASHG core concepts within the new standards with high reliability, suggesting that the scope of content addressed by the standards may be inconsistently interpreted. Given results that indicate that the disciplinary core ideas (DCIs) included in the NGSS documents produced by Achieve, Inc. clarify the content covered by the standards statements themselves, we recommend that the NGSS standards statements always be viewed alongside their supporting disciplinary core ideas. In addition, gaps exist in the coverage of essential genetics concepts, most worryingly concepts dealing with patterns of inheritance, both Mendelian and complex. Finally, state standards vary widely in their coverage of genetics concepts when compared with the NGSS. On average, however, the NGSS support genetic literacy better than extant state standards.

  12. Vocational High School Effectiveness Standard ISO 9001: 2008 for Achievement Content Standards, Standard Process and Competency Standards Graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeni Ratih Pratiwi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Efektivitas Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan Berstandar ISO 9001:2008 terhadap Pencapaian Standar Isi, Standar Proses dan Standar Kompetensi Lulusan Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine differences in the effectiveness of the achievement of the content standards, process standards, and competency standards in vocational already standard ISO 9001: 2008 with CMS that has not been standardized ISO 9001: 2008 both in public schools and private schools. Data collection using the questionnaire enclosed Likert scale models. Analysis of data using one-way ANOVA using SPSS. The results showed: (1 there is no difference in effectiveness between public SMK ISO standard ISO standards with private SMK (P = 0.001; (2 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK SMK ISO standards with ISO standards have not (P = 0.000; (3 there are differences in the effectiveness of public SMK ISO standards with private vocational yet ISO standards (P = 0.000; (4 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational school with vocational standard ISO standard ISO country has not (P = 0.015; (5 there are differences in the effectiveness of the private vocational bertandar ISO with private vocational yet standardized ISO (P = 0.000; (6 there was no difference in the effectiveness of public SMK has not been standardized by the ISO standard ISO private SMK yet. Key Words: vocational high school standards ISO 9001: 2008, the standard content, process standards, competency standards Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui perbedaan efektivitas pencapaian standar isi, standar proses, dan standar kompetensi lulusan pada SMK yang sudah berstandar ISO 9001:2008 dengan SMK yang belum berstandar ISO 9001:2008 baik pada sekolah negeri maupun sekolah swasta. Pengumpulan data menggunakan kuisioner tertutup model skala likert. Analisis data menggunakan ANOVA one way menggunakan program SPSS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: (1 ada perbedaan

  13. Interpreting the ASTM 'content standard for digital geospatial metadata'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebert, Douglas D.

    1996-01-01

    ASTM and the Federal Geographic Data Committee have developed a content standard for spatial metadata to facilitate documentation, discovery, and retrieval of digital spatial data using vendor-independent terminology. Spatial metadata elements are identifiable quality and content characteristics of a data set that can be tied to a geographic location or area. Several Office of Management and Budget Circulars and initiatives have been issued that specify improved cataloguing of and accessibility to federal data holdings. An Executive Order further requires the use of the metadata content standard to document digital spatial data sets. Collection and reporting of spatial metadata for field investigations performed for the federal government is an anticipated requirement. This paper provides an overview of the draft spatial metadata content standard and a description of how the standard could be applied to investigations collecting spatially-referenced field data.

  14. Reading, Writing & Rings: Science Literacy for K-4 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, S.; Spilker, L.; Zimmerman-Brachman, R.

    2007-12-01

    Scientific discovery is the impetus for the K-4 Education program, "Reading, Writing & Rings." This program is unique because its focus is to engage elementary students in reading and writing to strengthen these basic academic skills through scientific content. As science has been increasingly overtaken by the language arts in elementary classrooms, the Cassini Education Program has taken advantage of a new cross-disciplinary approach to use language arts as a vehicle for increasing scientific content in the classroom. By utilizing the planet Saturn and the Cassini-Huygens mission as a model in both primary reading and writing students in these grade levels, young students can explore science material while at the same time learning these basic academic skills. Content includes reading, thinking, and hands-on activities. Developed in partnership with the Cassini-Huygens Education and Public Outreach Program, the Bay Area Writing Project/California Writing Project, Foundations in Reading Through Science & Technology (FIRST), and the Caltech Pre-College Science Initiative (CAPSI), and classroom educators, "Reading, Writing & Rings" blends the excitement of space exploration with reading and writing. All materials are teacher developed, aligned with national science and language education standards, and are available from the Cassini-Huygens website: http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/education/edu-k4.cfm Materials are divided into two grade level units. One unit is designed for students in grades 1 and 2 while the other unit focuses on students in grades 3 and 4. Each includes a series of lessons that take students on a path of exploration of Saturn using reading and writing prompts.

  15. Colorado Model Content Standards for Theatre: Suggested Grade Level Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This booklet lists six model content standards in theater arts for elementary and secondary school students in the state of Colorado. The six standards cited in the booklet are: (1) Students develop interpersonal skills and problem-solving capabilities through group interaction and artistic collaboration; (2) Students understand and apply the…

  16. Alignment of CIM and CAM Content Standards and Benchmarks with the PASS Proficiency Standards, Content Area: English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This paper presents the alignment of Oregon's content standards with the Certificates of Initial Mastery (CIM), Certificates of Advanced Mastery (CAM), and the Proficiency-based Admissions Standards System (PASS). After some background, a timeline, and definitions of 4 terms used in the paper, it presents charts that align common curriculum goals…

  17. Content Metadata Standards for Marine Science: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riall, Rebecca L.; Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a content metadata standard to meet the demands of organizing electronic resources in the marine sciences for a broad, heterogeneous audience. These metadata standards are used by the Marine Realms Information Bank project, a Web-based public distributed library of marine science from academic institutions and government agencies. The development and deployment of this metadata standard serve as a model, complete with lessons about mistakes, for the creation of similarly specialized metadata standards for digital libraries.

  18. Development of Extended Content Standards for Biodiversity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim; Schmidt, Jochen; Saarenmaa, Hannu

    2013-04-01

    Interoperability in the field of Biodiversity observation has been strongly driven by the development of a number of global initiatives (GEO, GBIF, OGC, TDWG, GenBank, …) and its supporting standards (OGC-WxS, OGC-SOS, Darwin Core (DwC), NetCDF, …). To a large extent, these initiatives have focused on discoverability and standardization of syntactic and schematic interoperability. Semantic interoperability is more complex, requiring development of domain-dependent conceptual data models, and extension of these models with appropriate ontologies (typically manifested as controlled vocabularies). Biodiversity content has been standardized partly, for example through Darwin Core for occurrence data and associated taxonomy, and through Genbank for genetic data, but other contexts of biodiversity observation have lagged behind - making it difficult to achieve semantic interoperability between distributed data sources. With this in mind, WG8 of GEO BON (charged with data and systems interoperability) has started a work programme to address a number of concerns, one of which is the gap in content standards required to make Biodiversity data truly interoperable. The paper reports on the framework developed by WG8 for the classification of Biodiversity observation data into 'families' of use cases and its supporting data schema, where gaps, if any, in the availability if content standards have been identified, and how these are to be addressed by way of an abstract data model and the development of associated content standards. It is proposed that a minimum set of standards (1) will be required to address the scope of Biodiversity content, aligned with levels and dimensions of observation, and based on the 'Essential Biodiversity Variables' (2) being developed by GEO BON . The content standards are envisaged as loosely separated from the syntactic and schematic standards used for the base data exchange: typically, services would offer an existing data standard (DwC, WFS

  19. Unifiability in extensions of K4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gencer, Ç.; de Jongh, D.

    2009-01-01

    We extend and generalize the work on unifiability of [8]. We give a semantic characterization for unifiability and non-unifiability in the extensions of K4. We apply this in particular to extensions of KD4, GL and K4.3 to obtain a syntactic characterization and give a concrete decision procedure for

  20. RDA: a content standard to ensure the quality of data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bianchini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RDA Resource Description and Access are guidelines for description and access to resources designed for digital environment and released, in its first version, in 2010. RDA is based on FRBR and its derived models, that focus on users’ needs and on resources of any kind of content, medium and carrier.  The paper discusses relevance of main features of RDA for the future role of libraries in the context of semantic web and metadata creation and exchange. The paper aims to highlight many consequences deriving from RDA being a content standard, and in particular the change from record management to data management, differences among the two functions realized by RDA (to identify and to relate entities and functions realized by other standard such as MARC21 (to archive data and ISB (to visualize data and show how, as all these functions are necessary for the catalog, RDA needs to be integrated by other rules and standard and that these tools allow the fulfilment of the variation principle defined by S.R. Ranganathan.

  1. RDA: a content standard to ensure the quality of data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bianchini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available RDA Resource Description and Access are guidelines for description and access to resources designed for digital environment and released, in its first version, in 2010. RDA is based on FRBR and its derived models, that focus on users’ needs and on resources of any kind of content, medium and carrier.  The paper discusses relevance of main features of RDA for the future role of libraries in the context of semantic web and metadata creation and exchange. The paper aims to highlight many consequences deriving from RDA being a content standard, and in particular the change from record management to data management, differences among the two functions realized by RDA (to identify and to relate entities and functions realized by other standard such as MARC21 (to archive data and ISB (to visualize data and show how, as all these functions are necessary for the catalog, RDA needs to be integrated by other rules and standard and that these tools allow the fulfilment of the variation principle defined by S.R. Ranganathan.

  2. Addressing CSAP Physics Standards: Content for Middle School Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denn, Grant; Krantz, Richard

    2009-10-01

    As part of the NSF funded Rocky Mountain Middle School Math and Science Partnership (RMMSMSP), we developed a class for middle school teachers entitled ``Forms and Transfer of Energy'' which directly addressed content as stated in the Colorado Standards Assessment Program (CSAP). Specifically, we built lectures and activities based on Colorado Grade 8 benchmarks 2.8 (energy forms and transfer), 2.9 (electricity and energy) and 4.2 (renewable and non-renewable resources.). This talk reviews some of the activities we used to demonstrate energy transformation.

  3. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4 of the absorbed dose to water standards of the LNE-LNHB, France and the BIPM in 60Co gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D. T.; Delaunay, F.; Donois, M.

    2013-01-01

    An indirect comparison has been made of the standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co radiation of the Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The measurements at the BIPM were carried out in April 2013. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for two transfer standards and evaluated as a ratio of the LNE-LNHB and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water, is 0.9971 with a combined standard uncertainty of 3.9 × 10-3. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. Quality Issues and Standards of E-Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachimuthu, K.; Vijayakumari, G.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the e-content development by the UGC are; (a) Generation of e-content, in all subjects, (b) Development of teachers and experts resources in e-journal creation; (c) Distribution of the e-content to teachers and students from formal and non-formal; educational modes, for supplementing and complementing professional teaching and…

  5. 77 FR 75198 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear... Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report.'' This guide describes a method...) 1.185, ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report,''...

  6. The Relationship Between State and District Content Standards:Issues of Alignment, Influence and Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dutro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available At the core of standards-based reform are content standards--statements about what students should know and be able to do. Although it is state standards that are the focus of much public attention and consume substantial resources, many local school districts have developed their own content standards in the major subject areas. However, we know very little about the role state standards have played in local standards efforts. In this article we report on a study of the relationship between state and local content standards in reading in four states and districts. Through interviews with key personnel in each state, and district and analyses of state and local content standards in reading, we explored the alignment between state and district content standards, the path of influence between the two, and the role of high-stakes tests in state and districts reform efforts. Our findings suggest that alignment had multiple meanings and that state standards had differential utility to districts, ranging from helpful to benign to nuisance. This wide variability was influenced by the nature of the standards themselves, the state vision of alignment and local control, districts’ own engagement and commitment to professional development, and student performance on high-stakes tests. We explore implications for the future of content standards as the cornerstone of standards-based reform and argue that states must promote district ownership and expand accountability if state content standards are to have any relevance for local efforts to reform teaching and learning.

  7. CCM key comparison CCM.D-K4 'Hydrometer'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorefice, S.; Becerra, L. O.; Lenard, E.; Lee, Y. J.; Lee, W. G.; Madec, T.; Meury, P. A.; Caceres, J.; Santos, C.; Vamossy, C.; Man, J.; Fen, K.; Toda, K.; Wright, J.; Bettin, H.; Toth, H.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the comparison philosophy, methodology, analysis and the results of the designed CCM.D-K4 key comparison that covered the calibration of high resolution hydrometers for liquid and alcoholometers in the density range 600 kg/m3 to 2000 kg/m3 at the temperature of 20°C. The main purpose of this comparison was not only to evaluate the degree of equivalence in the calibration of high accuracy hydrometers between NMI participants, but also to link, were it is possible, the results of previous comparisons to Key Comparison Reference Values (KCRVs) of CCM.D-K4. Eleven NMI laboratories took part in the CCM.D-K4 divided in two groups (petals). With the CCM.D-K4 purpose, two similar sets consisting of three hydrometers for liquid density determinations and an alcoholometer were circulated to the NMI participants as a travelling standard in the time interval from January 2011 to April 2012. Twelve Key Comparison Reference Values (KCRVs) for each petal have been obtained at the density values related to the tested density marks of the transfer standards by the results of participants. The KCRVs and corresponding uncertainties were calculated by the weighted mean in the case of consistent results, otherwise the median was used. The degree of equivalence (DoE) with respect to the corresponding KCRV was determined for each participant and, in this particular comparison, the Weighted Least Squares (WLS) method was used to link the individual DoE of each participant by a continuous function. Significant drift of the transfer standards was not detected. This report also gives instructions on calculating pair-wise degrees of equivalence, with the addition of any information on correlations that may be necessary to estimate more accurately as well as the procedure for linking international comparisons to the CCM.D-K4. Finally an example of linkage to the CCM.D-K4 is given by dealing with the results of the bilateral comparison between INRiM and NMIA, which was

  8. Standardizing consumer’s expectations in digital content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Helberger

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to make suggestions of how to improve the legal standing of consumers of digital content products. Design/methodology/approach - The analysis in this paper is based on desk research and comparative legal research, among others in the context of research perform

  9. Certification of primary standards for solid fat content (SFC) determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernreuther, A.; Schimmel, H.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Spreadability of fat containing food products can be easily assessed by the solid fat content (SFC). Usually, SFC is determined by direct methods based on low-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. A system of primary and secondary reference materials is required to calculate so-called

  10. Standard Test Methods for Constituent Content of Composite Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods determine the constituent content of composite materials by one of two approaches. Method I physically removes the matrix by digestion or ignition by one of seven procedures, leaving the reinforcement essentially unaffected and thus allowing calculation of reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume) as well as percent void volume. Method II, applicable only to laminate materials of known fiber areal weight, calculates reinforcement or matrix content (by weight or volume), and the cured ply thickness, based on the measured thickness of the laminate. Method II is not applicable to the measurement of void volume. 1.1.1 These test methods are primarily intended for two-part composite material systems. However, special provisions can be made to extend these test methods to filled material systems with more than two constituents, though not all test results can be determined in every case. 1.1.2 The procedures contained within have been designed to be particularly effective for ce...

  11. National Standards for Financial Literacy: Rationale and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, William; Walstad, William B.

    2014-01-01

    The "National Standards for Financial Literacy" describe the knowledge, understanding, and skills that are important for students to learn about personal finance. They are designed to guide teachers, school administrators, and other educators in developing curriculum and educational materials for teaching financial literacy. In this…

  12. Standardized mastery content assessments for predicting NCLEX-RN outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Nurse educators need predictors of failure for early intervention. This study investigated the predictability of fundamentals, mental health, and pharmacology standardized assessment scores to identify the risk of baccalaureate students' failure on the NCLEX-RN. Using logistic regression the pharmacology assessment score was predictive with 73.7% accuracy. Use of the pharmacology assessment can assist in early identification of at-risk students in efforts to better prepare for the NCLEX-RN examination.

  13. 78 FR 38739 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ..., DG-1272, in the Federal Register on December 19, 2012 (77 FR 75198), for a 60-day public comment... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear... (NRC) is issuing Revision 1 of Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.185, ``Standard Format and Content for...

  14. 78 FR 23289 - Public Review of Draft National Shoreline Data Content Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Data Content Standard is intended to enhance the shoreline framework by providing technical guidance on... Shoreline Data Content Standard and a summary analysis of the changes will be made available to the public... boundaries, developing nautical charts, and engaging in marine planning and other academic research and...

  15. Developing content standards for teaching research skills using a delphi method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, M.F. van der; Stokking, K.M.; Verloop, N.

    2008-01-01

    The increased attention for teacher assessment and current educational reforms ask for procedures to develop adequate content standards. For the development of content standards on teaching research skills, a Delphi method based on stakeholders’ judgments has been designed and tested. In three round

  16. Parity, cycle space, and K4-subdivisions in graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    1999-01-01

    . Zang). We prove the new result that every $4$-connected graph with at least three triangles contains a totally odd $K_4$-subdivision if and only if it does notcontain a vertex whose deletion results in a bipartite graph.In particular, every $4$-connected planar graph contains a totally odd $K_4...

  17. 76 FR 65544 - Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... issuance of the guide (74 FR 36780). The comment period closed on September 21, 2009. The staff's responses... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities... Format and Content of License Applications for Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facilities.'' This...

  18. Methodological Choices in the Content Analysis of Textbooks for Measuring Alignment with Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikoff, Morgan S.; Zhou, Nan; Campbell, Shauna E.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent adoption of the Common Core standards in many states, there is a need for quality information about textbook alignment to standards. While there are many existing content analysis procedures, these generally have little, if any, validity or reliability evidence. One exception is the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC), which has…

  19. Methodological Choices in the Content Analysis of Textbooks for Measuring Alignment with Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikoff, Morgan S.; Zhou, Nan; Campbell, Shauna E.

    2015-01-01

    With the recent adoption of the Common Core standards in many states, there is a need for quality information about textbook alignment to standards. While there are many existing content analysis procedures, these generally have little, if any, validity or reliability evidence. One exception is the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC), which has…

  20. Recommendation of standardized health learning contents using archetypes and semantic web technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz-García, María del Carmen; Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Linking Electronic Healthcare Records (EHR) content to educational materials has been considered a key international recommendation to enable clinical engagement and to promote patient safety. This would suggest citizens to access reliable information available on the web and to guide them properly. In this paper, we describe an approach in that direction, based on the use of dual model EHR standards and standardized educational contents. The recommendation method will be based on the semantic coverage of the learning content repository for a particular archetype, which will be calculated by applying semantic web technologies like ontologies and semantic annotations.

  1. Energy content estimation by collegians for portion standardized foods frequently consumed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin; Lee, Hee Jung; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sun Ha; Yun, Jee-Young; Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate Korean collegians' knowledge of energy content in the standard portion size of foods frequently consumed in Korea and to investigate the differences in knowledge between gender groups. A total of 600 collegians participated in this study. Participants' knowledge was assessed based on their estimation on the energy content of 30 selected food items with their actual-size photo images. Standard portion size of food was based on 2010 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes, and the percentage of participants who accurately estimated (that is, within 20% of the true value) the energy content of the standard portion size was calculated for each food item. The food for which the most participants provided the accurate estimation was ramyun (instant noodles) (67.7%), followed by cooked rice (57.8%). The proportion of students who overestimated the energy content was highest for vegetables (68.8%) and beverages (68.1%). The proportion of students who underestimated the energy content was highest for grains and starches (42.0%) and fruits (37.1%). Female students were more likely to check energy content of foods that they consumed than male students. From these results, it was concluded that the knowledge on food energy content was poor among collegians, with some gender difference. Therefore, in the future, nutrition education programs should give greater attention to improving knowledge on calorie content and to helping them apply this knowledge in order to develop effective dietary plans.

  2. Peaked and Smooth Solitons for K*(4,1 Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongan Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is contributed to explore all possible single peak solutions for the K*(4,1 equation ut=uxu2+2α(uuxxx+2uxuxx. Our procedure shows that the K*(4,1 equation either has peakon, cuspon, and smooth soliton solutions when sitting on a nonzero constant pedestal limξ→±∞u=A≠0 or possesses compacton solutions only when limξ→±∞u=A=0. We present a new smooth soliton solution in an explicit form. Mathematical analysis and numeric graphs are provided for those soliton solutions of the K*(4,1 equation.

  3. South Dakota Fine Arts Content Standards: Dance, Music, Theater & Visual Arts. SDICS Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    These South Dakota fine arts content standards identify what students must know and be able to do. This document is a compilation of numerous sources and many years of experience in the teaching of fine arts. For each discipline (dance, music, theater/dramatic arts, and visual arts) the document gives an introduction and definition, multiple…

  4. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products. 381.156 Section 381.156 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  5. A Standards-Based Content Analysis of Selected Biological Science Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled…

  6. 12 CFR 621.13 - Content and standards-general rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Content and standards-general rules. 621.13 Section 621.13 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING... reconciliation with the books and records of reporting institutions....

  7. 76 FR 59173 - Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Conventional Uranium Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Standard Format and Content of License Applications for Conventional Uranium Mills AGENCY: Nuclear... Conventional Uranium Mills.'' DG- 3024 was a proposed Revision 2 of Regulatory Guide (RG) 3.5. However,...

  8. Phosphorus K4 Crystal: A New Stable Allotrope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Shunhong; Guo, Yaguang; Wang, Qian

    2016-11-01

    The intriguing properties of phosphorene motivate scientists to further explore the structures and properties of phosphorus materials. Here, we report a new allotrope named K4 phosphorus composed of three-coordinated phosphorus atoms in non-layered structure which is not only dynamically and mechanically stable, but also possesses thermal stability comparable to that of the orthorhombic black phosphorus (A17). Due to its unique configuration, K4 phosphorus exhibits exceptional properties: it possesses a band gap of 1.54 eV which is much larger than that of black phosphorus (0.30 eV), and it is stiffer than black phosphorus. The band gap of the newly predicted phase can be effectively tuned by appling hydrostastic pressure. In addition, K4 phosphorus exibits a good light absorption in visible and near ultraviolet region. These findings add additional features to the phosphorus family with new potential applications in nanoelectronics and nanomechanics.

  9. 78 FR 73566 - Standard Format and Content for a License Application for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content for a License Application for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage... public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-3042, ``Standard Format and Content for a License... Waste'' (Ref. 1), Subpart B, ``License Application, Form, and Contents,'' specifies the information...

  10. Properties of atomic intercalated carbon K4 crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Masahiro; Takami, Seiichi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Adschiri, Tadafumi

    2009-01-01

    The stability of atomic intercalated carbon $K_{4}$ crystals, XC$_{2}$ (X=H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb or Sr) is evaluated by geometry optimization and frozen phonon analysis based on first principles calculations. Although C $K_{4}$ is unstable, NaC$_{2}$ and MgC$_{2}$ are found to be stable. It is shown that NaC$_{2}$ and MgC$_{2}$ are metallic and semi conducting, respectively.

  11. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CONTENT ANALYSIS OF CONVERGENCE BETWEEN UKRAINIAN GAAP AND INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kuzina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective conditions of Ukraine’s integration into the global business environment the need to strengthen the accounting and financial re-porting. At the stage of attracting investment in the country there is a need in the preparation of financial statements generally accepted basic prin-ciples of which are based on common international financial reporting standards (IFRS . Relevant is the assessment of convergence of national standards and International Financial Reporting Standards. However, before you conduct content analysis necessary to determine compliance with standards of methodological approaches to the selection of key indicators for the assessment of convergence. The article is to define the methodo-logical approaches to the selection and development of indicators IFRSs list of key elements for further evaluation convergence of national and international standards. To assess the convergence was allocated 187 basic key elements measuring the level of convergence to IFRS. Sampling was carried out based on the professional judgment of the author, the key indicators of the standard, based on the evaluation of the usefulness of accounting information. These figures make it possible to calculate the specific level of convergence of international and national standards and determine how statements prepared by domestic standards corresponding to IFRS. In other words, can with some certainty assert that Ukraine has made (“good practices in IFRS implementation” or not? This calculation will assess the regulatory efforts of government agencies (Ministry of Finance on the approximation of Ukrainian standards and IFRS.

  12. Preliminary Study on the Standard of Selenium Content in Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-yuan; YOU Yong; GUO Qing-quan; WANG Yong-hong; DENG Shi-lin

    2012-01-01

    With the improvement of living standards, people pay more attention to the agricultural products with health protection function, and the selenium-rich agricultural products attract more and more consumers. The main biological role of selenium is to resist oxidation and inflammatory response, mainly focusing on resisting aging, preventing cardiovascular disease, protecting eyesight, counteracting or destroying the toxic properties, preventing cancer and thyroid disease. In most areas of China, there is a widespread shortage of selenium, thus producing selenium-rich agricultural products to provide natural selenium-rich health food to the areas in need of selenium, has gradually become a new hot spot of China’s health food industry, but high content of selenium in food is detrimental to human body, even leads to selenium intoxication, and artificially adding inorganic selenium is difficult to guarantee that the selenium content of agricultural products is not exceeded. According to human body’s daily demand for selenium in dietetics and the content of selenium in agricultural products in the Chinese food composition table, we put forward the recommendations on the standard of selenium in agricultural products, in order to provide the basis for China to formulate the health standard of selenium content in selenium-rich agricultural products.

  13. The existence spectrum of Meta(K4(3)>K4(3)-e)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LO; FARO; Giovanni; TRIPODI; Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    Let H and J1 be both t-uniform hypergraphs. Let J2 be a sub-hypergraph of J1. In this paper, the metamorphosis of a hypergraph decomposition is introduced, denoted by (H, J1 > J2)-design, which is a generalization of the concept of metamorphosis of a graph decomposition. Let Meta(J1>J2) denote the set of all integers v such that there exists a (Kv((3)), J1>J2)-design. We completely determine the set Meta(K4((3))>K4((3))-e).

  14. Standardization of Polyphenol Content for certain Species Belonging to Genus Pelargonium cultivated in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Nasser Bedawy Singab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Pelargonium species due to its tannin contents; was used to staunch bleeding, heal wounds, ulcers, uterine hemorrhage, a comparative study was carried out on Pelargonium peltatum L’Hérit and Pelargonium x fragrans In order to incorporate these two active extracts into pharmaceutical preparations, they need to be standardized by quantitative means. The total polyphenol contents of the aqueous extract of both plants were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay for estimation the total polyphenol (TP contents of the aqueous extract. TP were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g of the dry plant material, revealed that it was relatively high in both species representing 12.46 and 12.67 mg GAE/g dry weight respectively.

  15. A Comparison of Higher-Order Thinking between the Common Core State Standards and the 2009 New Jersey Content Standards in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Dario; Tienken, Christopher H.; Kim, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    The creators and supporters of the Common Core State Standards claim that the Standards require greater emphasis on higher-order thinking than previous state standards in mathematics and English language arts. We used a qualitative case study design with content analysis methods to test the claim. We compared the levels of thinking required by the…

  16. Regulating web content: the nexus of legislation and performance standards in the United Kingdom and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoumis, G Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Despite different historical traditions, previous research demonstrates a convergence between regulatory approaches in the United Kingdom and Norway. To understand this convergence, this article examines how different policy traditions influence the legal obligations of performance standards regulating web content for use by persons with disabilities. While convergence has led to similar policy approaches, I argue that national policy traditions have an impact on how governments establish legal obligations for standards compliance. The analysis reveals that national policy traditions influenced antidiscrimination legislation and the capacity and authority of regulatory agencies, which impacted the diverging legal obligations of standards in the United Kingdom and Norway. The analysis further suggests that policy actors mediate the reciprocal influence between national policy traditions and regulatory convergence mechanisms.

  17. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on key comparison APMP.QM-K4.1: Ethanol in nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kenji; Maruyama, Masaaki; Seog Kim, Jin; Hyub, Oh Sang; Woo, Jin-Chun; Kim, Yongdoo; Bae, Hyunkil; Han, Qiao; Zhou, Zeyi

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this comparison was to compare capabilities for the preparation and value assignment of gas mixture standards for ethanol in nitrogen, maintained at national metrology institutes (NMIs). The measurements in this key comparison took place in 2006. There were three participants and one coordinating laboratory. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) was based on the gravimetric preparation for all components. The range of the nominal amount-of-substance fractions of the comparison standard is 100 µmol/mol to 130 µmol/mol. The Chemical Evaluation Research Institute (CERI, Japan) prepared gravimetric mixture samples of ethanol in nitrogen in 10 L aluminium cylinders and the homogeneity and long-term stability of these samples were evaluated at CERI before and after the shipment of the cylinders to the participants. Each participating laboratory was shipped one cylinder to be analyzed and then returned to the CERI. Each sample was reanalyzed to verify whether the contents were stable throughout the comparison. These measurements showed no significant change in the amount fraction within the estimated uncertainty of the measurements. Two of the three participants submitted results that were within 0.1% of the relevant reference value. In these cases, the estimated uncertainty was larger than the deviation from the reference value. CERI was the link laboratory between CCQM-K4 and APMP.QM-K4. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  18. 78 FR 951 - Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content and Format Public Workshop; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... caregivers, and patients themselves. As more medical devices migrate out of clinical care environments and... Labeling 1. Review the outline for a draft standard content and format of medical device labeling. 2... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content...

  19. Preservice Secondary Teachers Perceptions of College-Level Mathematics Content Connections with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Travis A.

    2016-01-01

    Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers (PSMTs) were surveyed to identify if they could connect early-secondary mathematics content (Grades 7-9) in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) with mathematics content studied in content courses for certification in secondary teacher preparation programs. Respondents were asked to…

  20. Multi-model Music Content Description and Retrieval Using IEEE 1599 XML Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pinto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The new format IEEE 1599 for music and audio content description defines a standard for the representation of retrieval models within music and music/audio formats that makes use of XML documents as content descriptors. In this article, it is described how music/audio semantics can be actually represented within the Structural Layer of IEEE 1599, thanks to the introduction of novel Music Information Retrieval (MIR objects that can be exploited by music search engines. A complete description of MIR objects is provided and it is shown how they can be used to embed metadata relative to specific music retrieval models, thus allowing for the description of music content in different retrieval contexts. To this aim, a new concept for MIR Model is introduced together with its formalization and tools provided by category theory. The role of MIR objects and morphisms in music content description and retrieval is explained. Furthermore, a concrete example is given with the implementation of a graph-based model within the IEEE 1599 framework.

  1. Properties of atomic intercalated boron nitride K4 type crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Masahiro; Takami, Seiichi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Adschiri, Tadafumi

    2010-01-01

    The stability of atomic intercalated boron nitride K4 crystal structures, XBN (X=H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb or Sr) is evaluated by the geometric optimization and frozen phonon calculations based on the first principles calculations. NaBN, MgBN, GaBN, FBN and ClBN are found to be stable. NaBN, GaBN, FBN and ClBN are metallic, whereas MgBN is semiconducting.

  2. Theory and practice concerning classification for expansive soils using standard moisture absorption water content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO; Hailin; CHENG; Ping; YANG; Yang; WU; Wanping

    2005-01-01

    A series of tests on physical, mechanical and chemical properties of expansive soils have shown that the standard moisture absorption water content (SMA) of expansive soils has a good linear relationship with montmorillonite content, cation exchange capacity, specific surface, and it also presents a linear relationship tendency to plastic index and free swell ratio. All this indicates that the above SMA is of clear significance in physics. The plastic index can better reflect the interaction extent between composition and dispersing character of grains, cation and clay minerals. Consequently, SMA can reflect the basic essential properties of expansive soils. On the basis of the classification results that have been published in literature and in consideration of the succession to the classification results for the free swell ratio, this paper puts forward three indexes, i.e. the SMA, plastic index and free swell ratio to classify expansive soils. The tests proposed for the classification indexes are easy to operate, simple in testing device and last a short time. Compared with the latest issued "Classification Standard Code for Rocks and Soils of Railway Projects" (TB10077-2001), the method proposed in this paper is more convenient and reasonable, and can be popularized, when environment conditions ripen, for the application in field of exploration and design of highway in the areas surrounded by expansive soils.

  3. Learner-Directed Nutrition Content for Medical Schools to Meet LCME Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Hark

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in medical school nutrition education have been noted since the 1960s. Nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, and obesity, are now the most common, costly, and preventable health problems in the US. Training medical students to assess diet and nutritional status and advise patients about a healthy diet, exercise, body weight, smoking, and alcohol consumption are critical to reducing chronic disease risk. Barriers to improving medical school nutrition content include lack of faculty preparation, limited curricular time, and the absence of funding. Several new LCME standards provide important impetus for incorporating nutrition into existing medical school curriculum as self-directed material. Fortunately, with advances in technology, electronic learning platforms, and web-based modules, nutrition can be integrated and assessed across all four years of medical school at minimal costs to medical schools. Medical educators have access to a self-study nutrition textbook, Medical Nutrition and Disease, Nutrition in Medicine© online modules, and the NHLBI Nutrition Curriculum Guide for Training Physicians. This paper outlines how learner-directed nutrition content can be used to meet several US and Canadian LCME accreditation standards. The health of the nation depends upon future physicians’ ability to help their patients make diet and lifestyle changes.

  4. ESIP's Emerging Provenance and Context Content Standard Use Cases: Developing Examples and Models for Data Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdeen, S.; Hills, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earth science data collections range from individual researchers' private collections to large-scale data warehouses, from computer-generated data to field or lab based observations. These collections require stewardship. Fundamentally, stewardship ensures long term preservation and the provision of access to the user community. In particular, stewardship includes capturing appropriate metadata and documentation--and thus the context of the data's creation and any changes they underwent over time --to enable data reuse. But scientists and science data managers must translate these ideas into practice. How does one balance the needs of current and (projected) future stakeholders? In 2011, the Data Stewardship Committee (DSC) of the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) began developing the Provenance and Context Content Standard (PCCS). As an emerging standard, PCCS provides a framework for 'what' must be captured or preserved as opposed to describing only 'how' it should be done. Originally based on the experiences of NASA and NOAA researchers within ESIP, the standard currently provides data managers with content items aligned to eight key categories. While the categories and content items are based on data life cycles of remote sensing missions, they can be generalized to cover a broader set of activities, for example, preservation of physical objects. These categories will include the information needed to ensure the long-term understandability and usability of earth science data products. In addition to the PCCS, the DSC is developing a series of use cases based on the perspectives of the data archiver, data user, and the data consumer that will connect theory and practice. These cases will act as specifications for developing PCCS-based systems. They will also provide for examination of the categories and content items covered in the PCCS to determine if any additions are needed to cover the various use cases, and also provide rationale and

  5. Alignment between the Physics Content Standard and the Standardized Test: A Comparison among the United States-New York State, Singapore, and China-Jiangsu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Zhang, Baohui; Liang, Ling L.; Fulmer, Gavin; Kim, Beaumie; Yuan, Haiquan

    2009-01-01

    Alignment between content standards and standardized tests is a significant issue to society, science pedagogy, and test validation. To better understand the issues related to alignment, this study compares the alignment in physics among three education systems: Jiangsu (China), New York State (United States), and Singapore. The same coding…

  6. Use of a standard urine assay for measuring the phosphate content of beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Elizabeth; Costelloe, Seán; Bosomworth, Mike; Fouque, Denis; Freeman, Julienne; Keane, David; Thompson, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Phosphate in beverages is readily absorbed and could have a significant impact on serum phosphate levels. Patients are routinely warned about the phosphoric acid in colas, but information on the phosphate content of other beverages is difficult to find. We have shown that the phosphomolybdate method, which is used in the vast majority of hospital laboratories for measuring phosphate in urine, can give an accurate measurement of the phosphate content of beer, cider, wine, and soft drinks. No change to the standard assay protocol is required. There was considerable variation between different types of wine and beer, probably due to the methods of production. The information the assay provides could enable staff providing dietary advice to compare locally available beverages and help patients to avoid or limit their intake of those with high phosphate content. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The regulation of protein content and quality in national and international food standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Janine L

    2012-08-01

    Food regulation aims to protect public health through a safe and nutritious food supply produced by a compliant food industry. Food standards of developed countries generally do not regulate protein content or protein quality because the risk of dietary protein inadequacy in their national populations is very low. Protein is nevertheless regulated for reasons of product quality or protein labelling or to minimise assessed health risks associated with consumption of certain animal- and vegetable-protein foods; analogue products that extend or simulate commonly available animal-protein foods; and special purpose foods such as infant formula and foods, supplementary and medical foods, and foods for weight loss. The extent and approach to protein regulation varies greatly among jurisdictions but where it occurs, it is applied through minimum and sometimes maximum limits on protein content or quality measures or both using an inter-related approach. Protein quality measures range from amino acid profiles and digestibility corrected scores to protein rating, a rat bioassay and reference proteins not further described. Regulatory methods for protein quality determination are referenced to the published scientific literature or developed nationally. Internationally, the Codex Alimentarius regulates the protein content and quality of some foods. The Codex approach varies according to the food but is similar to the approaches used in national and regional food regulation. This paper provides a comparison of the regulation of protein in foods using examples from the food regulations of Australia New Zealand, Canada, the European Union, the United States of America and the Codex Alimentarius.

  8. An investigation of predictors of NCLEX-RN outcomes among nursing content standardized tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Yei-Jin

    2013-12-01

    In order to meet increased demands for qualified registered nurses and prevent negative effects from graduates' failure on the National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse, it is important to promote students' success in the exam. The purpose of this study was to investigate effective predictors of NCLEX-RN outcomes on the first attempt among nursing content standardized tests (adult medical-surgical, fundamentals for nursing, pharmacology, maternal-newborn, nursing care of children, mental health, community health, and leadership and management) conducted throughout the nursing program. NCLEX-RN outcomes and individual adjusted scores on the standardized tests of 151 graduates from the traditional baccalaureate nursing program of a public university located in the Midwest from May 2010 to December 2011 were analyzed by a t-test and logistic regression. The participants included 118 graduates who passed and 33 graduates who failed the NCLEX-RN on the first attempt. Significant statistical differences were found between the two groups with NCLEX-RN success and failure in the individual adjusted scores on all of the standardized tests except the fundamental for nursing (p=.62) and nursing care of children (p=.759) standardized tests. In addition, logistic regression indicated that the overall regression models were significant in predicting both NCLEX-RN success and failure. Adult medical-surgical, pharmacology, and community health standardized tests were central to the prediction of both NCLEX-RN success and failure; however, a much lower percentage of NCLEX-RN failure than success was classified. It can be concluded that the adult medical-surgical, pharmacology, and community health standardized tests were effective in predicting NCLEX-RN success and not effective in predicting NCLEX-RN failure on the first attempt. The NCLEX-RN success predictors can be utilized to identify students at risk and provide early remediation. After early remediation is

  9. Comparison of Nutrient Content and Cost of Home-Packed Lunches to Reimbursable School Lunch Nutrient Standards and Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Cara M.; Bednar, Carolyn; Kwon, Junehee; Gustof, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare nutrient content and cost of home-packed lunches to nutrient standards and prices for reimbursable school lunches. Methods: Researchers observed food and beverage contents of 333 home packed lunches at four north Texas elementary schools. Nutritionist Pro was used to analyze lunches for calories,…

  10. Development and calibration of a standard for the protein content of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kai; Rao, Chunming; Tao, Lei; Han, Chunmei; Shi, Xinchang; Wang, Lan; Fan, Wenhong; Yu, Lei; Wang, Junzhi

    2012-03-01

    This collaborative study characterizes a homogeneous standard for the protein content determination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) products with traceability of the measurement. The Kjeldahl method was used to determine the average protein content of G-CSF bulk as 2.505 mg/ml (95% C.I: 2.467-2.543 mg/ml, GCV 4.0%). Using G-CSF bulk as a traceability benchmark, the protein content of the final freeze-dried standard using reverse phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) was 215.4 μg protein per ampoule (95% C.I: 212.407-218.486 μg/ampoule, GCV 3.4%). A comparative study showed that there was no difference between using Filgrastim CRS (European Pharmacopeia G-CSF reference standard) and freeze-dried homogeneous standard when quantifying G-CSF protein content by RP-HPLC (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences in the G-CSF protein content obtained using a serum albumin standard by Lowry assay and a G-CSF standard with RP-HPLC. Therefore, use of RP-HPLC with a freeze-dried homogeneous standard would eliminate the systematic errors introduced when using a serum albumin standard because of the differences in protein composition between the standard and the sample. It would also be helpful to use this method to compare the quality of G-CSF biosimilar products in situations where the protein content has been calibrated using various standards.

  11. Adding Bite to the Bark: Using LibGuides2 Migration as Impetus to Introduce Strong Content Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritch, Melia; Pitts, Joelle E.

    2016-01-01

    The authors discuss the long-term accumulation of unstandardized and inaccessible content within the Libguides system and the decision-making process to create and implement a set of standards using the migration to the LibGuides2 platform as a vehicle for change. Included in the discussion are strategies for the creation of standards and…

  12. The Compatibility of Developed Mathematics Textbooks' Content in Saudi Arabia (Grades 6-8) with NCTM Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Mohammed Ali; Ali, Hassan Shawki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the compatibility of developed mathematics textbooks' content (grades 6-8) in Saudi Arabia with NCTM standards in the areas of: number and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, data analysis and probability. To achieve that goal, a list of (NCTM) standards for grades (6-8) were translated to Arabic language,…

  13. Standardizing the Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes for Democratic Life: A Content Analysis of Virginia Standards of Learning and Social Studies Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Wendy; Suh, Yonghee

    2015-01-01

    This content analysis explored how Civics and Government textbooks and the Virginia Standards of Learning for Civics and Government courses reflect citizenship outcomes, specifically deconstructing the unique needs of marginalized students. The coding frame was constructed by using themes and categories from previous literature, specifically…

  14. Standardizing the Essential Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes for Democratic Life: A Content Analysis of Virginia Standards of Learning and Social Studies Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Wendy; Suh, Yonghee

    2015-01-01

    This content analysis explored how Civics and Government textbooks and the Virginia Standards of Learning for Civics and Government courses reflect citizenship outcomes, specifically deconstructing the unique needs of marginalized students. The coding frame was constructed by using themes and categories from previous literature, specifically…

  15. Superstrings, entropy and the elementary particles content of the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S. [Department of Physics, University of Alexandria, Alexandria (Egypt); Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University (Egypt); Department of Physics, Mansura University (Egypt)

    2006-07-15

    A number of interconnected issues involving superstring theory, entropy and the particle content of the standard model of high energy physics are discussed in the present work. It is found that within a non-transfinite approximation, the number of elementary particles is given by DimSU(8) in full agreement with the prediction gained from dividing the total number of the massless level of Heterotic string theory (256)(16)=8064 by the spin representation 2{sup 7}=128 which gives DimSU(8)=(8){sup 2}-1=(8064)/(128)=63 particles. For the exact transfinite case however, one finds our previously established E-infinity result:N=(336+16k)(3/2+k)(16+k)/(128+8k)={alpha}-bar {sub o}/2,where k={phi}{sup 3}(1-{phi}{sup 3}), {phi}=(5-1)/2 and {alpha}-bar {sub o}/2=68.54101965. Setting k=0 one finds that n=63 exactly as in the non-transfinite case.

  16. Status of sennosides content in various Indian herbal formulations: Method standardization by HPTLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Wasim Aktar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Several poly-herbal formulations containing senna (Cassia angustifolia leaves are available in the Indian market for the treatment of constipation. The purgative effect of senna is due to the presence of two unique hydroxy anthracene glycosides sennosides A and B. A HPTLC method for the quantitative analysis of sennosides A and B present in the formulation has been developed. Methanol extract of the formulations was analyzed on a silica gel 60 GF254 HPTLCplates with spot visualization under UV and scanning at 350 nm in absorption/ reflection mode. Calibration curves were found to be linear in the range 200-1000 ηg. The correlation coefficients were found to be 0.991 for sennoside A and 0.997 for sennoside B. The average recovery rate was 95% for sennoside A and 97% for sennoside B showing the reliability and reproducibility of the method. Limit of detection and quantification were determined as 0.05 and 0.25 μg/g respectively. The validity of the method with respect to analysis was confirmed by comparing the UV spectra of the herbal formulations with that of the standard within the same Rf window. The analysis revealed a significant variation in sennosides content.

  17. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007......; Race, 2001; Ramsden, 2003). This trend appears closely related to the ‘from-teaching-to-learning’ movement, which has had a strong influence on pedagogy since the early nineties (Keiding, 2007; Terhart, 2003). Another interpretation of the current interest in methodology can be derived from...... for selection of content (Klafki, 1985, 2000; Myhre, 1961; Nielsen, 2006). These attempts all share one feature, which is that criteria for selection of content appear very general and often, more or less explicitly, deal with teaching at the first Bologna-cycle; i.e. schooling at the primary and lower...

  18. Human milk fortifier with high versus standard protein content for promoting growth of preterm infants: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian-Tian; Dang, Dan; Lv, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Teng-Fei; Du, Jin-Feng; Wu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    To compare the growth of preterm infants fed standard protein-fortified human milk with that containing human milk fortifier (HMF) with a higher-than-standard protein content. Published articles reporting randomized controlled trials and prospective observational intervention studies listed on the PubMed®, Embase®, CINAHL and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the keywords 'fortifier', 'human milk', 'breastfeeding', 'breast milk' and 'human milk fortifier'. The mean difference with 95% confidence intervals was used to compare the effect of HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content on infant growth characteristics. Five studies with 352 infants with birth weight ≤ 1750 g and a gestational age ≤ 34 weeks who were fed human milk were included in this meta-analysis. Infants in the experimental groups given human milk with higher-than-standard protein fortifier achieved significantly greater weight and length at the end of the study, and greater weight gain, length gain, and head circumference gain, compared with control groups fed human milk with the standard HMF. HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content can improve preterm infant growth compared with standard HMF. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Factors affecting early elementary (K--4) teachers' introduction of the nature of science: A national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Sophia Jean

    A researcher-developed questionnaire regarding the importance and developmental appropriateness of 12 specific elements of the nature of science (Alshamrani, 2008) for early elementary (kindergarten through fourth grade [K-4]) science instruction was mailed to a random sample of U.S. K-4 teachers. At least half (N = 377) of the respondents reported introducing the inferential, empirical, creative, collaborative, tentative, and cultural aspects of the nature of science (NOS) during the current school year, as well as the idea that no single step-by-step scientific method exists. Over 90% of respondents identified the inferential, empirical, and creative aspects of the NOS as developmentally appropriate for the grade level taught. Based on a 5 point scale (0=not at all important and 4 =very important), the mean scores of eight NOS elements were above a value of three, which corresponded with the descriptor somewhat important to include in K-4 science instruction: the inferential, empirical, creative, collaborative, cultural, and tentative NOS, along with the ideas that replication is an important aspect of experimental research and that no single stepwise scientific method exists. A series of binary logistic regression analyses were used to explore the impact of three predictor variables (developmental appropriateness, importance, and presence in state standards) on teachers' self-reported introduction of each of the NOS elements during the 2009-2010 school year. The data for the presence of the NOS elements in state standards were extracted from a previous study (McComas, Lee, & Sweeney, 2009). Developmental appropriateness was a significant predictor of teachers' introduction of the NOS element for all except the collaborative, empirical and inferential aspects of NOS. Importance was a significant predictor for all 12 NOS elements of interest. A NOS element's presence in the state standards significantly predicted teachers' introduction of that NOS element for only

  20. New Math Curriculum Formula for Success: Grades K-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes Everyday Mathematics, a new math education curriculum targeted to kindergarten, first grade, and second grade students in Holland. It will be introduced to third and fourth grades in 2008. The curriculum helps prepare pupils for standardized tests; allows for students to work at their own rate; involves parents in helping…

  1. State of Delaware Science Curriculum Framework Content Standards [and] Performance Indicators, 6-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover.

    Part of the Delaware Department of Education's ongoing efforts to provide assistance and support to local school districts in their development of a standards-based curriculum, this document presents the eight science standards for middle school. The standards for grades 6-8 are: (1) nature and application of science and technology; (2) materials…

  2. 40 CFR 80.524 - What sulfur content standard applies to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to motor vehicle diesel fuel downstream of the refinery or importer? 80.524 Section 80.524 Protection... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel Standards and Requirements § 80.524 What sulfur content...

  3. Examination of Illinois Superintendents' Perceptions of the Illinois School Superintendent Content-Area Standards and Performance Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demory, Christine E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines Illinois school superintendents' perceived importance of the Illinois school superintendent content area standards and performance indicators. This study is significant because it provides an opportunity for rigorous reflection in identifying Illinois school superintendents' perceived importance of superintendent behaviors that…

  4. 78 FR 6825 - Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content and Format Public Workshop; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Administration (FDA) is correcting a document that appeared in the Federal Register of January 7, 2013 (78 FR 951... Federal Register of January 7, 2013, in FR Doc. 951-953, on page 952, the following correction is made... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content...

  5. Access to Intersectionality, Content to Competence: Deconstructing Social Work Education Diversity Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Jayshree S.; Pierce, Dean; Ortiz, Larry; Sowbel, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an assessment of the current situation in social work education regarding the teaching of content on diversity, with a focus on implications for social work theory, practice, and education. The article provides a critical analysis of the historical development of approaches to teaching diversity content in social work…

  6. A standardized approach to qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions from different countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different countries

  7. A standardized approach to qualitative content analysis of focus group discussions from different countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moretti, F.; Vliet, L. van; Bensing, J.; Deledda, G.; Mazzi, M.; Rimondini, M.; Zimmermann, C.; Fletcher, I.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological procedures of a multi-centre focus group research for obtaining content categories also suitable for categorical statistical analyses. METHODS: Inductive content analyses were performed on a subsample of 27 focus groups conducted in three different countries

  8. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Development and Evolution of the Idea of the Mandate of Heaven in the Zhou Dynasty The changes in the idea of Mandate of Heaven during the Shang and Zhou dynasties are of great significance in the course of the development of traditional Chinese culture. The quickening and awakening of the humanistic spirit was not the entire content of the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven. In the process of annihilating the Shang dynasty and setting up their state, the Zhou propagated the idea of the Mandate of Heaven out of practical needs. Their idea of the Mandate of Heaven was not very different from that of the Shang. From the Western Zhou on, the Zhou idea of Mandate of Heaven by no means developed in a linear way along a rational track. The intermingling of rationality and irrationality and of awakening and non-awakening remained the overall state of the Zhou intellectual superstructure after their "spiritual awakening".

  9. Discourse Surrounding the International Education Standards for Professional Accountants (IES): A Content Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Satoshi; Wilson, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of the International Education Standards (IES) for professional accountants is currently an important issue in accounting education and for educators interested in a shift toward international education standards more broadly. The purpose of this study is to investigate professional and research discourse…

  10. Data Analysis and Statistics in Middle Grades: An Analysis of Content Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorto, M. Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported herein was to identify the important aspects of statistical knowledge that students in the middle school grades in United States are expected to learn as well as what the teachers are expected to teach. A systematic study of 49 states standards and one set of national standards was used to identify these important…

  11. Discourse Surrounding the International Education Standards for Professional Accountants (IES): A Content Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Satoshi; Wilson, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    The development and implementation of the International Education Standards (IES) for professional accountants is currently an important issue in accounting education and for educators interested in a shift toward international education standards more broadly. The purpose of this study is to investigate professional and research discourse…

  12. Reducing Content Variance and Improving Student Learning Outcomes: The Value of Standardization in a Multisection Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuter, Matthew L.; Chapman, Kenneth J.; Toy, Daniel; Wright, Lauren K.; McGowan, William

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a standardization process for an introductory marketing course with multiple sections. The authors first outline the process used to develop a standardized set of marketing concepts to be used in all introductory marketing classes. They then discuss the benefits to both students and faculty that occur as a result of…

  13. Standardization as Emerging Content in Technology Education at All Levels of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Geun; de Vries, Henk J.

    2011-01-01

    Integration of standardization into different levels of technology education has surfaced as a critical issue for educational practitioners and policy makers at national and regional (APEC, EU) level. In this paper, we describe and analyze empirical data collected from 118 educational experiences and practices about technology standards and…

  14. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  15. CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    (1) Choosing the Data Mining Represent Objects in China's Local Governments and Establish the Data Warehouses of the Objects: A Study in the Four municipal Governments in Jiangsu Province Shang Huping (Management School of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000) Abstract: In a tremendously large country llke China, there are substantial differences on natural geographic features, history background, and social realities among the varied regions. Because of the heterogeneity, the local government performance evalu- ation indicator designing is a systematical engineering which could be affected by various factors. In this paper, we use the "stan- dard proportion" to develop a new way to choose the study objects among the great many governments of varied level in China. As the study objects chosen, we take advantage of the DM tool of Microsoft SQL Server 2005 to establish a government performance evaluation indictor data warehouse of the four municipal governments in Jiangsu Province by pr6cessing the clata of National Sta- tistical Yearbook. Local Statistical Yearbook, Sector Statistics Yearbook, government departments' work plans & programs, etc. Key words: Standard proportion; DM; Local government performance evaluation indicators; Data warehouse

  16. Characterization and analysis of Devonian shales as related to release of gaseous hydrocarbons. Well K-4 Johnson County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Snyder, M.J.

    1979-08-15

    Various characterization tasks were performed on 54 cored shale samples from Johnson County, Kentucky. Core samples were obtained from depths of 967 to 1510 feet. A total of 126 samples were canned for several DOE contractors, including Battelle Columbus. Free gas analyses indicate the presence of significant quantities of higher chain hydrocarbon gases in the K-4 shales. Hydrocarbon gas release rates and kinetic studies indicate that diffusion coefficients are inversely proportional to the square root of the molecular weight of diffusing species. Although wide scatter is observed in the chemical and physical characterization data, good correlations exist between the hydrocarbon gas contents and various laboratory characterization values (physical and chemical). A number of one-to-one relationships are pointed out and discussed. Lithologically, inorganic portions of K-4 shales are composed predominantly of quartz and illite with small quantities of pyrite and various carbonate minerals.

  17. Development of a Content-Valid Standardized Orthopedic Assessment Tool (SOAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafave, Mark; Katz, Larry; Butterwick, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Content validation of an instrument that measures student performance in OSCE-type practical examinations is a critical step in a tool's overall validity and reliability [Hopkins (1998), "Educational and Psychological Measurement and Evaluation" (8th ed.). Toronto: Allyn & Bacon]. The purpose of the paper is to outline the process…

  18. Curriculum coherence: A comparative analysis of elementary science content standards in People's Republic of China and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang

    This study examines elementary science content standards curriculum coherence between the People's Republic of China and the United States of America. Three aspects of curriculum coherence are examined in this study: topic inclusion, topic duration, and curriculum structure. Specifically this study centers on the following research questions: (1) What science knowledge is intended for elementary students in each country? (2) How long each topic stays in the curriculum? (3) How these topics sequence and connect with each other? (4) And finally, what is the implication for elementary science curriculum development? Four intended science curriculum frameworks were selected respectively for each country. A technique of General Topic Trace Mapping (GTTM) was applied to generate the composite science content standards out of the selected curriculum for each country. In comparison, the composite USA and Chinese elementary science content standards form a stark contrast: a bunch of broad topics vs. a focus on a set of key topics at each grade; an average of 3.4 year topic duration vs. an average of 1.68 year topic duration; a stress on connections among related ideas vs. a discrete disposition of related ideas; laundry list topic organization vs. hierarchical organization of science topics. In analyzing the interrelationships among these characteristics, this study reached implications for developing coherent science content standards: First, for the overall curriculum, the topic inclusion should reflect the logical and sequential nature of knowledge in science. Second, for each grade level, less, rather than more science topics should be focused. Third, however, it should be clarified that a balance should be made between curriculum breadth and depth by considering student needs, subject matter, and child development. Fourth, the topic duration should not be too long. The lengthy topic duration tends to undermine links among ideas as well as lead to superficial treatment

  19. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4 promotes human prostate cancer metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Pavese

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second leading cause of cancer death in the US. Death from PCa primarily results from metastasis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4 is overexpressed in invasive PCa lesions in humans, and can be inhibited by small molecule therapeutics that demonstrate favorable activity in phase II studies. However, MAP2K4's role in regulating metastatic behavior is controversial and unknown. To investigate, we engineered human PCa cell lines which overexpress either wild type or constitutive active MAP2K4. Orthotopic implantation into mice demonstrated MAP2K4 increases formation of distant metastasis. Constitutive active MAP2K4, though not wild type, increases tumor size and circulating tumor cells in the blood and bone marrow. Complementary in vitro studies establish stable MAP2K4 overexpression promotes cell invasion, but does not affect cell growth or migration. MAP2K4 overexpression increases the expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 protein and protease production, with the largest effect upon matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, both in vitro and in mouse tumor samples. Further, MAP2K4-mediated increases in cell invasion are dependent upon heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 and MMP-2, but not upon MAP2K4's immediate downstream targets, p38 MAPK or JNK. We demonstrate that MAP2K4 increases human PCa metastasis, and prolonged over expression induces long term changes in cell signaling pathways leading to independence from p38 MAPK and JNK. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for human studies linking increases in HSP27 and MMP-2 to progression to metastatic disease. MAP2K4 is validated as an important therapeutic target for inhibiting human PCa metastasis.

  20. Determination of the polyphenol contents in Macedonian grapes and wines by standardized spectrophotometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA IVANOVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wines and grapes contain a large array of phenolic compounds belonging to non-flavonoids and flavonoids. This study evaluates the polyphenolic contents of six commercial red and white Macedonian wines and four grape varieties. Spectrophotometric methods were applied for the determination of the total phenolics, the total flavonoids, the total anthocyanins and the total catechins. The efficiency of acetone/water (80/20 and methanol/water (80/20 solutions for the extraction of polyphenols from grape pulp, seeds and skins were compared. The best extraction efficiency was achieved using acetone/water. The obtained results showed that Macedonian grapes are rich in polyphenols, whereby the highest concentration of total phenolics was found for Vranec grapes. The analyzed wines contained high contents of polyphenol; the highest contents were found for Disan wine produced from the Vranec variety of grapes (1515 mg/L total phenolics, 1103 mg/L total flavonoids, 237 mg/L total anthocyanins and 845 mg/L total catechins. Principal component analysis was employed to check possible groupings of the studied red and white wine samples. A clear separation of white wines from red ones was observed.

  1. Content accessibility of Web documents: Overview of concepts and needed standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, A.

    2006-01-01

    to broaden the scope to any type of user and any type of use case. The document provides an introduction to some required concepts and technical standards for designing accessible Web sites. A brief review of thelegal requirements in a few countries for Web accessibility complements the recommendations...

  2. The fermion content of the Standard Model from a simple world-line theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Paul, E-mail: P.R.W.Mansfield@durham.ac.uk

    2015-04-09

    We describe a simple model that automatically generates the sum over gauge group representations and chiralities of a single generation of fermions in the Standard Model, augmented by a sterile neutrino. The model is a modification of the world-line approach to chiral fermions.

  3. Standardization as emerging content in technology education at all levels of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.G. Choi (Dong Geun); H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntegration of standardization into different levels of technology education has surfaced as a critical issue for educational practitioners and policy makers at national and regional (APEC, EU) level. In this paper, we describe and analyze empirical data collected from 118 educational

  4. Standardization as emerging content in technology education at all levels of education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.G. Choi (Dong Geun); H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntegration of standardization into different levels of technology education has surfaced as a critical issue for educational practitioners and policy makers at national and regional (APEC, EU) level. In this paper, we describe and analyze empirical data collected from 118 educational ex

  5. The fermion content of the Standard Model from a simple world-line theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mansfield

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple model that automatically generates the sum over gauge group representations and chiralities of a single generation of fermions in the Standard Model, augmented by a sterile neutrino. The model is a modification of the world-line approach to chiral fermions.

  6. Common Core Standards, Professional Texts, and Diverse Learners: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoff, Elizabeth; LaDuke, Aja; Lindner, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This research study questioned the degree to which six professional texts guiding implementation of the Common Core Standards in reading address the needs of diverse learners. For the purposes of this research, diverse learners were specifically defined as above grade level readers, below grade level readers, and English learners. The researchers…

  7. Impaired removal of H3K4 methylation affects cell fate determination and gene transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lussi, Yvonne C; Mariani, Luca; Rundsten, Carsten Friis;

    2016-01-01

    implicated in development, but how the regulation of H3K4me3 level controls developmental processes is not fully established. Here, we show that the H3K4 demethylase RBR-2, the unique member of the KDM5 family in C. elegans, acts cell-autonomously and in a catalytic-dependent manner to control vulva...

  8. The GluK4 kainate receptor subunit regulates memory, mood, and excitotoxic neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, E R; Kruyer, A; Norris, E H; Cederroth, C R; Strickland, S

    2013-04-01

    Though the GluK4 kainate receptor subunit shows limited homology and a restricted expression pattern relative to other kainate receptor subunits, its ablation results in distinct behavioral and molecular phenotypes. GluK4 knockout mice demonstrated impairments in memory acquisition and recall in a Morris water maze test, suggesting a previously unreported role for kainate receptors in spatial memory. GluK4 knockout mice also showed marked hyperactivity and impaired pre-pulse inhibition, thereby mirroring two of the hallmark endophenotypes of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, we found that GluK4 is a key mediator of excitotoxic neurodegeneration: GluK4 knockout mice showed robust neuroprotection in the CA3 region of the hippocampus following intrahippocampal injection of kainate and widespread neuroprotection throughout the hippocampus following hypoxia-ischemia. Biochemical analysis of kainate- or sham-treated wild-type and GluK4 knockout hippocampal tissue suggests that GluK4 may act through the JNK pathway to regulate the molecular cascades that lead to excitotoxicity. Together, our findings suggest that GluK4 may be relevant to the understanding and treatment of human neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. [Synthesis, spectral analysis and photocatalysis of Ag/K4Nb6,O17 heterojunction catalysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-li; Cao, Yan-ning; Ying, Song; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Han-hui; Zheng, Qi

    2010-10-01

    K4Nb6O17 photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by low-temperature hydrothermal method with layer structure. Considering that a large number of hydroxyl (Nb-OH) and oxygen species (Nb==O, Nb--O-) exist on the surface of K4Nb6O17 synthesized by hydrothermal method, Ag(en)2+ precursors were employed to synthesize Ag/K4Nb6O17 heterostructure photo-catalysts with highly dispersed Ag. Photocatalytic performance evaluation results show that the photodegradation rate of MO for K4Nb6O17 was remarkably improved when a small amont of Ag was loaded. The best loading dose of Ag is 0.5 at%. Based on various characterizations results of XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis DRS, XRF and TEM, the photocatalytic mechanism of Ag/ K4Nb6O17 heterostructure catalysts was illuminated in detail and the conclusions were drawn as follows: (1) K4Nb6O17 nanocrystals serve as electron and hole sources for degradation of an organic dye; (2) Ag nanoparticles on the surface of K4Nb6O17 nanocrystals act as a sink for the electrons, promote interfacial charge-transfer kinetics between the metal and semiconductor, improve the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and thus enhance the photocatalytic activity of Ag/K4Nb6O17 photocatalyst.

  10. Preliminary Study on the Standard of Selenium Content in Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhi-yuan; You, Yong; Guo, Qing-quan; Wang, Yong-hong; Deng, Shi-lin

    2012-01-01

    With the improvement of living standards, people pay more attention to the agricultural products with health protection function, and the selenium-rich agricultural products attract more and more consumers. The main biological role of selenium is to resist oxidation and inflammatory response, mainly focusing on resisting aging, preventing cardiovascular disease, protecting eyesight, counteracting or destroying the toxic properties, preventing cancer and thyroid disease. In most areas of China...

  11. National Sexuality Education Standards: Core Content and Skills, K-12. A Special Publication of the Journal of School Health. Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School Health Association (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper, "National Sexuality Education Standards: Core Content and Skills, K-12," is to provide clear, consistent and straightforward guidance on the "essential minimum, core content" for sexuality education that is developmentally and age-appropriate for students in grades K-12. The development of these standards is a result of an…

  12. Use of Standardized Mastery Content Assessments Given during the First Year of a Baccalaureate Nursing Program for Predicting NCLEX-RN Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, DeAnna Jan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between standardized content specific mastery assessments and NCLEX-RN outcomes. Three content-specific standardized assessments testing Fundamentals, Pharmacology and Mental Health concepts were used to explain the dichotomous NCLEX-RN outcome of pass or fail. The three assessments were…

  13. Sulfur content standards homogeneity evaluation in diesel fuel; Avaliacao da homogeneidade de padroes de teor de enxofre em oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchini, Ricardo Rezende; Sakai, Patricia Naomi

    2003-07-01

    The Reference Materials Group, from Chemistry Division of the Technological Research Institute from Sao Paulo State is developing new reference materials, employed to assure traceability to a number of tests carried out by laboratories of Petroleum Industry, amongst them, a set of reference materials with certified sulfur content. A standard must have its homogeneity assured, once it is certified through measurement on a limited number of units, but certified values must be valid throughout the entire lot. Assuring homogeneity of a lot is a specialized task, which demands the proper use of adequate statistical methods. In this paper it is presented a study accomplished in order to evaluate homogeneity of a Diesel fuel, candidate to the certification as a sulfur content reference material. (author)

  14. DVIG ENERGETSKE UČINKOVITOSTI PREMOGOVNEGA KOTLA K4 V TOVARNI VIPAP

    OpenAIRE

    Lekše, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Diplomsko delo se nanaša na znižanje lastne rabe energije na postrojenju kotla K4 ter na dvig deleža pridobljene energije iz OVE v podjetju Vipap Videm Krško. Na podlagi ugotovitev, da so izvedeni ukrepi znižali lastno rabo električne energije, večji delež OVE v strukturi goriva pa je zagotovil željeno toplotno moč kotla K4, nam zaključni del naloge potrjuje, da so vsi izvedeni ukrepi upravičili ekonomsko in ekološko upravičenost posodobitve postrojenja kotla K4.

  15. On a $\\{K_4,L(Q_3)\\}_{K_3}$-ultrahomogeneous graph

    CERN Document Server

    Dejter, Italo J

    2010-01-01

    A construction based on the Biggs-Smith graph is shown to produce an edge-disjoint union of 102 copies of $K_4$ forming a $\\{K_4,L(Q_3)\\}_{K_3}$-ultrahomogeneous graph as well as the non-line-graphical Menger graph of a self-dual $(102_4)$-configuration. This stands in contrast to and is a follow-up of the self-dual $(42_4)$-configuration of \\cite{D1}, whose Menger graph is a non-line-graphical $\\{K_4,$ $K_{2,2,2}\\}_{K_2}$-ultrahomogeneous graph.

  16. Standardized Procedure Content And Data Structure Based On Human Factors Requirements For Computer-Based Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bly, Aaron; Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L

    2015-02-01

    Most activities that involve human interaction with systems in a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. Traditionally, the use of procedures has been a paper-based process that supports safe operation of the nuclear power industry. However, the nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. Advances in digital technology make computer-based procedures (CBPs) a valid option that provides further enhancement of safety by improving human performance related to procedure use. The transition from paper-based procedures (PBPs) to CBPs creates a need for a computer-based procedure system (CBPS). A CBPS needs to have the ability to perform logical operations in order to adjust to the inputs received from either users or real time data from plant status databases. Without the ability for logical operations the procedure is just an electronic copy of the paper-based procedure. In order to provide the CBPS with the information it needs to display the procedure steps to the user, special care is needed in the format used to deliver all data and instructions to create the steps. The procedure should be broken down into basic elements and formatted in a standard method for the CBPS. One way to build the underlying data architecture is to use an Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema, which utilizes basic elements to build each step in the smart procedure. The attributes of each step will determine the type of functionality that the system will generate for that step. The CBPS will provide the context for the step to deliver referential information, request a decision, or accept input from the user. The XML schema needs to provide all data necessary for the system to accurately perform each step without the need for the procedure writer to reprogram the CBPS. The research team at the Idaho National Laboratory has developed a prototype CBPS for field workers as well as the

  17. Effects of nickel treatment on H3K4 trimethylation and gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam-Meng Tchou-Wong

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to nickel compounds has been associated with lung and nasal cancers. We have previously shown that exposure of the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to NiCl(2 for 24 hr significantly increased global levels of trimethylated H3K4 (H3K4me3, a transcriptional activating mark that maps to the promoters of transcribed genes. To further understand the potential epigenetic mechanism(s underlying nickel carcinogenesis, we performed genome-wide mapping of H3K4me3 by chromatin immunoprecipitation and direct genome sequencing (ChIP-seq and correlated with transcriptome genome-wide mapping of RNA transcripts by massive parallel sequencing of cDNA (RNA-seq. The effect of NiCl(2 treatment on H3K4me3 peaks within 5,000 bp of transcription start sites (TSSs on a set of genes highly induced by nickel in both A549 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed. Nickel exposure increased the level of H3K4 trimethylation in both the promoters and coding regions of several genes including CA9 and NDRG1 that were increased in expression in A549 cells. We have also compared the extent of the H3K4 trimethylation in the absence and presence of formaldehyde crosslinking and observed that crosslinking of chromatin was required to observe H3K4 trimethylation in the coding regions immediately downstream of TSSs of some nickel-induced genes including ADM and IGFBP3. This is the first genome-wide mapping of trimethylated H3K4 in the promoter and coding regions of genes induced after exposure to NiCl(2. This study may provide insights into the epigenetic mechanism(s underlying the carcinogenicity of nickel compounds.

  18. Cellular Membrane Composition Requirement by Antimicrobial and Anticancer Peptide GA-K4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishig-Ochir, Tsogbadrakh; Gombosuren, Davaadulam; Jigjid, Altanchimeg; Tuguldur, Badamkhatan; Chuluunbaatar, Galbadrakh; Urnukhsaikhan, Enerelt; Pathak, Chinar; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides important for innate immunity are widely studied for their antimicrobial and anticancer activity. The primary target of these AMPs is believed to be the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. However, the interaction between cytoplasmic membrane and the antimicrobial peptides remains poorly understood. Therefore to focus on the target membrane composition that is required by AMPs to interact with membranes, we have examined the interaction of the antimicrobial and anticancer active 11-residue GA-K4 (FLKWLFKWAKK) peptide with model and intact cell membranes. Effect on the structural conformational properties of GA-K4 peptide was investigated by means of far-UV CD and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. The different conformation of GA-K4 peptide in large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) bilayer and micelle environment suggest that the curvature has an influence on the secondary structure acquired by the peptide. Furthermore, the leakage experiment result confirmed that GA-K4 induced the leakage of cytoplasmic membrane in Staphylococcus аureus bacterial cells. Fluorescence data revealed the interfacial location of GA-K4 peptide in the model membranes. The blue-shift in emission wavelength by tryptophan residues in fluorescence data indicated the penetration of GA-K4 peptide in micelles and phospholipid bilayers. These results showed that the GA-K4 peptide is a membrane-active peptide and its activity depends on membrane curvature and lipid composition. Although further studies are required to confirm the mechanism of action, the data suggest mechanism of toroidal pore formation for the interaction of GA-K4 peptide with membranes. Our studies will be helpful in better understanding of the membrane requirment of peptides to express their therapeutic effects. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. CFP1 Regulates Histone H3K4 Trimethylation and Developmental Potential in Mouse Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine-4 (H3K4me3 is associated with eukaryotic gene promoters and poises their transcriptional activation during development. To examine the in vivo function of H3K4me3 in the absence of DNA replication, we deleted CXXC finger protein 1 (CFP1, the DNA-binding subunit of the SETD1 histone H3K4 methyltransferase, in developing oocytes. We find that CFP1 is required for H3K4me3 accumulation and the deposition of histone variants onto chromatin during oocyte maturation. Decreased H3K4me3 in oocytes caused global downregulation of transcription activity. Oocytes lacking CFP1 failed to complete maturation and were unable to gain developmental competence after fertilization, due to defects in cytoplasmic lattice formation, meiotic division, and maternal-zygotic transition. Our study highlights the importance of H3K4me3 in continuous histone replacement for transcriptional regulation, chromatin remodeling, and normal developmental progression in a non-replicative system.

  20. Acyclic chromatic indices of K4-minor free graphs%没有K4-图子式的图的无圈边色数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维凡; 舒巧君

    2011-01-01

    一个图G的无圈k-边染色是指G的一个正常的不产生双色圈的k-边染色.G的无圈边色数a1(G)定义为使得G有一个无圈k-边染色的最小的整数k.本文完全刻画了最大度不为4的没有K4-图子式的图的无圈边色数.%An acyclic edge coloring of a graph G is a proper edge coloring such that no Dichromatic cycles are produced. The acyclic chromatic index a'(G) of G is the smallest integer k such that G has an acyclic edge coloring using k colors. In this paper, we determine completely the acyclic chromatic indices of K4-minor free graphs with maximum degree not equal to 4.

  1. Effect of stearic acid on the properties of metronidazole/methocel K4M floating matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belem Lara-Hernández

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The properties of metronidazole/Methocel K4M sustained release floating tablets have been studied varying the proportion of the lubricant, stearic acid, on formulations with and without sodium bicarbonate. The variables studied include technological properties of the tablets such as tablet hardness and ejection pressure, the drug release profile, the hydration kinetics and the floating behaviour. The presence of stearic acid and sodium bicarbonate improves the floating behaviour for more than 8 hours. The hydration volume, the tablet hardness and the ejection pressure decrease as the stearic acid content increases and the polymer content decreases. Drug dissolution increases with increasing proportions of stearic acid and decreasing proportions of the polymer in the tablets. The presence of sodium bicarbonate extends the differences in dissolution produced by stearic acid. These results are attributed to decreasing matrices coherence with an increasing quantity of stearic acid and a reducing polymer proportion. The carbon dioxide bubbles produced by sodium bicarbonate expand the matrices facilitating the dissolution, although their presence obstructs also the diffusion path through the hydrated gel layer.Estudaram-se as propriedades de comprimidos flutuantes de metronidazol/Methocel K4M de liberação controlada, variando-se a proporção do lubrificante, ácido esteárico, nas formulações com e sem bicarbonato de sódio. As variáveis estudadas incluem propriedades tecnológicas dos comprimidos, tais como dureza, pressão de ejeção, perfil de liberação do fármaco, cinética de hidratação e comportamento de flutuação. A presença de ácido esteárico e do bicarbonato de sódio melhora o comportamento de flutuação para mais de 8 horas. O volume de hidratação, a dureza e a pressão de ejeção do comprimido decrescem à medida que o conteúdo de ácido esteárico e de polímero diminui. A dissolução do fármaco aumenta com o

  2. Isolation of an Escherichia coli K4 kfoC mutant over-producing capsular chondroitin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Rosa Mario

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chondroitin sulphate is a complex polysaccharide having important structural and protective functions in animal tissues. Extracted from animals, this compound is used as a human anti-inflammatory drug. Among bacteria, Escherichia coli K4 produces a capsule containing a non-sulphate chondroitin and its development may provide an efficient and cheap fermentative production of the polysaccharide. Results A random N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis was performed on E. coli K4 to isolate mutants showing an increased production of chondroitin. Several mutants were isolated, one of which, here named VZ15, produced about 80% more chondroitin than the wild type E. coli. We found that the mutant has a missense mutation in the codon 313 of kfoC, the gene encoding chondroitin polymerase (K4CP, with a change from arginine to glutamine. A docking analysis to explain the increased productivity of the K4CP enzyme is presented. Conclusion The enhanced chondroitin production by the E. coli K4 mutant reported here shows the validity of the strain improvement strategy for more cost-friendly fermentative processes in the production of this pharmaceutically important but so-far expensive polysaccharide.

  3. Activity measurements of the radionuclides 18F and 99mTc for the NMISA, South Africa in the ongoing comparisons BIPM.RI(II)-K4.F-18 and BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Nonis, M.; Van Rooy, M. W.; Van Staden, M. J.; Lubbe, J.

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, comparisons of activity measurements of 18F and 99mTc using the Transfer Instrument of the International Reference System (SIRTI) took place at the National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA, South Africa). Ampoules containing about 25 kBq of 18F and 99mTc solutions were measured in the SIRTI for more than two half-lives. The NMISA standardized the activity in the ampoules by ionization chamber measurements traceable to 4π(LS)β-γ coincidence measurements. The comparisons, identifiers BIPM.RI(II)-K4.F-18 and BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m, are linked to the corresponding BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 and BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparisons and degrees of equivalence with the respective key comparison reference values have been evaluated. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. A Content Analysis of Immigration in Traditional, New, and Non-Gateway State Standards for U.S. History and Civics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Jeremy; Journell, Wayne; Buchanan, Lisa Brown

    2016-01-01

    In this content analysis of state U.S. History and Civics standards, we compared the treatment of immigration across three types of states with differing immigration demographics. Analyzing standards from 18 states from a critical race methodology perspective, our findings indicated three sets of tensions: a unified American story versus local…

  5. A Content Analysis of Immigration in Traditional, New, and Non-Gateway State Standards for U.S. History and Civics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Jeremy; Journell, Wayne; Buchanan, Lisa Brown

    2016-01-01

    In this content analysis of state U.S. History and Civics standards, we compared the treatment of immigration across three types of states with differing immigration demographics. Analyzing standards from 18 states from a critical race methodology perspective, our findings indicated three sets of tensions: a unified American story versus local…

  6. One of the 10 cells of AA Injection Kicker K4

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The 3.5 GeV/c Antiproton Accumulator (AA) had 2 delay-line type injection kickers, K3 (12 cells) and K4 (10 cells). Here we see one of the K4 cells, with ferrite between stainless-steel plates. Pulse voltage: 61 kV; rise/fall-time 86 ns; flat-top 460 ns; top flatness +-2%. During injection, the open side of the C-shaped kickers was closed off with a fast shutter, so that their stray field would not perturb the stack of already accumulated antiprotons.

  7. H3K4 demethylase activities repress proliferative and postmitotic aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvares, Stacy M; Mayberry, Gaea A; Joyner, Ebony Y; Lakowski, Bernard; Ahmed, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Homeostasis of postmitotic and proliferating cells is maintained by pathways that repress stress. We found that the Caenorhabditis elegans histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) demethylases RBR-2 and SPR-5 promoted postmitotic longevity of stress-resistant daf-2 adults, altered pools of methylated H3K4, and promoted silencing of some daf-2 target genes. In addition, RBR-2 and SPR-5 were required for germ cell immortality at a high temperature. Transgenerational proliferative aging was enhanced for spr-5; rbr-2 double mutants, suggesting that these histone demethylases may function sequentially to promote germ cell immortality by targeting distinct H3K4 methyl marks. RBR-2 did not play a comparable role in the maintenance of quiescent germ cells in dauer larvae, implying that it represses stress that occurs as a consequence of germ cell proliferation, rather than stress that accumulates in nondividing cells. We propose that H3K4 demethylase activities promote the maintenance of chromatin states during stressful growth conditions, thereby repressing postmitotic aging of somatic cells as well as proliferative aging of germ cells. PMID:24134677

  8. Purification of chondroitin precursor from Escherichia coli K4 fermentation broth using membrane processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiraldi, Chiara; Carcarino, Immacolata Loredana; Alfano, Alberto; Restaino, Odile Francesca; Panariello, Andrea; De Rosa, Mario

    2011-04-01

    Recently the possibility of producing the capsular polysaccharide K4, a fructosylated chondroitin, in fed-batch experiments was assessed. In the present study, a novel downstream process to obtain chondroitin from Escherichia coli K4 fermentation broth was developed. The process is simple, scalable and economical. In particular, downstream procedures were optimized with a particular aim of purifying a product suitable for further chemical modifications, in an attempt to develop a biotechnological platform for chondroitin sulfate production. During process development, membrane devices (ultrafiltration/diafiltration) were exploited, selecting the right cassette cut-offs for different phases of purification. The operational conditions (cross-flow rate and transmembrane pressure) used for the process were determined on an ÄKTA cross-flow instrument (GE Healthcare, USA), a lab-scale automatic tangential flow filtration system. In addition, parameters such as selectivity and throughput were calculated based on the analytical quantification of K4 and defructosylated K4, as well as the major contaminants. The complete downstream procedure yielded about 75% chondroitin with a purity higher than 90%.

  9. Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction for English Language Learners, Grades K-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    At last, a truly helpful, practical guide for K-4 teachers who want to ensure that their approach to teaching young English language learners is based on research and grounded in proven classroom practices. The authors of ASCD's best-selling book "Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction, Grades K-3" explain how you can help the English…

  10. Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction for English Language Learners, Grades K-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    At last, a truly helpful, practical guide for K-4 teachers who want to ensure that their approach to teaching young English language learners is based on research and grounded in proven classroom practices. The authors of ASCD's best-selling book "Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction, Grades K-3" explain how you can help the English…

  11. Analysis of chemistry textbook content and national science education standards in terms of air quality-related learning goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Wendy

    In this study's Phase One, representatives of nine municipal agencies involved in air quality education were interviewed and interview transcripts were analyzed for themes related to what citizens need to know or be able to do regarding air quality concerns. Based on these themes, eight air quality Learning Goal Sets were generated and validated via peer and member checks. In Phase Two, six college-level, liberal-arts chemistry textbooks and the National Science Education Standards (NSES) were analyzed for congruence with Phase One learning goals. Major categories of desired citizen understandings highlighted in agency interviews concerned air pollution sources, impact, detection, and transport. Identified cognitive skills focused on information-gathering and -evaluating skills, enabling informed decision-making. A content match was found between textbooks and air quality learning goals, but most textbooks fail to address learning goals that remediate citizen misconceptions and inabilities---particularly those with a "personal experience" focus. A partial match between NSES and air quality learning goals was attributed to differing foci: Researcher-derived learning goals deal specifically with air quality, while NSES focus is on "fundamental science concepts," not "many science topics." Analysis of findings within a situated cognition framework suggests implications for instruction and NSES revision.

  12. Standard Test Method for Oxygen Content Using a 14-MeV Neutron Activation and Direct-Counting Technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of oxygen concentration in almost any matrix by using a 14-MeV neutron activation and direct-counting technique. Essentially, the same system may be used to determine oxygen concentrations ranging from over 50 % to about 10 g/g, or less, depending on the sample size and available 14-MeV neutron fluence rates. Note 1 - The range of analysis may be extended by using higher neutron fluence rates, larger samples, and higher counting efficiency detectors. 1.2 This test method may be used on either solid or liquid samples, provided that they can be made to conform in size, shape, and macroscopic density during irradiation and counting to a standard sample of known oxygen content. Several variants of this method have been described in the technical literature. A monograph is available which provides a comprehensive description of the principles of activation analysis using a neutron generator (1). 1.3 The values stated in either SI or inch-pound units are to be regarded...

  13. Minimal (C4,K4;7)-P-graphs%极小(C4,K4;7)-平面图

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段春燕

    2014-01-01

    An (H1 ,H2;n)-P-graph is a graph with order n,which does not contain a subgraph isomorphic to H1 ,and its complement has no subgraph isomorphic to H2 .G is a minimal (H1 ,H2;n)-P-graph,if G is an (H1 ,H2;n)-P-graph and G′obtained by deleting any one edge from G is not an (H1 ,H2;n)-P-graph.In this paper,the minimal (C4 ,K4;7 )-P-graphs are given.%若平面图G没有与H1同构的子图,且G珔没有与H2同构的子图,则G称为(H1,H2)-平面图。(H1,H2;n)-平面图表示n阶的(H1,H2)-平面图。若G是(H1,H2;n)-平面图,去掉G的任意一条边,都不再是(H1,H2;n)-平面图,则G称为极小(H1,H2;n)-平面图。本文给出了所有的极小(C4,K4;7)-平面图,有助于证明PR(C4,K8)。

  14. Electrochemical Catalysis of Inorganic Complex K4[Fe(CN)6] by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zhiyong; Wu, Ranran; Xiao, Yong

    to the redox proteins localized to the outer-membrane, for example, the MtrC, MtrB,MtrA and CymA2. Here we investigate its electrochemical properties towards redox inorganic redox compounds. It shows strong electrocatalysis toward electrochemical oxidation of K4[Fe(CN)6]. As a redox molecule, K4[Fe(CN)6] gives...... on the selectivity and electrocatalysis mechanisms of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 are under investigation. The ability of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to catalyze redox action of inorganic metal complex compounds will provide an insight on metal cycles in nature....... disappearance of the cathodic peak and strengthen of the anodic peak, which is a typical catalysis feature of electrochemical oxidation. Further experiments show that Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 does not give such electrocatalysis to redox compounds such as Ru[(NH3)6]Cl3 and Resorufin. Systematic study...

  15. Timing of transcriptional quiescence during gametogenesis is controlled by global histone H3K4 demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengshu; Soloveychik, Maria; Ranger, Mathieu; Schertzberg, Michael; Shah, Zarna; Raisner, Ryan; Venkatasubrahmanyan, Shivkumar; Tsui, Kyle; Gebbia, Marinella; Hughes, Tim; van Bakel, Harm; Nislow, Corey; Madhani, Hiten D; Meneghini, Marc D

    2012-11-13

    Gametes are among the most highly specialized cells produced during development. Although gametogenesis culminates in transcriptional quiescence in plants and animals, regulatory mechanisms controlling this are unknown. Here, we confirm that gamete differentiation in the single-celled yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is accompanied by global transcriptional shutoff following the completion of meiosis. We show that Jhd2, a highly conserved JARID1-family histone H3K4 demethylase, activates protein-coding gene transcription in opposition to this programmed transcriptional shutoff, sustaining the period of productive transcription during spore differentiation. Moreover, using genome-wide nucleosome, H3K4me, and transcript mapping experiments, we demonstrate that JHD2 globally represses intergenic noncoding transcription during this period. The widespread transcriptional defects of JHD2 mutants are associated with precocious differentiation and the production of stress-sensitive spores, demonstrating that Jhd2 regulation of the global postmeiotic transcriptional program is critical for the production of healthy meiotic progeny.

  16. 不再当大男孩儿 KIA K4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟平

    2014-01-01

    东风悦达·起亚K系家族给我留下的印象,就好比是一群大男孩儿,各个都拥有一副帅气的容貌且充满活力。不过从今天开始,K系家族出现了一名"另类",一款相对成熟、稳重的车型——K4!

  17. Supplement to CCM.D-K4 'Hydrometer' report: linkage of EURAMET.M.D-K4 comparison, SIM.M.D-K4 comparison and the supplementary SIM.M.D-S2 to CCM.D-K4 'Hydrometer'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorefice, S.; Becerra, L. O.

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of different types of comparisons to a common set of reference values of a CIPM key comparison is essential to satisfy the concept of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA), where the DoEs of any participant who took part in comparisons should be within the Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC) section of the CIPM MRA Key Comparison Data Base. The subject of this supplementary report is therefore to present the equivalence of each National Metrological Institute (NMI) participant in the CCM.D-K4 'Hydrometer' key comparison, which was performed in the density range 600 kg/m3 to 2000 kg/m3 at the temperature of 20 °C, and the linkage of the European and Inter-American NMI results performed in the RMO.M.D-K4 comparisons as well as those of the supplementary SIM.M.D-S2 to the common set of KCRVs of the CCM.D-K4 'Hydrometer'. The linking procedure has been obtained by numerical simulation, based on the Monte Carlo method, in which the differences in the results of the different comparison between the intended laboratory and one or more linking laboratory/ies, which took part in both comparisons, are correlated with a continuous function describing the DoEs of the linking laboratory/ies with respect to the common set of KCRVs of the CCM.D-K4. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Drosophila KDM2 is a H3K4me3 demethylase regulating nucleolar organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birchler James A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CG11033 (dKDM2 is the Drosophila homolog of the gene KDM2B. dKDM2 has been known to possess histone lysine demethylase activity towards H3K36me2 in cell lines and it regulates H2A ubiquitination. The human homolog of the gene has dual activity towards H3K36me2 as well as H3K4me3, and plays an important role in cellular senescence. Findings We have used transgenic flies bearing an RNAi construct for the dKDM2 gene. The knockdown of dKDM2 gene was performed by crossing UAS-RNAi-dKDM2 flies with actin-Gal4 flies. Western blots of acid extracted histones and immunofluoresence analysis of polytene chromosome showed the activity of the enzyme dKDM2 to be specific for H3K4me3 in adult flies. Immunofluoresence analysis of polytene chromosome also revealed the presence of multiple nucleoli in RNAi knockdown mutants of dKDM2 and decreased H3-acetylation marks associated with active transcription. Conclusion Our findings indicate that dKDM2 is a histone lysine demethylase with specificity for H3K4me3 and regulates nucleolar organization.

  19. What's New in Children's Literature for the Children of Louisiana? A Selected Annotated Bibliography with Readability Levels (Selected) and Associated Louisiana Content Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webre, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    An annotated list of children's books published within the last 15 years and related to Louisiana culture, environment, and economics are linked to the Louisiana Content Standards. Readability levels of selected books are included, providing guidance as to whether a book is appropriate for independent student use. The thirty-three books listed are…

  20. Inducible Deletion of Protein Kinase Map4k4 in Obese Mice Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Liver and Adipose Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danai, Laura V; Flach, Rachel J Roth; Virbasius, Joseph V; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K; Czech, Michael P

    2015-07-01

    Studies in vitro suggest that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) attenuates insulin signaling, but confirmation in vivo is lacking since Map4k4 knockout is lethal during embryogenesis. We thus generated mice with floxed Map4k4 alleles and a tamoxifen-inducible Cre/ERT2 recombinase under the control of the ubiquitin C promoter to induce whole-body Map4k4 deletion after these animals reached maturity. Tamoxifen administration to these mice induced Map4k4 deletion in all tissues examined, causing decreased fasting blood glucose concentrations and enhanced insulin signaling to AKT in adipose tissue and liver but not in skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, however, mice generated with a conditional Map4k4 deletion in adiponectin-positive adipocytes or in albumin-positive hepatocytes displayed no detectable metabolic phenotypes. Instead, mice with Map4k4 deleted in Myf5-positive tissues, including all skeletal muscles tested, were protected from obesity-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Remarkably, these mice also showed increased insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue but not skeletal muscle, similar to the metabolic phenotypes observed in inducible whole-body knockout mice. Taken together, these results indicate that (i) Map4k4 controls a pathway in Myf5-positive cells that suppresses whole-body insulin sensitivity and (ii) Map4k4 is a potential therapeutic target for improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes.

  1. Quantification of total phenol,flavonoid content and pharmacognostical evaluation including HPTLC fingerprinting for the standardization of Piper nigrum Linn fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aftab; Ahmad; Asif; Husain; Mohd; Mujeeb; Shah; Alam; Khan; Hani; Abdullah; Anber; Alhadrami; Anil; Bhandari

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To carry out the physicochemical and phytochemical standardization with high performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting of Piper nigrum L.(P.nigrum)fruits in order to ascertain the standard pharmacognostical parameters of this king of spices.Methods:Many standardization parameters like extractive values,total ash value,water soluble ash value and acid insoluble ash,moisture content,loss on drying and pH values of P.nigrum L.fruits were analyzed.The method of Harborne was adopted for the preliminary phytochemicals screening.Analysis of total phenolic and flavonoid contents,pesticides residues,aflatoxin and heavy metals were also performed.CAMAG-high performance thin layer chromatography system was used for fingerprinting of methanolic extract of P.nigrum L.fruits.Results:The results of phytochemicals testing indicated the presence of carbohydrates,phenolic compounds,flavonoids,alkaloids,proteins,saponins,lipids,sterols and tannins in various solvent extracts.Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in methanolic extract were found to be 1.728 1 mg/g and 1.087 ug/g,respectively.Heavy metals concentrations were found to be within standard limits.Aflatoxins and pesticides residues were absent.Conclusions:The outcome of this study might prove beneficial in herbal industries for identification,purification and standardization of P.nigrum L.fruits.

  2. Genomic distribution of CHD7 on chromatin tracks H3K4 methylation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetz, Michael P; Bartels, Cynthia F; Shastri, Kuntal; Balasubramanian, Dheepa; Zentner, Gabriel E; Balaji, Ravishankar; Zhang, Xiaodong; Song, Lingyun; Wang, Zhenghe; Laframboise, Thomas; Crawford, Gregory E; Scacheri, Peter C

    2009-04-01

    CHD7 is a member of the chromodomain helicase DNA binding domain family of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes. De novo mutation of the CHD7 gene is a major cause of CHARGE syndrome, a genetic disease characterized by a complex constellation of birth defects (Coloboma of the eye, Heart defects, Atresia of the choanae, severe Retardation of growth and development, Genital abnormalities, and Ear abnormalities). To gain insight into the function of CHD7, we mapped the distribution of the CHD7 protein on chromatin using the approach of chromatin immunoprecipitation on tiled microarrays (ChIP-chip). These studies were performed in human colorectal carcinoma cells, human neuroblastoma cells, and mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells before and after differentiation into neural precursor cells. The results indicate that CHD7 localizes to discrete locations along chromatin that are specific to each cell type, and that the cell-specific binding of CHD7 correlates with a subset of histone H3 methylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me). The CHD7 sites change concomitantly with H3K4me patterns during ES cell differentiation, suggesting that H3K4me is part of the epigenetic signature that defines lineage-specific association of CHD7 with specific sites on chromatin. Furthermore, the CHD7 sites are predominantly located distal to transcription start sites, most often contained within DNase hypersensitive sites, frequently conserved, and near genes expressed at relatively high levels. These features are similar to those of gene enhancer elements, raising the possibility that CHD7 functions in enhancer mediated transcription, and that the congenital anomalies in CHARGE syndrome are due to alterations in transcription of tissue-specific genes normally regulated by CHD7 during development.

  3. The Role of GluK4 in Synaptic Plasticity and Affective Behavior in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catches, Justin Samuel

    Kainate receptors (KARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels that signal through both ionotropic and metabotropic pathways (Contractor et al., 2011). Combinations of five KAR subunits (GluK1-5) form tetrameric receptors with GluK1, GluK2, and GluK3 able to form functional homomeric channels. The high-affinity subunits, GluK4 and GluK5, do not form homomeric channels but modify the properties of heteromeric receptors. Expression of the GluK4 receptor subunit in the forebrain is restricted to the CA3 region of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus regions where KARs modulate synaptic plasticity. In this study, ablation of Grik4, which encodes GluK4, in mice reduced KAR synaptic currents and altered activation properties of postsynaptic receptors but left two forms of presynaptic short-term plasticity intact. Disruption of both Grik4 and Grik5 caused complete loss of the postsynaptic ionotropic KAR current and impaired presynaptic frequency facilitation. Additionally, KAR surface expression was altered at pre- and postsynaptic sites at the MF synapse. Despite the loss of ionotropic signaling, KAR-mediated inhibition of the slow afterhyperpolarization current, which is dependent on metabotropic signaling, was intact in CA3 neurons. Long-term potentiation at the MF-CA3 synapse was reduced, likely through a loss of KAR modulation of excitability of the presynaptic MF axons. Genetic variants in the human GRIK4 gene alter the susceptibility for affective disorders (Bloss and Hunter, 2010). We found that ablation of Grik4 in mice resulted in reduced anxiety and an antidepressant-like phenotype. In the elevated zero-maze, a test for anxiety and risk taking behavior, and in two anxiogenic tests, marble-burying and novelty-induced suppression of feeding, anxiety-like behavior was consistently reduced in knockout animals. In the forced swim, a test of learned helplessness used to determine depression-like behavior, knockout mice demonstrated significantly less immobility suggesting

  4. Synthesis and characterization of the ternary telluroargentate K4[Ag18Te11

    KAUST Repository

    Davaasuren, Bambar

    2014-10-19

    The ternary potassium telluroargentate(I), K4[Ag18Te11], was prepared by solvothermal synthesis in ethylenediamine at 160 °C. It crystallizes in the cubic space group Fm3¯ m (no. 225) with the cell parameter a = 18.6589(6) Å. The crystal structure can be described as a [Ag18Te11]4- three-dimensional anionic framework with the voids accommodating potassium cations. Chemical bonding analysis reveals polar covalent Ag-Te bonds and considerable Ag-Ag interactions, which support the complex anionic character of the structure. The compound is thermally stable up to 450 °C in an inert atmosphere.

  5. Structural insight into the recognition of the H3K4me3 mark by the TFIID subunit TAF3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ingen, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297054651; van Schaik, F.M.A.; Wienk, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/203884884; Ballering, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325784876; Rehmann, H.; Dechesne, A.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841684; Kruijzer, J.A.W.; Liskamp, R.M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069091315; Timmers, H.T.M.; Boelens, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070151407

    2008-01-01

    Trimethylation of lysine residue K4 of histone H3 (H3K4me3) strongly correlates with active promoters for RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes. Several reader proteins, including the basal transcription factor TFIID, for this nucleosomal mark have been identified. Its TAF3 subunit specifically binds

  6. Electrochemical Catalysis of Inorganic Complex K4[Fe(CN)6] by Shewanellaoneidensis MR-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zhiyong; Wu, Ranran; Xiao, Yong

    The interaction between metal and bacteria is a universal and important biogeochemical processin environment. As a dissimilatory metal reduction bacterium, the electrochemically activebacteriium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 can transfer intracellular electrons to minerals. This ability is attribute...... andelectrocatalysis mechanisms of S. oneidensis MR-1 are under investigation. The ability of S. oneidensis MR-1 to catalyze redoxaction of inorganic metal complex compounds will provide an insight on metal cycles in nature....... to the redox proteins localized on the outer-membrane, for example, the MtrC, MtrB, MtrA and CymA2. Here we investigate its electrochemical properties towards redoxinorganic redox compounds. It shows strong electrocatalysis toward electrochemical oxidation of K4[Fe(CN)6]. As a redox molecule, K4[Fe(CN)6] gives......, with almost disappearance of the cathodic peak and strengthen of the anodic peak, which is a typical catalysis feature of electrochemical oxidation. Further experiments show that S. oneidensis MR-1 does not give such electrocatalysis toredox compounds such as Ru[(NH3)6]Cl3and Resorufin. Selectivity...

  7. SIM regional comparison SIM.L-K4.2009 on the calibration of internal and external diameter standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Theodore; Pires Alves, J. A.; Gastaldi, Bruno R.; Navarrete, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The Inter-American Metrology System (SIM) has carried out a key comparison of diameter measurements. The artifacts studied were four ring gages and four plug gages. The measurand was a specified diameter of each gauge at 20 °C and corrected to zero force. This report presents results obtained by the individual participants and an analysis of the results and their uncertainties. The results are in good agreement with one another, well within the range expected based on the measurement uncertainties claimed by the participants. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. Final Report on the Key Comparison CCM.P-K4.2012 in Absolute Pressure from 1 Pa to 10 kPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Jacob; Hendricks, Jay; Bock, Thomas; Dominik, Pražák; Kobata, Tokihiko; Torres, Jorge; Sadkovskaya, Irina

    2017-01-01

    The report summarizes the Consultative Committee for Mass (CCM) key comparison CCM.P-K4.2012 for absolute pressure spanning the range of 1 Pa to 10 000 Pa. The comparison was carried out at six National Metrology Institutes (NMIs), including National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Czech Metrology Institute (CMI), National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Centro Nacional de Metrología (CENAM), and DI Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM). The comparison was made via a calibrated transfer standard measured at each of the NMIs facilities using their laboratory standard during the period May 2012 to September 2013. The transfer package constructed for this comparison preformed as designed and provided a stable artifact to compare laboratory standards. Overall the participants were found to be statistically equivalent to the key comparison reference value.

  9. Application of standard end-quench test to structural steel with elevated carbon content at low hardenability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliner, R. E.; Vybornov, V. V.

    2013-03-01

    Special features of the test of plain steel with elevated carbon content for hardenability, which is used in the production of gears instead carburizing alloy steel, are considered. It is shown that it is possible and effective to use computer simulation of the hardenability detectable by testing of this class of steel by the method of end quenching with allowance for the chemical composition.

  10. Analysis of the Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MAP2K4 tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryland Georgina L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MAP2K4 is a putative tumor and metastasis suppressor gene frequently found to be deleted in various cancer types. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive analysis of this gene to assess its involvement in ovarian cancer. Methods We screened for mutations in MAP2K4 using High Resolution Melt analysis of 149 primary ovarian tumors and methylation at the promoter using Methylation-Specific Single-Stranded Conformation Polymorphism analysis of 39 tumors. We also considered the clinical impact of changes in MAP2K4 using publicly available expression and copy number array data. Finally, we used siRNA to measure the effect of reducing MAP2K4 expression in cell lines. Results In addition to 4 previously detected homozygous deletions, we identified a homozygous 16 bp truncating deletion and a heterozygous 4 bp deletion, each in one ovarian tumor. No promoter methylation was detected. The frequency of MAP2K4 homozygous inactivation was 5.6% overall, and 9.8% in high-grade serous cases. Hemizygous deletion of MAP2K4 was observed in 38% of samples. There were significant correlations of copy number and expression in three microarray data sets. There was a significant correlation between MAP2K4 expression and overall survival in one expression array data set, but this was not confirmed in an independent set. Treatment of JAM and HOSE6.3 cell lines with MAP2K4 siRNA showed some reduction in proliferation. Conclusions MAP2K4 is targeted by genetic inactivation in ovarian cancer and restricted to high grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas in our cohort.

  11. Diabetes prevention information in Japanese magazines with the largest print runs. Content analysis using clinical guidelines as a standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Emi; Mifune, Taka; Nakayama, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    To characterize information on diabetes prevention appearing in Japanese general health magazines and to examine the agreement of the content with that in clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of diabetes in Japan. We used the Japanese magazines' databases provided by the Media Research Center and selected magazines with large print runs published in 2006. Two medical professionals independently conducted content analysis based on items in the diabetes prevention guidelines. The number of pages for each item and agreement with the information in the guidelines were determined. We found 63 issues of magazines amounting to 8,982 pages; 484 pages included diabetes prevention related content. For 23 items included in the diabetes prevention guidelines, overall agreement of information printed in the magazines with that in the guidelines was 64.5% (471 out of 730). The number of times these items were referred to in the magazines varied widely, from 247 times for food items to 0 times for items on screening for pregnancy-induced diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Among the 20 items that were referred to at least once, 18 items showed more than 90% agreement with the guidelines. However, there was poor agreement for information on vegetable oil (2/14, 14%) and for specific foods (5/247, 2%). For the fatty acids category, "fat" was not mentioned in the guidelines; however, the term frequently appeared in magazines. "Uncertainty" was never mentioned in magazines for specific food items. The diabetes prevention related content in the health magazines differed from that defined in clinical practice guidelines. Most information in the magazines agreed with the guidelines, however some items were referred to inappropriately. To disseminate correct information to the public on diabetes prevention, health professionals and the media must collaborate.

  12. Glycolytic enzymatic activities in developing seeds involved in the differences between standard and low oil content sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso-Ponce, M Adrián; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-12-01

    As opposed to other oilseeds, developing sunflower seeds do not accumulate starch initially. They rely on the sucrose that comes from the mother plant to synthesise lipid precursors. Glycolysis is the principal source of carbon skeletons and reducing power for lipid biosynthesis. In this work, glycolytic initial metabolites and enzyme activities from developing seed of two different sunflower lines, of high and low oil content, were compared during storage lipid synthesis. These two lines showed different kinetic lipid accumulation in the developing embryos. Fatty acids levels during the initial and final stage of lipid synthesis were higher in CAS-6 than in ZEN-8. The analysis of the photosynthate and sugars content suggests that, although the hexoses levels were quite similar in both lines, the amount of sucrose produced by the mother plant and available for lipid synthesis was higher in CAS-6. Although, a smaller amount of sucrose is available in the ZEN-8 line, its seeds maintain the levels of intermediate sugars in the initial steps of glycolysis due to an increase in the levels of the invertase, hexokinase and phosphoglucose isomerase activities in ZEN-8, with respect to CAS-6. Also, a readjustment in the final part of this metabolic route took place, with the activities of phosphoglycerate kinase and enolase in CAS-6 being higher, allowing increased synthesis of phosphoenolpiruvate, the intermediate carbon donor for fatty acid synthesis. In addition, recently, it has been shown that Arabidopsis mutants with a lower fat content in their seeds have a higher amount of sucrose. These data together point to these last two enzymatic activities, phosphoglycerate kinase and enolase, as being responsible for the lower fat content in the ZEN-8 line.

  13. SANITARY-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE PRODUCTS FOR WHICH STANDARDS REGULATING CONTENT OF NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES ARE NOT STATED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, products that are produced using natural minerals with a high content of natural radionuclides have become widely used by households. The natural background radiation level can vary by tens and hundred times even for similar products, while areas of their application can differ from jewelry to medicine. However, normative documents (guidelines on the content of natural radionuclides in such products have not been yet created. To ensure radiation safety in the use of these products, the dose limit is set: the effective annual dose due to direct use of these products must not exceed 0.1 mSv. This article discusses issues related to the application of the dedicated sections of the documents OSPORB-99/2010 and SanPiN 2.6.1.2800-10 during sanitary-epidemiological assessment of the products, for which regulations on the content of natural radionuclide’s are not created. Possible scenarios of humanexposure when using these products with the primary purpose are considered. Based on the limit of 0.1 mSv annual effective dose, the criteria for a rapid compliance assessment of the radiological characteristics of the individual groups of these products are proposed.

  14. 关于多重多部图λKn(t)的(K4-e,λ)—分解%Decomposition of Complete Multipartite Multi-graph λKn(t) into K4-e

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵彤

    2001-01-01

    Hoffman在文献[6]中已经完全解决了多重完全图λKn(t)的(K4-e,λ)一分解问题.本文将Hoffman的结果从多重完全图推广到多重多部图,证明了λKn(t)的(K4-e,λ)-分解存在的充分必要条件.

  15. Characterization of Primary Standards for Use in the HPLC Analysis of the Procyanidin Content of Cocoa and Chocolate Containing Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Payne

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the characterization of a series of commercially available procyanidin standards ranging from dimers DP = 2 to decamers DP = 10 for the determination of procyanidins from cocoa and chocolate. Using a combination of HPLC with fluorescence detection and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, the purity of each standard was determined and these data were used to determine relative response factors. These response factors were compared with other response factors obtained from published methods. Data comparing the procyanidin analysis of a commercially available US dark chocolate calculated using each of the calibration methods indicates divergent results and demonstrate that previous methods may significantly underreport the procyanidins in cocoa-containing products. These results have far reaching implications because the previous calibration methods have been used to develop data for a variety of scientific reports, including food databases and clinical studies.

  16. Characterization of primary standards for use in the HPLC analysis of the procyanidin content of cocoa and chocolate containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, William J; Stanley, Bruce; Glinski, Jan A; Davey, Matthew; Payne, Mark J; Stuart, David A

    2009-10-15

    This report describes the characterization of a series of commercially available procyanidin standards ranging from dimers DP = 2 to decamers DP = 10 for the determination of procyanidins from cocoa and chocolate. Using a combination of HPLC with fluorescence detection and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, the purity of each standard was determined and these data were used to determine relative response factors. These response factors were compared with other response factors obtained from published methods. Data comparing the procyanidin analysis of a commercially available US dark chocolate calculated using each of the calibration methods indicates divergent results and demonstrate that previous methods may significantly underreport the procyanidins in cocoa-containing products. These results have far reaching implications because the previous calibration methods have been used to develop data for a variety of scientific reports, including food databases and clinical studies.

  17. Bioinformatics in the secondary science classroom: A study of state content standards and students' perceptions of, and performance in, bioinformatics lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefer, Stephen H.

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern Biology marks a new revolution in science, which promises to influence science education at all levels. This thesis examined state standards for content that articulated bioinformatics, and explored secondary students' affective and cognitive perceptions of, and performance in, a bioinformatics mini-unit. The results are presented as three studies. The first study analyzed secondary science standards of 49 U.S States (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics at the introductory high school biology level. The bionformatics content of each state's Biology standards were categorized into nine areas and the prevalence of each area documented. The nine areas were: The Human Genome Project, Forensics, Evolution, Classification, Nucleotide Variations, Medicine, Computer Use, Agriculture/Food Technology, and Science Technology and Society/Socioscientific Issues (STS/SSI). Findings indicated a generally low representation of bioinformatics related content, which varied substantially across the different areas. Recommendations are made for reworking existing standards to incorporate bioinformatics and to facilitate the goal of promoting science literacy in this emerging new field among secondary school students. The second study examined thirty-two students' affective responses to, and content mastery of, a two-week bioinformatics mini-unit. The findings indicate that the students generally were positive relative to their interest level, the usefulness of the lessons, the difficulty level of the lessons, likeliness to engage in additional bioinformatics, and were overall successful on the assessments. A discussion of the results and significance is followed by suggestions for future research and implementation for transferability. The third study presents a case study of individual differences among ten secondary school students, whose cognitive and affective percepts were

  18. Advertisements for medicines in leading medical journals in 18 countries: a 12-month survey of information content and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herxheimer, A; Lundborg, C S; Westerholm, B

    1993-01-01

    The information content of 6,710 advertisements for medicines in medical journals was surveyed to provide a baseline for monitoring the effect of WHO's Ethical Criteria for Medicinal Drug Promotion. The advertisements (ads) appeared during 12 months (1987-1988) in 23 leading national medical journals in 18 countries. Local participants, mostly doctors or pharmacists, examined them. The presence or absence in each ad of important information was noted. In most ads the generic name appeared in smaller type than the brand name. Indications were mentioned more often than the negative effects of medicines. The ads gave less pharmacological than medical information. However, important warnings and precautions were missing in half, and side effects and contraindications in about 40 percent. Prices tended to be given only in countries where a social security system pays for the medicines. The information content of ads in the developing countries differed surprisingly little from that in the industrialized countries. Almost all the ads (96 percent) included one or more pictures; 58 percent of these were considered irrelevant. The authors believe it is a mistake to regard ads as trivial. If they are not considered seriously they will influence the use of medicines as they are intended to do, but read critically they can provide useful information.

  19. Inhibition of H3K4me2 Demethylation Protects Auditory Hair Cells from Neomycin-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingzi; Yu, Huiqian; Cai, Chengfu; Sun, Shan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2015-08-01

    Aminoglycoside-induced hair cell loss is a major cause of hearing impairment in children and deserves more attention in medical research. Epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to protect hair cells from ototoxic drugs. In this study, we focused on the role of dimethylated histone H3K4 (H3K4me2) in hair cell survival. To investigate the effects of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1)--the histone demethylase primarily responsible for demethylating H3K4me2--on neomycin-induced hair cell loss, isolated cochleae were pretreated with LSD1 inhibitors followed by neomycin exposure. There was a severe loss of hair cells in the organ of Corti after neomycin exposure, and inhibition of LSD1 significantly protected against neomycin-induced hair cell loss. H3K4me2 expression in the nuclei of hair cells decreased after exposure to neomycin, and blocking the decreased expression of H3K4me2 with LSD1 inhibitors prevented hair cell loss. Local delivery of these inhibitors in vivo also protected hair cells from neomycin-induced ototoxicity and maintained the hearing threshold in mice as determined by auditory brain stem response. This inhibition of neomycin-induced apoptosis occurs via reduced caspase-3 activation. Together, our findings demonstrate the protective role for H3K4me2 against neomycin-induced hair cell loss and hearing loss.

  20. Simulation of variations in the composition of samples in the evaluation of neutral detergent fiber contents by using cellulose standard in filter bags made from different textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Neves Pereira Valente

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of using nylon textiles (50 μm, F57 (Ankom® and non-woven textile (NWT - 100 g/m² on laboratory evaluation of neutral detergent fiber (NDF by using quantitative filter paper as purified cellulose standard and by simulating different composition of samples with additions of corn starch, pectin, casein and soybean oil. The quantitative filter paper was processed in a knife mill with a 1-mm screen sieve and the procedures for analyses of NDF contents were performed in a fiber analyzer (Ankom220®. Four experiments were carried out with additions of different ingredients into the filter paper: corn starch added at the levels of 15 or 50%; pectin, 15 or 50%; casein, 10 or 30%; and soybean oil at 0, 5, 10, 15, 25 or 50% of dry matter, respectively. The ratio 20 mg of dry matter/cm² of surface was followed. When it was relevant, in function of the evaluated treatments, heat-stable α-amylase was used. The use of F57 and NWT resulted in accurate estimates of NDF contents whereas nylon textile caused loss of insoluble fibrous particles, compromising accuracy of the results. For samples containing starch, use of heat-stable α-amylase is recommended in the evaluation of NDF contents. Pectin and casein are completely solubilized by neutral detergent solution. Levels of oil higher than 10% cause overestimation of NDF contents.

  1. Water in Comet 2/2003 K4 (LINEAR) with Spitzer

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Charles E; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Gehrz, R D

    2007-01-01

    We present sensitive 5.5 to 7.6 micron spectra of comet C/2003 K4 (LINEAR) obtained on 16 July 2004 (r_{h} = 1.760 AU, Delta_{Spitzer} = 1.409 AU, phase angle 35.4 degrees) with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The nu_{2} vibrational band of water is detected with a high signal-to-noise ratio (> 50). Model fitting to the best spectrum yields a water ortho-to-para ratio of 2.47 +/- 0.27, which corresponds to a spin temperature of 28.5^{+6.5}_{-3.5} K. Spectra acquired at different offset positions show that the rotational temperature decreases with increasing distance from the nucleus, which is consistent with evolution from thermal to fluorescence equilibrium. The inferred water production rate is (2.43 +/- 0.25) \\times 10^{29} molec. s^{-1}. The spectra do not show any evidence for emission from PAHs and carbonate minerals, in contrast to results reported for comets 9P/Tempel 1 and C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). However, residual emission is observed near 7.3 micron the origin of which remains unidentified.

  2. Improved immunoelectron microscopic method for localizing cytoskeletal proteins in Lowicryl K4M embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loesser, K E; Doane, K J; Wilson, F J; Roisen, F J; Malamed, S

    1986-11-01

    We have modified the Lowicryl K4M low-temperature dehydration and embedding procedure for immunoelectron microscopy to provide improved ultrastructural detail and facilitate the localization of actin and tubulin in isolated rat adrenocortical cells, chick spinal cord with attached dorsal root ganglia (SC-DRG), and cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Cells and tissues were fixed for immunocytochemistry either in a mixture of 2% paraformaldehyde and 0.25% glutaraldehyde (0.1 M PIPES buffer, pH 7.3) or in a mixture of 0.3% glutaraldehyde and 1.0% ethyldimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide (0.1 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.3). Dehydration was in ethanol at progressively lower temperatures to -35 degrees C. Infiltration at -35 degrees C was followed by ultraviolet polymerization at -20 degrees C. Comparable samples were fixed in glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide and embedded in Epon 812 or Epon-Araldite. Post-embedding immunostaining of thin sections utilized commercially available monoclonal antibodies to tubulin and actin followed by the protein A-gold technique (Roth et al., Endocrinology 108:247, 1981). Actin immunoreactivity was observed at the periphery of mitochondria and between mitochondria and lipid droplets in rat adrenocortical cells and at the periphery of neuronal cell processes of SC-DRG. Tubulin immunoreactivity was associated with microtubules throughout neurites of cultured DRG. Our modified technique allows preservation of ultrastructural details as well as localization of antigens by immunoelectron microscopy.

  3. The Role of H3K4me3 in Transcriptional Regulation Is Altered in Huntington's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjun Dong

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder resulting from expansion of CAG repeats in the Huntingtin (HTT gene. Previous studies have shown mutant HTT can alter expression of genes associated with dysregulated epigenetic modifications. One of the most widely studied chromatin modifications is trimethylated lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3. Here, we conducted the first comprehensive study of H3K4me3 ChIP-sequencing in neuronal chromatin from the prefrontal cortex of six HD cases and six non-neurologic controls, and its association with gene expression measured by RNA-sequencing. We detected 2,830 differentially enriched H3K4me3 peaks between HD and controls, with 55% of them down-regulated in HD. Although H3K4me3 signals are expected to be associated with mRNA levels, we found an unexpected discordance between altered H3K4me3 peaks and mRNA levels. Gene ontology (GO term enrichment analysis of the genes with differential H3K4me3 peaks, revealed statistically significantly enriched GO terms only in the genes with down-regulated signals in HD. The most frequently implicated biological process terms are organ morphogenesis and positive regulation of gene expression. More than 9,000 H3K4me3 peaks were located not near any recognized transcription start sites and approximately 36% of these "distal" peaks co-localized to known enhancer sites. Six transcription factors and chromatin remodelers are differentially enriched in HD H3K4me3 distal peaks, including EZH2 and SUZ12, two core subunits of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2. Moreover, PRC2 repressive state was significantly depleted in HD-enriched peaks, suggesting the epigenetic role of PRC2 inhibition associated with up-regulated H3K4me3 in Huntington's disease. In summary, our study provides new insights into transcriptional dysregulation of Huntington's disease by analyzing the differentiation of H3K4me3 enrichment.

  4. Melinda – A custom search engine that provides access to locally-developed content using the HL7 Infobutton standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yik-Ki J.; Staes, Catherine J.

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare organizations use care pathways to standardize care, but once developed, adoption rates often remain low. One challenge for usage concerns clinicians’ difficulty in accessing guidance when it is most needed. Although the HL7 ‘Infobutton Standard’ allows clinicians easier access to external references, access to locally-developed resources often requires clinicians to deviate from their normal electronic health record (EHR) workflow to use another application. To address this gap between internal and external resources, we reviewed the literature and existing practices at the University of Utah Health Care. We identify the requirements to meet the needs of a healthcare enterprise and clinicians, describe the design and development of a prototype to aggregate both internal and external resources from within or outside the EHR, and evaluated strengths and limitations of the prototype. The system is functional but not implemented in a live EHR environment. We suggest next steps and enhancements.

  5. A Hybrid Approach for Detecting Stego Content in Corporate Mail Using Neural Network Based Simplified-Data Encryption Standard Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Anitha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The major growth of information technology is based on the security measures implemented. Steganography is a method which is used to give high level security. Approach: Today, email management and email authenticity must be unquestionable with strong chains of custody, constant availability and tamper-proof security. A secure communication can be achieved through neural based steganography. Email is insecure. Results: This research developed an application which can check the Email content of corporate mails by S-DES algorithm along with the neural networks back propagation approach. A new filtering algorithm is also developed which can used to extract only the JPG images from the corporate emails. Experimental research shows that this algorithm is more accurate and reliable than the conventional methods. Conclusion: We anticipate that this study can also give a clear picture of the current trends in Steganography and the experimental results indicate this method is valid in steganalysis. This method can be used for internet/network security.

  6. Comparative analyses of H3K4 and H3K27 trimethylations between the mouse cerebrum and testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Liu, Wanfei; Zhao, Yuhui; Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Daoyong; Ding, Feng; Xin, Chengqi; Zhang, Zhang; Song, Shuhui; Sun, Fanglin; Yu, Jun; Hu, Songnian

    2012-04-01

    The global features of H3K4 and H3K27 trimethylations (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) have been well studied in recent years, but most of these studies were performed in mammalian cell lines. In this work, we generated the genome-wide maps of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 of mouse cerebrum and testis using ChIP-seq and their high-coverage transcriptomes using ribominus RNA-seq with SOLiD technology. We examined the global patterns of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in both tissues and found that modifications are closely-associated with tissue-specific expression, function and development. Moreover, we revealed that H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 rarely occur in silent genes, which contradicts the findings in previous studies. Finally, we observed that bivalent domains, with both H3K4me3 and H3K27me3, existed ubiquitously in both tissues and demonstrated an invariable preference for the regulation of developmentally-related genes. However, the bivalent domains tend towards a "winner-takes-all" approach to regulate the expression of associated genes. We also verified the above results in mouse ES cells. As expected, the results in ES cells are consistent with those in cerebrum and testis. In conclusion, we present two very important findings. One is that H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 rarely occur in silent genes. The other is that bivalent domains may adopt a "winner-takes-all" principle to regulate gene expression. Copyright © 2012 Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predicting the probability of H3K4me3 occupation at a base pair from the genome sequence context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Misook; Hong, Soondo; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2013-05-01

    Histone modifications regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. Although nucleosome formation is known to be affected by primary DNA sequence composition, no sequence signature has been identified for histone modifications. It is known that dense H3K4me3 nucleosome sites are accompanied by a low density of other nucleosomes and are associated with gene activation. This observation suggests a different sequence composition of H3K4me3 from other nucleosomes. To understand the relationship between genome sequence and chromatin structure, we studied DNA sequences at histone modification sites in various human cell types. We found sequence specificity for H3K4me3, but not for other histone modifications. Using the sequence specificities of H3 and H3K4me3 nucleosomes, we developed a model that computes the probability of H3K4me3 occupation at each base pair from the genome sequence context. A comparison of our predictions with experimental data suggests a high performance of our method, revealing a strong association between H3K4me3 and specific genomic DNA context. The high probability of H3K4me3 occupation occurs at transcription start and termination sites, exon boundaries and binding sites of transcription regulators involved in chromatin modification activities, including histone acetylases and enhancer- and insulator-associated factors. Thus, the human genome sequence contains signatures for chromatin modifications essential for gene regulation and development. Our method may be applied to find new sequence elements functioning by chromatin modulation. Software and supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. Comparative Analyses of H3K4 and H3K27 Trimethylations Between the Mouse Cerebrum and Testis

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Peng

    2012-06-08

    The global features of H3K4 and H3K27 trimethylations (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) have been well studied in recent years, but most of these studies were performed in mammalian cell lines. In this work, we generated the genome-wide maps of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 of mouse cerebrum and testis using ChIP-seq and their high-coverage transcriptomes using ribominus RNA-seq with SOLiD technology. We examined the global patterns of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in both tissues and found that modifications are closely-associated with tissue-specific expression, function and development. Moreover, we revealed that H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 rarely occur in silent genes, which contradicts the findings in previous studies. Finally, we observed that bivalent domains, with both H3K4me3 and H3K27me3, existed ubiquitously in both tissues and demonstrated an invariable preference for the regulation of developmentally-related genes. However, the bivalent domains tend towards a “winner-takes-all” approach to regulate the expression of associated genes. We also verified the above results in mouse ES cells. As expected, the results in ES cells are consistent with those in cerebrum and testis. In conclusion, we present two very important findings. One is that H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 rarely occur in silent genes. The other is that bivalent domains may adopt a “winner-takes-all” principle to regulate gene expression.

  9. Predicting the probability of H3K4me3 occupation at a base pair from the genome sequence context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Misook; Hong, Soondo; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Histone modifications regulate chromatin structure and gene expression. Although nucleosome formation is known to be affected by primary DNA sequence composition, no sequence signature has been identified for histone modifications. It is known that dense H3K4me3 nucleosome sites are accompanied by a low density of other nucleosomes and are associated with gene activation. This observation suggests a different sequence composition of H3K4me3 from other nucleosomes. Approach: To understand the relationship between genome sequence and chromatin structure, we studied DNA sequences at histone modification sites in various human cell types. We found sequence specificity for H3K4me3, but not for other histone modifications. Using the sequence specificities of H3 and H3K4me3 nucleosomes, we developed a model that computes the probability of H3K4me3 occupation at each base pair from the genome sequence context. Results: A comparison of our predictions with experimental data suggests a high performance of our method, revealing a strong association between H3K4me3 and specific genomic DNA context. The high probability of H3K4me3 occupation occurs at transcription start and termination sites, exon boundaries and binding sites of transcription regulators involved in chromatin modification activities, including histone acetylases and enhancer- and insulator-associated factors. Thus, the human genome sequence contains signatures for chromatin modifications essential for gene regulation and development. Our method may be applied to find new sequence elements functioning by chromatin modulation. Availability: Software and supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Contact: misook.ha@samsung.com or wli@uchicago.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23511541

  10. The Application of Red Pigments from Streptomyces K-4B and Dayak Onions (Eleutherine palmifolia (L.) Merr.) In Colouring Glycerine Soap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlina; Asnani, A.; Diastuti, H.

    2017-02-01

    Glycerin soap has been colored with red pigment from Streptomyces K-4 B and Dayak onion (Eleutherine palmifolia (L.) Merr). Both red pigments from Streptomyces K-4B and Dayak onion were extracted with ethanol by maceration method, followed with soxhlet extraction. The concentration of red pigment added was varied (0, 200, 300, 400 μL) to evaluate the best product. The resulted glycerine soaps were characterized and analyzed based on SNI 06-3532-1994. The research results indicated that the glycerine soap has water content ranged from 0.36% to 12.56%; the amount of fatty acid ranged from 14% to 36.75%; the amount of free fatty acids ranged from 0% to 0.37%; the non-saponifiable fat ranged from 0.001 to 0.019%; the pH ranged from 10.33 to 11.06; the foam stability ranged from 0.61% to 89.09%. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect between treatments significantly different at 95% confidence level (α = 0.05) on the characteristics of glycerine soap. The results of an organoleptic test with parameters observed were color, aroma, texture, foam, rough impression upon usage and rough impression after usage, gave “like to very like soap” with a maximum score of 4.67 (1 to 5 scale). Based on the color assessment, the organoleptic panelists preferred the glycerine soap of SK-4B3 (red pigment from Streptomyces K-4B, 200 μL) with the score of 4.30 (like to very like).

  11. Report of the CCQM-K97: measurement of arsenobetaine standard solution and arsenobetaine content in fish tissue (tunafish)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L. D.; Wang, J.; WEI, C.; Kuroiwa, T.; Narukawa, T.; Ito, N.; HIOKI, A.; CHIBA, K.; Yim, Y. H.; Lee, K. S.; Lim, Y. R.; Turk, G. C.; Davis, C. W.; Mester, Z.; Yang, L.; McCooeye, M.; Maxwell, P.; Cankur, O.; Tokman, N.; Coskun, F. G.

    2017-01-01

    The CCQM-K97 key comparison was organized by the inorganic analysis working group (IAWG) of CCQM as a follow-up to completed pilot study CCQM-P96 and P96.1 to test the abilities of the national metrology institutes to accurately quantitate the mass fraction of arsenobetaine (AsB) in standard solution and in fish tissue. A pilot study CCQM-P133 was parallelized with this key comparison. National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China and National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) acted as the coordinating laboratories. Six NMIs participated in CCQM-K97 and two institutes participated in CCQM-P133, and all of them submitted the results. Some NMIs submitted more than one results by different methods. The results were in excellent agreement with each other, and obviously better than those of previous P96 and P96.1. Therefore the calibrant which each NMI used was comparable. It shows that the capabilities of some of the participants have been improved after the previous pilot studies. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. The Amazing COS FUV (1320 - 1460 A) Spectrum of (lambda) Vel (K4Ib-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The FUV spectrum (1320-1460 A) of the K4 lb-11 supergiant (lambda) Vel was observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on HST, as part of the Ayres and Redfield Cycle 17 SNAP program "SNAPing Coronal Iron". This spectrum covers a region not previously recorded in (lambda) Vel at high resolution and, in a mere 20 minutes of exposure, reveals a treasure trove of information. It shows a wide variety of strong emission lines, superposed on a bright continuum, with contributions from both atomic and molecular species. Multiple absorptions, including numerous Ni II and Fe II lines, are visible over this continuum, which is likely generated in the chromosphere of the star. Evidence of the stellar wind is seen in the P Cygni profiles of the CII lines near 1335 A and the results of fluorescence processes are visible throughout the region. The spectrum has remarkable similarities to that of (alpha) Boo (K1.5 III), but significant differences as well, including substantial FUV continuum emission, reminiscent of the M2 Iab supergiant (alpha) Ori, but minus the CO fundamental absorption bands seen in the spectrum of the latter star. However, fluoresced CO emission is present, as in the K-giant stars (alpha) Boo and (alpha) Tau (K5 III). The presence of hot plasma in the atmosphere of the star, indicated by previous GHRS observations of Si III] and C III] lines near 1900 A and FUSE observations of O VI 1032 A, is further confirmed by the detection in this COS spectrum of the Si IV UV 1 lines near 1400 A, though both lines are contaminated by overlying fluorescent H2 emission. We present the details of this spectrum, in comparison with stars of similar temperature or luminosity and discuss the implications for the structure of, and the radiative processes active in, the outer atmospheres of these stars.

  13. Aberrant intracellular localization of H3k4me3 demonstrates an early epigenetic phenomenon in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Diego; Delvaux, Elaine; Nolz, Jennifer; Tan, Yuyan; Grover, Andrew; Oddo, Salvatore; Coleman, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) the mislocalization of epigenetic molecules between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm. We have extended our finding to include the aberrant localization of histone 3 trimethylation on lysine 4 (H3k4me3), an epigenetic mark associated with actively transcribing genes as well as those poised for transcription. These findings raise the question of where the ectopic localization of H3k4me3 fits within the cascade of cell biological events in the progression of AD. We, therefore, examined the expression and intracellular location of H3k4me3 as a function of Braak stage and also in relation to a series of tau markers that are indicative of disease state. Both lines of evidence showed that ectopic localization of H3k4me3 is early in the course of disease. Because of the known role of H3k4me3 in the expression of synaptic genes, our data suggest an epigenetic role in synaptic deficits early in the course of AD. PMID:26553823

  14. Aberrant intracellular localization of H3k4me3 demonstrates an early epigenetic phenomenon in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Diego; Delvaux, Elaine; Nolz, Jennifer; Tan, Yuyan; Grover, Andrew; Oddo, Salvatore; Coleman, Paul D

    2015-12-01

    We have previously reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) the mislocalization of epigenetic molecules between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm. We have extended our finding to include the aberrant localization of histone 3 trimethylation on lysine 4 (H3k4me3), an epigenetic mark associated with actively transcribing genes as well as those poised for transcription. These findings raise the question of where the ectopic localization of H3k4me3 fits within the cascade of cell biological events in the progression of AD. We, therefore, examined the expression and intracellular location of H3k4me3 as a function of Braak stage and also in relation to a series of tau markers that are indicative of disease state. Both lines of evidence showed that ectopic localization of H3k4me3 is early in the course of disease. Because of the known role of H3k4me3 in the expression of synaptic genes, our data suggest an epigenetic role in synaptic deficits early in the course of AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential dynamics of histone H3 methylation at positions K4 and K9 in the mouse zygote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Jörn

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mouse zygote the paternal genome undergoes dramatic structural and epigenetic changes. Chromosomes are decondensed, protamines replaced by histones and DNA is rapidly and actively demethylated. The epigenetic asymmetry between parental genomes remains at least until the 2-cell stage suggesting functional differences between paternal and maternal genomes during early cleavage stages. Results Here we analyzed the timing of histone deposition on the paternal pronucleus and the dynamics of histone H3 methylation (H3/K4mono-, H3/K4tri- and H3/K9di-methylation immediately after fertilization. Whereas maternal chromatin maintains all types of histone H3 methylation throughout the zygotic development, paternal chromosomes acquire new and unmodified histones shortly after fertilization. In the following hours we observe a gradual increase in H3/K4mono-methylation whereas H3/K4tri-methylation is not present before latest pronuclear stages. Histone H3/K9di-methylation is completely absent from the paternal pronucleus, including metaphase chromosomes of the first mitotic stage. Conclusion Parallel to the epigenetic asymmetry in DNA methylation, chromatin modifications are also different between both parental genomes in the very first hours post fertilization. Whereas methylation at H3/K4 gradually becomes similar between both genomes, H3/K9 methylation remains asymmetric.

  16. Association of MAP4K4 gene single nucleotide polymorphism with mastitis and milk traits in Chinese Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Dinesh; Chen, Xing; Ur Rehman, Zia; Hao, Xingjie; Ullah, Farman; Dad, Rahim; Talpur, Hira Sajjad; Kadariya, Ishwari; Cui, Lu; Fan, Mingxia; Zhang, Shujun

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the studies presented in this Research Communication was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms present in the MAP4K4 gene with different milk traits in dairy cows. Based on previous QTL fine mapping results on bovine chromosome 11, the MAP4K4 gene was selected as a candidate gene to evaluate its effect on somatic cell count and milk traits in ChineseHolstein cows. Milk production traits including milk yield, fat percentage, and protein percentage of each cow were collected using 305 d lactation records. Association between MAP4K4 genotype and different traits and Somatic Cell Score (SCS) was performed using General Linear Regression Model of R. Two SNPs at exon 18 (c.2061T > G and c.2196T > C) with genotype TT in both SNPs were found significantly higher for somatic SCS. We found the significant effect of exon 18 (c.2061T > G) on protein percentage, milk yield and SCS. We identified SNPs at different location of MAP4K4 gene of the cattle and several of them were significantly associated with the somatic cell score and other different milk traits. Thus, MAP4K4 gene could be a useful candidate gene for selection of dairy cattle against mastitis and the identified polymorphisms might potentially be strong genetic markers.

  17. Gene-gene interaction and RNA splicing profiles of MAP2K4 gene in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchetynsky, Klementy; Protsyuk, Darya; Ronninger, Marcus; Diaz-Gallo, Lina-Marcela; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid

    2015-05-01

    We performed gene-gene interaction analysis, with HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles for 195 SNPs within immunologically important MAP2K, MAP3K and MAP4K gene families, in 2010 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and 2280 healthy controls. We found a significant statistical interaction for rs10468473 with SE alleles in autoantibody-positive RA. Individuals heterozygous for rs10468473 demonstrated higher expression of total MAP2K4 mRNA in blood, compared to A-allele homozygous. We discovered a novel, putatively translated, "cassette exon" RNA splice form of MAP2K4, differentially expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 88 RA cases and controls. Within the group of RA patients, we observed a correlation of MAP2K4 isoform expression with carried SE alleles, autoantibody, and rheumatoid factor profiles. TNF-dependent modulation of isoform expression pattern was detected in the Jurkat cell line. Our data suggest a genetic interaction between MAP2K4 and HLA-DRB1, and the importance of rs10468473 and MAP2K4 splice variants in the development of autoantibody-positive RA.

  18. Transcriptional regulation of the differentiation-linked human K4 promoter is dependent upon esophageal-specific nuclear factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, O G; Jenkins, T D; Rustgi, A K

    1998-09-11

    The stratified squamous epithelium comprises actively proliferating basal cells that undergo a program of differentiation accompanied by morphological, biochemical, and genetic changes. The transcriptional regulatory signals and the genes that orchestrate this switch from proliferation to differentiation can be studied through the keratin gene family. Given the localization of keratin 4 (K4) to the early differentiated suprabasal compartment and having previously demonstrated that targeted disruption of this gene in murine embryonic stem cells results in impairment of the normal differentiation program in esophageal and corneal epithelial cells, we studied the transcriptional regulation of the human K4 promoter. A panel of K4 promoter deletions were found in transient transfection assays to be predominantly active in esophageal and corneal cell lines. A critical cis-regulatory element resides between -163 and -140 bp and contains an inverted CACACCT motif. A site-directed mutated version of this motif within the K4 promoter renders it inactive, whereas the wild-type version is active in a heterologous promoter system. It specifically binds esophageal-specific zinc-dependent transcriptional factors. Our studies demonstrate that regulation of the human K4 promoter is in part mediated through tissue-specific transcriptional factors.

  19. Over-expression of histone H3K4 demethylase gene JMJ15 enhances salt tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan eShen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3 has been shown to be involved in stress-responsive gene expression and gene priming in plants. However, the role of H3K4me3 resetting in the processes is not clear. In this work we studied the expression and function of Arabidopsis H3K4 demethylase gene JMJ15. We show that the expression of JMJ15 was relatively low and was limited to a number of tissues during vegetative growth but was higher in young floral organs. Over-expression of the gene in gain-of-function mutants reduced the plant height with accumulation of lignin in stems, while the loss-of-function mutation did not produce any visible phenotype. The gain-of-function mutants showed enhanced salt tolerance, whereas the loss-of-function mutant was more sensitive to salt compared to the wild type. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that over-expression of JMJ15 down-regulated many genes which are preferentially marked by H3K4me3 and H3K4me2. Many of the down-regulated genes encode transcription regulators involved in stress responses. The data suggest that increased JMJ15 levels may regulate the gene expression program that enhances stress tolerance.

  20. SET DOMAIN GROUP701 encodes a H3K4-methytransferase and regulates multiple key processes of rice plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kunpeng; Yu, Yu; Dong, Aiwu; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2017-07-01

    Chromatin-based epigenetic information plays an important role in developmental gene regulation, in response to environment, and in natural variation of gene expression levels. Histone H3 lysine 4 di/trimethylation (H3K4me2/3) is abundant in euchromatin and is generally associated with transcriptional activation. Strikingly, however, enzymes catalyzing H3K4me2/3 remain poorly characterized in crops so far. Here, we investigated the function of the rice SET DOMAIN GROUP 701 (SDG701) gene by molecular and biochemical characterization of the gene product, and by studying effects of its loss or gain of function on plant growth and development. We demonstrated that SDG701 encodes a methytransferase specifically catalyzing H3K4 methylation. Overexpression and knockdown experiments showed that SDG701 is crucial for proper sporophytic plant development as well as for gametophytic transmission that directly impacts rice grain production. In-depth analysis of plant flowering time revealed that SDG701 promotes rice flowering under either long-day or short-day photoperiods. Consistently, the SDG701 protein was found to bind chromatin to promote H3K4me3 and to enhance expression of the rice Hd3a and RFT1 florigens. Collectively, our results establish SDG701 as a major rice H3K4-specific methyltransferase and provide important insights into function of H3K4me3 deposition in transcription activation of florigens in promoting plant flowering. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Aberrant intracellular localization of H3k4me3 demonstrates an early epigenetic phenomenon in Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mastroeni, Diego; Delvaux, Elaine; Nolz, Jennifer; Tan, Yuyan; Grover, Andrew; Oddo, Salvatore; Coleman, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) the mislocalization of epigenetic molecules between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm. We have extended our finding to include the aberrant localization of histone 3 trimethylation on lysine 4 (H3k4me3), an epigenetic mark associated with actively transcribing genes as well as those poised for transcription. These findings raise the question of where the ectopic localization of H3k4me3 fits within the cascade of cell biological events i...

  2. Analisis Cakupan Antenatal Care K4 Program Kesehatan Ibu dan Anak di Wilayah Kerja Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Padang Pariaman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmispendriya Gusna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPencapaian target K4 (kunjungan ibu hamil ke tenaga kesehatan yang dilakukan paling sedikit 4 kali selama hamil akan terlaksana jika adanya motivasi bidan di desa ditambah pembinaan dari bidan koordinator yang secara rutin dilakukan dalam bentuk supervisi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis cakupan antenatal care K4 program kesehatan ibu dan anak di wilayah kerja dinas kesehatan kabupaten Padang Pariaman. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian gabungan antara kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Subjek penelitian untuk penelitian kuantitatif  adalah 49 orang bidan desa, sedangkan informan untuk kualitatif adalah kepala bidang kesehatan keluarga dan Kasie kesehatan ibu dan anak dinas kesehatan kabupaten Padang Pariaman, kepala puskesmas, petugas pemegang program KIA dan bidan pengelola KIA di puskesmas Sungai Limau. Hasil penelitian ini mendapatkan lebih dari separoh (53,1% bidan desa memiliki motivasi rendah, sedangkan lebih dari separoh (67,3% bidan koordinator sudah melakukan supervisi  ke bidan desa dan pada umumnya (91,8% responden memiliki cakupan K4 yang rendah. Tidak terdapat hubungan antara motivasi bidan desa dan supervisi bidan koordinator dengan cakupan antenatal care K4 (p < 0.05. Cakupan antenatal care K4 di Kabupaten Padang Pariaman belum berhasil karena kurangnya peran aktif bidan desa di tengah masyarakat, monitoring dan evaluasi dari dinas kesehatan dan pimpinan puskesmas serta supervisi bidan koordinator belum optimal, serta sumber daya manusia yang belum memaksimalkan perannya dalam melaksanakan tugas ditambah masih kurangnya  kelengkapan sarana dan prasarana. Perlu optimalisasi peran dan fungsi bidan di desa dan optimalisasi kemitraan dengan berbagai pihak dalam komunitas.Kata kunci: cakupan antenatal care K4, motivasi, supervisi AbstractThe achievement of K4 (four time antenatal care target will be success with support from motivation of village midwives and routine supervision of coordinator midwives. The

  3. Salivary Fluoride level in preschool children after toothbrushing with standard and low fluoride content dentifrice, using the transversal dentifrice application technique: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Jandre Melo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the salivary fluoride concentration in pre-school children after toothbrushing with dentifrice containing standard (1100ppmF/NaF and low (500ppmF/NaF fluoride concentration, using the transversal technique of placing the product on the toothbrush. Methods: Eight children of both sexes, ranging from 4 to 9 years, and 5 years and 6 months of age, participated in the study. The experiment was divided into two phases with a weekly interval. In the first stage, the children used the standard concentration dentifrice for one week, and in the second, the low concentration product. Samples were collected at the end of each experimental stage, at the following times: Before brushing, immediately afterwards, and after 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The fluoride contents were analyzed by the microdiffusion technique. Statistical analysis was done by the analysis of variance ANOVA and Student’s-t test (p<0.05. Results: The salivary fluoride concentration was significantly higher at all times, when the standard concentration product was used. The comparison between the Halogen concentration found before bushing and immediately afterwards, showed that there was a 6.8 times increase in the standard dentifrice (0.19 x 1.29μgF/ml and in the low concentration product, an increase of 20.5 times (0.02 x 0.41μgF/ml. Conclusion: Toothbrushing with both products promoted relevant increases in the salivary fluoride concentration; however, longitudinal studies are necessary to verify the clinical result of this measurement.

  4. Standard specification for uranium oxides with a 235U content of less than 5 % for dissolution prior to conversion to nuclear-grade uranium dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers uranium oxides, including processed byproducts or scrap material (powder, pellets, or pieces), that are intended for dissolution into uranyl nitrate solution meeting the requirements of Specification C788 prior to conversion into nuclear grade UO2 powder with a 235U content of less than 5 %. This specification defines the impurity and uranium isotope limits for such urania powders that are to be dissolved prior to processing to nuclear grade UO2 as defined in Specification C753. 1.2 This specification provides the nuclear industry with a general standard for such uranium oxide powders. It recognizes the diversity of conversion processes and the processes to which such powders are subsequently to be subjected (for instance, by solvent extraction). It is therefore anticipated that it may be necessary to include supplementary specification limits by agreement between the buyer and seller. 1.3 The scope of this specification does not comprehensively cover all provisions for prevent...

  5. Chemometric analysis of chromatographic fingerprints shows potential of Cyclopia maculata (Andrews) Kies for production of standardized extracts with high xanthone content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Alexandra E; de Beer, Dalene; de Villiers, André; Manley, Marena; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2014-10-29

    Cyclopia species are used for the production of honeybush tea and food ingredient extracts associated with many health benefits. A species-specific high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for Cyclopia maculata, developed and validated, allowed quantification of the major compounds in extracts from "unfermented" and fermented C. maculata. Two xanthones were tentatively identified for the first time in a Cyclopia species, whereas an additional four compounds were tentatively identified for the first time in C. maculata. "Fermentation" (oxidation) decreased the content of all compounds, with the exception of vicenin-2. Similarity analysis of the chromatographic fingerprints of unfermented C. maculata aqueous extracts showed extremely low variation (r ≥ 0.97) between samples. Some differences between wild-harvested and cultivated seedling plants were, however, demonstrated using principal component analysis. Quantitative data of selected compounds confirmed the low level of variation, making this Cyclopia species ideal for the production of standardized food ingredient extracts.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas elongata Strain K4, an Endophytic Growth-Promoting Bacterium Enhancing Salinity Tolerance In Planta

    KAUST Repository

    Lafi, Feras Fawzi

    2016-11-04

    Halomonas elongata strain K4 is an endophytic bacterial strain that was isolated from roots of Cyperus conglomeratus collected at the Red Sea coast in Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of this strain, highlighting a number of pathways involved in plant growth promotion under salt stress.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas elongata Strain K4, an Endophytic Growth-Promoting Bacterium Enhancing Salinity Tolerance In Planta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafi, Feras F.; Ramirez-Prado, Juan S.; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2016-01-01

    Halomonas elongata strain K4 is an endophytic bacterial strain that was isolated from roots of Cyperus conglomeratus collected at the Red Sea coast in Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of this strain, highlighting a number of pathways involved in plant growth promotion under salt stress. PMID:27811099

  8. An efficient solvent-free synthesis of imidazolines and benzimidazoles using K 4[Fe(CN 6] catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabeer A. Shaikh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidazolines and Benzimidazoles have been efficiently synthesized in high yields by treatment of 1,2-diamine with aldehydes using the metal co-ordinate complex K 4[Fe(CN 6] as a catalysis. The method was carried out under solvent free condition via oxidation of carbon-nitrogen bond. The process is green, mild and inexpensive.

  9. The Structure of a High-Affinity Kainate Receptor: GluK4 Ligand-Binding Domain Crystallized with Kainate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Ole; Kristensen, Lise Baadsgaard; Møllerud, Stine; Frydenvang, Karla; Pickering, Darryl S; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm

    2016-09-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors play a key role in fast neurotransmission in the CNS and have been linked to several neurological diseases and disorders. One subfamily is the kainate receptors, which are grouped into low-affinity (GluK1-3) and high-affinity (GluK4-5) receptors based on their affinity for kainate. Although structures of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of all low-affinity kainate receptors have been reported, no structures of the high-affinity receptor subunits are available. Here, we present the X-ray structure of GluK4-LBD with kainate at 2.05 Å resolution, together with thermofluor and radiolabel binding affinity data. Whereas binding-site residues in GluK4 are most similar to the AMPA receptor subfamily, the domain closure and D1-D2 interlobe contacts induced by kainate are similar to the low-affinity kainate receptor GluK1. These observations provide a likely explanation for the high binding affinity of kainate at GluK4-LBD.

  10. Computational inference of H3K4me3 and H3K27ac domain length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Zubek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent epigenomic studies have shown that the length of a DNA region covered by an epigenetic mark is not just a byproduct of the assaying technologies and has functional implications for that locus. For example, expanded regions of DNA sequences that are marked by enhancer-specific histone modifications, such as acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac domains coincide with cell-specific enhancers, known as super or stretch enhancers. Similarly, promoters of genes critical for cell-specific functions are marked by expanded H3K4me3 domains in the cognate cell type, and these can span DNA regions from 4–5kb up to 40–50kb in length. These expanded H3K4me3 domains are known as buffer domains or super promoters. Methods. To ask what correlates with—and potentially regulates—the length of loci marked with these two important histone marks, H3K4me3 and H3K27ac, we built Random Forest regression models. With these models, we computationally identified genomic and epigenomic patterns that are predictive for the length of these marks in seven ENCODE cell lines. Results. We found that certain epigenetic marks and transcription factors explain the variability of the length of H3K4me3 and H3K27ac marks across different cell types, which implies that the lengths of these two epigenetic marks are tightly regulated in a given cell type. Our source code for the regression models and data can be found at our GitHub page: https://github.com/zubekj/broad_peaks. Discussion. Our Random Forest based regression models enabled us to estimate the individual contribution of different epigenetic marks and protein binding patterns to the length of H3K4me3 and H3K27ac deposition patterns, therefore potentially revealing genomic signatures at cell specific regulatory elements.

  11. Final report on the key comparison CCM.P-K4.2012 in absolute pressure from 1 Pa to 10 kPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Jacob; Hendricks, Jay; Bock, Thomas; Dominik, Pražák; Kobata, Tokihiko; Torres, Jorge; Sadkovskaya, Irina

    2017-01-01

    The report summarizes the Consultative Committee for Mass (CCM) key comparison CCM.P-K4.2012 for absolute pressure spanning the range of 1 Pa to 10 000 Pa. The comparison was carried out at six National Metrology Institutes (NMIs), including National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Czech Metrology Institute (CMI), National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Centro Nacional de Metrología (CENAM), and DI Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM). The comparison was made via a calibrated transfer standard measured at each of the NMIs facilities using their laboratory standard during the period May 2012 to September 2013. The transfer package constructed for this comparison preformed as designed and provided a stable artifact to compare laboratory standards. Overall the participants were found to be statistically equivalent to the key comparison reference value. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy content and standardized ileal amino Acid digestibility in wheat shorts and red dog for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q; Piao, X S; Ren, P; Li, D F

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical composition of wheat shorts and red dog on energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and to establish prediction models to estimate their digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy content and as well as their standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acid content. For Exp. 1, sixteen diets were fed to thirty-two growing pigs according to a completely randomized design during three successive periods. The basal diet was based on corn and soybean meal while the other fifteen diets contained 28.8% wheat shorts (N = 7) or red dog (N = 8), added at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Over the three periods, each diet was fed to six pigs with each diet being fed to two pigs during each period. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in wheat shorts and red dog averaged 75.1 and 87.9%. The DE values of wheat shorts and red dog averaged 13.8 MJ/kg (range 13.1 to 15.0 MJ/kg) and 15.1 MJ/kg (range 13.3 to 16.6 MJ/kg) of dry matter, respectively. For Exp. 2, twelve growing pigs were allotted to two 6×6 Latin Square Designs with six periods. Ten of the diets were formulated based on 60% wheat shorts or red dog and the remaining two diets were nitrogen-free diets based on cornstarch and sucrose. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an indigestible marker in all diets. There were no differences (p>0.05) in SID values for the amino acids in wheat shorts and red dog except for lysine and methionine. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and SID values for lysine in different sources of wheat shorts or red dog, which averaged 78.1 and 87.8%, showed more variation than either methionine or tryptophan. A stepwise regression was performed to establish DE, ME and amino acid digestibility prediction models. Data indicated that fiber content and amino acid concentrations were good indicators to predict energy values and amino acid digestibility, respectively. The present study confirms the large

  13. Histone H3R2 Symmetric Dimethylation and Histone H3K4 Trimethylation Are Tightly Correlated in Eukaryotic Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Chi Yuan; Adam G.W. Matthews; Yi Jin; Chang Feng Chen; Brad A. Chapman; Toshiro K. Ohsumi; Karen C. Glass; Tatiana G. Kutateladze; Mark L. Borowsky; Kevin Struhl; Marjorie A. Oettinger

    2012-01-01

    The preferential in vitro interaction of the PHD finger of RAG2, a subunit of the V(D)J recombinase, with histone H3 tails simultaneously trimethylated at lysine 4 and symmetrically dimethylated at arginine 2 (H3R2me2sK4me3) predicted the existence of the previously unknown histone modification H3R2me2s. Here, we report the in vivo identification of H3R2me2s . Consistent with the binding specificity of the RAG2 PHD finger, high levels of H3R2me2sK4me3 are found at antigen receptor gene segmen...

  14. An expedient Pd/DBU mediated cyanation of aryl/heteroaryl bromides with K4[Fe(CN)6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dengyou; Sun, Haifeng; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Yu; Li, Chunpu; Jiang, Hualiang; Chen, Kaixian; Liu, Hong

    2012-03-18

    A practical Pd(PPh(3))(4)/DBU catalytic system for the synthesis of pharmaceutically relevant aminopyridine nitrile intermediates, as well as a variety of other aryl nitriles using non-toxic K(4)[Fe(CN)(6)] has been developed. The key features of our new protocol for cyanation lie in that the reaction can be carried out with readily available Pd(PPh(3))(4) under mild and green conditions, even without the assistance of other ligands.

  15. Aspectos estruturais relacionados ao processo de troca iônica no niobato lamelar K4Nb6O17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Bizeto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The niobate with formula K4Nb6O17 has a layered structure formed by stacked negative sheets and exchangeable cations in the interlayer region. In this study we discuss some structural aspects related to the ion exchange in layered hexaniobate based on X-ray diffractometry and vibrational Raman spectroscopy data. Hexaniobate has two distinct interlayer regions and the potassium ions of one interlayer in particular are preferably exchanged by other cations, leading to an interstratified material.

  16. Methylated H3K4, a transcription-associated histone modification, is involved in the DNA damage response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, David; Wellinger, Raymund J

    2010-08-26

    Eukaryotic genomes are associated with a number of proteins such as histones that constitute chromatin. Post-translational histone modifications are associated with regulatory aspects executed by chromatin and all transactions on genomic DNA are dependent on them. Thus, it will be relevant to understand how histone modifications affect genome functions. Here we show that the mono ubiquitylation of histone H2B and the tri-methylation of histone H3 on lysine 4 (H3K4me3), both known for their involvement in transcription, are also important for a proper response of budding yeast cells to DNA damaging agents and the passage through S-phase. Cells that cannot methylate H3K4 display a defect in double-strand break (DSB) repair by non-homologous end joining. Furthermore, if such cells incur DNA damage or encounter a stress during replication, they very rapidly lose viability, underscoring the functional importance of the modification. Remarkably, the Set1p methyltransferase as well as the H3K4me3 mark become detectable on a newly created DSB. This recruitment of Set1p to the DSB is dependent on the presence of the RSC complex, arguing for a contribution in the ensuing DNA damage repair process. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Set1p and its substrate H3K4me3, which has been reported to be important for the transcription of active genes, also plays an important role in genome stability of yeast cells. Given the high degree of conservation for the methyltransferase and the histone mark in a broad variety of organisms, these results could have similar implications for genome stability mechanisms in vertebrate and mammalian cells.

  17. [The influence of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4 surface-active substances on the efficiency of microbial destruction of oil pollutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyroh, T P; Antoniuk, S I; Sorokina, A I

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of the use of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus K-4 surface-active substances (SAS) for water purification from oil was shown. The efficiency of oil degradation (2.6 g/l) in the presence of SAS preparations (5-15 %) in the form of postfermentation of cultural liquid or its supernatant was established to be 81-95 %. Intensification of oil destruction was determined by SAS affecting the activity of oil-oxidizing microbial population.

  18. Synthesis and Structural Determination of Binuclear Nine-Coordinate K4[Y2(Httha)2]·14H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A Y3+ complex with triethylenetetraaminehexaacetic acid was prepared and its composition and structure were determined as K4[Y2(Httha)2]*14H2O by elemental analysis and single-crystal X-ray four circle diffraction analysis. In the binuclear complex, the two YN3O6 parts all form nine-coordinate monocapped square anti prismatic structures. There are a lot of water molecules in the unit cell which form hydrogen bonds.

  19. Methylated H3K4, a transcription-associated histone modification, is involved in the DNA damage response pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Faucher

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic genomes are associated with a number of proteins such as histones that constitute chromatin. Post-translational histone modifications are associated with regulatory aspects executed by chromatin and all transactions on genomic DNA are dependent on them. Thus, it will be relevant to understand how histone modifications affect genome functions. Here we show that the mono ubiquitylation of histone H2B and the tri-methylation of histone H3 on lysine 4 (H3K4me3, both known for their involvement in transcription, are also important for a proper response of budding yeast cells to DNA damaging agents and the passage through S-phase. Cells that cannot methylate H3K4 display a defect in double-strand break (DSB repair by non-homologous end joining. Furthermore, if such cells incur DNA damage or encounter a stress during replication, they very rapidly lose viability, underscoring the functional importance of the modification. Remarkably, the Set1p methyltransferase as well as the H3K4me3 mark become detectable on a newly created DSB. This recruitment of Set1p to the DSB is dependent on the presence of the RSC complex, arguing for a contribution in the ensuing DNA damage repair process. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Set1p and its substrate H3K4me3, which has been reported to be important for the transcription of active genes, also plays an important role in genome stability of yeast cells. Given the high degree of conservation for the methyltransferase and the histone mark in a broad variety of organisms, these results could have similar implications for genome stability mechanisms in vertebrate and mammalian cells.

  20. K4, K9 and K18 in human histone H3 are targets for biotinylation by biotinidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Keyna; Camporeale, Gabriela; Rueckert, Brian; Kueh, Alice; Griffin, Jacob B; Sarath, Gautam; Zempleni, Janos

    2005-08-01

    Histones are modified post-translationally, e.g. by methylation of lysine and arginine residues, and by phosphorylation of serine residues. These modifications regulate processes such as gene expression, DNA repair, and mitosis and meiosis. Recently, evidence has been provided that histones are also modified by covalent binding of the vitamin biotin. The aims of this study were to identify biotinylation sites in histone H3, and to investigate the crosstalk among histone biotinylation, methylation and phosphorylation. Synthetic peptides based on the sequence of human histone H3 were used as substrates for enzymatic biotinylation by biotinidase; biotin in peptides was probed using streptavidin peroxidase. These studies provided evidence that K4, K9 and K18 in histone H3 are good targets for biotinylation; K14 and K23 are relatively poor targets. Antibodies were generated to histone H3, biotinylated either at K4, K9 or K18. These antibodies localized to nuclei in human placental cells in immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting experiments, suggesting that lysines in histone H3 are biotinylated in vivo. Dimethylation of R2, R8 and R17 increased biotinylation of K4, K9 and K18, respectively, by biotinidase; phosphorylation of S10 abolished biotinylation of K9. These observations are consistent with crosstalk between biotinylation of histones and other known modifications of histones. We speculate that this crosstalk provides a link to known roles for biotin in gene expression and cell proliferation.

  1. PHF20 Readers Link Methylation of Histone H3K4 and p53 with H4K16 Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna J. Klein

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available PHF20 is a core component of the lysine acetyltransferase complex MOF (male absent on the first-NSL (non-specific lethal that generates the major epigenetic mark H4K16ac and is necessary for transcriptional regulation and DNA repair. The role of PHF20 in the complex remains elusive. Here, we report on functional coupling between methylation readers in PHF20. We show that the plant homeodomain (PHD finger of PHF20 recognizes dimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me2 and represents an example of a native reader that selects for this modification. Biochemical and structural analyses help to explain this selectivity and the preference of Tudor2, another reader in PHF20, for dimethylated p53. Binding of the PHD finger to H3K4me2 is required for histone acetylation, accumulation of PHF20 at target genes, and transcriptional activation. Together, our findings establish a unique PHF20-mediated link between MOF histone acetyltransferase (HAT, p53, and H3K4me2, and suggest a model for rapid spreading of H4K16ac-enriched open chromatin.

  2. PHF13 is a molecular reader and transcriptional co-regulator of H3K4me2/3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ho-Ryun; Xu, Chao; Fuchs, Alisa; Mund, Andreas; Lange, Martin; Staege, Hannah; Schubert, Tobias; Bian, Chuanbing; Dunkel, Ilona; Eberharter, Anton; Regnard, Catherine; Klinker, Henrike; Meierhofer, David; Cozzuto, Luca; Winterpacht, Andreas; Di Croce, Luciano; Min, Jinrong; Will, Hans; Kinkley, Sarah

    2016-05-25

    PHF13 is a chromatin affiliated protein with a functional role in differentiation, cell division, DNA damage response and higher chromatin order. To gain insight into PHF13's ability to modulate these processes, we elucidate the mechanisms targeting PHF13 to chromatin, its genome wide localization and its molecular chromatin context. Size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry, X-ray crystallography and ChIP sequencing demonstrate that PHF13 binds chromatin in a multivalent fashion via direct interactions with H3K4me2/3 and DNA, and indirectly via interactions with PRC2 and RNA PolII. Furthermore, PHF13 depletion disrupted the interactions between PRC2, RNA PolII S5P, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 and resulted in the up and down regulation of genes functionally enriched in transcriptional regulation, DNA binding, cell cycle, differentiation and chromatin organization. Together our findings argue that PHF13 is an H3K4me2/3 molecular reader and transcriptional co-regulator, affording it the ability to impact different chromatin processes.

  3. Enhancer-associated H3K4 monomethylation by trithorax-related, the drosophila homolog of mammalian MLL3/MLL4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.-M. Herz (Hans-Martin); M. Mohan (Man); A.S. Garruss (Alexander); K. Liang (Kaiwei); Y.-H. Takahashi (Yoh-hei); K. Mickey (Kristen); O. Voets (Olaf); C.P. Verrijzer (Peter); A. Shilatifard (Ali)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMonomethylation of histone H3 on Lys 4 (H3K4me1) and acetylation of histone H3 on Lys 27 (H3K27ac) are histone modifications that are highly enriched over the body of actively transcribed genes and on enhancers. Although in yeast all H3K4 methylation patterns, including H3K4me1, are impl

  4. Morphed and moving: TNFα-driven motility promotes cell dissemination through MAP4K4-induced cytoskeleton remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell dissemination from an initial site of growth is a highly coordinated and controlled process that depends on cell motility. The mechanistic principles that orchestrate cell motility, namely cell shape control, traction and force generation, are highly conserved between cells of different origins. Correspondingly, the molecular mechanisms that regulate these critical aspects of migrating cells are likely functionally conserved too. Thus, cell motility deregulation of unrelated pathogenesis could be caused and maintained by similar mechanistic principles. One such motility deregulation disorder is the leukoproliferative cattle disease Tropical Theileriosis, which is caused by the intracellular, protozoan parasite Theileria annulata. T. annulata transforms its host cell and promotes the dissemination of parasite-infected cells throughout the body of the host. An analogous condition with a fundamentally different pathogenesis is metastatic cancer, where oncogenically transformed cells disseminate from the primary tumor to form distant metastases. Common to both diseases is the dissemination of motile cells from the original site. However, unlike metastatic cancer, host cell transformation by Theileria parasites can be reverted by drug treatment and cell signaling be analyzed under transformed and non-transformed conditions. We have used this reversible transformation model and investigated parasite control of host cell motile properties in the context of inflammatory signaling in Ma M. et al. [PLoS Pathog (2014 10: e1004003]. We found that parasite infection promotes the production of the inflammatory cytokine TNFα in the host macrophage. We demonstrated that increased TNFα triggers motile and invasive properties by enhancing actin cytoskeleton remodeling and cell motility through the ser/thr kinase MAP4K4. We concluded that inflammatory conditions resulting in increased TNFα could facilitate cell dissemination by activating the actin

  5. Association of common genetic variants in the MAP4K4 locus with prediabetic traits in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Sartorius

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4 is expressed in all diabetes-relevant tissues and mediates cytokine-induced insulin resistance. We investigated whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the MAP4K4 locus associate with glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, impaired insulin release, or elevated plasma cytokines. The best hit was tested for association with type 2 diabetes. Subjects (N = 1,769 were recruited from the Tübingen Family (TÜF study for type 2 diabetes and genotyped for tagging SNPs. In a subgroup, cytokines were measured. Association with type 2 diabetes was tested in a prospective case-cohort study (N = 2,971 derived from the EPIC-Potsdam study. Three SNPs (rs6543087, rs17801985, rs1003376 revealed nominal and two SNPs (rs11674694, rs11678405 significant associations with 2-hour glucose levels. SNPs rs6543087 and rs11674694 were also nominally associated with decreased insulin sensitivity. Another two SNPs (rs2236936, rs2236935 showed associations with reduced insulin release, driven by effects in lean subjects only. Three SNPs (rs11674694, rs13003883, rs2236936 revealed nominal associations with IL-6 levels. SNP rs11674694 was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, common variation in MAP4K4 is associated with insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction, possibly via this gene's role in inflammatory signalling. This variation's impact on insulin sensitivity may be more important since its effect on insulin release vanishes with increasing BMI.

  6. The Oryza sativa Regulator HDR1 Associates with the Kinase OsK4 to Control Photoperiodic Flowering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice is a facultative short-day plant (SDP, and the regulatory pathways for flowering time are conserved, but functionally modified, in Arabidopsis and rice. Heading date 1 (Hd1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis CONSTANS (CO, is a key regulator that suppresses flowering under long-day conditions (LDs, but promotes flowering under short-day conditions (SDs by influencing the expression of the florigen gene Heading date 3a (Hd3a. Another key regulator, Early heading date 1 (Ehd1, is an evolutionarily unique gene with no orthologs in Arabidopsis, which acts as a flowering activator under both SD and LD by promoting the rice florigen genes Hd3a and RICE FLOWERING LOCUST 1 (RFT1. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the flowering regulator Heading Date Repressor1 (HDR1 in rice. The hdr1 mutant exhibits an early flowering phenotype under natural LD in a paddy field in Beijing, China (39°54'N, 116°23'E, as well as under LD but not SD in a growth chamber, indicating that HDR1 may functionally regulate flowering time via the photoperiod-dependent pathway. HDR1 encodes a nuclear protein that is most active in leaves and floral organs and exhibits a typical diurnal expression pattern. We determined that HDR1 is a novel suppressor of flowering that upregulates Hd1 and downregulates Ehd1, leading to the downregulation of Hd3a and RFT1 under LDs. We have further identified an HDR1-interacting kinase, OsK4, another suppressor of rice flowering under LDs. OsK4 acts similarly to HDR1, suppressing flowering by upregulating Hd1 and downregulating Ehd1 under LDs, and OsK4 can phosphorylate HD1 with HDR1 presents. These results collectively reveal the transcriptional regulators of Hd1 for the day-length-dependent control of flowering time in rice.

  7. The Oryza sativa Regulator HDR1 Associates with the Kinase OsK4 to Control Photoperiodic Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuehui; Zhang, Zhiguo; Wu, Jinxia; Cui, Xuean; Feng, Dan; Wang, Kai; Xu, Ming; Zhou, Li; Han, Xiao; Gu, Xiaofeng; Lu, Tiegang

    2016-03-01

    Rice is a facultative short-day plant (SDP), and the regulatory pathways for flowering time are conserved, but functionally modified, in Arabidopsis and rice. Heading date 1 (Hd1), an ortholog of Arabidopsis CONSTANS (CO), is a key regulator that suppresses flowering under long-day conditions (LDs), but promotes flowering under short-day conditions (SDs) by influencing the expression of the florigen gene Heading date 3a (Hd3a). Another key regulator, Early heading date 1 (Ehd1), is an evolutionarily unique gene with no orthologs in Arabidopsis, which acts as a flowering activator under both SD and LD by promoting the rice florigen genes Hd3a and RICE FLOWERING LOCUST 1 (RFT1). Here, we report the isolation and characterization of the flowering regulator Heading Date Repressor1 (HDR1) in rice. The hdr1 mutant exhibits an early flowering phenotype under natural LD in a paddy field in Beijing, China (39°54'N, 116°23'E), as well as under LD but not SD in a growth chamber, indicating that HDR1 may functionally regulate flowering time via the photoperiod-dependent pathway. HDR1 encodes a nuclear protein that is most active in leaves and floral organs and exhibits a typical diurnal expression pattern. We determined that HDR1 is a novel suppressor of flowering that upregulates Hd1 and downregulates Ehd1, leading to the downregulation of Hd3a and RFT1 under LDs. We have further identified an HDR1-interacting kinase, OsK4, another suppressor of rice flowering under LDs. OsK4 acts similarly to HDR1, suppressing flowering by upregulating Hd1 and downregulating Ehd1 under LDs, and OsK4 can phosphorylate HD1 with HDR1 presents. These results collectively reveal the transcriptional regulators of Hd1 for the day-length-dependent control of flowering time in rice.

  8. The H3K4me3/2 histone demethylase RBR-2 controls axon guidance by repressing the actin-remodeling gene wsp-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Luca; Lussi, Yvonne C.; Vandamme, Julien;

    2016-01-01

    . Here, we show that RBR-2, the sole homolog of the KDM5 family of H3K4me3/2 demethylases in Caenorhabditis elegans, ensures correct axon guidance by controlling the expression of the actin regulator wsp-1. Loss of rbr-2 results in increased levels of H3K4me3 at the transcriptional start site of wsp-1...

  9. Meiotic behavior and H3K4m distribution in B chromosomes of Characidium gomesi (Characiformes, Crenuchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Érica Alves; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Suárez-Villota, Elkin Y.; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Characidium gomesi Travasso, 1956 specimens from the Pardo River have up to four heterochromatic supernumerary chromosomes, derived from the sex chromosomes. To access the meiotic behavior and distribution of an active chromatin marker, males and females of Characidium gomesi with two or three B chromosomes were analyzed. Mitotic chromosomes were characterized using C-banding and FISH with B chromosome probes. Meiocytes were subjected to immunofluorescence-FISH assay using anti-SYCP3, anti-H3K4m, and B chromosomes probes. Molecular homology of supernumeraries was confirmed by FISH and by its bivalent conformation in individuals with two of these chromosomes. In individuals with three Bs, these elements formed a bivalent and a univalent. Supernumerary and sex chromosomes exhibited H3K4m signals during pachytene contrasting with their heterochromatic and asynaptic nature, which suggest a more structural role than functional of this histone modification. The implications of this result are discussed in light of the homology, meiotic nuclear organization, and meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chomatin. PMID:27551347

  10. Trithorax monomethylates histone H3K4 and interacts directly with CBP to promote H3K27 acetylation and antagonize Polycomb silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Feng; Banerjee, Rakhee; Saiakhova, Alina R; Howard, Benny; Monteith, Kelsey E; Scacheri, Peter C; Cosgrove, Michael S; Harte, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    Trithorax (TRX) antagonizes epigenetic silencing by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, stimulates enhancer-dependent transcription, and establishes a 'cellular memory' of active transcription of PcG-regulated genes. The mechanisms underlying these TRX functions remain largely unknown, but are presumed to involve its histone H3K4 methyltransferase activity. We report that the SET domains of TRX and TRX-related (TRR) have robust histone H3K4 monomethyltransferase activity in vitro and that Tyr3701 of TRX and Tyr2404 of TRR prevent them from being trimethyltransferases. The trx(Z11) missense mutation (G3601S), which abolishes H3K4 methyltransferase activity in vitro, reduces the H3K4me1 but not the H3K4me3 level in vivo. trx(Z11) also suppresses the impaired silencing phenotypes of the Pc(3) mutant, suggesting that H3K4me1 is involved in antagonizing Polycomb silencing. Polycomb silencing is also antagonized by TRX-dependent H3K27 acetylation by CREB-binding protein (CBP). We show that perturbation of Polycomb silencing by TRX overexpression requires CBP. We also show that TRX and TRR are each physically associated with CBP in vivo, that TRX binds directly to the CBP KIX domain, and that the chromatin binding patterns of TRX and TRR are highly correlated with CBP and H3K4me1 genome-wide. In vitro acetylation of H3K27 by CBP is enhanced on K4me1-containing H3 substrates, and independently altering the H3K4me1 level in vivo, via the H3K4 demethylase LSD1, produces concordant changes in H3K27ac. These data indicate that the catalytic activities of TRX and CBP are physically coupled and suggest that both activities play roles in antagonizing Polycomb silencing, stimulating enhancer activity and cellular memory.

  11. K4MY METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  12. K4BM METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  13. K4BL METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  14. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN KADAR FENOLIK TOTAL DARI GANGGANG MERAH (Gracilaria verrucosa L. [Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Red Sea Weed (Gracilaria verrucosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Ninan Lestario*

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content of red sea weed (Gracilaria verrucosa L. from extract of methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and hexane; and the correlation between total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of each extract; then to determine the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene content of each extract and their correlation with the free radical scavenging activity as well. The antioxidant activity were measured by free radical scavenging method with DPPH and by reducing power method with K4Fe(CN6 as standard, whereas the total phenolic content was measured by Folin Ciocalteu method with gallic acid as standard. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene were determined by spectrophotometric method based on Lambert-Beer law. The data of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were statistically analyzed by Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with five kinds of solvents as treatments and five replications. Honestly Significant Difference Test (HSDT was used to compare the difference of treatments; whereas the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene content were not statistically analyzed since they were only supplement data. The results showed that the highest of the antioxidant activity by free radical scavenging method was found in acetone extract : 43.43% (BHT: 84.15%; whereas by reducing power method was found in chloroform extract : 0.1756 meq K4Fe(CN6/g extract (BHT : 6.1767 meq K4Fe(CN6/g extract; and the highest of the total phenolic content was also found in acetone extract : 45.29 mg /g extract. There were close correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity both by free radical scavenging method and by reducing power method with r (coefficient correlation respectivelly 0.89 and 0.91.Chlorophyll a and carotene had also close correlation with the free radical scaveging activity, but not for chlorophyll b.

  15. Creating standards: Creating illusions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    written standards may open up for the creation of illusions. These are created when written standards' content is not in accordance with the perception standard adopters and standard users have of the specific practice phenomenon's content. This general theoretical argument is exemplified by the specific...

  16. Sgf29 binds histone H3K4me2/3 and is required for SAGA complex recruitment and histone H3 acetylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Chuanbing; Xu, Chao; Ruan, Jianbin; Lee, Kenneth K.; Burke, Tara L.; Tempel, Wolfram; Barsyte, Dalia; Li, Jing; Wu, Minhao; Zhou, Bo O.; Fleharty, Brian E.; Paulson, Ariel; Allali-Hassani, Abdellah; Zhou, Jin-Qiu; Mer, Georges; Grant, Patrick A.; Workman, Jerry L.; Zang, Jianye; Min, Jinrong (Toronto); (Stowers); (UST - China); (UV); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (MCCM)

    2011-09-28

    The SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase) complex is an important chromatin modifying complex that can both acetylate and deubiquitinate histones. Sgf29 is a novel component of the SAGA complex. Here, we report the crystal structures of the tandem Tudor domains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human Sgf29 and their complexes with H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 peptides, respectively, and show that Sgf29 selectively binds H3K4me2/3 marks. Our crystal structures reveal that Sgf29 harbours unique tandem Tudor domains in its C-terminus. The tandem Tudor domains in Sgf29 tightly pack against each other face-to-face with each Tudor domain harbouring a negatively charged pocket accommodating the first residue alanine and methylated K4 residue of histone H3, respectively. The H3A1 and K4me3 binding pockets and the limited binding cleft length between these two binding pockets are the structural determinants in conferring the ability of Sgf29 to selectively recognize H3K4me2/3. Our in vitro and in vivo functional assays show that Sgf29 recognizes methylated H3K4 to recruit the SAGA complex to its targets sites and mediates histone H3 acetylation, underscoring the importance of Sgf29 in gene regulation.

  17. Coordinated regulation of transcriptional repression by the RBP2 H3K4 demethylase and Polycomb-Repressive Complex 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Diego; Hansen, Klaus H; Christensen, Jesper;

    2008-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins regulate important cellular processes such as embryogenesis, cell proliferation, and stem cell self-renewal through the transcriptional repression of genes determining cell fate decisions. The Polycomb-Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is highly conserved during evolution......, and its intrinsic histone H3 Lys 27 (K27) trimethylation (me3) activity is essential for PcG-mediated transcriptional repression. Here, we show a functional interplay between the PRC2 complex and the H3K4me3 demethylase Rbp2 (Jarid1a) in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. By genome-wide location analysis we...... found that Rbp2 is associated with a large number of PcG target genes in mouse ES cells. We show that the PRC2 complex recruits Rbp2 to its target genes, and that this interaction is required for PRC2-mediated repressive activity during ES cell differentiation. Taken together, these results demonstrate...

  18. A Comparison of Content in Syllabus-Based Senior Geography Textbooks and Standards-Based Senior Geography Textbooks in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Daihu

    2011-01-01

    As a result of China's geography education reform, the Geography Standards for Senior Secondary Schools was released in 2003. Being the first kind over the past seven decades, the Standards put forward some changes for senior geography education. For the textbooks' crucial role in Chinese educational system, the changes in geographical education…

  19. 中美澳乳品蛋白质检测标准的比对研究%Study on comparison of the technology of protein content determination in dairy among China-US-AUS standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳; 杨扬; 叶兴乾

    2011-01-01

    Proteins are the main components of dairy products and milk. Mainly methods specificed in available standards of the detection protein in dairy products are as follows: Kjeldahl method, near-infrared spectroscopy,UV absorption method and so on. To lay a strong standard basis to the formulation of standard of rational and effective detection of the protein content of dairy products in China,this article found out the standard of detection of the protein content of dairy products in China,the United States and Australia,translate the available standards of three countries above,and then make comparison of China-US-AUS standards on the determination of protein contents of dairy products.%蛋白质是乳品中的主要成分.各国现行标准中检测乳品中蛋白质的主要方法有:凯氏定氮法、近红外光谱分析、紫外吸收法等.本文通过检索中国、美国、澳大利亚三国对乳品蛋白质检测做出规定的现行标准,对查阅到的美国和澳大利亚标准进行翻译,并对上述三国关于乳品中蛋白质的检测标准进行技术比对,力求为制定合理有效的中国乳品蛋白质含量检测标准莫定有力的基础.

  20. High cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli K4 in a microfiltration bioreactor: a step towards improvement of chondroitin precursor production

    OpenAIRE

    Catapano Angela; De Rosa Mario; Cimini Donatella; Restaino Odile; Schiraldi Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The bacteria Escherichia coli K4 produces a capsular polysaccharide (K4 CPS) whose backbone is similar to the non sulphated chondroitin chain. The chondroitin sulphate is one of the major components of the extra-cellular matrix of the vertebrate connective tissues and a high value molecule, widely employed as active principle in the treatment of osteoarthritis. It is usually obtained by extraction from animal tissues, but the risk of virus contaminations, as well as the sc...

  1. Determination of Dry Rubber Content of NR Latex by Internal Standard Method of PGC%裂解气相色谱内标法测定天然胶乳中干胶含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 刘晓媛; 张清志; 刘爱芹

    2015-01-01

    研究用热裂解气相色谱(PGC)内标法测定天然胶乳中干胶含量。试验结果表明:以丁苯橡胶为内标物和以纯天然橡胶为标准物绘制的标准曲线线性好;以标准曲线为基准,在天然胶乳中添加内标物后进行PGC测试,即可直接得出天然胶乳中的干胶含量。PGC法测定结果准确,操作简便。%In this study, a method was developed for the determination of dry rubber content of NR latex using internal standard method of pyrolysis-gas chromatography (PGC). The standard curve was obtained using pure NR and an internal standard substance, i.e. styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), and the curve showed a good linear relationship. During the test, the internal standard substance was added into the NR latex, and the dry rubber content of NR latex could be determined by PGC test and calculation using the standard curve. This method gave accurate testing results and was easy to run.

  2. Weissella paramesenteroides WpK4 reduces gene expression of intestinal cytokines, and hepatic and splenic injuries in a murine model of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim, L B; Sandes, S H C; Silva, B C; Steinberg, R S; Campos, M H A; Acurcio, L B; Arantes, R M E; Nicoli, J R; Neumann, E; Nunes, Á C

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhoea in piglets by Salmonella and other pathogens can be a serious health problem. Non-drug treatments such as probiotic microorganisms have various effects on the gastrointestinal microbiota dysbiosis and host immune system modulation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the suitable use of Weissella paramesenteroides WpK4 strain isolated from healthy piglets as an alternative prophylactic or therapeutic treatment against Salmonella Typhimurium. Out of 37 lactic acid bacteria isolates, 24 strains belonging to the Weissella and Lactobacillus genera were analysed in vitro for desirable probiotic characteristics. The W. paramesenteroides WpK4 strain fulfilled all in vitro tests: resistance to acidic pH and bile salts, hydrophobic cell surface, antagonism against bacterial pathogens, H2O2 production and exopolysaccharide secretion, and non-transferable resistance to antibiotics. Mice fed with WpK4 showed no signs of bacterial translocation to the liver or spleen and decreased Salmonella translocation to these organs. Significantly, WpK4 intake attenuated the weight loss, fostered the preservation of intestinal architecture and integrity, and promoted survival in mice following infection with Salmonella Typhimurium. In addition, WpK4 modulated immune cellular response by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducing anti-inflammatory mediators. These findings validate the probiotic properties of W. paramesenteroides WpK4 strain, and its eventual use in piglets.

  3. Quantitative in vivo CT arthrography of the human osteoarthritic knee to estimate cartilage sulphated glycosaminoglycan content : correlation with ex-vivo reference standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tiel, J; Siebelt, M; Reijman, M; Bos, P.K.; Waarsing, J H; Zuurmond, A-M; Nasserinejad, K; van Osch, G J V M; Verhaar, J A N; Krestin, G P; Weinans, H; Oei, E H G

    OBJECTIVE: Recently, computed tomography arthrography (CTa) was introduced as quantitative imaging biomarker to estimate cartilage sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content in human cadaveric knees. Our aim was to assess the correlation between in vivo CTa in human osteoarthritis (OA) knees and ex

  4. Quantitative in vivo CT arthrography of the human osteoarthritic knee to estimate cartilage sulphated glycosaminoglycan content: correlation with ex-vivo reference standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiel, J. van; Siebelt, M.; Reijman, M.; Bos, P.K.; Waarsing, J.H.; Zuurmond, A.M.; Nasserinejad, K.; Osch, G.J.V.M. van; Verhaar, J.A.N.; Krestin, G.P.; Weinans, H.; Oei, E.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Recently, computed tomography arthrography (CTa) was introduced as quantitative imaging biomarker to estimate cartilage sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content in human cadaveric knees. Our aim was to assess the correlation between in vivo CTa in human osteoarthritis (OA) knees and ex

  5. Effects of soil organic matter content on cadmium toxicity in Eisenia fetida: implications for the use of biomarkers and standard toxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizar, A; Rodríguez, M P; Izquierdo, A; Cancio, I; Marigómez, I; Soto, M

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability is affected by soil physicochemical characteristics such as pH and organic matter (OM) content. In addition, OM constitutes the energy source of Eisenia fetida, a well established model species for soil toxicity assessment. The present work aimed at assessing the effects of changes in OM content on the toxicity of Cd in E. fetida through the measurement of neutral red uptake (NRU) and mortality, growth, and reproduction (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] Nos. 207 and 222). Complementarily, metallothionein (MT) and catalase transcription levels were measured. To decrease variability inherent to natural soils, artificial soils (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 1984) with different OM content (6, 10, and 14%) and spiked with Cd solutions at increasing concentrations were used. Low OM in soil decreased soil ingestion and Cd bioaccumulation but also increased Cd toxicity causing lower NRU of coelomocytes, 100 % mortality, and stronger reproduction impairment, probably due to the lack of energy to maintain protection mechanisms (production of MT).Cd bioaccumulation did not reflect toxicity, and OM played a pivotal role in Cd toxicity. Thus, OM content should be taken into account when using E. fetida in in vivo exposures for soil health assessment.

  6. Macrohistone Variants Preserve Cell Identity by Preventing the Gain of H3K4me2 during Reprogramming to Pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Barrero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcription-factor-induced reprogramming of somatic cells to pluripotency is a very inefficient process, probably due to the existence of important epigenetic barriers that are imposed during differentiation and that contribute to preserving cell identity. In an effort to decipher the molecular nature of these barriers, we followed a genome-wide approach, in which we identified macrohistone variants (macroH2A as highly expressed in human somatic cells but downregulated after reprogramming to pluripotency, as well as strongly induced during differentiation. Knockdown of macrohistone variants in human keratinocytes increased the efficiency of reprogramming to pluripotency, whereas overexpression had opposite effects. Genome-wide occupancy profiles show that in human keratinocytes, macroH2A.1 preferentially occupies genes that are expressed at low levels and are marked with H3K27me3, including pluripotency-related genes and bivalent developmental regulators. The presence of macroH2A.1 at these genes prevents the regain of H3K4me2 during reprogramming, imposing an additional layer of repression that preserves cell identity.

  7. Remarks on Vertex-Distinguishing IE-Total Coloring of Complete Bipartite Graphs K4,n and Kn,n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang'en CHEN; Xiaoqing XIN; Wenyu HE

    2012-01-01

    Let G be a simple graph.An IE-total coloring f of G refers to a coloring of the vertices and edges of G so that no two adjacent vertices receive the same color.Let C(u) be the set of colors of vertex u and edges incident to u under f.For an IE-total coloring f of G using k colors,if C(u) ≠ C(v) for any two different vertices u and v of V(G),then f is called a k-vertex-distinguishing IE-total-coloring of G,or a k-VDIET coloring of G for short.The minimum number of colors required for a VDIET coloring of G is denoted by xievt(G),and it is called the VDIET chromatic number of G.We will give VDIET chromatic numbers for complete bipartite graph K4,n (n ≥ 4),Kn,n (5 ≤ n ≤ 21) in this article.

  8. Decreased H3K27 and H3K4 trimethylation on mortal chromosomes in distributed stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Y H; Sherley, J L

    2014-12-04

    The role of immortal DNA strands that co-segregate during mitosis of asymmetrically self-renewing distributed stem cells (DSCs) is unknown. Previously, investigation of immortal DNA strand function and molecular mechanisms responsible for their nonrandom co-segregation was precluded by difficulty in identifying DSCs and immortal DNA strands. Here, we report the use of two technological innovations, selective DSC expansion and establishment of H2A.Z chromosomal asymmetry as a specific marker of 'immortal chromosomes,' to investigate molecular properties of immortal chromosomes and opposing 'mortal chromosomes' in cultured mouse hair follicle DSCs. Although detection of the respective suppressive and activating H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 epigenetic marks on immortal chromosomes was similar to randomly segregated chromosomes, detection of both was lower on mortal chromosomes destined for lineage-committed sister cells. This global epigenomic feature of nonrandom co-segregation may reveal a mechanism that maintains an epigenome-wide 'poised' transcription state, which preserves DSC identity, while simultaneously activating sister chromosomes for differentiation.

  9. Background, Contents and Features of AMTE Standards for Elementary Mathematics Specialists%美国AMTE《小学数学专家标准》的背景与内容及其特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤志娜; 卢建川

    2015-01-01

    In January 2010, AMTE offers Standards for Elementary Mathematics Specialists: a Reference for Teacher Credentialing and Degree Programs. The Standards outline Content Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics, Pedagogical Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics, Leadership Knowledge and Skills which are needed by elementary mathematics specialists (EMS). This paper focus on the EMS standard research background,research content. Finally it makes analysis of some features of EMS standards—Highlighting“profound understanding of fundamental mathematics”, Providing specific evaluation standards for MPCK and revealing the role of excellent teacher.%2010年1月,美国AMTE制定的EMS标准,阐述了作为小学数学专家应该具备的三大标准——数学教学内容知识、数学教学学科知识、领导知识和能力。分析和述评EMS标准研制背景、EMS标准的具体内容,发现凸显“基础性知识的深刻理解”、提供评价MPCK细则以及彰显优秀教师的角色定位是EMS标准的主要特点。

  10. High cell density cultivation of Escherichia coli K4 in a microfiltration bioreactor: a step towards improvement of chondroitin precursor production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Rosa Mario

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacteria Escherichia coli K4 produces a capsular polysaccharide (K4 CPS whose backbone is similar to the non sulphated chondroitin chain. The chondroitin sulphate is one of the major components of the extra-cellular matrix of the vertebrate connective tissues and a high value molecule, widely employed as active principle in the treatment of osteoarthritis. It is usually obtained by extraction from animal tissues, but the risk of virus contaminations, as well as the scarceness of raw material, makes this productive process unsafe and unable to satisfy the growing market demand. In previous studies a new biotechnological process to produce chondroitin from Escherichia coli K4 capsular polysaccharide was investigated and a 1.4 g·L-1 K4 CPS concentration was reached using fed-batch fermentation techniques. In this work, on the trail of these results, we exploited new fermentation strategies to further improve the capsular polysaccharide production. Results The inhibitory effect of acetate on the bacterial cells growth and K4 CPS production was studied in shake flask conditions, while a new approach, that combined the optimization of the feeding profiles, the improvement of aeration conditions and the use of a microfiltration bioreactor, was investigated in three different types of fermentation processes. High polysaccharide concentrations (4.73 ± 0.2 g·L-1, with corresponding average yields (0.13 ± 0.006 gK4 CPS·gcdw-1, were obtained; the increase of K4 CPS titre, compared to batch and fed-batch results, was of 16-fold and 3.3-fold respectively, while average yield was almost 3.5 and 1.4 fold higher. Conclusion The increase of capsular polysaccharide titre confirmed the validity of the proposed fermentation strategy and opened the way to the use of the microfiltration bioreactor for the biotechnological production of chondroitin.

  11. Exploring PHD fingers and H3K4me0 interactions with molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy calculations: AIRE-PHD1, a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Spiliotopoulos

    Full Text Available PHD fingers represent one of the largest families of epigenetic readers capable of decoding post-translationally modified or unmodified histone H3 tails. Because of their direct involvement in human pathologies they are increasingly considered as a potential therapeutic target. Several PHD/histone-peptide structures have been determined, however relatively little information is available on their dynamics. Studies aiming to characterize the dynamic and energetic determinants driving histone peptide recognition by epigenetic readers would strongly benefit from computational studies. Herein we focus on the dynamic and energetic characterization of the PHD finger subclass specialized in the recognition of histone H3 peptides unmodified in position K4 (H3K4me0. As a case study we focused on the first PHD finger of autoimmune regulator protein (AIRE-PHD1 in complex with H3K4me0. PCA analysis of the covariance matrix of free AIRE-PHD1 highlights the presence of a "flapping" movement, which is blocked in an open conformation upon binding to H3K4me0. Moreover, binding free energy calculations obtained through Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA methodology are in good qualitative agreement with experiments and allow dissection of the energetic terms associated with native and alanine mutants of AIRE-PHD1/H3K4me0 complexes. MM/PBSA calculations have also been applied to the energetic analysis of other PHD fingers recognizing H3K4me0. In this case we observe excellent correlation between computed and experimental binding free energies. Overall calculations show that H3K4me0 recognition by PHD fingers relies on compensation of the electrostatic and polar solvation energy terms and is stabilized by non-polar interactions.

  12. Sodium content of foods contributing to sodium intake: A comparison between selected foods from the CDC Packaged Food Database and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sodium concentration (mg/100g) for 23 of 125 Sentinel Foods were identified in the 2009 CDC Packaged Food Database (PFD) and compared with data in the USDA’s 2013 Standard Reference 26 (SR 26) database. Sentinel Foods are foods and beverages identified by USDA to be monitored as primary indicat...

  13. Final report on the EURAMET.M.FF-K4.2.2014 volume comparison at 100 μL—calibration of micropipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Elsa; Matus, Michael; Metaxiotou, Zoe; Tudor, Maria; Lenard, Elzbieta; Buker, Oliver; Wennergren, Per; Piluri, Erinda; Miteva, Mariana; Vicarova, Martina; Vospĕlová, Alena; Turnsek, Urska; Micic, Ljiljana; Grue, Lise-Lote; Mihailovic, Mirjana; Sarevska, Anastazija

    2017-01-01

    During the EURAMET TC-F meeting of 2014 and following the finalization of CCM.FF-K4.2.2011 comparison, it was agreed to start a Regional Key Comparison (KC) on volume measurements using two 100 μL micropipettes (piston pipettes) allowing the participating laboratories to assess the agreement of their results and uncertainties. Two 100 μL micropipettes were tested by 15 participants. One participant was not a member or associate member of the BIPM and was be removed from this report. The comparison started in July 2015 and ended in March 2016. The Volume and Flow Laboratory of the Portuguese Institute for Quality (IPQ) was the pilot laboratory and performed the initial and final measurements of the micropipettes. The micropipettes showed a stable volume during the whole comparison, which was confirmed by the results from the pilot laboratory. The original results of all participant NMIs were corrected to the standard atmospheric pressure in order to compare results under the same calibration conditions, and the contribution of the 'process-related handling contribution' was added to the uncertainty budget of each participant. In general the declared CMCs are in accordance with the KCDB. For the micropipette 354828Z, two laboratories had inconsistent results. For micropipette 354853Z, three laboratories had inconsistent results. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Content Area Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Students' vocabulary knowledge is a significant predictor of their overall comprehension. The Common Core State Standards are raising the expectations for word learning and there are now 4 distinct standards related to vocabulary as well as expectations in other standards, including content areas. To address these expectations, teachers need…

  15. Infection Exposure Promotes ETV6-RUNX1 Precursor B-cell Leukemia via Impaired H3K4 Demethylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Guillermo; Hauer, Julia; Martín-Lorenzo, Alberto; Schäfer, Daniel; Bartenhagen, Christoph; García-Ramírez, Idoia; Auer, Franziska; González-Herrero, Inés; Ruiz-Roca, Lucia; Gombert, Michael; Okpanyi, Vera; Fischer, Ute; Chen, Cai; Dugas, Martin; Bhatia, Sanil; Linka, René Martin; Garcia-Suquia, Marta; Rascón-Trincado, María Victoria; Garcia-Sanchez, Angel; Blanco, Oscar; García-Cenador, Maria Begoña; García-Criado, Francisco Javier; Cobaleda, César; Alonso-López, Diego; De Las Rivas, Javier; Müschen, Markus; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Sánchez-García, Isidro; Borkhardt, Arndt

    2017-08-15

    ETV6-RUNX1 is associated with the most common subtype of childhood leukemia. As few ETV6-RUNX1 carriers develop precursor B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (pB-ALL), the underlying genetic basis for development of full-blown leukemia remains to be identified, but the appearance of leukemia cases in time-space clusters keeps infection as a potential causal factor. Here, we present in vivo genetic evidence mechanistically connecting preleukemic ETV6-RUNX1 expression in hematopoetic stem cells/precursor cells (HSC/PC) and postnatal infections for human-like pB-ALL. In our model, ETV6-RUNX1 conferred a low risk of developing pB-ALL after exposure to common pathogens, corroborating the low incidence observed in humans. Murine preleukemic ETV6-RUNX1 pro/preB cells showed high Rag1/2 expression, known for human ETV6-RUNX1 pB-ALL. Murine and human ETV6-RUNX1 pB-ALL revealed recurrent genomic alterations, with a relevant proportion affecting genes of the lysine demethylase (KDM) family. KDM5C loss of function resulted in increased levels of H3K4me3, which coprecipitated with RAG2 in a human cell line model, laying the molecular basis for recombination activity. We conclude that alterations of KDM family members represent a disease-driving mechanism and an explanation for RAG off-target cleavage observed in humans. Our results explain the genetic basis for clonal evolution of an ETV6-RUNX1 preleukemic clone to pB-ALL after infection exposure and offer the possibility of novel therapeutic approaches. Cancer Res; 77(16); 4365-77. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Sal k 4, a new allergen of Salsola kali, is profilin: a predictive value of conserved conformational regions in cross-reactivity with other plant-derived profilins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assarehzadegan, Mohammad Ali; Amini, Akram; Sankian, Mojtaba; Tehrani, Mohsen; Jabbari, Farahzad; Varasteh, Abdolreza

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a new allergen of Salsola kali, Sal k 4, and to investigate the predictive value of the conserved conformational regions in cross-reactivity with other plant-derived profilins. The Sal k 4-coding sequence was cloned, expressed, and purified by one-step Ni2+ affinity chromatography to recover high-purity target protein. We assessed cross-reactivity and predicted conserved conformational regions among rSal k 4 and other plant-derived profilins. Immunodetection and inhibition assays using 30 individual sera from S. kali allergic patients indicated that purified rSal k 4 might be the same as that in the crude extract. The results of inhibition assays among rSal k 4 and other plant-derived profilins were in accordance with the homology of the predicted conserved conformational regions. Amino acid sequence homology analysis showed that a high degree of IgE cross-reactivity among plant-derived profilins might depend on the predicted conserved conformational regions.

  17. Editorial: Advanced Learning Technologies, Performance Technologies, Open Contents, and Standards - Some Papers from the Best Papers of the Conference ICCE C3 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Klett (IEEE Fellow

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue deals with several cutting edge research outcomes from recent advancement of learning technologies. Advanced learning technologies are the composition of various related technologies and concepts such as i internet technologies and mobile technologies, ii human and organizational performance/knowledge management, and iii underlying trends toward open technology, open content and open education. This editorial note describes the overview of these topics related to the advanced learning technologies to provide the common framework for the accepted papers in this special issue.

  18. LED背光液晶屏标准化内容及影响%Content and Influence of LED-LCD Standardization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张挺燕

    2011-01-01

    液晶屏生产厂根据自身的条件设计不同尺寸规格的液晶屏,造成原来的液晶屏规格品种繁多,给整机厂及其配套企业带来生产的麻烦和浪费.液晶屏标准化势在必行,对液晶电视成本的优化和该产业的发展有重大意义.以下主要介绍了LED背光液晶屏的结构和电气的标准化细节,以及标准化推动液晶屏绿色低碳涉及的主要内容.%Since different LCD panel manufacturers design different LCD panel in size and specifications, thus cause panel specification numerous in variety, which brings trouble and waste to TV maker during manufacturing. So standardization for LCD panel must go to work now, which has great value for low-cost manufacture and TV development. The following mainly introduces specific LED-LCD panel standardization of its structure and electricity, and most involvements of standardization brings green energy and low-carbon.

  19. Research on Model of Content Contrast of Standard Documents Based on Text Classification%基于文本分类的标准文献内容比对模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嘉谊; 刘高勇

    2015-01-01

    Based on the analysis of standard documents structure and text classification, this paper puts forward the model of content contrast of standard documents to realize the rapid extraction and automatic classification of standard documents, support the easy and quick standard contrast work of related technical personnel and enterprise, and provide methods and strategies for the sustainable development to the standard contrast work.%在分析标准文献结构和文本分类的基础上,提出基于文本分类的标准文献内容比对模型,实现标准文献内容的快速提取和自动分类,支持相关技术人员和企业轻松快捷地实现标准比对工作,为标准文献比对工作的可持续发展提供方法和策略。

  20. The Histone Demethylase Jarid1b Ensures Faithful Mouse Development by Protecting Developmental Genes from Aberrant H3K4me3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Mareike; Schmitz, Sandra U; Kooistra, Susanne M

    2013-01-01

    of the H3K4me2/3 histone demethylase Jarid1b (Kdm5b/Plu1) results in major neonatal lethality due to respiratory failure. Jarid1b knockout embryos have several neural defects including disorganized cranial nerves, defects in eye development, and increased incidences of exencephaly. Moreover, in line...... with an overlap of Jarid1b and Polycomb target genes, Jarid1b knockout embryos display homeotic skeletal transformations typical for Polycomb mutants, supporting a functional interplay between Polycomb proteins and Jarid1b. To understand how Jarid1b regulates mouse development, we performed a genome-wide analysis...... of histone modifications, which demonstrated that normally inactive genes encoding developmental regulators acquire aberrant H3K4me3 during early embryogenesis in Jarid1b knockout embryos. H3K4me3 accumulates as embryonic development proceeds, leading to increased expression of neural master regulators like...

  1. Standards for Teacher Education in Germany: Background, Contents and Characteristics%德国教师教育标准:背景·内容·特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙进

    2012-01-01

    为了保证和提高教师教育的质量,德国在21世纪初相继出台了《教师教育标准:教育科学》(2004)和《各州通用的对教师教育的学科专业和学科教学法的内容要求》(2008)。这两个标准描述了师范生在毕业时需要掌握的知识、能力、态度,全面覆盖了教育科学、学科专业和学科教学法三个教师教育学科领域,并强调要更加紧密地衔接理论学习、见习和入职后的继续教育,体现了科学性、全面性和开放性等特点。德国教师教育标准为教师教育确定了全国统一的标准和要求,成为当前对高校师范类专业进行评估和认证的基础。%In order to ensure and improve the quality of teacher education, Germany has successively intro- duced Standards for Teacher Education: Educational Sciences (2004)and Common Requirements for the con- tent of Subjects and Subject Didactics in Teacher Education (2008)since the beginning of this century. These two standards describe the knowledge, abilities and attitudes required for the future teachers upon graduation. Also, they cover all the three subject areas involved in teacher education ,namely educational sciences ,subjects and subject didactics, and stress a closer link between theory study at university,preparatory service in schools and continuing education after employment. The standards are characterized by scientificness, comprehensiveness and openness to diversity. They set nationally unified standards and requirements for teacher education and currently serve as the basis for the evaluation and accreditation of teacher education programs.

  2. Altered expression of BRG1 and histone demethylases, and aberrant H3K4 methylation in less developmentally competent embryos at the time of embryonic genome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzner, Werner G; Wachter, Audrey; Coutinho, Ana Rita S; Albornoz, Marcelo S; Duggavathi, Raj; GonÇAlves, Paulo B D; Bordignon, Vilceu

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetics is a fundamental regulator underlying many biological functions, such as development and cell differentiation. Epigenetic modifications affect key chromatin regulation, including transcription and DNA repair, which are critical for normal embryo development. In this study, we profiled the expression of epigenetic modifiers and patterns of epigenetic changes in porcine embryos around the period of embryonic genome activation (EGA). We observed that Brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1) and Lysine demethylase 1A (KDM1A), which can alter the methylation status of lysine 4 in histone 3 (H3K4), localize to the nucleus at Day 3-4 of development. We then compared the abundance of epigenetic modifiers between early- and late-cleaving embryos, which were classified based on the time to the first cell cleavage, to investigate if their nuclear localization contributes to developmental competence. The mRNA abundance of BRG1, KDM1A, as well as other lysine demethylases (KDM1B, KDM5A, KDM5B, and KDM5C), were significantly higher in late- compared to early-cleaving embryos near the EGA period, although these difference disappeared at the blastocyst stage. The abundance of H3K4 mono- (H3K4me) and di-methylation (H3K4me2) during the EGA period was reduced in late-cleaving and less developmentally competent embryos. By contrast, BRG1, KDM1A, and H3K4me2 abundance was greater in embryos with more than eight cells at Day 3-4 of development compared to those with fewer than four cells. These findings suggest that altered epigenetic modifications of H3K4 around the EGA period may affect the developmental capacity of porcine embryos to reach the blastocyst stage. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 84: 19-29, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Causes of SiO2 Content Exceeding Standard in the Boiler Water after the Typhoon%台风过后锅炉炉水二氧化硅超标原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晨; 梁昌英

    2014-01-01

    Analyze causes of the SiO2 content exceeding standard in the water of high pressure steam boiler . Take following measures:increasing analysis of steam drum water and the steam , increasing continous blowdown of steam drum water ,improving the water desalination preparation process ,and increasing analysis of total silicon content ,active silicon content and colloid silicon content in the water which entering into the water desalination device .Then the water quality returns to normal .%介绍台风过后,高压蒸汽锅炉炉水二氧化硅超标的原因。采取增加对汽包炉水和蒸汽的分析次数、增大汽包炉水的连续排污,改进对脱盐水制备过程,增加对进脱盐水装置水的全硅含量、活性硅含量和胶体硅含量的分析等措施,使锅炉水质恢复正常。

  4. Observed communication skills: how do they relate to the consultation content? A nation-wide study of graduate medical students seeing a standardized patient for a first-time consultation in a general practice setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holen Are

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we wanted to investigate the relationship between background variables, communication skills, and the bio-psychosocial content of a medical consultation in a general practice setting with a standardized patient. Methods Final-year medical school students (N = 111 carried out a consultation with an actor playing the role of a patient with a specific somatic complaint, psychosocial stressors, and concerns about cancer. Based on videotapes, communication skills and consultation content were scored separately. Results The mean level of overall communication skills had a significant impact upon the counts of psychosocial issues, the patient's concerns about cancer, and the information and planning parts of the consultation content being addressed. Gender and age had no influence upon the relationship between communication skills and consultation content. Conclusion Communication skills seem to be important for final-year students' competence in addressing sensitive psychosocial issues and patients' concerns as well as informing and planning with patients being representative for a fairly complex case in general practice. This result should be considered in the design and incorporation of communication skills training as part of the curriculum of medical schools.

  5. Epigenetic Profiling of H3K4Me3 Reveals Herbal Medicine Jinfukang-Induced Epigenetic Alteration Is Involved in Anti-Lung Cancer Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoli; Shen, Tingting; Ma, Chao; Wu, Jun; Kong, Hualei; Tian, Jing; Shao, Zhifeng; Zhao, Xiaodong; Xu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Jinfukang (JFK) has been clinically used for treating lung cancer. To examine whether epigenetic modifications are involved in its anticancer activity, we performed a global profiling analysis of H3K4Me3, an epigenomic marker associated with active gene expression, in JFK-treated lung cancer cells. We identified 11,670 genes with significantly altered status of H3K4Me3 modification following JFK treatment (P JFK. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that the anticancer activity of JFK involves modulation of histone modification at many cancer-related gene loci.

  6. Arizona Academic Standards: Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for kindergarten. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Kindergarten; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Readiness (Kindergarten); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Readiness…

  7. Reduction of CT beam hardening artefacts of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer by variation of the tantalum content: evaluation in a standardized aortic endoleak phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treitl, Karla M.; Scherr, Michael; Foerth, Monika; Braun, Franziska; Maxien, Daniel; Treitl, Marcus [Hospitals of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2014-10-16

    Our aim was to develop an aortic stent graft phantom to simulate endoleak treatment and to find a tantalum content (TC) of ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer that causes fewer computed tomography (CT) beam hardening artefacts, but still allows for fluoroscopic visualization. Ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer specimens of different TC (10-50 %, and 100 %) were injected in an aortic phantom bearing a stent graft and endoleak cavities with simulated re-perfusion. Fluoroscopic visibility of the ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer specimens was analyzed. In addition, six radiologists analyzed endoleak visibility, and artefact intensity of ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer in CT. Reduction of TC significantly decreased CT artefact intensity of ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer and increased visibility of endoleak re-perfusion (p < 0.000). It also significantly decreased fluoroscopic visibility of ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer (R = 0.883, p ≤ 0.01), and increased the active embolic volumes prior to visualization (Δ ≥ 40 μl). Ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer specimens with a TC of 45-50 % exhibited reasonable visibility, a low active embolic volume and a tolerable CT artefact intensity. The developed aortic stent graft phantom allows for a reproducible simulation of embolization of endoleaks. The data suggest a reduction of the TC of ethylene-vinyl-alcohol-copolymer to 45 -50 % of the original, to interfere less with diagnostic imaging in follow-up CT examinations, while still allowing for fluoroscopic visualization. (orig.)

  8. 调控因子SlyA和RfaH在E.coli K4合成果糖软骨素中的生理作用%Effects of overexpression of transcriptional regulators SlyA and RfaH on fructosylated chondroitin production in E coli K4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱华; 刘佳; 张震宇; 刘立明

    2015-01-01

    To enhance K4CPS production of E. coli K4,the transcriptional factor SlyA and RfaH were over expressed in E. coli K4 to create E. coli pTH⁃slyA,E. coli pTH⁃rfaH and co⁃expression strain E. coli pTH⁃slyA⁃rfaH. The over⁃expression of SlyA and RfaH significantly enhanced K4CPS production. The K4CPS concentration for E. coli pTH⁃slyA,E. coli pTH⁃rfaH and E. coli pTH⁃slyA⁃rfaH was increased by 81�8%、46�5% and 153�8%, compared with that of E. coli K4, respectively. The glycerol consumption rate of recombinant strain decreased by 12�5%、18�8% and 31�3% than that of E. coli K4. Moreover, the concentration of acetic acid decreased by 98�6%、39�7%and 91�6%compared with that of E. coli K4� The overexpression of slyA and rfaH could significantly enhanced K4CPS production.%利用基因工程手段过量表达E. coli K4荚膜多糖( K4CPS)合成途径中相关代谢调控因子SlyA和RfaH,以构建高效合成K4CPS的菌株。结果发现:slyA和rfaH基因的单独过量表达和共表达重组菌的K4CPS的产量较对照菌分别提高了81�8%、46�5%和153�8%;甘油比消耗速率较对照菌降低了12�5%、18�8%和31�3%,而乙酸含量则较对照菌降低了98�6%、39�7%和91�6%。因此,调控蛋白SlyA和RfaH的过量表达能够大幅度提高E�coli K4K4CPS合成,并增强菌体对甘油的利用率,而乙酸合成明显降低。而与单独表达策略相比,共表达策略能够更加有效地增强菌体合成K4CPS的能力。

  9. An HST COS 'SNAPSHOT' spectrum of the K supergiant λ Vel (K4Ib-II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G. [NASA/GSFC Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ayres, Thomas R. [University of Colorado, CASA, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Harper, Graham M. [School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kober, Gladys; Nielsen, Krister E.; Wahlgren, Glenn M., E-mail: Kenneth.G.Carpenter@nasa.gov [Deptartment of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States)

    2014-10-10

    We present a far-ultraviolet spectrum of the K4 Ib-II supergiant λ Vel obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) as a part of the SNAPshot program 'SNAPing coronal iron' (GO 11687). The observation covers a wavelength region (1326-1467 Å) not previously recorded for λ Vel at a spectral resolving power of R ∼ 20,000 and displays strong emission and absorption features, superposed on a bright chromospheric continuum. Fluorescent excitation is responsible for much of the observed emission, mainly powered by strong H I Lyα and the O I (UV 2) triplet emission near λ1304. The molecular CO and H{sub 2} fluorescences are weaker than in the early-K giant α Boo while the Fe II and Cr II lines, also pumped by H I Lyα, are stronger in λ Vel. This pattern of relative line strengths between the two stars is explained by the lower iron-group element abundance in α Boo, which weakens that star's Fe II and Cr II emission without reducing the molecular fluorescences. The λ Vel spectrum shows fluorescent Fe II, Cr II, and H{sub 2} emission similar to that observed in the M supergiant α Ori, but more numerous well-defined narrow emissions from CO. The additional CO emissions are visible in the spectrum of λ Vel since that star does not have the cool, opaque circumstellar shells that surround α Ori and produce broad circumstellar CO (A-X) band absorptions that hide those emissions in the cooler star. The presence of Si IV emission in λ Vel indicates a ∼8 × 10{sup 4} K plasma that is mixed into the cooler chromosphere. Evidence of the stellar wind is seen in the C II λλ1334,1335 lines and in the blueshifted Fe II and Ni II wind absorption lines. Line modeling using Sobolev with Exact Integration for the C II lines indicates a larger terminal velocity (∼45 versus ∼30 km s{sup –1}) and turbulence (∼27 versus <21 km s{sup –1}) with a more quickly accelerating wind (β = 0.35 versus 0.7) at the time of

  10. The ATRX-ADD domain binds to H3 tail peptides and reads the combined methylation state of K4 and K9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayalan, Arunkumar; Tamas, Raluca; Bock, Ina; Tattermusch, Anna; Dimitrova, Emilia; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Ragozin, Sergey; Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the ATRX protein are associated with the alpha-thalassemia and mental retardation X-linked syndrome (ATR-X). Almost half of the disease-causing mutations occur in its ATRX-Dnmt3-Dnmt3L (ADD) domain. By employing peptide arrays, chromatin pull-down and peptide binding assays, we show specific binding of the ADD domain to H3 histone tail peptides containing H3K9me3. Peptide binding was disrupted by the presence of the H3K4me3 and H3K4me2 modification marks indicating that the ATRX-ADD domain has a combined readout of these two important marks (absence of H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 and presence of H3K9me3). Disease-causing mutations reduced ATRX-ADD binding to H3 tail peptides. ATRX variants, which fail in the H3K9me3 interaction, show a loss of heterochromatic localization in cells, which indicates the chromatin targeting function of the ADD domain of ATRX. Disruption of H3K9me3 binding may be a general pathogenicity pathway of ATRX mutations in the ADD domain which may explain the clustering of disease mutations in this part of the ATRX protein. PMID:21421568

  11. The ATRX-ADD domain binds to H3 tail peptides and reads the combined methylation state of K4 and K9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhayalan, Arunkumar; Tamas, Raluca; Bock, Ina; Tattermusch, Anna; Dimitrova, Emilia; Kudithipudi, Srikanth; Ragozin, Sergey; Jeltsch, Albert

    2011-06-01

    Mutations in the ATRX protein are associated with the alpha-thalassemia and mental retardation X-linked syndrome (ATR-X). Almost half of the disease-causing mutations occur in its ATRX-Dnmt3-Dnmt3L (ADD) domain. By employing peptide arrays, chromatin pull-down and peptide binding assays, we show specific binding of the ADD domain to H3 histone tail peptides containing H3K9me3. Peptide binding was disrupted by the presence of the H3K4me3 and H3K4me2 modification marks indicating that the ATRX-ADD domain has a combined readout of these two important marks (absence of H3K4me2 and H3K4me3 and presence of H3K9me3). Disease-causing mutations reduced ATRX-ADD binding to H3 tail peptides. ATRX variants, which fail in the H3K9me3 interaction, show a loss of heterochromatic localization in cells, which indicates the chromatin targeting function of the ADD domain of ATRX. Disruption of H3K9me3 binding may be a general pathogenicity pathway of ATRX mutations in the ADD domain which may explain the clustering of disease mutations in this part of the ATRX protein.

  12. The Meiotic Recombination Activator PRDM9 Trimethylates Both H3K36 and H3K4 at Recombination Hotspots In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Natalie R; Parvanov, Emil D; Baker, Christopher L; Walker, Michael; Petkov, Petko M; Paigen, Kenneth

    2016-06-01

    In many mammals, including humans and mice, the zinc finger histone methyltransferase PRDM9 performs the first step in meiotic recombination by specifying the locations of hotspots, the sites of genetic recombination. PRDM9 binds to DNA at hotspots through its zinc finger domain and activates recombination by trimethylating histone H3K4 on adjacent nucleosomes through its PR/SET domain. Recently, the isolated PR/SET domain of PRDM9 was shown capable of also trimethylating H3K36 in vitro, raising the question of whether this reaction occurs in vivo during meiosis, and if so, what its function might be. Here, we show that full-length PRDM9 does trimethylate H3K36 in vivo in mouse spermatocytes. Levels of H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 are highly correlated at hotspots, but mutually exclusive elsewhere. In vitro, we find that although PRDM9 trimethylates H3K36 much more slowly than it does H3K4, PRDM9 is capable of placing both marks on the same histone molecules. In accord with these results, we also show that PRDM9 can trimethylate both K4 and K36 on the same nucleosomes in vivo, but the ratio of K4me3/K36me3 is much higher for the pair of nucleosomes adjacent to the PRDM9 binding site compared to the next pair further away. Importantly, H3K4me3/H3K36me3-double-positive nucleosomes occur only in regions of recombination: hotspots and the pseudoautosomal (PAR) region of the sex chromosomes. These double-positive nucleosomes are dramatically reduced when PRDM9 is absent, showing that this signature is PRDM9-dependent at hotspots; the residual double-positive nucleosomes most likely come from the PRDM9-independent PAR. These results, together with the fact that PRDM9 is the only known mammalian histone methyltransferase with both H3K4 and H3K36 trimethylation activity, suggest that trimethylation of H3K36 plays an important role in the recombination process. Given the known requirement of H3K36me3 for double strand break repair by homologous recombination in somatic cells, we

  13. 信息组织领域国内外标准规范内容比较研究%A Comparative Analysis of Standards Contents in the Area of Information Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/significance] In the network environment, a library is a system mechanism providing the information resources and services. In order to ensure users to obtain what they need, library should follow some standards and/or specifications in the process of or-ganizing its resources, such as the bibliography standards, metadata standards, resources descriptions schema, etc. Although Chinese standardization administration, libraries, and other related organizations have established a considerable amount of information organization standards, there are still some problems, such as the lack of the awareness of the importance of the standards and the insufficient mecha-nism in the standards management and maintenance. [ Method/process] This article collected the standards of ISO、ANSI、BSI、IFLA、DC-MI、W3C and SAC in the area of information organization, then compared all the standards from the quantity, release time and contents. [ Result/Conclusion] The paper disclosed some problems existing in the area of information organization, such as insufficient study, poor authority and imbalanced content ratio and so on. At the same time, it is suggested that China should establish standards tracking mecha-nism, strengthen research in information organization and participate more actively in international standardization activities.%[目的/意义]图书馆是提供信息资源和服务的系统机制,为了使用户更加便捷地获取相关的资源,图书馆在对其资源进行组织的过程中,需要关于资源描述、资源组织、元数据、代码、标识符等方面统一的标准和规范作为支撑。我国虽然也建立了信息组织领域相当数量的标准规范,但是在标准规范重要性的认识、标准规范系统化把握和标准规范管理跟踪机制方面仍然存在一定的问题。[方法/过程]收集ISO、ANSI、BSI、IFLA、DCMI、W3C以及我国的信息组织领域标准规范,从标准规范的数量、发布

  14. MoSET1 (Histone H3K4 Methyltransferase in Magnaporthe oryzae Regulates Global Gene Expression during Infection-Related Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieu Thi Minh Pham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the genetic analyses of histone lysine methyltransferase (KMT genes in the phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Eight putative M. oryzae KMT genes were targeted for gene disruption by homologous recombination. Phenotypic assays revealed that the eight KMTs were involved in various infection processes at varying degrees. Moset1 disruptants (Δmoset1 impaired in histone H3 lysine 4 methylation (H3K4me showed the most severe defects in infection-related morphogenesis, including conidiation and appressorium formation. Consequently, Δmoset1 lost pathogenicity on wheat host plants, thus indicating that H3K4me is an important epigenetic mark for infection-related gene expression in M. oryzae. Interestingly, appressorium formation was greatly restored in the Δmoset1 mutants by exogenous addition of cAMP or of the cutin monomer, 16-hydroxypalmitic acid. The Δmoset1 mutants were still infectious on the super-susceptible barley cultivar Nigrate. These results suggested that MoSET1 plays roles in various aspects of infection, including signal perception and overcoming host-specific resistance. However, since Δmoset1 was also impaired in vegetative growth, the impact of MoSET1 on gene regulation was not infection specific. ChIP-seq analysis of H3K4 di- and tri-methylation (H3K4me2/me3 and MoSET1 protein during infection-related morphogenesis, together with RNA-seq analysis of the Δmoset1 mutant, led to the following conclusions: 1 Approximately 5% of M. oryzae genes showed significant changes in H3K4-me2 or -me3 abundance during infection-related morphogenesis. 2 In general, H3K4-me2 and -me3 abundance was positively associated with active transcription. 3 Lack of MoSET1 methyltransferase, however, resulted in up-regulation of a significant portion of the M. oryzae genes in the vegetative mycelia (1,491 genes, and during infection-related morphogenesis (1,385 genes, indicating that MoSET1 has a role in gene repression either

  15. Synthesis of PbS Intercalated K4Nb6O17 Composite and Its Photocatalytic Activity for Hydrogen Production%PbS插层K4Nb6O17复合物的制备及其光催化制氢活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔文权; 刘艳飞; 胡金山; 刘利; 梁英华

    2012-01-01

    采用固相法合成层状半导体K4Nb6O17,通过层间离子交换反应、胺插入反应以及硫化反应制备了纳米PbS插层的K4Nb6O17复合光催化剂(记作K4Nb6O17/PbS).利用X射线衍射(XRD),场发射扫描电镜(SEM),X射线荧光光谱仪(XRF),紫外-可见漫反射(UV-Vis)和分子荧光光谱(PL)等技术对其进行表征.考察了催化剂在Na2SO3和Na2S为牺牲剂的光催化制氢活性.结果表明,PbS的插层拓展了K4Nb6O17对可见光的响应,催化制氢活性也有明显提高.在紫外光和可见光下3h产氢量分别达到123.94和0.66 mmol/(g cat).最后讨论了插层复合催化剂光生电荷转移的机理.%The layered compound K4Nb6O17 was prepared via high temperature solid reaction, and PbS intercalated K4Nb6O17 (designated as K4Nb6O17/PbS) photocatalyst was synthesized via direct ion exchange, alkylamines intercalation and sulfurization procedures. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflection spectra (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence measurement (PL), energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). The photocatalytic performance of these catalysts for hydrogen production was also investigated in the presence of Na2S and Na2SO3 sacrificial reagents. The absorption edge of K4Nb6O17 shifted to visible light region after the intercalation of PbS. K4Nb6O17/PbS photocatalysts exhibit higher activities for photocatalytic hydrogen production under both UV light and visible light irradiation, and the amounts of hydrogen produced are 123.94 mmol/(g cat) and 0.66 mmol/(g cat) after 3 h irradiation, respectively. The mechanism of charge separation is also discussed.

  16. Differential expression of K4-AP currents and Kv3.1 potassium channel transcripts in cortical neurons that develop distinct firing phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massengill, J L; Smith, M A; Son, D I; O'Dowd, D K

    1997-05-01

    Maturation of electrical excitability during early postnatal development is critical to formation of functional neural circuitry in the mammalian neocortex. Little is known, however, about the changes in gene expression underlying the development of firing properties that characterize different classes of cortical neurons. Here we describe the development of cortical neurons with two distinct firing phenotypes, regular-spiking (RS) and fast-spiking (FS), that appear to emerge from a population of immature multiple-spiking (IMS) neurons during the first two postnatal weeks, both in vivo (within layer IV) and in vitro. We report the expression of a slowly inactivating, 4-AP-sensitive potassium current (K4-AP) at significantly higher density in FS compared with RS neurons. The same current is expressed at intermediate levels in IMS neurons. The kinetic, voltage-dependent, and pharmacological properties of the K4-AP current are similar to those observed by heterologous expression of Kv3.1 potassium channel mRNA. Single-cell RT-PCR analysis demonstrates that PCR products representing Kv3.1 transcripts are amplified more frequently from FS than RS neurons, with an intermediate frequency of Kv3.1 detection in neurons with immature firing properties. Taken together, these data suggest that the Kv3.1 gene encodes the K4-AP current and that expression of this gene is regulated in a cell-specific manner during development. Analysis of the effects of 4-AP on firing properties suggests that the K4-AP current is important for rapid action potential repolarization, fast after-hyperpolarization, brief refractory period, and high firing frequency characteristic of FS GABAergic interneurons.

  17. Histone H3 Acetyl K9 and Histone H3 Tri Methyl K4 as Prognostic Markers for Patients with Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Beyer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin remodeling alters gene expression in carcinoma tissue. Although cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, a systematic study about the prognostic value of specific changes in the chromatin structure, such as histone acetylation or histone methylation, is missing. In this study, the expression of histone H3 acetyl K9, which is known to denote active regions at enhancers and promoters, and histone H3 tri methyl K4, which preferentially identifies active gene promoters, were examined as both show high metastatic potential. A panel of patients with cervical cancer was selected and the importance of the histone modifications concerning survival-time (overall survival and relapse-free survival was analyzed in 250 cases. Histone H3 acetyl K9 staining was correlated with low grading, low FIGO (TNM classification and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics status, negative N-status and low T-status in cervical cancer, showing a higher expression in adenocarcinoma than in squamous cell carcinoma. Cytoplasmic expression of histone H3 tri methyl K4 in a cervical cancer specimen was correlated with advanced T-status and poor prognosis. While cytoplasmic H3K4me3 expression seemed to be a marker of relapse-free survival, nuclear expression showed a correlation to poor prognosis in overall survival. Within this study, we analyzed the chemical modification of two histone proteins that are connected to active gene expression. Histone H3 acetyl K9 was found to be an independent marker of overall survival. Histone H3 tri methyl K4 was correlated with poor prognosis and it was found to be an independent marker of relapse-free survival. Therefore, we could show that chromatin remodeling plays an important role in cervical cancer biology.

  18. Histone H3 Acetyl K9 and Histone H3 Tri Methyl K4 as Prognostic Markers for Patients with Cervical Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Susanne; Zhu, Junyan; Mayr, Doris; Kuhn, Christina; Schulze, Sandra; Hofmann, Simone; Dannecker, Christian; Jeschke, Udo; Kost, Bernd P

    2017-02-23

    Chromatin remodeling alters gene expression in carcinoma tissue. Although cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, a systematic study about the prognostic value of specific changes in the chromatin structure, such as histone acetylation or histone methylation, is missing. In this study, the expression of histone H3 acetyl K9, which is known to denote active regions at enhancers and promoters, and histone H3 tri methyl K4, which preferentially identifies active gene promoters, were examined as both show high metastatic potential. A panel of patients with cervical cancer was selected and the importance of the histone modifications concerning survival-time (overall survival and relapse-free survival) was analyzed in 250 cases. Histone H3 acetyl K9 staining was correlated with low grading, low FIGO (TNM classification and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) status, negative N-status and low T-status in cervical cancer, showing a higher expression in adenocarcinoma than in squamous cell carcinoma. Cytoplasmic expression of histone H3 tri methyl K4 in a cervical cancer specimen was correlated with advanced T-status and poor prognosis. While cytoplasmic H3K4me3 expression seemed to be a marker of relapse-free survival, nuclear expression showed a correlation to poor prognosis in overall survival. Within this study, we analyzed the chemical modification of two histone proteins that are connected to active gene expression. Histone H3 acetyl K9 was found to be an independent marker of overall survival. Histone H3 tri methyl K4 was correlated with poor prognosis and it was found to be an independent marker of relapse-free survival. Therefore, we could show that chromatin remodeling plays an important role in cervical cancer biology.

  19. Inflammatory genes TNFα and IL6 display no signs of increased H3K4me3 in circulating monocytes from untreated rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messemaker, T C; Mikkers, H M M; Huizinga, T W; Toes, R E M; van der Helm-van Mil, A H M; Kurreeman, F

    2017-09-01

    Innate immune cells, such as monocytes, can adopt a long-lasting pro-inflammatory phenotype, a phenomenon called 'trained immunity'. In trained immunity, increased cytokine levels of genes, like interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, are observed, which are associated with increased histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) in the promoter region. As systemic IL6 and TNFα levels are increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and monocytes are known to be the primary producers of TNFα and IL6, we hypothesized that 'trained immunity' signals may be observed at these genes in monocytes from RA patients. CD14+ monocytes were isolated from untreated RA patients and paired age-matched healthy controls. H3K4me3, mRNA, protein and serum levels of IL6 and TNFα were evaluated by chromatin immunoprecipitation, reverse-transcription quantitative PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Despite elevated serum levels of TNFα and IL6 in the tested RA patients (P<0.05), ex vivo isolated monocytes displayed similar H3K4me3 levels to healthy controls in the promoter region of TNFα and IL6. Concordantly, mRNA and protein levels of IL6 and TNFα were similar before and after lipopolysaccharide stimulation between patients and controls. Together, with the current number of individuals tested we have not detected enhanced trained immunity signals in circulating monocytes from untreated RA patients, despite increased IL6 and TNFα serum levels.

  20. Pro Isomerization in MLL1 PHD3-Bromo Cassette Connects H3K4me Readout to CyP33 and HDAC-Mediated Repression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhanxin; Song, Jikui; Milne, Thomas A.; Wang, Gang G.; Li, Haitao; Allis, C. David; Patel, Dinshaw J. (MSKCC); (Rockefeller)

    2010-09-13

    The MLL1 gene is a frequent target for recurrent chromosomal translocations, resulting in transformation of hematopoietic precursors into leukemia stem cells. Here, we report on structure-function studies that elucidate molecular events in MLL1 binding of histone H3K4me3/2 marks and recruitment of the cyclophilin CyP33. CyP33 contains a PPIase and a RRM domain and regulates MLL1 function through HDAC recruitment. We find that the PPIase domain of CyP33 regulates the conformation of MLL1 through proline isomerization within the PHD3-Bromo linker, thereby disrupting the PHD3-Bromo interface and facilitating binding of the MLL1-PHD3 domain to the CyP33-RRM domain. H3K4me3/2 and CyP33-RRM target different surfaces of MLL1-PHD3 and can bind simultaneously to form a ternary complex. Furthermore, the MLL1-CyP33 interaction is required for repression of HOXA9 and HOXC8 genes in vivo. Our results highlight the role of PHD3-Bromo cassette as a regulatory platform, orchestrating MLL1 binding of H3K4me3/2 marks and cyclophilin-mediated repression through HDAC recruitment.

  1. The Demethylase JMJD2C Localizes to H3K4me3 Positive Transcription Start Sites and Is Dispensable for Embryonic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marianne Terndrup; Agger, Karl; Laugesen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    cell (ESC) self-renewal and embryonic development. Moreover, we report that JMJD2C localizes to H3K4me3 positive transcription start sites in both primary cells and in the human carcinoma KYSE150 cell line, containing an amplification of the JMJD2C locus. Binding is dependent on the double Tudor domain...... of JMJD2C, which recognizes H3K4me3, but not H4K20me2/me3 in vitro, thus showing a different binding specificity than the double Tudor domains of JMJD2A and JMJD2B. Depletion of JMJD2C in KYSE150 cells has modest impact on H3K9me3 and H3K36me3 levels, but impairs proliferation and leads to deregulated...... expression of a subset of target genes involved in cell cycle progression. Taken together, we show that JMJD2C is targeted to H3K4me3 positive transcription start sites, where it can contribute to transcriptional regulation, and report that the putative oncogene, JMJD2C, is not generally required...

  2. Spp1, a member of the Set1 Complex, promotes meiotic DSB formation in promoters by tethering histone H3K4 methylation sites to chromosome axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommermeyer, Vérane; Béneut, Claire; Chaplais, Emmanuel; Serrentino, Maria Elisabetta; Borde, Valérie

    2013-01-10

    Meiotic chromosomes are organized into arrays of loops that are anchored to the chromosome axis structure. Programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination, catalyzed by Spo11 and accessory DSB proteins, form in loop sequences in promoters, whereas the DSB proteins are located on chromosome axes. Mechanisms bridging these two chromosomal regions for DSB formation have remained elusive. Here we show that Spp1, a conserved member of the histone H3K4 methyltransferase Set1 complex, is required for normal levels of DSB formation and is associated with chromosome axes during meiosis, where it physically interacts with the Mer2 DSB protein. The PHD finger module of Spp1, which reads H3K4 methylation close to promoters, promotes DSB formation by tethering these regions to chromosome axes and activating cleavage by the DSB proteins. This paper provides the molecular mechanism linking DSB sequences to chromosome axes and explains why H3K4 methylation is important for meiotic recombination.

  3. The histone-H3K4-specific demethylase KDM5B binds to its substrate and product through distinct PHD fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Brianna J; Piao, Lianhua; Xi, Yuanxin; Rincon-Arano, Hector; Rothbart, Scott B; Peng, Danni; Wen, Hong; Larson, Connie; Zhang, Xi; Zheng, Xia; Cortazar, Michael A; Peña, Pedro V; Mangan, Anthony; Bentley, David L; Strahl, Brian D; Groudine, Mark; Li, Wei; Shi, Xiaobing; Kutateladze, Tatiana G

    2014-01-30

    The histone lysine demethylase KDM5B regulates gene transcription and cell differentiation and is implicated in carcinogenesis. It contains multiple conserved chromatin-associated domains, including three PHD fingers of unknown function. Here, we show that the first and third, but not the second, PHD fingers of KDM5B possess histone binding activities. The PHD1 finger is highly specific for unmodified histone H3 (H3K4me0), whereas the PHD3 finger shows preference for the trimethylated histone mark H3K4me3. RNA-seq analysis indicates that KDM5B functions as a transcriptional repressor for genes involved in inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Biochemical analysis reveals that KDM5B associates with components of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex and may cooperate with the histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) in gene repression. KDM5B is downregulated in triple-negative breast cancer relative to estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. Overexpression of KDM5B in the MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells suppresses cell migration and invasion, and the PHD1-H3K4me0 interaction is essential for inhibiting migration. These findings highlight tumor-suppressive functions of KDM5B in triple-negative breast cancer cells and suggest a multivalent mechanism for KDM5B-mediated transcriptional regulation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Histone-H3K4-Specific Demethylase KDM5B Binds to Its Substrate and Product through Distinct PHD Fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna J. Klein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The histone lysine demethylase KDM5B regulates gene transcription and cell differentiation and is implicated in carcinogenesis. It contains multiple conserved chromatin-associated domains, including three PHD fingers of unknown function. Here, we show that the first and third, but not the second, PHD fingers of KDM5B possess histone binding activities. The PHD1 finger is highly specific for unmodified histone H3 (H3K4me0, whereas the PHD3 finger shows preference for the trimethylated histone mark H3K4me3. RNA-seq analysis indicates that KDM5B functions as a transcriptional repressor for genes involved in inflammatory responses, cell proliferation, adhesion, and migration. Biochemical analysis reveals that KDM5B associates with components of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD complex and may cooperate with the histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1 in gene repression. KDM5B is downregulated in triple-negative breast cancer relative to estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. Overexpression of KDM5B in the MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells suppresses cell migration and invasion, and the PHD1-H3K4me0 interaction is essential for inhibiting migration. These findings highlight tumor-suppressive functions of KDM5B in triple-negative breast cancer cells and suggest a multivalent mechanism for KDM5B-mediated transcriptional regulation.

  5. Epigenetic Profiling of H3K4Me3 Reveals Herbal Medicine Jinfukang-Induced Epigenetic Alteration Is Involved in Anti-Lung Cancer Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine Jinfukang (JFK has been clinically used for treating lung cancer. To examine whether epigenetic modifications are involved in its anticancer activity, we performed a global profiling analysis of H3K4Me3, an epigenomic marker associated with active gene expression, in JFK-treated lung cancer cells. We identified 11,670 genes with significantly altered status of H3K4Me3 modification following JFK treatment (P<0.05. Gene Ontology analysis indicates that these genes are involved in tumor-related pathways, including pathway in cancer, basal cell carcinoma, apoptosis, induction of programmed cell death, regulation of transcription (DNA-templated, intracellular signal transduction, and regulation of peptidase activity. In particular, we found that the levels of H3K4Me3 at the promoters of SUSD2, CCND2, BCL2A1, and TMEM158 are significantly altered in A549, NCI-H1975, NCI-H1650, and NCI-H2228 cells, when treated with JFK. Collectively, these findings provide the first evidence that the anticancer activity of JFK involves modulation of histone modification at many cancer-related gene loci.

  6. 非水电位滴定法测定阿戈美拉汀工作对照品的含量%Content Determination of Agomelatine Working Standard by Non-aqueous Potentiometry Titration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂忠莉; 王晓玲; 李长生; 唐雪树; 陈小宁

    2012-01-01

    To establish a non-aqueous potentiometry titration method for the content detenrrination of agome- latine working standard, trichloromethane and acetic anhydride(6: 1) were used as solvent for non-aqueous potentiomerry titration. 0.1 mol/L perchloric acid was used to titrate the content of agomelatine working standard. Results show that the conditions of non-aqueous potentiometry titration are the followings: the pre- cision RSD is 0.1% (n = 9), the average recovery is 99.8 %. It is concluded that the outcome obtained by non-aqueous potentimetry titration method has no statistical difference. This method is simple and fast with accurate and countable results.%:为建立非水电位滴定法测定阿戈美拉汀工作对照品的含量,采用非水电位滴定法以氯仿一醋酐(6:1)为溶剂,用高氯酸滴定液(O.1mol/L)进行滴定.实验结果表明,非水电位滴定法的方法的相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.1%(n=9),平均回收率为99.8%,测定结果在统计学上无显著性差异.该方法简便快速,结果准确可靠.

  7. Construction of Basic Sport Public Service Standardization:Content,Dilemma and Strategy%基本公共体育服务标准化建设:内容、困境与策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学彬; 郑家鲲

    2015-01-01

    为了解我国基本公共体育服务标准化建设现状,促进我国基本公共体育服务标准化建设。通过文献分析和调查,对我国基本公共体育服务标准化的内涵、背景、动因及体育服务领域标准化建设进行分析和总结。在此基础上,提出基本公共体育服务标准化建设内容,探索基本公共体育服务标准化建设存在的困境,并从宏观、中观、微观3个方面提出发展基本公共体育服务标准化建设的策略。%In order to understand the current situation of China's basic sports public service standardization ,and promote the construction of basic sports public service standardization ,this paper analyzes and summarizes the content ,background ,motivation and sports service stand‐ardization construction of basic sports public service in China by means of literature review and investigation .On this basis ,the author puts forward the basic sports public service standardiza‐tion construction content ,and explores the dilemma of the basic sports public service standardi‐zation construction ,and provides the development strategy of basic public sports service stand‐ardization construction from the macro ,meso and micro aspects .

  8. A comparative study of 129I content in environmental standard materials IAEA-375, NIST SRM 4354 and NIST SRM 4357 by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, John; Adamic, Mary; Snyder, Darin; Brookhart, Jacob; Hahn, Paula; Watrous, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Iodine environmental measurements have consistently been backed up in the literature by standard materials like IAEA-375, Chernobyl Soil. There are not many other sources of a certified reference material for 129I content for mass spectrometry measurements. Some that have been found in the literature include NIST-4354 and NIST-4357. They are still available at the time of this writing. They don’t have certified content or isotopic values. There has been some work in the literature to show that iodine is present, but there hasn’t been enough to establish a consensus value. These materials have been analyzed at INL through two separate mass spectrometry techniques. They involve a combustion method of the starting material in oxygen, followed by TIMS analysis and a leaching preparation analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry. Combustion/TIMS preparation of NIST SRM-4354 resulted in a 129I/127I ratio of 1.92 x 10-6 which agrees with AMS measurements which measured the 129I/127I ratio to be 1.93 x 10-6.

  9. 油水自组装制备Ag@AgCl/K4Nb6 O17及其光催化降解有机污染物的研究∗%Oil-water self-assembly synthesis of Ag@AgCl/K4 Nb6 O17 and enhanced photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊秀; 刘利; 胡金山; 梁英华; 崔文权

    2015-01-01

    在高温固相法制备K4 Nb6 O17的基础上,采用油水自组装合成复合光催化剂 Ag @ AgCl/K4 Nb6 O17,利用 XRD、SEM、TEM、EDX、UV-Vis、PL、BET等多种手段对复合光催化剂的微观结构、形貌和性能进行了表征,并研究了可见光下降解亚甲基蓝(MB)的催化性能.研究表明,Ag@AgCl 的粒径约为20 nm,均匀分散在二维层状结构K4 Nb6 O17的表面上;贵金属Ag纳米粒子的表面等离子体效应显著,对可见光的吸收范围从400 nm 拓展到800 nm;Ag@AgCl(25%(质量分数))/K4Nb6O17在可见光照射60 min对亚甲基蓝的降解率为88.2%,远远高于单体Ag@AgCl和K4 Nb6 O17的活性.循环实验证明催化剂具有较好的稳定性,同时对苯酚和罗丹明 B(RhB)也具有一定的催化降解活性.淬灭实验表明自由基和空穴均为活性物种,并在此基础上提出降解机理.%The composite photocatalyst of Ag@AgCl/K4 Nb6 O17 was composed of by the oil-water self-assembly method,on the basis that K4 Nb6 O17 was prepared in the high-temperature solid-state method.The microstruc-ture,morphology and properties of Ag@AgCl/K4 Nb6 O17 composite photocatalyst were characterized by means of XRD,SEM,TEM,EDX,UV-vis,PL,BET;and the photocatalytic performance was valued by the degra-dation of methylene blue (MB),phenol,and Rhodamine B (RhB)under visible light irradiation.The results shows that Ag@AgCl particles with the size of about 20 nm were dispersed in two-dimensional layer structure on the surface of K4 Nb6 O17 and the absorption of visible light of the composite photocatalyst ranged from 400 to 800 nm due to the surface plasmon resonance of Ag.The degradation rate of MB solution over Ag@AgCl (25wt%)/K4 Nb6 O17 under the visible light irradiation reaches 88.2% in an hour,which is more than two times compared with the sum of the Ag@AgCl and K4 Nb6 O17 degradation rate.The composite photocatalyst still ex-hibited high catalytic activity after recycled five times

  10. Guidelines for data content standards for Africa.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Anthony K

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available object road object position road geometry Railway Line Railroad Railroad Yard Transport Route Ferry Route track network Deep Water Route track section Two Way Route track node physical network utility geometry Transport Node Energy control monitoring... Facility Fuel line Fishing Ground Fuel marker point Fishing Harbor Fuel meter point Fleeting Area Fuel oil water separator point Flood Diversion Area Fuel pump booster station point Flood Wall Fuel rectifier point Fog Signal Fuel regulator reducer point...

  11. Spatial data content standards for Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available of the data set, using formal languages such as the eXtensible Markup Language (XML) or its implementation for geographical information, ISO 19136, Geography Markup Language (GML). ● Reference models. These provide conceptual descriptions of data sets..., February 2004, Geography Markup Language [Committee Draft]. [10] [ISO/IEC 10746] ISO/IEC 10746, Open Distributed Processing – Reference model. [11] [ISO/IEC 11017] ISO/IEC TR 11017:1998, Information technology -- Framework for internationalization. [SANS...

  12. Stage and gene specific signatures defined by histones H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 accompany mammalian retina maturation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Evgenya Y; Xu, Xuming; DeWan, Andrew T; Salzberg, Anna C; Berg, Arthur; Hoh, Josephine; Zhang, Samuel S; Barnstable, Colin J

    2012-01-01

    The epigenetic contribution to neurogenesis is largely unknown. There is, however, growing evidence that posttranslational modification of histones is a dynamic process that shows many correlations with gene expression. Here we have followed the genome-wide distribution of two important histone H3 modifications, H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 during late mouse retina development. The retina provides an ideal model for these studies because of its well-characterized structure and development and also the extensive studies of the retinal transcriptome and its development. We found that a group of genes expressed only in mature rod photoreceptors have a unique signature consisting of de-novo accumulation of H3K4me2, both at the transcription start site (TSS) and over the whole gene, that correlates with the increase in transcription, but no accumulation of H3K27me3 at any stage. By in silico analysis of this unique signature we have identified a larger group of genes that may be selectively expressed in mature rod photoreceptors. We also found that the distribution of H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 on the genes widely expressed is not always associated with their transcriptional levels. Different histone signatures for retinal genes with the same gene expression pattern suggest the diversities of epigenetic regulation. Genes without H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 accumulation at any stage represent a large group of transcripts never expressed in retina. The epigenetic signatures defined by H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 can distinguish cell-type specific genes from widespread transcripts and may be reflective of cell specificity during retina maturation. In addition to the developmental patterns seen in wild type retina, the dramatic changes of histone modification in the retinas of mutant animals lacking rod photoreceptors provide a tool to study the epigenetic changes in other cell types and thus describe a broad range of epigenetic events in a solid tissue in vivo.

  13. Stage and gene specific signatures defined by histones H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 accompany mammalian retina maturation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenya Y Popova

    Full Text Available The epigenetic contribution to neurogenesis is largely unknown. There is, however, growing evidence that posttranslational modification of histones is a dynamic process that shows many correlations with gene expression. Here we have followed the genome-wide distribution of two important histone H3 modifications, H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 during late mouse retina development. The retina provides an ideal model for these studies because of its well-characterized structure and development and also the extensive studies of the retinal transcriptome and its development. We found that a group of genes expressed only in mature rod photoreceptors have a unique signature consisting of de-novo accumulation of H3K4me2, both at the transcription start site (TSS and over the whole gene, that correlates with the increase in transcription, but no accumulation of H3K27me3 at any stage. By in silico analysis of this unique signature we have identified a larger group of genes that may be selectively expressed in mature rod photoreceptors. We also found that the distribution of H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 on the genes widely expressed is not always associated with their transcriptional levels. Different histone signatures for retinal genes with the same gene expression pattern suggest the diversities of epigenetic regulation. Genes without H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 accumulation at any stage represent a large group of transcripts never expressed in retina. The epigenetic signatures defined by H3K4me2 and H3K27me3 can distinguish cell-type specific genes from widespread transcripts and may be reflective of cell specificity during retina maturation. In addition to the developmental patterns seen in wild type retina, the dramatic changes of histone modification in the retinas of mutant animals lacking rod photoreceptors provide a tool to study the epigenetic changes in other cell types and thus describe a broad range of epigenetic events in a solid tissue in vivo.

  14. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center presents Enhancing Standards Based Science Curriculum through NASA Content Relevancy: A Model for Sustainable Teaching-Research Integration Dr. Robert Gabrys, Raquel Marshall, Dr. Evelina Felicite-Maurice, Erin McKinley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, R. H.; Gabrys, R.

    2016-12-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a systemic educator professional development model for the integration of NASA climate change resources into the K-12 classroom. The desired outcome of this model is to prepare teachers in STEM disciplines to be globally engaged and knowledgeable of current climate change research and its potential for content relevancy alignment to standard-based curriculum. The application and mapping of the model is based on the state education needs assessment, alignment to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), and implementation framework developed by the consortium of district superintendents and their science supervisors. In this presentation, we will demonstrate best practices for extending the concept of inquiry-based and project-based learning through the integration of current NASA climate change research into curriculum unit lessons. This model includes a significant teacher development component focused on capacity development for teacher instruction and pedagogy aimed at aligning NASA climate change research to related NGSS student performance expectations and subsequent Crosscutting Concepts, Science and Engineering Practices, and Disciplinary Core Ideas, a need that was presented by the district steering committee as critical for ensuring sustainability and high-impact in the classroom. This model offers a collaborative and inclusive learning community that connects classroom teachers to NASA climate change researchers via an ongoing consultant/mentoring approach. As a result of the first year of implementation of this model, Maryland teachers are implementing NGSS unit lessons that guide students in open-ended research based on current NASA climate change research.

  15. Comparison on the maximum nitrite content in food between codex alimentarius commission(CAC)and China national standards%我国与CAC关于食品中亚硝酸盐限量标准的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜云荞; 吴婷婷; 冉昇; 蒋葭蒹; 朱双良

    2012-01-01

    对比分析我国国家标准与国际食品法典委员会(CAC)标准中关于食品中亚硝酸盐限量指标的异同,并列举比较了我国与CAC的五个成员地区的亚硝酸盐的限量标准.从标准涉及亚硝酸盐在食品中存在的客观性、具体食品种类和限量值3个层面逐级对比.结果表明,我国标准中共有16个有关亚硝酸盐的限量指标,涉及16种食品种类;其中亚硝酸盐为污染物限量指标的有8个,涉及8种食品种类,而CAC标准没有;亚硝酸盐标准为添加剂限量指标的有8种,涉及8种食品种类,CAC标准为5种,涉及5种食品种类,两者共有的有关亚硝酸盐限量指标涉及的食品种类为3种.我国标准涉及的16种食品种类中,13种为我国独有规定限量的食品,总数远多于CAC标准中涉及的食品总数5种;在可比指标范围内,我国的3个限量指标值都严于CAC,与CAC的一致性程度较高.%the maximum levels ofnitrite in food standards between international Codex Alimentarius Commission ( CAC ) and China are compared, the maximum levels of five members from CAC and our county are listed. The natural existence of nitrite in food, categories which has the standards of limitation of Nitrite and maximum levels were analyzed. The comparison shows that China National Standards sets maximum levelsindex of nitrite for 16kinds of food. Among these, nitrite was used as a contaminant index in8 food standards, while CAC does not have, the maximum nitrite content as food additives was listed in eight food standards in China and five in CAC' s. Three types of food has similar maximum levelsof nitrite as a food additive in both CAC and China. China National Standards has set the maximum levelsindex of nitrite for 16 kinds of food, including 13 unique Chinese foodand it is far more than 5 types in CAC food standards. Three maximum levelsof nitrite in China National Standards are lower than those of CAC.

  16. Contents of Bioaccessible Pb from Standard Reference Soil by in Vitro Test%土壤标准物质中Pb生物可给量的体外模拟试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧; 王佳敏; 羊嘉文; 李非里

    2013-01-01

    Physiologically based extraction test (PBET) was done to determine the bioaccessbility of Pb in soil and dust which could be incidental ingested through hand-to-mouth transformation. National standard reference material GBW07429 (soil of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River) was used to test the recoveries and precision of the method. Results indicated that the recoveries of the method with 20 repeat measurements accounted for 96.4% to 105%, which can meet the requirement of in vitro test. The bioaccessible Pb contents of the national standard reference soil GBW07429 in stomach and intestinal were 2.8 mg/kg and 0.42 mg/kg respectively, and relative standard deviations of the two stages were both less than 15%, indicating accepted precisions for in vitro test. The study would provide reference value for in vitro test to analysis of bioaccessible Pb by using standard reference soil GBW07429.%基于生理学的体外模拟实验(PBET),旨在测定经口无意摄入的土壤和尘土中的Pb在人体消化道内的生物可给性.采用国家土壤标准物质GBW07429(长江中下游土壤)对体外模拟实验的回收率和精密度进行测定.20次重复测定的结果显示,整个分析流程的回收率(各提取态之和占总量的百分含量)为96.4%~105%,满足体外模拟试验的分析要求.土壤标准物质GBW07429中胃阶段和小肠阶段Pb的生物可给量分别为2.8 mg/kg和0.42 mg/kg,相对标准偏差均小于15%,具有较好的精密度.研究采用土壤标准物质GBW07429测定了Pb的生物可给量,为分析Pb的生物可给性的体外模拟试验提供一个参考值.

  17. Ag 插层 K4Nb6O17复合光催化剂降解水中有机污染物%The Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water on The Ag-intercalated K4Nb6O17 Composite Photocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆晨帆; 梁英华; 刘利; 胡金山; 崔文权

    2015-01-01

    Ag-intercalated layered niobate (denoted as K4Nb6O17/Ag) was synthesized via a micr-owave-assisted ion-exchange method. The high enhanced activity of the composite photocatalyst was observed during the degradation of methylene blue (MB). Also, the degradation rate of MB by K4Nb6O17/Ag was higher when the solution pH increased. The composite photocatalyst showed the high enhanced activity with the different concentration of MB. In the same condition, K4Nb6O17/Ag showed higher photocatalysis than Ag-loaded K4Nb6O17 and Ag-loaded TiO2 composite photocat-alysts.%介绍了通过微波辅助的离子交换法制备 Ag 插层 K4Nb6O17复合光催化剂。复合光催化剂在降解水体中亚甲基蓝的过程中呈现出很高的光催化活性,并且插层复合光催化剂对亚基蓝在碱性条件下能发挥更高效的降解作用且对不同初始浓度的亚甲基蓝均具有较好的移除降解效率。在相同的反应条件下, Ag 插层复合光催化剂要比等量的 Ag 负载 K4Nb6O17, Ag 负载 TiO2复合光催化剂活性高很多,使 Ag 插层 K4Nb6O17复合光催化剂在净化水体污染物方面表现出更显著的优势。

  18. Re-patterning of H3K27me3, H3K4me3 and DNA methylation during fibroblast conversion into induced cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqing Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct conversion of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs offers an alternative strategy for cardiac disease modeling and regeneration. During iCM reprogramming, the starting fibroblasts must overcome existing epigenetic barriers to acquire the CM-like chromatin pattern. However, epigenetic dynamics along this reprogramming process have not been studied. Here, we took advantage of our recently generated polycistronic system and determined the dynamics of two critical histone marks, H3K27me3 and H3K4me3, in parallel with gene expression at a set of carefully selected cardiac and fibroblast loci during iCM reprogramming. We observed reduced H3K27me3 and increased H3K4me3 at cardiac promoters as early as day 3, paralleled by a rapid significant increase in their mRNA expression. In contrast, H3K27me3 at loci encoding fibroblast marker genes did not increase until day 10 and H3K4me3 progressively decreased along the reprogramming process; these changes were accompanied by a gradual decrease in the mRNA expression of fibroblast marker genes. Further analyses of fibroblast-enriched transcription factors revealed a similarly late deposition of H3K27me3 and decreased mRNA expression of Sox9, Twist1 and Twist2, three important players in epithelial−mesenchymal transition. Our data suggest early rapid activation of the cardiac program and later progressive suppression of fibroblast fate at both epigenetic and transcriptional levels. Additionally, we determined the DNA methylation states of representative cardiac promoters and found that not every single CpG was equally demethylated during early stages of iCM reprogramming. Rather, there are specific CpGs, whose demethylation states correlated tightly with transcription activation, that we propose are the major contributing CpGs. Our work thus reveals a differential re-patterning of H3K27me3, H3K4me3 at cardiac and fibroblast loci during iCM reprogramming and could provide future genome

  19. Electrochemical studies on Li+/K+ ion exchange behaviour in K4Fe(CN)6 cathode material for Li, K-ion battery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikash Mandal; I Basumallick; Susanta Ghosha

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical studies of anhydrous K4Fe(CN)6 is reported. Anhydrous material was produced after dehydrating K4Fe(CN)6.3H2O crystal at 200°C in an open atmosphere. The material, as obtained, was characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, such as UV-Visible, FTIR, powder X-ray diffraction and FESEM-EDX. Electrochemical and Li+/K+ ion exchange behaviour of the synthesized material were studied by cyclic voltametry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and galvanostatic charge-discharge method after preparing a laboratory model cell against lithium anode instead of potassium. During anodic scan in the 1st cycle, peak maximum was observed at 3.93 V vs. Li+/Li due to removal of K+ ions from the ferrocyanide matrix, whereas, in the reverse scan (cathodic sweep) as well as in consequent cycles, peak maxima due to Li+ ion insertion and extraction were observed at 2.46 V and 3.23 V vs. Li+/Li, respectively. Cell, assembled using ferrocyanide cathode and lithium anode, shows an open circuit potential of 3.08 V and delivers a maximum capacity of 61 mAh g-1 (theoretical capacity 72 mAh g-1) at a rate of 0.2 C at room temperature.

  20. The inflammatory kinase MAP4K4 promotes reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus and enhances the invasiveness of infected endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya A Haas

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma (KS is a mesenchymal tumour, which is caused by Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV and develops under inflammatory conditions. KSHV-infected endothelial spindle cells, the neoplastic cells in KS, show increased invasiveness, attributed to the elevated expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. The majority of these spindle cells harbour latent KSHV genomes, while a minority undergoes lytic reactivation with subsequent production of new virions and viral or cellular chemo- and cytokines, which may promote tumour invasion and dissemination. In order to better understand KSHV pathogenesis, we investigated cellular mechanisms underlying the lytic reactivation of KSHV. Using a combination of small molecule library screening and siRNA silencing we found a STE20 kinase family member, MAP4K4, to be involved in KSHV reactivation from latency and to contribute to the invasive phenotype of KSHV-infected endothelial cells by regulating COX-2, MMP-7, and MMP-13 expression. This kinase is also highly expressed in KS spindle cells in vivo. These findings suggest that MAP4K4, a known mediator of inflammation, is involved in KS aetiology by regulating KSHV lytic reactivation, expression of MMPs and COX-2, and, thereby modulating invasiveness of KSHV-infected endothelial cells.

  1. Signalling couples hair follicle stem cell quiescence with reduced histone H3 K4/K9/K27me3 for proper tissue homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jayhun; Kang, Sangjo; Lilja, Karin C; Colletier, Keegan J; Scheitz, Cornelia Johanna Franziska; Zhang, Ying V; Tumbar, Tudorita

    2016-04-15

    Mechanisms of plasticity to acquire different cell fates are critical for adult stem cell (SC) potential, yet are poorly understood. Reduced global histone methylation is an epigenetic state known to mediate plasticity in cultured embryonic SCs and T-cell progenitors. Here we find histone H3 K4/K9/K27me3 levels actively reduced in adult mouse skin and hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) during G0 quiescence. The level of marks over specific gene promoters did not correlate to mRNA level changes in quiescent HFSCs. Skin hypomethylation during quiescence was necessary for subsequent progression of hair homeostasis (cycle). Inhibiting BMP signal, a known HFSC anti-proliferative factor, elevated HFSC methylation in vivo during quiescence prior to proliferation onset. Furthermore, removal of proliferation factors and addition of BMP4 reduced histone methylases and increased demethylases mRNAs in cultured skin epithelial cells. We conclude that signalling couples hair follicle stem cell quiescence with reduced H3 K4/K9/K27me3 levels for proper tissue homeostasis.

  2. H3K4me3 demethylation by the histone demethylase KDM5C/JARID1C promotes DNA replication origin firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondinelli, Beatrice; Schwerer, Hélène; Antonini, Elena; Gaviraghi, Marco; Lupi, Alessio; Frenquelli, Michela; Cittaro, Davide; Segalla, Simona; Lemaitre, Jean-Marc; Tonon, Giovanni

    2015-03-11

    DNA replication is a tightly regulated process that initiates from multiple replication origins and leads to the faithful transmission of the genetic material. For proper DNA replication, the chromatin surrounding origins needs to be remodeled. However, remarkably little is known on which epigenetic changes are required to allow the firing of replication origins. Here, we show that the histone demethylase KDM5C/JARID1C is required for proper DNA replication at early origins. JARID1C dictates the assembly of the pre-initiation complex, driving the binding to chromatin of the pre-initiation proteins CDC45 and PCNA, through the demethylation of the histone mark H3K4me3. Fork activation and histone H4 acetylation, additional early events involved in DNA replication, are not affected by JARID1C downregulation. All together, these data point to a prominent role for JARID1C in a specific phase of DNA replication in mammalian cells, through its demethylase activity on H3K4me3.

  3. Distinct localization of histone H3 acetylation and H3-K4 methylation to the transcription start sites in the human genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Gangning; Lin, Joy C. Y.; Wei, Vivian; Yoo, Christine; Cheng, Jonathan C.; Nguyen, Carvell T.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Egger, Gerda; Takai, Daiya; Gonzales, Felicidad A.; Jones, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    Almost 1-2% of the human genome is located within 500 bp of either side of a transcription initiation site, whereas a far larger proportion (≈25%) is potentially transcribable by elongating RNA polymerases. This observation raises the question of how the genome is packaged into chromatin to allow start sites to be recognized by the regulatory machinery at the same time as transcription initiation, but not elongation, is blocked in the 25% of intragenic DNA. We developed a chromatin scanning technique called ChAP, coupling the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with arbitrarily primed PCR, which allows for the rapid and unbiased comparison of histone modification patterns within the eukaryotic nucleus. Methylated lysine 4 (K4) and acetylated K9/14 of histone H3 were both highly localized to the 5′ regions of transcriptionally active human genes but were greatly decreased downstream of the start sites. Our results suggest that the large transcribed regions of human genes are maintained in a deacetylated conformation in regions read by elongating polymerase. Common models depicting widespread histone acetylation and K4 methylation throughout the transcribed unit do not therefore apply to the majority of human genes. PMID:15123803

  4. Potent and Selective KDM5 Inhibitor Stops Cellular Demethylation of H3K4me3 at Transcription Start Sites and Proliferation of MM1S Myeloma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumber, Anthony; Nuzzi, Andrea; Hookway, Edward S; Hatch, Stephanie B; Velupillai, Srikannathasan; Johansson, Catrine; Kawamura, Akane; Savitsky, Pavel; Yapp, Clarence; Szykowska, Aleksandra; Wu, Na; Bountra, Chas; Strain-Damerell, Claire; Burgess-Brown, Nicola A; Ruda, Gian Filippo; Fedorov, Oleg; Munro, Shonagh; England, Katherine S; Nowak, Radoslaw P; Schofield, Christopher J; La Thangue, Nicholas B; Pawlyn, Charlotte; Davies, Faith; Morgan, Gareth; Athanasou, Nick; Müller, Susanne; Oppermann, Udo; Brennan, Paul E

    2017-03-16

    Methylation of lysine residues on histone tail is a dynamic epigenetic modification that plays a key role in chromatin structure and gene regulation. Members of the KDM5 (also known as JARID1) sub-family are 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) and Fe(2+)-dependent oxygenases acting as histone 3 lysine 4 trimethyl (H3K4me3) demethylases, regulating proliferation, stem cell self-renewal, and differentiation. Here we present the characterization of KDOAM-25, an inhibitor of KDM5 enzymes. KDOAM-25 shows biochemical half maximal inhibitory concentration values of <100 nM for KDM5A-D in vitro, high selectivity toward other 2-OG oxygenases sub-families, and no off-target activity on a panel of 55 receptors and enzymes. In human cell assay systems, KDOAM-25 has a half maximal effective concentration of ∼50 μM and good selectivity toward other demethylases. KDM5B is overexpressed in multiple myeloma and negatively correlated with the overall survival. Multiple myeloma MM1S cells treated with KDOAM-25 show increased global H3K4 methylation at transcriptional start sites and impaired proliferation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. The histone H3K4-specific demethylase KDM5B binds to its substrate and product through distinct PHD fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Brianna J.; Piao, Lianhua; Xi, Yuanxin; Rincon-Arano, Hector; Rothbart, Scott B.; Peng, Danni; Wen, Hong; Larson, Connie; Zhang, Xi; Zheng, Xia; Cortazar, Michael A.; Peña, Pedro V.; Mangan, Anthony; Bentley, David L.; Strahl, Brian D.; Groudine, Mark; Li, Wei; Shi, Xiaobing; Kutateladze, Tatiana G.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The histone lysine demethylase KDM5B regulates gene transcription and cell differentiation. It contains three PHD fingers, the biological roles of which remain elusive. Here, we show that the first PHD1 finger of KDM5B binds unmodified histone H3, whereas the third PHD3 finger prefers the trimethylated mark, H3K4me3. RNA-seq analysis indicates that KDM5B functions as a transcriptional repressor for a set of genes. Biochemical analysis reveals that KDM5B associates with components of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex and may cooperate with HDAC1 in gene repression. Compared with the estrogen receptor positive breast cancers, KDM5B is downregulated in the triple-negative breast cancer. Overexpression of KDM5B in the MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells suppresses cell migration and invasion ability, and the PHD1-H3K4me0 interaction is important for inhibition of migration. These findings highlight tumor-suppressive functions of KDM5B in triple-negative breast cancer cells and suggest a novel multivalent mechanism for KDM5B-mediated transcriptional regulation. PMID:24412361

  6. K4I3 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  7. K4C0 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  8. K4V0 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  9. K4M9 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  10. K4A9 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  11. Effects of histone acetylation and H3K4 methylation on PRA/PRB in human uterine smooth muscle cells during pregnancy%组蛋白H3、H4乙酰化及H3K4甲基化对人妊娠子宫平滑肌细胞PRA/PRB的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗慧; 陈诚; 梁志清

    2014-01-01

    目的 通过组蛋白去乙酰化酶抑制剂(trichostatin A,TSA)、H3 K4甲基化酶抑制剂(5’-deoxy-5’-methylthioadenosine,MTA)处理人妊娠子宫平滑肌细胞,干预组蛋白H3、H4乙酰化及H3K4甲基化水平,探讨组蛋白H3、H4乙酰化及H3K4甲基化对人妊娠子宫平滑肌细胞PRA/PRB的影响.方法 分离纯化人妊娠子宫平滑肌细胞(n=16),免疫组化定位孕激素受体(progesterone receptor,PR)及孕激素受体B(progesterone receptor B,PRB)在子宫平滑肌细胞核的表达.分别利用不同浓度TSA、MTA对其进行处理,Real-time PCR检测PR、PRA、PRB mRNA的表达;染色质免疫共沉淀技术(Chromatin immunoprecipitation,ChIP)比较处理前后PRA、PRB启动子区H3、H4乙酰化及H3K4三甲基化水平.结果 TSA可使PRA/PRB明显增高(P<0.05),使PRA启动子区H3、H4乙酰化水平明显上升(P<0.05).MTA可使PRA/PRB明显下降(P<0.05),PRA启动子区H3K4乙酰化水平明显下降(P<0.05).两种药物的干预主要通过对PRA的调控来调节PRA/PRB比值.结论 组蛋白H3、H4乙酰化和H3K4甲基化均可使人妊娠子宫平滑肌细胞PRA/PRB比值发生改变,可能参与“功能性孕激素撤退”机制的调节.

  12. MicroRNA-25通过调控MAP2 K4抑制糖尿病肾病纤维化的研究%Study of Inhibition Fibrosis of MicroRNA-25 on Diabetic Nephropathy by Regulating Expression of MAP2 K4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓莉; 刘洁婷; 张春雷; 王超男; 冯彪; 初彦辉; 张涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the expression level of microRNA-25 in animal models of diabetic nephropathy and human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) cultured in different conditions, and to explore its regulating effect on the fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy. Methods The expression of microRNA-25 was detected by real-time PCR. The downstream target protein of microRNA-25 was verified by bioinformatic prediction, transient transfection of cells and Western blotting. Results MicroRNA-25 was down-regulated in animal models of diabetic nephropathy and HK-2 cells which were cultured in high-glucose medium (P<0. 01). MAP2K4 might be the downstream target protein of microRNA-25. Overexpression of microRNA-25 reduced the protein expression of MAP2K4 and α-SMA (P<0. 01). Conclusion MicroRNA-25 inhibits the fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy by regulating the expression of MAP2K4.%目的:检测microRNA-25在糖尿病肾病动物模型及不同条件培养下的人肾小管上皮细胞( HK-2)中的表达,探讨其对糖尿病肾病纤维化的调节作用。方法实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应检测microRNA-25的表达。生物信息学预测、细胞瞬时转染和Western blot验证microRNA-25的下游靶蛋白。结果 microRNA-25在糖尿病肾病动物模型及高糖培养下的HK-2中表达降低(P<0.01)。 MAP2K4可能是microRNA-25的下游靶蛋白。过表达microRNA-25可以从蛋白水平上抑制MAP2K4、α-SMA的表达(P<0.01)。结论 microRNA-25可以通过调控MAP2K4从而抑制糖尿病肾病纤维化的进展。

  13. State Skill Standards: Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  14. Content Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Jeff; Stenstrom, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a guide in acquiring content management system. They conducted a vendor survey that covers four areas: (1) general information about the product (including standards supported); (2) administration of the product; (3) functionality; and (4) contact information for readers who want to know more. A list of product…

  15. K4Sn3Se8的固相合成、晶体结构和反射光谱研究%Solid state synthesis,crystal structure and diffuse reflectance spectra of K4Sn3Se8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志霞; 郭洪猷

    2003-01-01

    采用反应性熔盐法,通过中温固相反应在500 ℃下合成晶体K4Sn3Se8.该晶体属正交晶系,空间群Ccca,晶胞参数:a=0.821 15(6) nm,b=2.779 0(2) nm,c=0.818 65(6) nm,V=1.868 2(2) nm3,Z=4.K4Sn3Se8由[Sn3Se8]4-三聚体负离子和K+正离子组成.漫反射光谱研究表明该材料能隙(Eg)为2.6 eV,属于半导体,对太阳能具有选择吸收的特性.

  16. H3K4 dimethylation in hepatocellular carcinoma is rare compared with other hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal carcinomas and correlates with expression of the methylase Ash2 and the demethylase LSD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magerl, Christian; Ellinger, Jörg; Braunschweig, Till; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Koch, Lin Kristin; Höller, Tobias; Büttner, Reinhard; Lüscher, Bernhard; Gütgemann, Ines

    2010-02-01

    Methylation of core histones regulates chromatin structure and gene expression. Recent studies have demonstrated that these methylation patterns have prognostic value for some tumors. Therefore, we investigated dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4diMe) and H3K4 methylating (Ash2 complex) and demethylating enzymes (LSD1) in carcinomas of the hepatic and gastrointestinal tract. High levels of H3K4diMe were rarely observed in 15.7% of hepatocellular carcinoma (8/51) unlike other carcinomas including, in ascending order, cholangiocellular carcinoma/adenocarcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary tract, gastric carcinoma, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and neuroendocrine carcinoma (P carcinomas (38/45) and correlated directly with H3K4diMe modification (correlation coefficient r = 0.53) and LSD1 expression (r = 0.35). In contrast to other carcinomas, 65.9% (29/44) of hepatocellular carcinomas analyzed showed no LSD1 expression (P carcinomas without LSD1 expression appeared to be frequently Ash2 and H3K4diMe weak or negative (P = .004). In summary, high H3K4diMe expression is rare in hepatocellular carcinoma compared with other carcinomas (negative predictive value 92.3%), which may aid in the differential diagnosis. Lack of H3K4diMe is possibly due to complex epigenetic regulation involving Ash2 and LSD1.

  17. Content Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rossi, George Bedinelli; Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; João, Belmiro Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach...

  18. Content Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    LE, DUC

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the new trend in today’s marketing world: content marketing. It has been employed by many companies and organizations in the world and has been proven success even when it is still a fairly new topic. Five carefully selected theories of content marketing proposed by experts in the field has been collected, compared and displayed as originally and scientifically as possible in this thesis. The chosen theories provide a diversified perspectives of...

  19. Chromosomal distribution of H3K4me2, H3K9me2 and 5-methylcytosine: variations associated with polyploidy and hybridization in Brachiaria (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Cristina Maria Pinto; Souza Sobrinho, Fausto; Techio, Vânia Helena

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of chromosomal distribution of modified histones and 5-methylcytosine shown that there are diversification of chromosomal types among species of Brachiaria and its interspecific hybrids. Histone post-translational modifications and DNA methylation are epigenetic processes that are involved in structural and functional organization of the genome. This study compared the chromosomal distribution of modified histones and 5-methylcytosine (5-mCyt) in species and interspecific hybrids of Brachiaria with different ploidy levels and reproduction modes. The relation between H3K9me2 and 5-mCyt was observed in the nucleolus organizer region, centromeric central domain and pericentromeric region. H3K4me2 was detected in euchromatic domains, mainly in the terminal chromosomal regions. Comparison of chromosomal distribution among species and hybrids showed greater variation of chromosomal types for the H3K9me2 in B. decumbens (tetraploid and apomictic species) and the 963 hybrid, while, for the H3K4me2, the variation was higher in B. brizantha and B. decumbens (tetraploid and apomictic species) and 963 hybrid. The chromosome distribution of 5-mCyt was similar between B. brizantha and B. decumbens, which differ from the distribution observed in B. ruziziensis (diploid and sexual species). Significant alterations in DNA methylation were observed in the artificially tetraploidized B. ruziziensis and in the interspecific hybrids, possibly as result of hybridization and polyploidization processes. The monitoring of histone modifications and DNA methylation allowed categorizing nuclear and chromosomal distribution of these epigenetic marks, thus contributing to the knowledge of composition and structure of the genome/epigenome of Brachiaria species and hybrids. These data can be useful for speciation and genome evolution studies in genus Brachiaria, and represent important markers to explore relationships between genomes.

  20. Applying Content Analysis to Web-based Content

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Inhwa; Kuljis, Jasna

    2010-01-01

    Using Content Analysis onWeb-based content, in particular the content available onWeb 2.0 sites, is investigated. The relative strengths and limitations of the method are described. To illustrate how content analysis may be used, we provide a brief overview of a case study that investigates cultural impacts on the use of design features with regard to self-disclosure on the blogs of South Korean and United Kingdom’s users. In this study we took a standard approach to conducting the content an...

  1. Hawaii’s “7 by 7” for School Health Education: A PowerPoint Presentation on Integrating the National Health Education Standards With Priority Content Areas for Today’s School Health Education in Grades Kindergarten Through 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Pateman, HSD, MPH

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available School-based health education can help young people develop the knowledge, skills, motivation, and support they need to choose health-enhancing behaviors and resist engaging in behaviors that put them at risk for health and social problems and school failure. The health of school-age youth is significantly associated with their school achievement. However, in the midst of today’s increased emphasis on school accountability in the areas of reading, writing, and mathematics, subject areas such as health education tend to receive less prominence in the school curriculum. Recalling their own lackluster school experiences related to health topics, decision makers may not realize that today’s skills-based school health curriculum involves a highly interactive and engaging approach to promoting good health and preventing the most serious health problems among youth. Health education is one important component of a coordinated school health program that includes health education, physical education, school health services, nutrition services, school counseling and psychological services, a healthy school environment, school promotion for faculty and staff, and involvement of family and community members. The purpose of this PowerPoint presentation — Healthy Keiki, Healthy Hawaii: Hawaii's "7 by 7" for School Health Education — is to educate health and education decision makers, teachers, parents, and community members on how Hawaii has integrated seven health education standards with seven priority health content areas to create an effective approach to school health education in grades kindergarten through 12. The goal of Hawaii’s “7 by 7” curriculum focus is to ensure that all of Hawaii’s keiki (children have well-planned opportunities at school to become fit, healthy, and ready to learn.

  2. Effect of sleep deprivation on H3K9 and H3K4 methylation in the different brain region of rats%REM期睡眠剥夺对大鼠不同脑区组蛋白H3K9和H3K4甲基化水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马安东; 马妮; 史明; 田丰仓; 吴中亮

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究REM期睡眠剥夺对成年大鼠不同脑区包括海马、腹内侧前额叶皮质、下丘脑和中缝核群的组蛋白H3K9和H3K4三甲基化水平的影响.方法:将成年SD大鼠随机分为正常对照组(con)、睡眠剥夺1d组(SD1 d)、睡眠剥夺3d组(SD3 d)、睡眠剥夺6d组(SD6 d).采用改良式多平台水环境法建立REM期睡眠剥夺模型,分别于睡眠剥夺后1、3、6d断头取脑,用免疫荧光染色与Western Blot检测大鼠海马、腹内侧前额叶皮质、下丘脑和中缝核群H3K9和H3K4三甲基化水平的变化,最终结果进行统计学分析.结果:Western Blot结果显示:(1)海马、腹内侧前额叶皮质三个SD组H3K9三甲基化水平均低于control组(P<0.05),H3K4三甲基化水平均高于control组(P<0.05);(2)下丘脑三个SD组H3K9三甲基化水平均低于control组(P<0.01),但SD1 d组H3K4三甲基化水平高于control组(P<0.05),SD3 d、SD6 d组H3K4三甲基化水平低于control组(P<0.05);(3)中缝核群三个SD组H3K9和H3K4三甲基化水平均高于control组(P<0.05).对海马与下丘脑免疫荧光验证H3K9三甲基化结果与Western Blot结果趋势一致,且说明细胞无减少.结论:睡眠剥夺可能与海马、腹内侧前额叶皮质、下丘脑和中缝核群的组蛋白H3K9和H3K4三甲基化水平密切相关.

  3. E-learning standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-learning standards refer to a system of common rules for content, authoring software and Learning Management Systems (LMSs - rules that specify how courses can be created and delivered over multiple platforms so that they all operate seamlessly together. Accredited standards ensure that the investment in time and intellectual capital could move from one system to the next. Currently, e-learning standards are being developed by four main organizations: AICC, IEEE, IMS, and ADL. The article presents some aspects of these standards.

  4. Dot1-dependent histone H3K79 methylation promotes the formation of meiotic double-strand breaks in the absence of histone H3K4 methylation in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bani Ismail

    Full Text Available Epigenetic marks such as histone modifications play roles in various chromosome dynamics in mitosis and meiosis. Methylation of histones H3 at positions K4 and K79 is involved in the initiation of recombination and the recombination checkpoint, respectively, during meiosis in the budding yeast. Set1 promotes H3K4 methylation while Dot1 promotes H3K79 methylation. In this study, we carried out detailed analyses of meiosis in mutants of the SET1 and DOT1 genes as well as methylation-defective mutants of histone H3. We confirmed the role of Set1-dependent H3K4 methylation in the formation of double-strand breaks (DSBs in meiosis for the initiation of meiotic recombination, and we showed the involvement of Dot1 (H3K79 methylation in DSB formation in the absence of Set1-dependent H3K4 methylation. In addition, we showed that the histone H3K4 methylation-defective mutants are defective in SC elongation, although they seem to have moderate reduction of DSBs. This suggests that high levels of DSBs mediated by histone H3K4 methylation promote SC elongation.

  5. Magnetic transition in K4Cu4OCl10: A model system of three-dimensional spin-(1)/(2) tetrahedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihala, Masayoshi; Zheng, Xu-Guang; Morodomi, Hiroki; Kawae, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Isao

    2013-04-01

    Isolated spin tetrahedral systems with weak intertetrahedral couplings, as have been reported for Cu2Te2O5X2 (X = Cl, Br) and the related compound Cu4Te5O12Cl4, have received much attention recently because they represent an interesting class of magnets that consist of weakly coupled magnetic clusters and, in particular, they can directly demonstrate the interplay of intertetrahedral couplings with built-in tetrahedral frustration. However, there is much debate about the structural low dimensionality of the Cu-Te-O-Cl(Br) compounds and its effect on the magnetism of the material. Here, we present a model spin tetrahedral system K4Cu4OCl10, with almost isotropic magnetic coupling within the tetrahedron and three-dimensional connection of the tetrahedra. The system enters a spin-singlet state with a susceptibility maximum at Tmax = 11 K, and then enters an antiferromagnetic order at TN = 4.4 K. The ratio TN/Tmax = 0.40 is close to the TN/Tmax = 0.38 for Cu2Te2O5Br2, which is viewed as an indicator of closeness to quantum criticality. Evidence in muon-spin rotation or relaxation suggests an incommensurate ordering. This work shows that the previously revealed ground state in anisotropically structured Cu2Te2O5X2 compounds also exists in an isotropic spin tetrahedral system.

  6. Report on EUROMET.RI(I)-K1 and EUROMET.RI(I)-K4 (EUROMET project no. 813): Comparison of air kerma and absorbed dose to water measurements of {sup 60}Co radiation beams for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csete, I. [National Office of Measures (OMH) - pilot laboratory and corresponding author (Hungary); Leiton, A.G. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CMRI-CIEMAT) (Spain); Sochor, V. [Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) (Czech Republic); Lapenas, A. [Latvian National Metrology Center (LNMC-RMTC) (Latvia); Grindborg, J.E. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) (Sweden); Jokelainen, I. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland); Bjerke, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway); Dobrovodsky, J. [Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU) (Slovakia); Megzifene, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, Vienna (Austria); Hourdakis, C.J. [Hellenic Atomic Energy Committee (HAEC-HIRCL) (Greece); Ivanov, R. [National Centre of Metrology (NCM) (Bulgaria); Vekic, B. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute (IRB) (Croatia); Kokocinski, J. [Central Office of Measures (GUM) (Poland); Cardoso, J. [Institute for Nuclear Technology (ITN-LMRIR) (Portugal); Buermann, L. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) (Germany); Tiefenboeck, W. [Bundesamt fur Eich und Vermesungswesen (BEV) (Austria); Stucki, G. [17 Bundesamt fur Metrologie (METAS) (Switzerland); Van Dijk, E. [NMi Van Swinden Laboratorium (NMi) (Netherlands); Toni, M.P. [ENEA-CR Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti (ENEA) (Italy); Minniti, R. [20 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (United States); McCaffrey, J.P. [National Research Council Canada (NRC) (Canada); Silva, C.N.M. [National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD) (Brazil); Kharitonov, I. [D I Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM) (RU); Webb, D. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) (Australia); Saravi, M. [National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA-CAE) (Argentina); Delaunay, F. [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) (France)

    2010-06-15

    The results of an unprecedented international effort involving 26 countries are reported. The EUROMET.RI(I)-K1 and EUROMET.RI(I)-K4 key comparisons were conducted with the goal of supporting the relevant calibration and measurement capabilities (CMC) planned for publication by the participant laboratories. The measured quantities were the air kerma (K{sub air}) and the absorbed dose to water (Dw) in {sup 60}Co radiotherapy beams. The comparison was conducted by the pilot laboratory MKEH (Hungary), in a star-shaped arrangement from January 2005 to December 2008. The calibration coefficients of four transfer ionization chambers were measured using two electrometers. The largest deviation between any two calibration coefficients for the four chambers in terms of air kerma and absorbed dose to water was 2.7% and 3.3% respectively. An analysis of the participant uncertainty budgets enabled the calculation of degrees of equivalence (DoE), in terms of the deviations of the results and their associated uncertainties. As a result of this EUROMET project 813 comparison, the BIPM key comparison database (KCDB) will include eleven new Kair and fourteen new D{sub w} DoE values of European secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs), and the KCDB will be updated with the new DoE values of the other participant laboratories. The pair-wise degrees of equivalence of participants were also calculated. In addition to assessing calibration techniques and uncertainty calculations of the participants, these comparisons enabled the experimental determinations of N{sub Dw}/N{sub Kair} ratios in the {sup 60}Co gamma radiation beam for the four radiotherapy transfer chambers. (authors)

  7. MAIN CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Discussion on the Modern Agriculture Management Mode and its Innovation in China Mode of agricultural management is organic unify between form of agriculture management and way of agriculture management. Changes of agricultural management form are the content of system innovation;Transformation of agricultural management way belongs to the category of technical progress. We found that, precision agriculture with the moderate scale by professional farmers is the dominant mode of agricultural management. Coexisting of multiple modes is the pattern and evolution trend of modern agriculture management mode. The precision agriculture based on household business of moderate scale mode, we needs of rural economd socialization of

  8. Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Bedinelli Rossi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the various definitions and types of content analysis. This type of analysis historically presents itself as a quantitative approach to data analysis and currently shows up as a qualitative approach. The most common types are the conceptual and relational analysis. The latter receives influences of linguistic, cognitive and mental models and it is subdivided in affective extraction, analysis of proximity and cognitive mapping. Regarding the importance of this type of analysis, we have quantitative and qualitative character and the latter approach can be used to identify hypotheses, theoretical constructs or even models that can be tested by multivariate statistical techniques or even by experiments. 

  9. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same w

  10. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  11. RSV-Induced H3K4 Demethylase KDM5B Leads to Regulation of Dendritic Cell-Derived Innate Cytokines and Exacerbates Pathogenesis In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Ptaschinski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection can result in severe disease partially due to its ability to interfere with the initiation of Th1 responses targeting the production of type I interferons (IFN and promoting a Th2 immune environment. Epigenetic modulation of gene transcription has been shown to be important in regulating inflammatory pathways. RSV-infected bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs upregulated expression of Kdm5b/Jarid1b H3K4 demethylase. Kdm5b-specific siRNA inhibition in BMDC led to a 10-fold increase in IFN-β as well as increases in IL-6 and TNF-α compared to control-transfected cells. The generation of Kdm5bfl/fl-CD11c-Cre+ mice recapitulated the latter results during in vitro DC activation showing innate cytokine modulation. In vivo, infection of Kdm5bfl/fl-CD11c-Cre+ mice with RSV resulted in higher production of IFN-γ and reduced IL-4 and IL-5 compared to littermate controls, with significantly decreased inflammation, IL-13, and mucus production in the lungs. Sensitization with RSV-infected DCs into the airways of naïve mice led to an exacerbated response when mice were challenged with live RSV infection. When Kdm5b was blocked in DCs with siRNA or DCs from Kdm5bfl/fl-CD11c-CRE mice were used, the exacerbated response was abrogated. Importantly, human monocyte-derived DCs treated with a chemical inhibitor for KDM5B resulted in increased innate cytokine levels as well as elicited decreased Th2 cytokines when co-cultured with RSV reactivated CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that KDM5B acts to repress type I IFN and other innate cytokines to promote an altered immune response following RSV infection that contributes to development of chronic disease.

  12. Role of RbBP5 and H3K4me3 in the vicinity of Snail transcription start site during epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Sun, Hui; Sun, Wen-Jing; Bao, Hong-Bo; Si, Shu-Han; Fan, Jia-Lin; Lin, Ping; Cui, Rong-Jun; Pan, Yu-Jia; Wen, Si-Min; Zheng, Xiu-Lan; Yu, Xiao-Guang

    2016-10-04

    EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) occurs in a wide range of tumor types, and has been shown to be crucial for metastasis. Epigenetic modifications of histones contribute to chromatin structure and result in the alterations in gene expression. Tri-methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) is associated with the promoters of actively transcribed genes and can serve as a transcriptional on/off switch. RbBP5 is a component of the COMPASS/ -like complex, which catalyzes H3K4me3 formation. In this study, we found that in the process of TGF-Beta1 induced EMT in the prostate cancer cell line DU145, H3K4me3 enrichment and RbBP5 binding increased in the vicinity of Snail (SNAI1) transcription start site. Knocking-down of RbBP5 notably decreased Snail expression and EMT. Recruitment of RbBP5 and formation of H3K4me3 at Snail TSS during EMT depend on binding of SMAD2/3 and CBP at Snail TSS. This study links the SMAD2/3 signal with Snail transcription via a histone modification - H3K4me3. Furthermore, our research also demonstrates that RbBP5 and even WRAD may be a promising therapeutic candidates in treating prostate cancer metastasis, and that DU145 cells maintain their incomplete mesenchymal state in an auto/ paracrine manner.

  13. A comparative study of (129)I content in environmental standard materials IAEA-375, NIST SRM 4354 and NIST SRM 4357 by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, John; Adamic, Mary; Snyder, Darin; Brookhart, Jacob; Hahn, Paula; Watrous, Matthew

    2017-01-25

    Iodine environmental measurements have consistently been validated in the literature using the standard material IAEA-375, soil collected approximately 160 miles northeast of Chernobyl, which is currently the only soil/sediment material with a certified (129)I activity. IAEA-375 has not been available for purchase since approximately 2010. Two other standard materials that are available (NIST SRM 4354, freshwater lake sediment and NIST SRM 4357, ocean sediment) have certified activities for a variety of radionuclides but not for (129)I. This paper reports a comparison of TIMS and AMS data for all three standards.

  14. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.

    2014-01-01

    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed companie

  15. Epigenetics and sex differences in the brain: A genome-wide comparison of histone-3 lysine-4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Erica Y; Ahern, Todd H; Cheung, Iris; Straubhaar, Juerg; Dincer, Aslihan; Houston, Isaac; de Vries, Geert J; Akbarian, Schahram; Forger, Nancy G

    2015-06-01

    Many neurological and psychiatric disorders exhibit gender disparities, and sex differences in the brain likely explain some of these effects. Recent work in rodents points to a role for epigenetics in the development or maintenance of neural sex differences, although genome-wide studies have so far been lacking. Here we review the existing literature on epigenetics and brain sexual differentiation and present preliminary analyses on the genome-wide distribution of histone-3 lysine-4 trimethylation in a sexually dimorphic brain region in male and female mice. H3K4me3 is a histone mark primarily organized as 'peaks' surrounding the transcription start site of active genes. We microdissected the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and preoptic area (BNST/POA) in adult male and female mice and used ChIP-Seq to compare the distribution of H3K4me3 throughout the genome. We found 248 genes and loci with a significant sex difference in H3K4me3. Of these, the majority (71%) had larger H3K4me3 peaks in females. Comparisons with existing databases indicate that genes and loci with increased H3K4me3 in females are associated with synaptic function and with expression atlases from related brain areas. Based on RT-PCR, only a minority of genes with a sex difference in H3K4me3 has detectable sex differences in expression at baseline conditions. Together with previous findings, our data suggest that there may be sex biases in the use of epigenetic marks. Such biases could underlie sex differences in vulnerabilities to drugs or diseases that disrupt specific epigenetic processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V

    1986-01-01

    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  17. k482ar.m77t - MGD77 data file for Geophysical data from field activity K-4-82-AR in Arctic from 09/13/1982 to 10/10/1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetry data along with DGPS navigation data was collected as part of field activity K-4-82-AR in Arctic from 09/13/1982 to 10/10/1982,...

  18. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...

  19. Achieving Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    competitive, national customs and regional economic organizations are seeking to establish a standardized solution for digital reporting of customs data. However, standardization has proven hard to achieve in the socio-technical e-Customs solution. In this chapter, the authors identify and describe what has...

  20. Measurement of the Energy Expenditures in Daily Physical Activities with K4b2%应用K4b2心肺功能测定仪对日常体力活动能量消耗的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健敏; 李颜; 杨晓光

    2010-01-01

    应用K4b2心肺功能测定仪对日常体力活动的能量消耗进行现场测定,以期为我国体力活动指南的制定提供基础资料.选取23名北医青年学生作为受试者,其中男11名,女12名,应用K4b2心肺功能测定仪对受试者在静息、慢走(3 km/h)、快走(6 km/h)、慢跑(8 km/h)、骑自行车(12 km/h)状态下的能量消耗进行测定.各项体力活动的能量消耗及代谢当量由大到小排列,依次为幔跑((6.26±1.22)kcal·kg-1~·h-1,6.0 MET)、骑自行车((4.30±0.67)kcal·kg-1·h-1,4.2 MET)、快走((3.75±0.73)kcal·ks-1·h-1,3.6 MET)、慢走((1.24±0.26)kcal·kg-1·h-1,1.2 MET)、静息((1.08±0.24)kcal·kg-1·h-1,1.0 MET),按照体力活动强度分级,属于中低强度体力活动.慢走、快走、慢跑、骑自行车等日常体力活动适于在中国人群中推广.

  1. Final report on BIPM/CIPM key comparison CCM.FF-K4.2.2011: Volume comparison at 100 µL—Calibration of micropipettes (piston pipettes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Elsa; Arias, Roberto; Jintao, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Five fixed micropipettes of 100 µl were tested by eight different National Metrology Institutes from different Regional Metrology Organizations between July 2011 and June 2012. The micropipettes had a stable volume, during the whole comparison, with a maximum standard deviation of 0.06 µl. After a careful analysis of the original results it was decided to make corrections to the standard atmospheric pressure in order to compare results under the same calibration conditions. These corrections led to a decrease of variability within the laboratories. It was also decided to include the stability of the standard and the method variability, determined by the pilot laboratory, in the uncertainty budget of each laboratory. The corrected results (volume and uncertainty) are consistent and overlap with the key comparison reference values for the micropipettes 354828Z, 354853Z and 354864Z. For the other two micropipettes only one result is not consistent with the reference value. Most results also overlap with those of the other laboratories di,j pressure condition and temperature (for example 101.325 kPa and 20 ºC) and this information should be stated in the calibration certificate of the micropipette. Also the standard uncertainty of the method variability and reproducibility values should always be included in the uncertainty budget (around 0.1%) to lead to more realistic uncertainty values. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. Parenteral drug products containing aluminum as an ingredient or a contaminant: Response to Food and Drug Administration notice of intent and request for information. ASCN/A. S. P. E. N. Working Group on Standards for Aluminum Content of Parenteral Nutrition Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-01

    Aluminum remains a significant contaminant of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions and may be elevated in bone, urine, and plasma of infants receiving TPN. Aluminum accumulation in tissues of uremic patients and adult TPN patients has been associated with low-turnover bone disease. Furthermore, aluminum has also been linked with encephalopathy and anemia in uremic patients and with hepatic cholestasis in experimental animals. Because of the toxic effects of aluminum, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently published a notice of intent to set an upper limit of 25 micrograms/L for aluminum in large-volume parenterals and to require manufacturers of small-volume parenterals, such as calcium and phosphate salts, to measure aluminum content and note this content on the package label. The ASCN/A.S.P.E.N. Working Group on Standards for Aluminum Content of Parenteral Nutrition Solutions supports these intentions and further urges the FDA to require that cumulative aluminum intake in terms of safe, unsafe, and toxic quantities of aluminum per kilogram be made known to physicians and pharmacists preparing the TPN solutions, to ensure that manufacturers use appropriate control procedures in aluminum measurements, and to employ a standard unit of aluminum measurement.

  3. 食品标准与法规课程难点剖析及教学内容的与时俱进%Analysis of Disundandstandable Point and Keeping Pace with the Times in Content of Courses of Food Standards and Regulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周然; 钟耀广

    2016-01-01

    Food Standard and Law is one of fundamental courses for the major of Food Science. Then course contents are mainly about the interpretation and memory of the food standards and food laws. The course contents are dififcult to understand. Considering the problems of this course, we analyze the dififcult points of this course and point out that the key point for improving learning effects of students is that the course contents can keep up with the times.%食品标准与法规课程是高校食品专业本科生普遍开设的一门专业理论课。课程教学内容由于主要涉及标准和法律条文的解读和记忆,教学内容较为晦涩难懂。针对本课程存在的问题,笔者对食品标准与法规课程的难点进行剖析,并提出教学内容的与时俱进是提高学生学习效果的关键因素。

  4. Integrated Standardization and Systems Engineering Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Integrated standardization is one of the fundamenta l forms of modern standardization. It is the combination of system science and the content of standardization. The development of system science has provided theo retic foundation and precondition for integrated standardization. The relevant r esearch on integrated standardization and system engineering illustrate that int egrated standardization is a advanced method which presented with the developmen t of modern science and technology . Integrated st...

  5. State Standards and State Assessment Systems: A Guide to Alignment. Series on Standards and Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Paul M.; Redfield, Doris; Winter, Phoebe C.

    Alignment of content standards, performance standards, and assessments is crucial. This guide contains information to assist states and districts in aligning their assessment systems to their content and performance standards. It includes a review of current literature, both published and fugitive. The research is woven together with a few basic…

  6. Standard interface file handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States))

    1992-10-01

    This handbook documents many of the standard interface file formats that have been adopted by the US Department of Energy to facilitate communications between and portability of, various large reactor physics and radiation transport software packages. The emphasis is on those files needed for use of the VENTURE/PC diffusion-depletion code system. File structures, contents and some practical advice on use of the various files are provided.

  7. 自动标准加入法测定乳粉、乳饮料及果汁中的钠含量%Determination of sodium content in milk powder, milk drinks and juice drinks by automatic standard addition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李言郡; 吴伟都; 朱慧; 李卫群; 张宗祥; 王雅琼; 汪涓涓; 徐玲玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determination of sodium content in milk powder, milk drinks and fruit juice by automatic standard addition method.MethodsThe sodium content in whole milk powder, skim milk powder, whey powder concentrated, infant formula and all kinds of fruit juices and milk drinks sold in markets were determined by automatic standard addition method. The effects of the extraction methods of sodium ion and the titrant concentration on the detection results were investigated, and then the results were compared with the results of flame atomic emission spectrometry method.Results The automatic standard addition method which was used to detect the sodium content in milk powder, whey powder concentration, fruit juices and milk drinks had good repeatability with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 5%. There was no significant difference between automatic standard addition method and flame atomic emission spectrometry method, and the RSDs were less than 5%.Conclusion Automatic standard addition method has good repeatability and high accuracy, which can be used for determination of sodium in food and beverage.%目的:建立自动标准加入法测定乳粉、乳饮料和果汁中钠含量的方法。方法采用自动标准加入法对全脂奶粉、脱脂奶粉、浓缩乳清粉、婴幼儿配方奶粉以及市场上各类果汁饮料及乳饮料进行钠含量的测定,研究样品中钠离子的提取方式和滴定剂浓度对检测结果的影响,并将测定结果与火焰原子发射光谱法进行对比。结果自动标准加入法用于乳粉、浓缩乳清粉、果汁饮料及乳饮料中钠含量的测定结果重复性好,相对标准偏差均小于5%;而且与火焰原子发射光谱法的测定结果之间无显著性差异,两者之间的相对偏差小于5%。结论自动标准加入法重复性好、准确度高,可用于食品与饮料中钠含量的检测。

  8. 自动标准加入法测定乳粉、乳饮料及果汁中的钠含量%Determination of sodium content in milk powder, milk drinks and juice drinks by automatic standard addition method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李言郡; 吴伟都; 朱慧; 李卫群; 张宗祥; 王雅琼; 汪涓涓; 徐玲玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determination of sodium content in milk powder, milk drinks and fruit juice by automatic standard addition method. Methods The sodium content in whole milk powder, skim milk powder, whey powder concentrated, infant formula and all kinds of fruit juices and milk drinks sold in markets were determined by automatic standard addition method. The effects of the extraction methods of sodium ion and the titrant concentration on the detection results were investigated, and then the results were compared with the results of flame atomic emission spectrometry method. Results The automatic standard addition method which was used to detect the sodium content in milk powder, whey powder concentration, fruit juices and milk drinks had good repeatability with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 5%. There was no significant difference between automatic standard addition method and flame atomic emission spectrometry method, and the RSDs were less than 5%. Conclusion Automatic standard addition method has good repeatability and high accuracy, which can be used for determination of sodium in food and beverage.%目的:建立自动标准加入法测定乳粉、乳饮料和果汁中钠含量的方法。方法采用自动标准加入法对全脂奶粉、脱脂奶粉、浓缩乳清粉、婴幼儿配方奶粉以及市场上各类果汁饮料及乳饮料进行钠含量的测定,研究样品中钠离子的提取方式和滴定剂浓度对检测结果的影响,并将测定结果与火焰原子发射光谱法进行对比。结果自动标准加入法用于乳粉、浓缩乳清粉、果汁饮料及乳饮料中钠含量的测定结果重复性好,相对标准偏差均小于5%;而且与火焰原子发射光谱法的测定结果之间无显著性差异,两者之间的相对偏差小于5%。结论自动标准加入法重复性好、准确度高,可用于食品与饮料中钠含量的检测。

  9. (Terminology standardization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlow, R.A.

    1990-10-19

    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  10. Content of system design descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    A System Design Description (SDD) describes the requirements and features of a system. This standard provides guidance on the expected technical content of SDDs. The need for such a standard was recognized during efforts to develop SDDs for safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Existing guidance related to the corresponding documents in other industries is generally not suitable to meet the needs of DOE nuclear facilities. Across the DOE complex, different contractors have guidance documents, but they vary widely from site to site. While such guidance documents are valuable, no single guidance document has all the attributes that DOE considers important, including a reasonable degree of consistency or standardization. This standard is a consolidation of the best of the existing guidance. This standard has been developed with a technical content and level of detail intended to be most applicable to safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Notwithstanding that primary intent, this standard is recommended for other systems at such facilities, especially those that are important to achieving the programmatic mission of the facility. In addition, application of this standard should be considered for systems at other facilities, including non-nuclear facilities, on the basis that SDDs may be beneficial and cost-effective.

  11. The influence of agitation sequence and ionic strength on in vitro drug release from hypromellose (E4M and K4M) ER matrices--the use of the USP III apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare-Addo, Kofi; Kaialy, Waseem; Levina, Marina; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali; Ghori, Mohammed U; Supuk, Enes; Laity, Peter R; Conway, Barbara R; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2013-04-01

    Theophylline extended release (ER) matrices containing hypromellose (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) E4M and K4M were evaluated in media with a pH range of 1.2-7.5, using an automated USP type III, Bio-Dis dissolution apparatus. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of systematic agitation, ionic strength and pH on the release of theophylline from the gel forming hydrophilic polymeric matrices with different methoxyl substitution levels. Tribo-electric charging of hypromellose, theophylline and their formulated blends containing E4M and K4M grades has been characterised, along with quantitative observations of flow, compression behaviour and particle morphology. Agitations were studied at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 dips per minute (dpm) and also in the ascending and descending order in the dissolution vials. The ionic concentration strength of the media was also varied over a range of 0-0.4M to simulate the gastrointestinal fed and fasted states and various physiological pH conditions. To study the effect of ionic strength on the hydrophilic matrices, agitation was set at 20 dpm. The charge results on individual components imply that the positively charged particles have coupled with the negatively charged particles to form a stable ordered mixture which is believed to result in a more homogeneous and stable system. The particle shape analysis showed the HPMC K4M polymer to have a more irregular morphology and a rougher surface texture in comparison to the HPMC E4M polymer, possibly a contributory factor to the gelation process. The results showed gelation occurred quicker for the K4M tablet matrices. Drug release increased with increased agitation. This was more pronounced for the E4M tablet matrices. The ionic strength also had more of an effect on the drug release from the E4M matrices. The experiments highlighted the resilience of the K4M matrices in comparison with the E4M matrices. The results thus show that despite similar viscosities of

  12. 顶空气相色谱法测试瓶片乙醛含量标准曲线的制作研究%The research of producing standard curve in determining acetaldehyde content of bottle grade PET chips by headspace gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦国; 夏林密; 吕咏梅

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the standard curve producing of acetaldehyde content in bottle grade pet chips by headspace gas chromatography .The chromatographic operational details such as sample amount,linear range were studied.The repeatability and reproducibility of method are improved.The more practicable method ensure the determination accuracy of acetaldehyde content in bottle grade PET chips and its production.%论述了瓶级聚酯切片顶空气相色谱法测试乙醛含量的标准曲线制作方法,对色谱进样量、线性范围等操作细节进行了研究,使得方法的重复性和再现性得到改善,可操作性强,确保瓶片及其制品的乙醛含量测试准确。

  13. Analysis and treatment of over-standard carbon dioxide content in the outlet air from molecular sieve adsorber in the larger scale ASU%大型空分设备分子筛出口空气中CO2含量超标分析与处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩磊; 孙瑞

    2015-01-01

    介绍分子筛吸附器出口空气中二氧化碳含量超标,采取优化操作手段,但仍未消除故障,相反,分子筛出口空气中二氧化碳含量继续升高.立即对该套空分进行停机处理,分子筛检修后运行正常.%The phenomena of over-standard carbon dioxide content in the outlet air from molecular sieve adsorber is Introduced. The optimizing operation means were failed to eliminate the fault, however, the carbon dioxide content in the outlet air from molecular sieve adsorber was continue to rise. This ASU was shut down immediately. The molecular sieve adsorber was operating normally after maintenance.

  14. The Standard Addition-Elution Method for the Determination of Lead Content in High-salt Food%标准加入-洗脱法测定高盐食品中铅含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常松

    2011-01-01

    实验先洗脱高盐食品大部分的钠盐或钾盐,再加入铅标准系列溶液,使校准曲线的组成与样品接近。该法能很好地消除高浓度盐对铅的严重干扰,提高了方法的灵敏度,十分适合食品检测实验室精确的测定铅元素。%The first elution high-salt food most of the sodium or potassium salt,then adding lead series of standard solution to let the calibration curve and the composition of the sample is close to.This method can well eliminate the high concentration of salt to lead the serious interference.

  15. 78 FR 65317 - National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics: Meeting Standards Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... coding, document-type standards, message content, structure and format standards, transport, vocabulary... the Committee on health information standardization and community health data initiatives. Contact...

  16. Science education standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberts, B.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the National Science Education Standards that are being developed at the National Research Council. The Standards are being developed for the following areas: content, teaching, assessment, program, and system. The national science standards will call for the kind of science that provides both an understanding of the basic concepts needed for success in our high technology society, and the acquisition of process skills, or the ability to proceed step by step to solve a practical problem. Science should become a core subject like reading, writing and math in grades K-12. At all levels, the material taught should be interesting, both to students and to teachers. The profession of science teaching must become an attractive one, which is possible to do well without superhuman effort. The scientific community must accept responsibility for achieving these goals.

  17. Standards for K-12 Engineering Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the value and feasibility of developing and implementing content standards for engineering education at the K-12 level. Content standards have been developed for three disciplines in STEM education--science, technology, and mathematic--but not for engineering. To date, a small but growing number of K-12…

  18. GmPHD5 acts as an important regulator for crosstalk between histone H3K4 di-methylation and H3K14 acetylation in response to salinity stress in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulated evidence suggest that specific patterns of histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs and their crosstalks may determine transcriptional outcomes. However, the regulatory mechanisms of these "histone codes" in plants remain largely unknown. Results In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that a salinity stress inducible PHD (plant homeodomain finger domain containing protein GmPHD5 can read the "histone code" underlying the methylated H3K4. GmPHD5 interacts with other DNA binding proteins, including GmGNAT1 (an acetyl transferase, GmElongin A (a transcription elongation factor and GmISWI (a chromatin remodeling protein. Our results suggest that GmPHD5 can recognize specific histone methylated H3K4, with preference to di-methylated H3K4. Here, we illustrate that the interaction between GmPHD5 and GmGNAT1 is regulated by the self-acetylation of GmGNAT1, which can also acetylate histone H3. GmGNAT1 exhibits a preference toward acetylated histone H3K14. These results suggest a histone crosstalk between methylated H3K4 and acetylated H3K14. Consistent to its putative roles in gene regulation under salinity stress, we showed that GmPHD5 can bind to the promoters of some confirmed salinity inducible genes in soybean. Conclusion Here, we propose a model suggesting that the nuclear protein GmPHD5 is capable of regulating the crosstalk between histone methylation and histone acetylation of different lysine residues. Nevertheless, GmPHD5 could also recruit chromatin remodeling factors and transcription factors of salt stress inducible genes to regulate their expression in response to salinity stress.

  19. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average moisture content. 51.2561 Section 51.2561... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement of the grades, except...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average moisture content determination. 51.2548..., AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Pistachio Nuts in the Shell § 51.2548 Average moisture content determination. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement...

  1. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  2. FOXP3 Orchestrates H4K16 Acetylation and H3K4 Tri-Methylation for Activation of Multiple Genes through Recruiting MOF and Causing Displacement of PLU-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroto; Qin, Zhaohui S.; Liu, Runhua; Wang, Lizhong; Li, Weiquan; Li, Xiangzhi; Wu, Lipeng; Du, Zhanwen; Lyons, Robert; Liu, Chang-Gong; Liu, Xiuping; Dou, Yali; Zheng, Pan; Liu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Both H4K16 acetylation and H3K4 tri-methylation are required for gene activation. However, it is still largely unclear how these modifications are orchestrated by transcriptional factors. Here we analyzed the mechanism of the transcriptional activation by FOXP3, an X-linked suppressor of autoimmune diseases and cancers. FOXP3 binds near transcriptional start sites of its target genes. By recruiting MOF and displacing histone H3K4 demethylase PLU-1, FOXP3 increases both H4K16 acetylation and H3K4 tri-methylation at the FOXP3-associated chromatins of multiple FOXP3-activated genes. RNAi-mediated silencing of MOF reduced both gene activation and tumor suppression by FOXP3, while both somatic mutations in clinical cancer samples and targeted mutation of FOXP3 in mouse prostate epithelial disrupted nuclear localization of MOF. Our data demonstrate a pull-push model in which a single transcription factor orchestrates two epigenetic alterations necessary for gene activation and provide a mechanism for somatic inactivation of the FOXP3 protein function in cancer cells. PMID:22152480

  3. AMPA, NMDA and kainate glutamate receptor subunits are expressed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) where the expression of GluK4 is altered by pregnancy and GluN2D by depression in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandage, Amol K; Jin, Zhe; Hellgren, Charlotte; Korol, Sergiy V; Nowak, Krzysztof; Williamsson, Louise; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger; Birnir, Bryndis

    2017-04-15

    The amino acid glutamate opens cation permeable ion channels, the iGlu receptors. These ion channels are abundantly expressed in the mammalian brain where glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter. The neurotransmitters and their receptors are being increasingly detected in the cells of immune system. Here we examined the expression of the 18 known subunits of the iGlu receptors families; α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), kainate, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and delta in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We compared the expression of the subunits between four groups: men, non-pregnant women, healthy pregnant women and depressed pregnant women. Out of 18 subunits of the iGlu receptors, mRNAs for 11 subunits were detected in PBMCs from men and non-pregnant women; AMPA: GluA3, GluA4, kainate: GluK2, GluK4, GluK5, NMDA: GluN1, GluN2C, GluN2D, GluN3A, GluN3B, and delta: GluD1. In the healthy and the depressed pregnant women, in addition, the delta GluD2 subunit was identified. The mRNAs for GluK4, GluK5, GluN2C and GluN2D were expressed at a higher level than other subunits. Gender, pregnancy or depression during pregnancy altered the expression of GluA3, GluK4, GluN2D, GluN3B and GluD1 iGlu subunit mRNAs. The greatest changes recorded were the lower GluA3 and GluK4 mRNA levels in pregnant women and the higher GluN2D mRNA level in healthy but not in depressed pregnant women as compared to non-pregnant individuals. Using subunit specific antibodies, the GluK4, GluK5, GluN1, GluN2C and GluN2D subunit proteins were identified in the PBMCs. The results show expression of specific iGlu receptor subunit in the PBMCs and support the idea of physiology-driven changes of iGlu receptors subtypes in the immune cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Arabidopsis AL PHD-PRC1 complexes promote seed germination through H3K4me3-to-H3K27me3 chromatin state switch in repression of seed developmental genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Anne Marie; Bu, Zhongyuan; Yu, Yu; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination and subsequent seedling growth define crucial steps for entry into the plant life cycle. For those events to take place properly, seed developmental genes need to be silenced whereas vegetative growth genes are activated. Chromatin structure is generally known to play crucial roles in gene transcription control. However, the transition between active and repressive chromatin states during seed germination is still poorly characterized and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we identified the Arabidopsis PHD-domain H3K4me3-binding ALFIN1-like proteins (ALs) as novel interactors of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) core components AtBMI1b and AtRING1a. The interactions were confirmed by diverse in vitro and in vivo assays and were shown to require the AL6 N-terminus containing PAL domain conserved in the AL family proteins and the AtRING1a C-terminus containing RAWUL domain conserved in animal and plant PRC1 ring-finger proteins (including AtRNIG1a/b and AtBMI1a/b). By T-DNA insertion mutant analysis, we found that simultaneous loss of AL6 and AL7 as well as loss of AtBMI1a and AtBMI1b retards seed germination and causes transcriptional derepression and a delayed chromatin state switch from H3K4me3 to H3K27me3 enrichment of several seed developmental genes (e.g. ABI3, DOG1, CRU3, CHO1). We found that AL6 and the PRC1 H3K27me3-reader component LHP1 directly bind at ABI3 and DOG1 loci. In light of these data, we propose that AL PHD-PRC1 complexes, built around H3K4me3, lead to a switch from the H3K4me3-associated active to the H3K27me3-associated repressive transcription state of seed developmental genes during seed germination. Our finding of physical interactions between PHD-domain proteins and PRC1 is striking and has important implications for understanding the connection between the two functionally opposite chromatin marks: H3K4me3 in activation and H3K27me3 in repression of gene transcription.

  5. Arabidopsis AL PHD-PRC1 complexes promote seed germination through H3K4me3-to-H3K27me3 chromatin state switch in repression of seed developmental genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Molitor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination and subsequent seedling growth define crucial steps for entry into the plant life cycle. For those events to take place properly, seed developmental genes need to be silenced whereas vegetative growth genes are activated. Chromatin structure is generally known to play crucial roles in gene transcription control. However, the transition between active and repressive chromatin states during seed germination is still poorly characterized and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we identified the Arabidopsis PHD-domain H3K4me3-binding ALFIN1-like proteins (ALs as novel interactors of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1 core components AtBMI1b and AtRING1a. The interactions were confirmed by diverse in vitro and in vivo assays and were shown to require the AL6 N-terminus containing PAL domain conserved in the AL family proteins and the AtRING1a C-terminus containing RAWUL domain conserved in animal and plant PRC1 ring-finger proteins (including AtRNIG1a/b and AtBMI1a/b. By T-DNA insertion mutant analysis, we found that simultaneous loss of AL6 and AL7 as well as loss of AtBMI1a and AtBMI1b retards seed germination and causes transcriptional derepression and a delayed chromatin state switch from H3K4me3 to H3K27me3 enrichment of several seed developmental genes (e.g. ABI3, DOG1, CRU3, CHO1. We found that AL6 and the PRC1 H3K27me3-reader component LHP1 directly bind at ABI3 and DOG1 loci. In light of these data, we propose that AL PHD-PRC1 complexes, built around H3K4me3, lead to a switch from the H3K4me3-associated active to the H3K27me3-associated repressive transcription state of seed developmental genes during seed germination. Our finding of physical interactions between PHD-domain proteins and PRC1 is striking and has important implications for understanding the connection between the two functionally opposite chromatin marks: H3K4me3 in activation and H3K27me3 in repression of gene transcription.

  6. Product evaluation and standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, M

    1986-01-01

    Although it was cumbersome at the time of implementation, the process began to operate effectively once hospital personnel overcame their initial concern over a potential "paperwork jungle" and realized that the paperwork is easy to control. When implementing such a system, it is vital that all personnel make a commitment to the process. Although it can be time-consuming and demanding in that employees must attend meetings, write standards, conduct and coordinate evaluations, the benefits are paid back many times over, both in dollars and staff satisfaction. A major plus of our system is our requirement that the user justify why a product is needed. That need is explained in the content of a product standard. The demerit rating system, while not a precise mathematical science, does indicate the relative importance of each criterion. The final result is a standard product, a standard process and a standard decision, against which both product and process performance can be measured. This measurement is a level of professionalism achieved by the actions of a motivated staff, working in cooperation toward a single goal.

  7. 75 FR 41989 - Content of Periodicals Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... published a final rule in the Federal Register (60 FR 10021-10029) revising the standards. Since that time... 111 Content of Periodicals Mail AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Postal....3, to update present ``content requirements'' on materials eligible for mailing at...

  8. Standard deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Did you know that having a messy room will make you racist? Or that human beings possess the ability to postpone death until after important ceremonial occasions? Or that people live three to five years longer if they have positive initials, like ACE? All of these ‘facts' have been argued with a straight face by researchers and backed up with reams of data and convincing statistics.As Nobel Prize-winning economist Ronald Coase once cynically observed, ‘If you torture data long enough, it will confess.' Lying with statistics is a time-honoured con. In Standard Deviations, ec

  9. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Machining Skills Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document of skill standards for the machining skills cluster serves as a guide to workforce preparation program providers in defining content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. These 67 occupational skill standards describe what people should know and be able to do in an…

  10. New Standards Aim to Guide Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on national standards about sexuality, sexual health, and relationships that outline topics students should learn, starting in kindergarten, and that they can build on as they grow older. The standards--an initiative by groups concerned with student health and sex education--are intended to mimic content standards for other…

  11. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Medical Office Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  12. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Nursing Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  13. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Press Operations Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  14. Towards an international address standard

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Coetzee, S

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Initiative in Section 5, with a focus on the South African National Accessibility Portal component (referred to as NAP) which forms the basis of our research. We present a NAP presentation technology analysis in Section 6. Section 7... in a better user experience. Standards compliance allows for the separation of concerns: HTML for content, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) for presentation and JavaScript for dynamic behaviour. Standards compliant documents are also...

  15. Palm content of production metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.H.; Swift, W.H.

    1959-11-23

    Purpose of this study was to determine the {sup 237}Np input to the Purex process. The {sup 237}Np content of 639 g Pu/ton U irradiated fuel was found to be 1.78 {plus_minus} .09 g/ton of uranium at the 95% confidence level. Standard recovery for the chemical method was 96.7%, 98.0% for the sampling.

  16. K_4CuNb_8O_(23)掺杂对K_(0.44)Na_(0.52)Li_(0.04)Nb_(0.86)Ta_(0.10)Sb_(0.04)O_3压电陶瓷性能的影响%Effect of K_4CuNb_8O_(23) Doped on the Properties of K_(0.44)Na_(0.52)Li_(0.04)Nb_(0.86)Ta_(0.10)Sb_(0.04)O_3 Piezoelectric Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕; 江向平; 涂娜; 冯子义; 陈超; 李月明

    2009-01-01

    采用固相反应法制备了K_(0.44)Na_(0.52)Li_(0.04)Nb_(0.86)Ta_(0.10)Sb_(0.04)O_3+x mol %K_4CuNb_8O_(23)(0≤x≤2)(简称LF4-KCN)无铅压电陶瓷,使用XRD、SEM、 Agilent 4294A精密阻抗分析仪等对该体系的相组成、显微结构、压电及介电等性能进行表征.XRD分析表明,随着KCN含量的增加,室温时样品由四方相向正交相转变,且当x≥1时,出现K_6Li_4Nb_(10)O_(30)杂相.SEM分析表明,掺入KCN后,样品晶粒尺寸减小,晶粒轮廓清晰.随着KCN含量的增加,在100 ℃附近的介电常数温度曲线上出现第二介电常数极大值,即正交→四方铁电相变温度T_(O-T),同时居里温度TC向低温方向移动.KCN掺杂量对LF4的电性能有很大影响,表现为"硬性"掺杂,其压电常数d_(33),平面机电耦合系数k_p,1kHz频率下的介电损耗tanδ和介电常数ε_r均随着 KCN含量的增加而降低,而机械品质因素Q_m整体提高,样品的密度也显著增大.%The K_(0.44)Na_(0.52)Li_(0.04)Nb_(0.86)Ta_(0.10)Sb_(0.04)O_3+x mol%K_4CuNb_8O_(23)(0≤x≤2)(abbreviated as LF4-KCN) lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were fabricated by solid state reaction. The phase, microstructure, electric properties of the samples were characterized by XRD, SEM and Agilent 4294A impedance analyzer. XRD result shows that the phase of the sample transforms from tetragonal into orthorhombic with the increasing of KCN content. When x≥1, the trace amount of second phase K_6Li_4Nb_(10)O_(30) can be detected. SEM shows that the grain size of those materials decreases as the KCN content increasing, and the figure of the grain becomes clearly. There is another dielectric constant maximum value around 100 ℃, which is the phase transition from orthorhombic to tetragonal (T_(O-T)), while the curie temperature (TC) shifts to higher temperature. The KCN-doping has great influence on the electrical properties, the ceramic becomes "hardened", the piezoelectric constant (d_(33)), electromechanical planar

  17. Quantitative analysis of ChIP-seq data uncovers dynamic and sustained H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 modulation in cancer cells under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Michiel E; Prickaerts, Peggy; Chan-Seng-Yue, Michelle; van den Beucken, Twan; Dahlmans, Vivian E H; Eijssen, Lars M; Beck, Timothy; Wouters, Bradly G; Voncken, Jan Willem; Evelo, Chris T A

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the epigenetic dynamics in cancer cells is the key to understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer and to improving cancer diagnostics, prognostics and treatment. By combining genome-wide ChIP-seq epigenomics and microarray transcriptomics, we studied the effects of oxygen deprivation and subsequent reoxygenation on histone 3 trimethylation of lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in a breast cancer cell line, serving as a model for abnormal oxygenation in solid tumors. A priori, epigenetic markings and gene expression levels not only are expected to vary greatly between hypoxic and normoxic conditions, but also display a large degree of heterogeneity across the cell population. Where traditionally ChIP-seq data are often treated as dichotomous data, the model and experiment here necessitate a quantitative, data-driven analysis of both datasets. We first identified genomic regions with sustained epigenetic markings, which provided a sample-specific reference enabling quantitative ChIP-seq data analysis. Sustained H3K27me3 marking was located around centromeres and intergenic regions, while sustained H3K4me3 marking is associated with genes involved in RNA binding, translation and protein transport and localization. Dynamic marking with both H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 (hypoxia-induced bivalency) was found in CpG-rich regions at loci encoding factors that control developmental processes, congruent with observations in embryonic stem cells. In silico-identified epigenetically sustained and dynamic genomic regions were confirmed through ChIP-PCR in vitro, and obtained results are corroborated by published data and current insights regarding epigenetic regulation.

  18. Se14, encoding a JmjC domain-containing protein, plays key roles in long-day suppression of rice flowering through the demethylation of H3K4me3 of RFT1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Yokoo

    Full Text Available Floral transition from the vegetative to the reproductive growth phase is a major change in the plant life cycle and a key factor in reproductive success. In rice (Oryza sativa L., a facultative short-day plant, numerous flowering time and flower formation genes that control floral transition have been identified and their physiological effects and biochemical functions have been clarified. In the present study, we used a Se14-deficient mutant line (HS112 and other flowering mutant lines to investigate the photoperiodic response, chromosomal location and function in the photoperiod sensitivity of the Se14 gene. We also studied the interactive effects of this locus with other crucial flowering time genes. We found that Se14 is independent of the known photoperiod-sensitive genes, such as Hd1 and Ghd7, and is identical to Os03g0151300, which encodes a Jumonji C (JmjC domain-containing protein. Expression analysis revealed that the expressions of RFT1, a floral initiator known as a "florigen-like gene", and Ehd1 were up-regulated in HS112, whereas this up-regulation was not observed in the original variety of 'Gimbozu'. ChIP assays of the methylation states of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4 revealed that the trimethylated H3K4 in the promoter region of the RFT1 chromatin was significantly increased in HS112. We conclude that Se14 is a novel photoperiod-sensitivity gene that has a suppressive effect on floral transition (flowering time under long day-length conditions through the modification of chromatin structure by H3K4me3 demethylation in the promoter region of RFT1.

  19. Home media server content management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmakoff, Andrew A.; van Vliet, Harry

    2001-07-01

    With the advent of set-top boxes, the convergence of TV (broadcasting) and PC (Internet) is set to enter the home environment. Currently, a great deal of activity is occurring in developing standards (TV-Anytime Forum) and devices (TiVo) for local storage on Home Media Servers (HMS). These devices lie at the heart of convergence of the triad: communications/networks - content/media - computing/software. Besides massive storage capacity and being a communications 'gateway', the home media server is characterised by the ability to handle metadata and software that provides an easy to use on-screen interface and intelligent search/content handling facilities. In this paper, we describe a research prototype HMS that is being developed within the GigaCE project at the Telematica Instituut . Our prototype demonstrates advanced search and retrieval (video browsing), adaptive user profiling and an innovative 3D component of the Electronic Program Guide (EPG) which represents online presence. We discuss the use of MPEG-7 for representing metadata, the use of MPEG-21 working draft standards for content identification, description and rights expression, and the use of HMS peer-to-peer content distribution approaches. Finally, we outline explorative user behaviour experiments that aim to investigate the effectiveness of the prototype HMS during development.

  20. Digital Content Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Halbheer; Florian Stahl; Oded Koenigsberg; Lehmann, Donald R

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies content strategies for online publishers of digital information goods. It examines sampling strategies and compares their performance to paid content and free content strategies. A sampling strategy, where some of the content is offered for free and consumers are charged for access to the rest, is known as a "metered model" in the newspaper industry. We analyze optimal decisions concerning the size of the sample and the price of the paid content when sampling serves the dua...

  1. Performance standard for dose Calibrator

    CERN Document Server

    Darmawati, S

    2002-01-01

    Dose calibrator is an instrument used in hospitals to determine the activity of radionuclide for nuclear medicine purposes. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has published IEC 1303:1994 standard that can be used as guidance to test the performance of the instrument. This paper briefly describes content of the document,as well as explains the assessment that had been carried out to test the instrument accuracy in Indonesia through intercomparison measurement.Its is suggested that hospitals acquire a medical physicist to perform the test for its dose calibrator. The need for performance standard in the form of Indonesia Standard is also touched.

  2. The illusory nature of standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt

    2011-01-01

    are unambiguous and apply across cases. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is primarily theoretical and its analysis is based on conceptual content and extent analysis. For the purpose of illustration, the paper draws on the example of organic agricultural standards. Findings – The author shows how illusion...

  3. Today Standards--Tomorrow Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Roy

    1997-01-01

    Membership in the worldwide community means that students must possess globally competitive skills. In 1993, the author and the Colorado General Assembly worked to pass a comprehensive educational reform strategy that established "model" content standards in mathematics, science, geography, history, reading, and writing. Uniform…

  4. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic decomposition of copper cyanide complexes and simultaneous recovery of copper with a Bi2MoO6 electrode under visible light by EDTA/K4P2O7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Juanjuan; Qiao, Meng; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-04-07

    Simultaneous photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) oxidation of cyanides and recovery of copper in a PEC reactor with a Bi(2)MoO(6) photoanode was investigated at alkaline conditions under visible light irradiation. The surface variation of the Bi(2)MoO(6) photoanode and titanium cathode was characterized. The Cu mass distribution onto the anode, in the solution, and onto the cathode was fully investigated. In the individual PEC oxidation of copper cyanides, the formation of a black copper oxide on the anode occurred. By keeping the initial cyanide concentration at 0.01 mM, the effect of EDTA/K(4)P(2)O(7) was examined at different molar ratios of EDTA/K(4)P(2)O(7) to cyanide. It was indicated that the oxidation of cyanides increased and simultaneous copper electrodeposition with zero value onto the cathode was feasible at pH 11. Under the optimal conditions, the total cyanide concentration was lowered from 250 to 5.0 mg/L, and the Cu recovery efficiency deposited onto the cathode was higher than 90%. Cyanate was the only product. The role of the photogenerated hole in the oxidation of cyanide ions was confirmed.

  5. Fuzzy Prediction of Silicon Content for BF Hot Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qi-hui; LIU Xiang-guan

    2005-01-01

    Some key operation variables influencing hotmetal silicon content were selected, and time lag of each of them was obtained. A standardized fuzzy system model was developed to approach the random nonlinear dynamic system of the change of silicon content, forecast the change of silicon content and calculate silicon content. The prediction of hot metal silicon content is very successful with the data collected online from BF No. 1 at Laiwu Iron and Steel Group Co.

  6. K4W2OCl10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villars, P.; Cenzual, K.; Daams, J.; Gladyshevskii, R.; Shcherban, O.; Dubenskyy, V.; Kuprysyuk, V.; Savysyuk, I.; Zaremba, R.

    This document is part of Subvolume A10 'Structure Types. Part 10: Space Groups (140) I4/mcm - (136) P42/mnm' of Volume 43 'Crystal Structures of Inorganic Compounds' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'.

  7. 教學原理教科書共通內容之研究:國小職前教師專業標準觀點The Study of Common Content on Principles of Teaching Textbooks: Perspective of Professional Standards for Preservice Elementary School Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    劉唯玉Wei-Yu Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available 教育學程之課程長久以來有教育專業科目間聯繫不足,形成各科孤立學習的情況;以及教師教學專業自主,同樣的學科在不同教師的教導下,教學內容可能大不相同,因此無法預知學生在選擇各教育專業課程學習後,其教育專業能力能否達到職前教師專業標準。上述現象皆不利於保持或提升職前師資培育之品質。本研究比較中華民國師範教育學會所發展之「國民小學教師專業標準」及東華大學花師教育學院所發展之「國民小學職前教師專業準則」,得知國民小學職前師資教師專業標準之內涵。其次,分析中英文教學原理相關書籍,找出教學原理之九大共通主題內容,以及其應達到之職前教師專業標準。本研究結果將有助於國小師資培育學程「教學原理」共通內容之規劃與實施,提升師資培育課程之品質。 Education Program courses have long been complained for lack of relationship and isolated branches of learning; and for the reason of teachers’ professional autonomy, different teachers teach the same subject may have different content. It is hard to predict whether the educational expertise can achieve pre-service teacher’s professional standards or not. The above phenomenon is unfavorable to maintain or improve the quality of pre-service teacher education. This study finds the “Professional Standards for Preservice Elementary Teachers” by analyzing the differences between “Professional Standards for Elementary Teachers” and the “Professional Principles for Preservice Elementary Teachers”. By comparing the common subjects among books of Chinese and English versions on Principles of Teaching and its relationship to the Professional Standards for Preservice Elementary Teachers, the researchers suggest a common teaching goal and the course content for Principles of Teaching, which would be helpful in

  8. [Quality standards for medical laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, P; Beyerle, F

    2006-07-01

    In France, medical laboratories must engage a quality approach according to the standard guide de bonne exécution des analyses (GBEA) and, for hospital laboratories, according to the Agence nationale d'évaluation en santé (Anaes). Except the GBEA and the Anaes handbook, which are obligatory standards by regulations, the biologists can choose, for a complementary and voluntary quality process, between the standards ISO 9001, ISO 17025 or ISO 15189. Our aim is to shed light on the advantages of these five standards by realizing a comparative study of their requirements. This work enabled us to highlight a great number of similarities and to raise the characteristics of these five standards. According to their objectives, the biologists will choose a recognition of their quality management system with an ISO 9001 certification or a recognition extended to the technical skills with an ISO 17025 or ISO 15189 accreditation. The contents of these last two documents are rather close and both integrate requirements of the standard ISO 9001. The standard ISO 17025 is, at first sight, rather distant from the biological analysis, requiring many efforts of adaptation, just like the ISO 9001 standard. The standard ISO 15189 seems to be well adapted but more constraining seeing the details requirements level needed. It necessitates a perfect control of the preanalytical phase, which is difficult to acquire in a clinical framework where the biological fluids are not taken by the laboratory staff.

  9. Journal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R

    2003-08-01

    Despite its many imperfections, the peer review process is a firmly established quality control system for scientific literature. It gives readers some assurance that the work and views that are reported meet standards that are acceptable to a journal. Maureen Revington's editorial in a recent issue of the Australian Veterinary Journal (Revington2002) gives a good concise warts and all overview of the process and is well worth reading. I have some concerns about several articles in the December 2002 issue of the New Zealand Veterinary Journal (Volume 50, Number 6), devoted to the health and welfare of farmed deer, that relate to extensive citing of non-peer reviewed papers. I can understand the need for information to flow from researchers to the wider community but that need is already satisfied by publications such as the proceedings of the Deer Branch of the New Zealand Veterinary Association and Proceedings of the New Zealand Society of Animal Production. Non-peer reviewed papers have been cited in the Journal in the past but never to the extent displayed in this particular issue. It degrades the peer-review process and creates an added burden for reviewers who are forced to grapple with the uncertainties of the science in non-peer reviewed citations. One of my fears is that this process allows science from non peer reviewed articles to be legitimised by its inclusion in a peer reviewed journal and perhaps go on to be accepted as dogma. This is a real danger given the difficulties associated with tracing back to original citations and the increasing volume of scientific literature. It also affords opportunities for agencies to pick up questionable and doubtful science and tout it as support for their products or particular points of view. If deer researchers choose to publish most of their work in proceedings then so be it. However this approach, which seems to becoming increasingly prevalent in the deer sector, is questionable from an established science point

  10. Regulation of Transcription of Nucleotide-Binding Leucine-Rich Repeat-Encoding Genes SNC1 and RPP4 via H3K4 Trimethylation1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shitou; Cheng, Yu Ti; Huang, Shuai; Win, Joe; Soards, Avril; Jinn, Tsung-Luo; Jones, Jonathan D.G.; Kamoun, Sophien; Chen, She; Zhang, Yuelin; Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins serve as intracellular sensors to detect pathogen effectors and trigger immune responses. Transcription of the NB-LRR-encoding Resistance (R) genes needs to be tightly controlled to avoid inappropriate defense activation. How the expression of the NB-LRR R genes is regulated is poorly understood. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1 (snc1) mutant carries a gain-of-function mutation in a Toll/Interleukin1 receptor-like (TIR)-NB-LRR-encoding gene, resulting in the constitutive activation of plant defense responses. A snc1 suppressor screen identified modifier of snc1,9 (mos9), which partially suppresses the autoimmune phenotypes of snc1. Positional cloning revealed that MOS9 encodes a plant-specific protein of unknown function. Expression analysis showed that MOS9 is required for the full expression of TIR-NB-LRR protein-encoding RECOGNITION OF PERONOSPORA PARASITICA 4 (RPP4) and SNC1, both of which reside in the RPP4 cluster. Coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that MOS9 associates with the Set1 class lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4) methyltransferase Arabidopsis Trithorax-Related7 (ATXR7). Like MOS9, ATXR7 is also required for the full expression of SNC1 and the autoimmune phenotypes in the snc1 mutant. In atxr7 mutant plants, the expression of RPP4 is similarly reduced, and resistance against Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Emwa1 is compromised. Consistent with the attenuated expression of SNC1 and RPP4, trimethylated H3K4 marks are reduced around the promoters of SNC1 and RPP4 in mos9 plants. Our data suggest that MOS9 functions together with ATXR7 to regulate the expression of SNC1 and RPP4 through H3K4 methylation, which plays an important role in fine-tuning their transcription levels and functions in plant defense. PMID:23690534

  11. 40 CFR 790.60 - Contents of consent agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures specified in section 4(d) of the Act and that the disclosure of data generated by such testing... Act. (b) Contents of standards for the development of data. The standards for the development of the... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contents of consent agreements. 790.60...

  12. H2A.Z demarcates intergenic regions of the plasmodium falciparum epigenome that are dynamically marked by H3K9ac and H3K4me3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richárd Bártfai

    Full Text Available Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms and their enzymes are promising targets for malaria therapeutic intervention; however, the epigenetic component of gene expression in P. falciparum is poorly understood. Dynamic or stable association of epigenetic marks with genomic features provides important clues about their function and helps to understand how histone variants/modifications are used for indexing the Plasmodium epigenome. We describe a novel, linear amplification method for next-generation sequencing (NGS that allows unbiased analysis of the extremely AT-rich Plasmodium genome. We used this method for high resolution, genome-wide analysis of a histone H2A variant, H2A.Z and two histone H3 marks throughout parasite intraerythrocytic development. Unlike in other organisms, H2A.Z is a constant, ubiquitous feature of euchromatic intergenic regions throughout the intraerythrocytic cycle. The almost perfect colocalisation of H2A.Z with H3K9ac and H3K4me3 suggests that these marks are preferentially deposited on H2A.Z-containing nucleosomes. By performing RNA-seq on 8 time-points, we show that acetylation of H3K9 at promoter regions correlates very well with the transcriptional status whereas H3K4me3 appears to have stage-specific regulation, being low at early stages, peaking at trophozoite stage, but does not closely follow changes in gene expression. Our improved NGS library preparation procedure provides a foundation to exploit the malaria epigenome in detail. Furthermore, our findings place H2A.Z at the cradle of P. falciparum epigenetic regulation by stably defining intergenic regions and providing a platform for dynamic assembly of epigenetic and other transcription related complexes.

  13. KdmB, a Jumonji Histone H3 Demethylase, Regulates Genome-Wide H3K4 Trimethylation and Is Required for Normal Induction of Secondary Metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gacek-Matthews

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Histone posttranslational modifications (HPTMs are involved in chromatin-based regulation of fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis (SMB in which the corresponding genes-usually physically linked in co-regulated clusters-are silenced under optimal physiological conditions (nutrient-rich but are activated when nutrients are limiting. The exact molecular mechanisms by which HPTMs influence silencing and activation, however, are still to be better understood. Here we show by a combined approach of quantitative mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-seq and transcriptional network analysis (RNA-seq that the core regions of silent A. nidulans SM clusters generally carry low levels of all tested chromatin modifications and that heterochromatic marks flank most of these SM clusters. During secondary metabolism, histone marks typically associated with transcriptional activity such as H3 trimethylated at lysine-4 (H3K4me3 are established in some, but not all gene clusters even upon full activation. KdmB, a Jarid1-family histone H3 lysine demethylase predicted to comprise a BRIGHT domain, a zinc-finger and two PHD domains in addition to the catalytic Jumonji domain, targets and demethylates H3K4me3 in vivo and mediates transcriptional downregulation. Deletion of kdmB leads to increased transcription of about ~1750 genes across nutrient-rich (primary metabolism and nutrient-limiting (secondary metabolism conditions. Unexpectedly, an equally high number of genes exhibited reduced expression in the kdmB deletion strain and notably, this group was significantly enriched for genes with known or predicted functions in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Taken together, this study extends our general knowledge about multi-domain KDM5 histone demethylases and provides new details on the chromatin-level regulation of fungal secondary metabolite production.

  14. Mathematics Teacher TPACK Standards and Development Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niess, Margaret L.; Ronau, Robert N.; Shafer, Kathryn G.; Driskell, Shannon O.; Harper, Suzanne R.; Johnston, Christopher; Browning, Christine; Ozgun-Koca, S. Asli; Kersaint, Gladis

    2009-01-01

    What knowledge is needed to teach mathematics with digital technologies? The overarching construct, called technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK), has been proposed as the interconnection and intersection of technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge. Mathematics Teacher TPACK Standards offer guidelines for thinking about this…

  15. Content Distribution over IP : Developments and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, Adrian; Kouvatsos, Demetres; Remondo, David; Giordano, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the multimedia distribution over Internet IP under the auspices of the NoE Euro-NGI research project "Routing in Overlay Networks (ROVER)". The multimedia distribution is supported by several components such as services, content distribution chain, protocols and standards whilst Internet is used for content, acquisition, management and delivery as well as an Internet; Protocol Television (IPTV) infrastructure with QoS facilities. As the convergence between fi...

  16. The Measurement of Ethyl Carbamate Content in Alcoholic Beverage in Guangzhou by GC-MS with Internal Standard Method%气相色谱-质谱联用内标法检测广州市场饮料酒中氨基甲酸乙酯含量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 刘丽斌; 黄秋婷; 丁怡; 彭程; 刘妙芬; 黄惠华

    2015-01-01

    In order to measure the content of ethyl carbamate (EC) in low-end alcoholic beverage in Guangzhou market, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with internal standard method was adopted in the experiments (solid phase extraction used for wine samples pre-treatment and D5-ethyl carbamate used as the internal standard). The results suggested that, the linear correlation coefficient was 0.9996 within EC concentration range of 20μg/L to 200μg/L, the detection limit was 0.0018 mg/kg, the recoveries and RSD were 75.90%~103.23%and 1.43%~3.95%respectively. Among all the alcoholic samples, no EC detected in beer and in rice wine, other alcoholic beverages contained EC more or less (the average EC content in brandy>in plum wine>in yellow rice wine>in liquor>in medicinal wine>in fruit wine>in grape wine).%为研究和调查广州市场在售中低端酒中的氨基甲酸乙酯含量,采用固相萃取方式对酒样进行前处理, D5-氨基甲酸乙酯为内标,使用气相色谱串联质谱(GC-MS)定量测定含量。结果表明,在20~200μg/L浓度范围内线性相关系数为0.9996,检出限为0.0018 mg/kg,回收率在75.90%~103.23%之间,精密度在1.43%~3.95%。具有良好的重现性。所有样品中,啤酒和米酒未检出,其他各种酒精饮料中都含有一定量的氨基甲酸乙酯,平均含量大小依次为白兰地>梅酒>黄酒>白酒>药酒>果酒>葡萄酒。

  17. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Welding Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for the welding cluster are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for communication among education, business,…

  18. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Accounting Services Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for the accounting services cluster are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for communication among education,…

  19. Dutch standard for condition assessment of buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to provide insight into the use of a standard for condition assessment. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a literature review, an analysis of the development, content and practical use of the Dutch Standard for Condition Assessment of Buildings, and the fi

  20. Standardization of Primary Education in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarovaya, Yelena B.

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the standardization of primary education as one of the development trends of the British school at the present moment in the context of improving its efficiency and quality. It analyses the positive results of the standard-based reforms (modernization of primary education content, improvement of younger students' outcomes,…

  1. We Need More than "Educentric" Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Rejects Matthew Gandal's characteristics of good standards (in the March 1995 "Educational Leadership") as overwhelmingly "educentric." Content standards that define what it means to be a good student within the traditional system will not prepare students for the rapidly changing future. Interdisciplinarity, competence, and authentic context are…

  2. Streaming Virtual Reality Content

    OpenAIRE

    El-Ganainy, Tarek; Hefeeda, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The recent rise of interest in Virtual Reality (VR) came with the availability of commodity commercial VR prod- ucts, such as the Head Mounted Displays (HMD) created by Oculus and other vendors. To accelerate the user adoption of VR headsets, content providers should focus on producing high quality immersive content for these devices. Similarly, multimedia streaming service providers should enable the means to stream 360 VR content on their platforms. In this study, we try to cover different ...

  3. Content management systems (CMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Oriahi, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes the three most common and widely used content management systems (CMS) used to power several millions of business websites on the internet. Since there are many other content managements systems online, this report provides some helpful guides on each of the three most used systems and the web design projects that each of them maybe most suitable. There are plenty of options when it comes to selecting a content management system for a development project and this the...

  4. Determination of Low Content Asbestos in Brake Rubber of Bicycle by X-ray Diffraction Method Using Base Standard Absorb Correction%基底标准吸收修正X射线衍射法测定自行车车闸闸皮中的低含量石棉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建军; 封亚辉; 程薇; 周康民; 张梅; 王亚春

    2009-01-01

    The asbestos including chrysotile, crocidolite and arnosite in brake rubber of bicycle were determined by the X-ray diffraction method using base standard absorb correction. The preliminary break of sample,selection of filter films, and speed of rotating plate were studied. The quantity determination of low content (0.1%~1%) asbestos bad been realized for the lowest quantification limit of these three asbestos were 0. 054% ,0. 045%and 0. 057% respectively.%采用基底标准吸收修正X射线衍射分析方法测定了自行车车闸闸皮中的温石棉、铁石棉及青石棉3种石棉的含量;对试样的初步破碎、过滤滤膜的选择以及旋转试样台转速的选择等进行了研究.结果表明:温石棉、青石棉和铁石棉的最低定量限分别为0.054%,0.045%和0.057%,实现了低含量(0.1%~1%)石棉的定量测定.

  5. Scalable Content Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Krishna S, Jayant Dani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Immense growth in the volume of contents every day demands more scalable system to handle and overcome difficulties in capture, storage, transform, search, sharing and visualization of data, where the data can be a structured or unstructured data of any type. A system to manage the growing contents and overcome the issues and complexity faced using appropriate technologies would advantage over measurable qualities like flexibility, interoperability, customizability, security, auditability, quality, community support, options and cost of licensing. So architecting aContent Management System in terms of enterprise needs and a scalable solution to manage the huge data growth necessitates a Scalable Content Management System.

  6. Error image aware content restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungwoo; Lee, Moonsik; Jung, Byunghee

    2015-12-01

    As the resolution of TV significantly increased, content consumers have become increasingly sensitive to the subtlest defect in TV contents. This rising standard in quality demanded by consumers has posed a new challenge in today's context where the tape-based process has transitioned to the file-based process: the transition necessitated digitalizing old archives, a process which inevitably produces errors such as disordered pixel blocks, scattered white noise, or totally missing pixels. Unsurprisingly, detecting and fixing such errors require a substantial amount of time and human labor to meet the standard demanded by today's consumers. In this paper, we introduce a novel, automated error restoration algorithm which can be applied to different types of classic errors by utilizing adjacent images while preserving the undamaged parts of an error image as much as possible. We tested our method to error images detected from our quality check system in KBS(Korean Broadcasting System) video archive. We are also implementing the algorithm as a plugin of well-known NLE(Non-linear editing system), which is a familiar tool for quality control agent.

  7. Content-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  8. Branded content infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl RODRÍGUEZ-FERRÁNDIZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del libro Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes. Review of the book Bajo la influencia del branded content. Efectos de los contenidos de marca en niños y jóvenes.

  9. Content Analysis: Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tannis MacBeth; And Others

    Content analyses of the depiction of aggression and images of reality on Canadian television were performed on 109 program tapes of top-rated Toronto programs. Content was coded in terms of global messages communicated, character portrayals, context and setting of the program, amount and nature of conflict portrayed, and detailed information on…

  10. Print advertising : Vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.H.H.J.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in rep

  11. Print advertising: vivid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.; Das, E.; Fransen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of vivid ad content in two types of appeal in print ads as a function of individual differences in chronically experienced vividness of visual imagery. For informational ads for a functional product, vivid ad content strongly affected individuals high in rep

  12. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  13. Content-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.

    2013-01-01

    DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…

  14. Hydroponics: Content and Rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Busby, Joe R.

    2009-01-01

    Technology education has the means of becoming the catalyst for integrated content and curricula, especially in core academic areas, such as science and mathematics, where it has been found difficult to incorporate other subject matter. Technology is diverse enough in nature that it can be addressed by a variety of content areas, serving as a true…

  15. Social video content delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  16. 28 CFR 33.41 - Application content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application content. 33.41 Section 33.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice... states for criminal justice block grants must be submitted on Standard Form 424, Application for...

  17. Bird Boxes Build Content Area Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianca, Sherri Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a preservice teacher training in line with meeting the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) using geometric reasoning, spatial sense, measurement, representation, communication, and problem solving. The author infers that when preservice teachers lack pedagogical content knowledge they cannot successfully…

  18. Bird Boxes Build Content Area Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianca, Sherri Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a preservice teacher training in line with meeting the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) using geometric reasoning, spatial sense, measurement, representation, communication, and problem solving. The author infers that when preservice teachers lack pedagogical content knowledge they cannot successfully…

  19. The Comparison on the Content of Teachers Professional Standards between China and Australia:Based on a Perspective of the Differences between Theoretical Thinking and Practical Thinking%中澳教师专业标准内容设置比较--基于理论思路与实践思路差异的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬冬

    2013-01-01

    In the past two years, in order to professionalize their teachers, Australia and China has promulgated their own national teachers’ professional standards in succession. Because of the different culture backgrounds of the two countries, the thinking on the formation of “standards” differs dramatically. The formation of China’ s “standards” based on theoretical thinking while Australia based on practical thinking. Different thinking also impacts the formation of “standards” content which mainly concentrates on the at-tention or the neglect on professional ethics and the theorization or practicality on professional development. The comparison on the thinking and content of the two“standards”, can makes us know our“standards” more clearly and know how to learn successful expe-rience from different cultures.%  近两年来,澳大利亚和我国相继颁布了全国性的教师专业标准,努力推进两国教师走向专业化。由于两国所处的文化背景迥异,《标准》形成背后的思路也差别甚远,我国的标准形成于理论思路,澳洲的标准则形成于实践思路,两种思路的差异对两国《标准》内容的设置也产生了影响,主要表现在对专业道德的重视与淡化和对专业发展的理念化与实践化。对中澳两国《标准》制定思路和内容差异进行比较,对于使我们更清晰地认识我国的教师专业标准,了解如何从不同的文化中汲取经验具有重要价值。

  20. Yoruba Writing: Standards and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tèmítọ́pẹ́ Olúmúyìwá Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the state of Yorùbá orthography. The first effort at standardizing Yorùbá writing system came in 1875, and there has been a great deal of refinements and orthographies since. Specifically, a great rush of activity in standardizing written Yorùbá came in the years after independence when effort to introduce the teaching of Nigerian languages in schools and the application of those languages to official activities. The present standards were established in 1974, however, there remains a great deal of contention over writing conventions-spelling, grammar, the use of tone marks. The paper explores examples from journalism, religious writing, education and literature, and advertising to demonstrate ongoing deviations from the approved orthography.

  1. Screening of Less known Two Food Plants for Comparison of Nutrient Contents: Iranian and Indian Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aberoumand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Greater consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and cancers. The most important nutrients present in plants are carbohydrates, such as the starch and free sugars, oils, proteins, minerals, ascorbic acid, and the antioxidant phenols. Plants are an essential component of the universe. Human beings have used those as medicine from the very beginning of time.Methods: The proximate composition and mineral constituents of Asparagus officinalis stem and Momordica dioica fruit were evaluated in order to scientific standard methods of Association for Official and Analytical Chemists (AOAC.Results: The stem contained ashes: 10.70% crude protein: 32.69%, crude lipid: 3.44%, crude fiber: 18.50%, and carbohydrates: 34.67%. Stem also have high energy value (384.27kcal/100g dry weight. Mineral ranges (mg/100g dry weight, DW were: K (10.94, Na (1.84, Ca (0.67, Fe (0.19, and Zn (2.60. The fruits contained ashes: 9.1%, crude protein: 5.44%, crude lipid: 3.25%, crude fiber: 22.9%, and carbohydrates: 59.31%. The fruits also have high energy value (288.25kcal/100g dry weight. Mineral ranges (mg/100g dry weight, DW were: K (4.63, Na (1.62, Ca (7.37, Fe (5.04, and Zn (3.83.Conclusion: Comparing proximate and minerals contents of the stem and the fruit, the results indicated that Asparagus officinalis stem could be a good supplement for some nutrients such as protein, lipid, potassium and zinc, fibre and carbohydrates while Momordica dioica fruit was good source of lipid, crude fiber, carbohydrates, iron and zinc.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 10:416-424

  2. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  3. Instant standard concept for data standards development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.; Kulcsar, I.Z.; Roes, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the current results of an ongoing research about a new data standards development concept. The concept is called Instant Standard referring to the pressure that is generated by shrinking the length of the standardization process. Based on this concept it is estimated that the dev

  4. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  5. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability. Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of categories and deductive application of categories, are worked out. The possibilities of computer programs in supporting those qualitative steps of analysis are shown and the possibilities and limits of the approach are discussed. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002204

  6. Encryption for digital content

    CERN Document Server

    Kiayias, Aggelos

    2010-01-01

    Encryption for Digital Content is an area in cryptography that is widely used in commercial productions (e.g., Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs). This book provides a comprehensive mathematical treatment of combinatorial encryption techniques used in digital content distribution systems and related attack models. A complete description of broadcast encryption with various revocation and tracing functionalities is included. ""Encryption for Digital Content"" introduces the subset cover framework (currently used in AACS, Blu-Ray and HD-DVDs,) and tracking/revocation mechanisms in various attack models. Pirat

  7. 进修护士短期规范化培训教育内容及学习方式的调查分析%Investigation on Education Content and Ways of Learning for Short Term Standardization Training in Advanced Training Nurse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛爱利; 韦欢欢; 雷春梅; 辛霞; 张银萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To seek the short term standardization study nurses training education content and the ap-proach to learning, provide theoretical basis for improving the study effect of nurse training.Methods:Choosing 3 ~6 months in 2014 in our hospital study questionnaire survey was conducted among 114 nurses, questionnaire by general in-formation, content of training needs, demand method of three parts and using SPSS19.0 to analyze the collected data. Results:The 82.7%of study nurses think pre-service training is very necessary.Pre-service training demand of the top three comprises:occupational protection (82.7%), health care, with communication skills (80.0%) and infection prevention and control (78.2%).Refresher training needs during the top three in turn:specialized rescue of critically ill patients and cooperation (88.2%), clinical application and nursing adverse event processing (79.1%), effective communication nurses and patients (79.1%).Demand content score between the different degree and the title of ad-vanced nurse was statistically difference (P<0.05).The training methods, in the first three order practice (89.10%), seminar (74.5%), case analysis and discussion (67.30%).Conclusion:According to the study demand of nurse stand-ardized training content and ways of learning, considering the influence factors such as education, job title, targeted training plan, improve the effect of short-term training.%目的:了解进修护士短期规范化培训教育内容及学习方式,为提高短期进修护士培训效果提供理论依据。方法对2014年3~6月间在西安交通大学第一附属医院短期进修的114名护士进行问卷调查,问卷由一般资料、培训需求内容、需求方法三部分组成。利用SPSS19.0对收集的数据进行分析。结果82.7%的进修护士认为岗前培训非常必要。岗前培训前三位的需求内容为:职业防护(82.7%)、医护患沟通技巧(80.0

  8. Learning Content Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tache JURUBESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the evolution of e-Learning and related concepts and tools and its connection with other concepts such as Knowledge Management, Human Resources Management, Enterprise Resource Planning, and Information Technology. The paper also distinguished Learning Content Management Systems from Learning Management Systems and Content Management Systems used for general web-based content. The newest Learning Content Management System, very expensive and yet very little implemented is one of the best tools that helps us to cope with the realities of the 21st Century in what learning concerns. The debates over how beneficial one or another system is for an organization, can be driven by costs involved, efficiency envisaged, and availability of the product on the market.

  9. Fannish form and content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TWC Editor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue showcases a variety of investigations into a myriad of platforms, featuring several essays that switch the focus from content to form and illustrate the importance of a range of different fan engagements.

  10. Scalable Content Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Krishna S, Jayant Dani

    2013-01-01

    Immense growth in the volume of contents every day demands more scalable system to handle and overcome difficulties in capture, storage, transform, search, sharing and visualization of data, where the data can be a structured or unstructured data of any type. A system to manage the growing contents and overcome the issues and complexity faced using appropriate technologies would advantage over measurable qualities like flexibility, interoperability, customizabi...

  11. THE VOLATILE COMPOSITION OF COMET C/2003 K4 (LINEAR) AT NEAR-IR WAVELENGTHS—COMPARISONS WITH RESULTS FROM THE NANÇAY RADIO TELESCOPE AND FROM THE ODIN, SPITZER, AND SOHO SPACE OBSERVATORIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganini, L.; Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G. L.; DiSanti, M. A.; Bonev, B. P., E-mail: lucas.paganini@nasa.gov [Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA GSFC, MS 690, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We observed comet C/2003 K4 (LINEAR) using NIRSPEC at the Keck Observatory on UT 2004 November 28, when the comet was at 1.28 AU from the Sun (post-perihelion) and 1.38 AU from Earth. We detected six gaseous species (H{sub 2}O, OH*, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, CH{sub 4}, and HCN) and obtained upper limits for three others (H{sub 2}CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and NH{sub 3}). Our results indicate a water production rate of (1.72 ± 0.18) × 10{sup 29} molecules s{sup −1}, in reasonable agreement with production rates from SOHO (on the same day), Odin (one day earlier), and Nançay (about two weeks earlier). We also report abundances (relative to water) for seven trace species: CH{sub 3}OH (∼1.8%), CH{sub 4} (∼0.9%), and C{sub 2}H{sub 6} (∼0.4%) that were consistent with mean values among Oort cloud (OC) comets, while NH{sub 3} (<0.55%), HCN (∼0.07%), H{sub 2}CO (<0.07%), and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} (<0.04%) were “lower” than the mean values in other OC comets. We extracted inner-coma rotational temperatures for four species (H{sub 2}O, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, and CH{sub 4}), all of which are consistent with 70 K (within 1σ). The extracted ortho-para ratio for water was 3.0 ± 0.15, corresponding to spin temperatures larger than 39 K (at the 1σ level) and agreeing with those obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope at the 2σ level.

  12. Micro–Positron Emission Tomography/Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography Imaging of Orthotopic Pancreatic Tumor–Bearing Mice Using the αvβ3 Integrin Tracer 64Cu-Labeled Cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winn Aung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically relevant orthotopic xenotransplantation model of pancreatic cancer and to perform a preclinical evaluation of a new positron emission tomography (PET imaging probe, 64Cu-labeled cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-4 peptide (64Cu-RAFT-RGD, using this model. Varying degrees of αvβ3 integrin expression in several human pancreatic cancer cell lines were examined by flow cytometry and Western blotting. The cell line BxPC-3, which is stably transfected with a red fluorescence protein (RFP, was used for surgical orthotopic implantation. Orthotopic xenograft was established in the pancreas of recipient nude mice. An in vivo probe biodistribution and receptor blocking study, preclinical PET imaging coregistered with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT comparing 64Cu-RAFT-RGD and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG accumulation in tumor, postimaging autoradiography, and histologic and immunohistochemical examinations were done. Biodistribution evaluation with a blocking study confirmed that efficient binding of probe to tumor is highly αvβ3 integrin specific. 64Cu-RAFT-RGD PET combined with CECT provided for precise and easy detection of cancer lesions. Autoradiography, histologic, and immunohistochemical examinations confirmed the accumulation of 64Cu-RAFT-RGD in tumor versus nontumor tissues. In comparative PET studies, 64Cu-RAFT-RGD accumulation provided better tumor contrast to background than 18F-FDG. Our results suggest that 64Cu-RAFT-RGD PET imaging is potentially applicable for the diagnosis of αvβ3 integrin–expressing pancreatic tumors.

  13. Standards help enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Standardization in modern times began from the Industrial Revolution. Various industrial sectors, for which about 300 standardization technical commissions have been established, make up the key fields of China's standardization.

  14. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  15. Loser Generated Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren Mørk

    2008-01-01

    , is that the Internet functions as a double–edged sword; the infrastructure does foster democracy, participation, joy, creativity and sometimes creates zones of piracy. But, at the same time, it has become evident how this same infrastructure also enables companies easily to piggyback on user generated content......In this article [ 1 ] some of the critical aspects of Web 2.0 are mapped in relation to labor and the production of user generated content. For many years the Internet was considered an apt technology for subversion of capitalism by the Italian post–Marxists. What we have witnessed, however...

  16. Factors stimulating content marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on content marketing in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire consists of 40 questions in Likert scale and distributes it among 550 randomly selected regular customers of Bank Mellat in city of Tehran, Iran and 400 properly filled questionnaires are collected. Cronbach alphas for all components of the survey are well above desirable level. Using principle component analysis with Varimax rotation, the study has determined six factors influencing the most on content marketing including organization, details, having new ideas, quality, sensitivity and power while the last component contains only two subcomponents and is removed from the study.

  17. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  18. Evaluation Criterion for Quality Assessment of E-Learning Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alwani, Abdulkareem

    2014-01-01

    Research trends related to e-learning systems are oriented towards increasing the efficiency and capacity of the systems, thus they reflect a large variance in performance when considering content conformity and quality standards. The Framework related to standardisation of digital content for e-learning systems is likely to play a significant…

  19. Content Management and the Future of Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuhfen Diana; Liu, Mengxiong

    2001-01-01

    Discusses Internet-based electronic content management in digital libraries and considers the future of academic libraries. Topics include digital technologies; content management systems; standards; bandwidth; security and privacy concerns; legal matters, including copyrights and ownership; lifecycle; and multilingual access and interface. (LRW)

  20. Marlin: Towards Seamless Content Sharing and Rights Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keoh, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    Digital Rights Management (DRM) is used to protect copyrighted content from unauthorized use. However, it is still remains challenging to strike a balance between content sharing and rights management. Marlin is developing open standards for interoperable DRM technology.The Octopus and Nemo framewor

  1. DNA methylation and not H3K4 trimethylation dictates the expression status of miR-152 gene which inhibits migration of breast cancer cells via DNMT1/CDH1 loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Dipta; Deb, Moonmoon; Rath, Sandip Kumar; Kar, Swayamsiddha; Parbin, Sabnam; Pradhan, Nibedita; Patra, Samir Kumar

    2016-08-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs which targets most protein-coding transcripts (mRNA) and destroy them. Thus miRNA controls the abundance of those specific proteins and impact on developmental, physiological and pathological processes. Dysregulation of miRNA function thus may lead to various clinicopathological complications, including breast cancer. Silencing of miR-152 gene due to promoter DNA methylation alter the expression pattern of several other genes. E-cadherin (CDH1) forms the core of adherent junctions between surrounding epithelial cells, link with actin cytoskeleton and affects cell signaling. CDH1 gene is down regulated by promoter DNA methylation during cancer progression. In this investigation, we attempt to elucidate the correlation of miR-152 and CDH1 function, as it is well known that the loss of CDH1 function is one of the major reasons for cancer metastasis and aggressiveness of spreading. For the first time we have shown that loss of CDH1 expression is directly proportional to the loss of miR-152 function in breast cancer cells. mRNA and protein expression profile of DNMT1 implicate that miR-152 targets DNMT1 mRNA and inhibits its protein expression. Tracing the molecular marks on DNA and histone 3 for understanding the mechanism of gene regulation by ChIP analyses leads to a paradoxical result that shows DNA methylation adjacent to active histone marking (enrichment of H3K4me3) silence miR-152 gene. Further experiments revealed that DNMT1 plays crucial role for regulation of miR-152 gene. When DNMT1 protein function is blocked miR-152 expression prevails and destroys the mRNA of DNMT1; this molecular regulatory mechanism is creating a cyclic feedback loop, which is now focused as DNMT1/miR-152 switch for on/off of DNMT1 target genes. We discovered modulation of CDH1 gene expression by DNMT1/miR-152 switches. We have demonstrated further that DNMT1 down regulation mediated upregulation of CDH1 (hereafter, DNMT1/CDH1 loop) in

  2. Standards for the High School Psychology Course. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganett, L. Lee

    The latest contribution to the content standards boom that began in the 1990s comes from the American Psychological Association (APA), which recently published "National Standards for the Teaching of High School Psychology." This Digest discusses: (1) the origin and purposes of the project to develop standards for high school psychology…

  3. Mathematical Communication in State Standards before the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosko, Karl Wesley; Gao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical communication has been an important feature of standards documents since National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) (1989) "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards." Such an emphasis has influenced content standards of states from then to present. This study examined how effective the prevalence of various forms of…

  4. Analysis of Curriculum Standards: An Important Research Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dung; Reys, Barbara J.; Teuscher, Dawn; Dingman, Shannon; Kasmer, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This commentary highlights the contribution that careful and systematic analyses of curriculum or content standards can make to questions and issues important in the mathematics education field. We note the increased role that curriculum standards have played as part of a standards-based education reform strategy. We also review different methods…

  5. Physical Activity Stories: Assessing the "Meaning Standard" in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler G.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the "meaning standard" in both national and state content standards suggests that professionals consider it an important outcome of a quality physical education program. However, only 10 percent of states require an assessment to examine whether students achieve this standard. The purpose of this article is to introduce…

  6. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Retail Garden Center Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  7. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Metal Stamping Skills Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  8. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Physical Therapist Assistant Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These skill standards, developed through a consortium of educational and industry partners in Illinois, serve as guides to workforce preparation program providers to define content for their programs and to employers to establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition and performance. The skill standards include the following…

  9. Standards and standpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that critique is a necessary component in any study of standards, just as it is implied in the concept of standard itself. From this follows the relevance of reflexively situating our research in relation to the cultural-historical development of standards and standardization...

  10. Tourist-created Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munar, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between tourists' user-generated content on the web and destination branding, as well as to discuss the online strategies used by destination management organizations. Design/methodology/approach – The research adopts an explorato...

  11. Where's the Content?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Will

    2006-01-01

    Although teachers focus on style, fluency, tone, and correct grammar in writing, they rarely emphasize the importance of content. Both the National Commission on Writing in America's Schools and Colleges and the NAEP seem to favor emotional and personal writing, at least at the high school level. Judging from their guidelines, both the SAT and the…

  12. Contents & Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Does Globalization Widen or Narrow the Income Inequality in China?Knowledge Composition, Emigration and Economic Growth,China's Status in Division of Labor in the World: A Multinational Analysis based on the Whole and Domestic Technological Contents of Exports

  13. Table of contents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J. S. Nyombo Luboya

    C. Drying with salt results in a nutritionally and organoleptically good product, ... studies are recommended to assess whether there is variation in nutrient and ... Though nutritious, SPL have been considered a poor man's salad [2,4]. ... The vegetables were mixed every minute and a small amount .... Iron content was much.

  14. Mathematics: Content and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2009-01-01

    The debate has gone on for some time in terms of which is more salient for the teacher to be well versed in, mathematical content versus methods and approaches in teaching. Both are salient. They cannot be separated from each other. The mathematics teacher must indeed have broad, in-depth knowledge of subject matter as well as in teaching and…

  15. Integrating Language and Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmeyer, Jon, Ed.; Barduhn, Susan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The definition of "English language classroom" is changing. When students have the opportunity to learn content and language at the same time, disciplinary boundaries overlap. Teachers are rethinking how they design courses, plan lessons, assess students, and collaborate with colleagues to support student learning and facilitate their…

  16. Contents & Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Electrochemical Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of Electroplated Nickel- Phosphorus/Nanometer Silicon Carbide Composite Coating;Effect of Curing Temperature on Corrosion Resistance of Sodium Silicate Conversion Antirust Coating;Effect of Silicon Content on Solidified Structure and Corrosion Resistance of Hot - Dipped Zinc - 40% Aluminum Alloy Coating

  17. The Dynamics of Standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsson, Nils; Rasche, Andreas; Seidl, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper suggests that when the phenomenon of standards and standardization is examined from the perspective of organization studies, three aspects stand out: the standardization of organizations, standardization by organizations and standardization as (a form of) organization. Following......, and show that, while standards and standardization are typically associated with stability and sameness, they are essentially a dynamic phenomenon. The paper highlights the contributions of this special issue to the topic of standards as a dynamic phenomenon in organization studies and makes suggestions...... a comprehensive overview of existing research in these three areas, we argue that the dynamic aspects of standardization are under-represented in the scholarly discourse. Furthermore, we identify the main types of tension associated with standardization and the dynamics they generate in each of those three areas...

  18. Cross-Referencing National Standards in Personal Finance for Business Education with National Standards in Personal Finance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which National Standards in Personal Finance for Business Education correlate with National Standards in Personal Finance Education. A content analysis revealed that the National Standards in Personal Finance for Business Education, established by the National Business Education Association…

  19. Cross-Referencing National Standards in Personal Finance for Business Education with National Standards in Personal Finance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which National Standards in Personal Finance for Business Education correlate with National Standards in Personal Finance Education. A content analysis revealed that the National Standards in Personal Finance for Business Education, established by the National Business Education Association…

  20. NASA software documentation standard software engineering program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. This Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. This basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  1. 10 CFR 52.47 - Contents of applications; technical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and its results. (28) For applications for standard design certifications... this chapter; (19) A description of the quality assurance program applied to the design of the... NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.47 Contents of applications;...

  2. Mastering the Content- The Challenges of an Academic Course Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Baca

    2016-01-01

    There should be high academic standards for all students, but to expect everyone, regardless oftheir ability (and disability to meet those standards simultaneously, is inadequate and inherentlyunfair. Just as they learn differently, students test differently. In order to respect these social,emotional and cognitive differences, instruction needs to be differentiated, apart from beingrelevant in terms of content.

  3. Towards Multimodal Content Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Bunt, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Multimodal interfaces, combining the use of speech, graphics, gestures, and facial expressions in input and output, promise to provide new possibilities to deal with information in more effective and efficient ways, supporting for instance: - the understanding of possibly imprecise, partial or ambiguous multimodal input; - the generation of coordinated, cohesive, and coherent multimodal presentations; - the management of multimodal interaction (e.g., task completion, adapting the interface, error prevention) by representing and exploiting models of the user, the domain, the task, the interactive context, and the media (e.g. text, audio, video). The present document is intended to support the discussion on multimodal content representation, its possible objectives and basic constraints, and how the definition of a generic representation framework for multimodal content representation may be approached. It takes into account the results of the Dagstuhl workshop, in particular those of the informal working group...

  4. Content Based Video Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Patel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Content based video retrieval is an approach for facilitating the searching and browsing of large image collections over World Wide Web. In this approach, video analysis is conducted on low level visual properties extracted from video frame. We believed that in order to create an effective video retrieval system, visual perception must be taken into account. We conjectured that a technique which employs multiple features for indexing and retrieval would be more effective in the discrimination and search tasks of videos. In order to validate this claim, content based indexing and retrieval systems were implemented using color histogram, various texture features and other approaches. Videos were stored in Oracle 9i Database and a user study measured correctness of response.

  5. Web Content Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Hidalgo, José María; Puertas Sanz, Enrique; Carrero García, Francisco Manuel; Buenaga Rodríguez, Manuel de

    2009-01-01

    Across the years, Internet has evolved from an academic network to a truly communication medium, reaching impressive levels of audience and becoming a billionaire business. Many of our working, studying, and entertainment activities are nowadays overwhelmingly limited if we get disconnected from the net of networks. And of course, with the use comes abuse. The World Wide Web features a wide variety of content that are harmful for children or just inappropriate in the workplace. Web filtering ...

  6. Twitter content classification

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper delivers a new Twitter content classification framework based sixteen existing Twitter studies and a grounded theory analysis of a personal Twitter history. It expands the existing understanding of Twitter as a multifunction tool for personal, profession, commercial and phatic communications with a split level classification scheme that offers broad categorization and specific sub categories for deeper insight into the real world application of the service.

  7. Towards Network-Failure-Tolerant Content Delivery for Web Content

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wen; Wang, Zhi; Sun, Lifeng

    2016-01-01

    Popularly used to distribute a variety of multimedia content items in today Internet, HTTP-based web content delivery still suffers from various content delivery failures. Hindered by the expensive deployment cost, the conventional CDN can not deploy as many edge servers as possible to successfully deliver content items to all users under these delivery failures. In this paper, we propose a joint CDN and peer-assisted web content delivery framework to address the delivery failure problem. Dif...

  8. Content Documents Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  9. Determination of Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Charles

    The term "lipid" refers to a group of compounds that are sparingly soluble in water, but show variable solubility in a number of organic solvents (e.g., ethyl ether, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene). The lipid content of a food determined by extraction with one solvent may be quite different from the lipid content as determined with another solvent of different polarity. Fat content is determined often by solvent extraction methods (e.g., Soxhlet, Goldfish, Mojonnier), but it also can be determined by nonsolvent wet extraction methods (e.g., Babcock, Gerber), and by instrumental methods that rely on the physical and chemical properties of lipids (e.g., infrared, density, X-ray absorption). The method of choice depends on a variety of factors, including the nature of the sample (e.g., dry versus moist), the purpose of the analysis (e.g., official nutrition labeling or rapid quality control), and instrumentation available (e.g., Babcock uses simple glassware and equipment; infrared requires an expensive instrument).

  10. SocialScope: Enabling Information Discovery on Social Content Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Amer-Yahia, Sihem; Yu, Cong

    2009-01-01

    Recently, many content sites have started encouraging their users to engage in social activities such as adding buddies on Yahoo! Travel and sharing articles with their friends on New York Times. This has led to the emergence of {\\em social content sites}, which is being facilitated by initiatives like OpenID (http://www.openid.net/) and OpenSocial (http://www.opensocial.org/). These community standards enable the open access to users' social profiles and connections by individual content sites and are bringing content-oriented sites and social networking sites ever closer. The integration of content and social information raises new challenges for {\\em information management and discovery} over such sites. We propose a logical architecture, named \\kw{SocialScope}, consisting of three layers, for tackling the challenges. The {\\em content management} layer is responsible for integrating, maintaining and physically accessing the content and social data. The {\\em information discovery} layer takes care of analyz...

  11. The standard model of electroweak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pich, Antonio

    1994-01-01

    What follows is an updated version of the lectures given at the CERN Academic Training (November 1993) and at the Jaca Winter Meeting (February 1994). The aim is to provide a pedagogical introduction to the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. After briefly reviewing the empirical considerations which lead to the construction of the Standard Model Lagrangian, the particle content, structure and symmetries of the theory are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the many phenomenological tests (universality, flavour-changing neutral currents, precision measurements, quark mixing, etc.) which have established this theoretical framework as the Standard Theory of electroweak interactions.

  12. PR Educators and Practitioners Identify Professional Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallot, Lynne M.; Cameron, Glen; Weaver-Lariscy, Ruth-Ann

    1998-01-01

    Surveys public relations educators nationwide. Finds (1) little consensus about professional standards in public relations among educators and practitioners; and (2) both educators and practitioners held their peers in comparatively low esteem. Offers 10 recommendations to reorient and reemphasize the content of courses. (RS)

  13. Standardized Curriculum for General Industrial Maintenance Trades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: general industrial maintenance trades I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation and leadership activities; (2) safety; (3) blueprint reading; (4) oxyacetylene cutting; (5) preventative maintenance; (6)…

  14. Social Studies Fresh Frontier for Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Feeling that social studies has been sidelined by a test-driven focus on math and English/language arts, subject-matter specialists from more than a dozen states met last week with representatives of content-area groups to brainstorm ways to improve academic standards in that subject. The two-day gathering in Charlotte, N.C., is the third convened…

  15. Standardization of Inter-Destination Media Synchronization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Brandenburg, R. van; Boronat, F.; Montagud, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inter-Destination Media Synchronization (IDMS) is a process in which various receivers of the same content are synchronized in their playout. Standardization of an IDMS solution helps to enable interoperability between receivers manufactured by different companies. This paper describes the efforts b

  16. Social Studies Fresh Frontier for Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Feeling that social studies has been sidelined by a test-driven focus on math and English/language arts, subject-matter specialists from more than a dozen states met last week with representatives of content-area groups to brainstorm ways to improve academic standards in that subject. The two-day gathering in Charlotte, N.C., is the third convened…

  17. Studies of H3K4me3 demethylation by KDM5B/Jarid1B/PLU1 reveals strong substrate recognition in vitro and identifies 2,4-pyridine-dicarboxylic acid as an in vitro and in cell inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Line Hyltoft; Nielsen, Anders Laerke; Helgstrand, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic methylations and demethylations of histone lysine residues are important for gene regulation and are facilitated by histone methyltransferases and histone demethylases (HDMs). KDM5B/Jarid1B/PLU1 is an H3K4me3/me2 specific lysine demethylase belonging to the family of JmjC domain containin...

  18. Water Quality Standards Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Standards Handbook is a compilation of the EPA's water quality standards (WQS) program guidance including recommendations for states, authorized tribes, and territories in reviewing, revising, and implementing WQS.

  19. Radiologic Technology Program Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the radiologic technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories; Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); Program…

  20. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  1. Catalytic Functions of Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blind (Knut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe three different areas and the examples have illustrated several catalytic functions of standards for innovation. First, the standardisation process reduces the time to market of inventions, research results and innovative technologies. Second, standards themselves promote the diffusi

  2. Standards and standpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that critique is a necessary component in any study of standards, just as it is implied in the concept of standard itself. From this follows the relevance of reflexively situating our research in relation to the cultural-historical development of standards and standardization....... The argument takes off from two different conceptualizations of standards in the literature. On the one hand, standards as immanent to practices (the “Neo-Aristotelian” approach), and on the other hand, standards as imposed to regulate practices (the “neo-pragmatist” and “governmentality” approaches......). It is suggested that this opposition can be superseded by articulating the former alternative, not as an essentialism of “practice,” but as the reflexive assumption of standpoint. Some intricacies of the articulation of standpoint are then discussed, concluding in a proposed dialectics of standard and standpoint....

  3. Catalytic Functions of Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blind (Knut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe three different areas and the examples have illustrated several catalytic functions of standards for innovation. First, the standardisation process reduces the time to market of inventions, research results and innovative technologies. Second, standards themselves promote the

  4. Policy,standard,regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Automobile Standardization Committee secretariat collects comments on the phase III fuel consumption level limit The Committee intends to formulate the standard based on a comprehensive evaluation of the previous two phases.

  5. Technical Data Interoperability (TDI) Pathfinder Via Emerging Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Mike; Gill, Paul; Hill, Bradley; Ibach, Brandon; Jones, Corey; Ungar, David; Barch, Jeffrey; Ingalls, John; Jacoby, Joseph; Manning, Josh; Bengtsson, Kjell; Falls, Mark; Kent, Peter; Heath, Shaun; Kennedy, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The TDI project (TDI) investigates trending technical data standards for applicability to NASA vehicles, space stations, payloads, facilities, and equipment. TDI tested COTS software compatible with a certain suite of related industry standards for capabilities of individual benefits and interoperability. These standards not only esnable Information Technology (IT) efficiencies, but also address efficient structures and standard content for business processes. We used source data from generic industry samples as well as NASA and European Space Agency (ESA) data from space systems.

  6. Literary Censorship: The Changing Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Al-Sharqi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Censorship is a double-edged sword that has bred legal, political, and moral wrangling across the globe. The basic controversy, which harkens back to ancient times, stems from the motivation and intention of the censoring authority. The censoring authority controls literary and informational contents, based on the promulgated political, moral, religious, and cultural values of the land. Historically, the politicians, judiciary, clergymen, powerful groups, and the public at large were involved in guarding public morals and rooting out obscenity. The obscenity laws outlawed the selling, purchasing, printing, importing, and mailing of obscene items. However, in today's day and age, the Internet has made it difficult to control the circulation of what was once considered obscene. Censorship has evolved to monitor and control online content to keep abreast with the changing times; nevertheless, it does not always effectively control the questionable content. Moreover, in the past, cultural values and demography played a vital role in deciding what needed to be censored. Internet, as an electronic global village, has redefined demography; therefore, the global as well as indigenous standards upon which literature were once analyzed for censorship is now blurred. The promise of free speech has given power to the people that live in mature democracies. However, there should be a self-imposed code of conduct so that the right of free speech does not infringe on others' right of existence. This paper reviews censorship, tracing its historical path and evolution over the years, its changing standards, and its pros and cons. Lastly, the paper discusses the need to conjoin freedom of speech with the responsibility to protect the diverse cultures, religions, races, sects, genders, and especially the young generation.

  7. Content Marketing Practices in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Suuronen, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to draw attention to increasingly important business phenomenon of content marketing. This paper defines content marketing, identifies its key elements and phases, and explores content marketing practices. The theorethical part is based on Pam Didner's 4P model that describes the stages of content marketing cycle: plan, produce, promote and perfect. The empirical part of the study is based on semi-structured interviews of seasoned content marketing professionals t...

  8. Collaboration Between Multistakeholder Standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Maclean, Camilla

    responsibility is unlikely to support a great variety of partly competing and overlapping standards. Increased collaboration between these standards would enhance both their impact and their adoption by firms. This report examines the nature, benefits, and shortcomings of existing multistakeholder standards...

  9. Questioning the Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Dairy quality standards trigger further controversy China’s dairy industry is once again being scrutinized as suspicions abound that major dairy enterprises played a hand in manipulating and lowering quality standards to save costs.The new standards released in March 2010 set the maximum safety limit for bacteria in raw milk at 2 million cells per milliliter, four times

  10. Evidence Standards and Litigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    aspect of the legal system: the evidence standard. We recast the conventional rent-seeking model to consider how alternative evidence standards affect litigation choices. We analyze the interrelation between different evidence standards, the effectiveness of the parties’ efforts, and the merits...

  11. Control Systems Cyber Security Standards Support Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Evans

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security’s Control Systems Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control systems. This document describes CSSP’s current activities with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control systems. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control systems cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.

  12. Reading the New Standard ISA700

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Botez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of permanent professional standards is a requirement for professional bodies of professional accountants, resulting in broader processes of globalization and harmonization. A set of revised standards on financial audit engagement was published by IFAC in April 2009. International Standard on Auditing (ISA 700 "Forming an opinion and reporting on financial statements” is one of them. This standard deals with the auditor's responsibility to form an opinion on the financial statements and determine the form and content of the auditor's report issued following an audit of financial statements. Even if you do not have major changes, the revised standard contains several provisions that emphasize the important role of the auditor's report and more specifically defines its responsibility.

  13. Sugar content of popular sweetened beverages based on objective laboratory analysis: focus on fructose content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Emily E; Davis, Jaimie N; Goran, Michael I

    2011-04-01

    The consumption of fructose, largely in the form of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), has risen over the past several decades and is thought to contribute negatively to metabolic health. However, the fructose content of foods and beverages produced with HFCS is not disclosed and estimates of fructose content are based on the common assumption that the HFCS used contains 55% fructose. The objective of this study was to conduct an objective laboratory analysis of the sugar content and composition in popular sugar-sweetened beverages with a particular focus on fructose content. Twenty-three sugar-sweetened beverages along with four standard solutions were analyzed for sugar profiles using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in an independent, certified laboratory. Total sugar content was calculated as well as percent fructose in the beverages that use HFCS as the sole source of fructose. Results showed that the total sugar content of the beverages ranged from 85 to 128% of what was listed on the food label. The mean fructose content in the HFCS used was 59% (range 47-65%) and several major brands appear to be produced with HFCS that is 65% fructose. Finally, the sugar profile analyses detected forms of sugar that were inconsistent with what was listed on the food labels. This analysis revealed significant deviations in sugar amount and composition relative to disclosures from producers. In addition, the tendency for use of HFCS that is higher in fructose could be contributing to higher fructose consumption than would otherwise be assumed.

  14. Explicit Content Image Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Marcial Basilio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a system gives for explicit content image detection based on Computer VisionAlgorithms, pattern recognition and FTK software Explicit Image Detection. In the first stage, HSV colormodel is used for the input images for the purpose of discriminating elements that are not human skinimages. Then the image is filtered using skin detection. The output image only contains the areas of whichit is composed. The results show a comparison between the proposed system and the company softwareAccess Data called Forensic Toolkit 3.1 Explicit Image Detection isperformed.

  15. Explicit Content Image Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Marcial Basilio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a system gives for explicit content image detection based on Computer Vision Algorithms, pattern recognition and FTK software Explicit Image Detection. In the first stage, HSV color model is used for the input images for the purpose of discriminating elements that are not human skin images. Then the image is filtered using skin detection. The output image only contains the areas of which it is composed. The results show a comparison between the proposed system and the company software Access Data called Forensic Toolkit 3.1 Explicit Image Detection isperformed.

  16. Personalized professional content recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  17. Information Security Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Constantin Tofan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of standards is unanimously accepted and gives the possibility of comparing a personal security system with a given frame of reference adopted at an international level. A good example is the ISO 9000 set of standards regarding the quality management system, which is a common reference regardless of the industry in which a certain company activates. Just like quality control standards for other industrial processes such as manufacturing and customer service, information security standards demonstrate in a methodical and certifiable manner that an organization conforms to industry best practices and procedures. This article offers a review of the world’s most used information security standards.

  18. Business Standardization & Market Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shiyuan

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of the market economy in China requires a renewed understanding of the theory and practice of business standardization. Built on the basic principles of standardization and the market economics, this paper seeks to define the role and status of standardization in the market economy, its aims and priorities. It then describes the deployment of standardization in market competition. Lastly, it explores into the possible transformations of concepts, functions and associated personnel of enterprise standardization in order to keep abreast of the evolving market economy.

  19. Standardization in Beijing Opera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2012-01-01

    Beijing Opera is the treasure of Chinese traditional dramatic arts.More than 200 years of artistic practice is the process that makes it mature and standardized.Although it is not described by standardized academic terminologies,all the performances of 'Chang (Singing)','Nian(Speaking)','Zuo (Acting)' and 'Da (Fighting)' have been following standardization requirement which is called "Chengshi (pattem)" in professional language or "Fan'er" in jargou,literally meaning a standard pattern.The pattern is the an technology format which is refined and summarized in accordance with the beautify principles from natural forms of things in life and then standardized to be the commonly adhered.

  20. WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Lim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations in the Western Pacific Region (WHO Standard was released in 2008. Initially, there were 92/361 controversial acupuncture points (acupoints. Through seven informal consultations and four task force team meetings, 86 points were agreed upon among the 92 controversial acupoints, leaving 6 remaining controversial acupoints, demanding active research in the future. This will enhance the reproducibility and validity of acupuncture studies. It will also lead to a better understanding of acupuncture mechanisms in order to optimize its clinical efficacy for a range of diseases and syndromes. This book has two parts: General Guidelines for Acupuncture Point Locations and WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations. First of all, familiarity with the General Guidelines for Acupuncture Point Locations in this book can help the reader to understand and use the contents of this book in depth. I would like to thank all of the participating experts and scholars for this great work, who have overcome the limits of previous acupuncture references. I also appreciate the dedicated effort and harmonious leadership of Dr Choi Seung-hoon, former Regional Adviser in Traditional Medicine of Western Pacific Office, WHO.

  1. 77 FR 56741 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; NAICS and Size Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... contracting until the Small Business Administration (SBA) publishes corresponding industry size standards... published by the Small Business Administration and are available at http://www.sba.gov/content/table-small... Federal contracting until the Small Business Administration publishes corresponding industry...

  2. 117 Standards Admitted in Civil Administration Standardization Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The Ministry of Civil Administration has finalized its Standardization Plan 2007. According to this plan, the Ministry will see that 117 standards, including 8 compulsory national standards, 83 recommended national standards, and 26 professional standards, are prepared by June 2008.

  3. Data standards for clinical research data collection forms: current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richesson, Rachel L; Nadkarni, Prakash

    2011-05-01

    Case report forms (CRFs) are used for structured-data collection in clinical research studies. Existing CRF-related standards encompass structural features of forms and data items, content standards, and specifications for using terminologies. This paper reviews existing standards and discusses their current limitations. Because clinical research is highly protocol-specific, forms-development processes are more easily standardized than is CRF content. Tools that support retrieval and reuse of existing items will enable standards adoption in clinical research applications. Such tools will depend upon formal relationships between items and terminological standards. Future standards adoption will depend upon standardized approaches for bridging generic structural standards and domain-specific content standards. Clinical research informatics can help define tools requirements in terms of workflow support for research activities, reconcile the perspectives of varied clinical research stakeholders, and coordinate standards efforts toward interoperability across healthcare and research data collection.

  4. Scoring and Standard Setting with Standardized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini, John J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The continuous method of scoring a performance test composed of standardized patients was compared with a derivative method that assigned each of the 131 examinees (medical residents) a dichotomous score, and use of Angoff's method with these scoring methods was studied. Both methods produce reasonable means and distributions of scores. (SLD)

  5. Interactive 3D multimedia content

    CERN Document Server

    Cellary, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The book describes recent research results in the areas of modelling, creation, management and presentation of interactive 3D multimedia content. The book describes the current state of the art in the field and identifies the most important research and design issues. Consecutive chapters address these issues. These are: database modelling of 3D content, security in 3D environments, describing interactivity of content, searching content, visualization of search results, modelling mixed reality content, and efficient creation of interactive 3D content. Each chapter is illustrated with example a

  6. Abstracts of Main Contents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Research and Ponderations over Quota Management Policy for Constructing Vehicle Parking Lots in Shanghai Experience of Domestic and Foreign Developed Areas and its Inspiration First of all, the quota management of constructing Shanghai vehicle parking lots is classified, and unsuitability of existing- management in aspects of area-dividing, land usage classification and construction quota is analyzed. Then the domestic and foreign experiences in classification of buildings and standard of quota are summarized. Based on these, the quota management policy for constructing Shanghai vehicle oarkinz lots is suggested.

  7. [Standards in information technology-assisted tumor documentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, U; Wächter, W; Dudeck, J

    2000-01-01

    Data standards are a irrevocable pre-condition for a variety of applications in information technology, e.g. documentation, communication, and analysis. For this purpose, contents as well as rules for the representation of contents have to be defined. Tumour documentation has a long standing tradition. This contribution shows, which standards exist, how they are related to each other, what they are used for, and which tools exist.

  8. Image Content Engine (ICE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brase, J M

    2007-03-26

    The Image Content Engine (ICE) is being developed to provide cueing assistance to human image analysts faced with increasingly large and intractable amounts of image data. The ICE architecture includes user configurable feature extraction pipelines which produce intermediate feature vector and match surface files which can then be accessed by interactive relational queries. Application of the feature extraction algorithms to large collections of images may be extremely time consuming and is launched as a batch job on a Linux cluster. The query interface accesses only the intermediate files and returns candidate hits nearly instantaneously. Queries may be posed for individual objects or collections. The query interface prompts the user for feedback, and applies relevance feedback algorithms to revise the feature vector weighting and focus on relevant search results. Examples of feature extraction and both model-based and search-by-example queries are presented.

  9. Personalized professional content recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Songhua

    2015-10-27

    A personalized content recommendation system includes a client interface configured to automatically monitor a user's information data stream transmitted on the Internet. A hybrid contextual behavioral and collaborative personal interest inference engine resident to a non-transient media generates automatic predictions about the interests of individual users of the system. A database server retains the user's personal interest profile based on a plurality of monitored information. The system also includes a server programmed to filter items in an incoming information stream with the personal interest profile and is further programmed to identify only those items of the incoming information stream that substantially match the personal interest profile.

  10. Digital Content Licensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwemer, Sebastian Felix

    Copyright is territorial. But is the Internet? The Internet has changed the way we consume copyright-protected material. Yet, territorial segmentation of online content is a reality in the 28 EU Member States. Licensing and access practices do not reflect the digital reality, in which end...... the Digital Single Market (DSM). National and European authorities and legislators have created a host of – often industry- and sometimes business model-specific – initiatives, proposals and rules in order to facilitate the DSM and reconcile it with the territorial nature of copyright and its business...... practices; in part accompanying, refining or codifying industry-led solutions. In this – despite the novel nature of Internet uses and business models – traditional stress field, competition law and policy and copyright overlap and interfere. This thesis probes the different regulatory (legislative and non...

  11. Multimedia content analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ohm, Jens

    2016-01-01

    This textbook covers the theoretical backgrounds and practical aspects of image, video and audio feature expression, e.g., color, texture, edge, shape, salient point and area, motion, 3D structure, audio/sound in time, frequency and cepstral domains, structure and melody. Up-to-date algorithms for estimation, search, classification and compact expression of feature data are described in detail. Concepts of signal decomposition (such as segmentation, source tracking and separation), as well as composition, mixing, effects, and rendering, are discussed. Numerous figures and examples help to illustrate the aspects covered. The book was developed on the basis of a graduate-level university course, and most chapters are supplemented by problem-solving exercises. The book is also a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of multimedia content analysis systems in industry. .

  12. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2002-01-01

    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics......, Noise, produce hearing protector standards to be used at an international level. The presentation will cover the ongoing work in WG17, including the revision of existing standards (ISO 4869-1, ISO 4869-3), upcoming new standards (ISO 4869-7) and the plans and status for future standards (performance...... in impulse noise, protectors with active noise reduction). Furthermore, an overview of the present European standards (CEN) and the relation to American and Australian/New Zealand standards will be discussed....

  13. New Testing Standard For European Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, P.

    2004-08-01

    Standardization is a key aspect of the production business committed to the optimization of the product development and cost. In the Space field, American industries and Government organizations have developed since several decades Space standards like the MIL series, deriving them from the aircraft and military fields, or the NASA standards. The same happened later in other countries like Russia, Japan and China. In the last years most of those standards were revised to cope with the emerging needs of the market. In Europe, the Space activities were generally managed by a set of ESA standards, the PSS, which covered some aspects of these activities and reflected the up-to-date approaches and common practices. But, in the last years an initiative was also promoted by ESA, National Agencies and Space Organizations, named ECSS (European Cooperation for Space Standardization), with the aim to develop a coherent, single set of user-friendly standards for use in all European space activities. European industries supported this initiative, including a deep involvement of Alenia Spazio and, sometime through a suitable revision of the old PSS documents, new standards were defined, as for the "Testing" (ECSS-E-10-03A, now published). The ECSS-E-10-03A provides standard environmental and performance test requirements for space products (systems and their constituents) which are generally applicable to all projects. Scope of this paper is to present the status of the worldwide initiatives in the testing standardization, the major contents of the European ECSS Testing standard and the possibilities for tailoring. Differences in requirement definition with other international testing standards and proposals for further ECSS optimization are presented on the basis of Alenia Spazio experience in supporting the above initiatives.

  14. Eating quality of UK-style sausages varying in price, meat content, fat level and salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, P R; Hope, E; Hughes, S I; Baker, A; Nute, G R

    2010-05-01

    Thirty-six brands of pork sausage were purchased from a total of 10 retailers over a 4 months period and assessed for eating quality. The brands included 5 of the 10 most popular sausages in the UK, 4 basic, 14 standard, 10 premium and 8 healthy eating brands. The average price, meat content, fat content and salt content was 3.31 pounds/kg, 62%, 17% and 1.6%, respectively, but there were wide differences in price (1.08 pound/kg-5.23 pounds/kg), meat content (32-97%), fat content (2.1-29.1%) and salt content (0.5-2.5%). Sausages were assessed by a trained sensory panel using 100mm unstructured line scales and 14 descriptors (skin toughness, firmness, juiciness, pork flavour, fattiness, meatiness, particle size, cohesiveness, saltiness, sweet, acidic, bitter and metallic) including overall liking. The declared meat content was positively correlated with price, skin toughness, firmness, pork flavour, meatiness, particle size and perceived saltiness (r=0.5 or better). The declared fat content was positively correlated with fattiness and sweetness (r=0.42 or better) but not juiciness. There was no significant correlation between declared salt content and perceived saltiness. A principal component analysis showed that the first two principal components accounted for 51% of the variability in the data. Products could be separated into four quadrants according to their price, meat content, fat content and their associated eating quality attributes. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Governing through standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    This abstract adresses the ways in which new education standards have become integral to new modes of education governance. The paper explores the role of standards for accelerating the shift from national to transnational governance in higher education. Drawing on the case of higher education...... development in Scandinavia, the paper focuses on the unintended effects of the new international standards. The Bologna process was reframed and recontextualized in ways that undermined the very system it was set out to transform and govern....

  16. Information Security Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Constantin Tofan

    2011-01-01

    The use of standards is unanimously accepted and gives the possibility of comparing a personal security system with a given frame of reference adopted at an international level. A good example is the ISO 9000 set of standards regarding the quality management system, which is a common reference regardless of the industry in which a certain company activates. Just like quality control standards for other industrial processes such as manufacturing and customer service, information security stand...

  17. Standard Model processes

    CERN Document Server

    Mangano, M.L.; Aguilar Saavedra, J.A.; Alekhin, S.; Badger, S.; Bauer, C.W.; Becher, T.; Bertone, V.; Bonvini, M.; Boselli, S.; Bothmann, E.; Boughezal, R.; Cacciari, M.; Carloni Calame, C.M.; Caola, F.; Campbell, J.M.; Carrazza, S.; Chiesa, M.; Cieri, L.; Cimaglia, F.; Febres Cordero, F.; Ferrarese, P.; D'Enterria, D.; Ferrera, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Garzelli, M.V.; Germann, E.; Hirschi, V.; Han, T.; Ita, H.; Jäger, B.; Kallweit, S.; Karlberg, A.; Kuttimalai, S.; Krauss, F.; Larkoski, A.J.; Lindert, J.; Luisoni, G.; Maierhöfer, P.; Mattelaer, O.; Martinez, H.; Moch, S.; Montagna, G.; Moretti, M.; Nason, P.; Nicrosini, O.; Oleari, C.; Pagani, D.; Papaefstathiou, A.; Petriello, F.; Piccinini, F.; Pierini, M.; Pierog, T.; Pozzorini, S.; Re, E.; Robens, T.; Rojo, J.; Ruiz, R.; Sakurai, K.; Salam, G.P.; Salfelder, L.; Schönherr, M.; Schulze, M.; Schumann, S.; Selvaggi, M.; Shivaji, A.; Siodmok, A.; Skands, P.; Torrielli, P.; Tramontano, F.; Tsinikos, I.; Tweedie, B.; Vicini, A.; Westhoff, S.; Zaro, M.; Zeppenfeld, D.; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-06-22

    This report summarises the properties of Standard Model processes at the 100 TeV pp collider. We document the production rates and typical distributions for a number of benchmark Standard Model processes, and discuss new dynamical phenomena arising at the highest energies available at this collider. We discuss the intrinsic physics interest in the measurement of these Standard Model processes, as well as their role as backgrounds for New Physics searches.

  18. Persian Agricultural Journals and Standard: Degree of Compatibility of Persian Scientific Agricultural Journals with International Standard Organization (ISO Publishing standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Gilvari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Standard is a collection of recipes, guidelines or recommendations which use in production, creating or making of goods, products, documents or special resources. Extent of adaptation of Persian Agricultural scientific journals which are publishing in Iran with ISO publishing standards was evaluated in this research. The information items which were necessary to be presented in different sections of Agricultural scientific journals were examined. Items which were needed to be present in cover page, content, title page, running title, and endnote, abstract, first page of an article, references and its structure were among the information items. 47 Agricultural scientific journals were publishing until February 2009 consisted of the research population. Descriptive survey method is used. Results showed the adaption rate with ISO standards in research population was 53.47 percent. There was no private publisher which publishes agricultural scientific journals. The extent of adaptation with ISO standards was high in journal sections such as abstracts and keywords.

  19. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID- 20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  20. Flight Standards Automation System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — FAVSIS supports Flight Standards Service (AFS) by maintaining their information on entities such as air carriers, air agencies, designated airmen, and check airmen....