WorldWideScience

Sample records for k-3 grades 4-6

  1. Multi-Cultural Resource Center Materials Handbook, Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Mary F.; Barrientos, Anita

    This annotated bibliography cites multicultural materials whose themes correlate with basic concepts taught in the primary grades. The items are in the Multi-Cultural Resource Center of the Toledo, Ohio public schools. The purpose of the bibliography is to help teachers integrate materials into their classroom. Films, filmstrips, books, study…

  2. Structural Validity of CLASS K-3 in Primary Grades: Testing Alternative Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandilos, Lia E.; Shervey, Sarah Wollersheim; DiPerna, James C.; Lei, Puiwa; Cheng, Weiyi

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the internal structure of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS; K-3 version). The original CLASS K-3 model (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008) and 5 alternative models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of first- and second-grade classrooms (N = 141). Findings indicated that a slightly…

  3. Teach with Energy! FUNdamental Energy, Electricity, and Science Lessons for Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This book is an energy, electricity, and science resource guide for teachers of grades K-3. The types of energy covered are: coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energy sources, electricity and food. Thirty-one interdisciplinary energy lessons are the heart of the book. Each lesson is teacher tested and can be incorporated into the…

  4. Teach with Energy! FUNdamental Energy, Electricity, and Science Lessons for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This book is an energy, electricity, and science resource guide for teachers of grades K-3. The types of energy covered are: coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energy sources, electricity and food. Thirty-one interdisciplinary energy lessons are the heart of the book. Each lesson is teacher tested and can be incorporated into the…

  5. Teaching New Literacies in Grades 4-6: Resources for 21st-Century Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Barbara, Ed.; Lapp, Diane, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Upper-elementary students encounter a sometimes dizzying array of traditional and nontraditional texts both in and outside of the classroom. This practical handbook helps teachers in grades 4-6 harness the instructional potential of fiction, poetry, and plays; informational texts; graphic novels; digital storytelling; Web-based and multimodal…

  6. A large-scale evaluation of the KiVa Antibullying Program: Grades 4-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kärnä, A.; Voeten, M.J.M.; Little, T.D.; Poskiparta, E.H.; Salmivalli, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying program using a large sample of 8,237 youth from Grades 4-6 (10-12 years). Altogether, 78 schools were randomly assigned to intervention (39 schools, 4,207 students) and control conditions (39 schools, 4,030 students). Multilevel reg

  7. Teaching Writing in Grades 4-6 in Urban Schools in the Greater China Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Tien Ping; Graham, Steve

    2016-01-01

    A random sample of 1102 grade 4-6 Chinese language arts teachers in Beijing, Macao, and Taipei City were surveyed about their instructional writing practices. Seventy-eight percent (n = 857) of the teachers completed the survey. Teachers were generally positive about the usefulness of their college teacher preparation program. They slightly agreed…

  8. Survey of K-3rd-Grade Teachers' Knowledge of Ear Infections and Willingness to Participate in Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Jeffrey L.; Johnson, Carole E.; Caudle, Abby T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Ear infections are prevalent in kindergarten through 3rd-grade (K-3rd) children and can affect their performance at school. Chewing gum, when administered by parents and teachers, can help prevent ear infections in children. This pilot study surveyed K-3rd-grade teachers in the Santa Barbara School Districts to assess their knowledge…

  9. A large-scale evaluation of the KiVa antibullying program: grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärnä, Antti; Voeten, Marinus; Little, Todd D; Poskiparta, Elisa; Kaljonen, Anne; Salmivalli, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the KiVa antibullying program using a large sample of 8,237 youth from Grades 4-6 (10-12 years). Altogether, 78 schools were randomly assigned to intervention (39 schools, 4,207 students) and control conditions (39 schools, 4,030 students). Multilevel regression analyses revealed that after 9 months of implementation, the intervention had consistent beneficial effects on 7 of the 11 dependent variables, including self- and peer-reported victimization and self-reported bullying. The results indicate that the KiVa program is effective in reducing school bullying and victimization in Grades 4-6. Despite some evidence against school-based interventions, the results suggest that well-conceived school-based programs can reduce victimization.

  10. Effects of a kinesthetic cursive handwriting intervention for grade 4-6 students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gwenyth I; Siever, Jodi E; Mair, Judith A

    2010-01-01

    We studied whether Grade 4-6 students who participated in a kinesthetic writing intervention improved in legibility, speed, and personal satisfaction with cursive handwriting. Small groups of students with handwriting difficulties were seen weekly for 7 wk using a kinesthetic writing system. A repeated measures design was used to evaluate change in global legibility, individual letter formation, specific features of handwriting, and personal satisfaction. Analysis revealed (1) a significant increase in ratings of global legibility (p <.01; clinically significant improvements in 39% of students); (2) significant improvements in letter formation and legibility features of baseline, closure, and line quality (all p < .05); (3) increased handwriting speed (p < .05; not clinically significant); and (4) significant increase in measures with personal satisfaction of handwriting (p < .01). CONCLUSION. A kinesthetic handwriting intervention may be effective in improving the skills of students with handwriting challenges.

  11. Teaching New Literacies in Grades K-3: Resources for 21st-Century Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Barbara, Ed.; Lapp, Diane, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Even the youngest readers and writers in today's classrooms can benefit enormously from engagement with a wide range of traditional and nontraditional texts. This teacher-friendly handbook is packed with creative strategies for introducing K-3 students to fiction, poetry, and plays; informational texts; graphic novels; digital storytelling;…

  12. Strand I - Physical Health; Dental Health for Grades 4-6. Special Edition for Evaluation and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Curriculum Development Center.

    This is a curriculum guide for teaching dental health for grades 4-6. Each topic area is outlined under the headings of: (1) reference; (2) major understandings and fundamental concepts; (3) suggested teaching aids and learning activities; and (4) supplementary information for teachers. Main topics include: (1) growth and development of teeth; (2)…

  13. Strand I - Physical Health; Dental Health for Grades K-3. Special Edition for Evaluation and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Curriculum Development Center.

    This is a curriculum guide for teaching dental health material to early elementary grade students. This outline emphasizes the prevention and treatment of dental diseases, and is designed to provide the knowledge and develop the habits necessary for a lifetime of good dental health. A list of seven pupil objectives is presented to develop good…

  14. Strand I - Physical Health; Disease Prevention and Control for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    This health curriculum guide, intended for use with children in grades four through six, sees man's struggle to discover new knowledge for the prevention and control of disease in historical perspective. The contents of the guide are presented in outline form and cover the nature of disease, the history of disease, modern approaches to disease…

  15. Strand I, Physical Health: Health Status. Health Curriculum Materials for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Curriculum Development Center.

    This health curriculum guide, intended for use with children in grades four through six, contends that the school is in a unique position to supplement efforts by home and community in raising the levels of physical, mental, and social-emotional health for each child. The contents of the guide are presented in outline form and cover observing…

  16. Quit It! A Teacher's Guide on Teasing and Bullying for Use with Students in Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froschl, Merle; Sprung, Barbara; Mullin-Rindler, Nancy

    Noting that in elementary schools teasing and bullying are daily occurrences that negatively affect instruction and that students want adults to become more involved in resolving teasing and bullying, this guide was written to address teachers' concerns and to provide teachers in grades kindergarten through third grade with a proactive,…

  17. Project EAGLE (Early Academic Gifted Learning Experience): A Program for Gifted and Talented Students (Grades K-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkoski, Kay

    This manual is intended to guide the development of a primary grade gifted and talented program called Project EAGLE. The program focuses on lateral enrichment, higher level cognitive domain skills, creative thinking, self-directed learning, self-awareness and acceptance, and interpersonal relationships. Students complete assignments in…

  18. Ecology and the Environment. Language Arts around the World, Volume V. Cross-Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of ecology and the environment. The units in the book reach diverse…

  19. The effect of class size in grades K-3 on adult earnings, employment, and disability status: evidence from a multi-center randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Elizabeth Ty; Finn, Jeremy; Johnson, Gretchen; Muennig, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Early education interventions have been forwarded as a means for reducing social disparities in income and health in adulthood. We explore whether a successful early education intervention, which occurred between 1985 and 1989, improved the employment rates, earnings and health of blacks relative to whites through 2008. We used data from Project STAR (Student Teacher Achievement Ratio), a four-year multi-center randomized controlled trial of reduced class sizes in Tennessee involving 11,601 students. Students were initially randomized within 79 schools to classes with 22-25 or 13-17 students. We linked subject records to Social Security Administration (SSA) earnings and disability data collected between 1997 and 2008-when the majority of subjects were between the ages of 18 and 28. We focused our analysis on annual, rather than cumulative, measures of earnings and employment because educational attainment after high school might reduce earnings through age 23. We considered three or more years of statistically significant positive (or negative) annual impacts to be a meaningful effect. Project STAR improved cognition and high school graduation rates. These benefits were primarily realized among low-income and minority students. These early education benefits did not translate into reduced disability claims in adulthood for treated subjects. However, exposure to small class size increased employment for blacks, and increased earnings for black males (p<0.05). Exposure to small classes also led to an increase in earnings for white males. However, white females exposed to small classes experienced a net decline in earnings and employment across the later years of follow up (p<0.05), offsetting any gains by white males. Exposure to small class size in grades K-3 appears to improve earnings and employment for black males and earnings for white males, while reducing employment and earnings among white females.

  20. Paleontology--Dinosaurs and Other Fossils: Digging into the Past. Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Joey

    This book consists of two complete units on paleontology, dinosaurs, and fossils. The first unit is created for lower elementary students and the second one is for upper elementary grade levels. The units are designed for gifted students and encourage students to be responsible for their own education. Each unit is based on an interdisciplinary…

  1. Where and How People Live. Language Arts around the World, Volume IV. Cross-Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of where and how people live. The units in the book reach diverse…

  2. Equivariant K3 Invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Miranda C N; Harrison, Sarah M; Kachru, Shamit

    2015-01-01

    In this note, we describe a connection between the enumerative geometry of curves in K3 surfaces and the chiral ring of an auxiliary superconformal field theory. We consider the invariants calculated by Yau--Zaslow (capturing the Euler characters of the moduli spaces of D2-branes on curves of given genus), together with their refinements to carry additional quantum numbers by Katz--Klemm--Vafa (KKV), and Katz--Klemm--Pandharipande (KKP). We show that these invariants can be reproduced by studying the Ramond ground states of an auxiliary chiral superconformal field theory which has recently been observed to give rise to mock modular moonshine for a variety of sporadic simple groups that are subgroups of Conway's group. We also study equivariant versions of these invariants. A K3 sigma model is specified by a choice of 4-plane in the K3 D-brane charge lattice. Symmetries of K3 sigma models are naturally identified with 4-plane preserving subgroups of the Conway group, according to the work of Gaberdiel--Hoheneg...

  3. 学校心理环境对小学4~6年级学生学业表现的作用及条件%The role of collective perception of school psychological environment in grades 4~6 students' academic achievement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翠敏; 陶沙; 刘红云; 王翠翠; 齐雪; 董奇; 中国儿童青少年心理发育特征调查全国项目组

    2016-01-01

    school-level psychological environment may contribute to students' academic achievement uniquely beyond individual student's perception and constitute a unique indicator for school effectiveness. This study aimed to examine the unique roles of students' collective perception of school psychological environment beyond individual student's perception in elementary school students' academic achievement, motivation and attitude. Moreover, this study extended the investigation on the protecting effects of school psychological environment from attenuating the gaps between family background to the gaps between school characteristics (i.e., location, teacher quality and student collective socio-economic status). Based on the national representative data from the National Children's Study of China, the collective perception of school psychological environment was measured on school safety and discipline, acceptance and support, equality and fairness, autonomy and cooperation among 12023 4th – 6th graders from 421 elementary schools, 100 counties across the 31 provinces. Other 10826 students from the same grades in the same schools completed a questionnaire about their perception of school psychological environment. Their academic achievement was measured by a questionnaire on academic motivation and attitude, as well as by the standardized tests on reading and mathematics. Multi-level modeling showed that: (a) There were considerable variances between schools on student's academic test scores (33.3%), motivation and attitude (10.0%) in grades 4~6. (b) The collective perception of psychological environment at school level significantly accounted for unique parts of variances of both academic test scores and motivation and attitude even controlling for students' grade, gender, family background, school location, school teacher education level, school collective socioeconomic status and students' perception of school psychological environment at individual level. The collective

  4. Supplement for Curriculum Guide for Mathematics: Spanish-Speaking Students, Grades 4-6 = Supplemento de la guia didactica de matematicas para los estudiantes de habla hispana, cuatro-sexto grados. Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    This supplementary math curriculum guide for use with Spanish-speaking, fouth through sixth grade students in Chicago public schools employs a contrastive analysis approach. Lessons are presented for objectives for which the instructional strategies used in the United States differ from those used in Spanish-speaking countries. (Objectives for…

  5. Testimony and Evidence To Support Small Classes, K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    This testimonial presents evidence that reduced class size (CSR) has positive effects on student learning in grades K-3. Student achievement is improved in the areas of academics, behavior and discipline, citizenship and participation in and outside school, and development into competent and productive adults. The paper emphasizes that class size…

  6. Victims, Bullies, and Bystanders in K-3 Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entenman, Janis; Murnen, Timothy J.; Hendricks, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined how bullies and bullying behavior were portrayed in 25 trade books appropriate for children in kindergarten through third grade. Employing a matrix outlining the characteristics of these books, they asked: (1) How are bullies and bullying behavior portrayed in K?3 children's literature?; (2) To what extent do the bullying…

  7. Career Awareness in Agribusiness, Renewable Natural Resources, and Environmental Protection: A Curriculum Guide for Grades K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to be used as a model to develop Career Education Experiences in a classroom program. It includes eight sample learning modules for the primary grade level (K-3) and another eight for the intermediate grade level (4-6). Each module has three basic parts: instructional information, instructional activities, and culmination or…

  8. Nikulin involutions on K3 surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We study the maps induced on cohomology by a Nikulin (i.e. a symplectic) involution on a K3 surface. We parametrize the eleven dimensional irreducible components of the moduli space of algebraic K3 surfaces with a Nikulin involution and we give examples of the general K3 surface in various components. We conclude with some remarks on Morrison-Nikulin involutions, these are Nikulin involutions which interchange two copies of E_8(-1) in the Neron Severi group.

  9. K3 projective models in scrolls

    CERN Document Server

    Johnsen, Trygve

    2004-01-01

    The exposition studies projective models of K3 surfaces whose hyperplane sections are non-Clifford general curves. These models are contained in rational normal scrolls. The exposition supplements standard descriptions of models of general K3 surfaces in projective spaces of low dimension, and leads to a classification of K3 surfaces in projective spaces of dimension at most 10. The authors bring further the ideas in Saint-Donat's classical article from 1974, lifting results from canonical curves to K3 surfaces and incorporating much of the Brill-Noether theory of curves and theory of syzygies developed in the mean time.

  10. Research on the Act of Lying of 4 - 6 Grade Children in the Situation of Self Checking in Math Test%四-六年级儿童在数学测验自阅卷情境中的说谎行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东斌; 毋静芳; 孙君洁

    2014-01-01

    为探讨四-六年级儿童说谎行为及其与家庭教养方式之间的关系,选取小学四-六年级共6个班儿童为被试,采用自编数学测验和家庭教养方式问卷为实验材料,在自阅卷情境中了解四-六年级儿童说谎行为的差异,并探讨其与家庭教养方式之间的关系。结果显示:四-六年级的儿童对考试说谎行为的认知和判断已经基本形成;在影响儿童考试说谎行为的三个因素上,自阅卷情境对四、五年级儿童的说谎行为并不存在显著影响,对六年级的儿童有显著影响。五年级或许是影响儿童说谎因素发展的一个关键期或转折点;家庭教养方式的不同因子对儿童说谎行为的影响有所不同。父亲教养方式中的惩罚严厉或是拒绝否认,以及母亲的家庭教养方式中的过分干涉和过分保护,或是不偏爱儿童,都更容易导致儿童说谎行为的发生。%Children grades 4 - 6 to explore the relationship between lying behavior and parenting styles,select a total of six ele-mentary grades 4 - 6 classes for children as subjects,math test by self and family parenting style questionnaire as experimental materi-al,since scoring situations grades 4 - 6 children understand the difference of lying behavior,and to explore the relationship between family upbringing way. The results showed that:(1)4 - 6 grade children lying on the examination of cognitive behavior and judgment has been basically formed.(2)on the three factors that affect the behavior of children lying exam,since scoring four or five grades sit-uational behavior of the child lying there was no significant impact on sixth-grade children have a significant impact. Perhaps the fifth grade or influence a critical turning point in the child lying on the factors of development.(3)parenting styles of different factors on childrenˊs lying behavior affect different. Fathering Pattern of severe punishment or denial,and the mother

  11. Activity Guide for Nutrition Education, Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chula Vista City School District, CA.

    This activity guide for foods and nutrition education at the primary level is divided into two sections: lesson plans and resource materials. Five concepts are outlined in the lesson plan: food choices, factors influencing choices, consumer competencies, food related careers, and food protection. Each lesson plan provides information on…

  12. Measures of Self-Concept Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Pamela, Ed.

    This 31-item test bibliography deals with a variety of currently available measures of self-concept and self-esteem. For the purposes of this listing, self concept was defined as a multidimensional construct encompassing the range of an individual's perceptions and evaluations of himself. Many of the devices contained herein emphasize the…

  13. Wet and Wild: A Multidisciplinary Marine Education Teacher Guide, Grades K-6. Unit II. Ocean Management: Who Owns the Sea? =Humedo y Salvaje. Segund Unidad. El Manejo de los Oceanos: Quien Es el Dueno de los Mares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Richard C.

    Topics and activities related to ocean management are the focus of this multidisciplinary, marine education teaching guide for students in kindergarten through grade 6. The guide is divided into four sections (labeled A through D). The first three sections consist of various kinds of activities, with the appropriate grade levels (K-6, K-3, or 4-6)…

  14. Lattice polarized toric K3 surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Rohsiepe, F

    2004-01-01

    When studying mirror symmetry in the context of K3 surfaces, the hyperkaehler structure of K3 makes the notion of exchanging Kaehler and complex moduli ambiguous. On the other hand, the metric is not renormalized due to the higher amount of supersymmetry of the underlying superconformal field theory. Thus one can define a natural mapping from the classical K3 moduli space to the moduli space of conformal field theories. Apart from the generalization of mirror constructions for Calabi-Yau threefolds, there is a formulation of mirror symmetry in terms of orthogonal lattices and global moduli space arguments. In many cases both approaches agree perfectly - with a long outstanding exception: Batyrev's mirror construction for K3 hypersurfaces in toric varieties does not fit into the lattice picture whenever the Picard group of the K3 surface is not generated by the pullbacks of the equivariant divisors of the ambient toric variety. In this case, not even the ranks of the corresponding Picard lattices add up as exp...

  15. A Curriculum in Written Composition, K-3: A Guide for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. English Curriculum Study Center.

    This teaching guide for written composition in grades K-3 contains (1) a statement of objectives for a curriculum in composition, (2) sequence charts which relate subject content for each grade to basic understandings about composition, (3) illustrations of ways in which the ordinary experiences of children can become the bases for compositions,…

  16. A Curriculum in Written Composition, 4-6: A Guide for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. English Curriculum Study Center.

    This guide for teaching composition in grades 4-6 (1) objectives for a curriculum in written composition, (2) sequence charts which relate subject content for each grade to basic understandings about composition, (3) illustrative learning experiences, and (4) units for teaching specific skills. The units for each grade are "Structuring a…

  17. K3 surfaces and their moduli

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Gavril; Geer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the latest developments concerning the moduli of K3 surfaces. It is aimed at algebraic geometers, but is also of interest to number theorists and theoretical physicists, and continues the tradition of related volumes like “The Moduli Space of Curves” and “Moduli of Abelian Varieties,” which originated from conferences on the islands Texel and Schiermonnikoog and which have become classics. K3 surfaces and their moduli form a central topic in algebraic geometry and arithmetic geometry, and have recently attracted a lot of attention from both mathematicians and theoretical physicists. Advances in this field often result from mixing sophisticated techniques from algebraic geometry, lattice theory, number theory, and dynamical systems. The topic has received significant impetus due to recent breakthroughs on the Tate conjecture, the study of stability conditions and derived categories, and links with mirror symmetry and string theory. At the same time, the theory of irred...

  18. Cusps in K --> 3 pi decays

    CERN Document Server

    Colangelo, G; Kubis, B; Rusetsky, A; Colangelo, Gilberto; Gasser, Juerg; Kubis, Bastian; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2006-01-01

    The pion mass difference generates a pronounced cusp in K --> 3 pi decays. As has recently been pointed out by Cabibbo and Isidori, an accurate measurement of the cusp may allow one to pin down the S-wave pi pi scattering lengths to high precision. Here, we present and illustrate an effective field theory framework that allows one to determine the structure of this cusp in a straightforward manner. The strictures imposed by analyticity and unitarity are respected automatically.

  19. Radiative corrections in K --> 3 pi decays

    CERN Document Server

    Bissegger, M; Gasser, J; Kubis, B; Rusetsky, A

    2008-01-01

    We investigate radiative corrections to K --> 3 pi decays. In particular, we extend the non-relativistic framework developed recently to include real and virtual photons and show that, in a well-defined power counting scheme, the results reproduce corrections obtained in the relativistic calculation. Real photons are included exactly, beyond the soft-photon approximation, and we compare the result with the latter. The singularities generated by pionium near threshold are investigated, and a region is identified where standard perturbation theory in the fine structure constant alpha may be applied. We expect that the formulae provided allow one to extract S-wave pi pi scattering lengths from the cusp effect in these decays with high precision.

  20. Effect of heat treatment on K3, K3XF and MTwo endodontic files

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes F. M. Braz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the transformation temperatures of K3, K3XF and MTwo endodontic files. DSC was used to investigate the domains of transformation temperatures and how the transformation temperatures vary along the file. The files were analysed as received and subjected to heat treatment. X-ray diffraction analysis was also used to investigate the stress-induced martensite transformation on the files under flexion. The results show that heat treatment influences the transformation temperatures and that under flexion, the conditions and situations in which files present a stress-induced martensite transformation can be identified.

  1. 4,6-Dimethoxy-2-(methylsulfanylpyrimidinium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Hemamalini

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C7H11N2O2S+·Cl−, the 4,6-dimethoxy-2-(methylsulfanylpyrimidinium cation is essentially planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.043 Å. In the crystal, the anions and cations are connected by intermolecular N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (011. Adjacent networks are cross-linked via π–π interactions involving the pyrimidinium ring [centroid–centroid distance = 3.5501 (8 Å].

  2. Relationship among child-abuse, depressive symptoms and sleep quality in grade 4-6 primary students%4~6年级小学生儿童虐待经历与抑郁情绪、睡眠质量的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍那; 赵雯婧; 刘海霞; 程雪; 傅一笑; 罗庆华; 邱海棠; 邱田; 王慧; 胡华; 蒙华庆; 陈品红; 杜莲; 屈远; 邹志礼; 王婷

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between child-abuse and depressive symptoms, sleep quality in primary students. Methods: Using stratified randomization sampling method, 1523 primary students in grade 4-6 were selected and assessed with the Child Abuse Scale, Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children (DSRSC), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index ( PSQI). The total score of the DSRSC ≥ 15 meant the children had depressive symptoms; and the total score of PSQI >7 meant the children had sleep problem. Totally 1417 valid questionnaires were analyzed. Results: The rates of child abuse, depressive symptoms and sleep quality were 41.7%, 23.2%, and 26. 2%, respectively. The scores of PSQI, sleep latency, sleep time, habitual sleep efficiency, daytime dysfunction were higher in abused subjects than non abused ones (Ps < 0. 05); and the scores of PSQI, sleep latency, sleep time, and habitual sleep efficiency in subjects with depressive symptom were higher than that in subjects without depressive symptom (Ps < 0. 05). Correlation analysis showed that the total scores of PSQI and DSRSC were negatively correlated with physical abuse and verbal abuse (r= -0. 06 - -0. 72, P < 0. 05). The scores of PSQI, sleep latency, habitual sleep efficiency were positively correlated with DSRSC total score (r= 0. 13 -0. 14, P < 0. 01).Conclusion: It indicates that child abuse, depressive symptoms and sleep quality problem are common in primary students in grade 4-6. The child abuse, especially physical abuse and verbal abuse may have negative effects on the mood and sleep quality in primary students, which should be noticed.%目的:探讨儿童虐待经历与小学生抑郁情绪、睡眠质量的关系.方法:分层抽取重庆市主城3区的9所小学校(重点、普通及农民工小学各3所)的1523名在校4-6年级小学生.运用儿童受虐量表评定小学生的受虐待状况,量表总分中负的分值代表虐待;儿童抑郁自评量表(DSRSC)评定小学

  3. Vocabulary Instruction in K-3 Low-Income Classrooms during a Reading Reform Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kristin L.; Dole, Janice A.; Hosp, John L.; Hosp, Michelle K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the vocabulary teaching of primary-grade teachers (K-3) in low-income schools. A total of 337 observations were conducted during language arts blocks over a three-year period. A coding scheme was developed to analyze teachers' vocabulary instruction. Results indicated that teachers spent less than 5%…

  4. Status on knowledge, attitudes, behavior regarding nutrition and food safety among 4-6 grade students from Chinas' two poverty-stricken counties%两个国家级贫困县4~6年级小学生营养与食品安全知信行现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭真; 杨芳; 孙振球; 李明志

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对两个国家级贫困县4~6年级小学生营养与食品安全知识、态度、行为现状的调查,分析贫困地区营养与食品安全存在的问题,探索小学生营养与食品安全教育最佳模式.方法 采用分层整群抽样,抽取云南省会泽县和陕西省镇安县12所小学4~6年级478名学生,使用自行设计的问卷进行调查.结果 478名小学生营养与食品安全知识平均得分为(18.66±3.75)分,及格率为61.09%,各条目知晓率最高为94%;态度部分平均得分为(5.82±1.50)分,其中97%以上的学生认为在学校学习一些营养和食品安全知识很有必要,仅19%的学生认为报纸、杂志和电视广告上刊登的营养与食品安全信息可靠;行为部分平均得分为(8.52±2.56)分,65%的学生一日三餐有规律.结论 学生营养与食品安全知识知晓率较基线调查结果有明显提高,日常饮食也更加规律,但也存在获取知识途径单一、态度和行为两级分化现象明显等问题.%Objective To investigating knowledge,attitudes,current behavior among primary school students on nutrition and food safety in two State-level poverty-stricken counties,and to explore the best educational model on nutrition and food safety.Methods 478 pupils at 4-6 grades were selected,using the method of stratified cluster sampling and questionnairs.Results The average score on knowledge was 18.66 ± 3.75,with the qualified rate as 61.09% (the highest was 60.6%).The average score in the section of attitude was 5.82 ± 1.50.More than 97% of the students agreed that it was necessary to receive knowledge on nutrition and food safety.The average score of behavior was 8.52 ± 2.56.Conclusion Rate of awareness on knowledge of nutrition and food safety had greatly improved among the students under study.Their habit tended to be more regular.However,we also noticed the gap between knowledge and behavior on this issue.

  5. 4~6年级农村留守儿童心理健康状况及其影响因素研究%Mental Health Status of Left-behind Children at 4-6 Grades of Primary Schools in Rural Area and Its Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高修银; 赵华硕; 金英良; 严文君; 周萍; 王丽红; 戴洁; 陆召军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨徐州市农村留守儿童的心理健康状况及其影响因素,为家庭、学校和社会对留守儿童的教育提供参考依据.方法 采用分层与整群相结合的随机抽样方法,对江苏省徐州市农村地区6所小学的1 115名留守儿童进行问卷调查.结果 不同性别的留守儿童在学习焦虑、对人焦虑、自责倾向、恐怖倾向和总焦虑倾向得分间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);父母是否在本地打工的留守儿童在对人焦虑和冲动倾向得分间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与父母见面时间长短不同的留守儿童在自责倾向和身体症状得分间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).父亲的文化程度与学习焦虑、对人焦虑、孤独倾向、过敏倾向、身体症状、恐怖倾向和总焦虑倾向得分之间呈负相关;母亲的文化程度与身体症状、恐怖倾向和总焦虑倾向得分间呈负相关;照顾人的文化程度与身体症状、恐怖倾向、总焦虑倾向得分间呈负相关.结论 女性、父母和照顾人文化程度偏低及与父母见面时间间隔长的农村留守儿童心理健康状况偏差.%Objective To explore the mental health status of left - behind children who were at 4 ~ 6 grades of primary schools in rural areas of Xuzhou city and the influencing factors, in order to provide reference evidence for education of left - behind children. Methods The cluster stratified sampling was taken to choose 1 115 pupils, left - behind children, at 4 to 6 grades of 6 primary schools in rural areas of Xuzhou city, Jiangsu province. Questionnaire survey was conducted among the subjects. Results There were significant differences in scores of study anxiety, interpersonal anxiety, self - blame tendency, phobic symptom and total anxiety tendency between male and female left - behind children ( P < 0. 05 ). There were significant differences in scores of interpersonal anxiety and impulsion tendency between children whose parents

  6. Gender differences and correlation between social anxiety and children neglect in grade 4-6 primary school students in Chongqing, China%重庆市主城区4~6年级小学生社交焦虑与忽视特点及相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马中锐; 蒙华庆; 胡华; 王慧; 陈品红; 邹志礼; 傅一笑; 杜莲

    2013-01-01

    目的 探索城市儿童社交焦虑与被忽视的性别差异及社交焦虑与被忽视关系.方法 分层抽取重庆市主城1 523名4~6年级小学生,运用儿童社交焦虑量表、儿童被忽视量表进行横断面调查.结果 男生忽视总分(Z=-3.83)、情感忽视(Z=-3.81)、交流忽视(Z=-3.15)、安全忽视(Z=-3.33)显著高于女孩(P<0.01),女孩害怕否定(Z=-6.50)、社交焦虑总分(Z=-5.39)高于男孩(P<0.01);按情感忽视、交流忽视、忽视总分严重程度比较,害怕否定、回避苦恼、社交焦虑总分均有显著差异(P<0.01);情感忽视与害怕否定(r =0.386)、社交焦虑总分(r=0.380)显著正相关(P<0.01),交流忽视与害怕否定(r=0.351)、社交焦虑总分(r=0.358)显著正相关(P<0.0i);多元逐步回归分析以害怕否定、回避苦恼、社交焦虑总分作为应变量时,忽视维度被纳入的变量分别能解释15.1%、5.0%、13.9%.结论 儿童社交焦虑与忽视,特别是情感忽视和交流忽视有关;尽管男生被忽视程度高于女生,但忽视对女孩社交焦虑影响更大.%Objective To study the gender differences and correlation between social anxiety and children neglect in grade 4-6 primary school students in Chongqing,China.Methods Using stratified randomization sampling method,1 523 primary students were enrolled in this study.Students with social anxiety and neglected situation were accessed with the Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Child Neglect Scale.Results The levels of neglect score (Z =-3.83),emotion neglect (Z =-3.81),communication neglect (Z =-3.15) and safety neglect of the boys were more serious than those of the girls (P <0.01),but the fear of negative evaluation (P < 0.01) and social anxiety score (P < 0.01) of the girls were more serious than those of the boys.There were significant differences in fear of negative evaluation,avoidance of distress and social anxiety score (P < 0.01) according to the severity of

  7. Structural applications of Avimid K3B LDF thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, Andrew P.

    Composite applications on advanced aircraft require lightweight, high performance, tough material systems which are capable of operating at high service temperatures. These composite systems must also be producible and cost effective. Avimid K3B composite materials and related process and part manufacturing technologies offers a unique solutions to these requirements. The objective of this paper is to describe selected Avimid K3B processing approaches such as Long Discontinuous Fiber thermoforming and fusion bonding. A review of the Avimid K3B F-16 Strake Door Joint Development Program is presented. This program successfully developed, built and structurally validated a flight demonstration component using these materials and manufacturing methods.

  8. The relationship between social anxiety and self-esteem, self-awareness in grade 4-6 primary students%4~6年级小学生社交焦虑与自尊及自我意识的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹志礼; 胡华; 陈品红; 蒙华庆; 王慧; 罗庆华; 傅一笑; 杜莲; 邱海棠; 邱田

    2012-01-01

    目的 探索4~6年级小学生社交焦虑情况及与自尊和自我意识的关系.方法 分层随机抽取重庆市主城区的3所小学校(重点、普通及农民工小学各l所)的568名在校4~6年级小学生,采用儿童社交焦虑量表(SASC)、Pies-Harris 儿童自我意识量表、自尊量表(SES)对小学生进行问卷调查.结果 ①小学生总社交焦虑及两大因子得分显著高于中国城市常模(P<0.01);②女生的社交焦虑总分及害怕否定评价[(4.84±4.26)分,(3.08±2.91)分)]高于男生[(4.12±3.95)分,(2.54±2.63)分,P<0.05];随年级的增高,六年级学生害怕否定评价的得分[(3.22±2.82)分]高于五年级[(2.53±2.76)分,P<0.01]和四年级[(2.54±2.68)分,P<0.05];农民工小学、单亲家庭和收入相对低的家庭者社交焦虑得分较高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);③小学生总社交焦虑及两大因子与其自尊水平呈显著正相关( r=0.305,0.282,0.270),与自我意识及各因子呈不同程度的负相关(r=-0.202~-0.511),相关均达到显著性(P<0.01);④小学生害怕否定评价能被自我意识中的焦虑和合群解释占25.5%;社交回避及苦恼能被自我意识中的焦虑、合群和智力与学校情况解释占20.4%;总的社交焦虑能被自我意识中的焦虑和合群解释占28.2%.结论 4~6年级小学生有较高的社交焦虑水平;不同性别、年级、学校、家庭结构、家庭月收入的小学生社交焦虑水平存在差异,其社交焦虑与自我意识和自尊水平密切相关.%Objective To explore the status of social anxiety and study the relationship between social anxiety and self-consciousness,self-esteem among primary students.Methods Using stratified randomization sampling method,568 primary students in grade 4 ~ 6 were investigated with social anxiety scale for children( SASC ),self-consciousness scale for children(PHCSS) and self-esteem scale(SES).Results ①The score of SASC in

  9. Possible light-induced superconductivity in K3C60 at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrano, M; Cantaluppi, A; Nicoletti, D; Kaiser, S; Perucchi, A; Lupi, S; Di Pietro, P; Pontiroli, D; Riccò, M; Clark, S R; Jaksch, D; Cavalleri, A

    2016-02-25

    The non-equilibrium control of emergent phenomena in solids is an important research frontier, encompassing effects such as the optical enhancement of superconductivity. Nonlinear excitation of certain phonons in bilayer copper oxides was recently shown to induce superconducting-like optical properties at temperatures far greater than the superconducting transition temperature, Tc (refs 4-6). This effect was accompanied by the disruption of competing charge-density-wave correlations, which explained some but not all of the experimental results. Here we report a similar phenomenon in a very different compound, K3C60. By exciting metallic K3C60 with mid-infrared optical pulses, we induce a large increase in carrier mobility, accompanied by the opening of a gap in the optical conductivity. These same signatures are observed at equilibrium when cooling metallic K3C60 below Tc (20 kelvin). Although optical techniques alone cannot unequivocally identify non-equilibrium high-temperature superconductivity, we propose this as a possible explanation of our results.

  10. Landau-Ginzburg orbifolds and symmetries of K3 CFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Ferrari, Francesca; Harrison, Sarah M.; Paquette, Natalie M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of the moonshine phenomenon, including umbral and Conway moonshine, suggest that it may play an important role in encoding the action of finite symmetry groups on the BPS spectrum of K3 string theory. To test and clarify these proposed K3-moonshine connections, we study Landau-Ginzburg orbifolds that flow to conformal field theories in the moduli space of K3 sigma models. We compute K3ellipticgeneratwinedbydiscretesymmetriesthataremanifestintheUVdescription, though often inaccessible in the IR. We obtain various twining functions coinciding with moonshine predictions that have not been observed in physical theories before. These include twining functions arising from Mathieu moonshine, other cases of umbral moonshine, and Conway moonshine. For instance, all functions arising from M 11 ⊂ 2 .M 12 moonshine appear as explicit twining genera in the LG models, which moreover admit a uniform description in terms of its natural 12-dimensional representation. Our results provide strong evidence for the relevance of umbral moonshine for K3 symmetries, as well as new hints for its eventual explanation.

  11. Supersymmetry Constraints and String Theory on K3

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Wang, Yifan; Yin, Xi

    2015-01-01

    We study supervertices in six dimensional (2,0) supergravity theories, and derive supersymmetry non-renormalization conditions on the 4- and 6-derivative four-point couplings of tensor multiplets. As an application, we obtain exact non-perturbative results of such effective couplings in type IIB string theory compactified on K3 surface, extending previous work on type II/heterotic duality. The weak coupling limit thereof, in particular, gives certain integrated four-point functions of half-BPS operators in the nonlinear sigma model on K3 surface, that depend nontrivially on the moduli, and capture worldsheet instanton contributions.

  12. The Tate conjecture for K3 surfaces over finite fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, François

    2013-10-01

    Artin's conjecture states that supersingular K3 surfaces over finite fields have Picard number 22. In this paper, we prove Artin's conjecture over fields of characteristic p>3. This implies Tate's conjecture for K3 surfaces over finite fields of characteristic p>3. Our results also yield the Tate conjecture for divisors on certain holomorphic symplectic varieties over finite fields, with some restrictions on the characteristic. As a consequence, we prove the Tate conjecture for cycles of codimension 2 on cubic fourfolds over finite fields of characteristic p>3.

  13. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Tohru, E-mail: eguchi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.j [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hikami, Kazuhiro, E-mail: KHikami@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Naruto University of Education, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2011-01-03

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M{sub 24} acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M{sub 24} so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M{sub 24}. In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  14. Eta products, BPS states and K3 surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yang-Hui [Department of Mathematics, City University,London, EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); School of Physics, NanKai University,Tianjin, 300071 (China); Merton College, University of Oxford,Oxford, OX14JD (United Kingdom); McKay, John [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University,1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2014-01-22

    Inspired by the multiplicative nature of the Ramanujan modular discriminant, Δ, we consider physical realizations of certain multiplicative products over the Dedekind eta-function in two parallel directions: the generating function of BPS states in certain heterotic orbifolds and elliptic K3 surfaces associated to congruence subgroups of the modular group. We show that they are, after string duality to type II, the same K3 surfaces admitting Nikulin automorphisms. In due course, we will present identities arising from q-expansions as well as relations to the sporadic Mathieu group M{sub 24}.

  15. Symplectic $S_5$ action on symplectic homotopy K3 surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HONGXIA LI

    2017-04-01

    Let $X$ be a symplectic homotopy K3 surface and $G = S_5$ act on $X$ symplectically. In this paper, we give a weak classification of the $G$ action on $X$ by discussing the fixed-point set structure. Besides, we analyse the exoticness of smoothstructures of $X$ under the action of $G$.

  16. Landau-Ginzburg Orbifolds and Symmetries of K3 CFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Miranda C N; Harrison, Sarah M; Paquette, Natalie M

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of the moonshine phenomenon, including umbral and Conway moonshine, suggest that it may play an important role in encoding the action of finite symmetry groups on the BPS spectrum of K3 string theory. To test and clarify these proposed K3-moonshine connections, we study Landau-Ginzburg orbifolds that flow to conformal field theories in the moduli space of K3 sigma models. We compute K3 elliptic genera twined by discrete symmetries that are manifest in the UV description, though often inaccessible in the IR. We obtain various twining functions coinciding with moonshine predictions that have not been observed in physical theories before. These include twining functions arising from Mathieu moonshine, other cases of umbral moonshine, and Conway moonshine. For instance, all functions arising from $M_{11} \\subset 2.M_{12}$ moonshine appear as explicit twining genera in the LG models, which moreover admit a uniform description in terms of its natural 12-dimensional representation. O...

  17. Moduli of K3 Surfaces and Irreducible Symplectic Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, V; Sankaran, G K

    2010-01-01

    The name "K3 surfaces" was coined by A. Weil in 1957 when he formulated a research programme for these surfaces and their moduli. Since then, irreducible holomorphic symplectic manifolds have been introduced as a higher dimensional analogue of K3 surfaces. In this paper we present a review of this theory starting from the definition of K3 surfaces and going as far as the global Torelli theorem for irreducible holomorphic symplectic manifolds as recently proved by M. Verbitsky. For many years the last open question of Weil's programme was that of the geometric type of the moduli spaces of polarised K3 surfaces. We explain how this problem has been solved. Our method uses algebraic geometry, modular forms and Borcherds automorphic products. We collect and discuss the relevant facts from the theory of modular forms with respect to the orthogonal group O(2,n). We also give a detailed description of quasi pull-back of automorphic Borcherds products. This part contains previously unpublished results. We apply our g...

  18. 15 CFR 4.6 - Time limits and expedited processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GOVERNMENT INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.6 Time limits and expedited processing. (a) In general... true and correct to the best of that person's knowledge and belief, explaining in detail the basis for...

  19. Targeting CDK4/6 in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erika; Infante, Jeffrey R

    2016-04-01

    The cyclin D-cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6-inhibitor of CDK4 (INK4)-retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway controls cell cycle progression by regulating the G1-S checkpoint. Dysregulation of the cyclin D-CDK4/6-INK4-Rb pathway results in increased proliferation, and is frequently observed in many types of cancer. Pathway activation can occur through a variety of mechanisms, including gene amplification or rearrangement, loss of negative regulators, epigenetic alterations, and point mutations in key pathway components. Due to the importance of CDK4/6 activity in cancer cells, CDK4/6 inhibitors have emerged as promising candidates for cancer treatment. Moreover, combination of a CDK4/6 inhibitor with other targeted therapies may help overcome acquired or de novo treatment resistance. Ongoing studies include combinations of CDK4/6 inhibitors with endocrine therapy and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway inhibitors for hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancers, and with selective RAF and MEK inhibitors for tumors with alterations in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway such as melanoma. In particular, the combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with endocrine therapy, such as palbociclib's recent first-line approval in combination with letrozole, is expected to transform the treatment of HR+ breast cancer. Currently, three selective CDK4/6 inhibitors have been approved or are in late-stage development: palbociclib (PD-0332991), ribociclib (LEE011), and abemaciclib (LY2835219). Here we describe the current preclinical and clinical data for these novel agents and discuss combination strategies with other agents for the treatment of cancer.

  20. 中国澳门地区4~6年级学童超重/肥胖与步行及住所周边环境因素的关系%Study on Overweight/Obesity,Walking and Residence Surrounding Envi ronment of 4~6 Grade School Children in Macao

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓龙; 翁锡全; 林文弢; 吴玉英

    2016-01-01

    Objective :Through discussion on relationship between Macao school‐age children BMI ,walking and residence surrounding environmental factors ,this paper reveals the residence surroundings affecting school‐age children's BM I ,and provides the reference for the health of the school‐age children's physical activity‐oriented community environment construction .Meth‐ods :1288 school‐age children are selected in Macao to measure the height and weight ,through the questionnaire survey of gender ,grade ,such as sociology of population variables ,investiga‐ting whether their daily walking regularly (being leisurely walk) ,whether to walk to and from school ,and to the residence surroundings factors around the road is easy to walk around home inns ,home whether safety and shelter when you cross the street if there is a park near and sports venues ,swimming pool ,a cycling path ,etc .Results :The result shows that the easy home way is the main environmental factors affecting male school‐aged children’s overweight and obese ,and it is also the main factors affecting whether walking regularly (OR were 2 .394 and 2 .394 ,p values were 0 .001 and 0 .658) .Whether safety around the house is not only af‐fect female school‐age children overweight or obese ,it is also the main environmental factors affecting walking regularly (OR were 1 .813 and 1 .813 ,p values were 0 .002 and 0 .082 ) . The indoor fitness venues nearby the residence are main factors affecting male and female chil‐dren to take a walk(OR were 1 .979 and 1 .979 ,p values were 0 .092 and 0 .682) .Conclu‐sion :Walking up and down school and regular walking of male school age children in Macao will help to reduce the incidence of overweight and obesity ,but the relationship between female school age children is not obvious .Through the analysis ,we found out that the convenience a‐round the residence facilities and playing partner are the main factors to promote walking and reduce the

  1. Ionization driven molecular outflow in K3-50A

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Peters, T; Longmore, S N; Maercker, M

    2013-01-01

    Whether high mass stars continue to accrete material beyond the formation of an HII region is still an open question. Ionized infall and outflow have been seen in some sources, but their ties to the surrounding molecular gas are not well constrained. We aim to quantify the ionized and molecular gas dynamics in a high mass star forming region (K3-50A) and their interaction. We present CARMA observations of the 3mm continuum, H41\\alpha, and HCO+ emission, and VLA continuum observations at 23 GHz and 14.7 GHz to quantify the gas and its dynamics in K3-50A. We find large scale dynamics consistent with previous observations. On small scales, we find evidence for interaction between the ionized and molecular gas which suggests the ionized outflow is entraining the molecular one. This is the first time such an outflow entrained by photo ionized gas has been observed. Accretion may be ongoing in K3-50A because an ionized bipolar outflow is still being powered, which is in turn entraining part of the surrounding molec...

  2. Making Connections. A Curriculum and Activity Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. [Grades] K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Kentucky's Mammoth Cave National Park is important because of its diversity of life on the surface and underground. Some of the plants in the park include trees such as oaks, hickories, tulip poplars, sycamores, and many types of bushes. The animal population is also very diverse and includes bats, squirrels, deer, raccoons, opossums, chipmunks,…

  3. Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Leon A

    2015-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) 4-6 have important roles as modulators of IGF actions. IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-6 predominantly inhibit IGF actions, whereas IGFBP-5 may enhance these actions under some circumstances. IGFBP-6 is unique among the IGFBPs for its marked IGF-II binding preference. IGFBPs 4-6 are found in the circulation as binary complexes with IGFs that can enter tissues. Additionally, about half of the circulating IGFBP-5 is found in ternary complexes with IGFs and an acid labile subunit; this high molecular complex cannot leave the circulation and acts as an IGF reservoir. IGFBPs 4-6 also have IGF-independent actions. These IGFBPs are regulated in a cell-specific manner and their dysregulation may play a role in a range of diseases including cancer. However, there is no clear clinical indication for measuring serum levels of these IGFBPs at present. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Global Change. Teaching Activities on Global Change for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This packet contains a series of teaching guides on global change. The series includes lessons on dendrochronology; land, air, and water; and island living. Included is information such as : laws of straws; where land, air, and water meet; and Earth as home. Each section provides an introductory description of the activity, the purpose of the…

  5. Math Trivial Pursuit: Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Math Activity Book for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Pat

    The purpose of this activity book is to provide fun while learning and reinforcing mathematics in the following categories: (1) mathematical concepts and applications; (2) mathematical computations; (3) geometry; and (4) mathematics for daily living. A gameboard and playing cards are provided in this book. A die, pawns, and a container for the…

  6. Fear, Panic, and Injustice: Executive Order 9066--A Lesson for Grades 4-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Theresa M.

    2008-01-01

    Decision making is one of the essential skills advocated by the National Council for the Social Studies for effective citizenship in a democratic society. Leaders in any society make decisions that influence many lives. In a democratic society, we expect that deductive and inductive reasoning guide decisions made for the common good. However, what…

  7. Copolyamides of nylon-4,6 and nylon-4,T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaymans, R.J.; Aalto, S.; Maurer, F.H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Copolyamides of nylon-4,6 and nylon-4,T were prepared by a two-step method: (1) a prepolymerization in an autoclave (40 min at 210°C) and (2) a postcondensation in the solid state (4 h, 260°C). On these materials was studied the melting behavior with DSC, the crystalline structure with WAXS, the wat

  8. Copolyamides of nylon-4,6 and nylon-4,T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaymans, R.J.; Aalto, S.; Maurer, F.H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Copolyamides of nylon-4,6 and nylon-4,T were prepared by a two-step method: (1) a prepolymerization in an autoclave (40 min at 210°C) and (2) a postcondensation in the solid state (4 h, 260°C). On these materials was studied the melting behavior with DSC, the crystalline structure with WAXS, the

  9. 东风悦达起亚K3S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿磊

    2014-01-01

    每次看到车尾标有红色“S”字母的车型。我都下意识地认为这是一款强调运动、张扬激烈的性能车。在真正试驾过东风悦达起亚K3S后,我觉得它更像是希望通过运动风格来体现自己的有型有款,或许用“型动(Stylish & Sporty)”版车型来定位它更加适合。

  10. Tate-Shafarevich groups and K3 surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a topic taken up recently by Logan and van Luijk, finding nontrivial 2 -torsion elements of the Tate-Shafarevich group of the Jacobian of a genus- 2 curve by exhibiting Brauer-Manin obstructions to rational points on certain quotients of principal homogeneous spaces of the Jacobian, whose desingularizations are explicit K3 surfaces. The main difference between the methods used in this paper and those of Logan and van Luijk is that the obstructions are obtained here from explicitly constructed quaternion algebras, rather than elliptic fibrations.

  11. Toxicity and mutagenicity of 2,4,-6-trinitrotoluene and its microbial metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, W D; DiSalvo, L H; Ng, J

    1976-04-01

    TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) of explosive grade is highly toxic to marine forms that included fresh water unicellular green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), tidepool copepods (Tigriopus californicus), and oyster larvae (Crassostrea gigas), and mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium. On the basis of mutagenic assays carried out with a set of histidine-requiring strains of the bacterium, TNT was detected as a frameshift mutagen that significantly accelerates the reversion rate of a frameshift tester, TA-98. In contrast, the major microbial metabolites of TNT appeared to be nontoxic and nonmutagenic.

  12. Grade-Level Overlap and Standards Mismatch between Nationally Recognized Programs That Prepare Teachers for Grades PreK-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, R. Clarke

    2016-01-01

    Two related questions are investigated regarding programs accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). First, to what extent do NCATE-recognized elementary teacher preparation programs, which have been approved by the Association for Child Education International (ACEI), prepare candidates to teach in…

  13. 17 CFR 275.206(4)-6 - Proxy voting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.206(4)-6 Proxy voting. If you are an investment adviser registered or required to be registered under section 203 of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80b-3), it... section 206(4) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 80b-6(4)), for you to exercise voting authority with respect to...

  14. Biological Degradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Caballero, Antonio (fl. 1793); Ramos, Juan L.

    2001-01-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds are xenobiotics that have found multiple applications in the synthesis of foams, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and explosives. These compounds are toxic and recalcitrant and are degraded relatively slowly in the environment by microorganisms. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the most widely used nitroaromatic compound. Certain strains of Pseudomonas and fungi can use TNT as a nitrogen source through the removal of nitrogen as nitrite from TNT under aerobic conditions and ...

  15. Numerical Ricci-flat metrics on K3

    CERN Document Server

    Headrick, M; Headrick, Matthew; Wiseman, Toby

    2005-01-01

    We develop numerical algorithms for solving the Einstein equation on Calabi-Yau manifolds at arbitrary values of their complex structure and Kahler parameters. We show that Kahler geometry can be exploited for significant gains in computational efficiency. As a proof of principle, we apply our methods to a one-parameter family of K3 surfaces constructed as blow-ups of the T^4/Z_2 orbifold with many discrete symmetries. High-resolution metrics may be obtained on a time scale of days using a desktop computer. We compute various geometric and spectral quantities from our numerical metrics. Using similar resources we expect our methods to practically extend to Calabi-Yau three-folds with a high degree of discrete symmetry, although we expect the general three-fold to remain a challenge due to memory requirements.

  16. Solid State Synthesis and Crystal Structure of K3SI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Zhen-Qian; LIU Xi; CHEN Wen-Tong; LI Yan; WU A-Qing; ZENG Hui-Yi; GUO Guo-Cong; HUANG Jin-Shun

    2006-01-01

    A new ternary alkali metal chalcogenide halide, K3SI, has been synthesized by solid state reaction method and structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The crystal belongs to hexagonal, space group P63cm with a = 11.699(1), c = 5.8279(9) (A), Mr = 276.26, V = 690.8(1)(A)3, Z = 6, Dc = 3.985 g/cm3, F(000) = 756, μ= 9.913 mm-1, S = 1.004, R = 0.0719 and wR = 0.2204. The title compound is the first example containing S anion in the ternary alkali metal chalcogenide halides family M3QX (M = alkali metal, Q = chalcogenide, X = halide), which crystallizes in the hexagonal anti-perovskite structure type.

  17. Mathieu Moonshine in the elliptic genus of K3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Hohenegger, Stefan; Volpato, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    It has recently been conjectured that the elliptic genus of K3 can be written in terms of dimensions of Mathieu group {mathbb{M}_{24}} representations. Some further evidence for this idea was subsequently found by studying the twining genera that are obtained from the elliptic genus upon replacing dimensions of Mathieu group representations by their characters. In this paper we find explicit formulae for all (remaining) twining genera by making an educated guess for their general modular properties. This allows us to identify the decomposition of all expansion coefficients in terms of dimensions of {mathbb{M}_{24}} -representations. For the first 500 coefficients we verify that the multiplicities with which these representations appear are indeed all non-negative integers. This represents very compelling evidence in favour of the conjecture.

  18. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Niveles 4-6. Teacher's Guide II (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Levels 4-6. Teacher's Guide II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This guide covers the second part of a bilingual, sequential mathematics course. The course integrates culturally relevant situations and illustrations with mathematics to reinforce the student's self-concept and encourage cultural pride. This program may be used as a self-contained continuum, as a supplement to another course of study, for…

  19. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Niveles 4-6. Teacher's Guide II (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Levels 4-6. Teacher's Guide II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This guide covers the second part of a bilingual, sequential mathematics course. The course integrates culturally relevant situations and illustrations with mathematics to reinforce the student's self-concept and encourage cultural pride. This program may be used as a self-contained continuum, as a supplement to another course of study, for…

  20. The Reactivity of 2,4,6-Tirphenylpyridinium Ylids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Triphenylpyridinium ylid 2, generated by the decarboxylation of betaine 1, were noted to react with acetyl chloride, chloroform or acetone to form addition-elimination product and proton extraction - carbanion addition products, respectively. The reaction with chloroform was determined as pseudo first order from kinetic experiments. The values of kobsd and t1/2 for decarboxylation at 20, 40 and 50°C were calculated to be 4.6 x 10-4, 8.8 x 10-3, 2.8 x 10-2 min-1 and 1.5 x 103, 78, 24 minutes, respectively.

  1. Synthesis of 7-Azidoacetamido-4,6-Dinitro-Benzofuroxan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-long; OU Yu-xiang; L(U) Lian-ying; CHEN Bo-ren

    2005-01-01

    7-Azidoacetamido-4, 6-dinitro-benzofuroxan has been synthesized from the starting materials of chloroacetyl chloride and m-chloroaniline, and has been characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and MS spectroscopies. The title compound was obtained through the reactions of amidation, nitration, azidation and pyrolysis. Azido group was introduced into benzofuroxan derivative to give the energetic compound of high nitrogen content and high enthalpy of formation. It is hopeful that the title compound can be developed into new energetic material and energetic plastic additives.

  2. Stereoselective Synthesis of 2,3,4,6-Tetrasubstituted Tetrahydropyrans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Jun-Fang; WU Yang-Jie; Véronique Micheletb; Jean-Pierre Genêt b

    2003-01-01

    @@ The construction of stereodefined, highly substituted tetrahydropyrans has attracted a lot of interest over the years since they constitute ubiquitous fragments of numerous biologically active natural products.[1] During the course of our synthetic studies toward ambruticin, a fascinating antibiotic[2] which came back in the front scene with three recent total synthesis, [3] we have been interested in the synthesis of 2,3,4,6-tetrasubstituted tetrahydropyrans 5 (Scheme 1). [4] Moreover, this kind of subunit is found to be embedded in several other natural products such as lasonolide A, polycavernoside A, ratjadone, or concanamycin A.

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst was used in the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) under the irradiation of the simulated sunlight. The results show that the destruction of TNT is faster and more complete with the photocatalyst. The photocatalytic degradation of TNT follows first order kinet-ics. The transformation of nitryl groups of TNT molecules into nitrite and nitrate ions may be acceler-ated in the presence of the Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst. Compared with that without the catalyst, the concentration of nitrate ions was improved 32.3 times within 2.5 h.

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XiuHua; FU YiBei; WANG HeYi; ZHONG ZhiJing; XU YunShu

    2008-01-01

    A Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst was used in the photocatalytic degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) under the irradiation of the simulated sunlight. The results show that the destruction of TNT is faster and more complete with the photocatalyst. The photocatalytic degradation of TNT follows first order kinetics. The transformation of nitryl groups of TNT molecules into nitrite and nitrate ions may be accelerated in the presence of the Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst. Compared with that without the catalyst, the concentration of nitrate ions was improved 32.3 times within 2.5 h.

  5. 2,4,6-Trimethyl-3-phenylsulfinyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C17H16O2S, was prepared by the oxidation of 2,4,6-trimethyl-3-phenylsulfanyl-1-benzofuran with 3-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. The O atom and the phenyl group of the phenylsulfinyl substituent lie on opposite sides of the planar benzofuran fragment. The phenyl ring is nearly perpendicular to the plane of the benzofuran unit [89.88 (8°] and is tilted slightly towards it. The crystal structure is stabilized by C—H...π interactions between a phenyl H atoms and the phenyl and furan rings of neighbouring molecules. In addition, the crystal structure exhibits intermolecular C—H...O interactions.

  6. (E-Benzaldehyde (2,4,6-trichlorophenylhydrazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lan Huang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H9Cl3N2, was obtained from a condensation reaction of benzaldehyde and 2,4,6-trichlorophenylhydrazine. The molecule assumes an E configuration with the phenyl ring and trichlorophenyl ring located on opposite sides of the C=N bond. The phenyl ring is oriented at a dihedral angle of 42.58 (12° with respect to the tricholorophenyl ring. In the crystal, the molecules are linked via N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming supramolecular chains running along the c axis. π–π stacking is present between parallel trichlorophenyl rings of adjacent molecules, the face-to-face and centroid–centroid distances being 3.369 (14 and 3.724 (2 Å, respectively.

  7. The Smallest Degree Sum That Yields Potentially Kr+1 - K3-Graphic Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-xiao Yin

    2006-01-01

    Let σ(Kr+1 - K3, n) be the smallest even integer such that each n-term graphic sequence π =Kr+1 - K3 as a subgraph, where Kr+1 - K3 is a graph obtained from a complete graph Kr+1 by deleting three edges which form a triangle. In this paper, we determine the value σ(Kr+1 -- K3,n) for r ≥ 3 and n ≥ 3r + 5.

  8. Synthesis of 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from Garcinia nervosa and of its isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'- trimethoxychalcone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.J.; Kapdi, S.G.; Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.P.

    The unambiguous syntheses of the naturally occurring 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 1, a constituent of Garcinia nervosa, and its positional isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 6 are described...

  9. Biological degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Núñez, A; Caballero, A; Ramos, J L

    2001-09-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds are xenobiotics that have found multiple applications in the synthesis of foams, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and explosives. These compounds are toxic and recalcitrant and are degraded relatively slowly in the environment by microorganisms. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the most widely used nitroaromatic compound. Certain strains of Pseudomonas and fungi can use TNT as a nitrogen source through the removal of nitrogen as nitrite from TNT under aerobic conditions and the further reduction of the released nitrite to ammonium, which is incorporated into carbon skeletons. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and other fungi mineralize TNT under ligninolytic conditions by converting it into reduced TNT intermediates, which are excreted to the external milieu, where they are substrates for ligninolytic enzymes. Most if not all aerobic microorganisms reduce TNT to the corresponding amino derivatives via the formation of nitroso and hydroxylamine intermediates. Condensation of the latter compounds yields highly recalcitrant azoxytetranitrotoluenes. Anaerobic microorganisms can also degrade TNT through different pathways. One pathway, found in Desulfovibrio and Clostridium, involves reduction of TNT to triaminotoluene; subsequent steps are still not known. Some Clostridium species may reduce TNT to hydroxylaminodinitrotoluenes, which are then further metabolized. Another pathway has been described in Pseudomonas sp. strain JLR11 and involves nitrite release and further reduction to ammonium, with almost 85% of the N-TNT incorporated as organic N in the cells. It was recently reported that in this strain TNT can serve as a final electron acceptor in respiratory chains and that the reduction of TNT is coupled to ATP synthesis. In this review we also discuss a number of biotechnological applications of bacteria and fungi, including slurry reactors, composting, and land farming, to remove TNT from polluted soils. These treatments have been designed to achieve

  10. In Vitro Vitamin K3 Effect on Conjunctival Fibroblast Migration and Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the dose effect of vitamin K3 on wound healing mechanisms. Methods. Conjunctival fibroblasts were incubated for 24 hours. An artificial wound was made and the cells were incubated with fresh medium plus doses of vitamin K3 to be tested. Wound repair was monitored at 0, 18, 24, and 48 hours. Proliferation was measured in actively dividing cells by [3H]thymidine uptake. Six different groups were tested: group 1/no drugs added, group 2/ethanol 0.1%, group 3/vitamin K3 1 mg/L, group 4/vitamin K3 2 mg/L, group 5/vitamin K3 4 mg/L, and group 6/vitamin K3 6 mg/L. Each experiment was carried out in triplicate and 4 times. Results. There were no differences among groups at the initial time. In vitro wound repair was slower in groups 4, 5, and 6. There were no differences between control and ethanol groups and between control and vitamin K3 1 mg/L groups. Fibroblast mitogenic activity was statistically decreased in all vitamin K groups; statistical differences were found among vitamin K3 1 mg/mL and higher doses too. In groups 5 and 6, cellular toxicity was presented. Conclusions. Vitamin K3 is able to inhibit fibroblast proliferation. Vitamin K3 2 mg/L or higher doses inhibit wound healing repair, exhibiting cellular toxicity at 4 and 6 mg/L.

  11. Danger zone analysis using cone beam computed tomography after apical enlargement with K3 and K3XF in a manikin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Juan-Gonzalo; García-Font, Marc; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Jose-Antonio; Roig-Cayon, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare how apical enlargement with K3 and K3XF nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments reduces the root thickness in the danger zone and affects canal transportation and centering ability in mandibular molar mesial canals in a manikin extracted tooth model. Material and Methods Seventy-two mesial root canals of first mandibular molars were instrumented. Initial and post-instrumentation Cone Beam Computed Tomography scans were performed after root canal preparation up to size 25, 30, 35 and 40 files. Canal transportation, canal centering and remaining root dentin thickness toward the danger zone were calculated in sections 1, 2 and 3 mm under the furcation level. Data were analyzed using non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance at a significance level of P 0.05). Conclusions Under the conditions of this study K3 removed a significant amount of dentin at the furcation level compared with the R-Phase K3XF rotary system in curved root canals. Enlargement to a 35-40/04 file removed significantly more dentin with both systems. Key words:K3, K3XF, R-phase, center ability, canal transportation, dentin thickness, increased apical enlargement, danger zone, dentin thickness. PMID:27703602

  12. The role of MAP4K3 in lifespan regulation of Caenorhabditiselegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Maruf H. [Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, Department of Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78240 (United States); Hart, Matthew J., E-mail: HartMJ@uthscsa.edu [Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78240 (United States); Rea, Shane L., E-mail: reas3@uthscsa.edu [Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, Department of Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78240 (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of MAP4K3 by RNAi leads to increased mean lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutation in the citron homology domain of MAP4K3 leads to increased mean lifespan. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutation in the kinase domain of MAP4K3 has no significant effect on mean lifespan. -- Abstract: The TOR pathway is a kinase signaling pathway that regulates cellular growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors. TOR signaling is also important in lifespan regulation - when this pathway is inhibited, either naturally, by genetic mutation, or by pharmacological means, lifespan is extended. MAP4K3 is a Ser/Thr kinase that has recently been found to be involved in TOR activation. Unexpectedly, the effect of this protein is not mediated via Rheb, the more widely known TOR activation pathway. Given the role of TOR in growth and lifespan control, we looked at how inhibiting MAP4K3 in Caenorhabditiselegans affects lifespan. We used both feeding RNAi and genetic mutants to look at the effect of MAP4K3 deficiency. Our results show a small but significant increase in mean lifespan in MAP4K3 deficient worms. MAP4K3 thus represents a new target in the TOR pathway that can be targeted for pharmacological intervention to control lifespan.

  13. K3 surfaces, lorentzian Kac-Moody algebras and mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, V A; Gritsenko, Valeri A; Nikulin, Viacheslav V

    1995-01-01

    We consider the variant of Mirror Symmetry Conjecture for K3 surfaces which relates "geometry" of curves of a general member of a family of K3 with "algebraic functions" on the moduli of the mirror family. Lorentzian Kac--Moody algebras are involved in this construction. We give several examples when this conjecture is valid.

  14. ${\\cal N}=2$ heterotic string compactifications on orbifolds of $K3\\times T^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyaya, Aradhita

    2016-01-01

    We study ${\\cal N}=2$ compactifications of $E_8\\times E_8$ heterotic string theory on orbifolds of $K3 \\times T^2$ by $g'$ which acts as an $\\mathbb{Z}_N$ automorphism of $K3$ together with a$1/N$ shift on a circle of $T^2$. The orbifold action $g'$ corresponds to the $26$ conjugacy classes of the Mathieu group $M_{24}$. We show that for the standard embedding the new supersymmetric index for these compactifications can always be decomposed into the elliptic genus of $K3$ twisted by $g'$. The difference in one-loop corrections to the gauge couplings are captured by automorphic forms obtained by the theta lifts of the elliptic genus of $K3$ twisted by $g'$. We work out in detail the case for which $g'$ belongs to the equivalence class $2B$. We then investigate all the non-standard embeddings for$K3$ realized as a $T^4/\\mathbb{Z}_\

  15. Inactivation of bacteria via photosensitization of vitamin K3 by UV-A light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Vostal, Jaroslav G

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated inactivation of bacteria with ultraviolet light A irradiation in combination with vitamin K3 as a photosensitizer. Six bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli suspended in vitamin K3 aqueous solution were exposed to ultraviolet light A. Five of six bacteria, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were reduced by eight logs with 1600 μM of vitamin K3 and 5.8 J cm(-2) UV-A irradiation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was reduced by four logs under these conditions. Reactive oxygen species including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical were generated in vitamin K3 aqueous solution under UV-A irradiation. These results suggest that vitamin K3 and UV-A irradiation may be effective for bacterial inactivation in environmental and medical applications. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. The Structure Theorem for Complete Intersections of Grade 4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oh-Jin Kang; Hyoung J. Ko

    2005-01-01

    Serre showed that a Gorenstein ideal of grade 2 is a complete intersection, and Buchsbaum and Eisenbud proved a structure theorem for Gorenstein ideals of grade 3. It is found that a certain complete matrix defines a perfect ideal K3(f).As an application,we present a structure theorem for complete intersections of grade 4.

  17. 42 CFR 4.6 - Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reference, bibliographic, reproduction, and consultation services. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE § 4.6 Reference, bibliographic, reproduction,...

  18. 核电站K3级充电器设备鉴定探究%Qualification Research of Nuclear Power Station K3 Charger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建; 许本福; 张瑞明

    2013-01-01

      The paper analyses the differences between RCC-E and IEEE concerning the charger qualification. Based on the RCC-E,related standards and technical data,the paper introduces classification and qualification methods of Class 1E electrical equipment for nuclear power station,investigates in detail the K3 charger of nuclear power station,provides reference to the K3 charger localization.%  本文分析了RCC-E和IEEE标准对充电器设备鉴定要求的区别。基于RCC-E等相关标准和技术资料,本文介绍了核电站1E级电气设备分级和鉴定方法,对核电站K3级充电器设备鉴定进行了深入研究,为K3级充电器国产化提供了借鉴作用。

  19. The effects of oligomerization on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm4/6/7 function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey Megan J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minichromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are related by sequence and form a variety of complexes that unwind DNA, including Mcm4/6/7. A Mcm4/6/7 trimer forms one half of the Mcm2-7 hexameric ring and can be thought of as the catalytic core of Mcm2-7, the replicative helicase in eukaryotic cells. Oligomeric analysis of Mcm4/6/7 suggests that it forms a hexamer containing two Mcm4/6/7 trimers, however, under certain conditions trimeric Mcm4/6/7 has also been observed. The functional significance of the different Mcm4/6/7 oligomeric states has not been assessed. The results of such an assessment would have implications for studies of both Mcm4/6/7 and Mcm2-7. Results Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm4/6/7 reconstituted from individual subunits exists in an equilibrium of oligomeric forms in which smaller oligomers predominate in the absence of ATP. In addition, we found that ATP, which is required for Mcm4/6/7 activity, shifts the equilibrium towards larger oligomers, likely hexamers of Mcm4/6/7. ATPγS and to a lesser extent ADP also shift the equilibrium towards hexamers. Study of Mcm4/6/7 complexes containing mutations that interfere with the formation of inter-subunit ATP sites (arginine finger mutants indicates that full activity of Mcm4/6/7 requires all of its ATP sites, which are formed in a hexamer and not a trimer. In keeping with this observation, Mcm4/6/7 binds DNA as a hexamer. Conclusions The minimal functional unit of Mcm4/6/7 is a hexamer. One of the roles of ATP binding by Mcm4/6/7 may be to stabilize formation of hexamers.

  20. The Noether-Lefschetz problem and gauge-group-resolved landscapes: F-theory on K3 × K3 as a test case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, A.P. [Department of Mathematics, King’s College,London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Kimura, Y. [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Watari, T. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo,Kashiwano-ha 5-1-5, 277-8583 (Japan)

    2014-04-07

    Four-form flux in F-theory compactifications not only stabilizes moduli, but gives rise to ensembles of string vacua, providing a scientific basis for a stringy notion of naturalness. Of particular interest in this context is the ability to keep track of algebraic information (such as the gauge group) associated with individual vacua while dealing with statistics. In the present work, we aim to clarify conceptual issues and sharpen methods for this purpose, using compactification on K3×K3 as a test case. Our first approach exploits the connection between the stabilization of complex structure moduli and the Noether-Lefschetz problem. Compactification data for F-theory, however, involve not only a four-fold (with a given complex structure) Y{sub 4} and a flux on it, but also an elliptic fibration morphism Y{sub 4}⟶B{sub 3}, which makes this problem complicated. The heterotic-F-theory duality indicates that elliptic fibration morphisms should be identified modulo isomorphism. Based on this principle, we explain how to count F-theory vacua on K3×K3 while keeping the gauge group information. Mathematical results reviewed/developed in our companion paper are exploited heavily. With applications to more general four-folds in mind, we also clarify how to use Ashok-Denef-Douglas’ theory of the distribution of flux vacua in order to deal with statistics of sub-ensembles tagged by a given set of algebraic/topological information. As a side remark, we extend the heterotic/F-theory duality dictionary on flux quanta and elaborate on its connection to the semistable degeneration of a K3 surface.

  1. An Abundance of K3 Fibrations from Polyhedra with Interchangeable Parts

    CERN Document Server

    Candelas, Philip; Skarke, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Even a cursory inspection of the Hodge plot associated with Calabi-Yau threefolds that are hypersurfaces in toric varieties reveals striking structures. These patterns correspond to webs of elliptic-K3 fibrations whose mirror images are also elliptic-K3 fibrations. Such manifolds arise from reflexive polytopes that can be cut into two parts along slices corresponding to the K3 fibers. Any two half-polytopes over a given slice can be combined into a reflexive polytope. This fact, together with a remarkable relation on the additivity of Hodge numbers, explains much of the structure of the observed patterns.

  2. Compounding of vitamin A, D3, E and K3 supplements for cystic fibrosis patients: formulation and stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghebaert, N; De Beer, J; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P

    2007-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffer from malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K). These vitamins are available as water-dispersible (A, D(3) and E) or water-soluble grades (K(3)), which is favoured in CF patients as they fail to absorb oil-based products. The objective of this study was to determine stability of these raw materials after opening the original package and to develop a compounded formulation of acceptable quality, stability and taste, allowing flexible dose adaptation and being appropriate for administration to children and elderly people. The raw materials were stored after opening their original package for 8 months at 8 degrees C and room temperature (RT). Stability was assessed using a validated HPLC method after extraction of the vitamin from the cold water-soluble matrix (vitamin A acetate, D(3) and E) or using a spectrophotometrical method (vitamin K(3)). These materials were mixed with an appropriate lactose grade (lactose 80 m for vitamins A and D(3); lactose 90 m for vitamin E, lactose very fine powder for vitamin K(3)) and filled in hard gelatin capsules. Mass and content uniformity were determined and stability of the vitamins in the capsules was assessed after 2 months storage at 8 degrees C and RT. All raw materials showed good stability during storage in the opened original package for 8 months storage at 8 degrees C as well as RT (>95% of the initial content). The compounded formulations complied with the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia for mass and content uniformity and can be stored for 2 months at 8 degrees C or RT while maintaining the vitamin content between 90% and 110%. As these fat-soluble vitamins are not commercially available on the Belgian market, compounded formulations are a valuable alternative for prophylactic administration of these vitamins to CF patients, i.e. a stable formulation, having an acceptable taste, allowing flexible dose adaptation and being appropriate for administration to

  3. Heterotic-type IIA duality and degenerations of K3 surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, A.P. [Department of Mathematics, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Woodstock Rd, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Watari, T. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo,Kashiwano-ha 5-1-5, 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-08-04

    We study the duality between four-dimensional N=2 compactifications of heterotic and type IIA string theories. Via adiabatic fibration of the duality in six dimensions, type IIA string theory compactified on a K3-fibred Calabi-Yau threefold has a potential heterotic dual compactification. This adiabatic picture fails whenever the K3 fibre degenerates into multiple components over points in the base of the fibration. Guided by monodromy, we identify such degenerate K3 fibres as solitons generalizing the NS5-brane in heterotic string theory. The theory of degenerations of K3 surfaces can then be used to find which solitons can be present on the heterotic side. Similar to small instanton transitions, these solitons escort singular transitions between different Calabi-Yau threefolds. Starting from well-known examples of heterotic-type IIA duality, such transitions can take us to type IIA compactifications with unknown heterotic duals.

  4. Hecke Operator and S-Duality of N=4 ADE Gauge Theory on K3

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, T

    2003-01-01

    We determine ${\\cal N}=4$ partition functions on K3 for some ADE gauge groups, on the assumption that they are holomorphic. Our partition functions satisfy the gap condition and Montonen-Olive duality at the same time, like the SU(N) partition functions of Vafa and Witten. As a result, we reveal a close relation between Hecke operator and S-duality of ${\\cal N}=4 ADE$ gauge theory on K3.

  5. Potassium rich rare earth (RE) borates K 3RE(BO 3) 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J. H.; Li, R. K.

    2008-01-01

    A series of new compounds in the K 3RE(BO 3) 2 (RE = Y, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Er and Lu) system were synthesized. Powder X-ray diffraction indicates that structures of the K 3RE(BO 3) 2 series can be separated into two different types with boundary between Gd and Tb. Single crystals of two representative compounds K 3Sm(BO 3) 2 and K 3Y(BO 3) 2 were obtained from a K 2O-B 2O 3 melt. The structure of K 3Y(BO 3) 2, determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data, belongs to Pnnm space group, with lattice constants of a = 9.3377(9) Å, b = 6.7701(6) Å and c = 5.5058(4) Å. With a larger rare earth element, e.g. Sm 3+, K 3Sm(BO 3) 2 crystallizes in space group Pnma, with cell parameters of a = 9.046(3) Å, b = 7.100(2) Å and c = 11.186(3) Å. The structure of K 3Y(BO 3) 2 can be described as a three-dimensional framework formed by isolated YO 6 octahedra jointed by BO 3 triangles by sharing their apical oxygen atoms. The structure of K 3Sm(BO 3) 2 contains infinite [SmO 4BO 3] ∞ chains formed by corner sharing SmO 7 pentagonal dipyramid and BO 3 group, and those chains are interconnected by the other BO 3 groups.

  6. A Poem a Day: 180 Thematic Poems and Activities That Teach and Delight All Year Long. Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Helen H.

    This collection of 180 poems was assembled with classroom needs in mind. Intended to delight students every day, the collection's poems span the school year from September to summertime. Its introduction gives teachers before-, during-, and after-reading ideas. Sections in the collection include: Me and My World, Primary Concepts, Seasons and…

  7. The Growth of Instructional Coaching Partner Conversations in a PreK-3rd Grade Teacher Professional Development Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Earl E.; Bell, David L.; Spelman, Maureen; Briody, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Instructional coaching that supports teachers' with revising teaching practices is not understood. This study sought to understand the impact of the instructional coaching experience by recording coaching conversations/interactions with teachers. The purpose was to determine if the type of coaching conversations changed overtime during three…

  8. On Trial. A Criminal Trial Simulation--The Case of the Big Bad Wolf. Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Margaret

    Designed for teachers, this simulation of a criminal trial addresses the workings of the trial system by using the children's story, "The Three Little Pigs." The Big Bad Wolf is put on trial for destroying the pigs' houses. By having students assume roles and use the non-scripted character profiles, the simulation allows information to…

  9. N =2 heterotic string compactifications on orbifolds of K3 × T 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyaya, Aradhita; David, Justin R.

    2017-01-01

    We study N = 2 compactifications of E 8 × E 8 heterotic string theory on orbifolds of K3 × T 2 by g ' which acts as an {Z}_N automorphism of K3 together with a 1 /N shift on a circle of T 2. The orbifold action g ' corresponds to the 26 conjugacy classes of the Mathieu group M 24. We show that for the standard embedding the new supersymmetric index for these compactifications can always be decomposed into the elliptic genus of K3 twisted by g '. The difference in one-loop corrections to the gauge couplings are captured by automorphic forms obtained by the theta lifts of the elliptic genus of K3 twisted by g '. We work out in detail the case for which g ' belongs to the equivalence class 2 B. We then investigate all the non-standard embeddings for K3 realized as a {T}^4/{Z}_{ν } orbifold with ν = 2 ,4 and g ' the 2 A involution. We show that for non-standard embeddings the new supersymmetric index as well as the difference in one-loop corrections to the gauge couplings are completely characterized by the instanton numbers of the embeddings together with the difference in number of hypermultiplets and vector multiplets in the spectrum.

  10. 45 CFR 4.6 - Materials related to petitions under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. Notwithstanding the provisions of §§ 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3, service of the Secretary's copies of petitions for compensation under the VICP and of related filings, by mail... Vaccine Injury Compensation Program. 4.6 Section 4.6 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  11. Clinical Study of Vitamin K3 Acupoint Injection In Treating Pelvic Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wen-jie (赵文洁); WANG Li (王莉); WENG Jian'er (翁健儿); YU Jin (俞瑾)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Pelvic pain is one of the most common symptoms in gynecologic outpatients. Primary dysmenorrhea, acute or chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, post-operational pelvic adhesion, blood stagnation of pelvic vein, etc., are mentioned as the often encountered causes of pelvic pain. It has been reported in the recent ten or more years that intramuscular injection of vitamin K3 (Vit K3) could relieve pain induced by smooth muscle spasm(1,2). In order to evaluate the effect of Vit K3 administered by acupoint injection in relieving pelvic pain, 180 patients were treated and observed from April 1997 to April 1999 in our hospital, and good therapeutic effect was obtained. It was reported as follows.

  12. Higher rank Brill-Noether theory on sections of K3 surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Gavril

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the role of K3 surfaces in the context of Mercat's conjecture in higher rank Brill-Noether theory. Using liftings of Koszul classes, we show that Mercat's conjecture in rank 2 fails for any number of sections and for any gonality stratum along a Noether-Lefschetz divisor inside the locus of curves lying on K3 surfaces. Then we show that Mercat's conjecture in rank 3 fails even for curves lying on K3 surfaces with Picard number 1. Finally, we provide a detailed proof of Mercat's conjecture in rank 2 for general curves of genus 11, and describe explicitly the action of the Fourier-Mukai involution on the moduli space M_{11}.

  13. Synthesis of new complex salt crystal K3[InCl6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    During the experiment of preparing ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) nanopowder,a new complex salt crystal K3[InCl6] was found and synthesized using a solution growth method.The diffraction pattern,morphology,element composition and structure of the crystal were analyzed by XRD,SEM and CCD.The results implied that K3[InCl6] is monoclinic,is of the space group P21/c,has a chemical formula of K3[InCl6],a Z=4 and with the following cell parameters:a=12.188 (A),b=7.553 (A),c=12.703 (A),α=90.00°,β=108.96°,γ =90.00°,v= 1105.98 (A)3.

  14. 4,6-二羟基嘧啶的合成热力学分析%Thermodynamic analysis for synthesis of 4,6-dihydroxy pyrimidine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩清华; 崔龙; 王臻; 蒋登高

    2012-01-01

    Hie reaction heal Δ,H0, reaction entropy change ΔSo, Gibbs free energy change Δ.C0 and equilibrium constant Kr for the synthesis of 4,6-dihydroxy pyrimidine by reaction of dimethyl malonate with formamide in sodium nethoude-methanol solution were calculated by Benson and Joback group contribution methods. The results showed that the reaction was endothermic (ΔH0>0) and spontaneous (Δ,Go<0), and Kf increased with the increase of temperature. The obtained thennodynann'c data could be useful in further research on synthesis of 4,6-dihydroxy-pyrimidine and its industrial production.%为了对4,6-二羟基嘧啶的合成反应进行热力学分析,采用Benson和Joback基团贡献法,对丙二酸二甲酯和甲酰胺在甲醇钠溶液中制备4,6-二羟基嘧啶的过程的反应焓变△rH°、反应熵变△rS°、反应吉布斯自由能变△rG°及其平衡常数Kp进行了热力学估算.结果表明:△rH°>0,反应为吸热反应;△rG°<0,此反应过程为自发过程;Kp随着温度的升高而增大.获得的数据可为4,6二羟基嘧啶合成的进一步深入研究和工业生产提供参考.

  15. Identification of methionine synthase (Sal k 3), as a novel allergen of Salsola kali pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assarehzadegan, Mohammad Ali; Sankian, Mojtaba; Jabbari, Farahzad; Tehrani, Mohsen; Falak, Reza; Varasteh, Abdolreza

    2011-01-01

    Salsola kali pollen is a common cause of pollinosis during summer and early fall in desert and semi-desert regions. The aim of this study was the identification and characterization of Sal k 3, a new allergen from S. kali pollen. S. kali pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting using twelve S. kali allergic patients. Protein identification was carried out by the means of mass spectrometry. Using degenerated primers, two DNA fragments encoding N- and C-terminal domain of Sal k 3 were amplified by PCR, then cloned into the PTZ57R/T vector and sequenced. The open reading frame of Sal k 3 fragments were subcloned in the pET-32b(+) vector, expressed in E. coli, and purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. The IgE-binding capacity of rSal k 3 fragments was then studied by IgE-immunoblotting, inhibition assays, and skin prick tests. A 45-kDa allergen was identified as a fragment of the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE) by mass spectrometry and was detected in the sera of 8/12 (66.6%) of S. kali allergic patients. Moreover, inhibition assays demonstrated that the purified rSal k 3 fragments were similar to their counterparts in the crude extract. Sal k 3 represents a new allergen of S. kali pollen and seems to be an important allergenic compound in S. kali pollen.

  16. Modular Subgroups, Dessins d'Enfants and Elliptic K3 Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yang-Hui; Read, James

    2013-01-01

    We consider the 33 genus zero, torsion-free modular subgroups, computing ramification data and Grothendieck's dessins d'enfants. In the particular case of the index 36 subgroups, the corresponding Calabi-Yau threefolds are identified, in analogy with the index 24 cases being associated with K3 surfaces. In a parallel vein, we study the 112 semi-stable elliptic fibrations over P^1 as extremal K3 surfaces with six singular fibres. In each case, the corresponding modular subgroup is identified by showing its generators.

  17. Semisymmetric Cubic Graphs as Regular Covers of K3,3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Qun WANG; Tie Sheng CHEN

    2008-01-01

    A regular graph X is called semisymmetric if it is edge-transitive but not vertex-transitive.For G≤Aut X wecalla G-cover X semisymmetric if X is semisymmetric,and call a G-cover X one-regular if Aut X acts regularly on its arc-set.In this paper,we give the sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of one-regular or semisymmetric Zn-covers of K3,3 Also,an in finite family of semisymmetric Zn ×Zn-covers of K3,3 are constructed.

  18. The Noether-Lefschetz Problem and Gauge-Group-Resolved Landscapes: F-Theory on K3 x K3 as a Test Case

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Andreas P; Watari, Taizan

    2014-01-01

    Four-form flux in F-theory compactifications not only stabilizes moduli, but gives rise to ensembles of string vacua, providing a scientific basis for a stringy notion of naturalness. Of particular interest in this context is the ability to keep track of algebraic information (such as the gauge group) associated with individual vacua while dealing with statistics. In the present work, we aim to clarify conceptual issues and sharpen methods for this purpose, using compactification on ${\\rm K3} \\times {\\rm K3}$ as a test case. Our first approach exploits the connection between the stabilization of complex structure moduli and the Noether-Lefschetz problem. Compactification data for F-theory, however, involve not only a four-fold (with a given complex structure) $Y_4$ and a flux on it, but also an elliptic fibration morphism $Y_4 \\longrightarrow B_3$, which makes this problem complicated. The heterotic-F-theory duality indicates that elliptic fibration morphisms should be identified modulo isomorphism. Based on ...

  19. The Hodge conjecture for self-products of certain K3 surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Schlickewei, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    We use a result of van Geemen to determine the endomorphism algebra of the Kuga--Satake variety of a K3 surface with real multiplication. This is applied to prove the Hodge conjecture for self-products of double covers of $\\PP^2$ which are ramified along six lines.

  20. An Approach to ${\\cal N}=4$ ADE Gauge Theory on K3

    CERN Document Server

    Jinzenji, M; Jinzenji, Masao; Sasaki, Toru

    2002-01-01

    We propose a recipe for determination of the partition function of ${\\cal N}=4$ $ADE$ gauge theory on $K3$ by generalizing our previous results of the SU(N) case. The resulting partition function satisfies Montonen-Olive duality for $ADE $ gauge group.

  1. Exploring K-3 Teachers' Implementation of Comprehension Strategy Instruction (CSI) Using Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Laura S.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated factors that influence the implementation levels of evidence-based comprehension strategy instruction (CSI) among K-3 teachers. An explanatory design was chosen to gather and probe the data. Quantitative data were gathered via a mailed survey distributed through a representative sample of the 40 school districts (through…

  2. Teachers' Perspectives: Factors That Impact Implementation of Integrated Curriculum in K-3 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Sibert, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the factors that may influence K-3 in-service teachers' implementation of integrated curriculum (IC). To provide a consistent research base, the broad definition of IC and Jacob's model were adopted to clarify the controversial concept of IC. Survey data were collected from forty-two teachers from ten…

  3. The Impact of a Reading Initiative on Students' Early Reading Development K-3: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Iline P.

    2009-01-01

    This research explored the relationship of the Reading First Initiative (RFI) in terms of its impact on students' early reading development K-3 and teachers' delivery of instruction. Extant test data were used to establish quantitative data. Direct observation utilizing a checklist consisting of five categories--management, environment, setting…

  4. Have Recommended Book Lists Changed to Reflect Current Expectations for Informational Text in K-3 Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Mariam Jean; Kletzien, Sharon B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite both longstanding and recent calls for more informational text in K-3 classrooms, research indicates that narrative text remains in the majority for read alouds, classroom libraries, and instruction, thus limiting children's opportunity to experience the demands of expository text. Because national associations' recommended book lists are…

  5. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF 4,6-DIHYDROXY PYRIMIDINE%4,6-二羟基嘧啶的合成热力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩清华; 崔玉瑾; 王臻; 蒋登高

    2012-01-01

    采用Benson和Joback基团贡献法,对丙二酸二甲酯和甲酰胺在甲醇钠溶液中制备4,6-二羟基嘧啶的过程的反应焓变△rH(O)、反应熵变△rS(O)、反应吉布斯自由能变△rG(O)及其平衡常数Kp进行了热力学估算.结果表明:△rH(O)>0,反应为吸热反应;△rG(O)<0,此反应过程为自发过程;Kp随着温度的升高而增大.%The reaction heat△rHΘ , reaction entropy changeArSΘ , Gibbs free energy changeArGΘ and equilibrium constants Kp for the synthesis of 4,6-dihydroxy pyrimidine by reaction of dimethyl mal-onate and formamide in sodium methoxide-methanol solution were calculated by Benson and Joback group contribution methods. The results show that the reaction is endothermic, A,HΘ>0 and is spontaneous,△rGΘ <0; Kp increases with increasing temperature. The relevant thermodynamic reference datas are provided for the further research and industrial production of synthesis of 4,6-dihydroxy-py-rimidine.

  6. Heparina e K3EDTA como anticoagulantes para tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1816 Heparin and K3EDTA as anticoagulants for tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1816

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Benites de Pádua

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou a eficácia da heparina sódica e do EDTA tripotássico como anticoagulantes e seus efeitos sobre os parâmetros hematológicos de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. Foram utilizados dez indivíduos de tambaqui com médias de 384,9 ± 85,71 g de peso e 27,90 ± 2,10 cm de comprimento total para avaliação da heparina 5.000 UI e 100 UI, bem como do K3EDTA 10%. Foram analisados a inibição da coagulação por 10 h, eritrograma e teste de fragilidade osmótica dos eritrócitos. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (P 0,05 na contagem de eritrócitos, hematócrito, taxa de hemoglobina e CHCM, no entanto, houve aumento do VCM (P The efficacy of sodium heparin and tripotassium EDTA as anticoagulant and their effect on the hematological parameters of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum were evaluated in this study. Ten fish weighing 384.9 ± 85.71 g and measuring 27.90 ± 2.10 cm were used for heparin 5.000 IU, heparin 100 IU and K3EDTA 10% evaluation. Clotting inhibition after 10 h, erythrogram and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes were observed. The results were submitted to variance analysis and means compared by Tukey test (P 0.05 in erythrocyte count, hematocrit, hemoglobin and MCHC. On the other hand, an increase in MCV (P < 0.05 in samples kept with K3EDTA10% was observed. This anticoagulant provoked a significant increase (P < 0.01 in the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes when compared to pure heparin, diluted heparin and the control group. Heparin as an anticoagulant is more appropriate for tambaqui since it was effective in preventing coagulation for more than 10 h, without causing hemolysis, changes on hematological parameters or osmotic fragility of erythrocytes.

  7. BPS preons and higher spin theory in D=4, 6, 10

    CERN Document Server

    Bandos, I A; Bandos, Igor A.; Azcarraga, Jose A. de

    2006-01-01

    We briefly review here the notion of BPS preons, the hypothetical constituents of M-theory, emphasizing its generalization to arbitrary dimensions D and its relation to higher spin theories in D=4,6 and 10.

  8. Antibacterial Activity of 2- (2',4'- Dibromophenoxy) -4, 6 - dibromophenol from Dysidea granulose

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DivyaShridhar, M.P.; Mahajan, G.B.; Kamat, V.P.; Naik, C.G.; Parab, R.R.; Thakur, N.R.; Mishra, P.D.

    2 - (2',4'- Dibromophenoxy) - 4, 6 - dibromophenol isolated from the marine sponge Dysidea granulosa (Bergquist) collected off the coast of Lakshadweep islands, Indian Ocean, exhibited potent and broad spectrum in-vitro antibacterial activity...

  9. Role of UV photolysis in accelerating the biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbing; Kirumba, George; Zhang, Yongming; Wu, Yanqing; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2015-09-18

    2,4,6-TCP, a kind of chlorinated aromatic and aliphatic compound, is difficult to be biodegraded by ordinary microorganisms. UV photolysis and biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens intimate coupling is a potential means to accelerate its biotransformation. The initial steps of 2,4,6-TCP biodegradation involve mono-oxygenation reactions that have molecular oxygen and an intracellular electron carrier as cosubstrates. It was demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens has the 2,4,6-TCP monooxygenase gene tcpA which could encode 2,4,6-TCP monooxygenase (TCP-MO). TCP-MO would catalytically decompose 2,4,6-TCP into 2,6-DCHQ. We employed an internal loop photolytic biofilm reactor for 2,4,6-TCP degradation. Sequentially coupled photolysis and biodegradation experimental results suggested that 2,4,6-TCP removal rate in P + B (TCP(UV) + phenol) protocol was higher by 77 and 103 % when compared to B (TCP + phenol) and B (TCP-only) protocols respectively. The corresponding loss rate coefficient (k) values were 0.069, 0.039, 0.034 mg/L·min(-1) respectively. This is because UV photolysis converted 2,4,6-TCP into its intermediates: 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 4-monochlorophenol (4-MCP), phenol, 2,6-dichloro-p-hydroquinone (2,6-DCHQ), with all displaying less inhibition to bacterial action. In addition, phenol was the crucial UV-photolysis product from 2,4,6-TCP, its catabolic oxidation generating internal electron carriers that may accelerate the initial steps of 2,4,6-TCP biodegradation. Intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation experimental results suggested that 2,4,6-TCP removal rate in P&B (TCP + phenol) protocol was higher by 166 and 681 % when compared to P&B (TCP-only) and P + B protocols respectively. The corresponding loss rate coefficient (k) values were 0.539, 0.203, 0.069 mg/L·min(-1) respectively. It provided sufficient evidence to demonstrate that intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation accelerated 2,4,6-TCP

  10. Deep removal of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene from model transportation diesel fuels over reactive adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengqiang Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new reactive adsorbent used to effectively remove 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT from model transportation diesel fuels. This reactive adsorbent was composed of formaldehyde, phosphotungstic acid and mesoporous silica gel. The experiment was based on an assumed condensation reaction of 4,6-DMDBT with formaldehyde using phosphotungstic acid as catalyst in pore spaces. The effect of temperature and the amount of formaldehyde and phosphotungstic acid loaded on the substrate were investigated in a batch system. In the breakthrough experiment, three different model diesel fuels containing 1000 mg/kg 4,6-DMDBT were pumped through a fixed-bed reactor packed with reactive adsorbent at constant temperature and atmospheric pressure, respectively. The experimental results showed that sulfur-free model fuel was obtained at 80ºC despite the presence of aromatics. The sulfur capacity of regenerated reactive adsorbent was almost totally recovered.

  11. A Rapid and Efficient Synthesis of 2, 4, 6-Triarylpyridines under Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Qiang HUANG; Hong Xia LI; Jin Xian WANG; Xue Feng JIA

    2005-01-01

    An rapid and efficient synthesis of 2, 4, 6-triarylpyridines is reported using substituted benzaldehydes, substituted acetophenones and ammonia as starting materials under microwave irradiation in the presence of PEG-400.

  12. Matrix isolation, zero-field splitting parameters, and photoreactions of septet 2,4,6-trinitrenopyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapyshev, Sergei V; Ushakov, Evgeny N; Neuhaus, Patrik; Sander, Wolfram

    2014-07-03

    The key intermediates of decomposition of high-energy 2,4,6-triazidopyrimidine and its 5-chloro-substituted derivative, the detonation of which is used for preparation of carbon nitrides, were investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in combination with quantum chemical calculations. The decomposition of the triazides was carried out photochemically, using the matrix isolation technique. The photodecomposition of both triazides with 254 nm light in argon matrices at 5 K occurred selectively to subsequently give the corresponding triplet 4,6-diazido-2-nitrenopyrimidines, quintet 4-azido-2,6-dinitrenopyrimidines, and septet 2,4,6-trinitrenopyrimidines. The latter were photochemically unstable and decomposed to form triplet nitrenes NCN and NNC as well as triplet carbenes NCCCN, HCCN, and HCCCCN. The results obtained provide important information about exchange interactions in high-spin nitrenes with the pyrimidine ring and the mechanism of the formation of carbon nitrides during thermolysis of 2,4,6-triazidopyrimidine.

  13. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol in human placental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, Christopher; Butt, Craig M; Hoffman, Kate; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Stapleton, Heather M

    2016-03-01

    Legacy environmental contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely detected in human tissues. However, few studies have measured PBDEs in placental tissues, and there are no reported measurements of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) in placental tissues. Measurements of these contaminants are important for understanding potential fetal exposures, as these compounds have been shown to alter thyroid hormone regulation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we measured a suite of PBDEs and 2,4,6-TBP in 102 human placental tissues collected between 2010 and 2011 in Durham County, North Carolina, USA. The most abundant PBDE congener detected was BDE-47, with a mean concentration of 5.09ng/g lipid (range: 0.12-141ng/g lipid; detection frequency 91%); however, 2,4,6-TBP was ubiquitously detected and present at higher concentrations with a mean concentration of 15.4ng/g lipid (range:1.31-316ng/g lipid; detection frequency 100%). BDE-209 was also detected in more than 50% of the samples, and was significantly associated with 2,4,6-TBP in placental tissues, suggesting they may have a similar source, or that 2,4,6-TBP may be a degradation product of BDE-209. Interestingly, BDE-209 and 2,4,6-TBP were negatively associated with age (rs=-0.16; p=0.10 and rs=-0.17; p=0.08, respectively). The results of this work indicate that PBDEs and 2,4,6-TBP bioaccumulate in human placenta tissue and likely contribute to prenatal exposures to these environmental contaminants. Future studies are needed to determine if these joint exposures are associated with any adverse health measures in infants and children.

  14. Effects of corticoliberin fragment CRF(4-6) on sexual behavior in male rats [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev-Andrievskii, A A; Tsvirkun, D V; Makarenko, E Yu; Andreeva, L A; Mart'yanov, A A

    2006-09-01

    Centrally administered doses of the tripeptide corticoliberin fragment CRF(4-6) (Pro-Pro-Ile) suppressed mating behavior in male rats. Doses of 1 and 2 microg of the tripeptide produced dose-dependent increases in the latent periods of mounting, intromission, and ejaculation. Changes in measures of sexual behavior demonstrated that the corticoliberin fragment CRF(4-6) suppressed both sexual motivation and sexual performance.

  15. Spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-dienes: synthesis and application in organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchikov, L. G.; Nefedov, O. M.

    2016-03-01

    This review integrates and describes systematically the data in the field of spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-dienes published in the past 15 years. The changes in the development of studies that took place during this period are noted. The methods for the synthesis, the reactivity details and key chemical transformations of spiro[2.4]hepta-4,6-dienes are considered, with the emphasis on applications of these compounds in organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 207 references.

  16. Pathway of the ozonation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PI Yunzheng; WANG Jianlong

    2007-01-01

    The reaction mechanism and pathway of the ozonation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol(2,4,6-TCP)in aqueous solution were investigated.The removal efficiency and the variation of H2O2,Cl-,formic acid,and oxalic acid were studied during the semi-batch ozonation experiments(continuous for ozone gas supply,fixed volume of water sample).The results showed that when there was no scavenger,the removal efficiency of 0.1 mmol/L 2,4,6-TCP could reach 99% within 6 min by adding 24 mg/L ozone.The reaction of molecular ozone with 1 2,4,6-TCP resulted in the formation of H2O2.The maximal concentration of H2O2 detected during the ozonation could reach 22.5% of the original concentration of 2,4,6-TCP.The reaction of ozone with H2O2 resulted in the molecule firstly degraded 2,4,6-TCP to form chlorinated quinone,which was subsequently oxidized to formic acid and oxalic acid.Two reaction pathways of the degradation of 2,4,6-TCP by ozone and O2/OH·were proposed in this study.

  17. Genetic Characterization of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Degradation in Cupriavidus necator JMP134▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M. A.; González, B.

    2007-01-01

    The degradation pathway of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a hazardous pollutant, in the aerobic bacterium Cupriavidus necator JMP134(pJP4) (formerly Ralstonia eutropha JMP134) is encoded by the tcp genes. These genes are located in a genetic context, tcpRXABCYD, which resembles a putative catabolic operon. In this work, these gene sequences were individually disrupted and mutant strains were evaluated for their ability to grow on or degrade 2,4,6-TCP. The tcpX and tcpA mutants completely failed to degrade this compound. Although the tcpC mutant was also unable to grow on 2,4,6-TCP, it still transformed this chlorophenol to 6-chlorohydroquinol. In contrast, the tcpD mutant grew on 2,4,6-TCP, suggesting the presence of additional maleylacetate reductase-encoding genes. Five other open reading frames encoding maleylacetate reductases, in addition to the tcpD gene, were found in the genome of C. necator, and two of them provide this function in the tcpD mutant. The tcpR gene, encoding a putative LysR-type transcriptional regulator, was disrupted, and this mutant strain completely failed to grow on 2,4,6-TCP. Transcriptional fusion studies demonstrated that TcpR activates the expression of the tcp genes, responding specifically to 2,4,6-TCP. The transcriptional start of the tcp operon was mapped, and a putative σ70-type promoter was identified. PMID:17322325

  18. Vertical D4-D2-D0 bound states on K3 fibrations and modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchard, Vincent; Creutzig, Thomas; Diaconescu, Duiliu-Emanuel;

    2016-01-01

    An explicit formula is derived for the generating function of vertical D4-D2-D0 bound states on smooth K3 fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds, generalizing previous results of Gholampour and Sheshmani. It is also shown that this formula satisfies strong modularity properties, as predicted by string the...... theory. This leads to a new construction of vector valued modular forms which exhibits some of the features of a generalized Hecke transform.......An explicit formula is derived for the generating function of vertical D4-D2-D0 bound states on smooth K3 fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds, generalizing previous results of Gholampour and Sheshmani. It is also shown that this formula satisfies strong modularity properties, as predicted by string...

  19. Oh maser emission toward the young planetary nebula K3-35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gómez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available K3-35 es una de las dos nebulosas planetarias (PNe donde se ha reportado emisi on m aser de agua, sugiriendo que este tipo de objetos dejaron hace apenas unas d ecadas la fase AGB. Presentamos observaciones hechas con el VLA (Very Large Array de la emisi on m aser de OH a 1720, 1667, 1665 y 1612 MHz hacia la regi on central de K 3-35. Los m aseres de OH 1665 MHz est an distribuidos en una estructura a lo largo del eje menor del ujo bipolar de radiocontinuo, y exhiben alta polarizaci on circular, sugiriendo la presencia de un campo magn etico toroidal. Una estimaci on de la magnitud del campo magn etico hacia esta nebulosa planetaria joven, derivado de la l nea 1665, es 0.14 mG a un radio de 250 AU.

  20. Subcutaneous injection of sup 99m Tc pertechnetate at acupuncture points K-3 and B-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Chung-Chieng; Jong Shiang-Bin; Lin Chun-Ching; Chen Min-Fen; Chen Jong-Rern (Kaohsiung Medical Coll., Taiwan (China)); Chung Chieng

    1990-06-01

    The acupuncture points are known to be morphologically related to the nerves and vessels. Yet the physiological role of blood vessels in the formation of acupuncture points remains unknown. With subcutaneous injection of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate at the acupuncture points K-3 and B-60 and with intra-acupuncture point injection of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate at K-3 and B-60, a lower-limb venography like what was obtained by intravenous injection of {sup 99m}Tc macroaggregated albumin was demonstrated in the present study. It seems that some acupuncture points do play a role in drainage of tissue fluid from soft tissue into the veins. (author).

  1. Synchrotron radiation photoemission spectrum study on K3C60 film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏年; 徐亚伯; 鲍世宁; 李海洋; 何丕模; 钱海杰; 刘风琴; 奎热西·易卜拉欣

    2000-01-01

    K3C60 single crystal film was prepared on the cleaved (111) surface of C60 single crystal. Synchrotron radiation angle-resolved photoemission spectra were measured at normal emission with sample temperature at - 150K. Up to four subpeaks of LUMO-derived band were observed. These sub-peaks exhibit distinct energy dispersions which resemble in general the theoretical ones calculated for K3C60 at low temperature with the so-called one-dimensional disordered structure. But there is large deviation of experimental sub-band intervals from the theoretical values. This result is meaningful for the studies of the physical properties of alkali-doped C60 solids, e.g. the mechanism for superconductivity.

  2. Cycle Classes on the Moduli of K3 surfaces in positive characteristic

    CERN Document Server

    Ekedahl, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides explicit closed formulas in terms of tautological classes for the cycle classes of the height and Artin invariant strata in families of K3 surfaces. The proof is uniform for all strata and uses a flag space as the computations in [arXiv:math/0412272] for the Ekedahl-Oort strata for families of abelian varieties, but employs a Pieri formula formula to determine the push down to the base space.

  3. Vertical D4-D2-D0 Bound States on K3 Fibrations and Modularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Vincent; Creutzig, Thomas; Diaconescu, Duiliu-Emanuel; Doran, Charles; Quigley, Callum; Sheshmani, Artan

    2017-03-01

    An explicit formula is derived for the generating function of vertical D4-D2-D0 bound states on smooth K3 fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds, generalizing previous results of Gholampour and Sheshmani. It is also shown that this formula satisfies strong modularity properties, as predicted by string theory. This leads to a new construction of vector valued modular forms which exhibit some of the features of a generalized Hecke transform.

  4. Vertical D4-D2-D0 bound states on K3 fibrations and modularity

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Vincent; Diaconescu, Duiliu-Emanuel; Doran, Charles; Quigley, Callum; Sheshmani, Artan

    2016-01-01

    An explicit formula is derived for the generating function of vertical D4-D2-D0 bound states on smooth K3 fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds, generalizing previous results of Gholampour and Sheshmani. It is also shown that this formula satisfies strong modularity properties, as predicted by string theory. This leads to a new construction of vector valued modular forms which exhibits some of the features of a generalized Hecke transform.

  5. Vertical D4-D2-D0 bound states on K3 fibrations and modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchard, Vincent; Creutzig, Thomas; Diaconescu, Duiliu-Emanuel;

    2016-01-01

    An explicit formula is derived for the generating function of vertical D4-D2-D0 bound states on smooth K3 fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds, generalizing previous results of Gholampour and Sheshmani. It is also shown that this formula satisfies strong modularity properties, as predicted by string...... theory. This leads to a new construction of vector valued modular forms which exhibits some of the features of a generalized Hecke transform....

  6. Qubits from Black Holes in M-theory on K3 Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Belhaj, Adil; Sedra, Moulay Brahim; Segui, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Using M-theory compactification, we develop a three factor separation for the scalar submanifold of N=2 seven dimensional supergravity associated with 2-cycles of the K3 surface. Concretely, we give an interplay between the three scalar submanifold factors and the extremal black holes obtained from M2-branes wrapping such 2-cycles. Then, we show that the corresponding black hole charges are linked to one, two and four qubit systems.

  7. Study on the inclusion interaction of p-sulfonated calix[ n]arenes with Vitamin K 3 using methylene blue as a spectral probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qin; Gu, Jiashan; Yu, Huapeng; Liu, Chun; Wang, Lun; Zhou, Yunyou

    2007-09-01

    The characteristics of host-guest complexation between p-sulfonated calix[ n]arene ( SCnA, n = 4, 6) and Vitamin K 3 ( VK3) were investigated by fluorescence spectrometry and absorption spectrometry using methylene blue ( MB) as a probe. Interaction with MB and SCnA led to an obvious decrease in fluorescence intensity of MB, accompanying with shifts of emission peaks. Absorption peaks also showed interesting changes; however, when VK3 was added, fluorescence intensity and absorbance recovered and a slight and slow red shift was observed. The obtained results showed that the inclusion ability of p-sulphonated calix[ n]arenes towards VK3 was the order: p-sulphonated calix[6]arene ( SC6A) > p-sulphonated calix[4]arene ( SC4A). Relative mechanism was proposed to explain the inclusion process.

  8. An overview on importance, synthetic strategies and studies of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Venkata Viswanath

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW, commonly called as CL-20, is a high energy and high density material of keen interest to both commercial and scientific worlds due to its greater insensitivity (reduced sensitivity along with a positive high heat of formation, which is due to the azanitro groups attached to the skeleton of HNIW and its highly strained cage structure. It plays a remarkable role in modification and replacement of most of the propellant (gun and rocket preparations. In this report we present the comparative strategies involved in the syntheses of HNIW with respect to economical and environmental aspects. Various methods reported in the literature on the purification of the crude HNIW (α-HNIW to obtain ε-form of HNIW (high dense/more potential are consolidated. Understanding of the structure, morphology, energetics, thermal behavior and their modification to meet the applicability (decreased impact sensitivity determines the industrial application of HNIW. A compilation of the available literature on the aforementioned characteristic properties for obtaining a value added ε-HNIW is discussed here. This overview also reports the literature available on newer forms of HNIW including derivatives and cocrystals, which increase the performance of HNIW.

  9. 10-Formyl-2,4,6,8,12-pentanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,9.03,11]dodecane acetone solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxiong Chen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H7N11O11·C3H6O, consisting of one molecule of 10-formyl-2,4,6,8,12-pentanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,9.03,11]dodecane (pentanitromonoformylhexaazaisowurtzitane, PNMFIW and one acetone solvent molecule, is a member of the caged hexaazaisowurtzitane family. PNMFIW has a cage structure which is constructed from one six-membered and two five-membered rings which are linked by a C—C bond, thus creating two seven-membered rings. In the PNMFIW molecule, one formyl group is bonded to the N heteroatom of the six-membered cycle, and five nitro groups are appended to other five N heteroatom of the caged structure. The acetone solvent molecule is arranged beside a five-membered plane of PNMFIW with an O atom and an H atom close (with respect to the sum of the van der Waals radii to the neighbouring nitro O atom [O...O = 2.957 (3 and 2.852 (3 Å; O... H = 2.692 (2, 2.526 (3 and 2.432 (3 Å].

  10. Electrospun Polyamide 4.6 Nanofibrous Nonwovens: Parameter Study and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert De Schoenmaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aliphatic polyamide 4.6 (PA 4.6 has unique properties compared to the commonly used polyamides 6 (PA 6 and 6.6 (PA 6.6. The purpose of this paper is to produce uniform and reproducible nanofibrous PA 4.6 structures. Therefore, a mixture of the solvent formic acid and the nonsolvent acetic acid is used to dissolve and electrospin the PA 4.6. First the steady-state behaviour of the process and the boundary limits of the solution parameters needed for steady-state electrospinning are investigated. Subsequently, the effect of several solution and process parameters on the fibre morphology is examined, using microscopic techniques and thermal analysis. The polyamide concentration is found to be the dominant parameter affecting the fibre diameter and morphology. Furthermore, tensile tests are performed on upscaled nanofibrous structures and electrospun under optimised steady-state conditions. It is shown that the PA 4.6 nanofibrous structures, compared to nanofibrous nonwovens of PA 6 and PA 6.6, have a higher stress and strain at break.

  11. Microscopic Aspects of Autoschizic Cell Death in Human Ovarian Carcinoma (2774) Cells Following Vitamin C, Vitamin K3 or Vitamin C:K3 Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Jamison, James M.; Arnold, David; Taper, Henryk S.; von Gruenigen, Vivian E.; Summers, Jack L.

    2003-08-01

    Human ovarian carcinoma cells (MDAH 2774) were treated with sodium ascorbate (VC), menadione (VK3), or with a VC:VK3 combination for 1 h and then studied using light microscopy (LM) and scanning (SEM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopy. Plasma membrane damage (blisters and blebs, hairy aspect) results from vitamin C (VC) treatment, while cytoskeletal damage and self-morsellation are caused by vitamin K3 (VK3) treatment. VC:VK3-treated cells exhibit exacerbated injuries characteristic of both VC and VK3 treatment as well as a significant decrease in cell diameters from 20 35 [mu]m for control cells to 7 12 [mu]m for VC:VK3 treatment. Moreover, after a 1-h exposure to the vitamin combination, autoschizis (43%), apoptosis (3%), and oncosis (1.9%) are observed at the percentages indicated. All cellular changes associated with autoschizis observed with SEM were confirmed by LM and TEM observations and are consistent with cell death by autoschizis: decrease in cell size, cytoplasmic self-excisions, degradation of the nucleus and nucleolus without formation of apoptotic bodies and, ultimately, karyorrhexis and karyolysis. These results also suggest that the vitamin combination may find clinical use in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  12. Monoclinic structure of hydroxylpyromorphite Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2 - hydroxylmimetite Pb10(AsO4)6(OH)2 solid solution series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giera, Alicja; Manecki, Maciej; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Zelek, Sylwia; Rakovan, John; Bajda, Tomasz; Marchlewski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Seven samples of hydroxyl analogues of pyromorphite-mimetite solid solutions series were synthesized from aqueous solutions at 80° C in a computer-controlled chemistate: 200 mL aqueous solutions of 0.05M Pb(NO3)2 and 0.03M KH2AsO4 and/or KH2PO4 were dosed with a 0.25 mL/min rate to a glass beaker, which initially contained 100 mL of distilled water. Constant pH of 8 was maintained using 2M KOH. The syntheses yielded homogeneous fine-grained white precipitates composition of which was close to theoretical Pb10[(PO4)6-x(AsO4)x](OH)2, where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. High-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data were obtained in transmission geometry at the beamline 11-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois, USA). The structure Rietveld refinements based on starting parameters of either hexagonal hydroxylpyromorphite or monoclinic mimetite-M were performed using GSAS+EXPGUI software. Apatite usually crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system with the space group P63/m. For the first time, however, the lowering of the hexagonal to monoclinic crystal symmetry was observed in the hydroxyl variety of pyromorphite-mimetite solid solution series. This is indicated by better fitting of the modeled monoclinic structure to the experimental data. The same is not the case for analogous calcium hydroxylapatite series Ca5(PO4)3OH - Ca5(AsO4)3OH (Lee et al. 2009). Systematical linear increase of unit cell parameters is observed with As substitution from a=9.88, b=19.75, and c=7.43 for Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2 to a=10.23, b=20.32, and c=7.51 for Pb10(AsO4)6(OH)2. A strong pseudohexagonal character (γ ≈ 120° and b ≈ 2a) of the analyzed monoclinic phases was established. This work is partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319 and partially by Polish NCN grant No 2011/01/M/ST10/06999. Lee Y.J., Stephens P.W., Tang Y., Li W., Philips B.L., Parise J.B., Reeder R.J., 2009. Arsenate substitution in hydroxylapatite: Structural characterization

  13. The motor characteristics of boys 4-6 years old to determine the prospects for gymnastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomazan Arkadij Anatol'evich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of primary screening of preschool and primary school children to gymnastics. Analyzed materials of recent publications on this topic. The study group consisted of 56 boys. Proposed test exercises to test motor abilities of boys 4-6 years old. Set mapped by age groups of rules for each of the proposed exercises. Established process for determining the motor and anthropometric characteristics for the selection of children 4-6 years of prior training. Identified standards of physical fitness that can be used in the method of primary selection for gymnastics.

  14. Characterization of the IEC 61000-4-6 Electromagnetic Clamp for Conducted-Immunity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, F.; Pignari, S. A.; Spadacini, G.; Toscani, N.; Pelissou, P.

    2016-05-01

    A multiconductor transmission line model (MTL) is used to investigate the operation of the IEC 61000-4-6 electromagnetic (EM) clamp in a conducted-immunity test setup for aerospace applications. Aspects of interest include the performance of such a coupling device at very high frequencies (up to 1 GHz), and for extreme values of the common-mode impedance of equipment (short circuits, open circuits). The MTL model is finally exploited to predict the frequency response of coupling and decoupling factors defined in the IEC 61000-4-6 standard.

  15. Complete dissipation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by in-vessel composting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.; Cekmecelioglu, Deniz; Tekinay, Turgay

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate complete removal of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in 15 days using an in-vessel composting system, which is amended with TNT-degrading bacteria strains. A mixture of TNT, food waste, manure, wood chips, soil and TNT-degrading bacteria consortium are co-composted for 15 days in an aerobi

  16. β-Selective mannosylation with a 4,6-silylene-tethered thiomannosyl donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuckendorff, Mads; Bendix, Jesper; Pedersen, Christian Marcus;

    2014-01-01

    Mannosylations using the new conformationally restricted donor phenyl 2,3-di-O-benzyl-4,6-O-(di-tert-butylsilylene)-1-thio-α-D-mannopyranoside (6) have been found to be β-selective with a variety of activation conditions. The simplest activation conditions were NIS/TfOH, in which case it is propo...

  17. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  18. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  19. SAGE ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIPTOME RESPONSES IN ARABIDOPSIS ROOTS EXPOSED TO 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) was used to profile transcript levels in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and assess their responses to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) exposure. SAGE libraries representing control and TNT-exposed seedling root transcripts were constructed, and ea...

  20. Complete dissipation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by in-vessel composting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.; Cekmecelioglu, Deniz; Tekinay, Turgay

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate complete removal of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in 15 days using an in-vessel composting system, which is amended with TNT-degrading bacteria strains. A mixture of TNT, food waste, manure, wood chips, soil and TNT-degrading bacteria consortium are co-composted for 15 days in an

  1. CDK4/6 inhibitor PD0332991 in glioblastoma treatment: Does it have a future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.B.W. Schröder (Lisette B.W.); K.L. McDonald (Kerrie L.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGlioblastoma is aggressive, highly infiltrating, and the most frequent malignant form of brain cancer. With a median survival time of only 14.6 months, when treated with the standard of care, it is essential to find new therapeutic options. A specific CDK4/6 inhibitor, PD0332991, obtaine

  2. Complete dissipation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by in-vessel composting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumuscu, Burcu; Cekmecelioglu, Deniz; Tekinay, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate complete removal of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in 15 days using an in-vessel composting system, which is amended with TNT-degrading bacteria strains. A mixture of TNT, food waste, manure, wood chips, soil and TNT-degrading bacteria consortium are co-composted for 15 days in an aerobi

  3. Absorption, balance and metabolism of /sup 14/C-2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol in hydroponic tomato plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragiadakis, A. (Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung, Neuherberg, West Germany); Sotiriou, N.; Korte, F.

    1981-12-01

    Most of the 2, 4, 6-TCP applied in the nutrient solution of the hydroculture test was volatilised; a proportion was absorbed by the developed plant roots and to a small extent isomerised. Significant portions of the non-extractable tomato plant residues were found in the isolated lignin and cellulose fractions.

  4. Toric K3-fibred Calabi-Yau manifolds with del Pezzo divisors for string compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Mayrhofer, Christoph [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kreuzer, Maximilian

    2011-06-15

    We analyse several explicit toric examples of compact K3-fibred Calabi-Yau three-folds which can be used for the study of string dualities and are crucial ingredients for the construction of LARGE Volume type IIB vacua with promising applications to cosmology and particle phenomenology. In order to build a phenomenologically viable model, on top of the two moduli corresponding to the base and the K3 fibre, we demand also the existence of two additional rigid divisors: the first supporting the non-perturbative effects needed to achieve moduli stabilisation, and the second allowing the presence of chiral matter on wrapped D-branes. We clarify the topology of these rigid divisors by discussing the interplay between a diagonal structure of the Calabi-Yau volume and D-terms. Del Pezzo divisors appearing in the volume form in a completely diagonal way are natural candidates for supporting non-perturbative effects and for quiver constructions, while 'non-diagonal' del Pezzo and rigid but not del Pezzo divisors are particularly interesting for model building in the geometric regime. Searching through the existing list of four dimensional reflexive lattice polytopes, we find 158 examples admitting a Calabi-Yau hypersurface which is a K3 fibration with four Kaehler moduli where at least one of them is a 'diagonal' del Pezzo. We work out explicitly the topological details of a few examples showing how, in the case of simplicial polytopes, all the del Pezzo divisors are 'diagonal', while 'non-diagonal' ones appear only in the case of non-simplicial polytopes. A companion paper will use these results in the study of moduli stabilisation for globally consistent explicit Calabi-Yau compactifications with the local presence of chirality. (orig.)

  5. Luminescence spectroscopy of K3WO3F3 oxyfluoride crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Pustovarov, V. A.

    2016-09-01

    Spectra of photoluminescence (PL) in region of 1.5-5.5 eV, PL excitation spectra (3-22 eV), PL decay kinetics, the temperature dependence of the PL were measured for single crystals and ceramics K3WO3F3 as well as irradiate ceramics K3WO3F3. Synchrotron radiation was used for low temperature PL experiments with time resolution. Single crystals are transparent in microwave, visible and near UV range, inter-band transition energy is Eg = 4.3 eV. The intrinsic luminescence of tungstates is usually ascribed to the radiative relaxation of exciton-like excitations localized on WO6 octahedra or WO4 tetrahedra. In K3WO3F3 the wide band luminescence in the region of 2.5 eV with the Stokes shift of 1.5 eV with the microsecond decay kinetics is connected with luminescence of triplet self-trapped excitons (STE). This luminescence is formed by electronic transitions in [WO3F3] octahedron. Different distortion of KWOF crystal lattice is manifested in the change of the Stokes shift of STE luminescence band. The 3.2 eV emission band in low-temperature PL spectrum with decay times of 1.8 ns and 11 ns corresponds to singlet STE luminescence. A new 2.9 eV emission band is discovered in low-temperature PL spectrum in the samples irradiated by fast electrons (E = 10 MeV, D = 160 kGy). This emission band is excited not intracenter mechanism, and through the creation of excitons bound on the defects. It is suggested that it is F-like centers of anionic sublattice induced by the mechanism of elastic collision.

  6. Tumor Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training at ... much of the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : an evaluation of the ...

  7. Carbon with ultrahigh capacitance when graphene paper meets K3Fe(CN)6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Liu, Fei; Xue, Dongfeng; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2014-12-01

    For the first time, we have shown a novel supercapacitor system with a graphene paper electrode in the redox-electrolyte of K3Fe(CN)6 based on the system-level design principle. By combining electric double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance, the specific capacitance could be increased 5-fold compared with the conventional electrode-electrolyte system. This large improvement is attributed to the additional redox reactions on the graphene paper electrode via the constituent ions of K3Fe(CN)6 in the redox-electrolyte, during which the discharge process is highly enhanced. More importantly, the potential interval could reach as high as 1.6 V beyond the limited operating voltage of water (~1.23 V). After 5000 continuous cycles, 94% of the initial capacitance was retained. The newly designed novel supercapacitor system is binder-free, conducting additive-free and can deliver higher capacitance. This designed graphene-paper-electrode/redox-electrolyte system can provide a versatile strategy for high-capacitance supercapacitor systems.For the first time, we have shown a novel supercapacitor system with a graphene paper electrode in the redox-electrolyte of K3Fe(CN)6 based on the system-level design principle. By combining electric double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance, the specific capacitance could be increased 5-fold compared with the conventional electrode-electrolyte system. This large improvement is attributed to the additional redox reactions on the graphene paper electrode via the constituent ions of K3Fe(CN)6 in the redox-electrolyte, during which the discharge process is highly enhanced. More importantly, the potential interval could reach as high as 1.6 V beyond the limited operating voltage of water (~1.23 V). After 5000 continuous cycles, 94% of the initial capacitance was retained. The newly designed novel supercapacitor system is binder-free, conducting additive-free and can deliver higher capacitance. This designed graphene

  8. On Calabi-Yau generalized complete intersections from Hirzebruch varieties and novel K3-fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Berglund, Per

    2016-01-01

    We consider the construction of Calabi-Yau varieties recently generalized to where the defining equations may have negative degrees over some projective space factors in the embedding space. Within such "generalized complete intersection" Calabi-Yau ("gCICY") three-folds, we find several sequences of distinct manifolds. These include both novel elliptic and K3-fibrations and involve Hirzebruch surfaces and their higher dimensional analogues. En route, we generalize the standard techniques of cohomology computation to these generalized complete intersection Calabi-Yau varieties.

  9. On a $\\{K_4,L(Q_3)\\}_{K_3}$-ultrahomogeneous graph

    CERN Document Server

    Dejter, Italo J

    2010-01-01

    A construction based on the Biggs-Smith graph is shown to produce an edge-disjoint union of 102 copies of $K_4$ forming a $\\{K_4,L(Q_3)\\}_{K_3}$-ultrahomogeneous graph as well as the non-line-graphical Menger graph of a self-dual $(102_4)$-configuration. This stands in contrast to and is a follow-up of the self-dual $(42_4)$-configuration of \\cite{D1}, whose Menger graph is a non-line-graphical $\\{K_4,$ $K_{2,2,2}\\}_{K_2}$-ultrahomogeneous graph.

  10. Wear of K3 and ProTaper files after simulated clinical use in curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Almeida Rodrigues Silva e Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess wear, after simulated clinical use of K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, EUA and ProTaper files (Dentsply-Maillefer, Tulsa, Oklahoma, EUA in 46 mesiovestibular roots of human maxillary first molars, recently extracted and with mean angulation of 40°.Methods: The teeth were divided as follows: a K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, EUA (with radial bands and b ProTaper (Dentsply-Maillefer, Tulsa, Oklahoma, EUA (without radial bands. The files were assessed by scanning electronic microscopy before first use to visualize fabrication defects, and after 7 and 13 cycles of debridement in the canals. Debridement with files K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, EUA and ProTaper (Dentsply-Maillefer, Tulsa, Oklahoma, EUA was performed in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommendations. The criteria for wear assessment were: defects (stretching, shortening/spiral inversion, presence of craters, oblique cracks and fracture. After assessment by SEM and before they were used, metal barbs on the crest of the spirals and oblique scratches due to the machining process were found in all the files.Results: In the K3 system (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA, after being used seven times, all the instruments showed cutting angle defects,and 25/08 and 25/10 had oblique cracks in the body of the active part leading to ductile fracture after being used for the eighth time. In the ProTaper system (Dentsply-Maillefer, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, after being used seven times, in addition to cutting angle defects, the files also presented cracks, and ruptile fracture occurred in F3 during use for the thirteenth time. At the end of preparation, craters were seen along the active part of the files.Conclusion: In the final analysis, it was seen that the system are equivalent with regard to the defects found, irrespective of the active part design,being proportional to the number of cycles of use, and these defects could act as points of greater fragility, favoring fracture.

  11. Delving Into the Details: Implementing Multitiered K-3 Reading Supports in High-Priority Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Michael D; Oldham, Ashley; Leonard, Kaitlin; Burns, Darci; Gage, Nicholas

    2016-12-01

    Although there is widespread agreement about the practices associated with multitiered systems of support (MTSS) frameworks in beginning reading, we often underestimate the systems and infrastructure that schools need to implement and sustain these practices. The real work of developing these systems often happens in the detailed-oriented and often messy world of schedules, routines, meetings, and materials. The purpose of this article is to describe a K-3 reading initiative where school teams serving high percentages of students at risk for reading difficulties "delved into the details" to work to overcome the complexities inherent in implementing multitiered reading supports in high priority schools. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Peningkatan Motivasi Belajar Kimia Siswa Sekolah Menengah Menggunakan Metode Koligatif Kemas Kreatif (K3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Rizki Nurul Aeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research is classroom action research at XII class of Madrasah Aliyah YAPIKA. The subject matter  properties of Colligative Solution conducted with K3 method (Koligatif Kemas Kreatif to improve student’s learning motivation. Research has been conducted with the repetition of three times so that the study be completed for three years. Three phase of learning are preparation, implementation and evaluation. Preparation phase is done by teachers and students at home. The teacher is preparing the learning media there are games rules, cardboard spacecraft, question cards,  stopwatch, and a dice. Students learn the material properties of koligatif independently learning by themself using  the student hand book. Implementation of the learning is done through a number of methods, there are the story method, discussions and cooperative teamwork through creative games. The evaluation was direct observation methods. The observation sheets assessing of cognitive and affective aspects of students. Based on the results of observation showed that students can impact the content, focus attention and participate active in learning, supported by innovations that have been implemented.Keywords: Colligative properties, K3, MotivationAbstrak: Penelitian ini adalah penelitian tindakan kelas di Madrasah Aliyah YAPIKA Kurnia kelas XII yang mengkaji materi Sifat Koligatif Larutan melalui metode pembelajaran K3 (Koligatif Kemas Kreatif, sebagai cara untuk meningkatkan motivasi belajar siswa. Penelitian telah dilakukan dengan pengulangan sebanyak tiga kali. Pembelajaran yang ditempuh berupa tahap persiapan, pelaksanaan dan evaluasi. Tahap persiapan dilakukan oleh guru dan siswa di rumah. Guru mempersiapkan media pembelajaran berupa petunjuk games, karton wahana, question card, stopwatch, dan dadu. Siswa mempelajari materi sifat koligatif secara mandiri dengan cara belajar melalui buku pegangan siswa. Pelaksanaan

  13. Placebo-controlled phase II study of vitamin K3 cream for the treatment of cetuximab-induced rash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Kaalund, Inger; Clemmensen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    the effect of a vitamin K3 cream on cetuximab-induced rash. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients were included in this double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Patients receiving cetuximab 500 mg/m(2) every second week plus chemotherapy for metastatic cancer were included. In each patient, vitamin K3 cream...... stained for EGFR and pEGFR. RESULTS: Application of vitamin K3 cream twice daily during treatment with cetuximab did not reduce the number of papulopustular eruptions, and this was independent of the use of systemic tetracycline. No significant changes in the staining of EGFR or pEGFR were observed...... in the skin of the vitamin K3-treated area compared to the placebo area. CONCLUSION: The present data do not support any clinical or immunohistochemical benefit of using vitamin K3 cream for cetuximab-induced rash....

  14. On a family of K3 surfaces with $\\mathcal{S}_4$ symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, Dagan; Moore, Daniel; Skjorshammer, Dmitri; Whitcher, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The largest group which occurs as the rotational symmetries of a three-dimensional reflexive polytope is the symmetric group on four elements. There are three pairs of three-dimensional reflexive polytopes with this symmetry group, up to isomorphism. We identify a natural one-parameter family of K3 surfaces corresponding to each of these pairs, show that the symmetric group on four elements acts symplectically on members of these families, and show that a general K3 surface in each family has Picard rank 19. The properties of two of these families have been analyzed in the literature using other methods. We compute the Picard-Fuchs equation for the third Picard rank 19 family by extending the Griffiths-Dwork technique for computing Picard-Fuchs equations to the case of semi-ample hypersurfaces in toric varieties. The holomorphic solutions to our Picard-Fuchs equation exhibit modularity properties known as "Mirror Moonshine"; we relate these properties to the geometric structure of our family.

  15. Luminescence and color center distributions in K3YB6O12:Ce3+ phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Wan, Yingpeng; Weng, Honggen; Huang, Yanlin; Chen, Cuili; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2016-08-01

    Polycrystalline Ce3+-doped K3YB6O12 (1-14 mol%) phosphors were prepared by facile chemical sol-gel synthesis. The phase formation of the phosphors was confirmed by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. The photoluminescence excitation spectra (PLE), emission spectra (PL) and the luminescence decay curves were tested. Under the near-UV light, the phosphors present the emission from blue color to yellowish green due to the allowed 4f -5d transitions of Ce3+ ions. The absolute quantum efficiency (QE) of K3YB6O12:Ce3+ can reach 53% under the excitation of near-UV light. The luminescence thermal quenching of the phosphor was investigated by the temperature-dependent spectra. The crystallographic site of Ce3+ ions in the lattice was identified and discussed on the basis of luminescence characteristics and structural data. There is only one isolated Ce3+ center occupying the Y(II) sites in the lightly doped samples presenting a typical doublet emission profile. While the Ce3+ multi-centers could be created with the enhancement of the doping levels, which could induce the distinct red-shift of the spectra due to the dipole-dipole interactions. The result in this work could be useful for the further investigation of other rare earth ions in this host.

  16. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  17. Crystal Structure and Spectroscopic Characterization of K8(VO)2O(SO4)6:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Rasmussen, Rikke Christina; Fehrmann, Rasmus;

    2003-01-01

    Red and yellow dichroistic crystals of a vanadium(V) compound, potassium (mu-oxo, di-mu-suifato)bis(oxodisulfato-vanadate), K-8(VO)(2)O(SO4)(6), have been obtained from the ternary catalytic model melt system K2S2O7-K2SO4-V2O5. By slow cooling of the melt from 420 to 355 degreesC, crystal growth...

  18. Efficient Wnt mediated intestinal hyperproliferation requires the cyclin D2-CDK4/6 complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansom Owen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inactivation of the gene encoding the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC tumour suppressor protein is recognized as the key early event in the development of colorectal cancers (CRC. Apc loss leads to nuclear localization of beta-catenin and constitutive activity of the beta-catenin-Tcf4 transcription complex. This complex drives the expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression such as c-Myc and cyclin D2. Acute loss of Apc in the small intestine leads to hyperproliferation within the intestinal crypt, increased levels of apoptosis, and perturbed differentiation and migration. It has been demonstrated that c-Myc is a critical mediator of the phenotypic abnormalities that follow Apc loss in the intestine. As it may be difficult to pharmacologically inhibit transcription factors such as c-Myc, investigating more druggable targets of the Wnt-c-Myc pathway within the intestine may reveal potential therapeutic targets for CRC. Recent work in our laboratory has shown that the cyclin D2-cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6 complex promotes hyperproliferation in Apc deficient intestinal tissue and ApcMin/+ adenomas. We showed that the hyperproliferative phenotype associated with Apc loss in vivo was partially dependent on the expression of cyclin D2. Most importantly, tumour growth and development in ApcMin/+ mice was strongly perturbed in mice lacking cyclin D2. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of CDK4/6 suppressed the proliferation of adenomatous cells. This commentary discusses the significance of this work in providing evidence for the importance of the cyclin D2-CDK4/6 complex in colorectal adenoma formation. It also argues that inhibition of this complex may be an effective chemopreventative strategy in CRC.

  19. Creating 3, 4, 6 and 10-dimensional spacetime from W3 symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjørn, J.; Watabiki, Y.

    2017-07-01

    We describe a model where breaking of W3 symmetry will lead to the emergence of time and subsequently of space. Surprisingly the simplest such models which lead to higher dimensional spacetimes are based on the four ;magical; Jordan algebras of 3 × 3 Hermitian matrices with real, complex, quaternion and octonion entries, respectively. The simplest symmetry breaking leads to universes with spacetime dimensions 3, 4, 6, and 10.

  20. Hydrostatic Compression of 2,4,6,8,10,12 hexanitrohexaaza isowurtzitane (CL20) Co Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    improved properties.1,2 Co-crystals are solid state materials comprising 2 (or more) molecular components that interact via noncovalent interactions...of the co-crystal’s stability to that of the individual components .6,7 However, other critical material properties such as the response of EM co...Hydrostatic Compression of 2,4,6,8,10,12- hexanitrohexaaza-isowurtzitane (CL20) Co-Crystals by DeCarlos Taylor Weapons and Materials

  1. catena-Poly[[dipyridinemercury(II]-μ-5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjing Jiang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of mercury(II chloride with 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid in pyridine solution leads to the formation of the title compound, [Hg(C8H2I3NO4(C5H5N2]n. The structure contains a four-coordinate Hg2+ ion in a distorted tetrahedral geometry, which lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. The Hg2+ ion is bonded to two N atoms from two pyridine ligands and two carboxylate O atoms from two 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalate anions. The two carboxylate groups of individual 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalate anions act as a bridge to the Hg centers. This anion also resides on a twofold axis, which passes through the amino N and the trans standing I atoms. The Hg—O distance is 2.337 (6 and the Hg—N distance is 2.244 (8 Å.

  2. Matrix isolation and EPR spectroscopy of septet 3,5-difluoropyridyl-2,4,6-trinitrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapyshev, Sergei V; Grote, Dirk; Finke, Christopher; Sander, Wolfram

    2008-09-19

    Septet 3,5-difluoropyridyl-2,4,6-trinitrene along with quintet 2-azido-3,5-difluoropyridyl-4,6-dinitrene, quintet 4-azido-3,5-difluoropyridyl-2,6-dinitrene, triplet 2,6-diazido-3,5-difluoropyridyl-4-nitrene, and triplet 2,4-diazido-3,5-difluoropyridyl-6-nitrene have been obtained by photolysis of 2,4,6-triazido-3,5-difluoropyridine in solid argon at 4 K. The electronic and magnetic properties of the matrix-isolated nitrenes were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The fine-structure parameters of the nitrenes were determined with high accuracy from computer spectral simulations. All signals in the EPR spectra of the nitrenes randomly oriented in the solid phase were unambiguously assigned on the basis of eigenfield calculations of the Zeeman energy levels and angular dependencies of resonance fields from the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  3. From exceptional field theory to heterotic double field theory via K3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Emanuel

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we show how to obtain heterotic double field theory from exceptional field theory by breaking half of the supersymmetry. We focus on the SL(5) exceptional field theory and show that when the extended space contains a generalised SU(2)-structure manifold one can define a reduction to obtain the heterotic SO(3 , n) double field theory. In this picture, the reduction on the SU(2)-structure breaks half of the supersymmetry of the exceptional field theory and the gauge group of the heterotic double field theory is given by the embedding tensor of the reduction used. Finally, we study the example of a consistent truncation of M-theory on K3 and recover the duality with the heterotic string on T 3. This suggests that the extended space can be made sense of even in the case of non-toroidal compactifications.

  4. Twining Genera of (0,4) Supersymmetric Sigma Models on K3

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Sarah; Paquette, Natalie M

    2013-01-01

    Conformal field theories with (0,4) worldsheet supersymmetry and K3 target can be used to compactify the E8xE8 heterotic string to six dimensions in a supersymmetric manner. The data specifying such a model includes an appropriate configuration of 24 gauge instantons in the E8xE8 gauge group to satisfy the constraints of anomaly cancellation. In this note, we compute twining genera - elliptic genera with appropriate insertions of discrete symmetry generators in the trace - for (0,4) theories with various instanton embeddings. We do this by constructing linear sigma models which flow to the desired conformal field theories, and using the techniques of localization. We present several examples of such twining genera which are consistent with a moonshine relating these (0,4) models to the finite simple sporadic group M24.

  5. Stability of rank-3 Lazarsfeld-Mukai bundles on K3 surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Lelli-Chiesa, Margherita

    2011-01-01

    Given an ample line bundle L on a K3 surface S, we study the slope stability with respect to L of rank-3 Lazarsfeld-Mukai bundles associated with complete, base point free nets of type g^2_d on curves C in the linear system |L|. When d is large enough and C is general, we obtain a dimensional statement for the variety W^2_d(C). If the Brill-Noether number is negative, we prove that any g^2_d on any smooth, irreducible curve in |L| is contained in a g^r_e which is induced from a line bundle on S, thus answering a conjecture of Donagi and Morrison. Applications towards transversality of Brill-Noether loci and higher rank Brill-Noether theory are then discussed.

  6. The Exact SL(K+3,C) Symmetry of String Scattering Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Sheng-Hong; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We discover that the 26D open bosonic string scattering amplitudes (SSA) of three tachyons and one arbitrary string state can be expressed in terms of the D-type Lauricella functions with associated SL(K+3,C) symmetry. As a result, SSA and symmetries or relations among SSA of different string states at various limits calculated previously can be rederived. These include the linear relations conjectured by Gross [1-3] and proved in [4-9] in the hard scattering limit, the recurrence relations in the Regge scattering limit [14-16] and the extended recurrence relations in the nonrelativistic scattering limit [19] discovered recently. Finally, as an application, we calculate a new recurrence relation of SSA which is valid for all energies.

  7. ANALISA FAKTOR K3 DAN ERGONOMI TERHADAP FASILITAS PUSAT KESEHATAN UNIVERSITAS UNTUK MENGUKUR KEPUASAN PASIEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Yuwono

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals and clinics are included in the criteria of work places with a variety of hazards that can cause health effects, not only for the employees who work in that place, but also the patients and visitors of hospitals and clinics. With the application of K3 and ergonomics in any existing facilities in the area of the UMP clinic will result in improvement of service quality, and patient satisfaction. The methods used in this research are Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI and the Kano Method. The result shows that the percentage of Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI is 59.8%, it means that the patients satisfied to the facilities and services. Based on the KANO methods, the following attributes have to improved to increase the customer satisfaction, that are the room temperature, the room tranquility, and lighting conditions.

  8. Effective action of heterotic compactification on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schasny, Martin

    2012-10-15

    In this thesis we study the heterotic string compactified on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles. We focus on two backgrounds, the well-known standard embedding and abelian line bundles. Using a Kaluza-Klein reduction, the six-dimensional effective action is computed up to terms of order {alpha}'{sup 2} with special attention on the hypermultiplet sector. We compute the moduli dependent couplings of the matter fields and analyze the geometry of the hyperscalar sigma model. Moreover, we prove the consistency with six-dimensional supergravity and derive the appropriate D-term scalar potential. For the line bundle backgrounds we show that the gauge flux stabilizes some geometrical moduli and renders some abelian vector multiplets massive.

  9. MANAJEMEN RISIKO KESELAMATAN DAN KESEHATAN KERJA (K3 PADA PROYEK PEMBANGUNAN JAMBULUWUK HOTEL & RESORT PETITENGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Bayu Dharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Work accidents that occur on the construction project will be one of the causes of the disruption or cessation of activities of the project work. The construction sector is the highest contributor to work accidents and occupational illness in Bali. Rampant construction of temporary lodging facilities or hotels in Bali can be one of the contributors to accidents. This study aims to determine the potential hazard and any dominant risk contained in a hotel development process as well as provides preventive measures to reduce such risks. In this research, the method used was descriptive qualitative. The risk of Occupational Health and Safety (K3 was identified through JSA (Job Safety Analysis. Questionnaire survey was carried out to get feedback from the experts regarding the potential hazards identified. The dominant category of risk assessment that was rated by the concept of ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable. The research identified 45 of dominant risks contained in the phase of work structures including 43 risks classified as high risk such as : exposed to maneuver heavy equipment and vehicles, heavy equipment rolled because the excavated area slid down/ subsided, cross rope of Tower Crane disconnected / entangled on the operation, the charge fell from Tower Crane and as many as two risks were classified as very high risk (extreme risk that is : exposed to maneuver mixer and swing Tower Crane over the edge area of the project. The risks tended to be sourced in the work environment factors and work equipment. In order to minimize the impact of K3 risks, it is necessary to conduct risk control, evaluation activities in a daily, weekly, monthly periodic, considering a safe distance hazard source from workers, setting working hours, scenario procedures of an emergency, as well as safe work through work instruction to remind the importance of working in a healthy and safe condition.

  10. The Positive Effectiveness of Instructional Coaching on K-3 Native American Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Lynnita Christina

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of instructional coaching on kindergarten through third-grade student literacy in three Native American elementary schools. The researcher analyzed quantitative literacy data and qualitative literacy data for three Bureau of Indian Education elementary schools for school years 2003/2004 through 2009/2010.…

  11. Second Step: A Violence-Prevention Curriculum. Preschool-Kindergarten (Ages 4-6). Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee for Children, Seattle, WA.

    "Second Step" for preschoolers and kindergartners is a curriculum kit designed to reduce impulsive and aggressive behavior in young children and to increase their levels of social competence by teaching skills in empathy, impulse control, and anger management. The kit, which is part of a series that includes curricula for grades 1-3,…

  12. SOCIAL STUDIES COURSE OF STUDY, GRADES 4, 5, AND 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BINEK, JOAN; AND OTHERS

    ATTENTION IS DRAWN TO THE FACT THAT THE SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM HAS A VITAL ROLE TO PLAY IN THE CHANGING WORLD OF THE MID-20TH CENTURY, THAT TEACHERS MUST STEER A COURSE WITH IMAGINATION AND SKILL. AN OUTLINE OF THE SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM FROM KINDERGARTEN THROUGH GRADE 3 IS PRESENTED AS A STARTING POINT FOR STUDIES IN GRADES 4-6. STUDY…

  13. Isopropyl 2-(4,6-dimethyl-3-methylsulfinyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecules of title compound, C16H20O4S, which was synthesized by the oxidation of isopropyl 2-(4,6-dimethyl-3-methylsulfanyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate, interact through C—H...π interactions between a methylene H atom and the aromatic carbon ring of the benzofuran ring system, and by C—H...O hydrogen bonds. Adjacent stacked molecules exhibit a carbonyl–carbonyl interaction [3.295 (2 Å]. The O atom of the methylsulfinyl group is disordered over two positions with site-occupancy factors of 0.9 and 0.1.

  14. Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Lead 2,4,6-Trinitroresorcinate Monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Rong-zu; YAO Pu; LI Jing; CHEN San-ping; GAO Sheng-li; ZHAO Feng-qi; SONG Ji-rong; SHI Qi-zhen; CHEN Pei; LUO Yang; ZHAO Hong-an

    2004-01-01

    The non-isothermal decomposition of lead 2,4,6-trinitroresorcinate monohydrate, Pb (TNR) · H2O. was investigated by means of TG-DTA, DSC and IR. The thermal decomposition mechanism and the dissociated kinetics were also investigated. The kinetic parameters were obtained from the analysis of the DSC curves by integral and differential methods. The most probable kinetic model function of the dehydration reaction of Pb(TNR) · H2O was suggested by the comparison of the kinetic parameters.

  15. Synthesis of 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5- trinitrobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TATB is perhaps the most thermostable and insensitive explosive known. Its low sensibility to shock makes it suitable for military and civil applications. TATB application is done either alone or in combination with another high energetic material. This study aimed at reporting the review about many processes to produce TATB and the problems associated with them, as well as suggest techniques like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, which can be useful in the characterization of this energetic compound.

  16. Synthesis, loading control and applications of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrilium as a solar photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercher Perez, Rosa

    2005-07-01

    The technologies or processes of oxidation outpost that uses like energy the solar radiation for the degradation of polluting agents, suppose a novel alternative with important economic and environmental advantages. A proof of it has been the spectacular development which they have been these applications at world-wide level in the last years old, as well as the interest that the subject in international the scientific community has provoked. 2,4,6-trifenilpirilio by its singularity in this field has been chosen for this thesis the cation. It has been left from a study about the fotocatalitica activity of this cation, from the salt of hidrogenosulfato 2,4,6-trifenilpirilio and of the salt of tetrafluorborato 2,4,6-trifenilpirilio, when they act in homogenous phase on polluting agents, derivatives of dissolved fenolicos compounds in residual coming from the industry. In the first stage of the study I confirm the degradativo power of this cation but nevertheless a series of disadvantages in homogena phase was detected, had to the chemical characteristics of this organic species: hidrolitica opening of the ring and impossibility of reusability. With the purpose of correcting these problems it has been investigated and developed different methods from synthesis, in which this cation is supported in inorganic materials, concretely: silica gel, zeolites and sepiolitas. It has been come to the study, of individual form, the parameters that influence of significant form in the yield of the different processes and also has been verified the fotocatalitica activity of the new synthesized materials. In the developed methods it has been managed to totally control the amount of cation supported in the chosen materials and of this form to be able to know the effectiveness his activity like fotocatalizador in heterogenous phase. It is possible to emphasize, that the proposed procedures of synthesis, are quite simple and fast in his execution. The made studies have been carried

  17. Cosmic ray tests of a 4.6 m-long test drift chamber for JLC

    CERN Document Server

    Kurihara, Y; Sudo, S; Abe, T; Fujii, K; Ishihara, N; Khalatyan, N; Matsui, T; Nitoh, O; Ohama, T; Okuno, H; Sugiyama, A; Takahashi, K; Watanabe, T; Yoshida, T

    2000-01-01

    Performance of a 4.6 m-long drift chamber filled with a CO sub 2 iso-butane (90:10) mixture was studied using cosmic-ray data, in the course of detector R and D for JLC. After correcting the data for wire displacements due to gravitational and electrostatic forces, a spatial resolution of 100 mu m per wire was achieved over the full length of the chamber. The relation between wire efficiency and oxygen remnant in the chamber gas is also discussed.

  18. The Asymmetric CFT Landscape in D=4,6,8 with Extended Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Plauschinn, Erik

    2016-01-01

    We study asymmetric simple-current extensions of Gepner models in dimensions $D=4,6,8$ with at least eight supercharges in the right-moving sector. The models obtained in an extensive stochastic computer search belong to a small number of different classes. These classes can be categorized as dimensional reductions, asymmetric orbifolds with $(-1)^{F_L}$, extra gauge enhancement and as coming from the super Higgs-effect. Models in the latter class are particularly interesting, as they may correspond to non-geometric flux compactifications.

  19. 2,4,6-Triamino-1,3,5-triazine-1,3-diium aquapentafluoridoaluminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maisonneuve

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (C3H8N6[AlF5(H2O], was obtained by solvothermal synthesis from the reaction of aluminium hydroxide, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (melamine, aqueous HF and water at 323 K for 48 h. The structure consists of [AlF5(H2O]2− octahedra and diprotonated melaminium cations. Cohesion is ensured by a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds.

  20. Methyl 2-(4,6-dichloro-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylaminoacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio M. F. Vilela

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C6H6Cl2N4O2, was prepared by the nucleophilic substitution of 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine by glycine methyl ester hydrochloride, and was isolated from the reaction by using flash chromatography. The crystal structure at 150 K reveals the presence two crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetric unit which differ in the orientation of the pendant methoxycarbonyl group. Each molecular unit is engaged in strong and highly directional N—H...N hydrogen-bonding interactions with a symmetry-related molecule, forming supramolecular dimers which act as the synthons in the crystal packing.

  1. Synthesis of new 4,6-disubstituted-1,3-oxazinan-2-one analogues

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Jyoti Borah; Prodeep Phukan

    2013-11-01

    1,3-Oxazinan-2-one analogues are important heterocyclic compounds having significant biological activities. This study reports the synthesis of eight new 4,6-disubstituted -1,3-oxazinan-2-one analogues from corresponding homoallylic carbamates. Homoallylic carbamates were synthesized via a three-component reaction of aldehyde, allyltrimethylsilane and benzyl carbamate in presence of iodine as catalyst. In the next step, homoallylic carbamates were subjected to Sharpless dihydroxylation (racemic) to produce 3,4-dihydroxybutylcarbamate derivatives. This product was then treated with NaH in tetrahydrofuran (THF) to produce the desired 6-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxazinan-2-one in high yield.

  2. Characterization of two novel cold-inducible K3 dehydrin genes from alfalfa (Medicago sativa spp. sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Marie-Pier; Castonguay, Yves; Cloutier, Jean; Michaud, Josée; Bertrand, Annick

    2013-03-01

    Dehydrin defines a complex family of intrinsically disordered proteins with potential adaptive value with regard to freeze-induced cell dehydration. Search within an expressed sequence tags library from cDNAs of cold-acclimated crowns of alfalfa (Medicago sativa spp. sativa L.) identified transcripts putatively encoding K(3)-type dehydrins. Analysis of full-length coding sequences unveiled two highly homologous sequence variants, K(3)-A and K(3)-B. An increase in the frequency of genotypes yielding positive genomic amplification of the K(3)-dehydrin variants in response to selection for superior tolerance to freezing and the induction of their expression at low temperature strongly support a link with cold adaptation. The presence of multiple allelic forms within single genotypes and independent segregation indicate that the two K(3) dehydrin variants are encoded by distinct genes located at unlinked loci. The co-inheritance of the K(3)-A dehydrin with a Y(2)K(4) dehydrin restriction fragment length polymorphism with a demonstrated impact on freezing tolerance suggests the presence of a genome domain where these functionally related genes are located. These results provide additional evidence that dehydrin play important roles with regard to tolerance to subfreezing temperatures. They also underscore the value of recurrent selection to help identify variants within a large multigene family in allopolyploid species like alfalfa.

  3. Chemically catalyzed uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Vetiveria zizanioides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Konstantinos C. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Shakya, Kabindra M. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)]. E-mail: dibyendu.sarkar@utsa.edu; Pachanoor, Devanand [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The efficiency of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) in removing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media was explored in the presence of a common agrochemical, urea, used as a chaotropic agent. Chaotropic agents disrupt water structure, increasing solubilization of hydrophobic compounds (TNT), thus, enhancing plant TNT uptake. The primary objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize TNT absorption by vetiver in hydroponic media, and (ii) determine the effect of urea on chemically catalyzing TNT uptake by vetiver grass in hydroponic media. Results showed that vetiver exhibited a high TNT uptake capacity (1.026 mg g{sup -1}), but kinetics were slow. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly (p<0.001) increased the 2nd-order reaction rate constant over that of the untreated (no urea) control. Three major TNT metabolites were detected in the roots, but not in the shoot, namely 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 4-amino 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino 4,6-dinitrotoluene, indicating TNT degradation by vetiver grass. - A common agrochemical, urea catalyzes TNT removal by vetiver grass in aqueous media.

  4. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene reduction by carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Clostridium thermoaceticum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.; Lindahl, P.A.; Wang, C.; Bennett, G.N.; Rudolph, F.B.; Hughes, J.B.

    2000-03-01

    Purified CO dehydrogenase (CODH) from Clostridium thermoaceticum catalyzed the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The intermediates and reduced products of TNT transformation were separated and appear to be identical to the compounds formed by C. acetobutylicum, namely, 2-hydroxylamino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2 HA46DNT), 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4HA26DNT), 2,4-dihydroxylamino-6-nitrotoluene (24DHANT), and the Bamberger rearrangement product of 2,4-dihydroxylamino-6-nitrotoluene. In the presence of saturating CO, CODH catalyzed the conversion of TNT to two monohydroxylamino derivatives (2HA46DNT and 4HA26DNT), with 4HA26DNT as the dominant isomer. These derivatives were then converted to 24DHANT, which slowly converted to the Bamberger rearrangement product. Apparent K{sub m} and k{sub cat} values of TNT reduction were 165 {+-} 43 {micro}M for TNT and 400 {+-} 94 s{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Cyanide, an inhibitor for the CO/CO{sub 2} oxidation/reduction activity of CODH, inhibited the TNT degradation activity of CODH.

  5. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivella, M Àngels; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Oliveras, Anna; Jové, Patrícia

    2012-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are persistent lipophilic organic pollutants and tend to accumulate in growing plants. During growth, cork is in contact with the open air for long periods (9-12 years). Owing to the previous widespread use of organochlorine pesticides and their high persistence in the environment, there is a risk that residues of such pesticides may be present in cork. In this study, the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides-all of which are indicators of environmental pollution-were analyzed in cork bark samples from three regions in Spain and one in Portugal. In addition, the concentrations of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) were also analyzed. Our results show only very low concentrations of lindane, γ-HCH (cork sample from Extremadura (0.1 ng g(-1)) and p,p'-DDE was present at a maximum concentration of 2.9 ng g(-1) in a cork sample from Castile-La Mancha. However, all concentrations were well below the legal limit established by Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 (10 ng g(-1) in foodstuffs). We can conclude, therefore, that the cork samples we studied complied with food safety standards.

  6. Application of Azolla for 2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol (TCP Removal from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zazouli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The 2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol (TCP is a phenolic compound which it can produce adverse effects on human and environment. Therefore, the removal of these compounds is necessary. The aim of this study is the investigation of TCP removal by using Azolla filiculoides biomass. Materials & Methods: The Azolla biomass was dried in the sunlight, and then it was crushed and sieved to particle sizes in range of 1-2 mm. Next treated with 0.1M HCl for a period of 5h. The Azolla was washed with distilled water and it was used as adsorbent. The effect of operating parameters such as pH, contact time, TCP concentration and adsorbent dose on the TCP removal efficiency was investigated. The residues concentration of TCP was measured by spectrophotometer in λ max of 296 nm. Results: In optimum condition (pH 3, contact time 120 min , adsorbent dose 10 gr/l and TCP concentration 10 ppm, Azolla was able to remove 95% of TCP from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium data follows the Langmuir isotherm and the proper kinetic model is pseudo-second model. Conclusions: Adsorption process by Azolla filiculoides is an efficient method for removal of 2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol from aqueous solutions.

  7. 2,2′-(Disulfanediylbis[4,6-(4-fluorophenylpyrimidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Betz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C32H18F4N4S2, is a disulfide symmetrically substituted with two diaza-meta-terphenyl groups. In the crystal, the molecule adopts a twisted conformation with a C—S—S—C torsion angle of −91.82 (7°. One of the 4,6-(4-fluorophenylpyrimidine groups is virtually planar, with dihedral angles between the pyrimidine and benzene groups of 4.00 (8 and 5.44 (8°, wheares the other is non-planar with analogues dihedral angles of 18.69 (8 and 26.60 (8°. The planar 4,6-(4-fluorophenylpyrimidine groups are involved in π–π stacking interactions via their 4-fluorophenyl groups [centroid–centroid distances of 3.8556 (11 and 3.9284 (11 Å] that assemble the molecules into columns extended along the a axis. In addition, the structure is stabilized by C—F...π [F...centroid = 3.4017 (16 Å], C—H...F and C—H...π interactions.

  8. Visual detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotolune by molecularly imprinted colloidal array photonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Asher, Sanford A; Meng, Zihui; Yan, Zequn; Xue, Min; Qiu, Lili; Yi, Da

    2016-10-05

    We developed a photonic crystal (PhC) sensor for the quantification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in solution. Monodisperse (210nm in diameter) molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for TNT were prepared by the emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate and acrylamide in the presence of TNT as a template. The MICs were then self-assembled into close-packed opal PhC films. The adsorption capacity of the MICs for TNT was 64mg TNT/g. The diffraction from the PhC depended on the TNT concentration in a methanol/water (3/2, v/v) potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH=7.0, 30mM). The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 1.03μg. The color of the molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) changed from green to red with an 84nm diffraction red shift when the TNT concentration increased to 20mM. The sensor response time was 3min. The PhC sensor was selective for TNT compared to similar compounds such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2-nitromesitylene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, methylbenzene, 4-nitrophenol, 2-nitroaniline, 3-aminophenol and 3-nitroaniline. The sensor showed high stability with little response change after three years storage. This sensor technology might be useful for the visual determination of TNT.

  9. Dosimetric shield evaluation with tungsten sheet in 4, 6, and 9MeV electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Monzen, Hajime; Nakata, Manabu; Okada, Takashi; Yano, Shinsuke; Takakura, Toru; Kuwahara, Junichi; Sasaki, Makoto; Higashimura, Kyoji; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    In electron radiotherapy, shielding material is required to attenuate beam and scatter. A newly introduced shielding material, tungsten functional paper (TFP), has been anticipated to become a very useful device that is lead-free, light, flexible, and easily processed, containing very fine tungsten powder at as much as 80% by weight. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric changes due to TFP shielding for electron beams. TFP (thickness 0-15mm) was placed on water or a water-equivalent phantom. Percentage depth ionization and transmission were measured for 4, 6, and 9MeV electron beams. Off-center ratio was also measured using film dosimetry at depth of dose maximum under similar conditions. Then, beam profiles and transmission with two shielding materials, TFP and lead, were evaluated. Reductions of 95% by using TFP at 0.5cm depth occurred at 4, 9, and 15mm with 4, 6, and 9MeV electron beams, respectively. It is found that the dose tend to increase at the field edge shaped with TFP, which might be influenced by the thickness. TFP has several unique features and is very promising as a useful tool for radiation protection for electron beams, among others.

  10. A precessing jet model for the PN K 3-35: simulated radio-continuum emission

    CERN Document Server

    Velazquez, P; Esquivel, A; Raga, A

    2007-01-01

    The bipolar morphology of the planetary nebula (PN) K 3-35 observed in radio-continuum images was modelled with 3D hydrodynamic simulations with the adaptive grid code yguazu-a. We find that the observed morphology of this PN can be reproduced considering a precessing jet evolving in a dense AGB circumstellar medium, given by a mass loss rate \\dot{M}_{csm}=5x10^{-5}M_{\\odot}/yr and a terminal velocity v_{w}=10 km/s. Synthetic thermal radio-continuum maps were generated from numerical results for several frequencies. Comparing the maps and the total fluxes obtained from the simulations with the observational results, we find that a model of precessing dense jets, where each jet injects material into the surrounding CSM at a rate \\dot{M}_j=2.8x10^{-4} {M_{\\odot}/yr (equivalent to a density of 8x10^{4} {cm}^{-3}, a velocity of 1500 km/s, a precession period of 100 yr, and a semi-aperture precession angle of 20 degrees agrees well with the observations.

  11. Interpretation of anomalous normal state optical conductivity of K3C60 fullerides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Choudhary

    2013-02-01

    The observed frequency dependent optical response of alkali–metal-doped fulleride superconductors (c ≈ 19 K) has been theoretically analysed. The calculations of the optical conductivity, (), have been made within the two-component schemes: one is the coherent Drude carriers (electrons) responsible for superconductivity and the other is incoherent motion of carriers from one atom to other atom of C60 molecule to a pairing between Drude carriers. The approach accounts for the anomalies reported (frequency dependence of optical conductivity) in the optical measurements for the normal state. The model has only one free parameter, the relaxation rate. The frequency dependent relaxation rates are expressed in terms of memory functions. The coherent Drude carriers form a sharp peak at zero frequency and a long tail at higher frequencies, i.e. in the infrared region. However, the hopping of carriers from one atom to the other (incoherent motion of doped electrons) yields a peak value in the optical conductivity centred at mid-infrared region. It is found that both the Drude and hopping carriers will contribute to the optical process of conduction in the K3C60 and shows similar results on optical conductivity in the mid-infrared as well as infrared frequency regions as those revealed from experiments.

  12. Polyamide 4,6 nanocomposites with and without the use of a maleated polyolefin elastomer as a toughener

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Fang-Chyou, E-mail: maxson@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Deng, Tsung-Lin [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    In this study, polyamide 4,6 (PA 4,6)-based nanocomposites were successfully prepared using a twin screw extruder. A commercial organo-montmorillonite (denoted as 30B) and a commercial maleated polyolefin elastomer (denoted as POEMA) served as the reinforcing filler and toughener, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results confirmed the nano-scaled dispersion of 30B in the composites. Nevertheless, the presence of POEMA slightly depreciated the dispersibility of 30B. Polarized light microscope (PLM) observations showed that the inclusions of 30B and POEMA led to the formation of diffused/broken PA 4,6 spherulites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results indicated that the addition of 30B retarded the crystallization of PA 4,6; the addition of POEMA led to a similar retardation effect on PA 4,6 crystallization. Interesting melting behaviors associated mainly with the crystal annealing of PA 4,6 upon heating were observed for the fast-cooled samples. The presence of POEMA was noted to hamper the annealing process of PA 4,6 crystals. The thermal stability enhancement of PA 4,6 in the presence of 30B was further raised to a higher extent when POEMA was included in the matrix. The rigidity, including the storage/Young's/flexural moduli, of PA 4,6 significantly increased after adding 30B. These properties, however, declined after the additional incorporation of POEMA. The PA 4,6/POEMA/30B nanocomposites basically displayed balanced impact strength between those of the neat PA 4,6 and PA 4,6/POEMA blends.

  13. Functions of Flavin Reductase and Quinone Reductase in 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Degradation by Cupriavidus necator JMP134▿

    OpenAIRE

    Belchik, Sara Mae; Xun, Luying

    2007-01-01

    The tcpRXABCYD operon of Cupriavidus necator JMP134 is involved in the degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a toxic pollutant. TcpA is a reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2)-dependent monooxygenase that converts 2,4,6-TCP to 6-chlorohydroxyquinone. It has been implied via genetic analysis that TcpX acts as an FAD reductase to supply TcpA with FADH2, whereas the function of TcpB in 2,4,6-TCP degradation is still unclear. In order to provide direct biochemical evidence for t...

  14. 2-Carboxyquinolinium–2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonate–quinolinium-2-carboxylate (1/1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title adduct compound, C10H8NO2+·C6H2N3O9S−·C10H7NO2, from the reaction of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (picrylsulfonic acid with quinoline-2-carboxylic acid (quinaldic acid in 2-propanol–water, has been determined at 130 (2 K. The cation and the adduct species form a twisted cyclic hydrogen-bonded R22(10 pseudo-dimer which is extended into a one-dimensional chain structure through short head-to-tail carboxylic acid O—H...Ocarboxyl associations [O...O = 2.4711 (19 Å]. The picrylsulfonate anions are attached peripherally by single N—H...Osulfonate hydrogen bonds [N...O = 2.8643 (19 Å].

  15. Chemically catalyzed uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Vetiveria zizanioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Shakya, Kabindra M; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Pachanoor, Devanand

    2007-07-01

    The efficiency of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) in removing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media was explored in the presence of a common agrochemical, urea, used as a chaotropic agent. Chaotropic agents disrupt water structure, increasing solubilization of hydrophobic compounds (TNT), thus, enhancing plant TNT uptake. The primary objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize TNT absorption by vetiver in hydroponic media, and (ii) determine the effect of urea on chemically catalyzing TNT uptake by vetiver grass in hydroponic media. Results showed that vetiver exhibited a high TNT uptake capacity (1.026 mgg(-1)), but kinetics were slow. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly (pvetiver grass.

  16. High uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by vetiver grass--potential for phytoremediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Shakya, Kabindra M; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Pachanoor, Devanand

    2007-03-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potent mutagen, and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. Vast areas that have been previously used as ranges, munition burning, and open detonation sites are heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remediation activities in such sites are expensive and damaging to the ecosystem. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective, environment-friendly solution, utilizing plants to extract TNT from contaminated soil. We investigated the potential use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) to effectively remove TNT from contaminated solutions. Vetiver grass plants were grown in hydroponic systems containing 40 mg TNTL(-1) for 8d. Aqueous concentrations of TNT reached the method detection limit ( approximately 1 microg L(-1)) within the 8-d period, demonstrating high affinity of vetiver for TNT, without any visible toxic effects. Results from this preliminary hydroponic study are encouraging, but in need of verification using TNT-contaminated soils.

  17. A Novel (4,6)-Connected Net Based on Dysprosium Benzenedicarboxylate, [Dy(OAc)(BDC)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; LI Zhao-Ji; QIN Ye-Yan; CHENG Jian-Kai; YAO Yuan-Gen

    2008-01-01

    A new lanthanide coordination polymer, [Dy(OAc)(BDC)]n 1 (OAc= acetate, BDC = 1,4-benzenediacarboxylate), has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that complex 1 has infinite zigzag Dy-OAc chains, which are further connected by BDC to form a 3D metal-organic framework. According to topology analysis, this framework can be characterized as (4,6)-connected (3.4.54)(32.4.56.66) net that has never been reported before. Crystal structure for 1: space group Pbca, a = 13.314(3), b = 8.0269(18), c = 20.275(5) A, V = 2166.8(9) A3, C10H7O6Dy, Mr= 385.66, Z = 8, Dc = 2.364 g/cm3, μ = 6.910 mm-1, F(000) = 1448, the final R = 0.0181 and wR = 0.0520.

  18. Preparation, characterization and thermolysis of nitrate and perchlorate salts of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Inder Pal Singh; Kapoor, Manisha; Singh, Gurdip; Singh, Udai P; Goel, Nidhi

    2010-01-15

    Nitrate and perchlorate salts of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography and gravimetric analyses. Their thermal decomposition has been studied by TG, TG-DSC and ignition/explosion delays. It has been observed that proton transfer from substituted anilinium ion to nitrate and perchlorate ion regenerate amine, HNO(3) and HClO(4) in condensed phase at higher temperature, where oxidation-reduction between amine and acids leads to ignition and explosion. The kinetics of thermal decomposition was evaluated by applying model fitting as well as isoconversional methods. The values of calculated activation energy of nitrate and perchlorate salts are 77.9 and 118.2 kJ mol(-1) respectively. The possible pathways of thermolysis of these salts have also been proposed.

  19. The 21st LH Gray Conference (June 4-6, 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C. M. L. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Martin, C. J. [Gartnavel Royal Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sutton, D. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Wright, E. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-12

    The 21st LH Gray Conference, organised by the LH Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics which included: non-targeted effects of radiation, exposure to high natural background radiation, non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, lessons learnt from Chernobyl, radiation in the workplace, biokinetic modelling, uncertainties in risk estimation, issues in diagnostic medical exposures, lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and how the radiobiology-radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today.

  20. Coupled anaerobic/aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6 trichlorophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Degradation of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol(TCP) with co-immobilizing anaerobic granular sludge and isolated aerobic bacterial specieswas studied in coupled anaerobic/aerobic integrated reactors. The synergism of aerobes and anaerobes within co-immobilized granule mightfacilitate degrading the TCP and exchange of anaerobic metabolites 4-CP, which promoted system organic removal efficiency and recovered fromorganic shock-loads more quickly. The biomass specific activities experiment further confirmed that strict anaerobes be not affected over thecourse of this experiment by the presence of an oxic environment, aerobic activity predominated in the outer co-immobilized granule layers,while the interior was characterized by anaerobic activity. The co-immobilized granule could thus enable both aerobic and anaerobic microbesfunction in the same reactor and thereby integrate the oxidative and reductive catabolism.

  1. CO 4.6 micron emission lines from the IRC +10216 inner envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Wannier, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gas in the inner envelope of IRC +10216 at a scale size (approximately 2 arcsec) never observed previously. Observations were made at the 4.6-micrometer fundamental vibration-rotation band of CO, employing an annular observing aperture to isolate radiation resonantly scattered from the extended molecular envelope. In addition to the expected emission up to the expansion velocity of the envelope, both CO and 13CO show evidence of high-velocity features in the blue wing of the line, beyond the 15 km/s expansion velocity. A mass loss rate for the inner envelope of approximately 5-7 x 10 to the -5 solar mass per year is derived (lower than the values derived for the extended envelope from millimeter CO data).

  2. Soil decontamination of 2,4,6- trinitrotoluene by alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, S; Habibi-Rezaei, M; Khayami, M; Heydari, R

    2007-12-15

    Present study investigate the toxicity effect of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on a terrestrial plant, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) in artificial soils. In this study, TNT toxicity assessment was performed on spiked silica with this nitroaromatic compound by determination of the percent of emergence and shoots and roots biomasses at the concentration range of 3.2-10000 mg kg(-1) Dry Weight (DW). The emergence was reduced by 22-32% after 5 days of exposure at TNT concentrations up to 100 mg kg(-1) DW; shoot and root biomasses were reduced by 48-50 and 63-74%, respectively after 30 days exposure at TNT concentrations alfalfa cultivation for 30 days, TNT was partially transformed at the extent of 15-27%. This transformation decreased at higher TNT soil concentrations. TNT is taken up and metabolized by plants to its downstream derivatives.

  3. A Versatile Synthesis of 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene (TATB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, A R; Pagoria, P F; Schmidt, R D; Coburn, M D; Lee, G S; Hsu, P C

    2006-04-06

    A safe and versatile synthesis of high-purity 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) based on vicarious nucleophilic substitution (VNS) chemistry has now been achieved. The starting material can be selected from a variety of inexpensive nitroarenes obtained from commercial suppliers (4-nitroaniline, picric acid) or U.S. stockpiles (ammonium picrate, TNT). The use of picric acid and ammonium picrate (Explosive D) is preferred as both compounds are directly converted to picramide in the presence of ammonium salts (diammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium carbamate) in sulfolane at elevated temperature. The picramide resulting from this process is directly converted to TATB using an optimized VNS reaction employing inexpensive hydroxylamine as the nucleophilic aminating reagent. A crucial element in our synthesis is a novel and efficient purification of TATB.

  4. Síntesis y caracterización del Cis-4, 6-Dimetil-4, 6-Dideutero-1, 3-Ditiano, R-2-Benzoíl-Trans-4,6- Dimetil-Cis-4, 6-Dideutero-1, 3-Ditiano y R-2-Difenilfosfinoíl- Trans-4...

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Con la finalidad de explicar el efecto anomérico en el segmento S-C-P donde participan átomos de la tercera fila de la tabla periódica y cuya característica es tener un efecto muy estable, se busca obtener más información sobre la naturaleza del puente de hidrógeno propuesto. A fin de explicar el origen de este efecto, se decidió estudiar la interacción CH—OX mediante la sustitución isotópica del átomo de hidrógeno por el de deuterio a través de la síntesis del 4,6-dimetil-1,3-ditiano deutera...

  5. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Bis-4,6-sulfonamidated 5,7-Dinitrobenzofuroxans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Galkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of bis-4,6-sulfonamidated 5,7-dinitrbenzofuroxans  7–11 had been synthesized and tested for antimicrobial activity. The structures of new sulfanilamide derivatives were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry (MALDITOF. The synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activity using the disk diffusion method against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus; the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis; the fungal strain Aspergillus niger; and the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Our results indicate that the compounds 7–11 exhibit potent antimicrobial activity. The stability of the compounds was evaluated by TG and DSC methods.

  6. Preparation, characterization and thermolysis of nitrate and perchlorate salts of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, Inder Pal Singh; Kapoor, Manisha [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009 (India); Singh, Gurdip, E-mail: gsingh4us@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009 (India); Singh, Udai P.; Goel, Nidhi [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2010-01-15

    Nitrate and perchlorate salts of 2,4,6-trimethylaniline have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography and gravimetric analyses. Their thermal decomposition has been studied by TG, TG-DSC and ignition/explosion delays. It has been observed that proton transfer from substituted anilinium ion to nitrate and perchlorate ion regenerate amine, HNO{sub 3} and HClO{sub 4} in condensed phase at higher temperature, where oxidation-reduction between amine and acids leads to ignition and explosion. The kinetics of thermal decomposition was evaluated by applying model fitting as well as isoconversional methods. The values of calculated activation energy of nitrate and perchlorate salts are 77.9 and 118.2 kJ mol{sup -1} respectively. The possible pathways of thermolysis of these salts have also been proposed.

  7. Oral exposure of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 2,4,6-tribromophenol affects reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halden, Anna Norman; Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt; Andersson, Patrik L;

    2010-01-01

    was not significantly affected, but yolk-sac oedema tended to increase in frequency in exposed groups with time. Our results show that dietary exposure to TBP, at concentrations found in marine organisms that are part of the natural diet of wild fish, can interfere with reproduction in zebrafish. We also observed low......The bromophenol 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) is widely used as an industrial chemical, formed by degradation of tetrabromobisphenol-A, and it occurs naturally in marine organisms. Concentrations of TBP in fish have been related to intake via feed, but little is known about effects on fish health...... after oral exposure. In this study, we exposed adult male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) to TBP via feed in nominal concentrations of 33, 330, and 3300 mu g/g feed (or control feed) for 6 weeks to assess the effects of TBP on reproductive output, gonad morphology, circulatory vitellogenin levels...

  8. Crystal structure of [2-(triethylammonioethyl][(2,4,6-triisopropylphenylsulfonyl]amide tetrahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Golz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The zwitterionic title compound, C23H42N2O2S·4H2O, crystallized as a tetrahydrate from a solution of N-[(2,4,6-triisopropylphenylsulfonyl]aziridine in triethylamine, diethyl ether and pentane in the presence of moist air. It is formed by a nucleophillic ring-opening that is assumed to be reversible. The molecular structure shows a major disorder of the triisopropylphenyl group over two equally occupied locations. An interesting feature is the uncommon hydrate structure, exhibiting a tape-like motif which can be classified as a transition of the one-dimensional T4(26(2 motif into the two-dimensional L4(65(76(8 motif.

  9. Psychometric properties of the DCD-Q-07 in children ages to 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Arpita; Kwan, Matthew; Rodriguez, Christine; Missiuna, Cheryl; Cairney, John

    2014-02-01

    It is important to identify Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) early in a child's life to allow for proper and timely intervention and support, and to reduce the negative secondary consequences associated with this condition. In this study we assessed the psychometric properties (construct validity, concurrent validity, reliability and test accuracy) of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCD-Q-07) in preschool children. A community-based sample of children ages 4-6 (n=181) were screened for motor difficulties using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC-2). Use of the M-ABC-2 resulted in the identification of 29 children below the 15th percentile, which we classified as probable DCD. Parents of these children concurrently completed the DCD-Q-07 to report their child's motor performance. The DCD-Q-07 demonstrated high internal consistency for both the full scale (alpha=0.881) and each subscale: control during movement (alpha=0.813), fine motor and handwriting (alpha=0.869) and general coordination (alpha=0.728). Moderate correlations (r=0.47-0.63) were also seen between the subscales on the DCD-Q-07, the strongest correlation being between control during movement and general coordination (r=0.63). Based on published age and sex cut points, the DCD-Q-07 showed poor sensitivity (20.7%) but high specificity (92.1%) against the M-ABC-2. Overall agreement with the M-ABC-2 was low using ROC analysis (area under the curve=0.654). Although it is important to screen for DCD in young children, the DCD-Q-07 may not be the best choice as a screening tool for DCD in preschool children ages 4-6 due to its low test accuracy.

  10. Summary of External Peer Review and Public Comments and Disposition for 1,3,4,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8,-hexamethylcyclopenta[γ]-2-benzopyran (HHCB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the public and external peer review comments that the EPA’s Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) received for the draft work plan risk assessment for 1,3,4,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta--2-benzopyran

  11. 1, 3-Dipolar cycloaddition reactions: Synthesis of 5-benzyl-1-(2',4'-dibromophenyl)-3-(4"-substituted phenyl)-3a,4,6,6a-tetrahydro-1, 5-pyrrolo[3,4-]pyrazole-4,6-dione derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manpreet Kaur; Baldev Singh; Baljit Singh

    2013-11-01

    1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of nitrilimines 3 with -benzyl maleimide 4 has provided 5-benzyl-1-(2',4'-dibromophenyl)-3-(4"-substituted phenyl)-3a,4,6,6a-tetrahydro-1,5-pyrrolo[3,4-]pyrazole-4,6-dione derivatives 5 in excellent yield as the only isomer through a concerted pathway.

  12. A study of frequency band structure in two-dimensional homogeneous anisotropic phononic K3-metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, V. N.; Navadeh, N.; Fallah, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Phononic metamaterials are synthesised materials in which locally resonant units are arranged in a particular geometry of a substratum lattice and connected in a predefined topology. This study investigates dispersion surfaces in two-dimensional anisotropic acoustic metamaterials involving mass-in-mass units connected by massless springs in K3 topology. The reasons behind the particular choice of this topology are explained. Two sets of solutions for the eigenvalue problem | {\\boldsymbol{D}}({ω }2,{\\boldsymbol{k}})| =0 are obtained and the existence of absolutely different mechanisms of gap formation between acoustic and optical surface frequencies is shown as a bright display of quantum effects like strong coupling, energy splitting, and level crossings in classical mechanical systems. It has been concluded that a single dimensionless parameter i.e. relative mass controls the order of formation of gaps between different frequency surfaces. If the internal mass of the locally resonant mass-in-mass unit, m, increases relative to its external mass, M, then the coupling between the internal and external vibrations in the whole system rises sharply, and a threshold {μ }* is reached so that for m/M> {μ }* the optical vibrations break the continuous spectrum of ‘acoustic phonons’ creating the gap between them for any value of other system parameters. The methods to control gap parameters and polarisation properties of the optical vibrations created over these gaps were investigated. Dependencies of morphology and width of gaps for several anisotropic cases have been expounded and the physical meaning of singularity at the point of tangential contact between two adjacent frequency surfaces has been provided. Repulsion between different frequency band curves, as planar projections of surfaces, has been explained. The limiting case of isotropy has been discussed and it has been shown that, in the isotropic case, the lower gap always forms, irrespective of the value

  13. Functional anatomy of the cardiovascular system: professional development for PreK-3 teachers using a "train and equip" method results in learning opportunities for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E Robert

    2008-01-01

    Preadolescent students are interested in learning the structure and function of the human body. However, their teachers are not trained in this content. The purpose of this project was to expand a successful outreach effort in the health sciences for grade 7-12 teachers to include PreK-3 teachers. A "Healthy Hearts" workshop was offered to train the teachers in relevant content and also to give them a resource kit of supplies and equipment to facilitate the transference of the training into educational opportunities for their students. The workshop included many role-playing activities and use of all items in the resource kit. A total of 25 workshops were conducted in 14 different community locations with 716 PreK-3 teachers attending from 169 communities representing 59 (79%) of the state's 75 counties. African American (AA) teacher participation was 35%, twice the state AA population rate and 3.5x the AA public school teacher rate. Pre to Posttest scores increased an average of 15%. The results of the evaluation measures regarding the workshop and the transference of the training and use of resource kit items into learning opportunities for students were excellent. Universities have the capability, perhaps the responsibility, to provide the much-needed professional development training to PreK-12 teachers. Anatomists in medical and nonmedical school settings are well positioned to participate in this process and help close the gap between the interest young children have in learning about the human body and the lack of teacher training in this content.

  14. Effects of vitamin D3 and vitamin K3 on experimental urolithiasis in rats%维生素D3和维生素K3对实验性肾结石的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常连胜; 冯陶; 郭应禄; 窦长琪; 魏今; 黄有媛; 李菊香

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between urolithiasis and vitamin D3 as well as vitamin K3.Methods 36 adult male SD rats were randomized to control group、stone-forming group、vitamin D3 group、vitamin D3+stone-forming group、vitamin K3 group and vitamin K+stone-forming group.OPN and its mRNA of kidneys were detected,and the crystal components in urine were determined.Results Vitamin D3 and vitamin K3 could enhance the expression of OPN mRNA in rat kidneys of stone models.Vitamin D3 could increase the concentration of calcium in urine significantly.Vitamin K3 could inhibit the excretion of oxalate in urine and also inhibits the deposition of oxalate crystals in kidney.Conclusions The results indicated that vitamin D3 may promote stone formation via various mechanisms,whereas vitamin K3 could inhibit this process.%目的 探讨维生素D3和维生素K3与尿石症的关系。方法 SD大鼠36只,随机分为对照组(A组)、成石组(B组)、维生素D3组(C组)、成石+维生素D3组(D组)、维生素K3组(E组)和成石+维生素K3组(F组),用免疫组化和原位杂交技术检测各组大鼠肾脏骨桥蛋白(OPN)及其mRNA的表达量,并测定尿晶体成分的浓度。结果 免疫组化结果显示,OPN主要表达于肾脏远曲小管和集合管,B、C、E组鼠肾OPN的表达强度明显高于A组(P均<0.05);D、F组OPN的表达强度明显高于C、E组(P均<0.05),即维生素D3或维生素K3与诱石剂合用时呈相加效应。应用诱石剂后,D组尿钙排泄量明显增加,而F组草酸盐明显低于B组(P<0.05)。维生素K3可减少尿草酸盐的分泌和草酸钙晶体的沉积。结论 维生素D3可能通过多种机制促进肾结石形成,而维生素K3有抑制结石形成的作用。

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of a New Niobate K3Sr3MoNb9O30 with TTB Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new niobate K3Sr3MoNb9O30 was synthesized for the first time by solid state reaction,and was characterized by EPMA,XRD,SEM and DTA.The X-ray powder diffraction data of K3Sr3MoNb9O30 was first reported.The results show that K3Sr3MoNb9O30 belongs to tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) structure with unit cell parameters a=12.4292(5),c=3.9338(3),and space group P4bm (100),z=1.The calculated and measured densities are 4.897 g/cm3 and 4.890 g/cm3,respectively.

  16. Luminescence behaviour of Mn(4+) ions in seven coordination environments of K3ZrF7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huiying; Rong, Meizhu; Zhou, Yayun; Yang, Zhiyu; Wang, Zhengliang; Zhang, Qiuhan; Wang, Qin; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-06-21

    A single-phased Mn(4+) doped fluorozirconate red phosphor, K3ZrF7:Mn(4+), has been successfully synthesized. Its structure, morphology, composition and optical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and by using luminescence decay curves. It was found that Mn(4+) ions only coordinating with seven F(-) anions in a K3ZrF7 crystal field can possess intense red emission under blue light illumination. Mixing the obtained K3ZrF7:Mn(4+) red phosphor with commercial Y3Al5O12:Ce(3+) and coating the mixture on a blue-GaN chip, obvious warm white light with a low correlated color temperature (2970 K) and a high color rendering index (Ra = 91.4 and R9 = 72) were achieved from white light-emitting diode devices.

  17. Visual detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotolune by molecularly imprinted colloidal array photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Asher, Sanford A., E-mail: asher@pitt.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Meng, Zihui, E-mail: m_zihui@yahoo.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yan, Zequn [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Xue, Min, E-mail: minxue@bit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Qiu, Lili, E-mail: qiulili@bit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yi, Da [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Graphical abstract: Molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) was explored for the selective visual detection of TNT with color changing from green to red. And molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) were evaluated for the adsorption capacity and the imprinting efficiency. The MICA had excellent flexibility, reversibility and stability. It promised high potential for the visual semi-quantitative detection of other explosives. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) was used to visually detect TNT. • The relationship of particle size, diffracted wavelength and color was discussed. • The adsorption capacity and imprinting efficiency of MICs were calculated. • MICA had short response time, high selectivity, good reversibility and stability. • MICA had high potential to be used in other customed visual explosive detection. - Abstract: We developed a photonic crystal (PhC) sensor for the quantification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in solution. Monodisperse (210 nm in diameter) molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for TNT were prepared by the emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate and acrylamide in the presence of TNT as a template. The MICs were then self-assembled into close-packed opal PhC films. The adsorption capacity of the MICs for TNT was 64 mg TNT/g. The diffraction from the PhC depended on the TNT concentration in a methanol/water (3/2, v/v) potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH = 7.0, 30 mM). The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 1.03 μg. The color of the molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) changed from green to red with an 84 nm diffraction red shift when the TNT concentration increased to 20 mM. The sensor response time was 3 min. The PhC sensor was selective for TNT compared to similar compounds such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2-nitromesitylene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, methylbenzene, 4-nitrophenol

  18. Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide…

  19. Colimaite, K3VS4 - a new potassium-vanadium sulfide mineral from the Colima volcano, State of Colima (Mexico)

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Ostrooumov; Yuri Taran; María Arellano-Jiménez; Alfredo Ponce; José Reyes-Gasga

    2009-01-01

    Colimaite, K3VS4, has been discovered in the active fumaroles of the Colima volcano crater, Mexico. The mineral is named colimaite after the locality, which, at the same time, is the current active volcanic crater and the name of the State of Colima (Mexico). Colimaite is the naturally occurring analog of synthetic K3VS4. The mineral formed as a sublimate from the volcanic gases and is associated with cristobalite, arcanite, thenardite, barite and native gold. Colimaite occurs in hedgehog -l...

  20. The asymptotic profile of $\\chi_y$-genera of Hilbert schemes of points on K3 surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Manschot, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The Hodge numbers of the Hilbert schemes of points on algebraic surfaces are given by G\\"ottsche's formula, which expresses the generating functions of the Hodge numbers in terms of theta and eta functions. We specialize in this paper to generating functions of the $\\chi_y(\\mathrm{K3}^{[n]})$ genera of Hilbert schemes of $n$ points on K3 surfaces. We determine asymptotic values of the coefficients of the $\\chi_y$-genus for $n\\to \\infty$ as well as their asymptotic profile.

  1. Structural and optical properties of nano-sized K3Nd(PO4)2:Yb3+ orthophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizer, D; Macalik, L; Tomaszewski, P E; Lisiecki, R; Godlewska, P; Matraszek, A; Szczygieł, I; Zawadzki, M; Hanuza, J

    2009-09-01

    Nanocrystals of tripotassium neodymium bis-phosphate(V) doped with ytterbium ions, K3Nd(PO4)2: Yb3+, were synthesized by Pechini method. The obtained grains, having an average size of about 40 nm, were characterised by X-ray, electron microscopic, electron absorption, luminescence and IR studies. Moreover, fluorescence decay studies were carried out at room temperature. The energy transfer from the Nd3+ to Yb3+ was described and discussed. The results were compared to those of the K3Nd(PO4)2 bulk crystal.

  2. Measurements of Coronal Faraday Rotation at 4.6 Solar Radii

    CERN Document Server

    Kooi, Jason E; Buffo, Jacob J; Spangler, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Many competing models for the coronal heating and acceleration mechanisms of the high-speed solar wind depend on the solar magnetic field and plasma structure inside the corona within heliocentric distances of 5 R_sun. We report on sensitive VLA full-polarization observations made in August, 2011, at 5.0 and 6.1 GHz (each with a bandwidth of 128 MHz) of the radio galaxy 3C228 through the solar corona at heliocentric distances of 4.6 - 5.0 R_sun. Observations at 5.0 GHz permit measurements deeper in the corona than previous VLA observations at 1.4 and 1.7 GHz. These Faraday rotation observations provide unique information on the magnetic field in this region of the corona. The measured Faraday rotation on this day was lower than our a priori expectations, but we have successfully modeled the measurement in terms of observed properties of the corona on the day of observation. Our data on 3C228 provide two lines of sight (separated by 46'', 33,000 km in the corona). We detected three periods during which there a...

  3. Synthesis and pharmacological studies of aminoxy containing 2,4,6-trisubstituted-s-triazine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Shilpi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Arylamines on diazotization and further treatment with dicyandiamide yielded aryldicyandiamide (1a-d, which on addition with aminoxy compound (2 gave corresponding biguanides (3a-d. Cycloaddition of biguanide with ethylchloroacetate furnished 2,4,6-trisubstituted-s-triazines (4a-d. Subsequent treatment of these compounds with N-hydroxyphthalimide or N-hydroxysuccinimide in presence of triethylamine gave final compounds (5a-h. IR, 1 H NMR and mass spectra were used to confirm their structure. Compounds (5a-h were screened for antibacterial ( Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aureus and Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal ( Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus activities. Antibacterial activity revealed that compounds 5a, 5b, 5c, 5g showed comparable activity against bacteria P. vulgaris, P. aureus, where rest of the compounds showed weak activity against all the pathogenic bacteria. The fungicidal data indicated that compound 5d possess high level activity and rest of the compounds showed comparable to the standard.

  4. Integrated photocatalytic-biological reactor for accelerated 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation and mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongming; Sun, Xia; Chen, Lujun; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2012-02-01

    An integrated photocatalytic-biological reactor (IPBR) was used for accelerated degradation and mineralization of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) through simultaneous, intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation in one reactor. Intimate coupling was realized by circulating the IPBR's liquid contents between a TiO(2) film on mat glass illuminated by UV light and honeycomb ceramics as biofilm carriers. Three protocols-photocatalysis alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and integrated photocatalysis and biodegradation (photobiodegradation, P&B)-were used for degradation of different initial TCP concentrations. Intimately coupled P&B also was compared with sequential P and B. TCP removal by intimately coupled P&B was faster than that by P and B alone or sequentially coupled P and B. Because photocatalysis relieved TCP inhibition to biodegradation by decreasing its concentration, TCP biodegradation could become more important over the full batch P&B experiments. When phenol, an easy biodegradable compounds, was added to TCP in order to promote TCP mineralization by means of secondary utilization, P&B was superior to P and B in terms of mineralization of TCP, giving 95% removal of chemical oxygen demand. Cl(-) was only partially released during P experiments (24%), and this corresponded to its poor mineralization in P experiments (32%). Thus, intimately coupled P&B in the IPBR made it possible obtain the best features of each: rapid photocatalytic transformation in parallel with mineralization of photocatalytic products.

  5. High uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by vetiver grass - Potential for phytoremediation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Konstantinos C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Shakya, Kabindra M. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States)]. E-mail: dibyendu.sarkar@utsa.edu; Pachanoor, Devanand [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, 6900 North Loop 1604 West, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249-0663 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potent mutagen, and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. Vast areas that have been previously used as ranges, munition burning, and open detonation sites are heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remediation activities in such sites are expensive and damaging to the ecosystem. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective, environment-friendly solution, utilizing plants to extract TNT from contaminated soil. We investigated the potential use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) to effectively remove TNT from contaminated solutions. Vetiver grass plants were grown in hydroponic systems containing 40 mg TNT L{sup -1} for 8 d. Aqueous concentrations of TNT reached the method detection limit ({approx}1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) within the 8-d period, demonstrating high affinity of vetiver for TNT, without any visible toxic effects. Results from this preliminary hydroponic study are encouraging, but in need of verification using TNT-contaminated soils. - Vetiver grass demonstrates ability to absorb TNT in aqueous media.

  6. Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Quanlin; Ye, Zhengfang; Zhang, Mohe

    2010-08-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water from Chinese explosive industry was treated by vacuum distillation. The water quality before and after distillation was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, UV-vis spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) and other physical and chemical analyses. The acute toxicity of TNT red water and its distillate was evaluated by determining the luminescence inhibition of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. The results showed that the parameters except pH of the distillate met the criterion specified by the Chinese discharge standard for water pollutants from ordnance industry. Distillation removed chemical oxygen demand almost completely and the chrominance was reduced from 100,000 degrees to 17 degrees . The concentrations of 2,4-dinitrotoluene-3-sulfonate and 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonate decreased from 20 x 10(3) and 31 x 10(3)mg L(-1) to 1.3 and 1.8 mg L(-1), respectively. GC/MS results showed that most of the organic components of TNT red water can be removed by distillation. The acute toxicity of water sample after distillation reduced 96%, compared with that of unprocessed TNT red water. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecularly Imprinted Nanofiber Film for Sensitive Sensing 2,4,6-Tribromophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of brominated flame retardants is of great importance, but remains a challenge. Particularly, universal and facile approaches are limited. Here we report a new general approach, combining molecular imprinting and electrospinning, for the efficient and facile imprinting sensor of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP, which was used as a “novel” brominated flame retardant. With TBP as the template molecular, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD as the functional monomer, and poly-vinylbutyral (PVB as the electro-spinning matrix, the nanofiber film was deposited on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE via electrospinning technique directly. The β-CD-PVB/GCE sensor system exhibited excellent TBP sensing performances, such as a low detection limit (6.29 × 10−10 mol·L−1 at room temperature, selective recognition to TBP/phenol/4-methyl-phenol, and good regeneration performance. The approach of fabricating a molecular imprinting nanofiber sensor may shed new light in the detection of other phenolic pollutants.

  8. 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) photobiodegradation and its effect on community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongming; Pu, Xuejing; Fang, Miaomiao; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Lujun; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2012-07-01

    The mechanisms occurring in a photolytic circulating-bed biofilm reactor (PCBBR) treating 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) were investigated using batch experiments following three protocols: photodegradation alone (P), biodegradation alone (B), and intimately coupled photodegradation and biodegradation (P&B). Initially, the ceramic particles used as biofilm carriers rapidly adsorbed TCP, particularly in the B experiments. During the first 10 min, the TCP removal rate for P&B was equal to the sum of the rates for P and B, and P&B continued to have the greatest TCP removal, with the TCP concentration approaching zero only in the P&B experiments. When phenol, an easily biodegradable compound, was added along with TCP in order to promote TCP mineralization by means of secondary utilization, P&B was superior to P and B in terms of mineralization of TCP, giving 95% removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The microbial communities, examined by clone libraries, changed dramatically during the P&B experiments. Whereas Burkholderia xenovorans, a known degrader of chlorinated aromatics, was the dominant strain in the TCP-acclimated inoculum, it was replaced in the P&B biofilm by strains noted for biofilm formation and biodegrading non-chlorinated aromatics.

  9. 7-Amino-2,4,6-trimethylquinoline as a mutagenic pyrolysate compound of polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, T; Watanabe, T; Ono, M; Fukunaga, Y; Fukui, S

    1989-07-01

    Commercial polyurethane foam was pyrolyzed by gas burners at 600-700 degrees C for 2 h with introduction of air (200 ml/min). Gaseous pyrolysate was trapped in water and 10% hydrochloric acid. Basic and neutral pyrolysates have a mutagenic activity (447 revertants/10 micrograms) in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the presence of a mammalian metabolic activation system. These pyrolysates contained 12.32 mg of amino compounds as diaminotoluene per g polyurethane foam, amounts which are 120 times higher than those in unpyrolysed polyurethane foam. Basic and neutral pyrolysates were subjected to silica gel column chromatography, and 6 fractions having mutagenic potency were obtained. The colorless needles (m.p. 200.5-202 degrees C) were separated from fraction 4. These needles have the most potent mutagenicity (678 revertants/2 micrograms) in basic and neutral pyrolysates in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 with 10% S9 mix. From the physicochemical data, the structure of the compound was estimated to be an aminoquinoline derivative, and was identified using synthesized 7-amino-2,4,6-trimethylquinoline by mixed melting point, thin-layer co-chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  10. Quantum Transport Simulation of High-Power 4.6-μm Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olafur Jonasson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a quantum transport simulation of a 4.6- μ m quantum cascade laser (QCL operating at high power near room temperature. The simulation is based on a rigorous density-matrix-based formalism, in which the evolution of the single-electron density matrix follows a Markovian master equation in the presence of applied electric field and relevant scattering mechanisms. We show that it is important to allow for both position-dependent effective mass and for effective lowering of very thin barriers in order to obtain the band structure and the current-field characteristics comparable to experiment. Our calculations agree well with experiments over a wide range of temperatures. We predict a room-temperature threshold field of 62 . 5 kV/cm and a characteristic temperature for threshold-current-density variation of T 0 = 199 K . We also calculate electronic in-plane distributions, which are far from thermal, and show that subband electron temperatures can be hundreds to thousands of degrees higher than the heat sink. Finally, we emphasize the role of coherent tunneling current by looking at the size of coherences, the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix. At the design lasing field, efficient injection manifests itself in a large injector/upper lasing level coherence, which underscores the insufficiency of semiclassical techniques to address injection in QCLs.

  11. Degradation mechanism of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in supercritical water oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potential carcinogens and TNT contaminated wastewater, which could not be effectively disposed with conventional treatments. The supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to treat TNT contaminated wastewater was studied in this article. The TNT concentration in wastewater was measured by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) and the degraded intermediates were analyzed using GC-MS. The results showed that SCWO could degrade TNT efficiently with O2. The reaction temperature, pressure, residence time and oxygen excess were the main contributing factors in the process. The decomposition of TNT was accelerated as the temperature or residence time increases. At 550℃, 24 MPa, 120 s and oxygen excess 300%, TNT removal rate could exceed 99.9%. Partial oxidation occurs in SCWO without oxygen. It was concluded that supercritical water was a good solvent and had excellent oxidation capability in the existence of oxygen. The main intermediates of TNT during SCWO include toluene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, nitrophenol, naphthalene, fluorenone, dibutyl phthalate, alkanes and several dimers based on the intermediate analysis. Some side reactions, such as coupled reaction, hydrolysis reaction and isomerization reaction may take place simultaneously as TNT is oxidized by SCWO.

  12. Structural diversity in binuclear complexes of alkaline earth metal ions with 4,6-diacetylresorcinol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebl, Magdy; Khalil, Saied M. E.; Taha, A.; Mahdi, M. A. N.

    2012-11-01

    A new series of binuclear and mixed-ligand complexes with the general formula: [M 2(LO)yClz]; where M = Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II); H2L = 4,6-diacetylresorcinol, the secondary ligand L' = acetylacetone (acac), 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) or 2,2'-bipyridyl (Bipy), n = 0-2, m = 1, 2, x = 0, 1, 2, 4, y = 0, 2, 4, 5 and z = 0-2; have been synthesized. They have been characterized by the analytical and spectral methods (IR, 1H NMR and mass) as well as TGA and molar conductivity measurements. The spectroscopic and conductance data suggested that the H2L ligand behaves as a neutral, monobasic or dibasic tetradentate ligand, depending on the basicity of the secondary ligand, through the two phenolic and two carbonyl groups. Binuclear octahedral geometry has been assigned to all of the prepared complexes in various molar ratios 2:2; 2:2:2; 1:2:1 and 1:2:4 (L:M:L'). Molecular orbital calculations were performed for the ligands and their complexes using Hyperchem 7.52 program on the bases of PM3 level and the results were correlated with the experimental data. The ligand and some of its alkaline metal(II) complexes showed antibacterial activity towards some of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeast (Candida albicans) and fungus (Aspergillus fumigatus).

  13. Fenton-like oxidation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene using different iron minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Roger; Hanna, Khalil; Chiron, Serge

    2007-10-15

    Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was investigated in presence of different oxidants (Fenton's reagent, sodium persulfate, peroxymonosulfate and potassium permanganate) and different iron minerals (ferrihydrite, hematite, goethite, lepidocrocite, magnetite and pyrite) either in aqueous solution or in soil slurry systems. Fenton's reagent was the only oxidant able to degrade TNT in solution (k(app)=0.0348 min(-1)). When using iron oxide as heterogeneous catalyst at pH 3, specific reaction rate constants per surface area were k(surf)=1.47.10(-3) L min(-1) m(-2) and k(surf)=0.177 L min(-1) m(-2) for magnetite and pyrite, respectively while ferric iron minerals were inefficient for TNT degradation. The major asset of iron mineral catalyzed Fenton-like treatment has been the complete oxidation of the pollutant avoiding the accumulation of possible toxic by-products. In soil slurry systems, 38% abatement of the initial TNT concentration (2 g/kg) was reached after 24 h treatment time at neutral pH. Rate limiting steps were the availability of soluble iron at neutral pH together with desorption of the TNT fraction sorbed on the clay mineral surfaces.

  14. Theoretical studies on 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol derivatives aimed at finding superior propellants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Lianjun; Wang, Guixiang; Du, Hongchen; Gong, Xuedong

    2012-04-01

    In an attempt to find superior propellants, 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP) and its -NO(2), -NH(2), -CN, -NC, -ONO(2), and -NF(2) derivatives were studied at the B3LYP/6-311++G level of density functional theory (DFT). Sensitivity was evaluated using bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) and molecular surface electrostatic potentials. The C-NO(2) bond appears to be the trigger bond during the thermolysis process for these compounds, except for the -ONO(2) and -NF(2) derivatives. Electrostatic potential results show that electron-withdrawing substituents make the charge imbalance more anomalous, which may change the strength of the bond, especially the weakest trigger bond. Most of the DDNP derivatives have the impact sensitivities that are higher than that of DDNP, making them favorable for use as solid propellants in micro-rockets. The theoretical densities (ρ), heats of formation (HOFs), detonation energies (Q), detonation pressures (P), and detonation velocities (D) of the compounds were estimated. The effects of various substituent groups on ρ, HOF, Q, D, and P were investigated. Some derivatives exhibit perfect detonation properties. The calculated relative specific impulses (I (r,sp)) of all compounds except for -NH(2) derivatives were higher than that of DDNP, and also meet the requirements of propellants.

  15. Transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Raoultella terrigena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, H; Bausinger, T; Lehmler, I; Perret, N; Fels, G; Dehner, U; Preuss, J; König, H

    2007-02-01

    Manufacture of nitroorganic explosives generates toxic wastes leading to contamination of soils and waters, especially groundwater. For that reason bacteria living in environments highly contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and other nitroorganic compounds were investigated for their capacity for TNT degradation. One isolate, Raoultella terrigena strain HB, removed TNT at concentrations between 10 and 100 mg l(-1) completely from culture supernatants under optimum aerobic conditions within several hours. Only low concentrations of nutrient supplements were needed for the cometabolic transformation process. Radioactivity measurements with ring-labelled (14)C-TNT detected about 10-20% of the initial radioactivity in the culture supernatant and the residual 80-90% as water-insoluble organic compounds in the cellular pellet. HPLC analysis identified aminodinitrotoluenes (2-ADNT, 4-ADNT) and diaminonitrotoluenes (2,4-DANT) as the metabolites which remained soluble in the culture medium and azoxy-dimers as the main products in the cell extracts. Hence, the new isolate could be useful for the removal of TNT from contaminated waters.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of spherical 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zong-Wei; Liu, Yu-Cun; Liu, Deng-Cheng; Yan, Li-Wei; Chen, Ji

    2010-05-15

    Spherical 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP) with good flowability and controlled bulk density (0.65-0.95 g/cm(3)) has been prepared at factory scale by the modified method using 4-methylphenol as crystal control ingredient. Results showed that the yield of product was increased by 5-10%, and the waste water was significantly decreased due to circulation use of waste water compared with traditional method. Synthesized spherical DDNP was characterized by IR, laser granularity measurement, SEM, HPLC and XRD. IR spectrum confirmed the structural features of spherical DDNP. The particle analysis revealed that the modified method could offer spherical DDNP with average particle size of 350 microm and high purity (>98.52%). The XRD peaks of spherical DDNP have similar diffraction angles as those of traditional DDNP. The DSC profile of spherical DDNP showed the exothermic decomposition in the temperature range of 161.2-188.5 degrees C. The product can be pressed at over 40MPa without dead pressed phenomenon, and the minimum detonating charge of spherical DDNP was measured to be about 0.15g. Furthermore, impact sensitivity test suggested that spherical DDNP is less sensitive than traditional DDNP. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of spherical 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zongwei [Chemical Industry and Ecology Institute, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051 (China); Liu Yucun, E-mail: yzw_019@yahoo.cn [Chemical Industry and Ecology Institute, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051 (China); Liu Dengcheng [Chemical Industry and Ecology Institute, North University of China, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030051 (China); Yan Liwei; Chen Ji [Liao Ning Hua Feng Chemical Industry Co., Ltd, Fushun, Liaoning 113003 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Spherical 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP) with good flowability and controlled bulk density (0.65-0.95 g/cm{sup 3}) has been prepared at factory scale by the modified method using 4-methylphenol as crystal control ingredient. Results showed that the yield of product was increased by 5-10%, and the waste water was significantly decreased due to circulation use of waste water compared with traditional method. Synthesized spherical DDNP was characterized by IR, laser granularity measurement, SEM, HPLC and XRD. IR spectrum confirmed the structural features of spherical DDNP. The particle analysis revealed that the modified method could offer spherical DDNP with average particle size of 350 {mu}m and high purity (>98.52%). The XRD peaks of spherical DDNP have similar diffraction angles as those of traditional DDNP. The DSC profile of spherical DDNP showed the exothermic decomposition in the temperature range of 161.2-188.5 deg. C. The product can be pressed at over 40 MPa without dead pressed phenomenon, and the minimum detonating charge of spherical DDNP was measured to be about 0.15 g. Furthermore, impact sensitivity test suggested that spherical DDNP is less sensitive than traditional DDNP.

  18. Mechanism of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation by means of co substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIU Yujing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Domesticated glucose and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP degrading bacteria were respectively used for aerobic biodegradation of TCP by adding readily biodegradable organic matters (glucose,benzoic acid and phenol as co-substrates to investigate the mechanism of TCP degradation.Glucose degrading bacteria didn′t grow until 51 hours of adaptation period in absence of co-substrates,during which TCP could be degraded by the bacteria as sole carbon source.However,TCP was little degraded in presence of co-substrates.While TCP degrading bacteria were used for aerobic biodegradation of TCP,it only took about 43 hours of adaptation period for the bacteria to remove TCP in absence of co-substrates.Experimental results indicated that both glucose and TCP degrading bacteria could utilize TCP as sole carbon source to grow,and TCP was also effectively degraded simultaneously.So TCP removal rate was accelerated in presence of co-substrates due to secondary utilization instead of co-metabolism.

  19. Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by P. aeruginosa and characterization of some metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Aysun Mercimek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT, a nitroaromatic explosive found in the soil and ground water, was investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa in in vitroexperiments. Biodegradable abilitiy of this bacteria was performed with 50 and 75 mg L−1 TNT concentrations in a defined liquid medium for 96 h time period. Treatment of TNT in supernatant samples taken at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h from agitated vessels was followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In cultures supplemented with 50 and 75 mgL−1 TNT, after 96 h of incubation 46% and 59% reduction were detected respectively. Two metabolites as degradation intermediates with nitrite release into the medium, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT and 4-aminodinitrotoluene (4-ADNT, were elucidated by thin layer chromatography (TLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. These findings clearly indicate that Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be used in bioremediation of TNT contaminated sites.

  20. Grafting of 4-(2,4,6-Trimethylphenoxybenzoyl onto Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Poly(phosphoric acid via Amide Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Loon-Seng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, which were commercial grade containing 60–70 wt% impurity, were treated in a mild poly(phosphoric acid (PPA. The purity of PPA treated SWCNTs was greatly improved with or without little damage to SWCNTs framework and stable crystalline carbon particles. An amide model compound, 4-(2,4,6-trimethylphenoxybenzamide (TMPBA, was reacted with SWCNTs in PPA with additional phosphorous pentoxide as “direct” Friedel–Crafts acylation reaction to afford TMPBA functionalized SWCNTs. All evidences obtained from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microcopy, and transmission electron microscopy strongly supported that the functionalization of SWCNTs with benzamide was indeed feasible.

  1. THERMOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE COMPLEX SALT K3Na(SO4)2%复盐K3Na(SO4)2的热化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈景年; 李林尉; 刘义; 屈松生

    2001-01-01

    @@ 钾芒硝是一种成因复杂的复盐[1~3],并且由于钾芒硝K3Na(SO4)2与硫酸钾石[K3Na(SO4)2或Na2SO4*3K2SO4]的化学组成相同,未能确定二者是否属于同一种复盐[4,5]. 我们合成了复盐K3Na(SO4)2[3],用溶解量热法测定了K3Na(SO4)2 和反应物[Na2SO4(s)+K2SO4(s)]的溶解焓,通过设计热化学循环计算出复盐的标准生成焓,为我们了解钾芒硝和硫酸钾石是否为同一复盐,并为进一步研究其成因和组成提供参考.

  2. Chemiluminescence determination of melamine with Luminol-K3Fe(CN)6 system%Chemiluminescence determination of melamine with Luminol-K3Fe(CN)6 system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao- Shuang Tang; Xi-Yan Shi; Yu-Hai Tang; Zhong-Jin Yue; Qi-Qi He

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive chemiluminescence(CL) method was developed for determining melamine in urine and plasma samples based on the fact that melamine can remarkably enhance the chemiluminescence of Luminol-K3 Fe(CN)6 system in alkaline medium. The determination con

  3. Simultaneous Determination of Fat-soluble Vitamins A, E and K3 in Dried Okra by High Performance Liquid Chromatography%高效液相色谱法同时测定秋葵干蔬中的脂溶性维生素A、E、K3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董爱军; 崔艳华; 杨鑫

    2011-01-01

    建立了同时测定秋葵干蔬中脂溶性维生素A、E、K3的反相高效液相色谱法.样品皂化后,采用C18色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5μm i.d.)进行分离,以甲醇为流动相,流速1.0 mL/min,二极管阵列检测器(DAD)在325、290、244 nm波长下同时检测,外标法定量.结果表明,脂溶性维生素A、E、K3在0.1~20.0 mg/L范围内呈良好线性,相关系数均大于0.99;3种脂溶性维生素的回收率为88%~95%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.8%~3.9%;检出限(LODS,S/N =3)分别为0.3、0.6、0.1 mg/kg,定量下限(LOQs,S/N= 10)分别为1.0、2.0、0.3 mg/kg.该方法具有较高的准确度和精密度,能够满足实际检测的需要.%A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of fat-soluble vitamin A, E and K3 in dried okra by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode ar ray detection. The sample was first extracted with ethanol and followed by saponification with 50% KOH solution, then extracted with petroleum ether. The extract was separated on an Agilent Eclipse XDB C18 column(150 mm× 4. 6 mm, 5 μm I. D. ) at 30 ℃ , using methanol as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The target compounds were simultaneously detected at 325, 290, 244 nm, respectively, and quantified by the external standard method. The results showed that the linear ranges for fat-soluble vitamins A, E, K3 were in the range of 0. 1 - 20. 0 mg/L with correlation coef ficients more than 0. 99. The spiked recoveries of three fat-soluble vitamins from dry okra sample were in the range of 88% - 95% with RSDs of 0. 8% - 3.9% . The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) of VA, VE and VK3 were 0. 3, 0. 6, 0. 1 mg/kg, respectively, and the limits of quantitation( LOQs, S/N = 10) were 1.0, 2.0, 0.3 mg/kg, respectively. The developed method was simple and accurate, and could meet the demands for actual detection.

  4. Metabolic re-programming of pancreatic cancer mediated by CDK4/6 inhibition elicits unique vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Jorge; Balaji, Uthra; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K.; Knudsen, Erik S.

    2016-01-01

    Due to loss of p16ink4a in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), pharmacological suppression of CDK4/6 could represent a potent target for treatment. In PDA models CDK4/6 inhibition had variable effect on cell cycle, but yielded accumulation of ATP and mitochondria. Pharmacological CDK4/6 inhibitors induce cyclin D1 protein levels; however, RB activation was required and sufficient for mitochondrial accumulation. CDK4/6 inhibition stimulated glycolytic and oxidative metabolism and was associated with an increase in mTORC1 activity. MTOR and MEK inhibitors potently cooperate with CDK4/6 inhibition in eliciting cell cycle exit. However, MTOR inhibition fully suppressed metabolism and yielded apoptosis and suppression of tumor growth. The metabolic state mediated by CDK4/6 inhibition increases mitochondrial number and ROS. Concordantly, the suppression of ROS scavenging or BCL2-antagonists cooperated with CDK4/6 inhibition. Together, these data define the impact of therapeutics on PDA metabolism and provide strategies for converting cytostatic response to tumor cell killing. PMID:26804906

  5. Kajian Biblika Kecemburuan Allah Terhadap Penyembahan Berhala Berdasarkan Keluaran 20:4-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queency Christie Wauran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam Perjanjian Lama kecemburuan Allah selalu berada dalam konteks penyembahan berhala. Hukum Taurat yang kedua dengan jelas melarang penyembahan kepada patung oleh karena alasan ini yaitu Allah yang cemburu. Tujuan penulisan artikel ini adalah untuk mengetahui arti kecemburuan Allah terhadap penyembahan berhala berdasarkan kitab Keluaran 20:4-6 dan implikasinya bagi kehidupan orang percaya. Adapun kesimpulan artikel ini adalah pertama, kecemburuan Allah terhadap penyembahan berhala menyatakan bahwa Allah tidak dapat direpresentasikan dalam bentuk apapun karena kecemburuan Allah ini menyatakan bahwa Ia adalah Allah yang kudus. Dengan demikian, hanya Allah satu-satunya yang harus disembah oleh orang percaya. Kedua, kecemburuan Allah terhadap penyembahan berhala menyatakan bahwa tidak boleh ada objek penyembahan yang lain selain kepada Allah karena penyembahan kepada berhala menandakan perzinaan rohani yang mengakibatkan kecemburuan Allah. Oleh karena itu, orang percaya harus menolak segala bentuk penyembahan berhala. Ketiga, penyembahan kepada berhala mendatangkan kecemburuan Allah karena kecemburuan Allah ini menyatakan kesetiaan-Nya atas perjanjian dengan umat-Nya. Dengan demikian, kecemburuan Allah seharusnya menjadi dasar dari penyembahan kepada Allah. Keempat, kecemburuan Allah atas penyembahan berhala mendatangkan hukuman karena kecemburuan Allah menyatakan keadilan-Nya dalam hal pemberian hukuman sebagai konsekuensi bagi penyembah berhala. Kelima, kecemburuan Allah atas penyembahan berhala menyatakan bahwa Allah mengasihi umat-Nya dan sekaligus menyatakan keadilan Allah dalam hal pemberian berkat bagi yang mengasihi-Nya. Kasih Allah mendasari hubungan-Nya dengan umat-Nya, dengan demikian kasih juga menjadi dasar hubungan orang percaya dengan Allah.In the Old Testament, the jealousy of God is always in the context of worshipping idols. The second commandment clearly prohibits the worshipping of statues for this reason, that God is jealous

  6. A facile synthesis of 2,4,6-trichloroborazine from boron trichloride-dimethylsulfide complex and ammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2,4,6-Trichloroborazine has been recognized as a desirable monomer for the preparation of high-performance boron nitride fibers through polymer derived ceramics route.So a high yield and facile synthesis of 2,4,6-trichloroborazine is essential in practice. Using boron trichloride-dimethylsulfide complex((CH_3)_2S·BCl_3) and ammonium chloride(NH_4Cl) as starting materials and toluene(C_6H_5CH_3) as solvent,the synthesis of 2,4,6-trichloroborazine to give high yield is reported.

  7. Microstructure and microhardness of nanostructured Al-4.6Cu-Mn alloy ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-wei Chen; Qin-ying Fan; Kai Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The microstructural characteristics and microhardness of nanostructured Al−4.6Cu−Mn ribbons produced by melt spinning were investigated using field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and hardness testing, and the results were compared to those of similar ribbons manufactured by direct-chill casting. It is shown that the nanostructure of the as-melt-spun ribbons consists ofα-Al dendrites with a secondary dendrite arm spacing of approximately 0.55−0.80μm and ultrafine eutectic crystals of a nanosized scale of approximately 100−200 nm on dendritic boundaries. The solidification time and cooling rate of 46-μm-thick ribbons were estimated to be 1.3 × 10−6 s and 4.04 × 106 K·s−1, respectively. At an aging temperature of 190°C, thecoherentθ″ phase in aged ribbons gradually transforms into nanoscaleθ′-phase platelets as the aging time is extended from 2 to 8 h; the rod-like morphology of the T (Al20Cu2Mn3) dispersoid with 120−160-nm diameter also forms, which results in peak aging hardness. The precipitation behaviors of aged ribbons cannot be changed at the high cooling rates of as-cast ribbons. However, a finer and more uniformly distributed microstructure and a supersaturated solid solution at a high cooling rate can shorten the time required to obtain a certain aging hardness before peak hardness.

  8. 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) interacts with rare structures of GC polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellona, M L; Chen, Y; Müller, J D; Gratton, E

    2001-01-01

    The binding of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) to double-stranded GC polymers either in the alternating or in homopolymer sequence was investigated using fluorescence techniques. We employed fluctuation correlation spectroscopy, which measures the diffusion coefficient of fluorescent particles, to demonstrate that the fluorescence was originating from relatively slowly diffusing entities. These entities display a very large heterogeneity of diffusing coefficients, indicating that molecular aggregation is extensive in our samples. We used frequency domain fluorometry to characterize the fluorescence lifetime of the species, while varying the GC polymer-dye coverage systematically. At very low coverage we observed a relatively bright fluorescent component with a lifetime value of approximately 4 ns. The stoichiometry of binding of this bright species was such that it can only arise from rare molecular structures, either unusual loops or large molecular aggregates. The amount and characteristics of this bright fluorescent component were different between the homo and the alternating polymer, indicating that the difference in sequence of the two polymers is responsible for the different aggregates which are then detected in the fluorescence experiment. At large GC polymer coverage we observed a relatively wide distribution of fluorescent species with short lifetime values, in the range between 0.12 and 0.2 ns. Given the stoichiometry of binding of this fluorescent component, we concluded that it could arise either from intercalative and/or non-specific binding to the DNA double-stranded molecules. We comment on the origin of the rare but brightly fluorescent binding sites and discuss the potential to detect such unusual DNA structures.

  9. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol mediated increases in extracellular peroxidase activity in three species of Lemnaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Dilip K; Scannell, Gillian; Akhmetov, Nurlan; Fitzpatrick, Dara; Jansen, Marcel A K

    2010-11-01

    Chlorinated phenols, or chlorophenols, are persistent priority pollutants that are widespread in the environment. Class III peroxidases are well-characterised plant enzymes that can catalyse the oxidative dechlorination of chlorophenols. Expression of these enzymes by plants is commonly associated with plant stress, therefore limiting scope for phytoremediation. In this study, we have quantitatively compared peroxidase activity and phytotoxicity as a function of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) concentration in three species of Lemnaceae; Lemna minor, Lemna gibba and Landoltia punctata. Effects of TCP on the growth rates of the three species differed considerably with L. punctata being the most tolerant species. TCP also affected photosynthetic parameters, causing a decrease in open photosystem II reaction centres (qP) and, in L. punctata only, a decrease in non-photochemical quenching (qN). In parallel, TCP exposure resulted in increased peroxidase activity in all three species. Peroxidase activity in L. minor and L. gibba displayed an inverse relationship with biomass accumulation, i.e. the more growth reduction the more peroxidase activity. In contrast, induction of peroxidase activity in L. punctata was bi-phasic, with a TCP-induced activity peak at concentrations that had no major effect on growth, and further induction under phytotoxic concentrations. The mechanism by which L. punctata recognises and responds to low concentrations of an anthropogenic compound, in the absence of wide-ranging stress, remains enigmatic. However, we conclude that this "window" of peroxidase production in the absence of major growth inhibition offers potential for the development of sustainable, peroxidise-mediated phytoremediation systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurements of coronal Faraday rotation at 4.6 R {sub ☉}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooi, Jason E.; Fischer, Patrick D.; Buffo, Jacob J.; Spangler, Steven R., E-mail: jason-kooi@uiowa.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52240 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    Many competing models for the coronal heating and acceleration mechanisms of the high-speed solar wind depend on the solar magnetic field and plasma structure in the corona within heliocentric distances of 5 R {sub ☉}. We report on sensitive Very Large Array (VLA) full-polarization observations made in 2011 August, at 5.0 and 6.1 GHz (each with a bandwidth of 128 MHz) of the radio galaxy 3C 228 through the solar corona at heliocentric distances of 4.6-5.0 R {sub ☉}. Observations at 5.0 GHz permit measurements deeper in the corona than previous VLA observations at 1.4 and 1.7 GHz. These Faraday rotation observations provide unique information on the magnetic field in this region of the corona. The measured Faraday rotation on this day was lower than our a priori expectations, but we have successfully modeled the measurement in terms of observed properties of the corona on the day of observation. Our data on 3C 228 provide two lines of sight (separated by 46'', 33,000 km in the corona). We detected three periods during which there appeared to be a difference in the Faraday rotation measure between these two closely spaced lines of sight. These measurements (termed differential Faraday rotation) yield an estimate of 2.6-4.1 GA for coronal currents. Our data also allow us to impose upper limits on rotation measure fluctuations caused by coronal waves; the observed upper limits were 3.3 and 6.4 rad m{sup –2} along the two lines of sight. The implications of these results for Joule heating and wave heating are briefly discussed.

  11. Dual Role of Endogenous Serotonin in 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid-Induced Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapalli, Alberto; Bertoni, Simona; Arcaro, Valentina; Saccani, Francesca; Grandi, Andrea; Vivo, Valentina; Cantoni, Anna M.; Barocelli, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Changes in gut serotonin (5-HT) content have been described in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) and in different experimental models of colitis: the critical role of this monoamine in the pathogenesis of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation is gradually emerging. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of endogenous 5-HT through the activation of its specific receptor subtypes to the local and systemic inflammatory responses in an experimental model of IBD. Materials and Methods: Colitis was induced by intrarectal 2,4,6-TriNitroBenzene Sulfonic acid in mice subacutely treated with selective antagonists of 5-HT1A (WAY100135), 5-HT2A (Ketanserin), 5-HT3 (Ondansetron), 5-HT4 (GR125487), 5-HT7 (SB269970) receptors and with 5-HT1A agonist 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin. Results: Blockade of 5-HT1A receptors worsened TNBS-induced local and systemic neutrophil recruitment while 5-HT1A agonist delayed and mitigated the severity of colitis, counteracting the increase in colonic 5-HT content. On the contrary, blockade of 5-HT2A receptors improved global health conditions, reduced colonic morphological alterations, down-regulated neutrophil recruitment, inflammatory cytokines levels and colonic apoptosis. Antagonism of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptor sites did not remarkably affect the progression and outcome of the pathology or only slightly improved it. Conclusion: The prevailing deleterious contribution given by endogenous 5-HT to inflammation in TNBS-induced colitis is seemingly mediated by 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, by 5-HT4 receptors and coexists with the weak beneficial effect elicited by 5-HT1A stimulation. These findings suggest how only a selective interference with 5-HT pro-inflammatory actions may represent an additional potential therapeutic option for intestinal inflammatory disorders. PMID:27047383

  12. Degradation products of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene by a microbial consortia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, O.; Parker, C.; Bender, J. [Clark Atlanta Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Remediation of contaminated soils can be accomplished using microbial species. Of particular interest is the remediation of explosive contaminated soils. A microbial consortia has been developed which removes TNT by an unexplained mechanism. Our goal is to understand the degradation of TNT by this microbial mat. Constructed mats have been generated in our laboratory by enriching water with ensiled grass and adding specific microbial components for organic degradation. Microbial mats are natural mixed microbial communities dominated by cyanobacterias (blue-green algae). In this research, degradation products of TNT have been identified using GC/MS. Ninety-seven percent of TNT (1000 mg/L), was removed in < 1 day by floating mats placed over TNT-contaminated water in quiescent ponds. Metabolites of TNT, 2, 4-Dinitro-6 amminotoluene and 2-Nitro-4,6 diaminotoluene has been observed after 1 day of mat treatment. A mechanism is postulated for this degradation showing that two of the nitro groups of the TNT molecule are being reduced to amino groups systematically. Anoxic zones in the mat, containing sulfur-reducing bacteria, may account for the reduction of TNT. GC/MS shows significant decreases in metabolite concentrations in 4-7 days, indicating continued degradation of TNT. It has been found by toxicity assays that these metabolites appeared to be nontoxic and nonmutagenic. These results suggest that floating microbial mats may be useful for the decontamination of sites in the environment contaminated with TNT. Further studies using {sup 13}C TNT will focus on the fate of the carbon, to determine the intermediates products prior to transformations into hydrocarbons or utilization by the bacteria consortia.

  13. Dual role of endogenous serotonin in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto eRapalli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Changes in gut serotonin content have been described in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and in different experimental models of colitis: the critical role of this monoamine in the pathogenesis of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation is gradually emerging. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of endogenous serotonin through the activation of its specific receptor subtypes to the local and systemic inflammatory responses in an experimental model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Methods: Colitis was induced by intrarectal 2,4,6-TriNitroBenzene Sulfonic acid in mice subacutely treated with selective antagonists of 5-HT1A (WAY100135, 5-HT2A (Ketanserin, 5-HT3 (Ondansetron, 5-HT4 (GR125487, 5-HT7 (SB269970 receptors and with 5-HT1A agonist 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylaminotetralin. Results: Blockade of 5-HT1A receptors worsened TNBS-induced local and systemic neutrophil recruitment while 5-HT1A agonist delayed and mitigated the severity of colitis, counteracting the increase in colonic 5-HT content. On the contrary, blockade of 5-HT2A receptors improved global health conditions, reduced colonic morphological alterations, down-regulated neutrophil recruitment, inflammatory cytokines levels and colonic apoptosis. Antagonism of 5-HT3, 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 receptor sites did not remarkably affect the progression and outcome of the pathology or only slightly improved it.Conclusions: The prevailing deleterious contribution given by endogenous serotonin to inflammation in TNBS-induced colitis is seemingly mediated by 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, by 5-HT4 receptors and coexists with the weak beneficial effect elicited by 5-HT1A stimulation. These findings suggest how only a selective interference with 5-HT pro-inflammatory actions may represent an additional potential therapeutic option for intestinal inflammatory disorders.

  14. Quantum mechanical and experimental analyses of TNT metabolite 2-hydroxylamino-4,6-dinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junk, Thomas; Liu, Yuemin; Li, Zhong; Perkins, Richard; Liu, Yucheng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a combined quantum mechanical and experimental analyses were performed to investigate crystal structure of the immediate degradation product of TNT, 2-hydroxylamino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-HADNT) and to reveal its important chemical properties. Leakage of 2-HADNT has caused serious environmental pollution and therefore raises widespread concerns. In the quantum mechanical analysis, the B3LYP/6-311+G**, B3LYP/aug-c-pVDZ, M06HF/aug-cc-pVDZ, and MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ methods were employed for geometrical optimization and single point calculations of chemical properties of the compound. Such properties include highest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) - lowest occupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) separation, dipole moment, atomization energy, and vibrational frequencies. Experimental analysis and validation showed that the energy minimized structures acquired from the quantum mechanical analysis were very similar to those obtained by X-ray crystallography. The 6-NO2 groups twist out of plane with respect to the benzene ring in both the crystallographic and energy minimized structures. The 4-NO2 group exhibits co-planarity with the phenyl ring in both the crystallographic and energy minimized structures as well. Unlike TNT, however, the energy barrier to orthogonal conformation is only 3.8 kcal/mol. In addition, considerable discrepancies between results obtained from the MP2 and B3LYP methods were observed, which suggest that it has to be very careful when applying B3LYP method to study such class of compounds. Through this study, a more accurate description of the chemical properties of dispersion-dominated aromatic systems was acquired. The chemical properties found from this study can help researchers to better understand the compound of 2-HADNT and to develop effective management plans for such compound so as to minimize its impact on the environment.

  15. Quantum-chemical calculations and electron diffraction study of the equilibrium molecular structure of vitamin K3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaikin, L. S.; Tikhonov, D. S.; Grikina, O. E.; Rykov, A. N.; Stepanov, N. F.

    2014-05-01

    The equilibrium molecular structure of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3) having C s symmetry is experimentally characterized for the first time by means of gas-phase electron diffraction using quantum-chemical calculations and data on the vibrational spectra of related compounds.

  16. THE CCAUV.A-K3 KEY COMPARISON OF PRESSURE RECIPROCITY CALIBRATION OF LS2P MICROPHONES: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente; Rasmussen, Knud; Nielsen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The CCAUV.A-K3 Key Comparison has involved 15 countries organized in two loops with two common laboratories, CENAM and DPLA. The measurements took place in 2003. This is the first CCAUV key comparison organized with more than one loop, and therefore the analysis of the results required a more ela...

  17. Structural changes in steel 10Kh9K3V1M1FBR due to creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipelova, A. Yu.; Belyakov, A. N.; Skorobogatykh, V. N.; Shchenkova, I. A.; Kaibyshev, R. O.

    2010-09-01

    The evolution of microstructure in steel 10Kh9K3V1M1FBR during creep and in aging at 600 - 650°C is studied. The results are compared with data for steel P91. The role of cobalt in growth in the long-term strength is considered.

  18. Effect of the sterilization on the cutting efficiency of ProTaper® and K3® endodontic instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Niederauer Becker

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization on the cutting efficiency of rotary endodontic instruments, ProTaper® (Dentsply Maillefer Instruments S.A., Ballaigues, Suíça and K3® (Sybron/Kerr, Orange, CA, USA, by the time X weighing method. Method: For this purpose, 60 simulated canals and 66 instruments were used (36 of the ProTaper® system, (Dentsply Maillefer Instruments S.A., Ballaigues, Switzerland and 30 of the K3® system (Sybron/Kerr, Orange, CA, USA. The rotary instruments were divided into four experimental groups. The instruments in Group A (K3®, Sybron/Kerr, Orange, CA, USA and Group B (ProTaper®, Dentsply Maillefer Instruments S.A., Ballaigues, Switzerland, were subjected to a process of cleaning and sterilization. Whereas the instruments in Group C (K3®, Sybron/Kerr, Orange, CA, USA and Group D (ProTaper®, Dentsply Maillefer Instruments S.A., Ballaigues, Switzerland, were subjected to the cleanness process only, and were not sterilized. Results: As regards analysis of the results, the Student’s-t test was used, by which it was verified that the instruments in Group had greater cutting efficiency in comparison with those in Group B. Similarly the instruments in Group C had greater cutting efficiency in comparison with those in Group D, nevertheless, there was no statistically significant difference. Moreover, as regards the number times of use, there was also no statistically significant difference between the experimental groups. However in all the groups there was a decrease in the cutting efficiency with an increasing number of times of use. Conclusion: Thus, the cutting efficiency of rotary endodontic instruments K3® (Sybron/Kerr, Orange, CA, USA and ProTaper® (Dentsply Maillefer Instruments S.A., Ballaigues, Suição was not statistically affected after the use of 6 autoclave sterilization cycles.

  19. Synthesis and structure of diorganotin dibromides, R2SnBr2 (R = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl or 2,4,6-trimethylbenzyl): Hydrolysis of (2,4,6-Me3C6H2)2SnBr2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vadapalli Chandrasekhar; Ramalingam Thirumoorthi

    2010-09-01

    The reaction of SnBr4 with in situ generated 2,4,6-trimethylphenylmagnesium bromide afforded a mixture of (2,4,6-Me3C6H2)2SnBr2 (1) and (2,4,6-Me3C6H2)3SnBr (2) which could be separated from each other by their solubility differences in diethyl ether. On the other hand, the reaction of tin metal with 2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2Br afforded (2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2)2SnBr2 (3). Hydrolysis of the latter using triethylamine as the base afforded [{(2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2)2Sn}2(-O)(Br)(-OH)]2.2CH2Cl2 (4) while the use of NaOH as the base afforded [{(2,4,6-Me3C6H2CH2)2Sn}2(-O)(OH)(-OH)]2.2CH2Cl2 (5). Compounds 4 and 5 are dimeric tetraorganodistannoxanes consisting of a central distannoxane (Sn2O2) motif.

  20. The Synthesis of 2,4,6-Triisopropyl-1,3,5-trioxane Catalyzed by Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Guo YANG; Xin Yu YU; Hai Hong WU; Zhi Lin CHENG; Yue Ming LIU; Ming Yuan HE

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis of 2, 4, 6-triisopropyl- 1, 3, 5-trioxane with high yield and desirable selectivity from solvent-free cyclotrimerization of isobutyraldehyde catalyzed by ionic liquids was reported in this work.

  1. Occurrence of earthy and musty odor compounds (geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole) in biologically treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urase, T; Sasaki, Y

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations of earthy and musty odor compounds (2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), geosmin and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA)) in treated wastewater were measured. Concentrations of 2,4,6-TCA (4.3-37.7 ng/L) and geosmin (3.7-42.2 ng/L) higher than their odor thresholds were detected for effluents from large-scale treatment plants. The effluent from a small-scale wastewater plant treating toilet and kitchen wastewater contained the target earthy and musty odor compounds below the odor thresholds. The ozonation applied as an advanced wastewater treatment process was considerably more effective for the removal of 2,4,6-TCA than for the removal of 2-MIB and geosmin. The measured concentrations of 2,4,6-TCA in river environments without the influence of large-scale wastewater effluents were less than the odor threshold.

  2. Paleontology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classroom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Joey

    Originally designed for gifted students, these reproducible paleontology units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of paleontology. Included are two complete units, one created for the upper elementary gifted student and the…

  3. The Role of Extension Nutrition Education in Student Achievement of Nutrition Standards in Grades K-3: A Descriptive Evaluation of a School-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Mary E.; Schreiber, Debera

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of a descriptive evaluation of the impact of an in-school Extension nutrition education program in a small, very rural county. The evaluation focused on understanding the nature of the role the Extension educator plays in delivering nutrition education, the impact of the program on student learning and achievement…

  4. Entomology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classrrom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Sue; And Others

    These reproducible entomology units are an introduction to a fascinating world within a world. Originally designed for gifted students, these units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of entomology. Included are two complete…

  5. Marine Biology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classroom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Joey

    Originally designed for the gifted student, these reproducible marine biology units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of marine biology. Included are two complete units, one created for the upper elementary gifted student and…

  6. The Role of Extension Nutrition Education in Student Achievement of Nutrition Standards in Grades K-3: A Descriptive Evaluation of a School-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Mary E.; Schreiber, Debera

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of a descriptive evaluation of the impact of an in-school Extension nutrition education program in a small, very rural county. The evaluation focused on understanding the nature of the role the Extension educator plays in delivering nutrition education, the impact of the program on student learning and achievement…

  7. Preparation and properties of piperidine salts of 6-hydroxy-4,6-diaryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-3-cyanopiperidine-2-thiones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauze, A.A.; Liepin' sh, E.E.; Pelcher, Yu.E.; Kalme, Z.A.; Dubur, G.Ya.

    1987-07-01

    Alkylation of piperidine salts of 6-hydroxy-4,6-diaryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-3-cyanopiperidine-2(1H)-thiones yielded 6-hydroxy-2-alkylthio-4,6-diaryl-5-ethoxycarbonyl-1-3-cyano-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridines which were dehydrogenated with the formation of 2-methylthio-1,4- and 4,5-dihydropyridines. The oxidation of the compounds prepared has been studied.

  8. Analysis of 2,4,6-nonatrienal geometrical isomers from male flea beetles, Epitrix hirtipennis and E. fuscula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilkowski, Bruce W; Bartelt, Robert J; Vermillion, Karl

    2008-07-09

    Geometrical isomers of 2,4,6-nonatrienal have been reported from a variety of food- and insect-related sources. It was discovered recently that the eggplant flea beetle, Epitrix fuscula, uses the (2 E,4 E,6 Z) and (2 E,4 E,6 E) isomers as components of its male-produced aggregation pheromone. Here, we learned that the related species, E. hirtipennis, also emits a blend of 2,4,6-nonatrienals, including isomers not previously characterized. Patterns in emission and response suggest a pheromonal function. In an effort to acquire standards to aid in identification, we found that exposing (2 E,4 E,6 E)-2,4,6-nonatrienal (or other available 2,4,6-nonatrienals) to light readily generated a mixture of six geometrical isomers. Configurations of these were determined by NMR, and chromatographic properties (GC and HPLC) were documented. On the basis of chromatographic comparison to these standards, the most abundant, new compound from E. hirtipennis was concluded to be (2 E,4 Z,6 Z)-2,4,6-nonatrienal. Minor components from both E. hirtipennis and E. fuscula were also characterized. The analytical approach given here would also be of use in the food industry, where 2,4,6-nonatrienals are important as aroma compounds.

  9. Estudo do efeito de tratamentos térmicos nas propriedades térmicas e mecânicas de três limas endodônticas: MTwo, K3 e K3XF

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Ana Rita Loureiro Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de tratamentos térmicos sobre as temperaturas de transformação de fase e no comportamento mecânico de três limas endodônticas: MTwo#30(.05), K3#30(.04) e K3XF#30(.04). As limas em estudo foram sujeitas a tratamentos térmicos entre 250 e 400ºC durante 1 h, seguidos de têmpera em água. Foi realizada análise térmica para determinar as temperaturas de transformação de fase. As propriedades mecânicas das limas foram testadas recorrendo a equ...

  10. The Decomposition of Complcte 3-Uniforih Hypergraph K(3)32 into 5-cycles%完全3-一致超图K(3)32的5-圈分解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷一鸣; 李冠儒; 吉日木图

    2016-01-01

    Bailey-Stevens和Meszka-Rosa研究了完全k-一致超图的Hamiltonian圈分解问题,并解决了对n≤32的完全3-一致超图K (3)n 的Hamiltonian圈分解.同时,详细介绍非Hamiltonian圈分解问题.到目前为止,除了当n≤17 ,并且n=4m+1 ,m是正整数时完全3-一致超图K (3)n 的5-圈分解以外.其他的5-圈分解的存在性问题仍然是公开的.本文中,在使用边划分方法的基础上、设计一个算法并得到了K (3)32的一个5-圈分解.%Bailey-Stevens and Meszka-Rosa studied the decomposition of complete k-Uniform Hypergraph into Hamiltonian cycles, and solved the decomposition of complete 3-Uniform Hypergraph into Hamiltonian cycles, when n≤32 . Bailey-Stevens and Meszka-Rosa introduced the decomposition of complete -uniform hypergraph into not Hamiltonian cycles. So far, the decomposition of complete 3-uniform hypergraph into 5-cycles is still open, beside n≤17 and n=4m+1 and (m is an integer). In this paper, we design a new algorithm based on partitions of the edges and get a result of the decomposition of K (3)32 into 5-cycles.

  11. Azide derivatized anticancer agents of Vitamin K 3: X-ray structural, DSC, resonance spectral and API studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badave, Kirti; Patil, Yogesh; Gonnade, Rajesh; Srinivas, Darbha; Dasgupta, Rajan; Khan, Ayesha; Rane, Sandhya

    2011-12-01

    Compound 1 [1-imino (acetyl hydrazino)-Vitamin K 3], displays valence tautomerically related electronic isomers as Form I and Form II. Form I exhibits 2D packing fragment with 1D ribbon chains of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and shows EPR silent features. While Form II is EPR active and exhibits biradical nature with double quantum transitions at g = 2.0040. 1H NMR of compound 2, [1-imino (hydrazino carboxylate)-Vitamin K 3] and Form II exhibit π delocalization via resonance assisted H-bonding [RAHB] effect compared to Form I. Molecular interactions in Form I and II are visualized by DSC. The electronic structures of compounds 1 and 2 have been correlated to their API values by measuring anticancer activities, mitochondrial potentials and DNA shearing patterns. Form II and compound 2 indicate mitochondria mediated apoptosis (˜75% cell death) while Form I causes 35% cell death.

  12. Corrosion electrochemical mechanism of chemical mechanical polishing of copper in K3Fe(CN)6 solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何捍卫; 胡岳华; 黄可龙

    2002-01-01

    Polarization curves of copper were measured in NH3*H2O media containing K3Fe(CN)6. Components of passive film were analyzed by XPS. Relation of polishing rate with corrosion current density was investigated during CMP. Copper can be passivated in the slurry and main component of passive film is Cu4Fe(CN)6. Relation of polishing rate with corrosion current density is linear direct ratio and expressed as R=KJcorr during CMP. Coefficient K varies with different slurry systems but is constant under experimental conditions, which does not vary with NH3*H2O, K3Fe(CN)6, γ-Al2O3 concentrations, polishing pressures and rotative rate in a slurry system during CMP.

  13. Two Hundred and Fifty-eight Cases of Hemoptysis Treated by Injection of Vitamin K3 into Chize Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玲; 李忆

    2004-01-01

    Injection of vitamin K3 into Chize (LU 5) was used from 1980 to 1992 in 258 inpatients suffering from diseases of the respiratory system accompanied with hemoptysis. As a result, the effective rate was 83%for mild hemoptysis and 72.1% for moderate hemoptysis in the treatment group, as compared to 48.5%and 45.2% respectively in control group A, and to 83.8% and 75% in control group B. There was a significant difference between the treatment group and control group A (P<0.01). However, the effective rate was only 31.8% for severe hemoptysis in the treatment group, as compared to 81.3% in control group B with a significant difference. It is therefor concluded that injection of vitamin K3 into Chize is a good therapy for mild or moderate hemoptysis but not for severe cases.

  14. 2,4,6-三氯酚分子印迹光子晶体水凝胶传感器的研究%Molecularly Imprinted Photonic Crystal Hydrogel Sensor for Detection of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛亚峰; 刘根起; 高敏君; 陈小娟; 范晓东

    2016-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted photonic crystal hydrogel sensor was developed with 2 ,4 ,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) as imprinting molecule, methanol as solvent, methacrylic acid as monomers and ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate as cross-linkers. The three-dimension silica colloidal crystal template was removed by 1% HF (V/V) and molecularly imprinted template was removed by 0. 015 mol/L NaOH. The results showed that the maximum absorption peak red-shifted 31 nm when the concentration of 2 , 4 , 6-TCP changed from 0 to 6í10-4 mol/L. Then, with further increasing 2,4,6-TCP concentration, the maximum absorption peak began to blue-shift. When the concentration of 2,4,6-TCP changed to 1í10-3 mol/L, the maximum absorption peak blue-shifted 56 nm and the response time was just 30 min. This molecularly imprinted photonic crystal hydrogel sensor showed high sensitivity, high selectivity and easy operation, and was applied for the naked-eye detection of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.%以SiO2三维光子晶体为模板,2,4,6-三氯酚为印迹分子,甲醇为溶剂,甲基丙烯酸为功能单体,乙二醇二甲基丙烯酸甲酯为交联剂,通过紫外光引发聚合,在2%氢氟酸溶液中去除光子晶体模板,0.015 mol/L NaOH溶液中洗脱印迹分子,制得2,4,6-三氯酚检测用分子印迹光子晶体水凝胶传感器。结果表明,传感器对2,4,6-三氯酚具有良好的响应与识别能力,在2,4,6-三氯酚浓度由0增加到6×10-4 mol/L过程中,吸收峰红移31 nm;浓度继续增加,吸收峰开始发生蓝移;当浓度增加到1×10-3 mol/L时,吸收峰蓝移56 nm,响应时间仅需要30 min。2,4,6-三氯酚分子印迹光子晶体水凝胶传感器具有高灵敏、高选择、易操作等优点,可实现对2,4,6-三氯酚的裸眼检测。

  15. Structure and optical properties of KLa9(GeO4)6O2 and KLa8.37Eu0.63(GeO4)6O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipina, Olga A.; Surat, Ludmila L.; Tyutyunnik, Alexander P.; Enyashin, Andrey N.; Chufarov, Alexander Yu.; Zubkov, Vladimir G.

    2017-01-01

    New KLa9(GeO4)6O2 and KLa8.37Eu0.63(GeO4)6O2 germanates with the apatite structure type (space group P63/m, Z = 1) have been synthesized by the sol-gel method using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as a precursor and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations reveal that KLa9(GeO4)6O2 is a direct bandgap material, and near-UV excitation leads to the electronic transitions from the O2p- orbitals to the Lad- and K4s- states. Photoluminescence measurements of the Eu3+-doped sample indicate emission in the visible spectral range corresponding to the characteristic transitions from the excited 5D0 and 5D1 levels in europium ion.

  16. Rb and FZR1/Cdh1 determine CDK4/6-cyclin D requirement in C. elegans and human cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The, Inge; Ruijtenberg, Suzan; Bouchet, Benjamin P; Cristobal, Alba; Prinsen, Martine B W; van Mourik, Tim; Koreth, John; Xu, Huihong; Heck, Albert J R; Akhmanova, Anna; Cuppen, Edwin; Boxem, Mike; Muñoz, Javier; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) in complex with D-type cyclins promote cell cycle entry. Most human cancers contain overactive CDK4/6-cyclin D, and CDK4/6-specific inhibitors are promising anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we investigate the critical functions of CDK4/6-cyclin D kinases, sta

  17. Rb and FZR1/Cdh1 determine CDK4/6-cyclin D requirement in C. elegans and human cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The, Inge; Ruijtenberg, Suzan; Bouchet, Benjamin P; Cristobal Gonzalez de Durana, Alba; Prinsen, Martine B W; van Mourik, Tim; Koreth, John; Xu, Huihong; Heck, Albert J R; Akhmanova, Anna; Cuppen, Edwin; Boxem, Mike; Munoz Murillo, Ara; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) in complex with D-type cyclins promote cell cycle entry. Most human cancers contain overactive CDK4/6-cyclin D, and CDK4/6-specific inhibitors are promising anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we investigate the critical functions of CDK4/6-cyclin D kinases, sta

  18. 3K3A-activated protein C stimulates postischemic neuronal repair by human neural stem cells in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaoming; Zhao, Zhen; Rege, Sanket V

    2016-01-01

    profile in humans, 3K3A-APC has advanced to clinical trials as a neuroprotectant in ischemic stroke. Recently, 3K3A-APC has been shown to stimulate neuronal production by human neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs) in vitro via a PAR1-PAR3-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor 1-Akt pathway, which suggests......Activated protein C (APC) is a blood protease with anticoagulant activity and cell-signaling activities mediated by the activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (F2R, also known as PAR1) and F2RL1 (also known as PAR3) via noncanonical cleavage. Recombinant variants of APC, such as the 3K3A......-APC (Lys191-193Ala) mutant in which three Lys residues (KKK191-193) were replaced with alanine, and/or its other mutants with reduced (>90%) anticoagulant activity, engineered to reduce APC-associated bleeding risk while retaining normal cell-signaling activity, have shown benefits in preclinical models...

  19. Magnetic Field Structures in Star Forming Regions: Mid-Infrared Imaging Polarimetry of K3-50

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Peter; Telesco, Charles; Tanakul, Nahathai; Mariñas, Naibí; Wright, Chris; Packham, Chris; Pantin, Eric; Roche, Patrick; Hough, James

    2015-01-01

    We report new imaging polarimetry observations of the Galactic compact HII region K3-50 using CanariCam at the Gran Telescopio Canarias. We use a standard polarimetric analysis technique, first outlined by Aitken, to decompose the observed polarisation images centred at 8.7, 10.3, and 12.5 $\\mu$m into the emissive and absorptive components from silicate grains that are aligned with the local magnetic field. These components reveal the spatially-resolved magnetic field structures across the mid-infrared emission area of K3-50. We examine these structures and show that they are consistent with previously observed features and physical models of K3-50, such as the molecular torus and the ionised outflow. We propose a 3D geometry for all the structures seen at different wavelengths. We also compute relevant physical quantities in order to estimate the associated magnetic field strengths that would be implied under various physical assumptions. We compare these results with MHD simulations of protostar formation t...

  20. Ultrastable, high efficiency picosecond green light generation using K3B6O10Br series nonlinear optical crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Z. Y.; Xia, M. J.; Wang, L. R.; Xu, B.; Yan, D. X.; Meng, L. P.; Liu, L. J.; Xu, D. G.; Zhang, L.; Wang, X. Y.; Li, R. K.; Chen, C. T.

    2017-09-01

    Two perovskite-structure K3B6O10Br1-x Cl x (x  =  0 and 0.5) series nonlinear optical crystals were thoroughly investigated for their picosecond 532 nm laser pulses abilities and high power outputs were achieved via second harmonic generation (SHG) technique for the first time. SHG conversion efficiency of 57.3% with a 13.2 mm length K3B6O10Br (KBB) crystal was achieved using a laser source of pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz and pulse width of 25 ps, which is the highest conversion efficiency of ps visible laser based on KBB crystal. And by employing an 80 MHz, 10 ps fundamental laser beam, maximum power outputs of 12 W with K3B6O10Br0.5Cl0.5 (KBBC) and 11.86 W with KBB crystals were successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the standard deviation jitters of the average power outputs are less than 0.6% and 1.17% by KBB and KBBC, respectively, showing ultrastable power stabilities favorable for practical applications. In addition, the other optical parameters including acceptance angle and temperature bandwidth were also investigated.

  1. Adsorption/desorption behavior between a novel amphoteric granular lignin adsorbent and reactive red K-3B in aqueous solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming-hua; HONG Shu-nan; HUANG Jian-hui; ZHAN Huai-yu

    2005-01-01

    A novel amphoteric granular lignin adsorbent(AGLA) was prepared using magnesium lignosulfonate as a raw material which was provided by a straw sulfite pulp mill in Guangdong Province, China. A reactive dye(red K-3B) was used as an adsorbate to investigate the adsorption behavior by static and mobile ways. The removal of reactive red K-3B was found to be initially pH and concentration dependent.Moreover, an increase of solution temperature ranging from 5℃ to 60℃ helped to enhance the rate of intraparticle diffusion of adsorbate and changes in the size of the pores of the adsorbent and thus to reduce the adsorption time. The total breakthrough adsorption capacity was 531 mg/g, and the saturated adsorption capacity was 560 mg/g, which prevailed over the activated carbons evidently. The reactive red K-3B adsorbed on AGLA could be recovered with a mixture of alcohol, NaCl and HCl aqueous solutions. The recovery percentage could reach 92.4%.

  2. Meisenheimer complex between 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and its use for a paper-based sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantelle Hughes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT forms a red-colored Meisenheimer complex with 3-aminopropyltrienthoxysilane (APTES both in solution and on solid phase. The TNT–APTES complex is unique since it forms yellow-colored complexes with 2,4,6-trinitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol, and no complex with 2,4-dinitrotoluene. The absorption spectrum of TNT–APTES has two absorption bands at 530 and 650 nm, while APTES complexes with 2,4,6-trinitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol have absorption maxima at around 420 nm, and no absorption change for 2,4-dinitrotoluene. The TNT–APTES complex facilitates the exchange of the TNT-CH3 proton/deuteron with solvent molecules. The red color of TNT–APTES is immediately visible at 1 μM of TNT.

  3. SseK3 Is a Salmonella Effector That Binds TRIM32 and Modulates the Host's NF-κB Signalling Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Yang

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium employs an array of type III secretion system effectors that facilitate intracellular survival and replication during infection. The Salmonella effector SseK3 was originally identified due to amino acid sequence similarity with NleB; an effector secreted by EPEC/EHEC that possesses N-acetylglucoasmine (GlcNAc transferase activity and modifies death domain containing proteins to block extrinsic apoptosis. In this study, immunoprecipitation of SseK3 defined a novel molecular interaction between SseK3 and the host protein, TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The conserved DxD motif within SseK3, which is essential for the GlcNAc transferase activity of NleB, was required for TRIM32 binding and for the capacity of SseK3 to suppress TNF-stimulated activation of NF-κB pathway. However, we did not detect GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 by SseK3, nor did the SseK3-TRIM32 interaction impact on TRIM32 ubiquitination that is associated with its activation. In addition, lack of sseK3 in Salmonella had no effect on production of the NF-κB dependent cytokine, IL-8, in HeLa cells even though TRIM32 knockdown suppressed TNF-induced NF-κB activity. Ectopically expressed SseK3 partially co-localises with TRIM32 at the trans-Golgi network, but SseK3 is not recruited to Salmonella induced vacuoles or Salmonella induced filaments during Salmonella infection. Our study has identified a novel effector-host protein interaction and suggests that SseK3 may influence NF-κB activity. However, the lack of GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 suggests that SseK3 has further, as yet unidentified, host targets.

  4. Computational study on structure and properties of new energetic material 3,7-bis(dinitromethylene-2,4,6,8-tetranitro-2,4,6,8-tetraaza-bicyclo[3.3.0]octane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghui Jin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The IR spectrum, crystal structure, electronic structure, thermodynamic properties, heat of formation and detonation properties of a new polynitro heterocyclic energetic material 3,7-bis(dinitromethylene-2,4,6,8-tetranitro-2,4,6,8-tetraazabicyclo[3.3.0]octane were investigated theoretically. The calculated results show that this compound has a centrosymmetric structure and the molecular packing prediction indicates that the crystalline packing of the title compound is P212121 and the corresponding cell parameters are as follows: Z=4, a= 22.03 Å, b=8.73 Å, c=8.42 Å, Ꮁ=90°, β=90° and γ=90°. Based on the high positive heat of formation (HOF, 740.4 kJ mol-1, excellent detonation properties (detonation velocity D, 9.77 km s−1; detonation pressure P, 45.9 GPa, energy gap (ΔELUMO-HOMO 4.19 eV and the molecular electrostatic potentials (MEP, it is predicted that 3,7-bis(dinitromethylene-2,4,6,8-tetranitro-2,4,6,8-tetraazabicyclo[3.3.0] octane could be may be a superior high-energy density compound (HEDC to RDX and HMX.

  5. Efficient desymmetrization of 4,6-di-O-benzyl-myo-inositol by Lipozyme TL-IM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marcela G; Briggs, Raissa H C; Aguiar, Lucia C S; Freire, Denise M G; Simas, Alessandro B C

    2014-03-11

    The enantioselective enzymatic desymmetrization of 4,6-di-O-benzyl-myo-inositol, a myo-inositol derivative, was effectively catalyzed by Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TL-IM). The product 1D-1-O-acetyl-4,6-di-O-benzyl-myo-inositol, a useful precursor to inositol phosphates, was obtained in excellent yield and enantiomeric excess. Through the investigation of the effects of solvent, biocatalyst load, and temperature, a more economical procedure resulted. The feasibility of biocatalyst reuse was also shown.

  6. Simulation and optimization for synthetic technology of 2-chloro-4, 6-dinitroresorcinol based on back-propagation neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Back-propagation neural network was applied to predict and optimize the synthetic technology of 2-chloro-4,6-dinitroresorcinol. A model was established based on back-propagation neural network using the experimental data of homogeneous design as the training sample set and the technological parameters were optimized by it. The optimal technological parameters are as follows: the reaction time is 4h, the rewere performed and the average yield of 2-chloro-4,6-dinitroresorcinol is 96.64%, the absolute error of it with the predicted value is - 1.07 %.

  7. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;

    2000-01-01

    was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...... patients (P analysis showed that vascular grading contributed with independent prognostic value in all patients (P

  8. Asterisk Grade Study Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorsky, Eileen A.

    A study was conducted at Passaic County Community College (PCCC) to investigate the operation of a grading system which utilized an asterisk (*) grade to indicate progress in a course until a letter grade was assigned. The study sought to determine the persistence of students receiving the "*" grade, the incidence of cases of students receiving…

  9. Evaluation of apical deviation in root canals instrumented with K3 and ProTaper systems Avaliação do desvio apical em canais instrumentados pelos sistemas K3 e ProTaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Diniz Bisi dos Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: this study evaluated the apical deviation of curved root canals instrumented with K3 and ProTaper systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: twenty root canals of human maxillary and mandibular first molars were employed, which were divided into 2 groups: group A (10 teeth was instrumented with the K3 system, and group B (10 teeth with the ProTaper system. Evaluation of deviation was performed by double radiographic exposure. Radiographs were achieved before and after instrumentation, with 0.3-second, thus allowing superimposition of images. Three-dimensional computerized tomograph was performed in 3 specimens in each group, as an additional means to evaluate the apical deviation. RESULTS: were evaluated by the parametric test Student-Newman-Keuls at 5%, which did not reveal significance between groups concerning the apical deviation. The results of computerized tomograph images demonstrated that the larger deviation of the root canal occurred at the distolingual area for both systems. CONCLUSIONS: both techniques produced a mild apical deviation. Computerized microtomography was shown to be accurate for experimental endodontics studies.OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desvio apical de canais radiculares curvos instrumentados pelos sistemas K3 e ProTaper. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: foram utilizados 20 canais radiculares de primeiros molares superiores e inferiores humanos, os quais foram divididos em 2 grupos, o grupo A (10 dentes foi instrumentado pelo sistema K3 e o grupo B (10 dentes com o sistema ProTaper, a forma de avaliação do desvio foi a dupla exposição radiográfica. As tomadas radiográficas foram feitas antes e após a instrumentação, com um tempo de 0,3 segundos em cada exposição, ocorrendo assim, sobreposição das imagens. Em 3 espécimes, de cada grupo, foi realizada a tomografia computadorizada tridimensional, como forma adicional de avaliar o desvio apical . Os resultados obtidos foram avaliados pelo teste paramétrico Student

  10. Effective biodegradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene using a novel bacterial strain isolated from TNT-contaminated soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.; Tekinay, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    In this environmental-sample based study, rapid microbial-mediated degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated soils is demonstrated by a novel strain, Achromobacter spanius STE 11. Complete removal of 100 mg L−1 TNT is achieved within only 20 h under aerobic conditions by the isolate. I

  11. The relation between oral hygiene skills and the prevalence of dental caries among 4 - 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmienė, Jaunė; Vanagas, Giedrius; Bendoraitienė, Eglė; Vyšniauskaitė, Aurelija

    2011-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY. To evaluate the tooth brushing skills and the prevalence of dental caries as well as its intensity in relation to oral hygiene skills among 4 - 6-year-old children. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The cross-sectional study was performed from November 16, 2009 to January 12, 2010. 235 children (4 - 6-year old) were randomly selected from kindergartens in Plungė and Jonava in Lithuania. The results of study were registered in the special forms prepared in accordance with the recommendations of WHO. Parents of the children were asked to fill in the questionnaires. RESULTS. The results of the study show that 91% (Plungė) and 90% (Jonava) of 4 - 6-year-old children have caries in their primary teeth. The prevalence of caries is different in relation to age: 78.7% of 4-year-old children, 97.3% of 5-year-old children, and 95.3% of 6-year-old children. The intensity of caries is as follows: 4.9 (SN=±4.9), 7.5 (SN=±4.5), and 8.2 (SN=±4.7). CONCLUSIONS. There is the high prevalence of caries, particularly of not treated forms, among 4 - 6-year-old children. The oral hygiene index is just satisfactory.

  12. Synthesis and photoluminescence of violet-blue phosphor Ba10(PO4)6F2: Eu2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yumei; Zhang, Xinguo; Pan, Jialiang

    2017-01-01

    A violet-blue phosphor of Ba10(PO4)6F2: Eu2+ was prepared by high-temperature solid state reaction. Luminescence, concentration quenching and thermal stability of Ba10(PO4)6F2: Eu2+ are systematically investigated. The phosphor exhibits a broadband UV absorption and a violet-blue emission peaking at 420 nm with corresponding CIE coordinates of (0.163, 0.024). It is found that Eu2+ ions occupy 9-coordinated Ba(1) and 7-coordinated Ba(2) site in Ba10(PO4)6F2, and therefore generate two emission sub-bands at 415 and 433 nm. The optimal concentration of Eu2+ is 5 mol% according to emission intensity and the quenching mechanism is verified to be a dipole-dipole interaction. Ba10(PO4)6F2: 0.05Eu2+ phosphor shows good thermal stability with 81% of room temperature intensity at 180 °C.

  13. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE IN A CONTINUOUS-FLOW ANABAENA SP. SYSTEM. (R825513C013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reductive transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was observed in a continuous-flow system of Anabaena sp. operated for 33 d with a 5.7 d hydraulic retention time and a range of influent TNT concentrations of 1–58 mg/l. The TNT removal effici...

  14. Design and Validation of a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Children Aged 4-6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haresabadi, Fatemeh; Ebadi, Abbas; Shirazi, Tahereh Sima; Dastjerdi Kazemi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Syntax has a high importance among linguistic parameters, and syntax-related problems are the most common in language disorders. Therefore, the present study aimed to design a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Iranian children in the age group of 4-6 years and to determine its validity and reliability. First, the target…

  15. Host and defect-related photoluminescence of structurally disordered K3WO3F3 oxyfluoride crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Pustovarov, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    Spectra of photoluminescence (PL) in the region of 1.5-5.5 eV, PL excitation spectra (3-22 eV), PL decay kinetics and PL temperature dependence were measured for single crystals and ceramics K3WO3F3 as well as for ceramics K3WO3F3 irradiated by fast electrons. Synchrotron radiation was used for low temperature PL experiments with time resolution. Single crystals are transparent in microwave, visible and near UV range, inter-band transition energy is Eg = 4.3 eV. In K3WO3F3, the wide band luminescence in the region of 2.5 eV with the Stokes shift of 1.5 eV with the microsecond decay kinetics is connected with luminescence of triplet self-trapped excitons (STE). This luminescence is formed by electronic transitions in [WO3F3] octahedron. Different distortion of KWOF crystal lattice is manifested in the change of the Stokes shift of the STE luminescence band. The 3.2 eV emission band in low-temperature PL spectrum with decay times of 1.8 ns and 11 ns corresponds to singlet STE luminescence. A new 2.9 eV emission band is discovered in low-temperature PL spectrum in the samples irradiated by fast electrons (E = 10 MeV, D = 160 kGy). This emission band is excited not through the intracenter mechanism but through the creation of excitons bound on the defects. It is suggested that it is F-like centers of anionic sublattice induced by the mechanism of elastic collision.

  16. Synthesis of a New Complex Salt Crystal--K3[InCl6]%一种新络合盐晶体--K3[InCl6]的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈林; 吴伯麟; 贺孝一

    2006-01-01

    在采用本实验室提出的络盐法制备氧化铟锡(Indium-tin-oxide,简称ITO)纳米粉末的试验过程中发现和制备了一种新络合盐晶体--K3[InCl6].通过XRD、SEM和CCD等测试手段对其物相、形貌、元素成份和结构进行了表征.结果表明:该晶体属单斜晶系,空间群为P21/c,分子式为K3[InCl6],Z=4,其晶胞参数为:a=1.2188nm,b=0.7553nm,c=1.2703nm,α=90.00°,β=108.96°,γ= 90.00°,V=110.598nm3.

  17. On the geometry of a smooth model of a fibre product of families of K3 surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikol'skaya, O. V.

    2014-02-01

    The Hodge conjecture on algebraic cycles is proved for a smooth projective model X of a fibre product X_1\\times_C X_2 of nonisotrivial 1-parameter families of K3 surfaces (possibly with degeneracies) X_{k} \\to C ( k=1,2) over a smooth projective curve C under the assumption that, for generic geometric fibres X_{1s} and X_{2s}, the ring \\operatorname{End}_{\\operatorname{Hg}(X_{1s})}\\operatorname{NS}_{ Q}(X_{1s})^{\\perp} is an imaginary quadratic field, \\operatorname{rank}\\operatorname{NS}(X_{1s})\

  18. K^- ^3He and K^+K^- interactions in the reaction pd -> ^3He K^+K^-

    CERN Document Server

    Grishina, V Yu; Kondratyuk, L A

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the K^- ^3He and K^+K^- interactions in the reaction pd -> ^3He K^+K^- near threshold and compare our model calculations with data from the MOMO experiment at COSY-Juelich. The data do not support a strong attraction between the K^- and ^3He system needed for formation of deeply bound K^- nuclear states. We also estimate upper limits for the a_0(980) and f_0(980) contributions to the produced K^+ K^- pairs.

  19. Dielectric relaxation in double potassium yttrium orthophosphate K 3Y(PO 4) 2 doped by praseodymium and dysprosium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulia, S.; Kosmowska, M.; Kołodziej, H. A.; Mizer, D.; Czupińska, G.

    2011-12-01

    We report the paper presents the results of electric properties of double potassium yttrium orthophosphates doped by lanthanide ions K 3Y( 1-x)Ln x(PO 4) 2 ( x = 0.01, 0.05, Ln = Pr 3+, Dy 3+). Electric permittivity and dielectric loss measurements have been performed on polycrystalline samples in the temperature range -50-120 °C and frequency range 1 kHz-1 MHz by means of HP 4282A impedance meter. The frequency and temperature dependence of electric properties were analyzed by theoretical models of dielectric relaxation in order to obtain information abut molecular dynamic of our solids in external electric field.

  20. PBCDD/F formation from radical/radical cross-condensation of 2-Chlorophenoxy with 2-Bromophenoxy, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy with 2,4-Dibromophenoxy, and 2,4,6-Trichlorophenoxy with 2,4,6-Tribromophenoxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xiangli [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yu, Wanni [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Linyi University, Linyi 276000 (China); Xu, Fei [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Qingzhu, E-mail: zqz@sdu.edu.cn [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Hu, Jingtian; Wang, Wenxing [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We studied the formation of PBCDD/Fs from the reaction of three CPRs with BPRs. • The substitution pattern of halogenated phenols determines those of PBCDD/Fs. • The substitution of halogenated phenols influence the coupling of phenoxy radicals. • The rate constants of the crucial elementary steps were evaluated. - Abstract: Quantum chemical calculations were carried out to investigate the homogeneous gas-phase formation of mixed polybrominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/benzofurans (PBCDD/Fs) from the cross-condensation of 2-chlorophenoxy radical (2-CPR) with 2-bromophenoxy radical (2-BPR), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy radical (2,4-DCPR) with 2,4-dibromophenoxy radical (2,4-DBPR), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenoxy radical (2,4,6-TCPR) with 2,4,6-tribromophenoxy radical (2,4,6-TBPR). The geometrical parameters and vibrational frequencies were calculated at the MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level, and single-point energy calculations were performed at the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p) level of theory. The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were evaluated by the canonical variational transition-state (CVT) theory with the small curvature tunneling (SCT) correction over a wide temperature range of 600–1200 K. Studies show that the substitution pattern of halogenated phenols not only determines the substitution pattern of the resulting PBCDD/Fs, but also has a significant influence on the formation mechanism of PBCDD/Fs, especially on the coupling of the halogenated phenoxy radicals.

  1. 2,4,6-三硝基间苯二酚钡一水化合物的热分解动力学%Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Barium 2,4,6-trinitroresorecinate Monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡荣祖; 陈三平; 高胜利; 宋纪蓉; 史启祯; 赵宏安; 姚朴; 李静

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the non-isothermal decomposition of barium 2,4,6-trinitroresorecinate monohydrate, Ba(TNR)· H2O,were carried out by means of TG-DTA, DSC and IR. The thermal decomposition mechanism and associated kinetics were investigated. The kinetic parameters were obtained from an analysis of the DSC curves by integral was suggested by comparison of the kinetic parameters.

  2. Deconvolution of Images from BLAST 2005: Insight into the K3-50 and IC 5146 Star-Forming Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Arabindo; Bock, James J; Brunt, Christopher M; Chapin, Edward L; Devlin, Mark J; Dicker, Simon R; France, Kevin; Gibb, Andrew G; Griffin, Matthew; Gundersen, Joshua O; Halpern, Mark; Hargrave, Peter C; Hughes, David H; Klein, Jeff; Marsden, Gaelen; Martin, Peter G; Mauskopf, Philip; Netterfield, Calvin B; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume; Rex, Marie; Scott, Douglas; Semisch, Christopher; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole; Tucker, Gregory S; Viero, Marco P; Wiebe, Donald V

    2010-01-01

    We present an implementation of the iterative flux-conserving Lucy-Richardson (L-R) deconvolution method of image restoration for maps produced by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). We have analyzed its performance and convergence extensively through simulations and cross-correlations of the deconvolved images with available highresolution maps. We present new science results from two BLAST surveys, in the Galactic regions K3-50 and IC 5146, further demonstrating the benefits of performing this deconvolution. We have resolved three clumps within a radius of 4.'5 inside the star-forming molecular cloud containing K3-50. Combining the well-resolved dust emission map with available multi-wavelength data, we have constrained the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of five clumps to obtain masses (M), bolometric luminosities (L), and dust temperatures (T). The L-M diagram has been used as a diagnostic tool to estimate the evolutionary stages of the clumps. There are close relationsh...

  3. Observation of Δk=3n selection rule in collisionally-induced transitions in methyl flouride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, U.; Schwendeman, R. H.

    1991-06-01

    By varying the phase of the lock-in amplifier that processes the probe signal in an infrared-infrared double-resonance spectrometer, the four-level double resonances that result from collisionally-induced rotational energy transfer in 13CH3F are clearly distinguished from those that result from a vibrational energy swapping mechanism (V-V energy transfer). The spectrometer operates with a fixed frequency moderate power (˜1 W) pumping source and a tunable low power (˜20 μW) probe source. At one choice of phase the absorption that results from collisionally-induced rotational transitions are shown to have one sign in the spectrum and to obey the selection rule Δk=3n (n a positive or negative integer) whereas the peaks from all other collisionally-induced transitions (Δk≠3n) have the opposite sign. The sample spectrum is for J=22, which shows that the Δk =3n selection rule persists for many J states away from the originally-pumped level (J =5).

  4. Cyclic voltammetry: a tool to quantify 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in aqueous samples from cork planks boiling industrial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, António M; Freitas, Patrícia; Dias, Luís G; Sousa, Mara E B C; Castro, Luís M; Veloso, Ana C A

    2013-12-15

    Chloroanisoles, namely 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, are pointed out as the primary responsible of the development of musty off-flavours in bottled wine, due to their migration from cork stoppers, which results in huge economical losses for wine industry. A prevention step is the detection of these compounds in cork planks before stoppers are produced. Mass spectrometry gas chromatography is the reference method used although it is far beyond economical possibilities of the majority of cork stoppers producers. In this work, a portable cyclic voltammetry approach was used to detect 2,4,6-trichloroanisole extracted from natural cork planks to the aqueous phase during the cork boiling industrial treatment process. Analyses were carried out under ambient conditions, in less than 15 min with a low use of solvent and without any sample pre-treatment. The proposed technique had detection (0.31±0.01 ng/L) and quantification (0.95±0.05 ng/L) limits lower than the human threshold detection level. For blank solutions, without 2,4,6-trichloroanisole addition, a concentration in the order of the quantification limit was estimated (1.0±0.2 ng/L), which confirms the satisfactory performance of the proposed methodology. For aqueous samples from the industrial cork planks boiling procedure, intra-day repeatabilities were lower than 3%, respectively. Also, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole contents in the aqueous samples determined by this novel approach were in good agreement with those obtained by GC-MS (correlation coefficient equal to 0.98), confirming the satisfactory accuracy of the proposed methodology. So, since this novel approach is a fast, low-cost, portable and user-friendly method, it can be an alternative and helpful tool for in-situ industrial applications, allowing accurate detection of releasable 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in an earlier phase of cork stoppers production, which may allow implementing more effective cork treatments to reduce or avoid future 2,4,6-trichloroanisole

  5. K3MW METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  6. K3FU METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  7. K3CL METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  8. Synthesis of [4,6-{sup 3}H]-2-pyridone and [{sup 3}H]-RS-91309

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keczer, S. de; Parnes, Howard [Syntex Discovery Research, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We describe herein, a novel synthesis of the previously unreported compound, 4,6-dibromo-2-pyridone (3) and its use in the preparation of [{sup 3}H]-RS-91309, a potassium channel modulator. This key intermediate, (3), was reduced with carrier free tritium gas to furnish [4,6-{sup 3}H]-2-pyridone (9) having a specific activity of 50 Ci/mmole. Condensation of (9) with epoxide (10), followed by elaboration of the resulting chromene methyl group of (12) gave [{sup 3}H]-RS-91309 (14) whose specific activity was also 50 Ci/mmole. This chemistry, as well as the solution of several micro-scale related stoichiometry problems is discussed. (Author).

  9. Theoretical Study on Vibrational Spectra, Detonation Properties and Pyrolysis Mechanism for Cyclic 2-Diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-hong Li; Geng-xin Yin; Xian-zhou Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the full optimized molecular geometrical structures at the DFT-B3LYP/6-311+G** level,there exists intramolecular hydrogen bond interaction for cyclic 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol.The assigned infrared spectrum is obtained and used to compute the thermodynamic properties.The results show that there are four main characteristic regions in the calculated IR spectra of the title compound.The detonation velocities and pressures are also evaluated by using Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the calculated density and condensed phase heat of formation.Thermal stability and the pyrolysis mechanism of 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol are investigated by calculating the bond dissociation energies at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level.

  10. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 4-(4,6-dimethoxyl -pyrimidin-2-yl)-3-thiourea Carboxylic Acid Methyl Ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jie; SONG Ji-Rong; REN Ying-Hui; XU Kang-Zhen; MA Hai-Xia

    2006-01-01

    The title compound 4-(4,6-dimethoxylpyrimidin-2-yl)-3-thiourea carboxylic acid methyl ester was synthesized by the reaction of 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxyl pyrimidine, potassium thiocyanate and methyl chloroformate in ethyl acetate. Single crystals suitable for X-ray measurement were obtained by recrystallization with the solvent of dimethyl formamide at the room temperature. The structure was characterized by elemental analysis and IR and determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Crystallographic data: C9H12N4O4S, Mr = 272.29, monoclinic, space group C2/m with a = 1.6672(3), b = 0.66383(12), c = 1.1617(2) nm, β = 109.275(2)°, V = 1.2136(4) nm3, Dc = 1.490 g/cm3, μ = 0.281 mm-1, F(000) = 568, Z = 4, R1 = 0.0341and wR2 = 0.1042.

  11. Bis(1H-pyrazole-κN2bis(2,4,6-triisopropylbenzoato-κOcobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian G. Hrib

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Co(C16H23O22(C3H4N22] or (C3H4N22Co(O2CC6H2iPr3-2,4,6, is a rare example of a tetracoordinate cobalt(II carboxylate stabilized by ancillary N-heterocyclic ligands. The Co(II ion resides on a crystallographic twofold axis so that the asymmetric unit comprises one half-molecule. Due to the steric bulk of the 2,4,6-triisopropylphenyl substituents, the carboxylate ligands are both coordinated in a monodentate fashion despite the low coordination number. The coordination geometry around the central Co(II ion is distorted tetrahedral with angles at Co ranging from 92.27 (18° to 121.08 (14°.

  12. 维生素K3对尿路结石患者尿中骨桥蛋白浓度的影响%Effect of vitamin K3 on concentration of osteopontin in urine of patients with urolithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国防; 李民; 刘美云

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察维生素K3对尿路结石患者尿中骨桥蛋白浓度的影响.方法 随机选取30例尿路结石患者为维生素K组,肌注维生素K3 12 mg/d,连续7d;收集用药前后的尿液标本;随机选30例正常人为对照组,收集尿液标本;利用Western blot技术测定各尿液标本中的骨桥蛋白含量;比较尿路结石患者用药前后及与正常人尿液中骨桥蛋白含量的差异.结果 维生素K组用药后比用药前尿液中骨桥蛋白含量高18.7% (P <0.05);用药前组比正常对照组尿液中骨桥蛋白含量高93.0%,但差异无统计学意义(P=0.036);用药后组比正常对照组尿液中骨桥蛋白含量明显升高129.0% (P <0.01).结论 临床应用维生素K可上调肾骨桥蛋白的表达,抑制结石的形成.%Objective To investigate the effect of vitamin K on concentration of osteopontin in the urine of patients with urolithiasis.Methods Thirty cases of urolithiasis were treated with vitamin K3 injection (12 mg/day for 7days),and 30 healthy volunteers served as controls.The urine specimens were collected in patients before and after treatment and in controls.The concentrations of osteopontin in urine were determined by using Western blotting.Results The concentrations of osteopontin in urine were increased by 18.7% after vitamin K3 treatment (P < 0.05).The concentrations of osteopontin in urine in vitamin K group before vitamin K administration were 93.0% higher than in control group,but there was no significant difference (P =0.36).The concentrations of osteopontin in urine in vitamin K group after vitamin K administration were 129.0% higher than in control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion Vitamin K can clinically up-regulate the expression of osteopontin,and inhabit the formation of urolithiasis.

  13. Synthesis, loading control and preliminary tests of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium supported onto Y-zeolite as solar photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amat, Ana M.; Arques, Antonio; Vercher, Rosa F. [Departamento de Ingeniera Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Paseo Viaducto 1, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Bossmann, Stefan H.; Braun, Andre M. [Lehrstuhl fuer Umweltmesstechnik, Engler-Bunte-Institut, Universitaet Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Miranda, Miguel A. [Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Tecnologia Quiica UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2005-04-15

    A heterogeneous photocatalyst has been obtained by hosting the 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium cation inside the supercages of Y-zeolite. Preparation of the new material has been achieved by means of a formal ion exchange in aqueous medium. Nevertheless, the mechanism is more complex, as bulky 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium cation is unable to diffuse through the channels of Y-zeolite. The following steps are involved: (a) hydrolytic opening of the pyrylium ion to give a linear diketone; (b) diffusion of the diketone through the channels to reach the supercages; and (c) thermal recyclization under dehydrating conditions. Elemental analysis of the new material was consistent with the pyrylium cation located inside the zeolite. No sulfur was found in the loaded zeolite, indicating that hydrogensulfate is no longer the counter-ion of pyrylium. Accordingly, the stoichiometric amount of Na{sup +} was found in the filtered waters recovered after the synthesis. Besides, the IR spectrum of the dry material was coincident with that of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium, while the spectrum of a less thoroughly dried sample showed, together with the absorption bands corresponding to pyrylium, other bands assignable to the diketone. Zeolite loading can be controlled in the range of 3-15% of organic carbon. The performance of the new material as a solar photocatalyst for oxidative pollutant degradation was checked using four cinnamic acid derivatives as target compounds. Aqueous solutions (250mL) of these model pollutants (0.001M) were irradiated by solar light in the presence of different amounts of solid photocatalyst. Oxidation was efficiently achieved as analysed by HPLC and followed in all cases a pseudo first order kinetics. The most satisfactory results were obtained using 1g/L of Y-zeolite containing 6% of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium cation.

  14. Almost Graded Prime Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer Jaber

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Graded commutative ring with unity over an abelian group were introduced by many authors such as T. Y. Lam and C. T. C. Wall, and almost prime ideals over commutative rings with unity were introduced by S.M. Batwadeker and P.K. Sharma, and this forced us to try to extend the theory of almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case. Approach: We develop the theory of almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case. Results: We extended some basic results about almost and n-almost prime ideals to the graded case, and then we gave a relationship between n-almost graded prime ideals and weakly graded prime ideals. Conclusion: The extended results about almost and n-almost graded prime ideals allow us to classify further properties about almost graded prime ideals. 2000 AMS Mathematics Subject Classification: 13 A 02.

  15. CT Grading of Otosclerosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, T.C; Aviv, R.I; Chen, J.M; Nedzelski, J.M; Fox, A.J; Symons, S.P

    2009-01-01

    ...: The CT grading system for otosclerosis was proposed by Symons and Fanning in 2005. The purpose of this study was to determine if this CT grading system has high interobserver and intraobserver agreement...

  16. Gleason grading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000920.htm Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  17. High-spin intermediates of the photolysis of 2,4,6-triazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Chapyshev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to theoretical expectations, the photolysis of 2,4,6-triazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridine in argon at 5 K gives rise to EPR peaks of just two triplet mononitrenes, two quintet dinitrenes, and a septet trinitrene. EPR spectral simulations in combination with DFT calculations show that observable nitrenes can be assigned to triplet 2,4-diazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-6-nitrene (DT = 1.026 cm−1, ET = 0, triplet 2,6-diazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-4-nitrene (DT = 1.122 cm−1, ET = 0.0018 cm−1, quintet 4-azido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-2,6-dinitrene (DQ = 0.215 cm−1, EQ = 0.0545 cm−1, quintet 2-azido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-4,6-dinitrene (DQ = 0.209 cm−1, EQ = 0.039 cm−1 and septet 3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-2,4,6-trinitrene (DS = −0.1021 cm−1, ES = −0.0034 cm−1. Preferential photodissociation of the azido groups located in ortho-positions to the fluorine atom of pyridines is associated with strong π-conjugation of these groups with the pyridine ring. On photoexcitation, such azido groups are more efficiently involved in reorganization of the molecular electronic system and more easily adopt geometries of the locally excited predissociation states.

  18. High-spin intermediates of the photolysis of 2,4,6-triazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapyshev, Sergei V; Korchagin, Denis V; Neuhaus, Patrik; Sander, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to theoretical expectations, the photolysis of 2,4,6-triazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridine in argon at 5 K gives rise to EPR peaks of just two triplet mononitrenes, two quintet dinitrenes, and a septet trinitrene. EPR spectral simulations in combination with DFT calculations show that observable nitrenes can be assigned to triplet 2,4-diazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-6-nitrene (D T = 1.026 cm(-1), E T = 0), triplet 2,6-diazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-4-nitrene (D T = 1.122 cm(-1), E T = 0.0018 cm(-1)), quintet 4-azido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-2,6-dinitrene (D Q = 0.215 cm(-1), E Q = 0.0545 cm(-1)), quintet 2-azido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-4,6-dinitrene (D Q = 0.209 cm(-1), E Q = 0.039 cm(-1)) and septet 3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-2,4,6-trinitrene (D S = -0.1021 cm(-1), E S = -0.0034 cm(-1)). Preferential photodissociation of the azido groups located in ortho-positions to the fluorine atom of pyridines is associated with strong π-conjugation of these groups with the pyridine ring. On photoexcitation, such azido groups are more efficiently involved in reorganization of the molecular electronic system and more easily adopt geometries of the locally excited predissociation states.

  19. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  20. [Grading of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, G; Roth, W; Helpap, B

    2016-07-01

    The current grading of prostate cancer is based on the classification system of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) following a consensus conference in Chicago in 2014. The foundations are based on the frequently modified grading system of Gleason. This article presents a brief description of the development to the current ISUP grading system.

  1. The effects of physical aging at elevated temperatures on the viscoelastic creep on IM7/K3B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Feldman, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Physical aging at elevated temperature of the advanced composite IM7/K3B was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short term isothermal, creep/recovery with the creep segments performed at constant load. The matrix dominated transverse tensile and in-plane shear behavior were measured at temperatures ranging from 200 to 230 C. Through the use of time based shifting procedures, the aging shift factors, shift rates and momentary master curve parameters were found at each temperature. These material parameters were used as input to a predictive methodology, which was based upon effective time theory and linear viscoelasticity combined with classical lamination theory. Long term creep compliance test data was compared to predictions to verify the method. The model was then used to predict the long term creep behavior for several general laminates.

  2. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of K3[HO{VO(O2)2}2]·H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红艳; 黄尊行; 郭鸿旭

    2004-01-01

    The title compound K3[HO{VO(O2)2}2]·H2O has been synthesized and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction method. The crystal is of monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 6.7078(3), b = 9.9539(6), c = 15.8182(9)A, β = 93.702(3)0, V = 1053.96(10)A3, Mr = 414.20, Dc = 2.610 g/cm3, Z = 4, λ(MoKα) = 0.71073A, F(000) = 808, μ = 3.014 mm-1, the final R = 0.0173 and wR = 0.0466 for 2178 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). X-ray diffraction reveals that the coordination polyhedra of V atoms are not chemically equivalent: the V(1) and V(2) polyhedra can be described as pentagonal pyramid and pentagonal bipyramid, respectively.

  3. Contribution of filamentous fungi to the musty odorant 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in water supply reservoirs and associated drinking water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Ting; Qu, Zhipeng; Li, Haipu; Yang, Zhaoguang

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the distribution of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in two water supply reservoirs and four associated drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) were investigated. The 2,4,6-TCA concentrations were in the range of 1.53-2.36 ng L(-1) in water supply reservoirs and 0.76-6.58 ng L(-1) at DWTPs. To determine the contribution of filamentous fungi to 2,4,6-TCA in a full-scale treatment process, the concentrations of 2,4,6-TCA in raw water, settled water, post-filtration water, and finished water were measured. The results showed that 2,4,6-TCA levels continuously increased until chlorination, suggesting that 2,4,6-TCA could form without a chlorination reaction and fungi might be the major contributor to the 2,4,6-TCA formation. Meanwhile, twenty-nine fungal strains were isolated and identified by morphological and molecular biological methods. Of the seventeen isolated fungal species, eleven showed the capability to convert 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) to 2,4,6-TCA. The highest level of 2,4,6-TCA formation was carried out by Aspergillus versicolor voucher BJ1-3: 40.5% of the original 2,4,6-TCP was converted to 2,4,6-TCA. There was a significant variation in the capability of different species to generate 2,4,6-TCA. The results from the proportions of cell-free, cell-attached, and cell-bound 2,4,6-TCA suggested that 2,4,6-TCA generated by fungi was mainly distributed in their extracellular environment. In addition to 2,4,6-TCA, five putative volatile by-products were also identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. These findings increase our understanding on the mechanisms involved in the formation of 2,4,6-TCA and provide insights into managing and controlling 2,4,6-TCA-related problems in drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. AN EFFICIENT SYNTHESIS OF 1,3-DIOXANE-4,6-DIONES CATALYZED BY BORIC ACID. Eine effiziente Synthese von 1,3-Dioxan-4 ,6-dione BY BORSÄURE katalysierten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao hui XU*,Chun hua Lin ,Jian hui Xia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Several kinds of 1,3-dioxane-4,6-diones have been synthesized from malonic acid and ketones using boric acid as catalyst, acetic anhydride as condensing regent at room temperature. The present method does not involve any hazardous organic solvents, it gives some notable advantages such as mild reaction conditions, short reaction time,less catalyst dosage and high yields.Further study showed that H3BO3 was reused for four times without any noticeable decrease in the catalytic activity.

  5. When Exemplary Gets Blurry: A Descriptive Analysis of Four Exemplary K-3 Spanish Reading Programs in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Michael D.; Sloan, Kris

    2001-01-01

    A study of four high-performing third-grade Spanish reading programs in Texas found six common features: explicit support for Spanish literacy and biliteracy; high expectations; skills-driven reading instruction beginning in kindergarten; shared understanding of program practices; alignment between Spanish and English programs; and explicit…

  6. Development of Reading Skills from K-3 in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners Following Three Programs of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Jonathan; Lindsey, Kim A.; Manis, Franklin R.

    2012-01-01

    The development of English and Spanish reading and oral language skills from kindergarten to third grade was examined with a sample of 502 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) enrolled in three instructional programs. The students in the transitional bilingual and dual-language programs had significantly higher scores than the…

  7. Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction for English Language Learners, Grades K-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    At last, a truly helpful, practical guide for K-4 teachers who want to ensure that their approach to teaching young English language learners is based on research and grounded in proven classroom practices. The authors of ASCD's best-selling book "Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction, Grades K-3" explain how you can help the English…

  8. Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction for English Language Learners, Grades K-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    At last, a truly helpful, practical guide for K-4 teachers who want to ensure that their approach to teaching young English language learners is based on research and grounded in proven classroom practices. The authors of ASCD's best-selling book "Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction, Grades K-3" explain how you can help the English…

  9. Are grades really oppressive?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张心宇

    2015-01-01

    Are grades really oppressive? The broad question's answer is of course open: it varies in different condition and in prerequisites. Like in Daily Californian,"Why Grades are Oppressive", the title tells us it standing: yes, grades are oppressive. In the article, the authors (this article was written by 16 students of the class) pointed out that the grading system has had a violent and powerfully destructive effect on our lives. Because grading focuses our attention on class requirements that we have no say in determination. And this makes many students equate their self-worth with the grades they get in exams. Besides, grades are intimately connected with a larger system of control in community, which trains students to be submissive and not to question or challenge it. In the end, the authors conclude that they should take responsibility for evaluating their own learning process.

  10. Clinical grades: upward bound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine M; Seldomridge, Lisa A

    2005-04-01

    This study examined the relationship of grades earned in paired theory and clinical courses. Data collected during academic years 1997 to 2002 confirmed that grade inflation exists in clinical nursing courses. Problems involved in awarding grades for clinical performance are discussed (e.g., standards of clinical performance, methods used in evaluation of clinical performance, the impossibility of faculty omnipresence, the influence of student effort in grading, the effect of recency, the challenges of keeping good anecdotal records). Solutions to grading problems are proposed, including dividing up performance into agreed-on elements, measurement of these elements on a grading scale that allows for more differentiation of quality in evaluating clinical performance, assigning grades from the beginning of a clinical course, emphasizing all three domains of clinical practice, and evaluating student performance in both laboratory and, clinical settings.

  11. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Environmental Toxicology (8th) held at Dayton, OH, 4-6 October 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-01

    Controlling Office) 15. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) Unclassified 15a. DECL ASSI FICATION/DOWN GRADING SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this...J., H. J. Cumming, A. M. Machado , J. E. Schneider, C. R. Crane, D. C. Sanders, B. R. Endocott, and J. K. Abbott, (1977), "Comparison of Animal

  12. Synthesis and applications of 4,6-diethoxybenzene-1,3-diamine derivatives%4,6-二乙氧基间苯二胺衍生物的合成与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德明; 张谭; 周林; 金宁人

    2013-01-01

    以1,5-二乙氧基-2,4-二硝基苯为原料,乙醇为溶剂,经铁粉还原得4,6-二乙氧基间苯二胺,较佳工艺条件为:V(水):V(乙醇)=1:4.5,反应温度80℃,反应时间2h,滤液在氯化亚锡保护下加入盐酸后制得盐酸盐,旋蒸浓缩,-20℃下静置16h析出产物,氮气吹干,收率88%,纯度大于99%.又以4,6-二乙氧基间苯二胺为原料合成衍生物Ⅰ-Ⅴ,结构经FT-IR、13 C NMR和1 HNMR表征确认,并对其在大分子、染料以及材料方面的应用进行了分析.

  13. 维生素C联合维生素K3抗肿瘤作用的研究进展%Research progress of anti-tumor effect of vitamin C combined with vitamin K3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祚仁

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C (VC) and vitamin K3 (VK3) are widely used in the fields of antioxidant,immunity improvement and hemostasis,etc.In the 1 940 s,the antitumor effect of these two vitamins was found.Research shows that the combination regimen of VC and VK3 with a ratio of 100:1 produces a maximum of synergistic anti-tumor effect.Such combination reduces the overall dose of drugs,thus avoiding the increase in their adverse effects.The combination of VC and VK3 effectively kills a variety of tumor cells,such as breast cancer,ovarian cancer,prostate cancer,bladder cancer and leukemia,etc.This combined therapy has been patent and is in phase Ⅰ and Ⅱ clinical trials.The clinical studies show that it prolongs the survival time of patients with terminal cancer,while its adverse reactions is mild.Therefore,VC in combination of VK3 is of broad application prospect.This paper reviews the synergistic anti-tumor effects of VC combined with VK3.%维生素C(vC)和维生素K3(VK3)在抗氧化、提高机体免疫力和止血等方面被广泛应用.20世纪40年代,人们发现它们也具有抗肿瘤作用.研究表明,VC与VK3联合给药比例为100:1时,具有最佳的协同抗肿瘤作用,并能大幅降低剂量,不会增加机体的不良反应.能够对乳腺癌、卵巢癌、前列腺癌、膀胱癌、白血病等多种肿瘤细胞产生杀伤作用.这种组合已被申请了专利并进行了Ⅰ/ⅡA期临床试验,试验结果表明其能延长晚期癌症患者的生存时间,不良反应轻,具有广阔的应用前景.文章就VC联合VK3的协同抗肿瘤作用进行综述.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of the Bender-Gestalt and Beery/Buktenica Tests of Visual-Motor Integration as a Function of Grade Level for Regular Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Joanne; Breen, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Regular education students (N=125) in grades K-3 were administered the Bender-Gestalt and Beery/Buktenica tests of visual-motor integration. Found significant differences between the mean Bender and Beery age equivalent scores at each grade level. Discusses implications for their utilization in assessing fine motor readiness development.…

  15. Spectral and photophysical studies of inclusion complexes of 2-amino-4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine with beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kemary, M A; El-Gezawy, H S; El-Baradie, H Y; Issa, R M

    2002-02-01

    The interaction of 2-amino-4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine (ADMP) with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) has been studied by means of UV absorption, steady state and time resolved fluorescence techniques. Spectral characteristics, bandwidths and photophysical parameters indicating that ADMP experience two different environments in aqueous solutions: bulk water and 1:1 (ADMP:beta-CD) inclusion complexation. The size restriction of the upper rim of beta-CD partially include ADMP and prevent the possibility of formation of 1:2 complex. The effective polarity of the cyclodextrin cavity experienced by the induced ADMP is equivalent with the polarity of an 80:20 methanol-water mixture.

  16. Cleaner and convenient preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yue-Zhong; Fang, Zhao-Hua; Liu, Wei-Ping

    2004-08-01

    Environmental concerns have highlighted the need of cleaner technologies. A cleaner, convenient and selective technology has been developed for the preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol (DPMP) from 2-methyl-benzene-1,3-diol in water as solvent. The isolated yield of DPMP is up to 86% in good selectivity. The product structure was characterized by conventional methods, 1H-NMR and MS. This technology belongs to the modern concept of environmentally friendly low wastes or non-wastes technology (LWNWT).

  17. Cleaner and convenient preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文岳中; 方兆华; 刘维屏

    2004-01-01

    Environmental concerns have highlighted the need of cleaner technologies. A cleaner, convenient and selective technology has been developed for the preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol (DPMP) from 2-methyl-benzene-1,3-diol in water as solvent. The isolated yield of DPMP is up to 86% in good selectivity. The product structure was characterized by conventional methods, 1H-NMR and MS. This technology belongs to the modern concept of environmentally friendly low wastes or non-wastes technology (LWNWT).

  18. Synthesis and Structure of Vanadium-barium Complex of 2, 4, 6- Tripicolinato with 20-Member Macrocyclic Cavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new heteronuclear complex, dimer [(μ2-OH2)2Ba2(H2O)4][VO2(tpa)]2Ba2(H2O4)(tpa: 2,4,6-tripicolinate trianion), was synthesized and structurally determined by X-ray diffraction technique where all hydrogen atoms have been located directly. The coordination geometry of V(V) ion is a distorted trigonal bipyrimid and that of Ba(II) ion is a capped square antiprism. One μ2-O bridging bond and two hydrogen bonds act between the coordination geometries. A 1-D extended porous construction containing 20-member cavities is observed in the crystal.

  19. The crystal structure of the new mineral dyrnaesite-(La), Na8CeIVREE2(PO4)6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2017-01-01

    Dyrnaesite-(La), Na7.89(Ce0.94Ca0.06)Σ1.00(La1.14Ce0.40Pr0.10Nd0.24Ca0.12)Σ2.00(PO4)6 is orthorhombic, Pnma, a = 18.4662(7), b = 16.0106(5), c = 7.0274(2) Å, V = 2077.7(1) Å3, Z = 4. The crystal structure is related to the group of Na3REE(XO4)2 compounds (with X = P, V, As), based on the aphthita...

  20. Poly[dinitrato[μ3-2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl-1,3,5-triazine]cobalt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Ping Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The solvothermal reaction of Co(NO32 and 2,4,6-tris(4-pyridyl-1,3,5-triazine in dimethylformamide/ethanol mixed solvent afforded the title coordination polymer, [Co(NO32(C18H12N6]n, in which the CoII atom is seven-coordinated by pyridyl groups of three different ligands and two chelating nitrate anions. The complex displays a nano-sized porous metal–organic framework that belongs to a (10,3 topological network.

  1. Cleaner and convenient preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文岳中; 方兆华; 刘维屏

    2004-01-01

    Environmental concerns have highlighted the need of cleaner technologies. A cleaner, convenient and selectivetechnology has been developed for the preparation of 3-(4,6-dimethoxy-pyrimidin-2-yloxy)-2-methyl-phenol (DPMP) from2-methyl-benzene-l,3-diol in water as solvent. The isolated yield of DPMP is up to 86% in good selectivity. The productstructure was characterized by conventional methods, 1H-NMR and MS. This technology belongs to the modern concept ofenvironmentally friendly low wastes or non-wastes technology (LWNWT).

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 4,6-diaryl substituted-4,5-dihydro-2-amino pyrimidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 4,6-Diaryl substituted-4,5-dihydro-2-amino pyrimidines have been synthesized by the reaction of chalcones with guanidine nitrate. Their chemical structures have been confirmed by means of IR and NMR data and by elemental analysis. The compounds were screened for antibacterial activity against 16 gram-positive bacterial strains in minimum inhibitory concentration. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the compound II has found to be better than the reference standards taken for the antibacterial screening. Sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim were taken as reference standards.

  3. The Structure and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Octupolar Compound: 2,4,6-Tristyryl-s-triazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Zhi CUI; Qi FANG; Hong LEI; Gang XUE; Wen Tao YU

    2003-01-01

    The crystal of 2, 4, 6-tristyryl-s-triazine (TSTA) has been prepared and its crystal structure been determined to be in the polar non-centrosymmetric space group Cmc21. The molecular structure of TSTA is characterized by the slightly curved planar configuration and the octupolar C3v molecular symmetry. As expected, TSTA crystal shows a quite novel nonlinear optical (NLO) property with its powder second harmonic generating (SHG) intensity of 1.8 times as that of urea. It also shows excellent transparency (with the peak position of 322 nm in absorption spectrum) and good thermal stability (with the melting point of 225-229℃).

  4. Tunable color emission in K3Gd(PO4)2:Tb3+,Sm3+ phosphor for n-UV white light emitting diodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷; 徐旭辉; 周大成; 邱建备; 余雪

    2015-01-01

    A series of K3Gd(PO4)2:Tb3+,Sm3+ phosphors were synthesized through solid state reaction. By co-doping Tb3+ and Sm3+ into K3Gd(PO4)2 host and singly varying the doping concentration of Sm3+, tunable colors from green to yellow and then to orange were obtained in K3Gd(PO4)2:Tb3+,Sm3+ phosphors under the excitation at 373 nm. The energy transfer process fromTb3+ to Sm3+was verified through luminescence spectra and fluorescence decay curves. Moreover, the energy transfer mechanism was demon-strated to be the quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. The results indicated that K3Gd(PO4)2:Tb3+,Sm3+phosphors could be a potential application for n-UV white light emitting diodes.

  5. Vitamin K 3 family members - Part II: Single crystal X-ray structures, temperature-induced packing polymorphism, magneto-structural correlations and probable anti-oncogenic candidature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Sandhya; Ahmed, Khursheed; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita; Zaware, Santosh B.; Srinivas, D.; Gonnade, Rajesh; Bhadbhade, Mohan

    2008-12-01

    Temperature-induced packing polymorphism is observed for vitamin K 3 (menadione, 3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 1). Form 1a crystallizes at 300 K and 1b at 277 K both in the same space group P2 1/ c. Form 1b contains one molecule per asymmetric unit, performing anisotropy in g-factor viz. g z = 2.0082, g y = 2.0055 and g x = 2.0025, whereas form 1a contains two molecules in its asymmetric unit. Vitamin K 3 family members 2, [2-hydroxy vitamin K 3] and 3, [2-hydroxy-1-oximino vitamin K 3] also perform intrinsic neutral active naphthosemiquinone valence tautomers even in dark having spin concentrations due to hydrogen bonding and aromatic stacking interactions which are compared to vitamin K 3. The significant lateral C-H⋯O and O-H⋯π bifurcated or π-π ∗ interactions are discussed for molecular associations and radical formations. X-ray structure of 3 revealed π-π ∗ stack dimers as radicals signatured in EPR as triplet with five hyperfine splits [ Ā( 14N) = 11.9 G]. The centrosymmetric biradicals in 3 show diamagnetism at high temperature but below 10 K it shows paramagnetism with μeff as 0.19 B.M. Vitamin K 3 and its family members inhibit biological activities of acid phosphatase ( APase), which are proportional to their spin concentrations. This may relate to their probable anti-oncogenic candidature in future.

  6. Increased growth and root Cu accumulation of Sorghum sudanense by endophytic Enterobacter sp. K3-2: Implications for Sorghum sudanense biomass production and phytostabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Wang, Qi; Wang, Lu; He, Lin-Yan; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacterial strain K3-2 was isolated from the roots of Sorghum sudanense (an bioenergy plant) grown in a Cu mine wasteland soils and characterized. Strain K3-2 was identified as Enterobacter sp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain K3-2 exhibited Cu resistance and produced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, and arginine decarboxylase. Pot experiments showed that strain K3-2 significantly increased the dry weight and root Cu accumulation of Sorghum sudanense grown in the Cu mine wasteland soils. Furthermore, increase in total Cu uptake (ranging from 49% to 95%) of the bacterial inoculated-Sorghum sudanense was observed compared to the control. Notably, most of Cu (83-86%) was accumulated in the roots of Sorghum sudanense. Furthermore, inoculation with strain K3-2 was found to significantly increase Cu bioconcentration factors and the proportions of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria in the root interiors and rhizosphere soils of Sorghum sudanense compared with the control. Significant decrease in the available Cu content was also observed in the rhizosphere soils of the bacterial-inoculated Sorghum sudanense. The results suggest that the endophytic bacterial strain K3-2 may be exploited for promoting Sorghum sudanense biomass production and Cu phytostabilization in the Cu mining wasteland soils.

  7. ProTaper和K3预备对上颌前磨牙根管形态影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏庆银

    2015-01-01

    目的 比较ProTaper和K3预备对根管形态的影响.方法 选取正畸减数拔除含颊舌双根管的上颌前磨牙40颗,把80个根管随机分为2组,分别采用机用镍钛器械ProTaper和K3预备根管,预备前后分别三维成像,记录预先设立的根管横断面、颊舌向切面、近远中向切面三个位点的三维数据,根据预备前后的三维图像评价根管预备的效果.结果 K3组相对于ProTaper组对牙本质的切削量少,对根管形态的影响较小,ProTaper组和K3组有显著性差异(P<0.01).结论 K3组预备后的根管形态优于ProTaper组.K3预备后能较好的保持根管形态,对根管壁牙本质的切削量少,较少地削弱了余留牙体组织的抗折力.

  8. 有13-(4,m)型的二元自对偶码(m=2,4,6)%Binary Self-dual Codes with Type of 13-(4,m) (m=2,4,6)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣

    2014-01-01

    论述纠错码中的二元自对偶码,把码字看成二元域GF(2n)上的多项式,并分解因式。根据码长较短的二元自对偶码,构造出长度较长的二元自对偶码,并给出生成矩阵。运用2个码等价的类型,得到在等价下可能的码的分类情况,运行Matlab程序,证明具有13-(4,2)型自同构的二元自对偶码[54,27,10]只有8个等价的自对偶码。应用该方法,得到二元自对偶码[56,28,10]的生成矩阵。运行程序证明在等价情况下,存在16个有13-(4,4)型的自对偶码,而有13-(4,6)型的二元自对偶码[58,29,10]在等价下只有10种码。%The paper discusses the binary self-dual code of error correcting code,looking the code as a polynomial on the field GF(2) n and factorizing it. It constructs the longer length code by the shorter length code and gives the code’ s generator matrix. Owning to code’ s equivalence,the possible classification of length 54 binary self-dual codes with an automorphism of order 13 is given. By implementing Matlab procedures,there are eight self-dual codes up to equivalence. By similar method,there are 16 self-dual codes with type of 13-(4,4) and there are 10 self-dual codes with type of 13-(4,6) up to equinalence. Therefore,the generator matrices and classifications of the binary self-dual code with type of 13-(4,2),13-(4,4) and 13-(4,6) are solved completely.

  9. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  10. XAFS studies on highly dispersed Ni 2P/SiO 2 catalysts for hydrodesulfurization of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kye-Sung; Lee, Yong-Kul

    2010-09-01

    The Ni 2P catalysts were prepared by a new synthetic method with the use of less oxidic phosphorus precursor in order to achieve high dispersion on silica support, and their structural properties and catalytic activity in HDS of 4,6-DMDBT were studied. Comparison was made with a conventionally prepared sample which was obtained by temperature programmed reduction method. Various characterizations were conducted by BET, CO uptake, TPR, XRD and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The amounts of CO chemisorption uptake were 64 and 20 μmol g -1 for Ni 2P/SiO 2-LT and Ni 2P/SiO 2-HT, respectively, indicating that the low temperature reduction technique led to better dispersion of Ni 2P particles on SiO 2 support. The catalytic activity in the HDS of 4,6-DMDBT followed the order, Ni 2P/SiO 2-HT(54%)

  11. Synthesis and Study of Molecular Assemblies Formed by 4,6-O-(2-Phenylethylidene)-Functionalized d-Glucosamine Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anji; Adhikari, Surya B; Mays, Kellie; Wang, Guijun

    2017-08-15

    Low-molecular-weight gelators are interesting small molecules with potential applications as advanced materials. Carbohydrate-based small molecular gelators are especially useful because they are derived from renewable resources and are more likely to be biocompatible and biodegradable. Various 4,6-benzylidene acetal protected α-methyl 2-d-glucosamine derivatives have been found to be effective low-molecular-weight gelators. To understand the influence of the 4,6-benzylidene acetal functional group toward molecular self-assembly and to obtain effective molecular gelators, we synthesized and analyzed a new series of d-glucosamine derivatives in which the phenyl group of the acetal is replaced by a benzyl group. The homologation of the acetal protection from aromatic to aliphatic functional groups allows us to probe the effect of increasing structural flexibility on molecular self-assembly and gelation. In this study, nine representative amides and nine urea analogs were synthesized, and their gelation properties were analyzed in a series of organic solvents and aqueous solutions. The resulting amide and urea derivatives are versatile organogelators forming gels in toluene, ethanol, isopropanol, ethylene glycol, and aqueous mixtures of organic solvents. More interestingly, the amide analogs are also effective gelators for pump oil and engine oil. NMR spectroscopy at variable temperatures was used to analyze the molecular assemblies and intermolecular forces. The selected gelators with several drug and dye molecules in DMSO and water were studied for their effectiveness of encapsulation and release of these agents.

  12. SYNTHESIS OF 2-METHOXY-4,6-DI(PROP-1-ENYLPHENOL FROM EUGENOL AND ITS ACTIVITY AS AN ANTIOXIDANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernawan Hernawan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and antioxidant activity of 2-methoxy-4,6-di(prop-1-enyl phenol from eugenol have been investigated. Synthesis was conducted through three stages of reaction. The first step was CTAB micellar catalytic O-allylation reaction at room temperature, to give 4-allyl-1-(allyloxy-2-methoxybenzene (2. Compound (2 was subsequently heated for Claisen rearrangement and produced 2,4-diallyl-6- methoxyphenol (3. The final steps was isomerization of compound (3 in alkaline conditions in ethylene glycol, to yield 2-methoxy-4,6-di(prop-1-enyl phenol (4. Antioxidant activity test was conducted by TBARS and DPPH methods. TBARS test showed that the compound (4 at a concentration of 50 μM could inhibit the oxidation of linoleic acid shown by the increasing of time lag phase (96 ± 2.94 min, reducing the rate of propagation (± 54.54% and reducing of malonal dialdehyde (MDA formation (68.04 ± 0.84%. The DPPH test revealed that compound (4 indicated DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 107.66 μM and comparable with IC50 for BHT 107.37 μM.

  13. Synthesis, Structure and Biological Activities of Novel Triazole Compounds Containing 4,6-Dimethyl-pyrimidin-2-ylthio Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU, Liang-Zhong(许良忠); JIAN, Fang-Fang(建方方); SHI, Jian-Gang(时建刚); LI, Lin(李琳)

    2004-01-01

    Four compounds were prepared by reacting 4,6-dimethyl-2-mercaptopyrimidine with α-bromo-α-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-substituted acetylbenzene. Their structures were identified by means of elemental analysis, IR, and 1H NMR spectra. The single crystal structure of 2- [ 1 -(1,2,4-triazol- 1-yl)- 1-p-methoxyphenylcarbonylmethylthio] -4,6-dimethyl-pyrimidine was also determined. It crystallizes in monoclinic system, space group P21/c, a=0.8016(2) nm, b=1.2462(3) nm, c= 1.7824(4) nm,β=99.89(3)°, Z=4, V=1.7540(7) nm3, Dc=1.346 g/cm3, μ=0.205 mm-1, F(000)=744, final R1=0.0452. There is obviously potentially weak C-H…N intermolecular interaction between the molecules in the crystal lattice, which stabilizes the crystal structure. The result of the biological test showed that the four compounds all have some fungicidal and plant growth regulating activities.

  14. Biochemical characterization of an isoform of GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase from Mortierella alpina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchao; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Haiqin; Yang, Qin; Zhou, Xin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2016-10-01

    To clarify the molecular mechanism of GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis in Mortierella alpina. Analysis of the M. alpina genome suggests that there were two isofunctional GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase genes (GMD1 and GMD2) that have never been found in a microorganism before. GMD2 was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The addition of exogenous NAD(+) or NADP(+) was not essential for GMD2 activity. GMD2 may have considerable importance for GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis under nitrogen starvation. The transcriptional regulation of GMD1 may be more susceptible to GDP and GTP than that of GMD2. Significant changes were observed in the concentration of GDP-L-fucose (30 and 36 % inhibition respectively) and total fatty acids (18 and 12 % inhibition respectively) in M. alpina grown on GMD inhibitors medium, which suggests that GDP-L-fucose is functionally significant in lipid metabolism. This is the first time that an isofunctional GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase has been characterized in a microorganism.

  15. An attempt to evaluate the effect of vitamin K3 using as an enhancer of anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzno, Sumio; Yamaguchi, Yuka; Akiyoshi, Takeshi; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu; Matsuyama, Kenji

    2008-06-01

    The possibility of vitamin K3 (VK3) as an anticancer agent was assessed. VK3 dose-dependently diminished the cell viability (measured as esterase activity) with IC50 of 13.7 microM and Hill coefficient of 3.1 in Hep G2 cells. It also decreased the population of S phase and arrested cell cycle in the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner. G2/M arrest was regulated by the increment of cyclin A/cdk1 and cyclin A/cdk2 complex, and contrasting cyclin B/cdk1 complex decrease. Finally, combined application demonstrated that VK3 significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of etoposide, a G2 phase-dependent anticancer agent, whereas it reduced the cytotoxic activity of irinotecan, a S phase-dependent agent. These findings suggest that VK3 induces G2/M arrest by inhibition of cyclin B/cdk1 complex formation, and is thus useful as an enhancer of G2 phase-dependent drugs in hepatic cancer chemotherapy.

  16. High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectroscopy of the Galactic Ultra-Compact HII Region K3-50A

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Robert D

    2009-01-01

    Gemini North adaptive optics imaging spectroscopy is presented for the Galactic ultra-compact HII (UCHII) region K3-50A. Data were obtained in the K-band using the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) behind the facility adaptive optics module ALTAIR in natural guide star mode. The NIFS data cube reveals a complex spatial morphology across the 0.1 pc scale of the 3'' UCHII region. Comparison of the nebular emission to Cloudy ionization models shows that the central source must have an effective temperature between about 37000 K and 45000 K with preferred values near 40000 K. Evidence is presented for sharp density variations in the nebula which are interpreted as a clearing of material nearest the central source. High excitation lines of FeIII and SeIV show that the ionization of the nebula clearly changes with distance from the central source. A double lobed kinematic signature (+/- 25 kms) is evident in the Br gamma line map which may be related to the larger scale ionized flow detailed in earli...

  17. Crystal structure and electrical properties of K 3Bi 2(VO 4) 3, a new potassium bismuth vanadate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debreuille-Gresse, M. F.; Abraham, F.

    1987-12-01

    K 3Bi 2(VO 4) 3 crystallizes in the space group {C2}/{c}, a = 13.957(4), b = 13.858(4), c = 7.095(2) Å, β = 112.80(3)°, Z = 4. The crystal structure was determined from single-crystal intensity data obtained by means of an automated four-circle diffractometer and refined to the conventional values R = 0.050 and Rw = 0.059 for 1498 observed reflections. The structure is characterized by a three-dimensional network of Bi 2O 10 units and VO 4 tetrahedra. A Bi 2O 10 unit is formed by two BiO 6 octahedra sharing an edge. K + ions occupy three different crystallographic sites. One of them has a high thermal vibration which could reflect ionic mobility. The ionic conductivity highly increases at 790 K. DSC measurements show a reversible transition at this temperature. One K atom, and only one, can be substituted by one Na atom to give NaK 2Bi 2(VO 4) 3; this substitution improves the conductivity.

  18. Resonance Scattering Spectral Determination of HAS with a New Scattering Enhanced Reagent of K3[Fe(CN)6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG,Zhi-Liang(蒋治良); PENG,Zhong-Li(彭忠利); LIU,Shao-Pu(刘绍璞)

    2002-01-01

    A new resonance scattering spectral (RSS) method for the determination of human serum album (HSA) has been proposed with the resonance scattering enhanced reagent of K3[Fe(CN)6]. In the medium of HCl (2,0× 10-3 mol/L), HSA may combine with [Fe(CN)6]3- by intermolecular forces (mainly by electrostatic force) to form {[Fe (CN)6]3n-HSAm+ }k nanoparticle of the ion-association complexes of HSAm+-[Fe(CN)6]3n-. There is a strongest resonance scattering intensity at 351 nm, owing to the existence of the resonance scattering of the nanoparticle, [Fe(CN)6]3- molecular absorption and the non-distribution of the emission intensity of Xe lamp in the range of 200-1000 nm. In addition, two resonance scattering peaks at 470 and 700 nm were observed. Tne HSA concentration in the range of 0-12 μg/mL is lhear to the resonance scattering intensity at 351 mn. The determination limit of this method is 0.1 μg/mL HSA, about ten-fold lower than that of Coomassie brilliant blue protein assay. This method has been used for the determination of HSA in human serum ami synthetic samples with satisfactory results. The mechanism of enhanced resonance scattering light, the TEM of the particle, the concepts of quasi-elastic absorption and tm-elastic absorption were also discussed.

  19. Effects of Aging-Time Reference on the Long Term Behavior of the IM7/K3B Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazie, David R.; Gates, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the time-based shift reference on the long term behavior of the graphite reinforced thermoplastic polyimide composite IM7/K3B at elevated temperature. Creep compliance and the effects of physical aging on the time dependent response was measured for uniaxial loading at several isothermal conditions below the glass transition temperature (T(sub g). Two matrix dominated loading modes, shear and transverse, were investigated in tension and compression. The momentary sequenced creep/aging curves were collapsed through a horizontal (time) shift using the shortest, middle and longest aging time curve as the reference curve. Linear viscoelasticity was used to characterize the creep/recovery behavior and superposition techniques were used to establish the physical aging related material constants. The use of effective time expressions in a laminated plate model allowed for the prediction of long term creep compliance. The effect of using different reference curves with time/aging-time superposition was most sensitive to the physical aging shift rate at lower test temperatures. Depending on the loading mode, the reference curve used can result in a more accurate long term prediction, especially at lower test temperatures.

  20. Cardiac Fibroblast-Specific Activating Transcription Factor 3 Protects Against Heart Failure by Suppressing MAP2K3-p38 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulin; Li, Zhenya; Zhang, Congcong; Li, Ping; Wu, Yina; Wang, Chunxiao; Lau, Wayne Bond; Ma, Xin-Liang; Du, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Background -Hypertensive ventricular remodeling is a common cause of heart failure. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating ventricular remodeling remain poorly understood. Methods -We used a discovery-driven/nonbiased approach to indentify increased ATF3 expression in hypertensive heart. We employed loss/gain of function approaches to understand the role of ATF3 in heart failure. We also examine the mechanisms through transcriptome, CHIP-seq analysis and in vivo and vitro experiments. Results -ATF3 expression increased in murine hypertensive heart and human hypertrophic heart. Cardiac fibroblast cells are the primary cell type expressing high ATF3 levels in response to hypertensive stimuli. ATF3 knockout (ATF3KO) markedly exaggerated hypertensive ventricular remodeling, a state rescued by lentivirus-mediated/miRNA-aided cardiac fibroblast-selective ATF3 overexpression. Conversely, conditional cardiac fibroblast cell-specific ATF3 transgenic overexpression significantly ameliorated ventricular remodeling and heart failure. We identified Map2K3 as a novel ATF3 target. ATF3 binds with the Map2K3 promoter, recruiting HDAC1, resulting in Map2K3 gene-associated histone deacetylation, thereby inhibiting Map2K3 expression. Genetic Map2K3 knockdown rescued the pro-fibrotic/hypertrophic phenotype in ATF3KO cells. Finally, we demonstrated that p38 is the downstream molecule of Map2K3 mediating the pro-fibrotic/hypertrophic effects in ATF3KO animals. Inhibition of p38 signaling reduced TGF-β signaling-related pro-fibrotic and hypertrophic gene expression, and blocked exaggerated cardiac remodeling in ATF3KO cells. Conclusions -Our study provides the first evidence that ATF3 upregulation in cardiac fibroblasts in response to hypertensive stimuli protects heart by suppressing Map2K3 expression and subsequent p38-TGF-β signaling. These results suggest that positive modulation of cardiac fibroblast ATF3 may represent a novel therapeutic approach against hypertensive

  1. Application of a Homogenous Assay for the Detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene to Environmental Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R. Goldman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A homogeneous assay was used to detect 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT spiked into environmental water samples. This assay is based on changes in fluorescence emission intensity when TNT competitively displaces a fluorescently labeled, TNT analog bound to an anti-TNT antibody. The effectiveness of the assay was highly dependent on the source of the sample being tested. As no correlation between pH and assay performance was observed, ionic strength was assumed to be the reason for variation in assay results. Addition of 10x phosphate-buffered saline to samples to increase their ionic strength to that of our standard laboratory buffer (about 0.17 M significantly improved the range over which the assay functioned in several river water samples.

  2. Determinació analítica de 2,4,6-ticloroanisole i altres cloroanisoles en vins i suros

    OpenAIRE

    Riu Rusell, Marc

    2011-01-01

    La determinació de 2,4,6-tricloroanisole (TCA) i altres cloroanisoles en vins i taps de suro és de vital importància, tant en la industria enològica com en al surera, pel control d’un dels defectes organolèptics del vi que ha causat més prejudicis: l’olor a humitat, clàssicament conegut com a gust a suro. En aquesta tesi doctoral s’han desenvolupat i validat aquestes metodologies, tot aplicant la microextracció en fase sòlida i la cromatografia de gasos, ja sigui en detecció de captura electr...

  3. Síntesis y actividad antimicrobiana de derivados de 4,6-diaminopirimidinas análogos de citosina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gricela Lobo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new synthesis of novel 4,6-diaminopyrimidines 2a-j, cytosine analogous, is described. This involves the base-assisted cyclization reaction of benzylidenemalononitriles 1a-j (BMNs with urea. Compounds 1a-j were prepared by a Knoevenagel condensation reaction from benzaldehyde and malononitrile using EtOH as solvent at room temperature conditions. The antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 14579 and Gram-negative: Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853 and th yeast Candida tropicalis (MLDM 372 is also reported. The compounds 2c, 2e, 2f, 2g, 2i and 2j are considered wide spectrum. Antimicrobial activity, Benzylidenemalononitriles (BMNs, Cytosine, Diaminopyrimidine, Urea,

  4. The fluorophore 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) induces DNA folding in long double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccia, Maria Rosa; Biver, Tarita; Pardini, Alberto; Spinelli, Jacopo; Secco, Fernando; Venturini, Marcella; Busto Vázquez, Natalia; Lopez Cornejo, Maria Pilar; Martin Herrera, Victoria Isabel; Prado Gotor, Rafael

    2012-08-01

    DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) is a widely used fluorescent dye, whose complicated binding features to DNAs and RNAs have been the object of debates and are still not fully understood. In this study, different approaches were employed, including binding equilibrium measurements (spectrofluorometry), melting experiments (spectrophotometry), viscometric measurements, circular dichroism, and T-jump kinetic analyses; all data concur in shedding light on the complex mechanistic aspects of the binding mode of DAPI to natural DNA. Conditions are found that induce the mode of the DAPI/DNA interaction to change from groove binding to intercalation. Moreover, it is observed, for the first time, that DAPI is able to induce the formation of a rather compact polymer-dye adduct under particular conditions. The results suggest that this form is a folded or coiled DNA structure stabilized by DAPI dye bridges.

  5. N-(2-{[5-Bromo-2-(piperidin-1-ylpyrimidin-4-yl]sulfanyl}-4-methoxyphenyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C25H29BrN4O3S2, the benzene rings bridged by the sulfonamide group are tilted relative to each other by 63.9 (1° and the dihedral angle between the sulfur-bridged pyrimidine and benzene rings is 64.9 (1°. The molecular conformation is stabilized by a weak intramolecular π–π stacking interaction between the pyrimidine and the 2,4,6-trimethylbenzene rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.766 (2 Å]. The piperidine ring adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked into inversion dimers by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds and these dimers are further linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains propagating along [010].

  6. Studies of Quantum Chemistry of Structure and Properties of 3,7-Bis (nitroimino)-2,4,6,8-tetranitro-2,4,6,8-tetraazabicyclo [3.3.0] octane%3,7-二硝亚胺基-2,4,6,8-四硝基-2,4,6,8-四氮杂双环[3.3.0]辛烷结构与性能的量子化学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金兴辉; 胡炳成; 贾欢庆; 吕春绪

    2013-01-01

    A novel high energetic density compound of 3,7-bis (nitroimino)-2,4,6,8-tetranitro-2,4,6,8-tetraazabicyclo[3.3.0] octane (HNGG) was designed.The stable geometry of the compound was completely optimized at the B3 LYP/6-31 G (d,p) theoretical level of density functional theory (DFT) and the IR spectrum was obtained.The bond dissociation energy(BDE) of the thermolysis initiation bond N7-N22 was calculated and BDE value was 91.47 kJ/mol.The heat of formation of 1219.94 kJ/mol and theoretical density of 2.16g/cm3 were obtained via isodesmic reaction and Monte-Carlo method,respectively.Based on the theoretical density,the formula of Kamlet-Jacobs was used to predict the detonation properties.The results show that HNGG meets the requirements of high energetic materials with detonation velocity of 10.43 km/s,detonation pressure of 53.44 GPa and detonation heat of 7407.84 J/g.In addition,synthetic route of HNGG was also designed.%设计了一种新型高能量密度化合物——3,7-二硝亚胺基-2,4,6,8-四硝基-2,4,6,8-四氮杂双环[3.3.0]辛烷,应用密度泛函理论(DFT)的B3LYP方法在6-31G(d,p)基组水平上对该化合物进行了结构全优化,并计算得到其红外(IR)光谱;通过键级分析获得热解引发键的位置为N7-N22,同时求得校正后的键离解能为91.47 kJ/mol.采用Monte-Carlo方法预测该化合物的理论密度为2.16 g/cm3;基于理论密度并结合等键反应及Kamlet-Jacobs公式预测了生成焓、爆速、爆压和爆热值分别为1219.94 kJ/mol,10.43 km/s,53.44 GPa和7407.84 J/g.以上性能参数显示,该目标化合物达到了高能量密度化合物的基本要求,是一种潜在的含能材料.同时给出了该化合物的逆合成路线.

  7. Bis (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde-2,4,6-trinitrophenol) organic cocrystal: Synthesis and physico-chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsana, N.; Krishnakumar, V.; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2016-10-01

    A 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde-2,4,6-trinitrophenol (mhba-tnp) cocrystal was grown by the slow evaporation solution growth technique using ethanol as a solvent. As-grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) study and crystallized with a centrosymmetric space group. Optical properties of the grown crystal have been studied by Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectra in the range from 200 to 800nm and the band gap energy of the crystal was obtained as 2.8eV. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and micro Raman spectral analyses have been carried out to confirm the functional groups present in the title compound. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and polarized light thermomicroscopy (PLTM) analyses were carried out to find the melting point. In addition, the optimized geometric parameters and the molecular orbitals were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) with the help of the Gaussian 03W software.

  8. Aquatrinitrato[2,4,6-tris(pyridin-2-yl-1,3,5-triazine]neodymium(III dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Nd(NO33(C18H12N6(H2O]·2H2O, the Nd3+ ion is in a distorted bicapped square-antiprismatic geometry formed by three N atoms from the 2,4,6-tris(pyridin-2-yl-1,3,5-triazine (TPTZ ligand, six O atoms from the three nitrate anions and one O atom from the aqua ligand. The molecules are linked by O—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds. Two types of π–π stacking interactions occur between the TPTZ ligands of adjacent complexes [centroid-to-centroid distances = 3.760 (4 and 3.870 (3 Å].

  9. L shell x ray production in high-Z elements using 4-6 MeV/u fluorine ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Udai; Oswal, M.; Singh, G.; Singh, N.; Mehta, D.; Nandi, T.; Lapicki, G.

    2017-03-01

    L shell line and total x ray production cross sections in 78Pt, 79Au, 82Pb, 83Bi, 90Th, and 92U targets ionized by 4-6 MeV/u fluorine ions were measured. These cross sections are compared with available theories for L shell ionization using single- and multiple-hole fluorescence and the Coster-Kronig yields. The ECPSSR and the ECUSAR theories exhibit good agreement with the measured data, whereas, the FBA theory overestimates them by a factor of two. Although for the F ion charge states q = 6-8 the multiple-hole atomic parameters do not significantly differ from the single-hole values, after an account for the multiple-holes, our data are better in agreement with the ECUSAR than the ECPSSR theory.

  10. Smartphone-based portable biosensing system using impedance measurement with printed electrodes for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Diming; Jiang, Jing; Chen, Junye; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Yanli; Yao, Yao; Li, Shuang; Logan Liu, Gang; Liu, Qingjun

    2015-08-15

    Rapid, sensitive, selective and portable detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is in high demand for public safety and environmental monitoring. In this study, we reported a smartphone-based system using impedance monitoring for TNT detection. The screen-printed electrodes modified with TNT-specific peptides were used as disposable a biosensor to produce impedance responses to TNT. The responses could be monitored by a hand-held device and send out to smartphone through Bluetooth. Then, the smartphone was used to display TNT responses in real time and report concentration finally. In the measurement, the system was demonstrated to detect TNT at concentration as low as 10(-6) M and distinguish TNT versus different chemicals in high specificity. Thus, the smartphone-based biosensing platform provided a convenient and efficient approach to design portable instruments for chemical detections such as TNT recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 4,6-connected fsb topology networks obtained through two-step crystal engineering of decorated trigonal prismatic nodes

    KAUST Repository

    Schoedel, Alexander

    2014-05-07

    A two-step crystal engineering strategy has been utilized to synthesize a new and versatile class of metal-organic materials, the first to exhibit 4,6-connected fsb topology. The new fsb networks are constructed from simple and inexpensive nodes (4-connected Zn(CO2)(py)2 tetrahedra; 6-connected Cr(μ3-O)(RCO2)6 trigonal prisms) and linker ligands (isonicotinate and various dicarboxylates). Further, since interpenetration is precluded, they can exhibit extra-large void volumes. These fsb nets are prototypal for what should ultimately become a large family of related structures given the ready availability of functionalized and/or expanded variants of both linker ligands. The fsb nets described herein therefore represent platforms or blueprints for a new family of ultrahigh surface area porous materials. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  12. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  13. Pallet part grading trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah F. Cook; Philip A. Araman; Matthew F. Winn

    2000-01-01

    A computerized pallet grading training system was developed to facilitate the production of higher quality pallets. Higher quality pallets would be more durable and could be re-used many times, resulting in long-term savings. Schmoldt et al. (1993) evaluated the economic impact of grading and sorting pallet parts. They determined that higher quality pallets produced by...

  14. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  15. Grading Exceptional Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    Teachers often grapple with the challenge of giving report card grades to students with learning disabilities and English language learners. The authors offer a five-step model that "offers a fair, accurate, and legal way to adapt the grading process for exceptional learners." The model begins with a high-quality reporting system for all students…

  16. Minimum Grading, Maximum Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Theodore; Carifio, James

    2011-01-01

    Fair and effective schools should assign grades that align with clear and consistent evidence of student performance (Wormeli, 2006), but when a student's performance is inconsistent, traditional grading practices can prove inadequate. Understanding this, increasing numbers of schools have been experimenting with the practice of assigning minimum…

  17. Final report of CCAUV.V-K3: key comparison in the field of acceleration on the complex charge sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Sun; Lifeng, Yang; Bartoli, Claire; Veldman, Ian; Ripper, Gustavo P.; Bruns, Thomas; Rask Licht, Torben; Kolasa, Joanna; Hof, Christian; Silva Pineda, Guillermo; Dickinson, Laurence; Ota, Akihiro; Cheung, Wan Sup; Yankovsky, Alexander; Shan, Cui

    2017-01-01

    This is the final report for CIPM key comparison CCAUV.V-K3 in the area of 'vibration' (quantity of acceleration). The aim of this comparison was to measure the voltage sensitivity of one accelerometer standard set with primary means at 27 frequencies from 0.1 Hz to 40 Hz. Fourteen Metrology Institutes from five RMOs have participated in the comparison with National Institute of Metrology, P.R. China as pilot lab and Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais and National Metrology Institute of South Africa as co-pilot labs. One quartz-flexure servo accelerometer of single-ended type and a signal conditioner was circulated among the participants. All but one of the participating laboratories provided their calibration results, which were mostly consistent within their declared expanded uncertainties for magnitude results. Only two participants failed to contribute to the KCRV values calculated for five frequencies. For phase shift, three participants could not contribute to the calculation of the KCRV values in a total of sixteen frequencies. This first low-frequency vibration key comparison revealed the current calibration capabilities of the fourteen participants of five RMOs. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Effects of Intermediates between Vitamins K2 and K3 on Mammalian DNA Polymerase Inhibition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Azuma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that vitamin K3 (VK3, but not VK1 or VK2 (=MK-4, inhibits the activity of human DNA polymerase γ (pol γ. In this study, we chemically synthesized three intermediate compounds between VK2 and VK3, namely MK-3, MK-2 and MK-1, and investigated the inhibitory effects of all five compounds on the activity of mammalian pols. Among these compounds, MK-2 was the strongest inhibitor of mammalian pols α, κ and λ, which belong to the B, Y and X families of pols, respectively; whereas VK3 was the strongest inhibitor of human pol γ, an A-family pol. MK-2 potently inhibited the activity of all animal species of pol tested, and its inhibitory effect on pol λ activity was the strongest with an IC50 value of 24.6 μM. However, MK-2 did not affect the activity of plant or prokaryotic pols, or that of other DNA metabolic enzymes such as primase of pol α, RNA polymerase, polynucleotide kinase or deoxyribonuclease I. Because we previously found a positive relationship between pol λ inhibition and anti-inflammatory action, we examined whether these compounds could inhibit inflammatory responses. Among the five compounds tested, MK-2 caused the greatest reduction in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA-induced acute inflammation in mouse ear. In addition, in a cell culture system using mouse macrophages, MK-2 displayed the strongest suppression of the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Moreover, MK-2 was found to inhibit the action of nuclear factor (NF-κB. In an in vivo mouse model of LPS-evoked acute inflammation, intraperitoneal injection of MK-2 in mice led to suppression of TNF-α production in serum. In conclusion, this study has identified VK2 and VK3 intermediates, such as MK-2, that are promising anti-inflammatory candidates.

  19. Binding selectivity of vitamin K3 based chemosensors towards nickel(II) and copper(II) metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Amit; Lande, Dipali N.; Nalkar, Archana; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Chakrovorty, Debamitra; Gonnade, Rajesh; Moniz, Tânia; Rangel, Maria; Pereira, Eulália; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2017-09-01

    The vitamin K3 derivatives 2-methyl-3-[(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-1,4-naphthoquinone (M-1), 2-methyl-3-[(pyridin-2-ylethyl)-amino]-1,4-naphthoquinone (M-2), 2-methyl-3-((2-(thiophen-2-yl)methyl)amino)naphthalene-1,4-dione (M-3) and 2-methyl-3-((2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethyl)amino)naphthalene-1,4-dione (M-4) have been synthesized, characterized and studied for their chemosensor abilities towards transition metal ions. Crystal structures of M-1 to M-4 revealed a variety of Nsbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯π and π⋯π interactions. Minor variations in such interactions by chemical stimuli such as metal ions, results in change in color that can be visualized by naked eyes. It has been shown that electronic structure and 1H NMR, vibrational as well as electronic spectra from the density functional theory agree well with the experiments. The metal ion binding in ethanol, ethanol-water and in mild base triethylamine brings forth recognizing ability of M-1 toward Ni2+ whereas M-2 exhibits large sensing ability for Cu2+ ion. Interestingly M-1 display varying metal ion binding specificity in different solvents with the association constant in ethanol being 11,786 M-1 for Ni2+ compared to 9462 M-1 for the Cu2+. A reversal in preferential binding of M-2 with the respective association constants being 4190 M-1 and 6370 M-1 is discernible.

  20. Clean Manufacture of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) via Improved Regioselectivity in the Nitration of Toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ross W.; Arber, Anthony W.; Endsor, Robert M.; Hamid, Javid; Eamon Colclough, M.

    2011-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense requires an environmentally benign synthesis route to manufacture military grade trinitrotoluene (TNT), which eliminates the production of red water arising from the sulfiting process for removing unsymmetrical trinitrotoluene isomers. We have found that by using a novel nitrating system, N2O5 in dichloromethane, the proportion of metasubstituted nitrotoluenes can be suppressed, and improvements have also been made to the di- and trinitration steps. As a result, TNT with a set point near that of the Mil. Spec. can be made by our process, without the need for sulfite washing; after recrystallization it exceeds the specification.

  1. Liquidus Temperatures of System Na3AlF6-K3AlF6-AlF3 for Aluminum Electrolysis at Lower Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Chen-juan; LAI Yan-qing; LI Jie; TIAN Zhong-liang; WANG Jia-wei; ZOU Zhong; LIU Ye-xiang

    2011-01-01

    Liquidus temperatures in the molten salt system Na3AlF6-K3AlF6-AlF3 of interest for aluminum electrolysis were determined by thermal analysis method.The results were presented and an empirical equation describing liquidus temperatures for primary crystallization was derived t=1003.5-0.081 ×A2.3159-5.87×B0.657-0.024×A2.22×B1.14+0.035×A2.17×B1.084,where t is the liquidus temperature in degree Celsius,A denotes the mass fraction of AlF3 in system Na3AlF6-K3AlF6-AlF3,and B denotes K3A1F6/(Na3AlF6+K3AlF6)in mass(%,the value was defined as KR in this paper).The composition limitations are 0<w(AlF3)<30%,and 0<KR<50%.The isothermal diagram of molten salt system Na3AlF6-K3A1F6-AlF3 was obtained in this composition limitation.

  2. Subcutaneous injection of thallium-201 chloride and gallium-67 citrate at acupuncture point K-3; An animal experiment and human-being study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johg, Shiang-Bin; Wu, Chung-Chieng; Chen, Ming-Feng; Wu, Sheng-Nan (Kaohsiung Medical Coll., Taiwan (China))

    1992-09-01

    Subcutaneous (SC) injection of [sup 99m]Tc pertechnetate ([sup 99m]Tc) at acupuncture points K-3 is a new method of lower-limb radionuclide venography. To investigate the mechanism of absorption of [sup 99m]Tc from SC injected sites into vascular system, various radioisotopes such as [sup 201]Tl chloride ([sup 201]Tl) and [sup 67]Ga citrate ([sup 67]Ga) were SC injected at K-3 points in animal and human-beings experiments. It was found that [sup 99m]Tc and [sup 201]Tl were absorbed rapidly from K-3 points through venous system and into whole body soft tissue. However, [sup 67]Ga with a larger effective ionic radius than [sup 201]Tl was not absorbed throughout the observation of 5 minutes. Furthermore, intravenous administration of digitalis, a Na[sup +]-K[sup +] pump blocker, did not inhibit the absorption of [sup 99m]Tc and [sup 201]Tl after SC injection at K-3 points. These results suggest that absorption of radionuclides on SC injection at K-3 points is mainly through the passive pathway of diffusion rather than the active transport, and the effective ionic radius may be a major factor influencing the absorption rate of the radionuclides. (author).

  3. MAP4K3 is a component of the TORC1 signalling complex that modulates cell growth and viability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Resnik-Docampo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MAP4K3 is a conserved Ser/Thr kinase that has being found in connection with several signalling pathways, including the Imd, EGFR, TORC1 and JNK modules, in different organisms and experimental assays. We have analyzed the consequences of changing the levels of MAP4K3 expression in the development of the Drosophila wing, a convenient model system to characterize gene function during epithelial development. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using loss-of-function mutants and over-expression conditions we find that MAP4K3 activity affects cell growth and viability in the Drosophila wing. These requirements are related to the modulation of the TORC1 and JNK signalling pathways, and are best detected when the larvae grow in a medium with low protein concentration (TORC1 or are exposed to irradiation (JNK. We also show that MAP4K3 display strong genetic interactions with different components of the InR/Tor signalling pathway, and can interact directly with the GTPases RagA and RagC and with the multi-domain kinase Tor. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that MAP4K3 has two independent functions during wing development, one related to the activation of the JNK pathway in response to stress and other in the assembling or activation of the TORC1 complex, being critical to modulate cellular responses to changes in nutrient availability.

  4. 2-(2'-Pyridyl)-4,6-diphenylphosphinine versus 2-(2'-pyridyl)-4,6-diphenylpyridine: synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of cationic Rh(III) and Ir(III) complexes based on aromatic phosphorus heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Krom, Iris; Broeckx, Leen E E; Lutz, Martin; Müller, Christian

    2013-03-11

    The bidentate P,N hybrid ligand 1 allows access for the first time to novel cationic phosphinine-based Rh(III) and Ir(III) complexes, broadening significantly the scope of low-coordinate aromatic phosphorus heterocycles for potential applications. The coordination chemistry of 1 towards Rh(III) and Ir(III) was investigated and compared with the analogous 2,2'-bipyridine derivative, 2-(2'-pyridyl)-4,6-diphenylpyridine (2), which showed significant differences. The molecular structures of [RhCl(Cp*)(1)]Cl and [IrCl(Cp*)(1)]Cl (Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) were determined by means of X-ray diffraction and confirm the mononuclear nature of the λ(3) -phosphinine-Rh(III) and Ir(III) complexes. In contrast, a different reactivity and coordination behavior was found for the nitrogen analogue 2, especially towards Rh(III) as a bimetallic ion pair [RhCl(Cp*)(2)](+) [RhCl3 (Cp*)](-) is formed rather than a mononuclear coordination compound. [RhCl(Cp*)(1)]Cl and [IrCl(Cp*)(1)]Cl react with water regio- and diastereoselectively at the external PC double bond, leading exclusively to the anti-addition products [MCl(Cp*)(1H⋅OH)]Cl as confirmed by X-ray crystal-structure determination.

  5. Rb and FZR1/Cdh1 determine CDK4/6-cyclin D requirement in C. elegans and human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The, Inge; Ruijtenberg, Suzan; Bouchet, Benjamin P; Cristobal, Alba; Prinsen, Martine B W; van Mourik, Tim; Koreth, John; Xu, Huihong; Heck, Albert J R; Akhmanova, Anna; Cuppen, Edwin; Boxem, Mike; Muñoz, Javier; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2015-01-06

    Cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) in complex with D-type cyclins promote cell cycle entry. Most human cancers contain overactive CDK4/6-cyclin D, and CDK4/6-specific inhibitors are promising anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we investigate the critical functions of CDK4/6-cyclin D kinases, starting from an unbiased screen in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that simultaneous mutation of lin-35, a retinoblastoma (Rb)-related gene, and fzr-1, an orthologue to the APC/C co-activator Cdh1, completely eliminates the essential requirement of CDK4/6-cyclin D (CDK-4/CYD-1) in C. elegans. CDK-4/CYD-1 phosphorylates specific residues in the LIN-35 Rb spacer domain and FZR-1 amino terminus, resembling inactivating phosphorylations of the human proteins. In human breast cancer cells, simultaneous knockdown of Rb and FZR1 synergistically bypasses cell division arrest induced by the CDK4/6-specific inhibitor PD-0332991. Our data identify FZR1 as a candidate CDK4/6-cyclin D substrate and point to an APC/C(FZR1) activity as an important determinant in response to CDK4/6-inhibitors.

  6. Biochemical characterization of Lactobacillus reuteri Glycoside Hydrolase family 70 GTFB type of 4,6-α-Glucanotransferase enzymes that synthesize soluble dietary starch fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Yuxiang; van der Kaaij, Rachel Maria; Leemhuis, Hans; Pijning, Tjaard; van Leeuwen, Sander Sebastiaan; Jin, Zhengyu; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2015-01-01

    4,6-α-Glucanotransferase (4,6-α-GTase) enzymes, such as GTFB and GTFW of Lactobacillus reuteri strains, constitute a new reaction specificity in Glycoside Hydrolase Family 70 (GH70) and are novel enzymes that convert starch or starch hydrolysates into isomalto/malto-polysaccharides (IMMPs). These

  7. Atomic scale analysis of sterical effects in the adsorption of 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene on a CoMoS hydrotreating catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Signe S.; Šaric, Manuel; Moses, Poul Georg

    2016-01-01

    ) investigation of the adsorption of the sterically hindered sulfur-containing molecule 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) onto a hydrotreating model catalyst for the Co promoted MoS2 (CoMoS) phase. The molecular adsorption occurs exclusively on the Co-promoted S-edge, most predominantly in a precursor...

  8. Characterizations of Graded Distributive Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghua Chen; Chang'an Li

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we give some characterizations of graded distributive modules, prove some interesting results between graded rings (modules) and lattices under finiteness conditions, and investigate the direct sum of graded distributive modules in terms of orders of graded submodules and homomorphisms of graded factor modules.

  9. Paperless Grades and Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, James C.; Jones, Dennis; Turner, Sandy

    2003-01-01

    Provides overview of process of switching from paper-based grade reporting to computer-based grading. Authors found that paperless grading decreased number of errors, made student access more immediate, and reduced costs incurred by purchasing and storing grade-scanning sheets. Authors also argue that direct entry grading encourages faculty to…

  10. Syntheses, structures, and spectroscopic properties of K9Nd[PS4]4, K3Nd[PS4]2, Cs3Nd[PS4]2, and K3Nd3[PS4]4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuandong; Bensch, Wolfgang

    2008-09-01

    Four new quaternary alkali neodymium thiophosphates K 9Nd[PS 4] 4 ( 1), K 3Nd[PS 4] 2 ( 2), Cs 3Nd[PS 4] 2 ( 3), and K 3Nd 3[PS 4] 4 ( 4) were synthesized by reacting Nd with in situ formed fluxes of K 2S 3 or Cs 2S 3, P 2S 5 and S in appropriate molar ratios at 973 K. Their crystal structures are determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystal data: 1: space group C2/ c, a = 20.1894(16), b = 9.7679(5), c = 17.4930(15) A, beta = 115.66(1) degrees , and Z = 4; 2: space group P2 1/ c, a = 9.1799(7), b = 16.8797(12), c = 9.4828(7) A, beta = 90.20(1) degrees , and Z = 4; 3: space group P2 1/ n, a = 15.3641(13), b = 6.8865(4), c = 15.3902(13) A, beta = 99.19(1) degrees , and Z = 4; 4: space group C2/ c, a = 16.1496(14), b = 11.6357(7), c = 14.6784(11) A, beta = 90.40(1) degrees , and Z = 4. The structure of 1 is composed of one-dimensional (1) infinity{Nd[PS 4] 4} (9-) chains and charge balancing K (+) ions. Within the chains, eight-coordinated Nd (3+) ions, which are mixed with K (+) ions, are connected by [PS 4] (3-) tetrahedra. The crystal structures of 2 and 3 are characterized by anionic chains (1) infinity{Nd[PS 4] 2} (3-) being separated by K (+) or Cs (+) ions. Along each chain the Nd (3+) ions are bridged by [PS 4] (3-) anions. The difference between the structures of 2 and 3 is that in 2 the Nd (3+) ions are coordinated by four edge-sharing [PS 4] (3-) tetrahedra while in 3 each Nd (3+) ion is surrounded by one corner-sharing, one face-sharing, and two edge-sharing [PS 4] (3-) tetrahedra. The structure of 4 is a three-dimensional network with K (+) cations residing in tunnels running along [110] and [110]. The {Nd(1)S 8} polyhedra share common edges with four [PS 4] tetrahedra forming one-dimensional chains (1) infinity{Nd[PS 4] 2} (3-) running along [110] and [110]. The chains are linked by {Nd(2)S 8} polyhedra yielding the final three-dimensional network (3) infinity{Nd[PS 4] 2} (3-). The internal vibrations of both crystallographically independent

  11. Grading for Understanding - Standards-Based Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based grading (SBG), sometimes called learning objectives-based assessment (LOBA), is an assessment model that relies on students demonstrating mastery of learning objectives (sometimes referred to as standards). The goal of this grading system is to focus students on mastering learning objectives rather than on accumulating points. I have used SBG in an introductory physics course for the past five years and worked with several physics faculty members to implement SBG in the first and second semester of algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses at a primarily undergraduate comprehensive public university with class sizes of 48 students. In this article I will discuss methods for implementing SBG in a physics class.

  12. CR108, a novel vitamin K3 derivative induces apoptosis and breast tumor inhibition by reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chun-Ru [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Liao, Wei-Siang [Institute of Molecular Medicine and Bioengineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ya-Hui [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Murugan, Kaliyappan [Department of Chemistry, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chinpiao, E-mail: chinpiao@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Chao, Jui-I, E-mail: jichao@faculty.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Institute of Molecular Medicine and Bioengineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Vitamin K3 derivatives have been shown to exert anticancer activities. Here we show a novel vitamin K3 derivative (S)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutylthio)naphthalene-1,4-dione, which is named as CR108 that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction in human breast cancer. CR108 is more effective on the breast cancer cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. Moreover, CR108 induced apoptosis in both the non-HER-2-overexpressed MCF-7 and HER-2-overexpressed BT-474 breast cancer cells. CR108 caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol, and cleaved PARP proteins for apoptosis induction. CR108 markedly increased ROS levels in breast cancer cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general ROS scavenger, completely blocked the CR108-induced ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Interestingly, CR108 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but conversely inhibited the survivin protein expression. NAC treatment prevented the activation of p38 MAP kinase and rescued the survivin protein levels. SB202190, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, recovered the survivin protein levels and attenuated the cytotoxicity of CR108-treated cells. Furthermore, CR108 inhibited the xenografted human breast tumor growth in nude mice. Together, we demonstrate that CR108 is a novel vitamin K3 derivative that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction and associates with the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and the inhibition of survivin in the human breast cancer. - Highlights: • CR108 is more effective on the cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. • CR108 induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. • CR108 induces apoptosis by p38 kinase activation and survivin inhibition. • CR108 is a potent vitamin K3 analog that can develop for breast cancer therapy.

  13. Solid-state thermochromism and phase transitions of charge transfer 1,3-diamino-4,6-dinitrobenzene dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hoon; Naumov, Pance; Chung, Ihn Hee; Lee, Sang Cheol

    2011-09-01

    The lower 1,3-bis(hydroxyalkylamino) homologues of the strong intramolecular X-type charge transfer (CT) system 1,3-diamino-4,6-dinitrobenzene (DADNB) exhibit reversible color change in the solid state from yellow at room temperature (RT) to orange and red at high temperature (HT). To investigate the structural prerequisites for occurrence of this phenomenon, we prepared 10 new derivatives of DADNB where the hydroxyalkyl arms at the amino groups were replaced with substituents having different electronic and steric profiles. Two of the new materials exhibit sharp and reversible thermochromic change in the solid state: when heated, the bis(aminoethyl) derivative (DADNB-1) undergoes color change from orange-red to brown, while one of the three polymorphs of the bisphenyl product (DADNB-2) changes its color from red to yellow. The physicochemical analysis and the crystal structures of seven of these compounds, one of which is trimorphic, confirmed that both phenomena are due to solid-solid phase transitions. The brown high-temperature phase of DADNB-1 presents the first example where the absorption is shifted beyond the red region. Form C of DADNB-2 is the first material of this group that exhibits "negative" thermochromism, where the high-temperature phase absorbs at lower wavelength than the low-temperature one. The results demonstrate the potentials of these simple and easily accessible organic molecular materials for thermal switching of the optical properties by utility of intermolecular interactions to modulate the intramolecular CT.

  14. Nutritional status survey of children with autism and typically developing children aged 4-6 years in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caihong; Xia, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Nannan; Zhao, Dong; Wu, Lijie

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disability that may affect nutritional management of children with autism. This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of children with autism with that of typically developing children (aged 4-6 years) in China. Nutritional status was assessed by means of nutritional data, anthropometric data, biochemical assessment, physical examination for nutrient deficiencies and providing a questionnaire to parents. A total of fifty-three children with autism and fifty-three typically developing children were enrolled in this study. The parents were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding the eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms of their children. They were also asked to provide a 3 d food diary. Children with autism exhibited several abnormalities in terms of eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms. The levels of vitamins A and B6, Zn and Ca intakes were autism group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Serum Zn level was less than the normal reference range in both the groups. Serum Ca, vitamin A and folate levels in children with autism were significantly lower when compared with children without autism. According to the anthropometric data, the mean BMI, weight-for-height Z-score (Z WH) and BMI for age Z-score (Z BMIA) of children with autism were significantly higher than those of the typically developing children. Thus, nutritional inadequacies were observed in children with autism and typically developing children in China, which were, however, more pronounced among children with autism.

  15. Toxic effects of oral 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Craig A., E-mail: craig.a.mcfarland@us.army.mi [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Quinn, Michael J. [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Boyce, John [Biotechnics, LLC, Hillsborough, NC 27278 (United States); LaFiandra, Emily M.; Bazar, Matthew A. [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Talent, Larry G. [Oklahoma State University, Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Johnson, Mark S. [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The compound 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) was evaluated under laboratory conditions in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to assess the potential for reptile toxicity. Oral LD{sub 50} values were 1406 and 1867 mg/kg for male and female lizards, respectively. Based on responses from a 14-day subacute study, a 60-day subchronic experiment followed where lizards were orally dosed at 0, 5, 15, 20, 25, 30 mg/kg-d. At day 60, number of days and survivors, food consumption, and change in body weight were inversely related to dose. Signs of toxicity were characterized by anorexia and generalized cachexia. Significant adverse histopathology was observed in hepatic tissue at {>=}15 mg/kg-d, consistent with hepatocellular transdifferentiation. Based on survival, loss of body weight, diminished food intake, changes in liver, kidney, and testes, and increased blood urea nitrogen, these data suggest a LOAEL of 15 mg/kg-d and a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg-d in S. occidentalis. - Research highlights: Oral LD{sub 50} (mg/kg) values were 1406 for male and 1867 for female lizards. Dose-dependent hepatocellular transdifferentiation was observed at {>=}5 mg/kg-d. Chromaturia in 2A-DNT and the parent TNT suggest biomarkers of exposure and effect. Health effects of metabolites support comprehensive ecological risk assessments. - The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a suitable reptile model for assessing the toxicity of energetic compounds and their metabolites.

  16. Potentials of speech disorders correction in 4-6 yrs children by means of ergo and art therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko N. B.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out methodic of speech disorders correction in 4-6 yrs children by ergo and art therapy means. Material: during academic year three groups of children (n=97 were being observed: two groups - with speech disorders (control and main and one group of healthy children. Psycho-motor and cognitive functions were assessed with the help of tests for motor coordination (speed of their fulfillment, verbal thinking. Results: it was found that characteristic feature of such children is critical estimation of own speech insufficiency and conscious avoiding oral answers. By cluster analysis results increase of homogeneity in psycho-physical condition’s positive changes, cognitive functions and dance abilities resulted from dance-correction training program were shown. Conclusions: the worked out dance-correction choreographic trainings helps in the following: developing rhythm sense; strengthening of skeleton and muscles; memory, attention, thinking and imagination simulation. Acquiring of such experience will help a child to further successfully train different art-creative and sports kinds of activities; to master choreography and gymnastic as well as different musical instruments.

  17. 4.6-W compact and efficient NdA13(BO3)4 thin-disk laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Zong; Fangqin Li; Lin Han; Qinjun Peng; Dafu Cui; Zuyan Xu; Haohai Yu; Huaijin Zhang; Jiyang Wang

    2011-01-01

    Since the first demonstration of the principle in 1993[1],the thin-disk laser has attracted considerable attention because of its outstanding features,which include high output power,high efficiency,and excellent beam quality.Greater than 5-kW continuous wave (CW) output power has been obtained with one single Yb:YAG disk,with a maximum optical efficiency of 65% and a beam propagation factor M2 of approximately 20[2].%The capabilities of a compact and highly efficient NdAl3(BO2)4 (NAB) thin-disk laser are demonstrated. Under a pump power of 8.2 W, the NAB disk laser delivers an average output power of 4.6 W at 1063 nm, with a slope efficiency of 64%. The difficulty and complexity of the thin-disk laser design are minimized by the high absorbance of the NAB crystal. To reduce the thermal effect, low repetition frequency pulsed 885 nm direct pumping is considered an efficient way to realize a compact and highly efficient NAB thin-disk laser.

  18. Astragaloside IV ameliorates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis implicating regulation of energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xu-Guang; Sun, Kai; Liu, Yu-Ying; Yan, Li; Wang, Ming-Xia; Fan, Jing-Yu; Mu, Hong-Na; Li, Chong; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Chuan-She; Han, Jing-Yan

    2017-02-02

    Dysfunction of energy metabolism is involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study was designed to investigate the potential of astragaloside IV (ASIV), an active ingredient of Radix Astragalus, to ameliorate colonic mucosal injury, with focusing on the implication of energy restoration in the underlying mechanism. Experimental colitis model was established in rats by injecting 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) through anus. After 24 hours, ASIV was administrated once daily by gavage for 6 days. On day 1 and day 7, colon tissue was collected for macroscopic and histological examination, ELISA, Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. TNBS impaired colonic mucosa with an injured epithelial architecture, increased inflammatory cell infiltration, and decreased colonic blood flow. Lgr5 positive cell number in crypt and β-catenin nuclear translocation were down-regulated by TNBS treatment. TNBS induced epithelial F-actin disruption and junctional protein degradation. Furthermore, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and ATP synthase subunit β expression in the colon tissue were significantly decreased after TNBS stimulation. All of the aforementioned alterations were relieved by ASIV post-treatment. The present study revealed that ASIV promoted mucosal healing process in TNBS-induced colitis, which was most likely attributed to regulating energy metabolism.

  19. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Diethyl (4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine-2-yl) phosphonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The crystal of the title compound diethyl (4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazine-2-yl) phosphonate, (C14H28N10O6P2, Mr=494.40), has been prepared and determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. The crystal belongs to the triclinic system, space group P with parameters: a=8.398(1) , b=10.206(1), c=14.538(2), α=75.221(3), β=85.965(3), γ=81.746(3)°, V=1191.6(3)3, S=1.028, Z=2, Dc=1.378Mg/m3, μ=0.233mm-1, F(000)=520, λ(MoKα)=0.71073, T=293(2)K, final R=0.071 and wR=0.1953 for 4177 independent reflections with I≥2σ(I). In the title compound, each molecule is linked to five neighbour molecules by hydrogen bonds forming layers perpendicular to the a axis and molecules in each layer are linked by a two-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds in the bc plane.

  20. The renaissance of 2,4,6-tris(2-pyrimidyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPymT) coordination chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safin, Damir A; Frost, Jamie M; Murugesu, Muralee

    2015-12-21

    In this perspective we report on recently accumulated data on the synthesis and coordination chemistry of 2,4,6-tris(2-pyrimidyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPymT). Although a highly attractive ligand, owing to the presence of three fused terpyridine-like coordination pockets, the coordination chemistry of TPymT has something of a chequered past. This can principally be attributed to the hydrolysis of the ligand, which readily occurs under mild conditions. Thus, after first being synthesised in 1959 it had only been used a handful of times to synthesise coordination compounds until we began reinvestigating its chemistry in early 2013. Despite the significant challenges associated with its use, our work over the past two years has demonstrated that coordination chemistry with TPymT is indeed possible. Herein, we describe an overview of this body of work as it stands, and discuss its potential impact in a variety of areas including porous materials, catalysis and crystal engineering.

  1. Extraction-less, rapid assay for the direct detection of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) in cork samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, Theofylaktos; Pascual, Nuria; Marco, M-Pilar; Moschos, Anastassios; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Kaltsas, Grigoris; Kintzios, Spyridon

    2014-07-01

    2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), the cork taint molecule, has been the target of several analytical approaches over the few past years. In spite of the development of highly efficient and sensitive tools for its detection, ranging from advanced chromatography to biosensor-based techniques, a practical breakthrough for routine cork screening purposes has not yet been realized, in part due to the requirement of a lengthy extraction of TCA in organic solvents, mostly 12% ethanol and the high detectability required. In the present report, we present a modification of a previously reported biosensor system based on the measurement of the electric response of cultured fibroblast cells membrane-engineered with the pAb78 TCA-specific antibody. Samples were prepared by macerating cork tissue and mixing it directly with the cellular biorecognition elements, without any intervening extraction process. By using this novel approach, we were able to detect TCA in just five minutes at extremely low concentrations (down to 0.2 ppt). The novel biosensor offers a number of practical benefits, including a very considerable reduction in the total assay time by one day, and a full portability, enabling its direct employment for on-site, high throughput screening of cork in the field and production facilities, without requiring any type of supporting infrastructure.

  2. Spectroscopic studies on ligand-enzyme interactions: complexation of alpha-chymotrypsin with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debapriya; Srivastava, Sachin Kumar; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2008-02-14

    In the present study, the interaction of two structurally related proteolytic enzymes trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin (CHT) with 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) has been addressed. The binding of DAPI to CHT has been characterized by steady-state and picosecond time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. Enzymatic activity of CHT and simultaneous binding of the well-known inhibitor proflavin (PF) in the presence of DAPI clearly rule out the possibility of DAPI binding at the catalytic site of the enzyme. The spectral overlap between the emission of DAPI and absorption of PF offers the opportunity to explore the binding site of DAPI using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). FRET studies between DAPI and PF indicate that DAPI is bound to CHT with its transition dipole nearly perpendicular to that of PF. Competitive binding of DAPI with another fluorescent probe 2,6-p-toluidinonaphthalene sulfonate (TNS), having a well-defined binding site, indicates that DAPI and TNS bind at the same hydrophobic site of the enzyme CHT. The difference in the interactions of two well-studied, structurally similar enzymes with the same molecule may find its application in the design of specific substrate mimics or inhibitors of the enzymes.

  3. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer and molecular modeling studies on 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) complexes with tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbildua, José J; Brunet, Juan E; Jameson, David M; López, Maribel; Nova, Esteban; Lagos, Rosalba; Monasterio, Octavio

    2006-03-01

    The goal of this work was to determine the binding properties and location of 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) complexed with tubulin. Using fluorescence anisotropy, a dissociation constant of 5.2+/-0.4 microM for the DAPI-tubulin complex was determined, slightly lower than that for the tubulin S complex. The influence of the C-terminal region on the binding of DAPI to tubulin was also characterized. Using FRET experiments, and assuming a kappa2 value of 2/3, distances between Co2+ bound to its high-affinity binding site and the DAPI-binding site and 2',3'-O-(trinitrophenyl)guanosine 5'-triphosphate bound to the exchangeable nucleotide and the DAPI-binding site were found to be 20+/-2 A and 43+/-2 A, respectively. To locate potential DAPI-binding sites on tubulin, a molecular modeling study was carried out using the tubulin crystal structure and energy minimization calculations. The results from the FRET measurements were used to limit the possible location of DAPI in the tubulin structure. Several candidate binding sites were found and these are discussed in the context of the various properties of bound DAPI.

  4. Expression of an (Engineered) 4,6-α-Glucanotransferase in Potato Results in Changes in Starch Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuan; Dechesne, Annemarie; Visser, Richard G. F.; Trindade, Luisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Starch structure strongly influences starch physicochemical properties, determining the end uses of starch in various applications. To produce starches with novel structure and exploit the mechanism of starch granule formation, an (engineered) 4, 6-α-glucanotransferase (GTFB) from Lactobacillus reuteri 121 was introduced into two potato genetic backgrounds: amylose-containing line Kardal and amylose-free mutant amf. The resulting starches showed severe changes in granule morphology regardless of genetic backgrounds. Modified starches from amf background exhibited a significant increase in granule size and starch phosphate content relative to the control, while starches from Kardal background displayed a higher digestibility, but did not show changes in granule size and phosphate content. Transcriptome analysis revealed the existence of a mechanism to restore the regular packing of double helices in starch granules, which possibly resulted in the removal of novel glucose chains potentially introduced by the (engineered) GTFB. This amendment mechanics would also explain the difficulties to detect alterations in starch fine structure in the transgenic lines. PMID:27911907

  5. The impact of tobacco smoke exposure on wheezing and overweight in 4-6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazuleviciene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; Kudzyte, Jolanta; Kevalas, Rimantas; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy, second-hand tobacco smoke (STS) exposure, education level, and preschool children's wheezing and overweight. This cohort study used data of the KANC cohort--1,489 4-6-year-old children from Kaunas city, Lithuania. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the influence of prenatal and postnatal STS exposure on the prevalence of wheezing and overweight, controlling for potential confounders. Children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy had a slightly increased prevalence of wheezing and overweight. Postnatal exposure to STS was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of wheezing and overweight in children born to mothers with lower education levels (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.04-4.35 and 3.57; 95% CI 1.76-7.21, accordingly). The present study findings suggest that both maternal smoking during pregnancy and STS increase the risk of childhood wheezing and overweight, whereas lower maternal education might have a synergetic effect. Targeted interventions must to take this into account and address household smoking.

  6. Thermal decomposition and kinetic evaluation of decanted 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) for reutilization as composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. F.; Hussain, A.; Malik, A. Q.

    2016-08-01

    Use of energetic materials has long been considered for only military purposes. However, it is very recent that their practical applications in wide range of commercial fields such as mining, road building, under water blasting and rocket propulsion system have been considered. About 5mg of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in serviceable (Svc) as well as unserviceable (Unsvc) form were used for their thermal decomposition and kinetic parameters investigation. Thermogravimetric/ differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize two types of TNT. Arrhenius kinetic parameters like activation energy (E) and enthalpy (AH) of both TNT samples were determined using TG curves with the help of Horowitz and Metzger method. Simultaneously, thermal decomposition range was evaluated from DTA curves. Distinct diffraction peaks showing crystalline nature were obtained from XRD analysis. SEM results indicated that Unsvc TNT contained a variety of defects like cracks and porosity. Similarly, it is observed that thermal as well as kinetic behavior of both TNT samples vary to a great extent. Likewise, a prominent change in the activation energies (E) of both samples is observed. This in-depth study provides a way forward in finding solutions for the safe reutilization of decanted TNT.

  7. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene mineralization and bacterial production rates of natural microbial assemblages from coastal sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Michael T., E-mail: michael.montgomery@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Coffin, Richard B., E-mail: richard.coffin@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Boyd, Thomas J., E-mail: thomas.boyd@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Smith, Joseph P., E-mail: joseph.smith@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Walker, Shelby E., E-mail: Shelby.Walker@noaa.gov [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Osburn, Christopher L., E-mail: chris_osburn@ncsu.edu [Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The nitrogenous energetic constituent, 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), is widely reported to be resistant to bacterial mineralization (conversion to CO{sub 2}); however, these studies primarily involve bacterial isolates from freshwater where bacterial production is typically limited by phosphorus. This study involved six surveys of coastal waters adjacent to three biome types: temperate broadleaf, northern coniferous, and tropical. Capacity to catabolize and mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO{sub 2} was a common feature of natural sediment assemblages from these coastal environments (ranging to 270+/-38 {mu}g C kg{sup -1} d{sup -1}). More importantly, these mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. The finding that most natural assemblages surveyed from these ecosystems can mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO{sub 2} is consistent with recent reports that assemblage components can incorporate TNT ring carbon into bacterial biomass. These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - Highlights: > TNT mineralization is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediments. > TNT mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. > These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - The capacity to mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO{sub 2} is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediment.

  8. Application of cis-1,3,4,6-Tetranitrooctahydroimidazo-[4,5d] Imidazole (BCHMX in EPX-1 Explosive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elbeih

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available cis-1,3,4,6-Tetranitrooctahydroimidazo-[4,5 d]imidazole (BCHMX has been studied as explosive filler to replace pentaerythritol tetra-nitrate (PETN inEPX1 explosive. BCHMX with different particle sizes was bonded by thermoplastic binder plasticised by dibutyl phthalate to obtain BCHMX-EPX. Heat of combustion was measured. Impact energy and friction force of initiation were determined. Velocity of detonation was measured, while the detonation characteristics were calculated by thermodynamic code named EXPLO 5. For comparison, the detonation characteristics of some commercial plastic explosives such asEPX-1, SEMTEX 10 and FORMEX P1were also studied. It was concluded that BCHMX-EPX has the highest detonation characteristics of all the studied plastic explosives and its sensitivity is in the same level of the studied traditional plastic explosives. BCHMX-EPX has the highest decomposition temperature of all the studied samples. The mutual relationship obtained from the experimental and calculated results indicates the compatibility of the calculated results with the experimental measurements.

  9. Microbial 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene degradation: could we learn from (bio)chemistry for bioremediation and vice versa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenuit, Ben A; Agathos, Spiros N

    2010-11-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is released in nature from manufacturing or demilitarization facilities but also after munitions firing/detonation or leakage from explosive remnants of war. Due to its toxicity and recalcitrance, life cycle of TNT-containing products and bioremediation are critical issues. As TNT is a strongly electron-deficient aromatic with a positive molecular quadrupole moment and three electrophilic nitro groups, its environmental fate is contingent upon specific sorptive electron donor-acceptor interactions and nucleophilic, reductive (bio)transformations. The microbial degradation of TNT is governed by cometabolism and therefore depends on the growth substrate(s) available in contaminated environments. Long considered an ecotoxicological safety endpoint, the immobilization of TNT metabolites derived from nitro moiety reduction in soil is controversial because they preferentially bind to the dissolved soil organic matter which can be released into surface and groundwaters. The ever-growing biochemical knowledge of TNT degradation has made bioaugmentation and phytoremediation attractive alternatives. While the discovery and engineering of microorganisms with novel/improved degradative abilities are very challenging, the deciphering of the physiological roles of promiscuous enzymes involved in TNT biodegradation, such as type II hydride transferases of the Old Yellow Enzyme family, opens new perspectives for bioremediation. Finally, transgenic plants have enabled effective phytoremediation at the field scale, which is emerging as the preferable in situ option to rehabilitate TNT-contaminated sites.

  10. Structural Studies of FlaA1 from Helicobacter Pylori Reveal the Mechanism for Inverting 4,6-dehydratase Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama,N.; Creuzenet, C.; Miller, W.; Demendi, M.; Anderson, E.; Harauz, G.; Lam, J.; Berghuis, A.

    2006-01-01

    FlaA1 from the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori is an enzyme involved in saccharide biosynthesis that has been shown to be essential for pathogenicity. Here we present five crystal structures of FlaA1 in the presence of substrate, inhibitors, and bound cofactor, with resolutions ranging from 2.8 to 1.9 {angstrom}. These structures reveal that the enzyme is a novel member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. Additional electron microscopy studies show the enzyme to possess a hexameric doughnut-shaped quaternary structure. NMR analyses of 'real time' enzyme-substrate reactions indicate that FlaA1 is a UDP-GlcNAc-inverting 4,6-dehydratase, suggesting that the enzyme catalyzes the first step in the biosynthetic pathway of a pseudaminic acid derivative, which is implicated in protein glycosylation. Guided by evidence from site-directed mutagenesis and computational simulations, a three-step reaction mechanism is proposed that involves Lys-133 functioning as both a catalytic acid and base.

  11. Measurements of the UV background at 4.6 < z < 6.4 using the quasar proximity effect

    CERN Document Server

    Calverley, Alexander P; Haehnelt, Martin G; Bolton, James S

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the ionising ultraviolet background (UVB) at z ~ 5-6 using the quasar proximity effect. The fifteen quasars in our sample cover the range 4.6 5. The metagalactic hydrogen ionisation rate, Gamma_bkg, was determined by modelling the combined ionisation field from the quasar and the UVB in the proximity zone on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The optical depths in the spectra were corrected for the expected effect of the quasar until the mean flux in the proximity region equalled that in the average Ly-alpha forest, and from this we make a measurement of Gamma_bkg. A number of systematic effects were tested using synthetic spectra. Noise in the flux was found to be the largest source of bias at z ~ 5, while uncertainties in the mean transmitted Ly-alpha flux are responsible for the largest bias at z ~ 6. The impacts of large-scale overdensities and Lyman limit systems on Gamma_bkg were also investigated, but found to be small at z > 5. We find a decline in Gamma_bkg with redshift, from log(Ga...

  12. 3D Visualization of Developmental Toxicity of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in Zebrafish Embryogenesis Using Light-Sheet Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juneyong Eum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by trinitrotoluene is of global concern due to its widespread use in military ordnance and commercial explosives. Despite known long-term persistence in groundwater and soil, the toxicological profile of trinitrotoluene and other explosive wastes have not been systematically measured using in vivo biological assays. Zebrafish embryos are ideal model vertebrates for high-throughput toxicity screening and live in vivo imaging due to their small size and transparency during embryogenesis. Here, we used Single Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM/light sheet microscopy to assess the developmental toxicity of explosive-contaminated water in zebrafish embryos and report 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene-associated developmental abnormalities, including defects in heart formation and circulation, in 3D. Levels of apoptotic cell death were higher in the actively developing tissues of trinitrotoluene-treated embryos than controls. Live 3D imaging of heart tube development at cellular resolution by light-sheet microscopy revealed trinitrotoluene-associated cardiac toxicity, including hypoplastic heart chamber formation and cardiac looping defects, while the real time PCR (polymerase chain reaction quantitatively measured the molecular changes in the heart and blood development supporting the developmental defects at the molecular level. Identification of cellular toxicity in zebrafish using the state-of-the-art 3D imaging system could form the basis of a sensitive biosensor for environmental contaminants and be further valued by combining it with molecular analysis.

  13. Phase changes in Fe72-Al28Cr ( = 0; 2; 4; 6) alloys due to mechanical strain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brajesh Pandey; H C Verma

    2005-02-01

    Fe72-Al28Cr alloys ( = 0; 2; 4; 6) are made by arc melting a mixture of constituent elements in stoichiometric proportion, in argon atmosphere. The ingots so obtained are filed to make powder samples thereby giving them substantial mechanical deformation. It is observed that as-powdered samples show hyperfine field distribution typical of -phase, where the atoms are randomly distributed on the available sites. Annealing at 900°C for 60 h leads to preferential occupation of lattice sites by the atoms and this results in better defined groups of hyperfine magnetic field (HMF) which can be associated with specific configuration in the neighbourhood of probe iron atoms. The average HMF is found to decrease sharply with increasing Cr concentration even though the net chromium concentration remains low (≤ 6 at \\%). The results show that cold working on samples is very important in changing the atomic ordering and must be taken into account if properties of equilibrium phases are probed.

  14. Preparation and Standard Formation Enthalpy of 2-Amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine and Its Related Complexes of Copper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN San-ping; WEI Qing; JIAO Bao-juan; GAO Sheng-li

    2003-01-01

    The complexes of hydrous copper chloride and copper nitrate with 2-amino-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine(ADMP) were prepared via reflux in alcohol. The compositions of the complexes were identified as Cu(ADMP)2Cl2*2H2O(b) and Cu(ADMP)(NO3)2*H2O(c) by chemical and elemental analyses. The complexes were characterized by IR, XPS, 1H NMR and TG-DTG techniques. The constant-volume combustion energies of ADMP and the complexes, ΔcE, were determined by a precise rotating-bomb calorimeter at 298.15 K. They were (-3664.53±1.18), (-4978.47±2.72) and (-1696.70±1.36) Kj/mol, respectively. Their standard enthalpies of combustion, ΔcH0m, and standard enthalpies of formation, ΔfH0m, were calculated to be (-3666.39±1.18), (-4977.23±2.72), (-1691.12±1.36) Kj/mol and (19.09±1.43), (-2041.80±3.29), (-2397.24±1.65) Kj/mol, respectively.

  15. Synthesis and Docking Studies of 2,4,6-Trihydroxy-3-Geranylacetophenone Analogs as Potential Lipoxygenase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chean Hui Ng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural product molecule 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranyl-acetophenone (tHGA isolated from the medicinal plant Melicope ptelefolia was shown to exhibit potent lipoxygenase (LOX inhibitory activity. It is known that LOX plays an important role in inflammatory response as it catalyzes the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid to form hydroperoxides. The search for selective LOX inhibitors may provide new therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Herein, we report the synthesis of tHGA analogs using simple Friedel-Craft acylation and alkylation reactions with the aim of obtaining a better insight into the structure-activity relationships of the compounds. All the synthesized analogs showed potent soybean 15-LOX inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 10.31–27.61 μM where compound 3e was two-fold more active than tHGA. Molecular docking was then applied to reveal the important binding interactions of compound 3e in soybean 15-LOX binding site. The findings suggest that the presence of longer acyl bearing aliphatic chain (5Cs and aromatic groups could significantly affect the enzymatic activity.

  16. Sesame oil accelerates healing of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced acute colitis by attenuating inflammation and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Srinivasan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2013-09-01

    Sesame oil is a component of traditional health food in Asian countries. Acute colitis is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with chronic inflammatory disorder of the bowel. The precise etiology of IBD remains unknown, but it is believed that an abnormal host response to endogenous antigens causes initial tissue injury with amplification of the immune response. We investigated the protective effect of sesame oil against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced acute colitis in rats. Rats were intracolonically instilled with TNBS (120 mg/kg) using a cannula to induce colitis and then orally gavaged with sesame oil (4 mL/kg for 7 days) to attenuate TNBS-induced acute colitis. The acute colitis activity index (ACAI) was assessed using the colon weight/length ratio (mg/cm), thickness, extension of lesion, diarrhea, and macroscopic and microscopic damage scores. In addition, the degree of inflammation, mucins, and fibrosis was assessed by measuring mast cells, CD68(+) cells, neutral mucin, acidic mucin, collagen, and laminin on day 8 after inducing acute colitis. All tested parameters except neutral mucins were significantly higher in TNBS-induced acute colitis. Sesame oil significantly decreased the degree of inflammation, fibrosis, and acidic mucin and increased neutral mucin. We conclude that sesame oil accelerates the healing of an inflamed colon by inhibiting inflammation, acidic mucin, and fibrosis in TNBS-induced acute colitis in rats.

  17. Differential scanning calorimetry studies of Se85Te15–Pb ( = 4, 6, 8 and 10) glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N B Maharajan; N S Saxena; Deepika Bhandari; Mousa M Imran; D D Paudyal

    2000-10-01

    Results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of Se85Te15–Pb ( = 4, 6, 8 and 10) glasses have been reported and discussed in this paper. The results have been analyzed on the basis of structural relaxation equation, Matusita’s equation and modified Kissinger’s equation. The activation energies of structural relaxation lie in between 226 and 593 kJ/mol. The crystallization growth is found to be onedimensional for all compositions. The activation energies of crystallization are found to be 100–136 kJ/mol by Matusita’s equation while 102–139 kJ/mol by modified Kissinger’s equation. The Hruby number (indicator of ease of glass forming and higher stability) is the highest for Se85Te9Pb6 glass while S factor (indicator of resistance to devitrification) is highest for Se85Te7Pb8 glass at all heating rates in our experiment. Further the highest resistance to devitrification has the highest value of structural activation energy and the activation energy of crystallization is maximum for the most stable glass by both Matusita’s equation and the modified Kissinger’s equation.

  18. Fate and stability of 14C-labeled 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in contaminated soil following microbial bioremediation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martin; Geyer, Roland; Günther, Thomas; Kaestner, Matthias

    2004-09-01

    Biological treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in soil rarely results in complete mineralization of the parent compound. More often, the largest proportion of the TNT carbon is incorporated into the soil organic matrix. Therefore, we evaluated the stability of nonextractable residues from various bioremediation processes of 14C-TNT in soils. The extractable amounts of the residual radioactivity varied between 7 and 33% and thus the nonextractable amount between 93 and 67% (3-15% in fulvic acids, 26-46% in humic acids, and 27-44% in the humin fraction). The residue-containing soils were analyzed for the release of radioactivity after treatment by physical (freeze and thaw, grinding of soil, and steam extraction), chemical (acid rain and addition of metal complexing agent), and biological methods (addition of compost, white rot fungi, radical-generating enzymes, and germination of plants). Freeze and thaw treatment and grinding of the soil did not alter the partitioning of the label significantly. Steam extraction and acid rain extraction increased the water extractability to 11 to 29% and to 51.6% in the native TNT-contaminated soil. The addition of ethylenediamine-tetraacetate (EDTA) increased the extractability from 7 to 12%. After biological treatment, only slightly increased extractability (residues formed during microbial transformation of TNT may be biogenic residues with low mobilization potential and low hazardous impact.

  19. Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

  20. Functionally Graded Media

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Cédric M.; Epstein, Marcelo; De León, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The notions of uniformity and homogeneity of elastic materials are reviewed in terms of Lie groupoids and frame bundles. This framework is also extended to consider the case Functionally Graded Media, which allows us to obtain some homogeneity conditions.

  1. The Grade Contract Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornscheuer, Joan H.

    1976-01-01

    Adaptations of and variations on the grade contract system are described with emphasis on individualized instruction, fair evaluation, and learner-oriented classes. The method used is described, and results are assessed. (Author/RM)

  2. Transition from steady to unsteady Plinian eruption column: the VEI 5, 4.6 ka Fogo A Plinian eruption, São Miguel, Azores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensa, Alessandra; Cas, Raymond; Giordano, Guido; Porreca, Massimiliano; Wallenstein, Nicolau

    2015-10-01

    The 4.6 ka Fogo A trachytic Plinian eruption on São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal, is composed by four main phases: 1) Initial phreatomagmatic activity which emplaced thin surge deposits with accretionary lapilli; 2) fully buoyant steady Plinian activity which generated a prominent trachytic basal fall-out deposit; 3) partial collapsing activity, which led to the emplacement of two trachytic-trachydacitic intra-plinian ignimbrites (pink and black ignimbrites) and associated surge deposits, inter-stratified within two fall-out deposits; 4) vent widening and fully collapsing activity which caused the emplacement of the climactic brown trachydacitic ignimbrite. The deposits of these four main phases have been organised into three members FGA1, FGA2 and FGA3, sub-divided into 15 stratigraphic or emplacement units. The fluctuations from a steady to unsteady Plinian eruption column parallel the change in composition of the magma from trachytic to trachydacitic. Although minimal, the change in composition resulted in a marked change in colour of the juvenile clasts from white at the base (first phase) to pink and light-dark grey banded and black (second and third phases) and to dark brown (fourth phase). Density analysis of juvenile clasts revealed that the change in composition did not significantly affect the density of the juvenile pumice pyroclasts, the vesicularity of which increases from 70% to 85% up through the sequence. The pink and the black intra-plinian ignimbrites were emplaced only, within the narrow paleo-valleys of the southern flank with maximum thicknesses of 9 m and 5 m respectively, transitioning onto adjacent topographic highs where thin veneer surge layers were deposited. The fall-out deposits inter-bedded between the ignimbrites lack basal reverse grading, indicating that the eruption column continued to be sustained during the partial collapses generating the intra-plinian ignimbrites. The climactic dark brown ignimbrite was emplaced radially

  3. Susceptibility of male and female Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol-induced micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nannan LIU; Mei MA; Yiping XU; Jinmiao ZHA; Kaifeng RAO; Zijian WANG

    2013-01-01

    2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) is a wide- spread probable human carcinogen and has been proven to have genotoxicity in in vitro assays. However, little genotoxicity information and no micronuclei induction data for 2,4,6-TCP is available from in vivo tests, especially for sex-specific differences. Following a preliminary test, a piscine peripheral erythrocyte micro- nucleus assay was conducted on medaka (Oryzias latipes) after a 28-day exposure to 2,4,6-TCE In the present study, the mean micronuclei (MNC) frequencies of all of the groups increased in a dose-dependent manner, which indicated the potential genotoxicity of 2,4,6-TCE More- over, males were found to be more susceptible compared with females after a 28-day exposure to 2,4,6-TCP in all of the dosed groups above 10 ~tg-L-1. This is the first report on the potential of micronuclei induction and a sex-susceptible effect in the peripheral erythrocytes of mature fish after 2,4,6-TCP in vivo exposure.

  4. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  5. Construction of expression vector of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan strain with C8L-K3L region deletion and study on biological properties of the recombinant virus%痘苗病毒天坛株C8L-K3L片段缺失表达载体的生物学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铮; 刘颖; 王书晖; 张其程; 刘莹; 侯爵; 王荣敏; 邵一鸣

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究缺失C8L-K3L片段的痘苗病毒天坛株载体的生物学性能及外源基因的免疫原性.方法 构建缺失C8L-K3L区域的重组痘苗病毒天坛株载体VTT△C8-K3-gag.在4种细胞上检测了重组载体的增殖能力、在小鼠和家兔模型上进行毒力评价,并在BALB/c小鼠进行了免疫效果评价.结果 与VTT相比,VTT△C8-K3-gag在CEF、BHK-21、HeLa细胞中复制能力显著下降,在Vero细胞中失去复制能力.VTT△C8-K3-gag在小鼠和家兔模型中毒力均有显著降低.VTT△C8-K3-gag免疫小鼠第4周后诱导的痘苗病毒特异结合抗体与中和抗体滴度分别达到5.6× 103和1.0× 104,第9周滴度达到5.8×105和5.25×103,与VTKgpe相比均显著下降3~9倍,但E3刺激后的细胞免疫应答无显著变化.VTT△C8-K3-gag单独免疫或与DNA疫苗联合免疫诱导的HIV特异性抗体水平和细胞免疫应答均与VTKgpe无差异.结论 VTT△C8-K3-gag是一个安全性较高且具有深入研究价值的HIV候选疫苗株.%Objective To study the biological properties of the recombinant vaccinia virus Tiantan strain with C8L-K3L region deletion and its immunogenicity.Methods The expression vector of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan strain (VTT△C8-K3-gag) was constructed by replacing C8L-K3L genes with HIV gag gene and GFP gene.Viral replication capacities in chicken CEF,hamster BHK-21,monkey Vero and human HeLa cell lines were detected respectively.Virulence evaluation was carried out in mice and rabbit models,and immune effects of VTT△C8-K3-gag was evaluated in BALA/c mice model.Results The replication capacity of VTT△C8-K3-gag was impaired in chicken CEF,hamster BHK-21 and human HeLa cell lines,and was completely restricted in monkey Vero cell line as compared with the parental VTT.VTT△C8-K3-gag was less virulent than VTT in mice and rabbit models.The cellular and humoral responses to HIV elicited by VTT△C8-K3-gag alone or in combination with DNA vaccine were similar

  6. The Oxidation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene with an Ozone-Oxygen Mixture: A Simple Method for Preparation of 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zarei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT to 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB in one step, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid (TNBA, and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzaldehyde (TNBAl with an ozone-oxygen mixture in different solvents, catalysts, and temperatures has been investigated. Reducing the number of steps in the oxidation of TNT to TNB is the major advantage of this procedure with respect to conventional processes such as chromic acid and potassium permanganate. The oxidation of TNT to TNB was completed in one step as compared to two steps in the conventional approach. The products were obtained with relatively good yield.

  7. Behavior of mesenchymal stem cells stained with 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) in osteogenic and non osteogenic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocarino, N M; Bozzi, A; Pereira, R D O; Breyner, N M; Silva, V L; Castanheira, P; Goes, A M; Serakides, R

    2008-08-01

    4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) is a DNA dye widely used to mark and trace stem cells in therapy. We here studied the effect of DAPI staining on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cells cultured in either a control, non-osteogenic medium or in an osteogenic differentiation medium. In the control medium, the number of stem cells/field, as well as the number of fluorescent cells/field increased up to the sixth day in both control and DAPI-treated cultures. Afterwards, both the number of fluorescent cells and their fluorescence intensity decreased. Control cells were fusiform and with some long extensions that apparently linked them to neighboring cells, while DAPI-treated cells were mostly round cells with fine and short extensions. The trypan-blue exclusion method showed 99% cell viability in both groups, however, both alkaline phosphatase activity and the thiazolyl blue formazan assay (indicative of mitochondrial metabolism) gave significantly lower values in DAPI-marked cells. The mitochondrial mass, as indicated by specific staining and flow cytometry, showed no differences between groups. Mesenchymal stem cells gave origin to mineralized nodules in the osteogenic differentiation medium and there were not DAPI-marked cells on the ninth day of culture. Alkaline phosphatase activity, viability assay and number of cells/field and of mineralized nodules/field were similar in both groups. So, DAPI treatment did not change cell viability and proliferation during osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, since these cells loose DAPI marking after 9 days in osteogenic cultures suggests that DAPI may not be an effective marker for mesenchymal stem cells implanted in bone tissue for long periods.

  8. Influence of water chlorination on the counting of bacteria with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saby, S; Sibille, I; Mathieu, L; Paquin, J L; Block, J C

    1997-01-01

    Counting bacteria in drinking water samples by the epifluorescence technique after 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining is complicated by the fact that bacterial fluorescence varies with exposure of the cells to sodium hypochlorite. An Escherichia coli laboratory-grown suspension treated with sodium hypochlorite (5 to 15 mg of chlorine liter-1) for 90 min was highly fluorescent after DAPI staining probably due to cell membrane permeation and better and DAPI diffusion. At chlorine concentrations greater than 25 mg liter-1, DAPI-stained bacteria had only a low fluorescence. Stronger chlorine doses altered the DNA structure, preventing the DAPI from complexing with the DNA. When calf thymus DNA was exposed to sodium hypochlorite (from 15 to 50 mg of chlorine liter-1 for 90 min), the DNA lost the ability to complex with DAPI. Exposure to monochloramine did not have a similar effect. Treatment of drinking water with sodium hypochlorite (about 0.5 mg of chlorine liter-1) caused a significant increase in the percentage of poorly fluorescent bacteria, from 5% in unchlorinated waters (40 samples), to 35 to 39% in chlorinated waters (40 samples). The presence of the poorly fluorescent bacteria could explain the underestimation of the real number of bacteria after DAPI staining. Microscopic counting of both poorly and highly fluorescent bacteria is essential under these conditions to obtain the total number of bacteria. A similar effect of chlorination on acridine orange-stained bacteria was observed in treated drinking waters. The presence of the poorly fluorescent bacteria after DAPI staining could be interpreted as a sign of dead cells. PMID:9097452

  9. Developing the own-race advantage in 4-, 6-, and 9-month-old Taiwanese infants: A perceptual learning perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina Hui-Lin Chien

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous infant studies on the other-race effect have favored the perceptual narrowing view, or declined sensitivities to rarely exposed other-race faces. Here we wish to provide an alternative possibility, perceptual learning, manifested by improved sensitivity for frequently exposed own-race faces in the first year of life. Using the familiarization/visual-paired comparison paradigm, we presented 4-, 6- and 9-month-old Taiwanese infants with oval-cropped Taiwanese, Caucasian, Philippine faces, and each with three different manipulations of increasing task difficulty (i.e., change identity, change eyes, and widen eye spacing. An adult experiment was first conducted to verify the task difficulty. Our results showed that, with oval-cropped faces, the 4 month-old infants could only discriminate Taiwanese change identity condition and not any others, suggesting an early own-race advantage at 4 months. The 6 month-old infants demonstrated novelty preferences in both Taiwanese and Caucasian change identity conditions, and proceeded to the Taiwanese change eyes condition. The 9-month-old infants demonstrated novelty preferences in the change identity condition of all three ethnic faces. They also passed the Taiwanese change eyes condition but could not extend this refined ability of detecting a change in the eyes for the Caucasian or Philippine faces. Taken together, we interpret the pattern of results as evidence supporting perceptual learning during the first year: the ability to discriminate own-race faces emerges at 4 months and continues to refine, while the ability to discriminate other-race faces emerges between 6 to 9 months and retains at 9 months. Additionally, the discrepancies in the face stimuli and methods between studies advocating the narrowing view and those supporting the learning view were discussed.

  10. Effects of mimic of manganese superoxide dismutase on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Dong, Jiao; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Zhai, Jing; Ge, Bin

    2016-09-01

    The mimic of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSODm) has been synthesized and reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether MnSODm has anti-inflammatory effects on colitis and any underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study was to investigate therapeutic effects and mechanism of MnSODm on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis model in rats. Rats were intragastrically administered MnSODm (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) per day for 7 days after colitis was induced by TNBS. After treated with MnSODm, the colonic macroscopic and microscopic damage scores and colonic weight/length ratios were significantly decreased compared with colitis model group. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, malonyldialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 levels in colon tissues were also significantly decreased in MnSODm treatment groups. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly increased and phosphorylated inhibitory kappa B-alpha (IκBα), inhibitor kappa B kinase (IKKα/β), and nuclear factor-kappa Bp65 (NF-κBp65) as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation actor 88 (MyD88) in the colonic mucosa were significantly inhibited by MnSODm treatment. Thus, MnSODm was protective against colitis via antioxidant activity and by inhibiting inflammatory mediators by down-regulating TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathways. These data suggest a potential therapeutic effect of MnSODm in colitis.

  11. Label-Free Electrochemiluminescence Aptasensor for 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene Based on Bilayer Structure of Luminescence Functionalized Graphene Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guixin; Yu, Xiuxia; Liu, Danqing; Liu, Xiaoying; Li, Fang; Cui, Hua

    2015-11-03

    The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) behavior of N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol)/hemin dual-functionalized graphene hybrids (A-H-GNs) and luminol-functionalized silver/graphene oxide composite (luminol-AgNPs-GO) was investigated under cyclic voltammetry and pulse potential. It was found that A-H-GNs and luminol-AgNPs-GO exhibited excellent ECL activity. On this basis, a label-free ECL aptasensor for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) detection was developed based on bilayer structure of luminescence functionalized graphene hybrids consisting of A-H-GNs and luminol-AgNPs-GO. First, positively charged chitosan-coated A-H-GNs were modified on the surface of indium-doped tin oxide electrode by simple dripping and drying in the air; after that, the modified electrode was immersed in negatively charged luminol-AgNPs-GO modified with aptamer (apta-biotin-SA-luminol-AgNPs-GO) to form apta-biotin-SA-luminol-AgNPs-GO/CS-A-H-GNs/ITO electrode (i.e., aptasensor) by electrostatic interaction. In the presence of TNT, a remarkable decrease in ECL signals was observed due to the formation of aptamer-TNT complex. TNT could be detected based on the inhibition effect. The aptasensor exhibits a wide dynamic range from 1.0 × 10(-12) to 1.0 × 10(-9) g/mL, with a low detection limit of 6.3 × 10(-13) g/mL for the determination of TNT, which is superior to most previously reported bioassays for TNT. Moreover, the proposed aptasensor has been successfully applied to the detection of TNT in environmental water. It is sensitive, selective, and simple, avoiding complicated labeling and purification procedures. Due to the wide target recognition range of aptamer, this strategy provides a promising way to develop new aptasensor for other analytes.

  12. Species-specific induction of CYP2B by 2,4,6-tryphenyldioxane-1,3 (TPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustylnyak, Vladimir; Pivovarova, Elena; Slynko, Nikolai; Gulyaeva, Lyudmila; Lyakhovich, Vyacheslav

    2009-12-16

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the species-specific induction of CYP2B by 2,4,6-tryphenyldioxane-1,3 (TPD) in relation to activation of CAR. 7-Pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD) activity, RT-PCR, Western blot, Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Phenobarbital-like inducer administration significantly up-regulated CYP2B activity in rat and mouse liver in a species-specific manner, in contrast to the effects on CYP2B in lungs, kidneys and brains. In parallel, Western blot analysis showed that the species-specific increase of PROD in liver is related to the high content of CYP2B: phenobarbital (PB) and TPD increased CYP2B in rat liver, PB and 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) - in mouse liver. The CYP2B protein level was unchanged in the lungs of rats and mice after inducer treatment, whereas it was not detected in the kidney and brain of control and treated animals. The hepatic CYP2B activity in both species paralleled the increase of CYP2B mRNA. A detectable CYP2B mRNA level was measured in the lungs of untreated mice and rats, though it was unchanged during induction. Noninducibility of CYP2B in extrahepatic tissues accompanied an absence of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) gene expression in these tissues. In liver CYP2B induction paralleled the high level of CAR expression detected by RT-PCR. Moreover, PB, TPD and TCPOBOP treatment stimulated nuclear accumulation of CAR and increased CAR receptor NR1-binding activity in animal liver in a species-specific manner. We have shown that the increased nuclear accumulation and binding activity of CAR are associated with the species-specific up-regulation of CYP2B by TPD in rat liver.

  13. Alkaline Hydrolysis/Polymerization of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene: Characterization of Products by 13C and 15N NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, K.A.; Thorne, P.G.; Cox, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis has been investigated as a nonbiological procedure for the destruction of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in explosives contaminated soils and munitions scrap. Nucleophilic substitutions of the nitro and methyl groups of TNT by hydroxide ion are the initial steps in the alkaline degradation of TNT. Potential applications of the technique include both in situ surface liming and ex situ alkaline treatment of contaminated soils. A number of laboratory studies have reported the formation of an uncharacterized polymeric material upon prolonged treatment of TNT in base. As part of an overall assessment of alkaline hydrolysis as a remediation technique, and to gain a better understanding of the chemical reactions underlying the hydrolysis/polymerization process, the soluble and precipitate fractions of polymeric material produced from the calcium hydroxide hydrolysis of unlabeled and 15N-labeled TNT were analyzed by elemental analysis and 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectra indicated that reactions leading to polymerization included nucleophilic displacement of nitro groups by hydroxide ion, formation of ketone, carboxyl, alcohol, ether, and other aliphatic carbons, conversion of methyl groups to diphenyl methylene carbons, and recondensation of aromatic amines and reduced forms of nitrite, including ammonia and possibly hydroxylamine, into the polymer. Compared to the distribution of carbons in TNT as 14% sp 3- and 86% sp2-hybridized, the precipitate fraction from hydrolysis of unlabeled TNT contained 33% sp3- and 67% sp 2-hybridized carbons. The concentration of nitrogen in the precipitate was 64% of that in TNT. The 15N NMR spectra showed that, in addition to residual nitro groups, forms of nitrogen present in the filtrate and precipitate fractions include aminohydroquinone, primary amide, indole, imine, and azoxy, among others. Unreacted nitrite was recovered in the filtrate fraction. The toxicities and susceptibilities to

  14. Two New Iron Coordination Polymers Based on Fe-pyta ChainsIncorporating Pyridine-2,4,6-tricarboxylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zi-yun; PENG Meng-xia

    2008-01-01

    Reaction of FeCl2·6H2O,pyridine-2,4,6-tricarboxylie acid(H3pyta) and NaOH in the hydrothermal system at 185℃ resulted in the formation of 1D coordination polymer[Fe(Hpyta)(H2O)2](1) based on Fe-Hpyta chains,When the abpt[abpt=4-amino-3,5-bis(4-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole]ligand was employed in the reaction system,a 3D supramolecular porous network (H2bpt)[Fe(pyta)(H2O)2]·4H2O(2) was obtained,The framework was constructed with negative (Fe-pyta) chains and the positive H2bpt+ in situ,formed from the abpt reagent,to form 1D channels filled with guest water molecules via hydrogen-bonds,X-Ray diffraction crystal structure analysis shows that complex 1 crystallized in the monoclinic system,space group C2/c,a=1.1490(5) nm,b=0.9008(4) nm,c=1.0058(5) nm,β=107.254(9)°,V=0.9942(8) nm3,Z=4; and complex 2 crystallizes in the triclinic system,space group P(1) with a=0.90392(11) nm,b=0.96027(11) nm,c=1.55540(18)nm,a=73.558(2)°,β=86.126(2)°,y=68.745(2)°,V=1.2059(2) nm3 and Z=2.

  15. Transplacental transport and fetal localization of bispehnol A, tetrabromobisphenol A and 2,4,6-tribromophenol in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, A.; Brunstroem, B.; Brandt, I. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology; Cantillana, T.; Bergman, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an intermediate in the production of epoxy resins, while its brominated derivative tetrabromobishenol A (TBBPA) and its photolysis degradation product 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) are widely used flame retardants. These brominated compounds have been identified in human blood. TBBPA, TBP and a number of 4-hydroxy-PCBs (e.g. 4-OH-CB107) are high affinity ligands for the thyroxin (T4) transporter transthyretin (TTR) in rodents and other species. Displacement of T4 from the TTR binding site has been proposed as an important mechanism of endocrine disruption by certain halogenated phenolic environmental pollutants. BPA is a fairly potent environmental estrogen receptor agonist that can induce an array of estrogenic effects in several species including mammals, birds and fish. Although the estrogenic activity of TBBPA is less obvious, this brominated BPA analog has been reported to interact with the estrogen receptor and induce estrogenic effects in some in vitro test systems. While the reproductive and developmental toxicity of BPA is well documented, there is evidence that also halogenated phenolic compounds can pass the placental barrier and induce such toxicity. Within the objectives of the COMPARE EU project we study the fetal and maternal kinetics and transplacental transport of phenolic environmental pollutants in pregnant mice. To explore the role of TTR in the placental and blood-brain barrier transport, we employ TTR-deficient mice. For comparative reasons, we also explore the transfer to bird embryos following injection into the yolk or administration to the egg-laying bird. In the present communication, we report on the disposition of BPA, TBBPA and TBP in the fetoplacental unit in pregnant wild-type mice.

  16. Packing of a(p,p-1)-graph without K3 and a(p,p-2)}-graph%不含K3的(p,p-1)图和(p,p-2)图的包装

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐干武; 秦桂毅; 唐水忠; 黄勇

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,sufficient and necessary condition for packing of a(p,p-1)-graph without K3 and a(p,p-2)}-graph with the same order has been proved.%给出了不含K3的(p,p-1)图与同阶的(p,p-2)图可包装的充要条件。

  17. Characterization of the xylanases from the new isolated thermophilic xylan-degrading Bacillus thermoleovorans strain K-3d and Bacillus flavothermus strain LB3A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunna, A; Prowe, S G; Stoffregen, T; Antranikian, G

    1997-03-15

    Three strictly aerobic strains (K-1, K-3d and K-4) were isolated from a hot-spring in Kobe, Japan, and a facultative anaerobic strain LB3A was isolated from sediments collected from the alkaline Lake Bogoria, Kenya. All strains were thermophilic and capable of growth on xylan. On the basis of morphological, physiological and phylogenetic studies the new aerobic isolates resemble the thermophilic species Bacillus thermoleovorans while the facultative anaerobic isolate LB3A resembles the facultative anaerobic thermophilic species Bacillus flavothermus. When grown on xylan as sole carbon source, all isolates produce thermoactive xylanases, Xylanases from strains K-3d and LB3A are active at temperatures between 40 and 90 degrees C and pH values between 5.0 and 9.0. Applying SDS-PAGE the crude xylanase complex of isolate K-3d was shown to be composed of two active bands, with molecular masses of 40 and 69 kDa. The crude xylanase complex of isolate LB3A, on the other hand, is composed of at least four activity bands with molecular masses ranging from 80 to 130 kDa. Due to the product pattern of xylan hydrolysis both enzymes are classified as endoxylanases. The xylanolytic enzyme system of isolate K-3d produces xylotriose, xylotetraose and larger xylooligosacharides, whereas the xylanases from isolate LB3A release xylotetraose as the major product of hydrolysis.

  18. Comparative evaluation of debris extruded apically by using, Protaper retreatment file, K3 file and H-file with solvent in endodontic retreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna Arora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris comparing 2 engine driven systems and hand instrumentation technique during root canal retreatment. Materials and Methods: Forty five human permanent mandibular premolars were prepared using the step-back technique, obturated with gutta-percha/zinc oxide eugenol sealer and cold lateral condensation technique. The teeth were divided into three groups: Group A: Protaper retreatment file, Group B: K3, file Group C: H-file with tetrachloroethylene. All the canals were irrigated with 20ml distilled water during instrumentation. Debris extruded along with the irrigating solution during retreatment procedure was carefully collected in preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were stored in an incubator for 5 days, placed in a desiccator and then re-weighed. Weight of dry debris was calculated by subtracting the weight of the tube before instrumentation and from the weight of the tube after instrumentation. Data was analyzed using Two Way ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Results : There was statistically significant difference in the apical extrusion of debris between hand instrumentation and protaper retreatment file and K3 file. The amount of extruded debris caused by protaper retreatment file and K3 file instrumentation technique was not statistically significant. All the three instrumentation techniques produced apically extruded debris and irrigant. Conclusion: The best way to minimize the extrusion of debris is by adapting crown down technique therefore the use of rotary technique (Protaper retreatment file, K3 file is recommended.

  19. ProTaper和K3预备对上颌前磨牙根管形态影响的研究%Comparative evaluation of the shaping abilities of ProTaper and K3 on root canal morphology of premolars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏庆银

    2016-01-01

    目的 比较ProTaper和K3预备对根管形态的影响.方法 选取正畸减数拔除含颊舌双根管的上颌前磨牙40颗,随机分为2组,分别采用机用镍钛器械ProTaper和K3预备根管,预备前、后进行三维成像,记录预先设立的根管横断面、颊舌向切面、近远中向切面三个位点的三维数据,评价根管预备的效果.结果 K3组相对于ProTaper组对牙本质的切削量少,对根管形态的影响较小,ProTaper组和K3组有显著性差异(P<0.01);结论 K3组预备后的根管形态优于ProTaper组.K3预备后能较好的保持根管形态,对根管壁牙本质的切削量少,较少地削弱了余留牙体组织的抗折力.

  20. Wet and Wild: A Multidisciplinary Marine Education Teacher Guide, Grades K-6. Unit I. The Physical Ocean: Wet, Wild, and Deep = Humedo y Salvaje. Primera Unidad. El Oceano Fisico: Humedo, Salvaje y Profundo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Richard C.

    Topics and activities related to the physical ocean are the focus of this multidisciplinary, marine education teaching guide for students in kindergarten through grade 6. The guide is divided into seven sections (labeled A through G). The first six sections consist of various kinds of activities, with the appropriate grade levels (K-6, K-3, or…

  1. Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in wine samples by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Ariel R; Patil, Sangram H; Banerjee, Kaushik; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2010-04-28

    A fast and effective microextraction technique is proposed for preconcentration of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) from wine samples prior gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (GC-MS/MS) analysis. The proposed technique is based on ultrasonication (US) for favoring the emulsification phenomenon during the extraction stage. Several variables influencing the relative response of the target analyte were studied and optimized. Under optimal experimental conditions, 2,4,6-TCA was quantitatively extracted achieving enhancement factors (EF) > or = 400 and limits of detection (LODs) 0.6-0.7 ng L(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) or = 0.9995. Validation of the methodology was carried out by standard addition method at two concentrations (10 and 50 ng L(-1)) achieving recoveries >80% indicating satisfactory robustness of the method. The methodology was successfully applied for determination of 2,4,6-TCA in different wine samples.

  2. Photochemically Catalyzed Diels-Alder Reaction of Azadienes with 2,3-Dihydrofuran by 2, 4, 6-Triphenylpyrylium Salt: Synthesis of Styrylfuroquinoline Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHANG; Yan Ping GUO; Li YANG; Zhong Li LIU

    2005-01-01

    Photochemically promoted Diels-Alder reactions of 1, 4-diaryl-1-azabutadienes with2,3-dihydrofuran were achieved by using 2, 4, 6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate as catalyst to produce corresponding styrylfuroquinolines in high yield.

  3. 2,4,6-tris[bis(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)amino]-1,3,5-triazine as a nitrogen-rich material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MUDDAMARRI HANUMANTHA RAO; VIKAS D GHULE; KRISHNAMURTHI MURALIDHARAN

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the synthesis, characterization and energetic properties of tetrazole and triazine-based thermally stable, insensitive nitrogen-rich high energy density materials of N, N’, N”-(1,3,5- triazine-2,4,6-triyl) tris(N-cyanocyanamide) [1] and 2,4,6-tris[bis(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)amino]-1,3,5-triazine [2]. The compound 2 is the first example for compounds having six tetrazole units on a triazine ring.

  4. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-De Jesus, A.; Romano-Baez, F.J.; Leyva-Amezcua, L.; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galindez-Mayer, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: cmayer@encb.ipn.mx

    2009-01-30

    For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation (PB-ALR) was constructed. To obtain a high packed-bed volume relative to the whole bioreactor volume, a high A{sub D}/A{sub R} ratio was used. Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor (ALR). Overall gas holdup values {epsilon}{sub G}, and zonal oxygen mass transfer coefficients determined at various airflow rates in the PB-ALR, were higher than those obtained with the ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP. Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. constituted the microbial consortium able to cometabolically degrade the 2,4,6-TCP, using phenol as primary substrate. This consortium removed 100% of phenol and near 99% of 2,4,6-TCP. Mineralization and dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was evidenced by high COD removal efficiencies ({approx}95%), and by the stoichiometric release of chloride ions from the halogenated compound ({approx}80%). Finally, it was observed that the microbial consortium was also capable to metabolize 2,4,6-TCP without phenol as primary substrate, with high removal efficiencies (near 100% for 2,4,6-TCP, 92% for COD and 88% for chloride ions)

  5. Contemporary Gleason grading and novel Grade Groups in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Montironi, Rodolfo; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-09-01

    The Gleason grading system provides important information for guiding prostate cancer patients' management and prognostication. The grading system underwent significant modifications over the past decade. In 2005 and more recently in 2014, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) held two consensus conferences to update prostate cancer grading. Recently, five prognostic grade groups have been proposed to be used in parallel to the Gleason grading system. The purpose of this review is to highlight the key changes in the Gleason grading system and the utility of the grade groups to better reflect biologic behavior for both patients and clinicians. At the 2014 ISUP consensus conference, prostate cancer Gleason grading was updated and a previously proposed concept of five prognostic grade groups, from 1 to 5 was supported. The Grade Groups, used in parallel to the modified Gleason grading system, translate Gleason scores in five distinct risk categories where Grade Group 1 is defined as Gleason score 6 or less, Grade Group 2 as Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7, Grade Group 3 as Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7, Grade Group 4 as Gleason score 4 + 4 = 8, and Grade Group 5 as Gleason score 9/10. This 5-tiered grade group system better reflects biologic behavior and guides clinical care. The Grade Groups have been endorsed by the ISUP and the World Health Organization. The performance of the Grade Groups has been examined in several recent studies. This review summarizes developments over the last year in the use of grade groups and outlines their value in clinical practice.

  6. Uptake of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Vetiver grass (Vetiviera ziznoides L.) -- Preliminary results from a hydroponic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, K. M.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Makris, K.; Pachanoor, D.

    2006-05-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene(TNT) is a potent mutagen and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. As a result, vast areas that have been previously used as military ranges, munition burning and open detonation sites have been heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remedial activities in such contaminated sites commonly rely on methods such as incineration, land filling and soil composting. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective solution, utilizing plants to phytoextract TNT from the contaminated soil. We propose the use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) to remove TNT from such contaminated soils. Vetiver is a fast-growing and adaptive grass, enabling its use in TNT-contaminated sites in a wide variety of soil types and climate. We also hypothesized that TNT removal by vetiver grass will be enhanced by utilizing a chaotropic agent (urea) to alter rhizosphere/root hair chemical environment. The objectives of this preliminary hydroponic study were: i) to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver grass in removing TNT from solution, and ii) to evaluate the use of a common agrochemical (urea) in enhancing TNT removal by vetiver grass. Vetiver plants were grown in a hydroponic system with five different TNT concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg TNT L-1) and three urea concentrations (0, 0.01 and 0.1%). A plant density of 10 g L-1 and three replicate vessels per treatment were used. Aliquots were collected at several time intervals up to 192 hour, and were analyzed for TNT with HPLC. Results showed that vetiver was able to remove TNT from hydroponic solutions. The overall magnitude and kinetics of TNT removal by vetiver grass was enhanced in the presence of urea. TNT removal kinetics depended on TNT and urea initial concentrations, suggestive of second-order kinetic reactions. Preliminary results are encouraging, but in need for verification using more detailed studies involving TNT-contaminated soils. Ongoing

  7. SEMI SINTESIS SENYAWA 2,4,6-TRINITROFENILHIDRAZON KALANON DAN UJI AKTIVITAS TERHADAP SEL LEUKIMIA L1210

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Chasani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kalanon adalah senyawa antikanker yang diisolasi dari Calophyllum biflorum Hends dan Ws. Aktivitas kalanon terhadap sel leukemia L1210 masih rendah yakni dengan niali IC50 = 59,4 ug/mL. Suatu senyawa dikatakan aktif sebagai antikanker jjika memiliki nilai IC50 di bawah 10 ug/mL. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mensintesis senyawa turunan kalanon dan diharapkan diperoleh senyawa baru yang mempunyai aktivitas lebih tinggi dibandingkan senyawa asal kalanon. Senyawa turunan kalanon diperoleh melalui reaksi antara kalanon dengan 2,4,6-trinitrofenilhidrazin. Reaksi dilakukan pada suhu 78 oC selama delapan jam. Analisis pendahuluan senyawa hasil sintesis dilakukan dengan metode kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT menggunakan eluen n-heksana dan etil asetat (2:1, v/v. Pemurnian senyawa hasil sintesis menggunakan teknik rekristalisasi dengan pelarut n-heksana dan diklorometan (3:1, v/v. Senyawa hasil sintesis diperoleh dengan Rf = 0,6609 dan rendemen 5,125 % ( b/b serta berupa kristal berwarna coklat. Identifikasi senyawa hasil sintesis dilakukan dengan spektrometer massa dan spektrofotometer IR. Hasil identifikasi menunjukkan bahwa senyawa hasil sintesis yang diharapkan telah terbentuk. Data spektrometer massa diperoleh ion molekul M+ = 647 dengan lepasnya molekul H2. Fragmen-fragmen yang terbentuk adalah pada m/e = 504, m/e = 479, m/e = 451, m/e = 429, m/e = 405, m/e = 377, m/e = 341, m/e = 316, m/e = 281, m/e = 253, m/e = 233, m/e = 207, m/e = 177, m/e = 156, m/e = 135, m/e = 96, m/e = 73, dan m/e = 41. Hasil spektrofotometer IR menunjukkan pita serapan pada 1654.8 cm-1 yang merupakan daerah regang ikatan rangkap C=N, pita serapan pada 3000 cm-1 – 3400 cm-1 adalah pita getaran OH fenol dan pita pada 1380 cm-1 menunjukkan rentangan simetri gugus nitro (NO2. Hasil uji sitotoksik terhadap sel leukemia L1210 menghasilkan nilai IC50 sebesr 47.69 μg/ml.

  8. Glioma Cell Invasion is Significantly Enhanced in Composite Hydrogel Matrices Composed of Chondroitin 4- and 4,6-Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logun, Meghan T; Bisel, Nicole S; Tanasse, Emily A; Zhao, Wujun; Gunasekera, Bhagya; Mao, Leidong; Karumbaiah, Lohitash

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of astrocytoma accounting for a majority of primary malignant brain tumors in the United States. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains are key constituents of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) implicated in promoting tumor invasion. However, the mechanisms by which sulfated CS-GAGs promote brain tumor invasion are currently unknown. We hypothesize that glioma cell invasion is triggered by the altered sulfation of CS-GAGs in the tumor extracellular environment, and that this is potentially mediated by independent mechanisms involving CXCL12/CXCR4 and LAR signaling respectively. This was tested in vitro by encapsulating the human glioma cell line U87MG-EGFP into monosulfated (4-sulfated; CS-A), composite (4 and 4,6-sulfated; CS-A/E), unsulfated hyaluronic acid (HA), and unsulfated agarose (AG; polysaccharide) hydrogels within microfluidics-based choice assays. Our results demonstrated the enhanced preferential cell invasion into composite hydrogels, when compared to other hydrogel matrices (p<0.05). Haptotaxis assays demonstrated the significantly (p<0.05) faster migration of U87MG-EGFP cells in CXCL12 containing CS-GAG hydrogels when compared to other hydrogel matrices containing the same chemokine concentration. This is likely due to the significantly (p<0.05) greater affinity of composite CS-GAGs to CXCL12 over other hydrogel matrices. Results from qRT-PCR assays further demonstrated the significant (p<0.05) upregulation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4, and the CSPG receptor LAR in glioma cells within CS-GAG hydrogels compared to control hydrogels. Western blot analysis of cell lysates derived from glioma cells encapsulated in different hydrogel matrices further corroborate qRT-PCR results, and indicate the presence of a potential variant of LAR that is selectively expressed only in glioma cells encapsulated in CS-GAG hydrogels. These results suggest that

  9. Characterization of the 4,6-α-glucanotransferase GTFB enzyme of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 isolated from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuxiang; van der Kaaij, Rachel Maria; Woortman, Albert Jan Jacob; Jin, Zhengyu; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2015-06-09

    The GTFB enzyme of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri 121 is a 4,6-α-glucanotransferase of glycoside hydrolase family 70 (GH70; http://www.cazy.org ). Contrary to the glucansucrases in GH70, GTFB is unable to use sucrose as substrate, but instead converts malto-oligosaccharides and starch into isomalto-/malto- polymers that may find application as prebiotics and dietary fibers. The GTFB enzyme expresses well in Escherichia coli BL21 Star (DE3), but mostly accumulates in inclusion bodies (IBs) which generally contain wrongly folded protein and inactive enzyme. Denaturation followed by refolding, as well as ncIB preparation were used for isolation of active GTFB protein from inclusion bodies. Soluble, refolded and ncIB GTFB were compared using activity assays, secondary structure analysis by FT-IR, and product analyses by NMR, HPAEC and SEC. Expression of GTFB in E. coli yielded > 100 mg/l relatively pure and active but mostly insoluble GTFB protein in IBs, regardless of the expression conditions used. Following denaturing, refolding of GTFB protein was most efficient in double distilled H2O. Also, GTFB ncIBs were active, with approx. 10 % of hydrolysis activity compared to the soluble protein. When expressed as units of activity obtained per liter E. coli culture, the total amount of ncIB GTFB expressed possessed around 180 % hydrolysis activity and 100 % transferase activity compared to the amount of soluble GTFB enzyme obtained from one liter culture. The product profiles obtained for the three GTFB enzyme preparations were similar when analyzed by HPAEC and NMR. SEC investigation also showed that these 3 enzyme preparations yielded products with similar size distributions. FT-IR analysis revealed extended β-sheet formation in ncIB GTFB providing an explanation at the molecular level for reduced GTFB activity in ncIBs. The thermostability of ncIB GTFB was relatively high compared to the soluble and refolded GTFB. In view of their relatively high yield

  10. Reactivity of partially reduced arylhydroxylamine and nitrosoarene metabolites of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) toward biomass and humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farrukh; Hughes, Joseph B

    2002-10-15

    Sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) generally results in the incorporation of residues into biomass and natural organic matter fractions of a system. To better understand the potential contribution of hydroxylamine and nitroso moieties in these reactions, studies were conducted using model systems taking advantage of the biocatalytic-activity of Clostridium acetobutylicum that does not produce aminated TNT derivatives. To evaluate binding to biomass only, systems containing cell-free extracts of C. acetobutylicum and molecular hydrogen as a reductant were employed. At the end of treatment, mass balance studies showed that 10% of the total 14C was associated with an insoluble protein-containing precipitate that could not be extracted with organic solvents. Model reactions were conducted between a mixture of 2,4-dihydroxylamino-6-nitrotoluene (DHA6NT) and 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4HADNT) and 1-thioglycerol to test the involvement of the nitroso-thiol reaction in binding to biomass. It was demonstrated that DHA6NT formed a new and relatively polar product with 1-thioglycerol only in the presence of oxygen. The oxygen requirement confirmed that the nitroso functionality was responsible for the binding reaction. The reactivity of arylhydroxylamino and nitrosoarene functionalities toward International Humic Substance Society (IHSS) peat humic acid was evaluated under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. 4HADNT showed no appreciable reactivity toward peat humic acid. Conversely, the nitrosoarene compound, nitrosobenzene, showed rapid reactivity with peat humic acid (50% removal in 48 h). When tested with two other humic acids (selected on the basis of their protein content), it became apparent that the proteinaceous fraction was responsible at least in part for the nitrosoarene's removal from solution. Furthermore, the pretreatment of the humic acids with a selective thiol derivatizing agent had a considerable effect

  11. Assembly of tetra, di and mononuclear molecular cadmium phosphonates using 2,4,6-triisopropylphenylphosponic acid and ancillary ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Vadapalli; Sasikumar, Palani; Boomishankar, Ramamoorthy

    2008-10-14

    The reaction of ArPO(3)H(2) (Ar = 2,4,6-iPr(3)-C(6)H(2)) with Cd(CH(3)COO)(2).2H(2)O using various co-ligands such as methanol, dimethylformamide (DMF) and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMPZH) resulted in the formation of tetranuclear assemblies [Cd(4)(ArPO(3))(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(CH(3)OH)(4)].3(CH(3)OH) (1), [Cd(4)(ArPO(3))(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(DMF)(4)].3(DMF) (2) and [Cd(4)(ArPO(3))(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(DMF)(2)(DMPZH)(2)].2(DMF).2(H(2)O) (3). In all of these compounds the tetranuclear cadmium array, containing two five-coordinate and two six-coordinate cadmium atoms, is held together by two mu(4) capping [ArPO(3)](2-) and four anisobidentate mu(2) [ArPO(2)(OH)](-) ligands. Each cadmium atom is bound to an additional ancillary ligand. The reaction of ArPO(3)H(2) with Cd(CH(3)COO)(2).2H(2)O in the presence of the chelating ligand 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) leads to the exclusive formation of the dinuclear assembly [Cd(2)(ArPO(3)H)(4)(bipy)(2)].(CH(3)OH)(H(2)O) (4). The latter contains an eight-membered Cd(2)P(2)O(4) inorganic ring formed as a result of the bridging coordination action of two anisobidentate mu(2) [ArPO(2)(OH)](-) ligands. Each cadmium atom is bound by one chelating bipy and one monodentate [ArPO(2)(OH)](-) ligands. Use of four equivalents of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole leads to the formation of the mononuclear derivative [Cd(ArPO(3)H)(2)(DMPZH)(4)] (5). The molecular structure of the latter comprises of a central cadmium atom surrounded by six monodentate ligands. Four of these are neutral pyrazole ligands that occupy the equatorial plane; the remaining two are anionic phosphinate ligands which are present trans to each other. The thermal analysis of 1 and 4 reveals that the char residue obtained at 600 degrees C consists predominantly of Cd(2)P(2)O(7).

  12. Ingressive speech errors: a service evaluation of speech-sound therapy in a child aged 4;6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrastelj, Laura; Knight, Rachael-Anne

    2017-07-01

    A pattern of ingressive substitutions for word-final sibilants can be identified in a small number of cases in child speech disorder, with growing evidence suggesting it is a phonological difficulty, despite the unusual surface form. Phonological difficulty implies a problem with the cognitive process of organizing speech into sound contrasts. To evaluate phonological therapy approaches in the remediation of non-pulmonic speech errors. Thus, adding to evidence concerning the nature of ingressive substitutions and their remediation whilst highlighting their occurrence within child speech disorder population for practising and training speech and language therapists. Child KO, a boy aged 4;6, was identified through a screening of speech, language and communication needs at his school. Word-final, non-pulmonic-egressive substitutes for fricatives and plosives were identified using the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP). Treatment took place in five, weekly school-based sessions with a care-giver present, and targeted two phonemes /f/ and /ʃ/ in word-final position. Word-final /s/ was monitored throughout to capture any change in other word-final fricatives. Phonemes /ɡ/ and /p/ were used as controls, as no change was expected in word-final plosives as a result of therapy targeting fricatives. Production of single words in the DEAP, pre- and post-therapy were transcribed by two independent therapists, (transcription agreement was 86.6% (pre) and 83.7% (post), with all 140 consonants within the DEAP transcribed), and change in consonants correct was analysed using a Wilcoxon test. Picture description tasks and telling of familiar stories were videoed post-therapy to analyse use of word-final fricative egression in connected speech. Percentage consonants correct in single-words post-treatment was significantly higher than pre-treatment at single-word level. Generalization of target fricatives into connected speech and modest generalization of

  13. Visceral hypersensitivity is provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ileitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Crohn’s Disease (CD, a chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease, can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but most frequently in the ileum. Visceral hypersensitivity contributes for development of chronic abdominal pain in this disease. Currently, the understanding of the mechanism underlying hypersensitivity of Crohn’s ileitis has been hindered by a lack of specific animal model. The present study is undertaken to investigate the visceral hypersensitivity provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS-induced ileitis rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and laparotomized for intraileal injection of TNBS (0.6 ml, 80 mg/kg body weight in 30% ethanol, n = 48, an equal volume of 30% Ethanol (n = 24 and Saline (n = 24, respectively. Visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by visceromotor responses (VMR to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmHg colorectal distension pressure (CRD at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Immediately after CRD test, the rats were euthanized for collecting the terminal ileal segment for histopathological examinations and ELISA of myleoperoxidase and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and dorsal root ganglia (T11 for determination of calcitonin gene-related peptide by immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Among all groups, TNBS-treatment showed transmural inflammation initially at 3 days, reached maximum at 7 days and persisted up to 21 days. The rats with ileitis exhibited (P < 0.05 VMR to CRD at day 7 to day 21. The calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive positive cells increased (P < 0.05 in dorsal root ganglia at day 7 to 21, which was persistently consistent with visceral hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats.Conclusions: TNBS injection into the ileum induced transmural ileitis including granuloma and visceral hypersensitivity. As this model mimics clinical manifestations of CD, it may provide a road map to probe the pathogenesis of gut inflammation and visceral

  14. 大孔树脂吸附去除水中的2,4,6-三硝基甲苯%Removing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene from water by macroporous resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青梅; 刘湛; 马超; 向仁军

    2012-01-01

    研究了2种大孔树脂XAD-4和NDA-804对水中的TNT的吸附行为。2种树脂对TNT的吸附等温线表明,温度的升高有利于吸附,在35℃条件下XAD-4树脂与NDA-804树脂对TNT的最高平衡吸附量分别达82.86 mg/g和94.26mg/g。采用Langmuir方程和Freundlich方程用于吸附等温线的解释,结果表明,吸附等温线更加符合Langmuir模型,相关系数均大于0.99。TNT在2种树脂上的吸附符合准二级动力学方程,TNT初始浓度越低,达到吸附平衡所需时间越短,在1 h内可达到吸附平衡。采用NDA-804处理对TNT废水,废水中TNT浓度由103.58 mg/L降至0.4 mg/L,去除率达99.6%,吸附后的树脂采用pH=2的乙醇和盐酸的混合液脱附可再生,高浓度再生溶液经蒸馏可回收TNT,实现了废水治理与资源化。%Adsorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene onto two kinds of macroporous resin including XAD-4 and NDA-804 was studied.The adsorption isotherms of TNT onto resins were measured.Raising the temperature was advantageous to adsorption.The maximum equilibrium adsorption capacities of XAD-4 and of NDA-804 at 35 degrees were 82.86 mg/g and 94.26 mg/g,respectively.The TNT adsorption behaviors could be better described using the Langmuir adsorption model than the Freundlich adsorption model,and the correlation coefficient was greater than 0.99.The kinetics of TNT adsorption onto resins obeyed pseudo-second order kinetic model.The lower the initial TNT solution concentration,the shorter time of the adsorption equilibrium was.The time until equilibrium was 1 hour.The NDA-804 was applied to treat TNT manufacturing wastewater.The TNT concentration in the wastewater decreased from 103.58 mg/L to 0.4 mg/L after adsorption by NDA-804,indicating a high removal efficiency of 99.6%.The NDA-804 could be regenerated by a mixed solution of HCl and methanol with pH of 2.The TNT would be subsequently recovered from the high concentrated regenerant solution by distillation.

  15. Graded-index magnonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  16. A Novel Bulky Heteroaromatic-Substituted Methanide Mimicking NacNac: Bis(4,6-tert-butylbenzoxazol-2-yl)methanide in s-Block Metal Coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Ingo; Bachmann, Sebastian; Niklas, Thomas; Herbst-Irmer, Regine; Stalke, Dietmar

    2017-09-21

    A novel bulky bis(4,6-tBu-benzoxazol-2-yl)methane ligand was synthesized in a straightforward three-step synthesis. The corresponding complexes [Li{(4,6-tBu-NCOC6 H2 )2 CH}THF], [K{η(5) -(4,6-tBu-NCOC6 H2 )2 CH}]∞ , and [MgCl{(4,6-tBu-NCOC6 H2 )2 CH}(THF)2 ] were obtained upon metalation with alkaline or alkaline-earth-metal reagents. Reduction of [MgCl{(4,6-tBu-NCOC6 H2 )2 CH}(THF)2 ] with potassium metal or KC8 led to the formation of the homoleptic compound [Mg{(4,6-tBu-NCOC6 H2 )2 CH}2 ]. All compounds were fully characterized. Their solid-state structures as well as their behavior in solution, which was analyzed with the help of advanced NMR spectroscopic techniques, are discussed in detail. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Occurrence of major whey proteins in the pH 4.6 insoluble protein fraction from UHT-treated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzano, Rosa; Manzo, Carla; Nicolai, Maria Adalgisa; Addeo, Francesco

    2012-08-15

    A clear picture of the protein rearrangement in milk following UHT-treatment was drawn by a comparative analysis of the pH 4.6 soluble protein fraction (SPF) and the pH 4.6 insoluble protein fraction (IPF) recovered from raw and UHT-treated milk samples. The two protein fractions were analyzed by mono- or bidimensional gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions, and protein bands were identified by specific immunostaining. Results showed that bovine serum albumin, β-lactoglobulin, and, to a lesser extent, α-lactalbumin coprecipitated with caseins in UHT-treated milk samples at pH 4.6. These proteins were almost exclusively involved in high molecular weight aggregates held together by disulfide bonds. Partition of α-lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin in the protein fractions obtained upon acidification of milk at pH 4.6 was evaluated by competitive immunoassays. The ELISA-based results suggested the possibility of using pH 4.6 insoluble α-lactalbumin and bovine serum albumin, in addition to pH 4.6 insoluble β-lactoglobulin, as indicators of the intensity of the heat treatment applied to milk.

  18. The Phosphate Transporter PHT4;6 Is a Determinant of Salt Tolerance that Is Localized to the Golgi Apparatus of Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beatriz Cubero; Yuko Nakagawa; Xing-Yu jiang; Ken-Ji Miura; Fang Li; Kashchandra G.Raghothama; Ray A.Bressan; Paul M.Hasegawa; Jose M.Pardo

    2009-01-01

    Insertion mutations that disrupt the function of PHT4;6 (At5g44370) cause NaCI hypersensitivity of Arabidop-sis seedlings that is characterized by reduced growth of the primary root,enhanced lateral branching,and swelling of root tips.Mutant phenotypes were exacerbated by sucrose,but not by equiosmolar concentrations of mannitol,and atten-uated by low inorganic phosphate in the medium.Protein PHT4;6 belongs to the Major Facilitator Superfamily of per-meases that shares significant sequence similarity to mammalian type-I Pi transporters and vesicular glutamate transporters,and is a member of the PHT4 family of putative intracellular phosphate transporters of plants.PHT4;6 local-izes to the Golgi membrane and transport studies indicate that PHT4;6 facilitates the selective transport of Pi but not of chloride or inorganic anions.Phenotypic similarities with other mutants displaying root swelling suggest that PHT4;6 likely functions in protein N-glycosylation and cell wall biosynthesis,which are essential for salt tolerance.Together,our results indicate that PHT4;6 transports Pi out of the Golgi lumenal space for the re-cycling of the Pi released from glycosylation processes.

  19. Serving Grades Over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, James K.

    This paper demonstrates a grade server that allows college students to access their grades over the Internet from the instructor's home page. Using a CGI (common gateway interface) program written in Visual Basic, the grades are read directly from an Excel spreadsheet and presented to the requester after he/she enters a password. The grade for…

  20. Simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol based on poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Kexin; Lu, Nan; Yuan, Xing, E-mail: yuanx@nenu.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: A poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) without any pretreatment. - Highlights: • A poly(RhB)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite was synthesized. • The composite film was characterized by SEM, XRD, EIS and Raman spectroscopy. • The simultaneous electrochemical determination of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP was realized. • The electrode showed high sensitivity, excellent reproducibility and good stability. • The electrode was used to determine 2,4,6-TCP and PCP in practical water samples. - Abstract: In the present study, a poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite modified glass carbon electrode (PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). The PRhB/GO/MWCNTs film was extensively characterized by emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behaviors of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Due to the synergistic effect, the PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE significantly facilitated the simultaneous electro-oxidation of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP with peak potential difference of 160 mV and enhanced oxidation currents. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current of 2,4,6-TCP was linear to its concentration in the ranges of 4.0 × 10{sup −9} to 1.0 × 10{sup −7} M and 1.0 × 10{sup −7} to 1.0 × 10{sup −4} M with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 8.0 × 10{sup −10} M. And the linear concentration ranges for PCP were 2.0 × 10{sup −9} to 1.0 × 10{sup −7} M and 1.0 × 10{sup −7} to 9.0 × 10{sup −5} M with the

  1. Methods of graded rings

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasescu, Constantin

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this book, graded algebra, has developed in the past decade to a vast subject with new applications in noncommutative geometry and physics. Classical aspects relating to group actions and gradings have been complemented by new insights stemming from Hopf algebra theory. Old and new methods are presented in full detail and in a self-contained way. Graduate students as well as researchers in algebra, geometry, will find in this book a useful toolbox. Exercises, with hints for solution, provide a direct link to recent research publications. The book is suitable for courses on Master level or textbook for seminars.

  2. Do Animals Have Rights? Teacher's Packet (for 4th, 5th, & 6th Grades).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammut-Tovar, Dorothy; Sturla, Kim

    Activities in this unit are designed to sensitize students in grades 4-6 to the needs of animals and to the injustices many species suffer. The lessons focus on inhumane acts such as the use of steel-jaw traps, dogfighting, hunting, keeping exotic pets in captivity, using animals in entertainment, habitat destruction, factory farming, and animal…

  3. Do Animals Have Rights? Teacher's Packet (for 4th, 5th, & 6th Grades).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammut-Tovar, Dorothy; Sturla, Kim

    Activities in this unit are designed to sensitize students in grades 4-6 to the needs of animals and to the injustices many species suffer. The lessons focus on inhumane acts such as the use of steel-jaw traps, dogfighting, hunting, keeping exotic pets in captivity, using animals in entertainment, habitat destruction, factory farming, and animal…

  4. The Maximal Graded Left Quotient Algebra of a Graded Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo ARANDA PINO; Mercedes SILES MOLINA

    2006-01-01

    We construct the maximal graded left quotient algebra of every graded algebra A without homogeneous total right zero divisors as the direct limit of graded homomorphisms (of left A-modules)from graded dense left ideals of A into a graded left quotient algebra of A. In the case of a superalgebra,and with some extra hypothesis, we prove that the component in the neutral element of the group of the maximal graded left quotient algebra coincides with the maximal left quotient algebra of the component in the neutral element of the group of the superalgebra.

  5. The Dependence of the Change in the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Graphite Fiber Reinforced Polyimide IM7-K3B on Microcracking due to Thermal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Melissa C.

    1995-01-01

    Composite IM7-K3B was subjected to a simulated high speed aircraft thermal environment to determine the effects of microcracking on the change in CTE. IM7-K3B is a graphite fiber reinforced polyimide laminate, manufactured by Dupont. The lay-up for the material was (0.90((Sub 3)(Sub s))). The specimens were placed in a laser-interferometric dilatometer to obtain thermal expansion measurements and were then repeatedly cycled between -65 F and 350 F up to 1000 cycles. After cycling they were scanned for microcracks at a magnification of 400x. The material was expected not to crack and to have a near zero CTE. Some microcracking did occur in all specimens and extensive microcracking occurred in one specimen. Further testing is required to determine how closely the CTE and microcracking are related.

  6. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a Cyano-bridged Bimetallic Complex K3(TMS)2(H2O)2Cr(CN)6 [TMS = Tetramethylene Sulfone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; CHE Yun-Xia; ZHENG Ji-Min

    2005-01-01

    The cyano-bridged bimetallic complex K3(TMS)2(H2O)2Cr(CN)6 with three- dimensional microporous structure was synthesized and characterized. The title complex (C14H20CrK3N, Mr = 601.78) crystallizes in monoclinic, space group C2/c with a = 14.357(4), b = 9.331(3), c = 19.180(6)(A), β = 96.754(5)o, V = 2551.6(13) (A)3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.567 g/m3, μ(MoKα) = 1.141 mm-1, F(000) = 1228, the final R = 0.0440 and wR = 0.0990 for 1760 observed reflections (I > 2σ(I)). In the crystal, two [Cr(CN) 6]3- units, four K+ ions and two oxygen atoms of two TMS molecules are linked to form a sixteen-membered ring and an extended three-dimensional structure.

  7. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  8. Social Studies: Grade 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

  9. Purpose-Driven Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

  10. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  11. Bilateral key comparison CCM.P-K3.1 for absolute pressure measurements from 3 × 10-6 Pa to 9 × 10-4 Pa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedchak, J. A.; Bock, Th; Jousten, K.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the bilateral key comparison CCM.P-K3.1 between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) for absolute pressure in the range from 3 × 10-6 Pa to 9 × 10-4 Pa. This comparison was a follow-up to the comparison CCM.P-K3. Two ionization gauges and two spinning rotor gauges (SRGs) were used as the transfer standards for the comparison. The SRGs were used to compare the standards at a pressure of 9 × 10-4 Pa and to normalize the ionization gauge readings. The two ionization gauges were used to compare the standards in the pressure range of from 3 × 10-6 Pa to 3 × 10-4 Pa. Both laboratories used dynamic expansion chambers as standards in the comparison. The two labs showed excellent agreement with each other and with the CCM.P-K3 key comparison reference value (KCRV) over the entire range. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Mode Coupling between the Nonpolar K3 and Polar Γ2-Phonons as the Ferroelectricity Origin of Multiferroic h-LuMnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seungwoo; Heo, Seungyang; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2014-03-01

    LuMnO3 is expected to show the highest stability towards the hexagonal phase among 15 different lanthanide-based manganites. Currently, the most puzzling problem associated with the hexagonal LuMnO3 (h-LMO) is the observed large temperature-gap between the structural phase transition to the polar P63cm phase at ~ 1290 K and the emergence of the spontaneous polarization at a substantially reduced temperature, ~ 750 K. This anomalous temperature-gap has also been observed in h-YMnO3. To resolve this puzzling issue, we have carried out density-functional theory calculations and found that the structural phase transition to the polar P63 cm phase from the nonpolar P63/mmc phase is mediated by the freezing-in of the zone-boundary K3 phonon in h-LMO. However, the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization does not appear until the amplitude of K3 phonon becomes a certain critical value above which the coupling of the polar Γ2-mode with the nonpolar K3 mode is practically turned on. This mode-coupling-induced polarization, thus, elucidates the above puzzle.

  13. Overcoming Endocrine Resistance in Hormone-Receptor Positive Advanced Breast Cancer-The Emerging Role of CDK4/6 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Ciara C

    Dysregulation of the cyclin D and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) pathway in cancer cells may inhibit senescence and promote cellular proliferation. By using various different mechanisms, malignant cells may increase cyclin D-dependent activity. The cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6)-retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway controls the cell cycle restriction point, and is commonly dysregulated in breast cancer; making it a rational target for anticancer therapy. To date, three oral highly selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) are in various stages of clinical development: PD0332991 (palbociclib), LEE011 (ribociclib) and LY2835219 (abemaciclib). Results from phase I, II and III trials in hormone-receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer have been encouraging, demonstrating convincing efficacy and a tolerable side-effect profile (mainly uncomplicated neutropenia). This article will review the preclinical and clinical development of the CDK4/6i, as well as reviewing the existing preclinical evidence regarding combination of these agents with chemotherapy and other targeted therapies. Future and ongoing clinical trials, which may expand the potential application of these agents, will also be discussed. In summary, CDK4/6i are exciting compounds which may change the therapeutic landscape of HR-positive breast cancer.

  14. Fibroblast Adhesion and Proliferation on a New β Type Ti-39Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr Alloy for Biomedical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cell attachment and spreading on Ti-based alloy surfaces is a major parameter in implant technology. Ti39Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr alloy is a new β type Ti alloy developed for biomedical application. This alloy has low modulus and high strength, which indicates that it can be used for medical purposes such as surgical implants.To evaluate the biocompatibility and effects of the surface morphology of Ti-39Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr on the cellular behaviour, the adhesion and proliferation of rat gingival fibroblasts were studied with substrates having different surface roughness and the results were also compared with commercial pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V. The results indicate that fibroblast shows similar adhesion and proliferation on the smooth surfaces of commercial pure titanium (Cp Ti), Ti-39Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr, and Ti-6Al-4V, suggesting that Ti-39Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr has similar biocompatibility to Cp Ti and Ti-6Al-4V. The fibroblast adhesion and spreading was lower on rough surfaces of Cp Ti, Ti-39Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr and Ti-6Al-4V than on smooth ones. Surface roughness appeared to be a dominant factor that determines the fibroblast adhesion and proliferation.

  15. Biosynthesis of poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates by Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK cultured in cellulose pulp mill effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, Lorena M; Bunster, Marta; Pooley, Amalia; Becerra, José; Godoy, Felix; Martínez, Miguel A

    2005-09-01

    Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) polymer is synthesized by different bacterial species. There has been considerable interest in the development and production of biodegradable polymers; however, the high cost of PHA production has restricted its applications. Kraft cellulose industry effluents containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (10 or 20 microg ml(-1)) were used by the bacteria Sphingopyxis chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK to synthesize PHA. In this condition, S. chilensis S37 was able to grow and degrade 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (ca. 60%) and 80% of these cells accumulated PHA. Wautersia PZK completely degraded 2,4,6-TCP and more than 90% of the cells accumulated PHA in 72 h. The PHA detection was performed by flow cytometry and polyester composition was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), indicating that these polymers are made by 3-hydroxybutyric acid and 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid for S37 and PZK strains, respectively. Results demonstrated that strains' growth and PHA production and composition are not modified in cellulose effluents with or without 2,4,6-TCP (10-20 microg ml(-1)). Therefore, our results indicate that S. chilensis S37 and Wautersia sp. PZK are able to degrade a toxic compound such as a 2,4,6-TCP and simultaneously produce a valuable biopolymer using low-value substrates.

  16. Broadband Yellowish-Green Emitting Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) Phosphor: Structure Refinement, Energy Transfer, and Thermal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaopeng; Lü, Wei; Jiao, Mengmeng; You, Hongpeng

    2016-06-20

    A series of Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) phosphors with a broad emitting band have been synthesized by a traditional solid state reaction. The crystal structural and photoluminescence properties of Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) are investigated. The different crystallographic sites of Eu(2+) in Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) phosphors have been verified by means of their photoluminescence (PL) properties and decay times. Energy transfer between Eu(2+) ions, analyzed by excitation, emission, and PL decay behavior, has been indicated to be a dipole-dipole mechanism. Moreover, the luminescence quantum yield as well as the thermal stability of the Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) phosphor have been investigated systematically. The as-prepared Ba4Gd3Na3(PO4)6F2:Eu(2+) phosphor can act as a promising candidate for n-UV convertible white LEDs.

  17. [Determination of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in wine by head-space solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Zhong, Qiding; Li, Jingguang; Xing, Jiangtao; Huang, Feifei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2012-07-01

    To establish a method of combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with head-space solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) for the detection of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in wine. 2,4,6-TCA in wine were extracted by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS,100 microm) fiber for 15 min under 35 degrees C in a water bath. The fiber was then transferred into the injection port of the GC-MS and separated by a CP-SIL 8CB-MS capillary column (30m x 0.25mm x 0.25 microm), and detected by mass spectrometry using d5-2,4,6-TCA as an internal standard. The linear range for 2,4,6-TCA was 5 (60ng/L, the detection limit was 0.06ng/L. The recovery of standard addition (5, 10, 20ng/L) was in the range of 79.8% (101.6% with relative standard deviations (RSD, n=5) wine.

  18. Preparation of oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon for removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol: Optimization using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Tan, I.A.W.; Ahmad, A.L. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-05-30

    The effects of three preparation variables: CO{sub 2} activation temperature, CO{sub 2} activation time and KOH:char impregnation ratio (IR) on the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) uptake and carbon yield of the activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated. Based on the central composite design, two quadratic models were developed to correlate the three preparation variables to the two responses. The activated carbon preparation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology by maximizing both the 2,4,6-TCP uptake and activated carbon yield within the ranges studied. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from EFB for adsorption of 2,4,6-TCP were found as follows: CO{sub 2} activation temperature of 814 deg. C, CO{sub 2} activation time of 1.9 h and IR of 2.8, which resulted in 168.89 mg/g of 2,4,6-TCP uptake and 17.96% of activated carbon yield. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model predictions. The activated carbon prepared under optimum conditions was mesoporous with BET surface area of 1141 m{sup 2}/g, total pore volume of 0.6 cm{sup 3}/g and average pore diameter of 2.5 nm. The surface morphology and functional groups of the activated carbon were respectively determined from the scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis.

  19. Preparation of oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon for removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol: optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, B H; Tan, I A W; Ahmad, A L

    2009-05-30

    The effects of three preparation variables: CO(2) activation temperature, CO(2) activation time and KOH:char impregnation ratio (IR) on the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) uptake and carbon yield of the activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated. Based on the central composite design, two quadratic models were developed to correlate the three preparation variables to the two responses. The activated carbon preparation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology by maximizing both the 2,4,6-TCP uptake and activated carbon yield within the ranges studied. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from EFB for adsorption of 2,4,6-TCP were found as follows: CO(2) activation temperature of 814 degrees C, CO(2) activation time of 1.9h and IR of 2.8, which resulted in 168.89 mg/g of 2,4,6-TCP uptake and 17.96% of activated carbon yield. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model predictions. The activated carbon prepared under optimum conditions was mesoporous with BET surface area of 1141 m(2)/g, total pore volume of 0.6 cm(3)/g and average pore diameter of 2.5 nm. The surface morphology and functional groups of the activated carbon were respectively determined from the scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis.

  20. Synthesis of bis(3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl(phenylphosphine oxide – a tailor-made photoinitiator for dental adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Moszner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the poor solubility of the commercially available bisacylphosphine oxides in dental acidic aqueous primer formulations, bis(3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl(phenylphosphine oxide (WBAPO was synthesized starting from 3-(chloromethyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid by the dichlorophosphine route. The substituent was introduced by etherification with 2-(allyloxyethanol. In the second step, 3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid was chlorinated. The formed acid chloride showed an unexpected low thermal stability. Its thermal rearrangement at 180 °C resulted in a fast formation of 3-(chloromethyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid 2-(allyloxyethyl ester. In the third step, the acid chloride was reacted with phenylphosphine dilithium with the formation of bis(3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl(phenylphosphine, which was oxidized to WBAPO. The structure of WBAPO was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR, and IR spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis. WBAPO, a yellow liquid, possesses improved solubility in polar solvents and shows UV–vis absorption, and a high photoreactivity comparable with the commercially available bisacylphosphine oxides. A sufficient storage stability was found in dental acidic aqueous primer formulations.