WorldWideScience

Sample records for k-3 grades 4-6

  1. X-ray diffraction studies on K3Gd5 (PO4) 6 between 20K to 1073 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevara, Samatha; Achary, S.N.; Tyagi, A.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Sastry, P.U.

    2016-01-01

    Complex inorganic phosphates have been of interest due to their diversified crystal chemistry depending on composition, preparation condition as well as external parameters like temperature and pressure. In addition varieties of complex phosphates have been considered as potential host matrices for immobilization of radioactive elements as well as for selective separation of ions from high level nuclear waste or heavy metal ion pollutants from environment. Temperature and/or pressure induced structural variations are often noticed in such type complex phosphates. In K 2 O-Gd 2 O 3 -P 2 O 5 , a novel complex phosphate with K 3 Gd 5 (PO 4 ) 6 has been reported recently. In order to study the effect of temperature on crystal structure of K 3 Gd 5 (PO 4 ) 6 variable temperature XRD studies between 20 K to 1073 K were carried out and the results are presented herein

  2. Structural investigation on K3Gd5(PO4)6 in between 20 K to 1073 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevara, Samatha; Achary, S.N.; Tyagi, A.K.; Mishra, K.K.; Ravindran, T.R.; Sinha, A.K.; Sastry, P.U.

    2016-01-01

    Evolution of crystal structure of K 3 Gd 5 (PO 4 ) 6 in the temperature range from 20 K to 1073 K, as observed from combined variable temperature X-ray diffraction (using both synchrotron source and Cu K α lab source) and Raman spectroscopic studies is communicated in the manuscript. The title compound has an open tunnel containing three dimensional structure built by periodic arrangements of (Gd 5 (PO 4 ) 6 ) 3- ions which in turn are formed by PO 4 tetrahedra and GdO n (n = 8 and 9) polyhedra and these tunnels are occupied by K + ions. The XRD patterns in the entire temperature range of study indicated no change in the crystal structural, which is also supported by differential thermal analyses and Raman spectroscopy. Average axial thermal expansion coefficients between 20K and 1073 K are : α a =10.6 x 10 -6 K -1 , α b = 5.5 x 10 -6 K -1 and α c = 16.4 X 10.6 -6 K -1 . (author)

  3. A Primary Grade (K-3) Earth Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Maurice L.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the rationale and structure of a newly developed earth science program for elementary school children (K-3). The activities involve pre-operational and concrete operational stages, progressing from one to the other. Children show sustained interest and enthusiasm as they investigate landforms, the moon, fossils, and weather phenomena.…

  4. Strand I: Physical Health Nutrition. Health Curriculum Materials. Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 4-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical health and nutrition. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into five sections: factors determining what people eat, the role of food in growth and development, the uses of nutrients in food, selection of foods to meet bodily needs, and food in the history of man. The…

  5. A Bibliography of English as a Second Language Materials: Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, Arlington, VA.

    This annotated bibliography of English as a second language (ESL) materials for grades K-3 is divided into four parts. The first part, ESL texts, lists a number of series or single texts that are designed to teach the spoken language and reading to the elementary school child. The second part is a list of readers that, although were mostly…

  6. Planet Patrol. An Environmental Unit on Solid Waste Solutions for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This classroom unit was developed for use in grades 4-6 to help teach the concept of solid waste management. The teacher's guide provides an overview of the issue of solid waste disposal, a description of government, industry, and consumer roles in resolving the solid waste issue, and four lessons involving sanitary landfills, the reduction of…

  7. Life orientation in the intermediate phase (grades 4-6): A survey in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this article was on the Intermediate Phase (IP [Grades 4-6]) in the General Education and Training Band (GET). The main problem was to determine the perspectives of LO teachers regarding the implementation of LO and particularly the Learning Outcome, PDM, in the IP in selected primary schools in the ...

  8. Effects of a kinesthetic cursive handwriting intervention for grade 4-6 students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gwenyth I; Siever, Jodi E; Mair, Judith A

    2010-01-01

    We studied whether Grade 4-6 students who participated in a kinesthetic writing intervention improved in legibility, speed, and personal satisfaction with cursive handwriting. Small groups of students with handwriting difficulties were seen weekly for 7 wk using a kinesthetic writing system. A repeated measures design was used to evaluate change in global legibility, individual letter formation, specific features of handwriting, and personal satisfaction. Analysis revealed (1) a significant increase in ratings of global legibility (p kinesthetic handwriting intervention may be effective in improving the skills of students with handwriting challenges.

  9. A study of luminescence from Eu"3"+, Ce"3"+, Tb"3"+ and Ce"3"+/Tb"3"+ in new potassium gadolinium phosphate K_3Gd_5(PO_4)_6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fangui; Zhang, Hongzhi; Chen, Cuili; Kim, Sun Il; Seo, Hyo Jin; Zhang, Xinmin

    2016-01-01

    New potassium gadolinium phosphate [K_3Gd_5(PO_4)_6] doped with Eu"3"+, Ce"3"+, Tb"3"+ and co-doped with Ce"3"+ and Tb"3"+ phosphors were prepared by high temperature solid state synthesis. Phase purity of the powders was checked by X-ray powder diffraction. Luminescence and excitation spectra of samples were reported. In particular, the interaction mechanism between Eu"3"+ ions was investigated in terms of the Inokuti–Hirayama model; it was found that the interactions between Eu"3"+ can be assigned to dipole–dipole interaction. K_3Gd_5(PO_4)_6:Eu"3"+ could act as a candidate for solid state lighting due to its strong absorption band in the near-UV region (350–400 nm). The energy transfer from Ce"3"+ to Tb"3"+ was confirmed and the mechanism was studied using Dexter's theory; it is concluded that electric dipole–dipole interaction predominates in the energy transfer process from Ce"3"+ to Tb"3"+ in the K_3Gd_5(PO_4)_6 host. The energy transfer efficiency and critical distance were also investigated. - Highlights: • Optical properties of K_3Gd_5(PO_4)_6:RE"3"+ are investigated for the first time. • The interaction mechanism between Eu"3"+ ions is attributed to dipole–dipole type. • K_3Eu_5(PO_4)_6 is a candidate phosphor for application to solid state lighting. • There exists an efficient energy transfer from Ce"3"+ to Tb"3"+ (η is up to 95%). • The mechanism of energy transfer process is electric dipole–dipole interaction.

  10. The Effects of Psychomotor Skills Instruction on Attitude toward Singing and General Music among Students in Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth H.; Aitchison, Randall E.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of psychomotor skills instruction on student attitudes in grades 4-6 towards singing and general music instruction. Finds females have more positive attitudes, interest declines as grade-level increases, group vocal instruction may produce more positive attitudes, and a positive relationship between liking to sing in…

  11. Leave It to Beaver. Merchants Millpond State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Floyd K.

    This learning packet, one in a group of eight, was developed by the Merchants Millpond State Park in North Carolina to teach students in grades 4-6 about the habitat and lifestyle of the beaver. Loose-leaf pages are presented in nine sections that contain: (1) introductions to the North Carolina State Parks System, the Merchants Millpond State…

  12. [Effect of the capacity of emotion management on the social anxiety and aggressive behavior among 4 -6 grade pupils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Rongying; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Qin; Peng, Wenjia; Fu, Lianguo

    2015-03-01

    To explore the effect of emotion management ability on the social anxiety and aggressive behavior among 4 - 6 grade pupils. The grade four, five and six pupils from Bengbu City were investigated using stratified cluster random sampling. The questionnaire contents included general condition, emotion management ability, aggressive behavior and social anxiety, and the relationships of which were analyzed using partial correlation and hierarchical regression method. The score of aggressive behavior in boys (72. 74 ± 18. 09) was higher than that in girls (66. 31 ± 17. 53) (P behaviors in grade five students (71. 76 ± 18. 06) were higher than that in grade four (69. 24 ± 18. 95) and six students (68. 40 ± 17. 19) (P behaviors were negatively correlated with emotion management ability (r = - 0. 463, P social anxiety (r = 0. 229, P social anxiety ( r = - 0. 234, P social anxiety and aggressive behavior (P social anxiety and aggressive behavior in 4 - 6 grade pupils. Improving the emotion management abilities can reduce their social anxieties and aggressive behaviors.

  13. Happy 50th Birthday Smokey Bear! A Learning Kit about Forests and Fire Safety for Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Meryl

    For over 50 years, the primary goal of Smokey Bear has been to introduce the forest fire prevention message to young children. This learning kit provides the K-3 teacher with activities and resources to help students learn about Smokey Bear and fire safety, about forests as habitats, and about what they can do to protect forests. Students are…

  14. Establishing Proficiency Levels for the Delaware Student Testing Program in Science and Social Studies, Grades 4 & 6. Report and Recommendations to the Delaware State Board of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    This document contains the results of a standard setting conducted in January 2002 on the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) Science and Social Studies tests at grades 4 and 6. Each standard setting process entailed convening four groups, one for each grade level and content area, and each group met for 2 days. At the standard setting judges…

  15. World Food Day Curriculum, Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Janet

    Hunger and malnutrition lead to the deaths of 13-18 million people a year; 75 percent of these victims are children. World Food Day was created to focus attention on the world's food and farm problems and to encourage the world's people to become directly involved in the solution of these problems. It is sponsored jointly by the United Nations…

  16. Relationship between dental caries status, nutritional status, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages consumption among primary schoolchildren grade 4-6 in Nongbua Khamsaen school, Na Klang district, Nongbua Lampoo Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueangpiansamut, Juthamas; Chatrchaiwiwatana, Supaporn; Muktabhant, Benja; Inthalohit, Warangkana

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate relationship between dental caries status, nutritional status, snack foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages consumption among primary schoolchildren grade 4-6 in Na Klang district, Nongbua Lampoo province, Thailand in 2011. The subjects included 111 children (57 boys and 54 girls), aged 11 and 12 years, who were studying in grades 4 to 6 in the year 2011. The data were collected through questionnaires, interview, and oral examination. Results were obtained by means of descriptive, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression analyses. Prevalence of dental caries in the children was 82.9% with the mean DMFT of 2.28. The dental caries prevalence in permanent and primary dentitions was 69.4% and 34.2%, respectively. About 10.2% of the children were underweight, 13.0% were obese, and 7.5% were stunting. Findings from the final multiple logistic regression models showed that weight-for-age malnutrition as well as eating sweets before bedtime were significantly related to dental caries in primary dentition, with the adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) being 6.68 (1.57, 28.41) and 5.34 (1.60, 17.77), respectively. Family income was significantly related to permanent dental caries with the odds ratio (95% CI) being 9.60 (1.89, 48.59). Nutritional status is associated with dental caries among these elementary schoolchildren. Larger studies extending to cover other elementary schools in Na Klang district should be conducted so that the results will be representative of all elementary schools in Na Klang district, Nongbua Lampoo province.

  17. Supplement for Curriculum Guide for Mathematics: Spanish-Speaking Students, Grades 4-6 = Supplemento de la guia didactica de matematicas para los estudiantes de habla hispana, cuatro-sexto grados. Field Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    This supplementary math curriculum guide for use with Spanish-speaking, fouth through sixth grade students in Chicago public schools employs a contrastive analysis approach. Lessons are presented for objectives for which the instructional strategies used in the United States differ from those used in Spanish-speaking countries. (Objectives for…

  18. K3 projective models in scrolls

    CERN Document Server

    Johnsen, Trygve

    2004-01-01

    The exposition studies projective models of K3 surfaces whose hyperplane sections are non-Clifford general curves. These models are contained in rational normal scrolls. The exposition supplements standard descriptions of models of general K3 surfaces in projective spaces of low dimension, and leads to a classification of K3 surfaces in projective spaces of dimension at most 10. The authors bring further the ideas in Saint-Donat's classical article from 1974, lifting results from canonical curves to K3 surfaces and incorporating much of the Brill-Noether theory of curves and theory of syzygies developed in the mean time.

  19. A modified K3M thinning algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabedzki Marek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The K3M thinning algorithm is a general method for image data reduction by skeletonization. It had proved its feasibility in most cases as a reliable and robust solution in typical applications of thinning, particularly in preprocessing for optical character recognition. However, the algorithm had still some weak points. Since then K3M has been revised, addressing the best known drawbacks. This paper presents a modified version of the algorithm. A comparison is made with the original one and two other thinning approaches. The proposed modification, among other things, solves the main drawback of K3M, namely, the results of thinning an image after rotation with various angles.

  20. D-branes on K3-fibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaste, P.; Lerche, W.; Luetken, C.A.; Walcher, J.

    2000-01-01

    B-type D-branes are constructed on two different K3-fibrations over P 1 using boundary conformal field theory at the rational Gepner points of these models. The microscopic CFT charges are compared with the Ramond charges of D-branes wrapped on holomorphic cycles of the corresponding Calabi-Yau manifold. We study in particular D4-branes and bundles localized on the K3 fibers, and find from CFT that each irreducible component of a bundle on K3 gains one modulus upon fibration over P 1 . This is in agreement with expectations and so provides a further test of the boundary CFT approach to D-brane physics

  1. D-Branes on K3-Fibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Kaste, P.; Lutken, C.A.; Walcher, Johannes

    2000-01-01

    B-type D-branes are constructed on two different K3-fibrations over IP_1 using boundary conformal field theory at the rational Gepner points of these models. The microscopic CFT charges are compared with the Ramond charges of D-branes wrapped on holomorphic cycles of the corresponding Calabi-Yau manifold. We study in particular D4-branes and bundles localized on the K3 fibers, and find agreement with expectations. This provides a further test of the boundary CFT approach to $D$-brane physics.

  2. K3 surfaces and their moduli

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Gavril; Geer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the latest developments concerning the moduli of K3 surfaces. It is aimed at algebraic geometers, but is also of interest to number theorists and theoretical physicists, and continues the tradition of related volumes like “The Moduli Space of Curves” and “Moduli of Abelian Varieties,” which originated from conferences on the islands Texel and Schiermonnikoog and which have become classics. K3 surfaces and their moduli form a central topic in algebraic geometry and arithmetic geometry, and have recently attracted a lot of attention from both mathematicians and theoretical physicists. Advances in this field often result from mixing sophisticated techniques from algebraic geometry, lattice theory, number theory, and dynamical systems. The topic has received significant impetus due to recent breakthroughs on the Tate conjecture, the study of stability conditions and derived categories, and links with mirror symmetry and string theory. At the same time, the theory of irred...

  3. Cusps in K->3{pi} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colangelo, G. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Gasser, J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Kubis, B. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Rusetsky, A. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)]. E-mail: rusetsky@itkp.uni-bonn.de

    2006-07-06

    pion mass difference generates a pronounced cusp in K->3{pi} decays. As has recently been pointed out by Cabibbo and Isidori, an accurate measurement of the cusp may allow one to pin down the S-wave {pi}{pi} scattering lengths to high precision. Here, we present and illustrate an effective field theory framework that allows one to determine the structure of this cusp in a straightforward manner. The strictures imposed by analyticity and unitarity are respected automatically.

  4. Cusps in K->3π decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colangelo, G.; Gasser, J.; Kubis, B.; Rusetsky, A.

    2006-01-01

    The pion mass difference generates a pronounced cusp in K->3π decays. As has recently been pointed out by Cabibbo and Isidori, an accurate measurement of the cusp may allow one to pin down the S-wave ππ scattering lengths to high precision. Here, we present and illustrate an effective field theory framework that allows one to determine the structure of this cusp in a straightforward manner. The strictures imposed by analyticity and unitarity are respected automatically

  5. Anticancer Vitamin K3 Analogs: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badave, Kirti D; Khan, Ayesha A; Rane, Sandhya Y

    2016-01-01

    Menadione (Vitamin K3) comprises of 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) moiety that can form redox isomers such as napthosemiquinone (NSQ) and catechol by accepting one or two electrons, respectively. The quinone redox cycling ability leads to the generation of "reactive oxygen species" (ROS) as well as arylation reactions, which are of biological relevance. This ability can be modulated with the help of suitable derivatization. A pharmacophore can be appended at suitable position of Vitamin K3 to have a synergistic or additive effect. In the present review, an attempt has been made to accrue such derivatives modified at 1 or 2 position and evaluated for their cytotoxicity activity on different series of human cancer cell lines such as HeLa, HL-60 and MCF- 7 etc. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by Vitamin K3 derivatives leads to apoptosis and tumor inhibition. Recently, the CR-108 compound has shown to exhibit oxidative path together with non-oxidative phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase in human breast cancer cells. Thus the chemical-biological interactions have been discussed which can be further extrapolated for the development of a potent anticancer drug. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. High dose vitamin K3 infusion in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Shiv K; Kumar, Manoj; Garg, Sanjay; Hissar, Syed; Pandey, Chandana; Sharma, Barjesh C

    2006-09-01

    The survival of patients with unresectable advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein thrombosis is dismal. Current therapeutic options have limited efficacy. Vitamin K has been shown to have antitumor effect on HCC cells both in cell lines and patients with advanced HCC. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy of high dose vitamin K3 in the treatment of advanced HCC with portal vein thrombosis. Forty-two consecutive patients with advanced HCC (Stage C according to BCLC staging system) with portal vein thrombosis were randomized into two groups: (i) high dose vitamin K3 (n = 23); and (ii) placebo (n = 19). The vitamin K3 was administered by i.v. infusion of 50 mg/day with daily increase of dose by 50 mg for 6 days, followed by 20 mg i.m. twice daily for 2 weeks. Of the 23 patients treated with vitamin K, one (4.3%) achieved complete response and three (13%) partial response, for a total of four (17.4%) objective responders overall. The overall mean survival was 8.9 +/- 8.8 months (median: 6; range 1-37 months) in the vitamin K group and 6.8 +/- 5.3 months (median: 5; range 1.5-21 months) in the placebo group (P = 0.552). The mean duration of survival was longer in patients in the vitamin K group who achieved objective response (22.5 +/- 12.2; median: 21; range 11-37 months) as compared to patients not achieving objective response (6.1 +/- 4.6; median: 5; range 1-16 months) (P = 0.0.002). Portal vein thrombosis resolved with complete patency in one (4.35%) patient. Treatment with high dose vitamin K produces objective response in 17% patients with improved survival in patients achieving objective response; however, it does not affect the overall survival.

  7. Symplectic S5 action on symplectic homotopy K3 surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HONGXIA LI

    Let X be a symplectic homotopy K3 surface and G = S5 act on X symplectically. In this paper, we give a weak classification of the G action on X by discussing the fixed-point set structure. Besides, we analyse the exoticness of smooth structures of X under the action of G. Keywords. K3 surfaces; symplectic actions; exotic ...

  8. Opportunities to Align California's PreK-3 Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policy Analysis for California Education, PACE, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "PreK-3 Alignment in California's Education System: Obstacles and Opportunities" by Rachel Valentino and Deborah J. Stipek reviews the opportunities and challenges that must be addressed to better align PreK-3 education in California. The report describes policies and practices that districts have implemented to strengthen alignment, and…

  9. Kählerian K3 surfaces and Niemeier lattices. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikulin, V V

    2013-01-01

    Using the results obtained in [1], Remark 1.14.7, we clarify the relation between Kählerian K3 surfaces and Niemeier lattices. We emphasize that all 24 Niemeier lattices are important in the description of K3 surfaces, not only the one related to the Mathieu group

  10. 39 CFR 4.6 - Secretary of the Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secretary of the Board. 4.6 Section 4.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OFFICIALS (ARTICLE IV) § 4.6 Secretary of the Board. The Secretary of the Board of Governors is appointed by the...

  11. In vitro comparison in a manikin model: increasing apical enlargement with K3 and K3XF rotary instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Juan Gonzalo; Stöber, Eva; García Font, Marc; González, Jose Antonio; Bragado, Pablo; Roig, Miguel; Duran-Sindreu, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the K3 and K3XF systems (SybronEndo, Glendora, CA) after 1 and 2 uses by evaluating apical transportation, working length loss, and working time in a manikin model. Mesial canals of 40 extracted first mandibular molars were instrumented. Radiographs taken after instrumentation with #25, #30, #35, and #40 files were superimposed on the preoperative image in both mesiodistal and buccolingual angulations. AutoCAD (Autodesk Inc, San Rafael, CA) was used to measure working length loss and apical transportation at 0, 0.5, and 1 mm from the working length (WL). The working time was measured. Group comparison was analyzed using post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference tests (P < .05). No significant differences were found in apical transportation, working length loss between K3 and K3XF systems, or between the number of uses. Significant differences were found when canal enlargement was performed to a #35-40 (P < .05). K3 instrumentation performed significantly faster (29.6 ± 15.4) than with the K3XF system (40.2 ± 17.7) (P < .05). No differences were observed in working time when comparing the number of uses. K3 and R-phase K3XF rotary systems shaped curved root canals safely with minimal apical transportation, even up to a 40/04 file. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Synergistic cytotoxic action of vitamin C and vitamin K3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Negoro, T; Satoh, K; Jiang, Y; Hashimoto, K; Kikuchi, H; Nishikawa, H; Miyata, T; Yamamoto, Y; Nakano, K; Yasumoto, E; Nakayachi, T; Mineno, K; Satoh, T; Sakagami, H

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the combination effect of sodium ascorbate (vitamin C) and menadione (vitamin K3) on the viability of various cultured cells. Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2, HSC-3) and human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells were more sensitive to these vitamins as compared to normal cells (human gingival fibroblast HGF, human periodontal ligament fibroblast HPLF, human pulp cell HPC). The combination of vitamin C and vitamin K3 produced synergistic cytotoxicity against all these 6 cell lines. Treatment with vitamin C or vitamin K3, or their combination, induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation only in HL-60 cells, but not in the oral tumor cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSG). ESR spectroscopy showed that vitamins C and K3 produce radicals under alkaline conditions and that the combination of these two vitamins synergistically enhanced their respective radical intensities.

  13. Landau-Ginzburg orbifolds and symmetries of K3 CFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Ferrari, Francesca; Harrison, Sarah M.; Paquette, Natalie M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of the moonshine phenomenon, including umbral and Conway moonshine, suggest that it may play an important role in encoding the action of finite symmetry groups on the BPS spectrum of K 3 string theory. To test and clarify these proposed K 3 -moonshine connections, we study Landau-Ginzburg orbifolds that flow to conformal field theories in the moduli space of K 3 sigma models. We compute K 3 elliptic genera twined by discrete symmetries that are manifest in the UV description, though often inaccessible in the IR. We obtain various twining functions coinciding with moonshine predictions that have not been observed in physical theories before. These include twining functions arising from Mathieu moonshine, other cases of umbral moonshine, and Conway moonshine. For instance, all functions arising from M 11 c 2.M 12 moonshine appear as explicit twining genera in the LG models, which moreover admit a uniform description in terms of its natural 12-dimensional representation. Finally, our results provide strong evidence for the relevance of umbral moonshine for K 3 symmetries, as well as new hints for its eventual explanation.

  14. Landau-Ginzburg orbifolds and symmetries of K3 CFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Ferrari, Francesca; Harrison, Sarah M.; Paquette, Natalie M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of the moonshine phenomenon, including umbral and Conway moonshine, suggest that it may play an important role in encoding the action of finite symmetry groups on the BPS spectrum of K3 string theory. To test and clarify these proposed K3-moonshine connections, we study Landau-Ginzburg orbifolds that flow to conformal field theories in the moduli space of K3 sigma models. We compute K3ellipticgeneratwinedbydiscretesymmetriesthataremanifestintheUVdescription, though often inaccessible in the IR. We obtain various twining functions coinciding with moonshine predictions that have not been observed in physical theories before. These include twining functions arising from Mathieu moonshine, other cases of umbral moonshine, and Conway moonshine. For instance, all functions arising from M 11 ⊂ 2 .M 12 moonshine appear as explicit twining genera in the LG models, which moreover admit a uniform description in terms of its natural 12-dimensional representation. Our results provide strong evidence for the relevance of umbral moonshine for K3 symmetries, as well as new hints for its eventual explanation.

  15. Supersymmetry Constraints and String Theory on K3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Shao, Shu-Heng [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang, Yifan [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Yin, Xi [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-12-22

    We study supervertices in six dimensional (2,0) supergravity theories, and derive supersymmetry non-renormalization conditions on the 4- and 6-derivative four-point couplings of tensor multiplets. As an application, we obtain exact non-perturbative results of such effective couplings in type IIB string theory compactified on K3 surface, extending previous work on type II/heterotic duality. The weak coupling limit thereof, in particular, gives certain integrated four-point functions of half-BPS operators in the nonlinear sigma model on K3 surface, that depend nontrivially on the moduli, and capture worldsheet instanton contributions.

  16. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Tohru, E-mail: eguchi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.j [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hikami, Kazuhiro, E-mail: KHikami@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics, Naruto University of Education, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2011-01-03

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M{sub 24} acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M{sub 24} so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M{sub 24}. In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  17. Note on twisted elliptic genus of K3 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Tohru; Hikami, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of Mathieu group M 24 acting as symmetry group on the K3 elliptic genus as proposed recently by Ooguri, Tachikawa and one of the present authors. One way of testing this proposal is to derive the twisted elliptic genera for all conjugacy classes of M 24 so that we can determine the unique decomposition of expansion coefficients of K3 elliptic genus into irreducible representations of M 24 . In this Letter we obtain all the hitherto unknown twisted elliptic genera and find a strong evidence of Mathieu moonshine.

  18. Eta products, BPS states and K3 surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yang-Hui [Department of Mathematics, City University,London, EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); School of Physics, NanKai University,Tianjin, 300071 (China); Merton College, University of Oxford,Oxford, OX14JD (United Kingdom); McKay, John [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University,1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada)

    2014-01-22

    Inspired by the multiplicative nature of the Ramanujan modular discriminant, Δ, we consider physical realizations of certain multiplicative products over the Dedekind eta-function in two parallel directions: the generating function of BPS states in certain heterotic orbifolds and elliptic K3 surfaces associated to congruence subgroups of the modular group. We show that they are, after string duality to type II, the same K3 surfaces admitting Nikulin automorphisms. In due course, we will present identities arising from q-expansions as well as relations to the sporadic Mathieu group M{sub 24}.

  19. K3-fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds II, singular fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    In part I of this paper we constructed certain fibered Calabi-Yaus by a quotient construction in the context of weighted hypersurfaces. In this paper look at the case of K3 fibrations more closely and study the singular fibers which occur. This differs from previous work since the fibrations we discuss have constant modulus, and the singular fibers have torsion monodromy.

  20. N=4 superconformal bootstrap of the K3 CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Shao, Shu-Heng [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Wang, Yifan [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Yin, Xi [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-05-23

    We study two-dimensional (4,4) superconformal field theories of central charge c=6, corresponding to nonlinear sigma models on K3 surfaces, using the superconformal bootstrap. This is made possible through a surprising relation between the BPS N=4 superconformal blocks with c=6 and bosonic Virasoro conformal blocks with c=28, and an exact result on the moduli dependence of a certain integrated BPS 4-point function. Nontrivial bounds on the non-BPS spectrum in the K3 CFT are obtained as functions of the CFT moduli, that interpolate between the free orbifold points and singular CFT points. We observe directly from the CFT perspective the signature of a continuous spectrum above a gap at the singular moduli, and find numerically an upper bound on this gap that is saturated by the A{sub 1}N=4 cigar CFT. We also derive an analytic upper bound on the first nonzero eigenvalue of the scalar Laplacian on K3 in the large volume regime, that depends on the K3 moduli data. As two byproducts, we find an exact equivalence between a class of BPS N=2 superconformal blocks and Virasoro conformal blocks in two dimensions, and an upper bound on the four-point functions of operators of sufficiently low scaling dimension in three and four dimensional CFTs.

  1. N=4 Superconformal Bootstrap of the K3 CFT

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We study two-dimensional (4,4) superconformal field theories of central charge c=6, corresponding to nonlinear σ models on K3 surfaces, using the superconformal bootstrap. This is made possible through a surprising relation between the BPS N=4 superconformal blocks with c=6 and bosonic Virasoro conformal blocks with c=28, and an exact result on the moduli dependence of a certain integrated BPS 4-point function. Nontrivial bounds on the non-BPS spectrum in the K3 CFT are obtained as functions of the CFT moduli, that interpolate between the free orbifold points and singular CFT points. We observe directly from the CFT perspective the signature of a continuous spectrum above a gap at the singular moduli, and find numerically an upper bound on this gap that is saturated by the A1 N=4 cigar CFT. We also derive an analytic upper bound on the first nonzero eigenvalue of the scalar Laplacian on K3 in the large volume regime, that depends on the K3 moduli data. As two byproducts, we find an exact equivalence...

  2. Exploring Parents’ Perceptions of Student Absenteeism in K-3

    OpenAIRE

    Karpilovski, Margarita

    2017-01-01

    Chronic absenteeism affects students’ academic achievement as well as their social and emotional wellbeing. In early elementary school, the primary responsibility for school attendance rests with parents and guardians. This thesis investigates parents’ perceptions of factors related to school attendance. The study was conducted in BC’s largest school district within the context of an absenteeism reduction program. Fifty-four parents of students in K-3 from 15 inner-city schools participated i...

  3. Global Change. Teaching Activities on Global Change for Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This packet contains a series of teaching guides on global change. The series includes lessons on dendrochronology; land, air, and water; and island living. Included is information such as : laws of straws; where land, air, and water meet; and Earth as home. Each section provides an introductory description of the activity, the purpose of the…

  4. Fear, Panic, and Injustice: Executive Order 9066--A Lesson for Grades 4-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Theresa M.

    2008-01-01

    Decision making is one of the essential skills advocated by the National Council for the Social Studies for effective citizenship in a democratic society. Leaders in any society make decisions that influence many lives. In a democratic society, we expect that deductive and inductive reasoning guide decisions made for the common good. However, what…

  5. Mind Sparklers. Fireworks for Igniting Creativity in Young Minds. Book 1 for Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robert E.

    The 40 activities contained in this book were designed to persuade students to think both critically and creatively. The activities call for the use of all 18 of E. Paul Torrance's creative thinking abilities. The theoretical underpinnings for this collection are based upon philosophical and pedagogical beliefs that experiences be positive: if…

  6. Making Connections. A Curriculum and Activity Guide to Mammoth Cave National Park. [Grades] K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Kentucky's Mammoth Cave National Park is important because of its diversity of life on the surface and underground. Some of the plants in the park include trees such as oaks, hickories, tulip poplars, sycamores, and many types of bushes. The animal population is also very diverse and includes bats, squirrels, deer, raccoons, opossums, chipmunks,…

  7. Laser Photo-Oxidative Degradation of 4,6-Dimethyldibenzothiophene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gondal, M.A.; Masoudi, H.M.; Pola, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 9 (2008), s. 1765-1768 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene * laser oxidative degradation * molecular oxygen Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.054, year: 2008

  8. Treating ER+ Breast Cancer with CDK4/6 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Data from the MONARCH2, PALOMA-1, and TREnd trials strongly support using CDK4/6 inhibitors alongside standard endocrine therapy for advanced ER-positive breast cancer. Including these targeted agents not only improves progression-free survival but may reverse acquired resistance to hormone treatment. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Grados Intermedios, Niveles 4-6. Teacher's Guide II (Mathematics: A Universal Language. Intermediate Grades, Levels 4-6. Teacher's Guide II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This guide covers the second part of a bilingual, sequential mathematics course. The course integrates culturally relevant situations and illustrations with mathematics to reinforce the student's self-concept and encourage cultural pride. This program may be used as a self-contained continuum, as a supplement to another course of study, for…

  10. Fanatically Formative: Successful Learning during the Crucial K-3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornson, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Helping children experience early learning success and acquire essential skills by third grade is a crucial part of any school reform effort. Yet, many teachers and children are overwhelmed by the ineffective curriculum-driven education system and the "rush to cover" climate in schools. "Fanatically Formative" shows how you can rediscover the joy…

  11. Computational investigation on 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Xue-Hai; Qiu, Ling; Xiao, He-Ming [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2006-02-15

    Density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP level were performed on crystalline 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene. The carbon, oxygen, and chlorine atoms make up the narrow lower energy bands, while the nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen atoms make up the higher energy bands. Besides, the contributions of these atomic orbitals to the frontier bands are somewhat well-proportioned. The Mulliken populations obviously demonstrate that the C-N bonds are the weakest, indicating that the C-NO{sub 2} is prone to rupture upon stimuli. An anisotropic impact on the bulk makes the electron transfer from chlorine to its neighbor carbon atom and from nitrogen atoms to oxygen atoms. The crystal lattice energy is predicted to be -50.99 kJ/mol, after being corrected for basis set superposition error. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Signal transduction of vitamin K3 for pancreas cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Tanahashi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We characterized molecular mechanisms of vitamin K3 (VK3-induced inhibition of proliferation to evaluate VK3 effectiveness in treating advanced pancreatic cancer. A novel endoscopic drug delivery system, ultrasound injection technique, was used to study local effects of VK3. VK3 inhibited pancreas cancer cell growth by rapid phosphorylation of growth factor receptor and cellular signal factors such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase. VK3 also activated apoptosis, and apoptosis inhibitor antagonized the apoptosis pathway without inhibiting cell growth. Thiol antioxidant treatment completely abrogated VK3-induced ERK but not JNK phosphorylation or inhibition of proliferation. Non-thiol antioxidant did not affect ERK phosphorylation or growth inhibitory actions. Arylation was considered the main mechanism of VK3-induced growth inhibition through ERK activation. VK3 may lead to favorable outcomes in the treatment of pancreatic tumors. Detection of ERK phosphorylation in tissue is important to predict VK3 effect. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle injection may be beneficial for treating pancreatic cancer with VK3.

  13. Vitamin K3 analogs induce selective tumor cytotoxicity in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Toru; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Tabata, Keiichi; Miura, Motofumi; Toriyama, Masaharu; Motohashi, Shigeyasu; Suzuki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the cytotoxicity of eight vitamin K3 (VK3) analogs against neuroblastoma cell lines (IMR-32, LA-N-1, NB-39, and SK-N-SH) and normal cell lines (human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human dermal fibroblasts (HDF)) using a 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. 2-[(2-Methoxy)ethylthio]-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (VK3-OCH(3)) showed especially potent cytotoxic activities against neuroblastoma cells compared with normal cells. In a Hoechst 33342 staining experiment, apoptotic morphologies characterized by cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, and nuclear fragmentation were observed in IMR-32 and LA-N-1 cells after 48 h of treatment with 10(-5) M of VK3-OCH(3). To clarify the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induced by VK3-OCH(3), we examined the expression of apoptosis related proteins using a Proteome Profiler Array and western blotting. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 was remarkably increased by VK3-OCH(3) compared with the control (173% in IMR-32 and 170% in LA-N-1 at 24 h). Moreover, caveolin-1 was induced by VK3-OCH(3) at 48 h. In addition, VK3-OCH(3) arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase in IMR-32 cells. These results suggest that VK3-OCH(3) exhibited a selective antitumor activity via HO-1-related mechanisms.

  14. Prepotential, Mirror Map and F-Theory on K3

    CERN Document Server

    Lerche, W.

    1998-01-01

    We compute certain one-loop corrections to F^4 couplings of the heterotic string compactified on T^2, and show that they can be characterized by holomorphic prepotentials. We then discuss how some of these couplings can be obtained in F-theory, or more precisely from 7-brane geometry in type IIB language. We in particular study theories with E_8 x E_8 and SO(8)^4 gauge symmetry, on certain one-dimensional sub-spaces of the moduli space that correspond to constant IIB coupling. For these theories, the relevant geometry can be mapped to Riemann surfaces. Physically, the computations amount to non-trivial tests of the basic F-theory -- heterotic duality in eight dimensions. Mathematically, they mean to associate holomorphic 5-point couplings of the form (del_t)^5 G = sum[ g_l l^5 q^l/(1-q^l) ] to K3 surfaces. This can be seen as a novel manifestation of the mirror map, acting here between open and closed string sectors.

  15. The utility of vitamin K3 (menadione) against pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Shinji; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Tokuyama, Yasuharu; Tanaka, Hidenori; Sakashita, Fumio; Takahashi, Takao

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of vitamin K3 (VK3) against pancreatic cancer, the molecular mechanism of VK3 or gemcitabine (GEM)-induced inhibition of proliferation was characterized. The cell viability was determined using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test method. The expressions of cellular proteins were evaluated by Western blot analysis. For morphological studies of the in vivo transplanted cancer cells, the tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The IC50 of VK3 for pancreatic cancer cells was calculated for 42.1 +/- 3.5 microM. Western blot analysis showed that VK3 induced rapid phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) 30 minutes after application. ERK but not JNK phosphorylation was maintained for at least 12 hours. Activation of apoptosis by VK3, as shown by molecular weight shifts of the pro-activated 32-kDa form of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) cleavage of the 112-kDa form, was found. Treatment with the thiol antioxidant, L-cysteine (>0.2 mM), completely abrogated the VK3-induced phosphorylation of ERK, but not the JNK, and inhibition of proliferation. A caspase-3 inhibitor antagonized caspase-3 activation, but had no inhibitory effect on the proliferative activity of VK3. GEM at concentrations >0.1 microg/ml was found to inhibit cell proliferation after 24 hours. GEM also induced phosphorylation of JNK, activation of caspase-3 and accumulation of cyclin B1. Local application of VK3 was found to induce extensive tumor tissue necrosis, but slight hematemesis without necrosis was observed 48 hours after GEM injection. In Western blot, ERK but not JNK phosphorylation, was clearly detected in response to VK3 injection into the tumor tissue. The action of VK3 may lead to a favorable outcome against pancreatic cancer, and the detection of ERK phosphorylation in the tissue is important for predicting this effect.

  16. Synthesis of 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from Garcinia nervosa and of its isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'- trimethoxychalcone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.J.; Kapdi, S.G.; Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.P.

    The unambiguous syntheses of the naturally occurring 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 1, a constituent of Garcinia nervosa, and its positional isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 6 are described...

  17. Chemoselective reduction of 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3-one and 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione by various hydride reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjeong; Ma, Eunsook

    2007-04-01

    The chemoselectivity of rigid cyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group on the reducing agents was influenced by the ring size and steric factor. Cholesterol (cholest-5-en-3beta-ol) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were oxidized with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone to form 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3-one and 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione. They were reduced with NaBH(4), lithium tri-sec-butylborohydride (l-Selectride), LiAlH(4), 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN), lithium triethylborohydride (Super-hydride), and BH(3) x (CH(3))(2)S in various conditions, respectively. Reduction of 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3-one and 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione by NaBH(4) (4 equiv.) produced 4,6-cholestadien-3beta-ol and 4,6-androstadiene-3beta,17beta-diol, respectively. Reduction by l-Selectride (12 equiv.) afforded 4,6-cholestadien-3alpha-ol and 4,6-androstadiene-3alpha,17beta-diol, chemoselectively. Reaction with Super-hydride (12 equiv.) produced 4,6-cholestadien-3-one and 3-oxo-4,6-androstadien-17beta-ol. Reduction of 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3-one by 9-BBN (14 equiv.) produced 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3alpha-ol, but 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione was not reacted with 9-BBN in the reaction conditions. Reaction of LiAlH(4) (6 equiv.) formed 4,6-cholestadien-3beta-ol and 3-oxo-1,4,6-androstatrien-17beta-ol. Reduction of 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3-one by BH(3) x (CH(3))(2)S (11 equiv.) gave cholestane as major compound and unlike reactivity of cholesterol, 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione by 8 equiv. of BH(3) x (CH(3))(2)S formed 3-oxo-1,4,6-androstatrien-17beta-ol. LiAlH(4) and BH(3) x (CH(3))(2)S showed relatively low chemoselectivity.

  18. In vitro vitamin K3 effect on conjunctival fibroblast migration and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinilla, I; Izaguirre, L B; Gonzalvo, F J; Piazuelo, E; Garcia-Gonzalez, M A; Sanchez-Cano, A I; Sopeña, F

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the dose effect of vitamin K3 on wound healing mechanisms. Conjunctival fibroblasts were incubated for 24 hours. An artificial wound was made and the cells were incubated with fresh medium plus doses of vitamin K3 to be tested. Wound repair was monitored at 0, 18, 24, and 48 hours. Proliferation was measured in actively dividing cells by [(3)H]thymidine uptake. Six different groups were tested: group 1/no drugs added, group 2/ethanol 0.1%, group 3/vitamin K3 1 mg/L, group 4/vitamin K3 2 mg/L, group 5/vitamin K3 4 mg/L, and group 6/vitamin K3 6 mg/L. Each experiment was carried out in triplicate and 4 times. There were no differences among groups at the initial time. In vitro wound repair was slower in groups 4, 5, and 6. There were no differences between control and ethanol groups and between control and vitamin K3 1 mg/L groups. Fibroblast mitogenic activity was statistically decreased in all vitamin K groups; statistical differences were found among vitamin K3 1 mg/mL and higher doses too. In groups 5 and 6, cellular toxicity was presented. Vitamin K3 is able to inhibit fibroblast proliferation. Vitamin K3 2 mg/L or higher doses inhibit wound healing repair, exhibiting cellular toxicity at 4 and 6 mg/L.

  19. In Vitro Vitamin K3 Effect on Conjunctival Fibroblast Migration and Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the dose effect of vitamin K3 on wound healing mechanisms. Methods. Conjunctival fibroblasts were incubated for 24 hours. An artificial wound was made and the cells were incubated with fresh medium plus doses of vitamin K3 to be tested. Wound repair was monitored at 0, 18, 24, and 48 hours. Proliferation was measured in actively dividing cells by [3H]thymidine uptake. Six different groups were tested: group 1/no drugs added, group 2/ethanol 0.1%, group 3/vitamin K3 1 mg/L, group 4/vitamin K3 2 mg/L, group 5/vitamin K3 4 mg/L, and group 6/vitamin K3 6 mg/L. Each experiment was carried out in triplicate and 4 times. Results. There were no differences among groups at the initial time. In vitro wound repair was slower in groups 4, 5, and 6. There were no differences between control and ethanol groups and between control and vitamin K3 1 mg/L groups. Fibroblast mitogenic activity was statistically decreased in all vitamin K groups; statistical differences were found among vitamin K3 1 mg/mL and higher doses too. In groups 5 and 6, cellular toxicity was presented. Conclusions. Vitamin K3 is able to inhibit fibroblast proliferation. Vitamin K3 2 mg/L or higher doses inhibit wound healing repair, exhibiting cellular toxicity at 4 and 6 mg/L.

  20. Heat capacity of Sr10(PO4)6Cl2 and Ca10(PO4)6Cl2 by DSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Jena, Hrudananda; Govindan Kutty, K.V.; Nagarajan, K.

    2008-01-01

    Strontium and calcium chloroapatites were synthesized by wet chemical method, characterized by X-ray diffraction and are found to be phase pure materials. The measured room temperature lattice parameter of Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 is a = 9.523 A, c = 6.855 A and for Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 is a = 9.876 A, c = 7.188 A. Heat capacity measurements were carried out on Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 and Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 by DSC in the temperature range 298-800 K. The heat capacity values of Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 is higher at all temperatures than Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 . Enthalpy and entropy increments were computed. Heat capacity values of Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 and Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 at 298 K are 758 and 868 J K -1 mol -1 , respectively

  1. Vitamins C and K3 sensitize human urothelial tumors to gemcitabine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassouf, Wassim; Highshaw, Ralph; Nelkin, Gina M; Dinney, Colin P; Kamat, Ashish M

    2006-10-01

    We evaluated the antitumor effects of vitamins C and K3 for human urothelial carcinoma and the potential use of the combination of vitamins C plus K3 as a sensitizing agent for conventional chemotherapy for urothelial carcinoma. The antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of vitamin C alone, vitamin K3 alone, vitamins C plus K3, gemcitabine alone and gemcitabine plus vitamins C plus K3 were assessed in vitro by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. For in vivo studies we implanted UMUC-14 tumorigenic urothelial carcinoma cells into the subcutis of nude mice. One week later we treated 10 mice each with saline (control), vitamins C plus K3, gemcitabine or gemcitabine plus vitamins C plus K3. Treatment was continued for 4 weeks, followed by necropsy. Tumor volume was measured and tumor kinetics were established. Apoptosis and proliferation were evaluated in tumor sections using immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay. Vitamins C plus K3 induced cytostasis and caused apoptosis to a greater degree than either vitamin alone (p Vitamins C plus K3 also substantially augmented the effects of gemcitabine in vitro. There were 32.3% apoptosis with gemcitabine plus vitamins C plus K3, 5.3% with gemcitabine alone and 15.8% with vitamins C plus K3 alone (p vitamins C plus K3 compared with that in the control or for either agent alone. Mean tumor weight and growth rate in the gemcitabine plus vitamins C plus K3 group (237 mg and 11.3 mm3 daily) were decreased compared with those in the control (530 mg and 34.3 mm3 daily), and those for vitamins C plus K3 alone (490 mg and 25.2 mm3 daily) and gemcitabine alone (400 mg and 21.3 mm3 daily) (p Vitamins C and K3 have significant antiproliferative and apoptotic effects when used in combination. This combination enhances the efficacy of gemcitabine against bladder cancer in vivo.

  2. Structure of stable degeneration of K3 surfaces into pairs of rational elliptic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yusuke

    2018-03-01

    F-theory/heterotic duality is formulated in the stable degeneration limit of a K3 fibration on the F-theory side. In this note, we analyze the structure of the stable degeneration limit. We discuss whether stable degeneration exists for pairs of rational elliptic surfaces. We demonstrate that, when two rational elliptic surfaces have an identical complex structure, stable degeneration always exists. We provide an equation that systematically describes the stable degeneration of a K3 surface into a pair of isomorphic rational elliptic surfaces. When two rational elliptic surfaces have different complex structures, whether their sum glued along a smooth fiber admits deformation to a K3 surface can be determined by studying the structure of the K3 lattice. We investigate the lattice theoretic condition to determine whether a deformation to a K3 surface exists for pairs of extremal rational elliptic surfaces. In addition, we discuss the configurations of singular fibers under stable degeneration. The sum of two isomorphic rational elliptic surfaces glued together admits a deformation to a K3 surface, the singular fibers of which are twice that of the rational elliptic surface. For special situations, singular fibers of the resulting K3 surface collide and they are enhanced to a fiber of another type. Some K3 surfaces become attractive in these situations. We determine the complex structures and the Weierstrass forms of these attractive K3 surfaces. We also deduce the gauge groups in F-theory compactifications on these attractive K3 surfaces times a K3. E 6, E 7, E 8, SU(5), and SO(10) gauge groups arise in these compactifications.

  3. The role of MAP4K3 in lifespan regulation of Caenorhabditiselegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Maruf H.; Hart, Matthew J.; Rea, Shane L.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Inhibition of MAP4K3 by RNAi leads to increased mean lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. ► Mutation in the citron homology domain of MAP4K3 leads to increased mean lifespan. ► Mutation in the kinase domain of MAP4K3 has no significant effect on mean lifespan. -- Abstract: The TOR pathway is a kinase signaling pathway that regulates cellular growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors. TOR signaling is also important in lifespan regulation – when this pathway is inhibited, either naturally, by genetic mutation, or by pharmacological means, lifespan is extended. MAP4K3 is a Ser/Thr kinase that has recently been found to be involved in TOR activation. Unexpectedly, the effect of this protein is not mediated via Rheb, the more widely known TOR activation pathway. Given the role of TOR in growth and lifespan control, we looked at how inhibiting MAP4K3 in Caenorhabditiselegans affects lifespan. We used both feeding RNAi and genetic mutants to look at the effect of MAP4K3 deficiency. Our results show a small but significant increase in mean lifespan in MAP4K3 deficient worms. MAP4K3 thus represents a new target in the TOR pathway that can be targeted for pharmacological intervention to control lifespan.

  4. The role of MAP4K3 in lifespan regulation of Caenorhabditiselegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Maruf H. [Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, Department of Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78240 (United States); Hart, Matthew J., E-mail: HartMJ@uthscsa.edu [Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78240 (United States); Rea, Shane L., E-mail: reas3@uthscsa.edu [Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, Department of Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78240 (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of MAP4K3 by RNAi leads to increased mean lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutation in the citron homology domain of MAP4K3 leads to increased mean lifespan. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutation in the kinase domain of MAP4K3 has no significant effect on mean lifespan. -- Abstract: The TOR pathway is a kinase signaling pathway that regulates cellular growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors. TOR signaling is also important in lifespan regulation - when this pathway is inhibited, either naturally, by genetic mutation, or by pharmacological means, lifespan is extended. MAP4K3 is a Ser/Thr kinase that has recently been found to be involved in TOR activation. Unexpectedly, the effect of this protein is not mediated via Rheb, the more widely known TOR activation pathway. Given the role of TOR in growth and lifespan control, we looked at how inhibiting MAP4K3 in Caenorhabditiselegans affects lifespan. We used both feeding RNAi and genetic mutants to look at the effect of MAP4K3 deficiency. Our results show a small but significant increase in mean lifespan in MAP4K3 deficient worms. MAP4K3 thus represents a new target in the TOR pathway that can be targeted for pharmacological intervention to control lifespan.

  5. Inactivation of bacteria via photosensitization of vitamin K3 by UV-A light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Vostal, Jaroslav G

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated inactivation of bacteria with ultraviolet light A irradiation in combination with vitamin K3 as a photosensitizer. Six bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli suspended in vitamin K3 aqueous solution were exposed to ultraviolet light A. Five of six bacteria, with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were reduced by eight logs with 1600 μM of vitamin K3 and 5.8 J cm(-2) UV-A irradiation. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was reduced by four logs under these conditions. Reactive oxygen species including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical were generated in vitamin K3 aqueous solution under UV-A irradiation. These results suggest that vitamin K3 and UV-A irradiation may be effective for bacterial inactivation in environmental and medical applications. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. The effects of oligomerization on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm4/6/7 function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey Megan J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minichromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are related by sequence and form a variety of complexes that unwind DNA, including Mcm4/6/7. A Mcm4/6/7 trimer forms one half of the Mcm2-7 hexameric ring and can be thought of as the catalytic core of Mcm2-7, the replicative helicase in eukaryotic cells. Oligomeric analysis of Mcm4/6/7 suggests that it forms a hexamer containing two Mcm4/6/7 trimers, however, under certain conditions trimeric Mcm4/6/7 has also been observed. The functional significance of the different Mcm4/6/7 oligomeric states has not been assessed. The results of such an assessment would have implications for studies of both Mcm4/6/7 and Mcm2-7. Results Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm4/6/7 reconstituted from individual subunits exists in an equilibrium of oligomeric forms in which smaller oligomers predominate in the absence of ATP. In addition, we found that ATP, which is required for Mcm4/6/7 activity, shifts the equilibrium towards larger oligomers, likely hexamers of Mcm4/6/7. ATPγS and to a lesser extent ADP also shift the equilibrium towards hexamers. Study of Mcm4/6/7 complexes containing mutations that interfere with the formation of inter-subunit ATP sites (arginine finger mutants indicates that full activity of Mcm4/6/7 requires all of its ATP sites, which are formed in a hexamer and not a trimer. In keeping with this observation, Mcm4/6/7 binds DNA as a hexamer. Conclusions The minimal functional unit of Mcm4/6/7 is a hexamer. One of the roles of ATP binding by Mcm4/6/7 may be to stabilize formation of hexamers.

  7. The Noether-Lefschetz problem and gauge-group-resolved landscapes: F-theory on K3 × K3 as a test case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, A.P. [Department of Mathematics, King’s College,London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Kimura, Y. [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Watari, T. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo,Kashiwano-ha 5-1-5, 277-8583 (Japan)

    2014-04-07

    Four-form flux in F-theory compactifications not only stabilizes moduli, but gives rise to ensembles of string vacua, providing a scientific basis for a stringy notion of naturalness. Of particular interest in this context is the ability to keep track of algebraic information (such as the gauge group) associated with individual vacua while dealing with statistics. In the present work, we aim to clarify conceptual issues and sharpen methods for this purpose, using compactification on K3×K3 as a test case. Our first approach exploits the connection between the stabilization of complex structure moduli and the Noether-Lefschetz problem. Compactification data for F-theory, however, involve not only a four-fold (with a given complex structure) Y{sub 4} and a flux on it, but also an elliptic fibration morphism Y{sub 4}⟶B{sub 3}, which makes this problem complicated. The heterotic-F-theory duality indicates that elliptic fibration morphisms should be identified modulo isomorphism. Based on this principle, we explain how to count F-theory vacua on K3×K3 while keeping the gauge group information. Mathematical results reviewed/developed in our companion paper are exploited heavily. With applications to more general four-folds in mind, we also clarify how to use Ashok-Denef-Douglas’ theory of the distribution of flux vacua in order to deal with statistics of sub-ensembles tagged by a given set of algebraic/topological information. As a side remark, we extend the heterotic/F-theory duality dictionary on flux quanta and elaborate on its connection to the semistable degeneration of a K3 surface.

  8. In Vitro Vitamin K 3 Effect on Conjunctival Fibroblast Migration and Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Pinilla, I.; Izaguirre, L. B.; Gonzalvo, F. J.; Piazuelo, E.; Garcia-Gonzalez, M. A.; Sanchez-Cano, A. I.; Sopeña, F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the dose effect of vitamin K3 on wound healing mechanisms. Methods. Conjunctival fibroblasts were incubated for 24 hours. An artificial wound was made and the cells were incubated with fresh medium plus doses of vitamin K3 to be tested. Wound repair was monitored at 0, 18, 24, and 48 hours. Proliferation was measured in actively dividing cells by [3H]thymidine uptake. Six different groups were tested: group 1/no drugs added, group 2/ethanol 0.1%, group 3/vitamin K3 1 mg/L...

  9. Elliptic fibrations of maximal rank on a supersingular K3 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shioda, Tetsuji

    2013-01-01

    We study a class of elliptic K3 surfaces defined by an explicit Weierstrass equation to find elliptic fibrations of maximal rank on K3 surface in positive characteristic. In particular, we show that the supersingular K3 surface of Artin invariant 1 (unique by Ogus) admits at least one elliptic fibration with maximal rank 20 in every characteristic p>7, p≠13, and further that the number, say N(p), of such elliptic fibrations (up to isomorphisms), is unbounded as p → ∞; in fact, we prove that lim p→∞ N(p)/p 2 ≥(1/12) 2 .

  10. Interaction of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol with high carbon iron filings: Reaction and sorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Alok [Environmental Engineering and Management Programme, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Bose, Purnendu [Environmental Engineering and Management Programme, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)], E-mail: pbose@iitk.ac.in

    2009-05-15

    Reductive dehalogenation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) by two types of high carbon iron filings (HCIF), HCIF-1 and HCIF-2 was studied in batch reactors. While the iron, copper, manganese and carbon content of the two types of HCIF was similar, the specific surface area of HCIF-1 and HCIF-2 were 1.944 and 3.418 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. During interaction with HCIF-1, 2,4,6-TCP adsorbed on HCIF-1 surface resulting in rapid reduction of aqueous phase 2,4,6-TCP concentration. However, reductive dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was negligible. During interaction between 2,4,6-TCP and HCIF-2, both 2,4,6-TCP adsorption on HCIF-2, and 2,4,6,-TCP dechlorination was observed. 2,4,6-TCP partitioning between solid and aqueous phase could be described by a Freundlich isotherm, while 2,4,6-TCP dechlorination could be described by an appropriate rate expression. A mathematical model was developed for describing the overall interaction of 2,4,6-TCP with HCIF-2, incorporating simultaneous adsorption/desorption and dechlorination reactions of 2,4,6-TCP with the HCIF surface. 2,4-Dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) and minor amounts of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) evolved as 2,4,6-TCP dechlorination by-products. The evolved 2,4-DCP partitioned strongly to the HCIF surface. 4-CP and 2-CP accumulated in the aqueous phase. No transformation of 2-CP or 4-CP to phenol was observed.

  11. Shikonin, vitamin K3 and vitamin K5 inhibit multiple glycolytic enzymes in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hu, Xun; Cui, Jingjie

    2018-05-01

    Glycolysis is the most important source of energy for the production of anabolic building blocks in cancer cells. Therefore, glycolytic enzymes are regarded as potential targets for cancer treatment. Previously, naphthaquinones, including shikonin, vitamin K 3 and vitamin K 5 , have been proven to decrease the rate of glycolysis in cancer cells, which is partly due to suppressed pyruvate kinase activity. In the present study, enzymatic assays were performed using MCF-7 cell lysate in order to screen the profile of glycolytic enzymes in cancer cells inhibited by shikonin, vitamin K 3 and vitamin K 5 , in addition to pyruvate kinase. Results revealed that hexokinase, phosphofructokinase-1, fructose bisphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase produced in the process of glycolysis were inhibited by shikonin, vitamin K 3 and vitamin K 5 . The results indicated that shikonin, vitamin K 3 and vitamin K 5 are chemical inhibitors of glycolytic enzymes in cancer cells and have potential uses in translational medical applications.

  12. Corrosion of K-3 glass-contact refractory in sodium-rich aluminosilicate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.D.; Gan, H.; Buechele, A.C.; Pegg, I.L.

    1999-01-01

    The corrosion of the glass-contact refractory Monofrax K-3 in two sodium-rich aluminosilicate melts has been studied at 1,208 and 1,283 C using a modified ASTM procedure with constant agitation of the melt by air bubbling. The results for the monolithic refractory indicate a fast initial stage involving phase dissolution and transformation and a later passivated stage in which the surface of the refractory has been substantially modified. The composition of the stable spinel phase in the altered layer on monolithic coupons of K-3 is almost identical to the equilibrium composition bracketed by the dissolution of powdered K-3 into under-saturated melts on the other. The temperature and melt shear viscosity were found to have significant effects on the rates of K-3 dissolution and transformation

  13. PARK-IT! Elementary School Land Laboratories in Toledo City Parks. Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.

    The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…

  14. Compounding of vitamin A, D3, E and K3 supplements for cystic fibrosis patients: formulation and stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghebaert, N; De Beer, J; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P

    2007-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients suffer from malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K). These vitamins are available as water-dispersible (A, D(3) and E) or water-soluble grades (K(3)), which is favoured in CF patients as they fail to absorb oil-based products. The objective of this study was to determine stability of these raw materials after opening the original package and to develop a compounded formulation of acceptable quality, stability and taste, allowing flexible dose adaptation and being appropriate for administration to children and elderly people. The raw materials were stored after opening their original package for 8 months at 8 degrees C and room temperature (RT). Stability was assessed using a validated HPLC method after extraction of the vitamin from the cold water-soluble matrix (vitamin A acetate, D(3) and E) or using a spectrophotometrical method (vitamin K(3)). These materials were mixed with an appropriate lactose grade (lactose 80 m for vitamins A and D(3); lactose 90 m for vitamin E, lactose very fine powder for vitamin K(3)) and filled in hard gelatin capsules. Mass and content uniformity were determined and stability of the vitamins in the capsules was assessed after 2 months storage at 8 degrees C and RT. All raw materials showed good stability during storage in the opened original package for 8 months storage at 8 degrees C as well as RT (>95% of the initial content). The compounded formulations complied with the requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia for mass and content uniformity and can be stored for 2 months at 8 degrees C or RT while maintaining the vitamin content between 90% and 110%. As these fat-soluble vitamins are not commercially available on the Belgian market, compounded formulations are a valuable alternative for prophylactic administration of these vitamins to CF patients, i.e. a stable formulation, having an acceptable taste, allowing flexible dose adaptation and being appropriate for administration to

  15. The Growth of Instructional Coaching Partner Conversations in a PreK-3rd Grade Teacher Professional Development Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Earl E.; Bell, David L.; Spelman, Maureen; Briody, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Instructional coaching that supports teachers' with revising teaching practices is not understood. This study sought to understand the impact of the instructional coaching experience by recording coaching conversations/interactions with teachers. The purpose was to determine if the type of coaching conversations changed overtime during three…

  16. Happy 50th, Smokey Bear! A Learning Kit about Forests and Fire Safety for Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Meryl

    In 1994, Smokey Bear turns 50! For a half century, Smokey has been helping children and adults protect forests and wildlands from careless fire. With this kit students can celebrate Smokey's message using a variety of activities that include dramatic play, stories, games, and things to make and do. Through these activities, students learn about…

  17. Structure of stable degeneration of K3 surfaces into pairs of rational elliptic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Yusuke

    2018-01-01

    F-theory/heterotic duality is formulated in the stable degeneration limit of a K3 fibration on the F-theory side. In this note, we analyze the structure of the stable degeneration limit. We discuss whether stable degeneration exists for pairs of rational elliptic surfaces. We demonstrate that, when two rational elliptic surfaces have an identical complex structure, stable degeneration always exists. We provide an equation that systematically describes the stable degeneration of a K3 surface i...

  18. Hydrostatic Compression of 2,4,6,8,10,12 hexanitrohexaaza isowurtzitane (CL20) Co Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    ARL-TR-7901 ● DEC 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Hydrostatic Compression of 2,4,6,8,10,12- hexanitrohexaaza-isowurtzitane (CL20... Hydrostatic Compression of 2,4,6,8,10,12- hexanitrohexaaza-isowurtzitane (CL20) Co-Crystals by DeCarlos Taylor Weapons and Materials...Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2015–September 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrostatic Compression of 2,4,6,8,10,12

  19. The potential of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) for detection of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpas, Zeev; Guamán, Ana V; Calvo, Daniel; Pardo, Antonio; Marco, Santiago

    2012-05-15

    The off-flavor of "tainted wine" is attributed mainly to the presence of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in the wine. In the present study the atmospheric pressure gas-phase ion chemistry, pertaining to ion mobility spectrometry, of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole was investigated. In positive ion mode the dominant species is a monomer ion with a lower intensity dimer species with reduced mobility values (K(0)) of 1.58 and 1.20 cm(2)V(-1) s(-1), respectively. In negative mode the ion with K(0) =1.64 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) is ascribed to a trichlorophenoxide species while the ions with K(0) =1.48 and 1.13 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) are attributed to chloride attachment adducts of a TCA monomer and dimer, respectively. The limit of detection of the system for 2,4,6-TCA dissolved in dichloromethane deposited on a filter paper was 2.1 μg and 1.7 ppm in the gas phase. In ethanol and in wine the limit of detection is higher implying that pre-concentration and pre-separation are required before IMS can be used to monitor the level of TCA in wine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. N=2 heterotic string compactifications on orbifolds of K3×T{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyaya, Aradhita; David, Justin R. [Centre for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2017-01-10

    We study N=2 compactifications of E{sub 8}×E{sub 8} heterotic string theory on orbifolds of K3×T{sup 2} by g{sup ′} which acts as an ℤ{sub N} automorphism of K3 together with a 1/N shift on a circle of T{sup 2}. The orbifold action g{sup ′} corresponds to the 26 conjugacy classes of the Mathieu group M{sub 24}. We show that for the standard embedding the new supersymmetric index for these compactifications can always be decomposed into the elliptic genus of K3 twisted by g{sup ′}. The difference in one-loop corrections to the gauge couplings are captured by automorphic forms obtained by the theta lifts of the elliptic genus of K3 twisted by g{sup ′}. We work out in detail the case for which g{sup ′} belongs to the equivalence class 2B. We then investigate all the non-standard embeddings for K3 realized as a T{sup 4}/ℤ{sub ν} orbifold with ν=2,4 and g{sup ′} the 2A involution. We show that for non-standard embeddings the new supersymmetric index as well as the difference in one-loop corrections to the gauge couplings are completely characterized by the instanton numbers of the embeddings together with the difference in number of hypermultiplets and vector multiplets in the spectrum.

  1. Subcutaneous injection of thallium-201 chloride and gallium-67 citrate at acupuncture point K-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johg, Shiang-Bin; Wu, Chung-Chieng; Chen, Ming-Feng; Wu, Sheng-Nan

    1992-01-01

    Subcutaneous (SC) injection of 99m Tc pertechnetate ( 99m Tc) at acupuncture points K-3 is a new method of lower-limb radionuclide venography. To investigate the mechanism of absorption of 99m Tc from SC injected sites into vascular system, various radioisotopes such as 201 Tl chloride ( 201 Tl) and 67 Ga citrate ( 67 Ga) were SC injected at K-3 points in animal and human-beings experiments. It was found that 99m Tc and 201 Tl were absorbed rapidly from K-3 points through venous system and into whole body soft tissue. However, 67 Ga with a larger effective ionic radius than 201 Tl was not absorbed throughout the observation of 5 minutes. Furthermore, intravenous administration of digitalis, a Na + -K + pump blocker, did not inhibit the absorption of 99m Tc and 201 Tl after SC injection at K-3 points. These results suggest that absorption of radionuclides on SC injection at K-3 points is mainly through the passive pathway of diffusion rather than the active transport, and the effective ionic radius may be a major factor influencing the absorption rate of the radionuclides. (author)

  2. Vitamin k3 inhibits protein aggregation: Implication in the treatment of amyloid diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Parvez; Chaturvedi, Sumit Kumar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Khursheed; Rajpoot, Ravi Kant; Ajmal, Mohd Rehan; Zaman, Masihuz; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-05-27

    Protein misfolding and aggregation have been associated with several human diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and familial amyloid polyneuropathy etc. In this study, anti-fibrillation activity of vitamin k3 and its effect on the kinetics of amyloid formation of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and Aβ-42 peptide were investigated. Here, in combination with Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay, circular dichroism (CD), transmission electron microscopy and cell cytotoxicity assay, we demonstrated that vitamin k3 significantly inhibits fibril formation as well as the inhibitory effect is dose dependent manner. Our experimental studies inferred that vitamin k3 exert its neuro protective effect against amyloid induced cytotoxicity through concerted pathway, modifying the aggregation formation towards formation of nontoxic aggregates. Molecular docking demonstrated that vitamin k3 mediated inhibition of HEWL and Aβ-42 fibrillogenesis may be initiated by interacting with proteolytic resistant and aggregation prone regions respectively. This work would provide an insight into the mechanism of protein aggregation inhibition by vitamin k3; pave the way for discovery of other small molecules that may exert similar effect against amyloid formation and its associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Stimulation of ceramide formation and suicidal erythrocyte death by vitamin K(3) (menadione).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Syed M; Eberhard, Matthias; Mahmud, Hasan; Föller, Michael; Lang, Florian

    2009-11-25

    Vitamin K(3) is an essential micronutrient required for the activation of coagulation factors and thus hemostasis. Administration of vitamin K(3) analogues may cause anemia, which at least in theory could be due to stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis characterized by cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane leading to exposure of phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface. Eryptosis is triggered by an increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) activity, by ceramide and by energy depletion (decrease of cytosolic ATP). The present experiments explored, whether vitamin K(3) may influence eryptosis. Hemolysis was estimated from the supernatant hemoglobin concentration, phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes from annexin V-binding in fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, erythrocyte volume from forward scatter in FACS analysis, ceramide formation from binding of fluorescent antibodies, and erythrocyte ATP content from a luciferin-luciferase assay. As a result, vitamin K(3) (> or =1microM) caused lysis of an only small fraction of erythrocytes, but significantly increased ceramide formation, significantly increased the percentage of annexin V-binding erythrocytes, significantly decreased forward scatter and, at higher concentrations, significantly decreased the cellular ATP content. In conclusion, vitamin K(3) stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death, an effect at least partially due to ceramide formation and ATP depletion.

  4. Inhibitory effects of vitamin K3 on DNA polymerase and angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Kiminori; Kayashima, Tomoko; Mori, Masaharu; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2008-09-01

    Vitamins play essential roles in cellular reactions and maintain human health. Recent studies have revealed that some vitamins including D3, B6 and K2 and their derivatives have an anti-cancer effect. As a mechanism, their inhibitory effect on cancer-related angiogenesis has been demonstrated. Vitamin K2 (menaquinones) has an anti-cancer effect in particular for hepatic cancer and inhibits angiogenesis. In the current study, we demonstrated that sole vitamin K3 (menadione) selectively inhibits the in vitro activity of eukaryotic DNA polymerase gamma, which is a mitochondrial DNA polymerase, and suppresses angiogenesis in a rat aortic ring model. The anti-angiogenic effect of vitamin K3 has been shown in angiogenesis models using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with regard to HUVEC growth, tube formation on reconstituted basement membrane and chemotaxis. These results suggest that vitamin K3 may be a potential anti-cancer agent like vitamin K2.

  5. K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA Greiner Tubes for HbA1c Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtaric, Alen; Filipi, Petra; Hemar, Marina; Nikolac, Nora; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether K2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and K3-EDTA Greiner tubes could be used interchangeably for glycosylated hemoglobin, type A1C (HbA1c) measurement via the Abbott Laboratories ARCHITECT chemiluminescent microparticle HbA1c assay on the ARCHITECT i2000SR immunoanalyzer at our university hospital. We drew blood from a total of 45 outpatients into plastic Greiner Vacuette tubes, some of which were lined with K2-EDTA and others with K3-EDTA anticoagulant. Data are presented as median and interquartile range values. We used the Wilcoxon test and Passing-Bablok regression for tube comparison. For K2-EDTA tubes median HbA1c concentration was 54 mmol/mol (41 to 71 mmol/mol) and for K3-EDTA tubes 56 mmol/mol (43 to 69 mmol/mol). There was no statistically significant difference between K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA (bias= -1.29 mmol/mol; P = 0.24). Passing-Bablok regression showed that there is no constant and proportional error: y = -0.23 (95% CI[-3.52 to 0.69]) + 1.00( 95% CI[0.98 to 1.06]) x. In this study, we provide evidence for the lack of any clinically and statistically significant bias between K2-EDTA and K3-EDTA HbA1c measurements. Thus, Greiner tubes lined with K2-EDTA and those lined with K3-EDTA can safely be used interchangeably to measure HbA1c via the Abbott Laboratories ARCHITECT assay. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Subcutaneous injection of 99mTc pertechnetate at acupuncture points K-3 and B-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chung-Chieng; Jong Shiang-Bin; Lin Chun-Ching; Chen Min-Fen; Chen Jong-Rern; Chung Chieng.

    1990-01-01

    The acupuncture points are known to be morphologically related to the nerves and vessels. Yet the physiological role of blood vessels in the formation of acupuncture points remains unknown. With subcutaneous injection of 99m Tc pertechnetate at the acupuncture points K-3 and B-60 and with intra-acupuncture point injection of 99m Tc pertechnetate at K-3 and B-60, a lower-limb venography like what was obtained by intravenous injection of 99m Tc macroaggregated albumin was demonstrated in the present study. It seems that some acupuncture points do play a role in drainage of tissue fluid from soft tissue into the veins. (author)

  7. Investigation of the thermodynamic properties of the binary system vitamin K3/carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Trupej Nina; Knez-Hrnčič Maša; Škerget Mojca; Knez Željko

    2017-01-01

    The binary system of vitamin K3 and CO2 was investigated at temperatures of 40, 60 and 80 °C up to a pressure of 40 MPa. Solubility was measured by a static-analytic method. Partial molar volumes were determined by a method involving a vibrating tube densimeter. The solubility of vitamin K3 in CO2 is found as a function of pressure and temperature. The highest solubility (31.16×10-4 mol∙mol-1) was attained at a pressure of 25.40 MPa at temperature of 40°C. However, at temperature of 60°C and ...

  8. On the common modulus attack into the LUC4,6 cryptosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tze Jin; Said, Mohd Rushdan Md; Othman, Mohamed; Koo, Lee Feng

    2015-05-01

    The LUC4,6 cryptosystem is a system analogy with RSA cryptosystem and extended from LUC and LUC3 cryptosystems. The process of encryption and decryption are derived from the fourth order linear recurrence sequence and based on Lucas function. This paper reports an investigation into the common modulus attack on the LUC4,6 cryptosystem. In general, the common modulus attack will be succeeded if the sender sends the plaintext to two users used same RSA-modulus and both of encryption keys of them are relatively prime to each other. However, based on the characteristics of high order Lucas sequence, the LUC4,6 cryptosystem is unattackable

  9. Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of Enantiomerically Pure Vitamin K3 2,3-Epoxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snatzke, Günther; Wijnberg, Hans; Feringa, Bernard; Marsman, Bea G.; Greydanus, Ben; Pluim, Henk

    1980-01-01

    The 2,3-epoxide of vitamin K3 (menadione, 1) has been prepared in enantiomerically pure form, and the absolute configuration has been deduced from the CD spectrum. The compound with the negative Cotton effect between 340 and 400 nm has the 2R,3S configuration.

  10. Investigation of the thermodynamic properties of the binary system vitamin K3/carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupej Nina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The binary system of vitamin K3 and CO2 was investigated at temperatures of 40, 60 and 80 °C up to a pressure of 40 MPa. Solubility was measured by a static-analytic method. Partial molar volumes were determined by a method involving a vibrating tube densimeter. The solubility of vitamin K3 in CO2 is found as a function of pressure and temperature. The highest solubility (31.16×10-4 mol∙mol-1 was attained at a pressure of 25.40 MPa at temperature of 40°C. However, at temperature of 60°C and a pressure of 24.02 MPa, the solubility was 18.79×10-4 mol∙mol-1. Solubility was lower at a temperature of 80°C and a pressure of 22.06 MPa (6.48×10-4 mol∙mol-1. The partial molar volumes are negative and the dissolved vitamin K3 has a minor impact on the density of the solution of K3 in CO2 compared to the density of the pure CO2.

  11. Vitamin K3 attenuates cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis through inhibition of the autophagic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinzei, Ryo; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Nishiumi, Shin; Nishida, Masayuki; Onoyama, Mitsuko; Sanuki, Tsuyoshi; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Moritoh, Satoshi; Itoh, Tomoo; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Mizuno, Shigeto; Azuma, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of novel and effective treatment methods would be of great help to patients with acute pancreatitis. The aims of this study were to determine the inhibitory effects of vitamin K3 (VK3) against cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice and to examine the mechanisms behind these effects. Acute pancreatitis in mice was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cerulein 6 times at hourly intervals. Vitamin K3 was administered once before the first injection of cerulein or twice before and after the first injection of cerulein. The degrees of inflammation and autophagy in the pancreatic tissue were estimated by histological examination, measurement of enzyme activity, confocal microscopy, and Western blotting. The inhibitory effects of VK3 against rapamycin-induced autophagy were also examined using HeLa cells stably expressing green fluorescent protein LC3. Cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis was markedly attenuated by the administration of VK3. In addition, VK3 led to the inhibition of cerulein-evoked autophagic changes and colocalization of autophagosomes and lysosomes in the pancreatic tissue. Vitamin K3 also reduced rapamycin-induced autophagy in HeLa/green fluorescent protein LC3 cells. Our data suggest that the administration of VK3 reduces pancreatic inflammation in acute pancreatitis through inhibition of the autophagic pathway. Vitamin K3 may be an effective therapeutic strategy against acute pancreatitis.

  12. BPS open strings and A-D-E-singularities in F-theory on K3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hartong, Jelle

    We improve on a recently constructed graphical representation of the supergravity 7-brane solution and apply this refined representation to re-study the open string description of the A-D-E-singularities in F-theory on K3. A noteworthy feature of the graphical representation is that it provides the

  13. PreK-3rd: What Is the Price Tag? Policy to Action Brief. No. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Rima

    2009-01-01

    In an era of intense fiscal pressures, educators are focusing on those investments most likely to lift student achievement. They are also trying to make more strategic use of existing resources. To achieve these goals, a growing number of policymakers are considering integrated PreK-3rd approaches. Increasingly, they are recognizing that the first…

  14. Have Recommended Book Lists Changed to Reflect Current Expectations for Informational Text in K-3 Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Mariam Jean; Kletzien, Sharon B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite both longstanding and recent calls for more informational text in K-3 classrooms, research indicates that narrative text remains in the majority for read alouds, classroom libraries, and instruction, thus limiting children's opportunity to experience the demands of expository text. Because national associations' recommended book lists are…

  15. Evolutionary Adaptation of Kluyveromyces marxianus NIRE-K3 for Enhanced Xylose Utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Nilesh Kumar; Behera, Shuvashish; Arora, Richa; Kumar, Sachin

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary adaptation was approached on the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus NIRE-K3 at 45°C on xylose as a sole source of carbon for enhancement of xylose uptake. After 60 cycles, evolved strain K. marxianus NIRE-K3.1 showed comparatively 3.75- and 3.0-fold higher specific growth and xylose uptake rates, respectively, than that of native strain. Moreover, the short lag phase was also observed on adapted strain. During batch fermentation with xylose concentration of 30 g l −1 , K. marxianus NIRE-K3.1 could utilize about 96% of xylose in 72 h and produced 4.67 and 15.7 g l −1 of ethanol and xylitol, respectively, which were 9.72- and 4.63-fold higher than that of native strain. Similarly, specific sugar consumption rate, xylitol, and ethanol yields were 5.07-, 1.15-, and 2.44-fold higher as compared to the native strain, respectively. The results obtained after evolutionary adaptation of K. marxianus NIRE-K3 show the significant improvement in the xylose utilization, ethanol and xylitol yields, and productivities. By understanding the results obtained, the significance of evolutionary adaptation has been rationalized, since the adapted culture could be more stable and could enhance the productivity.

  16. Evolutionary Adaptation of Kluyveromyces marxianus NIRE-K3 for Enhanced Xylose Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Nilesh Kumar [Biochemical Conversion Division, Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Bio-Energy, Kapurthala (India); I. K. Gujral Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala (India); Behera, Shuvashish; Arora, Richa; Kumar, Sachin, E-mail: sachin.biotech@gmail.com [Biochemical Conversion Division, Sardar Swaran Singh National Institute of Bio-Energy, Kapurthala (India)

    2017-12-12

    The evolutionary adaptation was approached on the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus NIRE-K3 at 45°C on xylose as a sole source of carbon for enhancement of xylose uptake. After 60 cycles, evolved strain K. marxianus NIRE-K3.1 showed comparatively 3.75- and 3.0-fold higher specific growth and xylose uptake rates, respectively, than that of native strain. Moreover, the short lag phase was also observed on adapted strain. During batch fermentation with xylose concentration of 30 g l{sup −1}, K. marxianus NIRE-K3.1 could utilize about 96% of xylose in 72 h and produced 4.67 and 15.7 g l{sup −1} of ethanol and xylitol, respectively, which were 9.72- and 4.63-fold higher than that of native strain. Similarly, specific sugar consumption rate, xylitol, and ethanol yields were 5.07-, 1.15-, and 2.44-fold higher as compared to the native strain, respectively. The results obtained after evolutionary adaptation of K. marxianus NIRE-K3 show the significant improvement in the xylose utilization, ethanol and xylitol yields, and productivities. By understanding the results obtained, the significance of evolutionary adaptation has been rationalized, since the adapted culture could be more stable and could enhance the productivity.

  17. Exploring K-3 Teachers' Implementation of Comprehension Strategy Instruction (CSI) Using Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Laura S.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigated factors that influence the implementation levels of evidence-based comprehension strategy instruction (CSI) among K-3 teachers. An explanatory design was chosen to gather and probe the data. Quantitative data were gathered via a mailed survey distributed through a representative sample of the 40 school districts (through…

  18. Concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and 2,4,6-Tribromophenol in Human Placental Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonetti, Christopher; Butt, Craig M.; Hoffman, Kate; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2015-01-01

    Legacy environmental contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely detected in human tissues. However, few studies have measured PBDEs in placental tissues, and there are no reported measurements of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) in placental tissues. Measurements of these contaminants are important for understanding potential fetal exposures, as these compounds have been shown to alter thyroid hormone regulation in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we measured a suite of PBDEs and 2,4,6-TBP in 102 human placental tissues collected between 2010–2011 in Durham County, North Carolina, USA. The most abundant PBDE congener detected was BDE-47, with a mean concentration of 5.09 ng/g lipid (range: 0.12–141 ng/g lipid; detection frequency 91%); however, 2,4,6-TBP was ubiquitously detected and present at higher concentrations with a mean concentration of 15.4 ng/g lipid (range:1.31–316 ng/g lipid; detection frequency 100%). BDE-209 was also detected in more than 50% of the samples, and was significantly associated with 2,4,6-TBP in placental tissues, suggesting they may have a similar source, or that 2,4,6-TBP may be a degradation product of BDE-209. Interestingly, BDE-209 and 2,4,6-TBP were negatively associated with age (rs=−0.16; p=0.10 and rs=−0.17; p=0.08, respectively). The results of this work indicate that PBDEs and 2,4,6-TBP bioaccumulate in human placenta tissue and likely contribute to prenatal exposures to these environmental contaminants. Future studies are needed to determine if these joint exposures are associated with any adverse health measures in infants and children. PMID:26700418

  19. Inhibition of the development of metastases by dietary vitamin C:K3 combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taper, Henryk S; Jamison, James M; Gilloteaux, Jacques; Summers, Jack L; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2004-07-09

    The tumor growth-inhibiting and chemo-potentiating effects of vitamin C and K(3)combinations have been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of orally administered vitamin C and K(3) on the metastasis of mouse liver tumor (T.L.T.) cells implanted in C3H mice. Adult male C3H mice were given water containing vitamin C and K3 (15 g/0.15 g dissolved in 1000 ml) beginning 2 weeks before tumor transplantation until the end of the experiment. T.L.T. cells (106) were implanted intramuscularly in the right thigh of mice. All mice were sacrificed 42 days after tumor transplantation. Primary tumor, lungs, lymph nodes and other organs or tissues suspected of harboring metastases were macroscopically examined. Samples of primary tumors, their local lymph nodes, lungs and main organs such as liver, kidneys, spleen were taken for histological examination. Forty-two percent of control mice exhibited lung metastases and 27% possessed metastases in local lymph nodes whereas 24% of vitamin-treated mice exhibited lung metastases and 10% possessed local lymph nodes metastases. The total number of lung metastases was 19 in control group and 10 in vitamin C and K(3)-treated mice. Histopathological examination of the metastatic tumors from the vitamin-treated mice revealed the presence of many tumor cells undergoing autoschizic cell death. These results demonstrate that oral vitamin C and K(3) significantly inhibited the metastases of T.L.T. tumors in C3H mice. At least a portion of this inhibition was due to tumor cell death by autoschizis.

  20. 4,6-Dibromo-N-{3-[(4,6-dibromo-2,3-dimethylphenylimino]butan-2-ylidene}-2,3-dimethylaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Huang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C20H20Br4N2, is a product of the condensation reaction of 4,6-dibromo-2,3-dimethylaniline and butane-2,3-dione. The molecule has a center of symmetry at the mid-point of the central C—C bond. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the 1,4-diazabutadiene plane is 78.3 (2°. Niether hydrogen bonding nor aromatic stacking is observed in the crystal structure.

  1. An overview on importance, synthetic strategies and studies of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Venkata Viswanath

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available 2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW, commonly called as CL-20, is a high energy and high density material of keen interest to both commercial and scientific worlds due to its greater insensitivity (reduced sensitivity along with a positive high heat of formation, which is due to the azanitro groups attached to the skeleton of HNIW and its highly strained cage structure. It plays a remarkable role in modification and replacement of most of the propellant (gun and rocket preparations. In this report we present the comparative strategies involved in the syntheses of HNIW with respect to economical and environmental aspects. Various methods reported in the literature on the purification of the crude HNIW (α-HNIW to obtain ε-form of HNIW (high dense/more potential are consolidated. Understanding of the structure, morphology, energetics, thermal behavior and their modification to meet the applicability (decreased impact sensitivity determines the industrial application of HNIW. A compilation of the available literature on the aforementioned characteristic properties for obtaining a value added ε-HNIW is discussed here. This overview also reports the literature available on newer forms of HNIW including derivatives and cocrystals, which increase the performance of HNIW.

  2. Vicarious nucleophilic substitution to prepare 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene or 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alexander R.; Pagoria, Philip F.; Schmidt, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process to produce 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB) or 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6,-trinitrobenzene (TATB) by: (a) reacting at ambient pressure and a temperature of between about 0.degree. and 50.degree. C. for between about 0.1 and 24 hr, a trinitroaromatic compound of structure V: ##STR1## wherein X, Y, and Z are each independently selected from --H, or --NH.sub.2, with the proviso that at least 1 or 2 of X, Y, and Z are hydrogen, with an amount effective to produce DATB or TATB of 1,1,1-trialkylhydrazinium halide wherein alkyl is selected from methyl, ethyl, propyl or butyl and halide is selected from chloride, bromide or iodide. in the presence of a strong base selected from sodium butoxide, potassium butoxide, potassium propoxide, sodium propoxide, sodium ethoxide, potassium ethoxide, sodium methoxide, potassium methoxide, and combinations thereof; in a solvent selected from the group consisting of methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, dimethylsulphoxide, N-methylpyrrolidone, hexamethylphosphoramide, dimethylformide, dimethylacetamide and mixtures thereof, provided that when alcohols are present primarily DATB and picramide is formed; and (b) isolating the DATB or TATB produced. DATB and TATB are useful specialty explosives. TATB is also used for the preparation of benzenehexamine, a starting material for the synthesis of novel materials (optical imaging devices, liquid crystals, ferromagnetic compounds).

  3. Subcutaneous injection of sup 99m Tc pertechnetate at acupuncture points K-3 and B-60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Chung-Chieng; Jong Shiang-Bin; Lin Chun-Ching; Chen Min-Fen; Chen Jong-Rern (Kaohsiung Medical Coll., Taiwan (China)); Chung Chieng

    1990-06-01

    The acupuncture points are known to be morphologically related to the nerves and vessels. Yet the physiological role of blood vessels in the formation of acupuncture points remains unknown. With subcutaneous injection of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate at the acupuncture points K-3 and B-60 and with intra-acupuncture point injection of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate at K-3 and B-60, a lower-limb venography like what was obtained by intravenous injection of {sup 99m}Tc macroaggregated albumin was demonstrated in the present study. It seems that some acupuncture points do play a role in drainage of tissue fluid from soft tissue into the veins. (author).

  4. Low-temperature synthesis and structural properties of ferroelectric K 3WO 3F 3 elpasolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuchin, V. V.; Gavrilova, T. A.; Kesler, V. G.; Molokeev, M. S.; Aleksandrov, K. S.

    2010-06-01

    Low-temperature ferroelectric G2 polymorph of K 3WO 3F 3 has been prepared by chemical synthesis. Structural and chemical properties of the final product have been evaluated with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Structure parameters of G2-K 3WO 3F 3 are refined by the Rietveld method from XRD data measured at room temperature (space group Cm, Z = 2, a = 8.7350(3) Å, b = 8.6808(5) Å, c = 6.1581(3) Å, β = 135.124(3) Å, V = 329.46(3) Å 3; RB = 2.47%). Partial ordering of oxygen and fluorine atoms has been found over anion positions. Mechanism of ferroelectric phase transition in A 2BMO 3F 3 oxyfluorides is discussed.

  5. The in vitro antitumor activity of vitamins C and K3 against ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Gruenigen, Vivian E; Jamison, James M; Gilloteaux, Jacques; Lorimer, Heather E; Summers, Marcia; Pollard, Robert R; Gwin, Carley A; Summers, Jack L

    2003-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect and mechanism of action of vitamins C (VC) and K3 (VK3) on ovarian carcinoma. Cytotoxicity assays were performed on ovarian cancer cell lines with VC, VK3 or a VC/VK3 combination. FIC index was employed to evaluate synergism. Flow cytometry was accomplished at 90% cytotoxic doses. Light, transmission electron microscopy and DNA isolation were performed. Antitumor activity was exhibited by both VC, VK3 and VC/VK3. VC/VK3 demonstrated synergistic activity. VC/VK3 may induce a G1 block in the cell cycle. Combined vitamin treatment resulted in cells that maintain apparently intact nuclei while extruding pieces of organelle-free cytoplasm. Degradation of chromosomal DNA was observed. Cell death (autoschizis) displayed characteristics of both apoptosis and necrosis. The cytotoxic effects observed may enable vitamins C and K3 to play an adjuvant role in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  6. Synchrotron radiation photoemission spectrum study on K3C60 film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏年; 徐亚伯; 鲍世宁; 李海洋; 何丕模; 钱海杰; 刘风琴; 奎热西·易卜拉欣

    2000-01-01

    K3C60 single crystal film was prepared on the cleaved (111) surface of C60 single crystal. Synchrotron radiation angle-resolved photoemission spectra were measured at normal emission with sample temperature at - 150K. Up to four subpeaks of LUMO-derived band were observed. These sub-peaks exhibit distinct energy dispersions which resemble in general the theoretical ones calculated for K3C60 at low temperature with the so-called one-dimensional disordered structure. But there is large deviation of experimental sub-band intervals from the theoretical values. This result is meaningful for the studies of the physical properties of alkali-doped C60 solids, e.g. the mechanism for superconductivity.

  7. Structure analysis of K3H(SO4)2 by neutron powder diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Satoshi; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro; Noda, Yukio; Nakai, Yusuke; Kamiyama, Takashi; Asano, Hajime.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction experiments of K 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 were carried out at KENS-HRP station in order to obtain the positional parameters of hydrogen nuclei. The data was taken at six different temperatures from room temperature to 20K. Even though K 3 H(SO 4 ) 2 contained a hydrogen atom, the structural analysis was successfully performed by using a program RIETAN. Concerning the hydrogen position, four different models give almost the same R-factor so that the state of the hydrogen nucleus is not uniquely determined. The result based on the assumption that a hydrogen nucleus occupies two sites shows that the distance of split hydrogen nuclei is shorter than the distance of hydrogen electron clouds. This result suggests that a large polarizability exists in a hydrogen atom. (author)

  8. Boundary Fixed Points, Enhanced Gauge Symmetry and Singular Bundles on K3

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, J; Lerche, Wolfgang; Lütken, C A; Schweigert, C; Walcher, J

    2001-01-01

    We investigate certain fixed points in the boundary conformal field theory representation of type IIA D-branes on Gepner points of K3. They correspond geometrically to degenerate brane configurations, and physically lead to enhanced gauge symmetries on the world-volume. Non-abelian gauge groups arise if the stabilizer group of the fixed points is realized projectively, which is similar to D-branes on orbifolds with discrete torsion. Moreover, the fixed point boundary states can be resolved into several irreducible components. These correspond to bound states at threshold and can be viewed as (non-locally free) sub-sheaves of semi-stable sheaves. Thus, the BCFT fixed points appear to carry two-fold geometrical information: on the one hand they probe the boundary of the instanton moduli space on K3, on the other hand they probe discrete torsion in D-geometry.

  9. On algebraic cycles on a fibre product of families of K3-surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikol'skaya, Ol'ga V

    2013-01-01

    We prove the Hodge conjecture and the standard conjecture of Lefschetz type for fibre squares of smooth projective non-isotrivial families of K3-surfaces over a smooth projective curve under the assumption that the rank of the lattice of transcendental cycles on a generic geometric fibre of the family is an odd prime. We prove the Hodge conjecture for a fibre product of two non-isotrivial families of K3-surfaces (possibly with degenerations) under the condition that, for every point of the curve, at least one family has non-singular fibre over this point, and the rank of the lattice of transcendental cycles on a generic geometric fibre of one family is odd and not equal to the corresponding rank for the other.

  10. Vitamin k3 inhibits protein aggregation: Implication in the treatment of amyloid diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Parvez Alam; Sumit Kumar Chaturvedi; Mohammad Khursheed Siddiqi; Ravi Kant Rajpoot; Mohd Rehan Ajmal; Masihuz Zaman; Rizwan Hasan Khan

    2016-01-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation have been associated with several human diseases such as Alzheimer?s, Parkinson?s and familial amyloid polyneuropathy etc. In this study, anti-fibrillation activity of vitamin k3 and its effect on the kinetics of amyloid formation of hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and A?-42 peptide were investigated. Here, in combination with Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence assay, circular dichroism (CD), transmission electron microscopy and cell cytotoxicity assay, we demons...

  11. Synthesis, characterization and serum albumin binding studies of vitamin K3 derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthi, Murugesan; Elango, Kuppanagounder P

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis, characterization and bovine serum albumin (BSA) binding properties of three derivatives of vitamin K3 have been described. Results of UV-Vis and fluorescence spectra indicate complexation between BSA and the ligands with conformational changes in protein, which is strongly supported by synchronous and three dimensional fluorescence studies. Addition of the ligands quenches the fluorescence of BSA which is accompanied by reduction in quantum yield (Ф) from 0.1010 to 0.0775-0.0986 range. Thermodynamic investigations reveal that hydrophobic interaction is the major binding force in the spontaneous binding of these ligands with BSA. The binding constants obtained depend on the substituent present in the quinone ring, which correlates linearly with the Taft's field substituent constant (σ F ). The results show that compound with strong electron withdrawing nitro-group forms relatively stronger complex with BSA than amino and thioglycolate substituted ones. Circular dichroism studies show that the α-helical content of the protein, upon complexation with the ligands, decreases in the case of amino and nitro substituted vitamin K3 while increases in thioglycolate substituted compound. Molecular docking studies indicated that the vitamin K3 derivatives are surrounded by hydrophobic residues of the BSA molecule, which is in good agreement with the results of fluorescence spectral and thermodynamic studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The monodromy property for K3 surfaces allowing a triple-point-free model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Annelies Kristien J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study under which conditions K3 surfaces allowing a triple-point-free model satisfy the monodromy property. This property is a quantitative relation between the geometry of the degeneration of a Calabi-Yau variety X and the monodromy action on the cohomology of...... X: a Calabi- Yau variety X satisfies the monodromy property if poles of the motivic zeta function ZX,ω(T) induce monodromy eigenvalues on the cohomology of X. Let k be an algebraically closed field of characteristic 0, and set K = k((t)). In this thesis, we focus on K3 surfaces over K allowing a triple-point...... is very precise, which allows to use a combination of geometrical and combinatorial techniques to check the monodromy property in practice. The first main result is an explicit computation of the poles of ZX,ω(T) for a K3 surface X allowing a triple-point-free model and a volume form ! on X. We show that...

  13. KEY COMPARISON: Report on the Regional Comparison COOMET.AUV.A-K3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Figueroa, Salvador; Nielsen, Lars; Rasmussen, Knud

    2007-01-01

    COOMET.AUV.A-K3 is a Regional Comparison that supplements the Key Comparison CCAUV.A-K3 organized by the CCAUV. The participating NMIs are GUM (Poland), INM (Romania), VNIIFTRI (Russia) and DP-NDI 'Systema' (Ukraine). The role of Pilot laboratory was undertaken by DPLADFM (Denmark). The measurements took place between May 2005 and February 2006. The time schedule was organized in a single star configuration. Initially, two LS2aP microphones were circulated. However, a sudden change of sensitivity of one of them forced the inclusion of an additional microphone. Nevertheless, the analysis was performed on all microphones involved. This report includes the measurement results from the participants, information about their calibration methods, and the analysis leading to the assignation of degrees of equivalence and the link to the CCAUV.A-K3. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  14. Study on the inclusion interaction of p-sulfonated calix[n]arenes with Vitamin K3 using methylene blue as a spectral probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qin; Gu, Jiashan; Yu, Huapeng; Liu, Chun; Wang, Lun; Zhou, Yunyou

    2007-09-01

    The characteristics of host-guest complexation between p-sulfonated calix[n]arene (SCnA, n = 4, 6) and Vitamin K(3) (VK(3)) were investigated by fluorescence spectrometry and absorption spectrometry using methylene blue (MB) as a probe. Interaction with MB and SCnA led to an obvious decrease in fluorescence intensity of MB, accompanying with shifts of emission peaks. Absorption peaks also showed interesting changes; however, when VK(3) was added, fluorescence intensity and absorbance recovered and a slight and slow red shift was observed. The obtained results showed that the inclusion ability of p-sulphonated calix[n]arenes towards VK(3) was the order: p-sulphonated calix[6]arene (SC6A) >p-sulphonated calix[4]arene (SC4A). Relative mechanism was proposed to explain the inclusion process.

  15. Microscopic Aspects of Autoschizic Cell Death in Human Ovarian Carcinoma (2774) Cells Following Vitamin C, Vitamin K3 or Vitamin C:K3 Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Jamison, James M.; Arnold, David; Taper, Henryk S.; von Gruenigen, Vivian E.; Summers, Jack L.

    2003-08-01

    Human ovarian carcinoma cells (MDAH 2774) were treated with sodium ascorbate (VC), menadione (VK3), or with a VC:VK3 combination for 1 h and then studied using light microscopy (LM) and scanning (SEM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopy. Plasma membrane damage (blisters and blebs, hairy aspect) results from vitamin C (VC) treatment, while cytoskeletal damage and self-morsellation are caused by vitamin K3 (VK3) treatment. VC:VK3-treated cells exhibit exacerbated injuries characteristic of both VC and VK3 treatment as well as a significant decrease in cell diameters from 20 35 [mu]m for control cells to 7 12 [mu]m for VC:VK3 treatment. Moreover, after a 1-h exposure to the vitamin combination, autoschizis (43%), apoptosis (3%), and oncosis (1.9%) are observed at the percentages indicated. All cellular changes associated with autoschizis observed with SEM were confirmed by LM and TEM observations and are consistent with cell death by autoschizis: decrease in cell size, cytoplasmic self-excisions, degradation of the nucleus and nucleolus without formation of apoptotic bodies and, ultimately, karyorrhexis and karyolysis. These results also suggest that the vitamin combination may find clinical use in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  16. SAGE ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIPTOME RESPONSES IN ARABIDOPSIS ROOTS EXPOSED TO 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) was used to profile transcript levels in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and assess their responses to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) exposure. SAGE libraries representing control and TNT-exposed seedling root transcripts were constructed, and ea...

  17. Solvent-controlled regioselective protection of allyl-4,6-benzylidene glucopyranosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migaud Marie E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We wish to report a simple synthetic procedure, which permits the regiospecific mono-acylation, alkylation and silylation at the 2-position of allyl 4,6-O-benzylidene α-D-glucopyranoside in high yields and which does not require the use of catalysts.

  18. Complete dissipation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by in-vessel composting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.; Cekmecelioglu, Deniz; Tekinay, Turgay

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate complete removal of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in 15 days using an in-vessel composting system, which is amended with TNT-degrading bacteria strains. A mixture of TNT, food waste, manure, wood chips, soil and TNT-degrading bacteria consortium are co-composted for 15 days in an

  19. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  20. Scilab and MATLAB Interfaces to MUMPS (version 4.6 or greater)

    OpenAIRE

    Fèvre , Aurélia; Pralet , Stéphane; L'Excellent , Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    This document describes the Scilab and MATLAB interfaces to MUMPS version 4.6. We describe the differences and similarities between usual Fortran/C MUMPS interfaces and its Scilab/MATLAB interfaces, the calling sequences and functionalities. Examples of use and experimental results are also provided.

  1. Playground Apparatus Experience and Muscular Endurance among Children 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl

    The effects of specific play apparatus experience on a test of upper body muscular endurance was investigated among a group of children 4-6 years old. Both the control and experimental group consisted of 45 subjects randomly selected on the basis of age from two private day care centers situated in the same community. The two groups were of…

  2. Environmental concentrations and toxicology of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christoph; Sures, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol is the most widely produced brominated phenol. In the present review, we summarize studies dealing with this substance from an environmental point of view. We cover concentrations in the abiotic and biotic environment including humans, toxicokinetics as well as toxicodynamics, and show gaps of the current knowledge about this chemical. 2,4,6-Tribomophenol occurs as an intermediate during the synthesis of brominated flame retardants and it similarly represents a degradation product of these substances. Moreover, it is used as a pesticide but also occurs as a natural product of some aquatic organisms. Due to its many sources, 2,4,6-tribromophenol is ubiquitously found in the environment. Nevertheless, not much is known about its toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. It is also unclear which role the structural isomer 2,4,5-tribromophenol and several degradation products such as 2,4-dibromophenol play in the environment. Due to new flame retardants that enter the market and can degrade to 2,4,6-tribromophenol, this compound will remain relevant in future years - not only in aquatic matrices, but also in house dust and foodstuff, which are an important exposure route for humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i4.6

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v10i4.6. 36. CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC ACTIVITIES OF CARTHAMI FLOS AND ITS REVERSAL EFFECT ON. MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE IN CANCER CELLS. Jimmy Yiu-Cheong Wu*a, Zhi-Ling Yub, Wang-Fun Fongb, Yi-Qian Shia. aZhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, ...

  4. Convenient large-scale synthesis of D-glucaro-1,4:6,3-dilactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehret, Troy C; Frobese, A Stephen; Zerbe, James S; Chenault, H Keith

    2009-11-06

    Calcium D-glucarate was converted into D-glucaro-1,4:6,3-dilactone on 32-g, 1-kg, and 22-kg scale, using azeotropic distillation with methyl isobutyl ketone to drive the dehydration. The crystalline product was > or = 99.5% pure by GC and NMR, and overall yield was as high as 72%.

  5. 1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-triyltrisulfamic acid (TTSA)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Melamine reacted with chlorosufonic acid (ClSO3H) to form a new sulfamic-type acid, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triyltrisulfamic acid (TTSA). Both nitrosation of secondary amines and oxidation of urazoles were accomplished by using TTSA/NaNO2 system under mild and heterogeneous conditions with good to excellent yields.

  6. Toric K3-fibred Calabi-Yau manifolds with del Pezzo divisors for string compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Mayrhofer, Christoph [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kreuzer, Maximilian

    2011-06-15

    We analyse several explicit toric examples of compact K3-fibred Calabi-Yau three-folds which can be used for the study of string dualities and are crucial ingredients for the construction of LARGE Volume type IIB vacua with promising applications to cosmology and particle phenomenology. In order to build a phenomenologically viable model, on top of the two moduli corresponding to the base and the K3 fibre, we demand also the existence of two additional rigid divisors: the first supporting the non-perturbative effects needed to achieve moduli stabilisation, and the second allowing the presence of chiral matter on wrapped D-branes. We clarify the topology of these rigid divisors by discussing the interplay between a diagonal structure of the Calabi-Yau volume and D-terms. Del Pezzo divisors appearing in the volume form in a completely diagonal way are natural candidates for supporting non-perturbative effects and for quiver constructions, while 'non-diagonal' del Pezzo and rigid but not del Pezzo divisors are particularly interesting for model building in the geometric regime. Searching through the existing list of four dimensional reflexive lattice polytopes, we find 158 examples admitting a Calabi-Yau hypersurface which is a K3 fibration with four Kaehler moduli where at least one of them is a 'diagonal' del Pezzo. We work out explicitly the topological details of a few examples showing how, in the case of simplicial polytopes, all the del Pezzo divisors are 'diagonal', while 'non-diagonal' ones appear only in the case of non-simplicial polytopes. A companion paper will use these results in the study of moduli stabilisation for globally consistent explicit Calabi-Yau compactifications with the local presence of chirality. (orig.)

  7. Toric K3-fibred Calabi-Yau manifolds with del Pezzo divisors for string compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicoli, Michele; Mayrhofer, Christoph; Kreuzer, Maximilian

    2011-06-01

    We analyse several explicit toric examples of compact K3-fibred Calabi-Yau three-folds which can be used for the study of string dualities and are crucial ingredients for the construction of LARGE Volume type IIB vacua with promising applications to cosmology and particle phenomenology. In order to build a phenomenologically viable model, on top of the two moduli corresponding to the base and the K3 fibre, we demand also the existence of two additional rigid divisors: the first supporting the non-perturbative effects needed to achieve moduli stabilisation, and the second allowing the presence of chiral matter on wrapped D-branes. We clarify the topology of these rigid divisors by discussing the interplay between a diagonal structure of the Calabi-Yau volume and D-terms. Del Pezzo divisors appearing in the volume form in a completely diagonal way are natural candidates for supporting non-perturbative effects and for quiver constructions, while 'non-diagonal' del Pezzo and rigid but not del Pezzo divisors are particularly interesting for model building in the geometric regime. Searching through the existing list of four dimensional reflexive lattice polytopes, we find 158 examples admitting a Calabi-Yau hypersurface which is a K3 fibration with four Kaehler moduli where at least one of them is a 'diagonal' del Pezzo. We work out explicitly the topological details of a few examples showing how, in the case of simplicial polytopes, all the del Pezzo divisors are 'diagonal', while 'non-diagonal' ones appear only in the case of non-simplicial polytopes. A companion paper will use these results in the study of moduli stabilisation for globally consistent explicit Calabi-Yau compactifications with the local presence of chirality. (orig.)

  8. Wear of K3 and ProTaper files after simulated clinical use in curved canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Almeida Rodrigues Silva e Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess wear, after simulated clinical use of K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, EUA and ProTaper files (Dentsply-Maillefer, Tulsa, Oklahoma, EUA in 46 mesiovestibular roots of human maxillary first molars, recently extracted and with mean angulation of 40°.Methods: The teeth were divided as follows: a K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, EUA (with radial bands and b ProTaper (Dentsply-Maillefer, Tulsa, Oklahoma, EUA (without radial bands. The files were assessed by scanning electronic microscopy before first use to visualize fabrication defects, and after 7 and 13 cycles of debridement in the canals. Debridement with files K3 (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, EUA and ProTaper (Dentsply-Maillefer, Tulsa, Oklahoma, EUA was performed in accordance with the manufacturers’ recommendations. The criteria for wear assessment were: defects (stretching, shortening/spiral inversion, presence of craters, oblique cracks and fracture. After assessment by SEM and before they were used, metal barbs on the crest of the spirals and oblique scratches due to the machining process were found in all the files.Results: In the K3 system (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA, after being used seven times, all the instruments showed cutting angle defects,and 25/08 and 25/10 had oblique cracks in the body of the active part leading to ductile fracture after being used for the eighth time. In the ProTaper system (Dentsply-Maillefer, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, after being used seven times, in addition to cutting angle defects, the files also presented cracks, and ruptile fracture occurred in F3 during use for the thirteenth time. At the end of preparation, craters were seen along the active part of the files.Conclusion: In the final analysis, it was seen that the system are equivalent with regard to the defects found, irrespective of the active part design,being proportional to the number of cycles of use, and these defects could act as points of greater fragility, favoring fracture.

  9. [Vitamin K3-induced activation of molecular oxygen in glioma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylova, N G; Kulagova, T A; Semenkova, G N; Cherenkevich, S N

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown by the method of fluorescent analysis that the rate of hydrogen peroxide generation in human U251 glioma cells under the effect of lipophilic (menadione) or hydrophilic (vikasol) analogues of vitamin K3 was different. Analyzing experimental data we can conclude that menadione underwent one- and two-electron reduction by intracellular reductases in glioma cells. Reduced forms of menadione interact with molecular oxygen leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The theoretical model of ROS generation including two competitive processes of one- and two-electron reduction of menadione has been proposed. Rate constants of ROS generation mediated by one-electron reduction process have been estimated.

  10. ESR studies of electron irradiated K3Ir(CN)6 in KCl single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vugman, N.V.; Pinhal, N.M.

    1983-01-01

    ESR studies of KCl single crystals doped with small amounts of K 3 Ir(CN) 6 and submitted to a prolongued 2 MeV electron irradiation at room temperature reveal the presence of the [IR(CN) 5 Cl] 4- and [Ir(CN) 4 Cl 2 ] 4- new molecular species. Ligand spin densities and ligand field parameters are calculated from the experimental hyperfine and superhyperfine interactions and compared to previous data on the [Ir(CN) 5 ] 4- species. (Author) [pt

  11. Study of charge transfer complexes of menadione (vitamin K 3) with a series of anilines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Purnendu; Saha, Avijit; Mukherjee, Asok K.; Mukherjee, Dulal C.

    2004-01-01

    Menadione (vitamin K 3) has been shown to form charge transfer complexes with N, N-dimethyl aniline, N, N-dimethyl p-toluidine and N, N-dimethyl m-toluidine in CCl 4 medium. The CT transition energies are well correlated with the ionisation potentials of the anilines. The formation constants of the complexes have been determined at a number of temperatures from which the enthalpies and entropies of formation have been obtained. The formation constants exhibit a very good linear free energy relationship (Hammett) at all the temperatures studied.

  12. Peningkatan Motivasi Belajar Kimia Siswa Sekolah Menengah Menggunakan Metode Koligatif Kemas Kreatif (K3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Rizki Nurul Aeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research is classroom action research at XII class of Madrasah Aliyah YAPIKA. The subject matter  properties of Colligative Solution conducted with K3 method (Koligatif Kemas Kreatif to improve student’s learning motivation. Research has been conducted with the repetition of three times so that the study be completed for three years. Three phase of learning are preparation, implementation and evaluation. Preparation phase is done by teachers and students at home. The teacher is preparing the learning media there are games rules, cardboard spacecraft, question cards,  stopwatch, and a dice. Students learn the material properties of koligatif independently learning by themself using  the student hand book. Implementation of the learning is done through a number of methods, there are the story method, discussions and cooperative teamwork through creative games. The evaluation was direct observation methods. The observation sheets assessing of cognitive and affective aspects of students. Based on the results of observation showed that students can impact the content, focus attention and participate active in learning, supported by innovations that have been implemented.Keywords: Colligative properties, K3, MotivationAbstrak: Penelitian ini adalah penelitian tindakan kelas di Madrasah Aliyah YAPIKA Kurnia kelas XII yang mengkaji materi Sifat Koligatif Larutan melalui metode pembelajaran K3 (Koligatif Kemas Kreatif, sebagai cara untuk meningkatkan motivasi belajar siswa. Penelitian telah dilakukan dengan pengulangan sebanyak tiga kali. Pembelajaran yang ditempuh berupa tahap persiapan, pelaksanaan dan evaluasi. Tahap persiapan dilakukan oleh guru dan siswa di rumah. Guru mempersiapkan media pembelajaran berupa petunjuk games, karton wahana, question card, stopwatch, dan dadu. Siswa mempelajari materi sifat koligatif secara mandiri dengan cara belajar melalui buku pegangan siswa. Pelaksanaan

  13. Oxovanadium(IV)-catalysed oxidation of dibenzothiophene and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlaja, Adeniyi S; Chidawanyika, Wadzanai; Antunes, Edith; Fernandes, Manuel A; Nyokong, Tebello; Torto, Nelson; Tshentu, Zenixole R

    2012-12-07

    The reaction between [V(IV)OSO(4)] and the tetradentate N(2)O(2)-donor Schiff base ligand, N,N-bis(o-hydroxybenzaldehyde)phenylenediamine (sal-HBPD), obtained by the condensation of salicylaldehyde and o-phenylenediamine in a molar ratio of 2 : 1 respectively, resulted in the formation of [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)]. The molecular structure of [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)] was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and confirmed the distorted square pyramidal geometry of the complex with the N(2)O(2) binding mode of the tetradentate ligand. The formation of the polymer-supported p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)] proceeded via the nitrosation of sal-HBPD, followed by the reduction with hydrogen to form an amine group that was then linked to Merrifield beads followed by the reaction with [V(IV)OSO(4)]. XPS and EPR were used to confirm the presence of oxovanadium(IV) within the beads. The BET surface area and porosity of the heterogeneous catalyst p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)] were found to be 6.9 m(2) g(-1) and 180.8 Å respectively. Microanalysis, TG, UV-Vis and FT-IR were used for further characterization of both [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)] and p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)]. Oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) was investigated using [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)] and p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)] as catalysts. Progress for oxidation of these model compounds was monitored with a gas chromatograph fitted with a flame ionization detector. The oxidation products were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, microanalysis and NMR. Dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTO(2)) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene sulfone (4,6-DMDBTO(2)) were found to be the main products of oxidation. Oxovanadium(IV) Schiff base microspherical beads, p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)], were able to catalyse the oxidation of sulfur in dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) to a tune of 88.0% and 71.8% respectively after 3 h at 40 °C. These oxidation results show promise for potential application

  14. β-Selective mannosylation with a 4,6-silylene-tethered thiomannosyl donor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuckendorff, Mads; Bendix, Jesper; Pedersen, Christian Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Mannosylations using the new conformationally restricted donor phenyl 2,3-di-O-benzyl-4,6-O-(di-tert-butylsilylene)-1-thio-α-D-mannopyranoside (6) have been found to be β-selective with a variety of activation conditions. The simplest activation conditions were NIS/TfOH, in which case it is propo......Mannosylations using the new conformationally restricted donor phenyl 2,3-di-O-benzyl-4,6-O-(di-tert-butylsilylene)-1-thio-α-D-mannopyranoside (6) have been found to be β-selective with a variety of activation conditions. The simplest activation conditions were NIS/TfOH, in which case...

  15. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  16. Oral exposure of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 2,4,6-tribromophenol affects reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halden, Anna Norman; Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt; Andersson, Patrik L

    2010-01-01

    The bromophenol 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) is widely used as an industrial chemical, formed by degradation of tetrabromobisphenol-A, and it occurs naturally in marine organisms. Concentrations of TBP in fish have been related to intake via feed, but little is known about effects on fish health...... after oral exposure. In this study, we exposed adult male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio) to TBP via feed in nominal concentrations of 33, 330, and 3300 mu g/g feed (or control feed) for 6 weeks to assess the effects of TBP on reproductive output, gonad morphology, circulatory vitellogenin levels......, and early embryo development. The aim was also to investigate the extent to which TBP was metabolised to 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (IBA) in dietary exposed zebrafish, and the amounts of TBP and TBA found in offspring. After 6 weeks of exposure, we found about 3% of the daily dose of TBP in adult fish...

  17. Exploration on anion ordering, optical properties and electronic structure in K3WO3F3 elpasolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuchin, V.V.; Isaenko, L.I.; Kesler, V.G.; Lin, Z.S.; Molokeev, M.S.; Yelisseyev, A.P.; Zhurkov, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Room-temperature modification of potassium oxyfluorotungstate, G2-K 3 WO 3 F 3 , has been prepared by low-temperature chemical route and single crystal growth. Wide optical transparency range of 0.3–9.4 μm and forbidden band gap E g =4.32 eV have been obtained for G2-K 3 WO 3 F 3 crystal. Meanwhile, its electronic structure has been calculated with the first-principles calculations. The good agreement between the theorectical and experimental results have been achieved. Furthermore, G2-K 3 WO 3 F 3 is predicted to possess the relatively large nonlinear optical coefficients. - Graphical abstract: Using the cm-size K 3 WO 3 F 3 crystal (left upper), the transmission spectrum (right upper) and XPS valence electronic states (left lower) were measured, agreed with the ab initio results (right lower). Highlights: ► The cm-size G2-K 3 WO 3 F 3 single crystals are obtained. ► Optical absorption edge and transmission range are defined for G2-K 3 WO 3 F 3 crystal. ► Crystal structures of all known K 3 WO 3 F 3 polymorph modifications are determined. ► Experimental electronic structure is consistent with the first-principles result. ► G2-K 3 WO 3 F 3 is predicted as a crystal with large NLO coefficients.

  18. Crystallographic aspects of hydrated salts of 4,6-diaminopyrimidine with the first five dicarboxylic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matulková, I.; Andreoni, R.; Císařová, I.; Němec, I.; Fábry, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 232, č. 6 (2017), s. 471-484 ISSN 2194-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-05506S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure analysis * 4,6-diaminopyrimidine * dicarboxylic acids * hydrogen-bonding * vibrational spectroscopy * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.179, year: 2016

  19. Structural and spectroscopic parameters of 2,4,6-trimethylbenzamide, using DFT method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catikkas, B.; Karakaya, N.

    2010-01-01

    Conformational analysis of 2,4,6-Trimethylbenzamide was carried out. The geometric parameters (bond length, bond angle and tortion angle) of the most stable conformer were calculated and the Infrared and Raman frequencies of fundamental modes were determined. All calculations have been made by using the B3LYP / 6-311+G(d,p) method. Calculated values were compared with the experimental ones. All calculations were carried out with the Gaussian03 and GaussView3.0 programs.

  20. Crystal Structure and Spectroscopic Characterization of K8(VO)2O(SO4)6:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Birk; Rasmussen, Rikke Christina; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    2003-01-01

    Red and yellow dichroistic crystals of a vanadium(V) compound, potassium (mu-oxo, di-mu-suifato)bis(oxodisulfato-vanadate), K-8(VO)(2)O(SO4)(6), have been obtained from the ternary catalytic model melt system K2S2O7-K2SO4-V2O5. By slow cooling of the melt from 420 to 355 degreesC, crystal growth...

  1. Cycling Towards Progress: Ribociclib, CDK 4/6 inhibitor for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Laura; Bardia, Aditya

    2018-04-23

    Ribociclib is an orally active, highly selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6. It is the second CDK 4/6 inhibitor approved for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The addition of ribociclib to an aromatase inhibitor has resulted in marked improvements in progression-free survival for patients with metastatic breast cancer. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, B.W.

    1984-11-29

    A simple, sensitive and specific spot test for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, TATB, is described. Upon the application of the composition of matter of the subject invention to samples containing in excess of 0.1 mg of this explosive, a bright orange color results. Interfering species such as TNT and Tetryl can be removed by first treating the sample with a solvent which does not dissolve the TATB, but readily dissolves these interfering explosives.

  3. AKTİF KARBON ÜZERİNE 2,4,6-TRİKLOROFENOLÜN ADSORPSİYONU

    OpenAIRE

    Tümsek, Fatma; Bayındır, Zekiye; Bodur, Gökçen; Koyuncu, Zelal

    2015-01-01

    2,4,6-Trichlorophenol is a phenolic compound which is widely used in the production of pesticides, herbicides, wood, leather and glue preservatives. In addition, 2,4,6- trichlorophenol may form during the treatment of phenol containing industrial wastewater with hypochlorite or during the disinfection of drinking-water sources. The removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol is significant because of its high toxicity, carcinogenic properties and persistence [1].In this study, the adsorption of 2,4,6-tr...

  4. Deformation and fracture of K3 rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments after clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, S M; Deng, M; Wang, P P; Chen, X M; Zheng, L W; Li, H L

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the incidence and type of defects that occurred with K3 rotary nickel-titanium instruments during routine clinical use. A total of 2397 K3 (G-PACKS, SybronEndo, West Collins, Orange, CA, USA) instruments were collected from a graduate endodontic clinic over 21 months. All the instruments were limited to a maximum use of 30 canal preparations. The collected instruments were measured by a digital caliper to determine whether any fractures had occurred and then were visually inspected for deformation and fracture under a stereomicroscope. The surfaces of fractured instruments were further evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. Data were analysed using chi-square test and Kruskal-Wallis test. The incidence of instrument defect was 5.63%, consisting of 3.59% fractures and 2.05% deformations. The defect rates of 0.04 and 0.06 files were statistically higher than the other taper groups (P  0.05). For the fractured instruments, 63.95% failed from flexural fatigue, whilst 36.05% failed from torsion. Flexural fracture was the major mode of fracture for instruments with larger taper. A routine check for instrument integrity particularly for 0.04 and 0.06 files at high magnification is recommended after each clinical use. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparison of fracture and deformation in the rotary endodontic instruments: Protaper versus K-3 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, Sana Ehsen; Khan, Farhan Raza; Rahman, Munawar

    2016-03-01

    This experimental study was done on extracted human teeth to compare the fracture and deformation of the two rotary endodontic files system namely K-3 and Protapers. It was conducted at the dental clinics of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, A log of file deformation or fracture during root canal preparation was kept. The location of fracture was noted along with the identity of the canal in which fracture took place. The fracture in the two rotary systems was compared. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 172(80.4%) teeth possessing more than 15 degrees of curvature, fracture occurred in 7(4.1%) cases and deformation in 10(5.8%). Of the 42(19.6%) teeth possessing less than 15 degrees of curvature, fracture occurred in none of them while deformation was seen in 1(2.4%). There was no difference in K-3 and Protaper files with respect to file deformation and fracture. Most of the fractures occurred in mesiobuccal canals of maxillary molars, n=3(21.4%). The likelihood of file fracture increased 5.65-fold when the same file was used more than 3 times. Irrespective of the rotary system, apical third of the root canal space was the most common site for file fracture.

  6. Luminescence and color center distributions in K3YB6O12:Ce3+ phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Wan, Yingpeng; Weng, Honggen; Huang, Yanlin; Chen, Cuili; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Polycrystalline Ce 3+ -doped K 3 YB 6 O 12 (1–14 mol%) phosphors were prepared by facile chemical sol–gel synthesis. The phase formation of the phosphors was confirmed by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. The photoluminescence excitation spectra (PLE), emission spectra (PL) and the luminescence decay curves were tested. Under the near-UV light, the phosphors present the emission from blue color to yellowish green due to the allowed 4 f  –5 d transitions of Ce 3+ ions. The absolute quantum efficiency (QE) of K 3 YB 6 O 12 :Ce 3+ can reach 53% under the excitation of near-UV light. The luminescence thermal quenching of the phosphor was investigated by the temperature-dependent spectra. The crystallographic site of Ce 3+ ions in the lattice was identified and discussed on the basis of luminescence characteristics and structural data. There is only one isolated Ce 3+ center occupying the Y(II) sites in the lightly doped samples presenting a typical doublet emission profile. While the Ce 3+ multi-centers could be created with the enhancement of the doping levels, which could induce the distinct red-shift of the spectra due to the dipole–dipole interactions. The result in this work could be useful for the further investigation of other rare earth ions in this host. (paper)

  7. Structure of ferroelastic K3H(SeO4)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, M.; Sato, S.; Komukae, M.; Osaka, T.

    1992-01-01

    Tripotassium hydrogenbis(selenate), K 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 , M r = 404.2, monoclinic, A2/a, a = 10.1291 (8), b = 5.9038 (5), c = 14.961 (1) A, β = 103.640 (8) 0 , V = 869.5 (1) A 3 , Z = 4, D x = 3.086 Mg m -3 , λ(Mo Kα) = 0.71073 A, μ = 9.86 mm -1 , F(000) = 760, T = 299 K, R(F) = 0.0294 for 1670 unique reflections. K 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 is isomorphous with most M 3 H(XO 4 ) 2 -type crystals (M=K,Rb and Cs; Cs; X = S and Se); two SeO 4 groups are connected by a crystallographically symmetric hydrogen bond into a dimer. The bond distances and angles in the SeO 4 group are similar to those in Rb 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 and Rb 3 D(SeO 4 ) 2 . The hydrogen-bond length, 2.524 (5) A, is the shortest among the members of the M 3 H(SeO 4 ) 2 family exhibiting the low-temperature phase transition. (orig.)

  8. Extraction of Biomolecules Using Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids + K3PO4 Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louros, Cláudia L. S.; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M.; Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Freire, Mara G.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Pauly, Jérôme; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) provide an alternative and efficient approach for the extraction, recovery and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two liquid aqueous phases. In this work, the ability of hydrophilic phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to form ABS with aqueous K3PO4 solutions was evaluated for the first time. Ternary phase diagrams, and respective tie-lines and tie-lines length, formed by distinct phosphonium-based ILs, water, and K3PO4 at 298 K, were measured and are reported. The studied phosphonium-based ILs have shown to be more effective in promoting ABS compared to the imidazolium-based counterparts with similar anions. Moreover, the extractive capability of such systems was assessed for distinct biomolecules (including amino acids, food colourants and alkaloids). Densities and viscosities of both aqueous phases, at the mass fraction compositions used for the biomolecules extraction, were also determined. The evaluated IL-based ABS have been shown to be prospective extraction media, particularly for hydrophobic biomolecules, with several advantages over conventional polymer-inorganic salt ABS. PMID:20480041

  9. Development of a K3A robot for deployment in radioactive environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sias, F.R. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive materials make up a significant part of the hazardous-material inventory of the United States Department of Energy. Much of the radioactive material will be inspected or handled by robotic systems that contain electronic circuits that may be damaged by gamma radiation and other particles emitted from radioactive material. To use a mobile robot in the vicinity of high-level gamma radiation requires a special design. Since materials and electronic circuits can withstand some radiation without failure, the simplest approach would be simply to use an unmodified commercial mobile robot in the radioactive environment but remove it before failure occurs. Unpowered backup is another method of extending system lifetime in an ionizing radiation environment. When the primary system fails or degrades sufficiently, the backup system can be switched in to maintain system operation. By careful design and production-lot testing, systems can be designed to meet moderate doses of radiation; however, randomly-selected off- the-shelf commercial parts cannot be guaranteed to meet a specified total-dose tolerance. We can define the Basic Radiation-Hardened System to be a teleoperated K3A transport capable of deploying a radiation-hardened video camera for initial entry and inspection applications. The electronics in the K3A mobile base has three essential modules: MA-2 Motor Amplifier Circuit, DC-I Drive Control Computer, and DC/DC Converter for powering the electronics. Design of the system will be discussed

  10. CDK4/6 inhibitor PD0332991 in glioblastoma treatment: does it have a future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette eSchroder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is aggressive, highly infiltrating, and the most frequent malignant form of brain cancer. With a median survival time of only 14.6 months, when treated with the standard of care, it is essential to find new therapeutic options. A specific CDK4/6 inhibitor, PD0332991, obtained accelerated approval from the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with advanced estrogen receptor-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer. Common alterations in the cyclin D1-Cyclin Dependent Kinase 4/6-Retinoblastoma 1 pathway in glioblastoma make PD0332991 also an interesting drug for the treatment of glioblastoma. Promising results in in vitro studies, where patient derived glioblastoma cell lines showed sensitivity to PD0332991, gave motive to start in vivo studies. Outcomes of these studies have been contrasting in terms of PD0332991 efficacy within the brain: more research is necessary to conclude whether CDK4/6 inhibitor can be beneficial in the treatment of glioblastoma.

  11. Degradation of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol and hydrogen production simultaneously by TiO2 nanotubes/graphene composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Raudina

    2017-11-01

    Industrial waters in coal pyrolysis process, synthetic chemicals and oil and gas process contain phenol derivatives that are dangerous to the environment and needs to be removed, one of them is 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol. Degradation of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol and hydrogen production simultaneously have been investigated using TiNT/Graphene composite at various graphene loading and initial concentration of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol. Optimal graphene loading of 0.6 wt% was obtained in the simultaneous system with 89% elimination of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol and 986 µmol of hydrogen production. Test results showed that addition of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol would subsequently increased 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol conversion and enhanced hydrogen production linearly. 2.7 times greater hydrogen production was found in addition of 50 ppm 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol.

  12. Study on vitamin K 3-cyclodextrin inclusion complex and analytical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenming, Dong; Xiuping, Liu; Guomei, Zhang; Shaomin, Shuang; Jinghao, Pan

    2003-07-01

    The inclusion interaction of the complexes between Vitamin K3 (VK3) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) were studied by using steady-state fluorescence measurements. The various factors affecting the inclusion process were examined in detail. The formation constants and inclusion stoichiometry for VK3-CDs were determined. The results showed that the inclusion ability of β-CD and its derivatives was the order: SBE-β-CD>HP-β-CD>β-CD. The related inclusion mechanism is proposed to explain the inclusion process. A method of determining VK3 was established with the linear range was 2.5×10-6-5.0×10-4 M, and was used to determine the VK3 tablets. The recoveries were in the range of 97.52-103.5%. The results were satisfactory.

  13. Effective action of heterotic compactification on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schasny, Martin

    2012-10-01

    In this thesis we study the heterotic string compactified on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles. We focus on two backgrounds, the well-known standard embedding and abelian line bundles. Using a Kaluza-Klein reduction, the six-dimensional effective action is computed up to terms of order α' 2 with special attention on the hypermultiplet sector. We compute the moduli dependent couplings of the matter fields and analyze the geometry of the hyperscalar sigma model. Moreover, we prove the consistency with six-dimensional supergravity and derive the appropriate D-term scalar potential. For the line bundle backgrounds we show that the gauge flux stabilizes some geometrical moduli and renders some abelian vector multiplets massive.

  14. Twining genera of (0,4) supersymmetric sigma models on K3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Paquette, Natalie M.

    2014-01-01

    Conformal field theories with (0,4) worldsheet supersymmetry and K3 target can be used to compactify the E 8 ×E 8 heterotic string to six dimensions in a supersymmetric manner. The data specifying such a model includes an appropriate configuration of 24 gauge instantons in the E 8 ×E 8 gauge group to satisfy the constraints of anomaly cancellation. In this note, we compute twining genera — elliptic genera with appropriate insertions of discrete symmetry generators in the trace — for (0,4) theories with various instanton embeddings. We do this by constructing linear sigma models which flow to the desired conformal field theories, and using the techniques of localization. We present several examples of such twining genera which are consistent with a moonshine relating these (0,4) models to the finite simple sporadic group M 24

  15. Effective action of heterotic compactification on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schasny, Martin

    2012-10-15

    In this thesis we study the heterotic string compactified on K3 with non-trivial gauge bundles. We focus on two backgrounds, the well-known standard embedding and abelian line bundles. Using a Kaluza-Klein reduction, the six-dimensional effective action is computed up to terms of order {alpha}'{sup 2} with special attention on the hypermultiplet sector. We compute the moduli dependent couplings of the matter fields and analyze the geometry of the hyperscalar sigma model. Moreover, we prove the consistency with six-dimensional supergravity and derive the appropriate D-term scalar potential. For the line bundle backgrounds we show that the gauge flux stabilizes some geometrical moduli and renders some abelian vector multiplets massive.

  16. Cytotoxic activity of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 against human oral tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okayasu, H; Ishihara, M; Satoh, K; Sakagami, H

    2001-01-01

    Vitamin K1, K2 and K3 were compared for their cytotoxic activity, radical generation and O2- scavenging activity. Among these compounds, vitamin K3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity against human oral tumor cell lines (HSC-2, HSG), human promyelocytic leukemic cell line (HL-60) and human gingival fibroblast (HGF). Vitamin K3 induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells, but not in HSC-2 or HSG cells. The cytotoxic activity of vitamins K2 and K1 was one and two orders lower, respectively, than K3. Vitamin K2, but not vitamin K3, showed tumor-specific cytotoxic action. ESR spectroscopy showed that only vitamin K3 produced radical(s) under alkaline condition and most potently enhanced the radical intensity of sodium ascorbate and scavenged O2- (generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction system); vitamin K2 was much less active whereas vitamin K1 was inactive. These data suggest that the cytotoxic activity of vitamin K3 is generated by radical-mediated oxidation mechanism and that this vitamin has two opposing actions (that is, antioxidant and prooxidant), depending on the experimental conditions.

  17. Vitamin K3 Induces the Expression of the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SmeVWX Multidrug Efflux Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, P; Corona, F; Sánchez, M B; Martínez, J L

    2017-05-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen with increasing prevalence, which is able to cause infections in immunocompromised patients or in those with a previous pathology. The treatment of the infections caused by this bacterium is often complicated due to the several intrinsic antibiotic resistance mechanisms that it presents. Multidrug efflux pumps are among the best-studied mechanisms of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistance. Some of these efflux pumps have a basal expression level but, in general, their expression is often low and only reaches high levels when the local regulator is mutated or bacteria are in the presence of an effector. In the current work, we have developed a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based sensor with the aim to identify effectors able to trigger the expression of SmeVWX, an efflux pump that confers resistance to quinolones, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline when it is expressed at high levels. With this purpose in mind, we tested a variety of different compounds and analyzed the fluorescence signal given by the expression of YFP under the control of the smeVWX promoter. Among the tested compounds, vitamin K 3 , which is a compound belonging to the 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone family, is produced by plants in defense against infection, and has increasing importance in human therapy, was able to induce the expression of the SmeVWX efflux pump. In addition, a decrease in the susceptibility of S. maltophilia to ofloxacin and chloramphenicol was observed in the presence of vitamin K 3 , in both wild-type and smeW -deficient strains. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. MANAJEMEN RISIKO KESELAMATAN DAN KESEHATAN KERJA (K3 PADA PROYEK PEMBANGUNAN JAMBULUWUK HOTEL & RESORT PETITENGET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Bayu Dharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Work accidents that occur on the construction project will be one of the causes of the disruption or cessation of activities of the project work. The construction sector is the highest contributor to work accidents and occupational illness in Bali. Rampant construction of temporary lodging facilities or hotels in Bali can be one of the contributors to accidents. This study aims to determine the potential hazard and any dominant risk contained in a hotel development process as well as provides preventive measures to reduce such risks. In this research, the method used was descriptive qualitative. The risk of Occupational Health and Safety (K3 was identified through JSA (Job Safety Analysis. Questionnaire survey was carried out to get feedback from the experts regarding the potential hazards identified. The dominant category of risk assessment that was rated by the concept of ALARP (As Low As Reasonably Practicable. The research identified 45 of dominant risks contained in the phase of work structures including 43 risks classified as high risk such as : exposed to maneuver heavy equipment and vehicles, heavy equipment rolled because the excavated area slid down/ subsided, cross rope of Tower Crane disconnected / entangled on the operation, the charge fell from Tower Crane and as many as two risks were classified as very high risk (extreme risk that is : exposed to maneuver mixer and swing Tower Crane over the edge area of the project. The risks tended to be sourced in the work environment factors and work equipment. In order to minimize the impact of K3 risks, it is necessary to conduct risk control, evaluation activities in a daily, weekly, monthly periodic, considering a safe distance hazard source from workers, setting working hours, scenario procedures of an emergency, as well as safe work through work instruction to remind the importance of working in a healthy and safe condition.

  19. Antitumor effects of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 on hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Misuzu; Yokoyama, Fumi; Kita, Yuko; Nonomura, Takako; Masaki, Tsutomu; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hideyuki; Kinekawa, Fumihiko; Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Uchida, Naohito; Watanabe, Seishiro; Kuriyama, Shigeki

    2005-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that various K vitamins, specifically vitamins K2 and K3, possess antitumor activity on various types of rodent- and human-derived neoplastic cell lines. In the present study, we examined the antitumor effects of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 on PLC/PRF/5 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined the mechanisms of antitumor actions of these vitamins in vitro and in vivo. Although vitamin K1 did not inhibit proliferation of PLC/PRF/5 cells at a 90-microM concentration (the highest tested), vitamins K2 and K3 suppressed proliferation of the cells at concentrations of 90 and 9 microM, respectively. By flow cytometric analysis, it was shown that not only vitamin K1, but also vitamin K2 did not induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest on PLC/PRF/5 cells. In contrast, vitamin K3 induced G1 arrest, but not apoptosis on PLC/PRF/5 cells. Subsequent in vivo study using subcutaneous HCC-bearing athymic nude mice demonstrated that both vitamins K2 and K3 markedly suppressed the growth of HCC tumors to similar extent. Protein expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), but not p16INK4a Cdk inhibitor in the tumor was significantly reduced by vitamin K2 or K3 treatment, indicating that vitamins K2 and K3 may induce G1 arrest of cell cycle on PLC/PRF/5 cells in vivo. Taken collectively, vitamins K2 and K3 were able to induce potent antitumor effects on HCC in vitro and in vivo, at least in part, by inducing G1 arrest of the cell cycle. The results indicate that vitamins K2 and K3 may be useful agents for the treatment of patients with HCC.

  20. Vitamin K3 (menadione)-induced oncosis associated with keratin 8 phosphorylation and histone H3 arylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Gary K; Atsriku, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Held, Jason; Gibson, Brad; Baldwin, Michael A; Benz, Christopher C

    2005-09-01

    The vitamin K analog menadione (K3), capable of both redox cycling and arylating nucleophilic substrates by Michael addition, has been extensively studied as a model stress-inducing quinone in both cell culture and animal model systems. Exposure of keratin 8 (k-8) expressing human breast cancer cells (MCF7, T47D, SKBr3) to K3 (50-100 microM) induced rapid, sustained, and site-specific k-8 serine phosphorylation (pSer73) dependent on signaling by a single mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, MEK1/2. Normal nuclear morphology and k-8 immunofluorescence coupled with the lack of DNA laddering or other features of apoptosis indicated that K3-induced cytotoxicity, evident within 4 h of treatment and delayed but not prevented by MEK1/2 inhibition, was due to a form of stress-activated cell death known as oncosis. Independent of MAPK signaling was the progressive appearance of K3-induced cellular fluorescence, principally nuclear in origin and suggested by in vitro fluorimetry to have been caused by K3 thiol arylation. Imaging by UV transillumination of protein gels containing nuclear extracts from K3-treated cells revealed a prominent 17-kDa band shown to be histone H3 by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry (MS). K3 arylation of histones in vitro followed by electrospray ionization-tandem MS analyses identified the unique Cys110 residue within H3, exposed only in the open chromatin of transcriptionally active genes, as a K3 arylation target. These findings delineate new pathways associated with K3-induced stress and suggest a potentially novel role for H3 Cys110 as a nuclear stress sensor.

  1. 2,4,6-Triamino-1,3,5-triazine-1,3-diium aquapentafluoridoaluminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maisonneuve

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, (C3H8N6[AlF5(H2O], was obtained by solvothermal synthesis from the reaction of aluminium hydroxide, 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine (melamine, aqueous HF and water at 323 K for 48 h. The structure consists of [AlF5(H2O]2− octahedra and diprotonated melaminium cations. Cohesion is ensured by a three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds.

  2. Erosion of the 4-6- and 8 group transition metals under intense laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsonov, G.V.; Verkhoturov, A.D.; Roshchina, A.I.; Vasil'ev, A.V.; Klimenko, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    The erosion resistance is studied of transition metals of Groups 4-6 and 8 at laser emission of approximately 6x1O 7 W/cm 2 . It is shown that as the emission power increases from 10 6 to 6x10 7 W/cm 2 the erosion values show an increase over tenfold without any subsequent filling of the craters. The growth of the metallic erosion is largely caused by a greater crater diameter. The erosion resistance of metals enhances in the following series: Ti-Zr-Co-Ni-Fe, Hf-V-Nb-Mo-Cr-Ta-W-Cu

  3. Monoklonale Antikörper zum Nachweis von 2,4,6-Trichloranisol in Kork

    OpenAIRE

    Lausterer, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Die Verbindung 2,4,6-Trichloranisol (TCA) kann in Kork und Wein vorkommen. TCA entsteht durch mikrobielle Umsetzung von Chlorphenolen. In den betroffenen Industrien führt TCA zu jährlichen Verlusten von mehr als einer Milliarde €. Zur Bestimmung von TCA sollten enzymkoppelte Immunabsorptionstest (ELISAs) mit monoklonalen Antikörpern (mAk) entwickelt werden. Es wurden drei TCA-spezifische mAk-produzierende Zelllinien gewonnen. Mit diesen mAk wurden hochsensitive ELISAs hergstellt, die eine Nac...

  4. Synthesis of 2,4,6-Trisubstituted Pyridines by Oxidative Eosin Y Photoredox Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohokale, Rajendra S; Koenig, Burkhard; Dhavale, Dilip D

    2016-08-19

    Eosin Y, an organic dye, was activated as a photoredox catalyst in the presence of molecular oxygen using visible light and, when it was used in the reaction of aryl ketones and benzyl amines, afforded good yields (52-87%) of 2,4,6-triarylpyridines (21 examples) at ambient temperature. The aryl groups at the 2- and 6-positions are derived from ketones, while benzyl amine plays the dual role of providing an aryl functionality at the 4-position of pyridine as well as being a nitrogen donor.

  5. Synthesis of 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl hydrazones and their inhibitory potential against glycation of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Shah, Zarbad; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Khan, Momin; Taha, Muhammad; Rahim, Fazal; Jahan, Humera; Perveen, Shahnaz; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2011-11-01

    2,4,6-Trichlorophenyl hydrazones 1-35 were synthesized and their in vitro antiglycation potential was evaluated. Compounds 14 (IC50 = 27.2 ± 0.00 μM), and 18 (IC50 = 55.7 ± 0.00 μM) showed an excellent activity against glycation of protein, better than the standard (rutin, IC50 = 70 ± 0.50 μM). This study thus identified a novel series of antiglycation agents. A structure-activity relationship has been studied, and all the compounds were characterized by spectroscopic techniques.

  6. 4.- 6.-Luokkalaisten odotukset ja toiveet Jyväskylän seurakunnan toiminnalta

    OpenAIRE

    Leppänen, Hanna-Maire

    2014-01-01

    Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää 4.-6. luokkalaisten odotukset ja toiveet Jyväskylän seurakunnan toiminnalta, jotta työntekijät tavoittaisivat kohderyhmän pa-remmin ja heille voitaisiin järjestää mielekästä ja osallistavaa toimintaa. Työn hankkeisti Jyväskylän seurakunta. Teoriaosassa käsiteltiin kirkon varhaisnuorisotyötä, osallistavaa toimintaa, Jyväskylän seurakunnan varhaisnuorisotyötä sekä varhaisnuorten kasvua ja kehitystä. Tutkimus toteutettiin internetkyselyllä Jy...

  7. Comprehension from the Ground Up: Simplified, Sensible Instruction for the K-3 Reading Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberski, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The author cuts through the pressurized, strategy-overloaded, fluency-crazed atmosphere surrounding reading instruction to lay out the reading and writing workshop practices that are most effective in developing readers in the primary grades. She shares the daily how-tos needed to sustain a literacy block that engages children in authentic reading…

  8. Application of Azolla for 2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol (TCP Removal from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Zazouli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The 2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol (TCP is a phenolic compound which it can produce adverse effects on human and environment. Therefore, the removal of these compounds is necessary. The aim of this study is the investigation of TCP removal by using Azolla filiculoides biomass. Materials & Methods: The Azolla biomass was dried in the sunlight, and then it was crushed and sieved to particle sizes in range of 1-2 mm. Next treated with 0.1M HCl for a period of 5h. The Azolla was washed with distilled water and it was used as adsorbent. The effect of operating parameters such as pH, contact time, TCP concentration and adsorbent dose on the TCP removal efficiency was investigated. The residues concentration of TCP was measured by spectrophotometer in λ max of 296 nm. Results: In optimum condition (pH 3, contact time 120 min , adsorbent dose 10 gr/l and TCP concentration 10 ppm, Azolla was able to remove 95% of TCP from aqueous solutions. The equilibrium data follows the Langmuir isotherm and the proper kinetic model is pseudo-second model. Conclusions: Adsorption process by Azolla filiculoides is an efficient method for removal of 2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol from aqueous solutions.

  9. Chemically catalyzed uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Vetiveria zizanioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makris, Konstantinos C.; Shakya, Kabindra M.; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Pachanoor, Devanand

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) in removing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media was explored in the presence of a common agrochemical, urea, used as a chaotropic agent. Chaotropic agents disrupt water structure, increasing solubilization of hydrophobic compounds (TNT), thus, enhancing plant TNT uptake. The primary objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize TNT absorption by vetiver in hydroponic media, and (ii) determine the effect of urea on chemically catalyzing TNT uptake by vetiver grass in hydroponic media. Results showed that vetiver exhibited a high TNT uptake capacity (1.026 mg g -1 ), but kinetics were slow. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly (p<0.001) increased the 2nd-order reaction rate constant over that of the untreated (no urea) control. Three major TNT metabolites were detected in the roots, but not in the shoot, namely 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 4-amino 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino 4,6-dinitrotoluene, indicating TNT degradation by vetiver grass. - A common agrochemical, urea catalyzes TNT removal by vetiver grass in aqueous media

  10. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in cork bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivella, M Àngels; Caixach, Josep; Planas, Carles; Oliveras, Anna; Jové, Patrícia

    2012-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are persistent lipophilic organic pollutants and tend to accumulate in growing plants. During growth, cork is in contact with the open air for long periods (9-12 years). Owing to the previous widespread use of organochlorine pesticides and their high persistence in the environment, there is a risk that residues of such pesticides may be present in cork. In this study, the concentrations of 14 organochlorine pesticides-all of which are indicators of environmental pollution-were analyzed in cork bark samples from three regions in Spain and one in Portugal. In addition, the concentrations of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) were also analyzed. Our results show only very low concentrations of lindane, γ-HCH (cork sample from Extremadura (0.1 ng g(-1)) and p,p'-DDE was present at a maximum concentration of 2.9 ng g(-1) in a cork sample from Castile-La Mancha. However, all concentrations were well below the legal limit established by Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 (10 ng g(-1) in foodstuffs). We can conclude, therefore, that the cork samples we studied complied with food safety standards. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemically catalyzed uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Vetiveria zizanioides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makris, Konstantinos C. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Shakya, Kabindra M. [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Datta, Rupali [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Sarkar, Dibyendu [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)]. E-mail: dibyendu.sarkar@utsa.edu; Pachanoor, Devanand [Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory, Department of Earth and Environmental Science, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The efficiency of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) in removing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from aqueous media was explored in the presence of a common agrochemical, urea, used as a chaotropic agent. Chaotropic agents disrupt water structure, increasing solubilization of hydrophobic compounds (TNT), thus, enhancing plant TNT uptake. The primary objectives of this study were to: (i) characterize TNT absorption by vetiver in hydroponic media, and (ii) determine the effect of urea on chemically catalyzing TNT uptake by vetiver grass in hydroponic media. Results showed that vetiver exhibited a high TNT uptake capacity (1.026 mg g{sup -1}), but kinetics were slow. Uptake was considerably enhanced in the presence of urea, which significantly (p<0.001) increased the 2nd-order reaction rate constant over that of the untreated (no urea) control. Three major TNT metabolites were detected in the roots, but not in the shoot, namely 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 4-amino 2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 2-amino 4,6-dinitrotoluene, indicating TNT degradation by vetiver grass. - A common agrochemical, urea catalyzes TNT removal by vetiver grass in aqueous media.

  12. Placebo-controlled phase II study of vitamin K3 cream for the treatment of cetuximab-induced rash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Kaalund, Inger; Clemmensen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cetuximab inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and papulopustular eruptions is a frequent side effect. Vitamin K3 (menadione) has preclinically shown to be a potential activator of the EGFR by phosphorylating the receptor (pEGFR). The present randomised study investigated...... the effect of a vitamin K3 cream on cetuximab-induced rash. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients were included in this double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Patients receiving cetuximab 500 mg/m2 every second week plus chemotherapy for metastatic cancer were included. In each patient, vitamin K3 cream...... stained for EGFR and pEGFR. RESULTS: Application of vitamin K3 cream twice daily during treatment with cetuximab did not reduce the number of papulopustular eruptions, and this was independent of the use of systemic tetracycline. No significant changes in the staining of EGFR or pEGFR were observed...

  13. Pengaruh kesehatan dan keselamatan kerja (K3, dan insentif terhadap motivasi serta kinerja karyawan pada bagian produksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Frans

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The human factor is an important factor in implementing vision, mission in achieving company target. Human resources aspect need to get more attention from the company. Example of consideration that was given by the company is the provision of Occupational Health and Safety (K3 to the employees. This research examines a hypothesis, known as explanatory research. The research purpose are to explaining and analyzing the effect of work safety to work motivation; effect of work health to work motivation; understanding and analyzing the effect of incentive to employee performance; and explaining and analyzing the effect of motivation to employee performance in CV. Intan Mandiri Pratam, Kupang. In this research, work motivation was set as intervening variable. Direct impact between (K3 and incentive to employee are higher compare to K3 and incentive to motivation as variable. This research found that K3 and incentive are more impactful to worker compare to motivation as variable.

  14. PRX1 knockdown potentiates vitamin K3 toxicity in cancer cells: a potential new therapeutic perspective for an old drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tiantian; Hatem, Elie; Vernis, Laurence; Lei, Ming; Huang, Meng-Er

    2015-12-21

    Many promising anticancer molecules are abandoned during the course from bench to bedside due to lack of clear-cut efficiency and/or severe side effects. Vitamin K3 (vitK3) is a synthetic naphthoquinone exhibiting significant in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity against multiple human cancers, and has therapeutic potential when combined with other anticancer molecules. The major mechanism for the anticancer activity of vitK3 is the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). We thus reasoned that a rational redox modulation of cancer cells could enhance vitK3 anticancer efficiency. Cancer cell lines with peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX1) gene transiently or stably knocked-down and corresponding controls were exposed to vitK3 as well as a set of anticancer molecules, including vinblastine, taxol, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, actinomycin D and 5-fluorouracil. Cytotoxic effects and cell death events were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-based assay, cell clonogenic assay, measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential and annexin V/propidium iodide double staining. Global ROS accumulation and compartment-specific H2O2 generation were determined respectively by a redox-sensitive chemical probe and H2O2-sensitive sensor HyPer. Oxidation of endogenous antioxidant proteins including TRX1, TRX2 and PRX3 was monitored by redox western blot. We observed that the PRX1 knockdown in HeLa and A549 cells conferred enhanced sensitivity to vitK3, reducing substantially the necessary doses to kill cancer cells. The same conditions (combination of vitK3 and PRX1 knockdown) caused little cytotoxicity in non-cancerous cells, suggesting a cancer-cell-selective property. Increased ROS accumulation had a crucial role in vitK3-induced cell death in PRX1 knockdown cells. The use of H2O2-specific sensors HyPer revealed that vitK3 lead to immediate accumulation of H2O2 in the cytosol, nucleus, and mitochondrial matrix. PRX1 silencing

  15. Tuning the redox potential of vitamin K3 derivatives by oxidative functionalization using a Ag(i)/GO catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hout, S I; Suzuki, H; El-Sheikh, S M; Hassan, H M A; Harraz, F A; Ibrahim, I A; El-Sharkawy, E A; Tsujimura, S; Holzinger, M; Nishina, Y

    2017-08-03

    We propose herein initial results to develop optimum redox mediators by the combination of computational simulation and catalytic functionalization of the core structure of vitamin K 3 . We aim to correlate the calculated energy value of the LUMO of different vitamin K 3 derivatives with their actual redox potential. For this, we optimized the catalytic alkylation of 1,4-naphthoquinones with a designed Ag(i)/GO catalyst and synthesized a series of molecules.

  16. Photoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of Tb3+ doped K3Gd(PO4)2 nanophosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Palvi; Bedyal, A.K.; Kumar, Vinay; Khajuria, Y.; Lochab, S.P.; Pitale, S.S.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M.; Swart, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    Energy level diagram of Tb 3+ ion in the K 3 Gd(PO 4 ) 2 host lattice. - Highlights: • First time, a detailed TL and PL study on undoped and Tb 3+ doped K 3 Gd(PO 4 ) 2 nanophosphor. • Combustion method was employed to synthesize the Tb 3+ doped K 3 Gd(PO 4 ) 2 nanophosphor. • Mechanism of excitation and emission in undoped and Tb 3+ doped K 3 Gd(PO 4 ) 2 nanophosphor was given. - Abstract: Tb 3+ doped nanoparticulate K 3 Gd(PO 4 ) 2 phosphor was prepared by combustion method using urea as a fuel. The structure, optical and luminescent properties of the phosphor were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), and thermoluminescence (TL) spectroscopy. In undoped K 3 Gd(PO 4 ) 2 , the excitation and emission peaks at 273 nm and 323 nm belongs to the 8 S 7/2 → 6 I J(J=7/2) and 6 P J(J=7/2) → 8 S 7/2 transitions of Gd 3+ while green emission was observed in the Tb 3+ doped K 3 Gd(PO 4 ) 2 . TL study was carried out after exposing the samples to γ-radiations (0.1–5 kGy) in the K 3 Gd(PO 4 ) 2 :Tb 3+ (1.5 mol%). The calculated kinetic parameters were compared with different methods. The band gap of the phosphor was estimated as 5.80 eV. The green shade of the Tb 3+ ion with the CIE coordinates (x, y) as (0.29, 0.54) was in good agreement with the well known green phosphors

  17. Direct and indirect methods for the determination of vitamin K3 using differential pulse polarography and application to pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somer, Güler; Doğan, Mehmet

    2008-11-01

    Two methods for the determination of vitamin K(3) have been developed. Vitamin K(3) in its oxidized form is determined by direct and indirect methods. Its standard solution was prepared by the indirect method using Ti(III) as reducing agent. For this purpose vitamin K(3) (menadion) in a clinical injection solution, which is in its hydroquinone form in the presence of sulfite, is oxidized with oxygen. In 0.2 M HAc and 0.02 M HCl electrolyte vitamin K(3) and Ti(IV) have reduction peaks at -0.58 V at -0.82 V respectively. The reaction between Ti(III) and vitamin takes place quantitatively in a medium of 0.2 M HAc and 0.002 M HCl. After the reduction, the reaction product Ti(IV) is followed from its polarographic peak at about -0.82 V. The most important result in this work is that, with this method vitamin K(3) can be standardized and after standardization this solution can be used for the direct determination in routine analysis with a very simple and fast method, using only the peak at -0.71 V in 0.2 M HAc medium. Both direct and indirect methods have been used for the determination of Vitamin K(3) in a clinical injection solution. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.5x10(-6) M and in both methods the detection limit found was 7x10(-7) M.

  18. Placebo-controlled phase II study of vitamin K3 cream for the treatment of cetuximab-induced rash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Kaalund, Inger; Clemmensen, Ole; Overgaard, Jens; Pfeiffer, Per

    2017-07-01

    Cetuximab inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and papulopustular eruptions is a frequent side effect. Vitamin K3 (menadione) has preclinically shown to be a potential activator of the EGFR by phosphorylating the receptor (pEGFR). The present randomised study investigated the effect of a vitamin K3 cream on cetuximab-induced rash. Thirty patients were included in this double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Patients receiving cetuximab 500 mg/m 2 every second week plus chemotherapy for metastatic cancer were included. In each patient, vitamin K3 cream and placebo were applied twice daily on two separate areas of the skin of minimum 10 × 10 cm for up to 2 months. Papulopustular eruptions were evaluated clinically and monitored by clinical photos. Skin biopsies, from ten patients taken before and after 1 month of treatment from each treatment area, were stained for EGFR and pEGFR. Application of vitamin K3 cream twice daily during treatment with cetuximab did not reduce the number of papulopustular eruptions, and this was independent of the use of systemic tetracycline. No significant changes in the staining of EGFR or pEGFR were observed in the skin of the vitamin K3-treated area compared to the placebo area. The present data do not support any clinical or immunohistochemical benefit of using vitamin K3 cream for cetuximab-induced rash.

  19. Polyamide 4,6 nanocomposites with and without the use of a maleated polyolefin elastomer as a toughener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Fang-Chyou; Deng, Tsung-Lin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, polyamide 4,6 (PA 4,6)-based nanocomposites were successfully prepared using a twin screw extruder. A commercial organo-montmorillonite (denoted as 30B) and a commercial maleated polyolefin elastomer (denoted as POEMA) served as the reinforcing filler and toughener, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results confirmed the nano-scaled dispersion of 30B in the composites. Nevertheless, the presence of POEMA slightly depreciated the dispersibility of 30B. Polarized light microscope (PLM) observations showed that the inclusions of 30B and POEMA led to the formation of diffused/broken PA 4,6 spherulites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results indicated that the addition of 30B retarded the crystallization of PA 4,6; the addition of POEMA led to a similar retardation effect on PA 4,6 crystallization. Interesting melting behaviors associated mainly with the crystal annealing of PA 4,6 upon heating were observed for the fast-cooled samples. The presence of POEMA was noted to hamper the annealing process of PA 4,6 crystals. The thermal stability enhancement of PA 4,6 in the presence of 30B was further raised to a higher extent when POEMA was included in the matrix. The rigidity, including the storage/Young's/flexural moduli, of PA 4,6 significantly increased after adding 30B. These properties, however, declined after the additional incorporation of POEMA. The PA 4,6/POEMA/30B nanocomposites basically displayed balanced impact strength between those of the neat PA 4,6 and PA 4,6/POEMA blends.

  20. Spectroscopy of the 4.6 - 4.7 micron interstellar absorption features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geballe, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Perhaps the most successful application of spectroscopy to the study of interstellar solid state infrared absorption features has been in the case of the previously unidentified feature near 4.6 μm first seen in absorption toward the protostar W33A. Whereas the original spectrum of this object, obtained at a resolving power of 70, revealed only a single deep absorption feature, a later spectrum, using a single channel grating spectrometer at ten times the resolving power, indicates that it is made up of three separate components. The central narrow absorption feature at 2140 cm -1 (4.67 μm) coincides in wavelength precisely with that of solid CO. It and its unresolved shoulder at just lower frequency have now been seen quite commonly in absorption toward other protostars. The broad absorption seen in W33A at 2165 cm -1 (4.62 μm) is apparently much less common. (author)

  1. The 21st LH Gray Conference (June 4-6, 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C. M. L. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Martin, C. J. [Gartnavel Royal Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sutton, D. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Wright, E. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-12

    The 21st LH Gray Conference, organised by the LH Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics which included: non-targeted effects of radiation, exposure to high natural background radiation, non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, lessons learnt from Chernobyl, radiation in the workplace, biokinetic modelling, uncertainties in risk estimation, issues in diagnostic medical exposures, lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and how the radiobiology-radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today.

  2. Adsorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene on carboxylated porous polystyrene microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhengfang; Meng Qingqiang; Lu Shengtao

    2012-01-01

    Large-pore-size (150 nm) polystyrene (PSt) microspheres were carboxylated with phthalic anhydride (PA) through Friedel-Crafts acetylation to study the adsorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on this material from aqueous solution. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and mercury porosimetry measurements (MPM) of the microspheres showed that the pore structure was unchanged during the reaction. High adsorption capacity (11.2 mg g -1 of suction-dried adsorbent) and adsorption rate (33.9 mg g -1 h -1 ) for TNT were observed during the study. As shown by the adsorption isotherm, the adsorption of TNT on PA-PSt can be described by the Freundlich adsorption equation, indicating heterogeneous adsorption process. On-column adsorption of TNT on PA-PSt and elution indicated that TNT can be completely removed from aqueous solution and condensed into acetone.

  3. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Bis-4,6-sulfonamidated 5,7-Dinitrobenzofuroxans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Galkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of bis-4,6-sulfonamidated 5,7-dinitrbenzofuroxans  7–11 had been synthesized and tested for antimicrobial activity. The structures of new sulfanilamide derivatives were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry (MALDITOF. The synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activity using the disk diffusion method against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus; the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis; the fungal strain Aspergillus niger; and the yeast-like pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Our results indicate that the compounds 7–11 exhibit potent antimicrobial activity. The stability of the compounds was evaluated by TG and DSC methods.

  4. The first naphthosemiquinone complex of K+ with vitamin K3 analog: Experiment and density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathawate, Laxmi; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Yeole, Sachin D.; Verma, Prakash L.; Puranik, Vedavati G.; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2015-05-01

    Synthesis and characterization of potassium complex of 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (phthiocol), the vitamin K3 analog, has been carried out using FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H and 13C NMR, EPR, cyclic voltammetry and single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments combined with the density functional theory. It has been observed that naphthosemiquinone binds to two K+ ions extending the polymeric chain through bridging oxygens O(2) and O(3). The crystal network possesses hydrogen bonding interactions from coordinated water molecules showing water channels along the c-axis. 13C NMR spectra revealed that the complexation of phthiocol with potassium ion engenders deshielding of C(2) signals, which appear at δ = ∼14.6 ppm whereas those of C(3) exhibit up-field signals near δ ∼ 6.9 ppm. These inferences are supported by the M06-2x based density functional theory. Electrochemical experiments further suggest that reduction of naphthosemiquinone results in only a cathodic peak from catechol. A triplet state arising from interactions between neighboring phthiocol anion lead to a half field signal at g = 4.1 in the polycrystalline X-band EPR spectra at 133 K.

  5. Vitamin K3 (menadione) redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and inhibits parathion intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Richardson, Jason R; Baker, Angela A; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2015-10-01

    Parathion, a widely used organophosphate insecticide, is considered a high priority chemical threat. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a cytotoxic metabolite. As an effective inhibitor of cholinesterases, paraoxon causes the accumulation of acetylcholine in synapses and overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, leading to characteristic signs of organophosphate poisoning. Inhibition of parathion metabolism to paraoxon represents a potential approach to counter parathion toxicity. Herein, we demonstrate that menadione (methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, vitamin K3) is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of parathion. Menadione is active in redox cycling, a reaction mediated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase that preferentially uses electrons from NADPH at the expense of their supply to the P450s. Using human recombinant CYP 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and human liver microsomes, menadione was found to inhibit the formation of paraoxon from parathion. Administration of menadione bisulfite (40mg/kg, ip) to rats also reduced parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity, as well as parathion-induced tremors and the progression of other signs and symptoms of parathion poisoning. These data suggest that redox cycling compounds, such as menadione, have the potential to effectively mitigate the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides including parathion which require cytochrome P450-mediated activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Plumbagin, a vitamin K3 analogue ameliorate malaria pathogenesis by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit Chand; Mohanty, Shilpa; Saxena, Archana; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U

    2018-03-22

    Plumbagin, a vitamin K3 analogue is the major active constituent in several plants including root of Plumbago indica Linn. This compound has been shown to exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities. The present investigation was to evaluate the ameliorative effects of plumbagin (PL) against severe malaria pathogenesis due to involvement of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in Plasmodium berghei infected malaria in mice. Malaria pathogenesis was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of P. berghei infected red blood cells into the Swiss albino mice. PL was administered orally at doses of 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day following Peter's 4 day suppression test. Oral administration of PL showed significant reduction of parasitaemia and increase in mean survival time. PL treatment is also attributed to significant increase in the blood glucose and haemoglobin level when compared with vehicle-treated infected mice. Significant inhibition in level of oxidative stress and pro-inflammation related markers were observed in PL treated group. The trend of inhibition in oxidative stress markers level after oral treatment of PL was MPO > LPO > ROS in organ injury in P. berghei infected mice. This study showed that plumbagin is able to ameliorate malaria pathogenesis by augmenting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanism apart from its effect on reducing parasitaemia and increasing mean survival time of malaria-induced mice.

  7. Vitamin K3 suppressed inflammatory and immune responses in a redox-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checker, Rahul; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh K; Khan, Nazir M; Patwardhan, Raghavendra S; Kohli, Vineet; Sainis, Krishna B

    2011-08-01

    Recent investigations suggest that cellular redox status may play a key role in the regulation of several immune functions. Treatment of lymphocytes with vitamin K3 (menadione) resulted in a significant decrease in cellular GSH/GSSG ratio and concomitant increase in the ROS levels. It also suppressed Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced proliferation and cytokine production in lymphocytes and CD4 + T cells in vitro. Immunosuppressive effects of menadione were abrogated only by thiol containing antioxidants. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that menadione directly interacted with thiol antioxidant GSH. Menadione completely suppressed Con A-induced activation of ERK, JNK and NF-κB in lymphocytes. It also significantly decreased the homeostasis driven proliferation of syngeneic CD4 + T cells. Further, menadione significantly delayed graft-vs-host disease morbidity and mortality in mice. Menadione suppressed phytohemagglutinin-induced cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results reveal that cellular redox perturbation by menadione is responsible for significant suppression of lymphocyte responses.

  8. Menadione (Vitamin K3) decreases melanin synthesis through ERK activation in Mel-Ab cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hyun; Kim, Myo-Kyoung; Yun, Hye-Young; Baek, Kwang Jin; Kwon, Nyoun Soo; Park, Kyoung-Chan; Kim, Dong-Seok

    2013-10-15

    Menadione is a synthetic vitamin K3 derivative. Here, we examined the effects of menadione on melanogenesis and its related signaling pathways. Our results showed that melanin content was significantly reduced after menadione treatment in a dose-dependent manner. However, menadione treatment did not reduce tyrosinase activity directly. Wnt signaling is known to play a major role in the control of melanin synthesis. Thus, we tested the effects of menadione treatment on GSK3β and β-catenin signaling, but found that menadione did not influence either of these signaling pathways. We also investigated changes in the phosphorylation of ERK, which is related to melanin regulation. These results indicated that menadione treatment led to the phosphorylation of ERK. Additionally, menadione treatment reduced both MITF and tyrosinase protein levels. Treatment with PD98059, a specific ERK pathway inhibitor, restored menadione-induced melanin reduction and also prevented MITF and tyrosinase downregulation by menadione. These results suggest that the hypopigmentary action of menadione is due to MITF and tyrosinase downregulation by ERK activation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vitamin K3 triggers human leukemia cell death through hydrogen peroxide generation and histone hyperacetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Changjun; Kang, Jiuhong; Zheng, Rongliang

    2005-10-01

    Vitamin K3 (VK3) is a well-known anticancer agent, but its mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, VK3 was found to simultaneously induce cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, including superoxide anion (O2*-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation, and histone hyperacetylation in human leukemia HL-60 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Catalase (CAT), an antioxidant enzyme that specifically scavenges H2O2, could significantly diminish both histone acetylation increase and cell death caused by VK3, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme that specifically eliminates O2*-, showed no effect on both of these, leading to the conclusion that H2O2 generation, but not O2*- generation, contributes to VK3-induced histone hyperacetylation and cell death. This conclusion was confirmed by the finding that enhancement of VK3-induced H2O2 generation by vitamin C (VC) could significantly promote both the histone hyperacetylation and cell death. Further studies suggested that histone hyperacetylation played an important role in VK3-induced cell death, since sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, showed no effect on ROS generation, but obviously potentiated VK3-induced histone hyperacetylation and cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the anticancer activity of VK3, i.e., VK3 induced tumor cell death through H2O2 generation, which then further induced histone hyperacetylation.

  10. K(3)TaF(8) from laboratory X-ray powder data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrcok, Lubomír; Cerný, Radovan; Boca, Miroslav; Macková, Iveta; Kubíková, Blanka

    2010-02-01

    The crystal structure of tripotassium octafluoridotantalate, K(3)TaF(8), determined from laboratory powder diffraction data by the simulated annealing method and refined by total energy minimization in the solid state, is built from discrete potassium cations, fluoride anions and monocapped trigonal-prismatic [TaF(7)](2-) ions. All six atoms in the asymmetric unit are in special positions of the P6(3)mc space group: the Ta and one F atom in the 2b (3m) sites, the K and two F atoms in the 6c (m) sites, and one F atom in the 2a (3m) site. The structure consists of face-sharing K(6) octahedra with a fluoride anion at the center of each octahedron, forming chains of composition [FK(3)](2+) running along [001] with isolated [TaF(7)](2-) trigonal prisms in between. The structure of the title compound is different from the reported structure of Na(3)TaF(8) and represents a new structure type.

  11. Vitamin K3 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Nishiumi, S; Nishida, M; Mizushina, Y; Kobayashi, K; Masuda, A; Fujita, T; Morita, Y; Mizuno, S; Kutsumi, H; Azuma, T; Yoshida, M

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin K is a family of fat-soluble compounds including phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2) and menadione (vitamin K3). Recently, it was reported that vitamin K, especially vitamins K1 and K2, exerts a variety of biological effects, and these compounds are expected to be candidates for therapeutic agents against various diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin K3 in in vitro cultured cell experiments and in vivo animal experiments. In human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells, vitamin K3 inhibited the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α-evoked translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB into the nucleus, although vitamins K1 and K2 did not. Vitamin K3 also suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and production of TNF-α in mouse macrophage RAW264·7 cells. Moreover, the addition of vitamin K3 before and after LPS administration attenuated the severity of lung injury in an animal model of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which occurs in the setting of acute severe illness complicated by systemic inflammation. In the ARDS model, vitamin K3 also suppressed the LPS-induced increase in the serum TNF-α level and inhibited the LPS-evoked nuclear translocation of NF-κB in lung tissue. Despite marked efforts, little therapeutic progress has been made, and the mortality rate of ARDS remains high. Vitamin K3 may be an effective therapeutic strategy against acute lung injury including ARDS. PMID:20030669

  12. Vitamin K3 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, S; Nishiumi, S; Nishida, M; Mizushina, Y; Kobayashi, K; Masuda, A; Fujita, T; Morita, Y; Mizuno, S; Kutsumi, H; Azuma, T; Yoshida, M

    2010-05-01

    Vitamin K is a family of fat-soluble compounds including phylloquinone (vitamin K1), menaquinone (vitamin K2) and menadione (vitamin K3). Recently, it was reported that vitamin K, especially vitamins K1 and K2, exerts a variety of biological effects, and these compounds are expected to be candidates for therapeutic agents against various diseases. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin K3 in in vitro cultured cell experiments and in vivo animal experiments. In human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells, vitamin K3 inhibited the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-evoked translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB into the nucleus, although vitamins K1 and K2 did not. Vitamin K3 also suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB and production of TNF-alpha in mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, the addition of vitamin K3 before and after LPS administration attenuated the severity of lung injury in an animal model of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which occurs in the setting of acute severe illness complicated by systemic inflammation. In the ARDS model, vitamin K3 also suppressed the LPS-induced increase in the serum TNF-alpha level and inhibited the LPS-evoked nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB in lung tissue. Despite marked efforts, little therapeutic progress has been made, and the mortality rate of ARDS remains high. Vitamin K3 may be an effective therapeutic strategy against acute lung injury including ARDS.

  13. Crystal structure, thermally stability and photoluminescence properties of novel Sr10(PO4)6O:Eu2+ phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Qingfeng; Liao, Libing; Mei, Lefu; Liu, Haikun

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel luminescent phosphors Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 O:Eu 2+ with apatite structure were synthesized via a high temperature solid-state reaction. The phase structure, photoluminescence (PL) properties, the PL thermal stability, as well as the fluorescence decay curves of the samples were investigated to characterize the resulting samples, and the selected Sr 9.97 (PO 4 ) 6 O:0.03Eu 2+ phosphor exhibits strong thermal quenching resistance, retaining the luminance of 88.73% at 150 °C. The quenching concentration of Eu 2+ in Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 O was about 0.03 attributing to the dipole–quadrupole interaction. The Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 O:Eu 2+ phosphor exhibited a broad-band blue emission at 439 nm upon excitation at 346 nm. The results indicate that Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 O:Eu 2+ phosphors have potential applications as near UV-convertible phosphors for white-light UV LEDs. - Graphical abstract: Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 O:Eu 2+ phosphors have potential applications as near UV-convertible phosphors for white-light UV LEDs. - Highlights: • Sr 9.97 (PO 4 ) 6 O:0.03Eu 2+ phosphor exhibits strong thermal quenching resistance. • Two different Eu 2+ emission centers exists in Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 O. • The activation energy was also estimated for the Eu 2+ luminescence center

  14. Vitamin K3 (menadione) redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and inhibits parathion intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan, Yi-Hua [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Richardson, Jason R., E-mail: jricha3@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Baker, Angela A. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Mishin, Vladimir [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Department of Environmental Health Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Parathion, a widely used organophosphate insecticide, is considered a high priority chemical threat. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a cytotoxic metabolite. As an effective inhibitor of cholinesterases, paraoxon causes the accumulation of acetylcholine in synapses and overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, leading to characteristic signs of organophosphate poisoning. Inhibition of parathion metabolism to paraoxon represents a potential approach to counter parathion toxicity. Herein, we demonstrate that menadione (methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, vitamin K3) is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of parathion. Menadione is active in redox cycling, a reaction mediated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase that preferentially uses electrons from NADPH at the expense of their supply to the P450s. Using human recombinant CYP 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and human liver microsomes, menadione was found to inhibit the formation of paraoxon from parathion. Administration of menadione bisulfite (40 mg/kg, ip) to rats also reduced parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity, as well as parathion-induced tremors and the progression of other signs and symptoms of parathion poisoning. These data suggest that redox cycling compounds, such as menadione, have the potential to effectively mitigate the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides including parathion which require cytochrome P450-mediated activation. - Highlights: • Menadione redox cycles with cytochrome P450 reductase and generates reactive oxygen species. • Redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated parathion metabolism. • Short term administration of menadione inhibits parathion toxicity by inhibiting paraoxon formation.

  15. The phosphatase inhibitor menadione (vitamin K3) protects cells from EGFR inhibition by erlotinib and cetuximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Soler, Roman; Zou, Yiyu; Li, Tianhong; Ling, Yi He

    2011-11-01

    Skin toxicity is the main side effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, often leading to dose reduction or discontinuation. We hypothesized that phosphatase inhibition in the skin keratinocytes may prevent receptor dephosphorylation caused by EGFR inhibitors and be used as a new potential strategy for the prevention or treatment of this side effect. Menadione (Vitamin K3) was used as the prototype compound to test our hypothesis. HaCat human skin keratinocyte cells and A431 human squamous carcinoma cells were used. EGFR inhibition was measured by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Phosphatase inhibition and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured by standard ELISA and fluorescence assays. Menadione caused significant and reversible EGFR activation in a dose-dependent manner starting at nontoxic concentrations. EGFR activation by menadione was associated with reversible protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibition, which seemed to be mediated by ROS generation as exposure to antioxidants prevented both menadione-induced ROS generation and phosphatase inhibition. Short-term coincubation of cells with nontoxic concentrations of menadione and the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib or cetuximab prevented EGFR dephosphorylation. Seventy-two-hour coincubation of cells with the highest nontoxic concentration of menadione and erlotinib provided for a fourfold cell growth inhibitory protection in HaCat human keratinocyte cells. Menadione at nontoxic concentrations causes EGFR activation and prevents EGFR dephosphorylation by erlotinib and cetuximab. This effect seems to be mediated by ROS generation and secondary phosphatase inhibition. Mild oxidative stress in skin keratinocytes by topical menadione may protect the skin from the toxicity secondary to EGFR inhibitors without causing cytotoxicity. ©2011 AACR

  16. Vitamin K3 (menadione) redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and inhibits parathion intoxication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Richardson, Jason R.; Baker, Angela A.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Parathion, a widely used organophosphate insecticide, is considered a high priority chemical threat. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a cytotoxic metabolite. As an effective inhibitor of cholinesterases, paraoxon causes the accumulation of acetylcholine in synapses and overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, leading to characteristic signs of organophosphate poisoning. Inhibition of parathion metabolism to paraoxon represents a potential approach to counter parathion toxicity. Herein, we demonstrate that menadione (methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, vitamin K3) is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of parathion. Menadione is active in redox cycling, a reaction mediated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase that preferentially uses electrons from NADPH at the expense of their supply to the P450s. Using human recombinant CYP 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and human liver microsomes, menadione was found to inhibit the formation of paraoxon from parathion. Administration of menadione bisulfite (40 mg/kg, ip) to rats also reduced parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity, as well as parathion-induced tremors and the progression of other signs and symptoms of parathion poisoning. These data suggest that redox cycling compounds, such as menadione, have the potential to effectively mitigate the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides including parathion which require cytochrome P450-mediated activation. - Highlights: • Menadione redox cycles with cytochrome P450 reductase and generates reactive oxygen species. • Redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated parathion metabolism. • Short term administration of menadione inhibits parathion toxicity by inhibiting paraoxon formation.

  17. Visual detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotolune by molecularly imprinted colloidal array photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wei; Asher, Sanford A.; Meng, Zihui; Yan, Zequn; Xue, Min; Qiu, Lili; Yi, Da

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) was explored for the selective visual detection of TNT with color changing from green to red. And molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) were evaluated for the adsorption capacity and the imprinting efficiency. The MICA had excellent flexibility, reversibility and stability. It promised high potential for the visual semi-quantitative detection of other explosives. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) was used to visually detect TNT. • The relationship of particle size, diffracted wavelength and color was discussed. • The adsorption capacity and imprinting efficiency of MICs were calculated. • MICA had short response time, high selectivity, good reversibility and stability. • MICA had high potential to be used in other customed visual explosive detection. - Abstract: We developed a photonic crystal (PhC) sensor for the quantification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in solution. Monodisperse (210 nm in diameter) molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for TNT were prepared by the emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate and acrylamide in the presence of TNT as a template. The MICs were then self-assembled into close-packed opal PhC films. The adsorption capacity of the MICs for TNT was 64 mg TNT/g. The diffraction from the PhC depended on the TNT concentration in a methanol/water (3/2, v/v) potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH = 7.0, 30 mM). The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 1.03 μg. The color of the molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) changed from green to red with an 84 nm diffraction red shift when the TNT concentration increased to 20 mM. The sensor response time was 3 min. The PhC sensor was selective for TNT compared to similar compounds such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2-nitromesitylene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, methylbenzene, 4-nitrophenol

  18. Visual detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotolune by molecularly imprinted colloidal array photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Asher, Sanford A., E-mail: asher@pitt.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Meng, Zihui, E-mail: m_zihui@yahoo.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yan, Zequn [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Xue, Min, E-mail: minxue@bit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Qiu, Lili, E-mail: qiulili@bit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yi, Da [School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Graphical abstract: Molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) was explored for the selective visual detection of TNT with color changing from green to red. And molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) were evaluated for the adsorption capacity and the imprinting efficiency. The MICA had excellent flexibility, reversibility and stability. It promised high potential for the visual semi-quantitative detection of other explosives. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) was used to visually detect TNT. • The relationship of particle size, diffracted wavelength and color was discussed. • The adsorption capacity and imprinting efficiency of MICs were calculated. • MICA had short response time, high selectivity, good reversibility and stability. • MICA had high potential to be used in other customed visual explosive detection. - Abstract: We developed a photonic crystal (PhC) sensor for the quantification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in solution. Monodisperse (210 nm in diameter) molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for TNT were prepared by the emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate and acrylamide in the presence of TNT as a template. The MICs were then self-assembled into close-packed opal PhC films. The adsorption capacity of the MICs for TNT was 64 mg TNT/g. The diffraction from the PhC depended on the TNT concentration in a methanol/water (3/2, v/v) potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH = 7.0, 30 mM). The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 1.03 μg. The color of the molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) changed from green to red with an 84 nm diffraction red shift when the TNT concentration increased to 20 mM. The sensor response time was 3 min. The PhC sensor was selective for TNT compared to similar compounds such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2-nitromesitylene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, methylbenzene, 4-nitrophenol

  19. Uptake and effects of 2, 4, 6 - trinitrotoluene (TNT) in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariussen, Espen; Stornes, Siv Marie; Bøifot, Kari Oline; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Salbu, Brit; Heier, Lene Sørlie

    2018-01-01

    Organ specific uptake and depuration, and biological effects in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were studied. Two experiments were conducted, the first using radiolabeled TNT ( 14 C-TNT, 0.16mg/L) to study uptake (48h) and depuration (48h), while the second experiment focused on physiological effects in fish exposed to increasing concentrations of unlabeled TNT (1μg-1mg/L) for 48h. The uptake of 14 C-TNT in the gills and most of the organs increased rapidly during the first 6h of exposure (12h in the brain) followed by a rapid decrease even though the fish were still exposed to TNT in the water. The radioactivity in the gall bladder reached a maximum after 55h, 7h after the transfer to the clean water. A high concentration of 14 C-TNT in the gall bladder indicates that TNT is excreted through the gall bladder. Mortality (2 out of 14) was observed at a concentration of 1mg/L, and the surviving fish had hemorrhages in the dorsal muscle tissue near the spine. Analysis of the physiological parameters in blood from the high exposure group revealed severe effects, with an increase in the levels of glucose, urea and HCO 3 , and a decrease in hematocrit and the levels of Cl and hemoglobin. No effects on blood physiology were observed in fish exposed to the lower concentrations of TNT (1-100μg/L). TNT and the metabolites 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT) were found in the muscle tissue, whereas only 2-ADNT and 4-ADNT were found in the bile. The rapid excretion and estimated bioconcentration factors (range of 2-18 after 48h in gills, blood, liver, kidney, muscle and brain) indicated a low potential for bioaccumulation of TNT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction Mode between Inclusion Complex of Vitamin K3 with γ- Cyclodextrin and Herring-Sperm DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan; Cai, Li; Xue, Kang; Wang, Chunling; Xiong, Xiaoli

    2016-05-03

    Methods including spectroscopy, electronic chemistry and thermodynamics were used to study the inclusion effect between γ-cyclodextrin (CD) and vitamin K3(K3), as well as the interaction mode between herring-sperm DNA (hsDNA) and γ-CD-K3 inclusion complex. The results from ultraviolet spectroscopic method indicated that VK3 and γ-CD formed 1:1 inclusion complex, with the inclusion constant Kf = 1.02 × 10(4) L/mol, which is based on Benesi-Hildebrand's viewpoint. The outcomes from the probe method and Scatchard methods suggested that the interaction mode between γ-CD-K3 and DNA was a mixture mode, which included intercalation and electrostatic binding effects. The binding constants were K (θ)25°C = 2.16 × 10(4) L/mol, and K(θ)37°C = 1.06 × 10(4) L/mol. The thermodynamic functions of the interaction between γ-CD-K3 and DNA were ΔrHm(θ) = -2.74 × 10(4) J/mol, ΔrSm(θ) = 174.74 J·mol(-1)K(-1), therefore, both ΔrHm(θ) (enthalpy) and ΔrSm(θ) (entropy) worked as driven forces in this action.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of spherical 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zongwei; Liu Yucun; Liu Dengcheng; Yan Liwei; Chen Ji

    2010-01-01

    Spherical 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP) with good flowability and controlled bulk density (0.65-0.95 g/cm 3 ) has been prepared at factory scale by the modified method using 4-methylphenol as crystal control ingredient. Results showed that the yield of product was increased by 5-10%, and the waste water was significantly decreased due to circulation use of waste water compared with traditional method. Synthesized spherical DDNP was characterized by IR, laser granularity measurement, SEM, HPLC and XRD. IR spectrum confirmed the structural features of spherical DDNP. The particle analysis revealed that the modified method could offer spherical DDNP with average particle size of 350 μm and high purity (>98.52%). The XRD peaks of spherical DDNP have similar diffraction angles as those of traditional DDNP. The DSC profile of spherical DDNP showed the exothermic decomposition in the temperature range of 161.2-188.5 deg. C. The product can be pressed at over 40 MPa without dead pressed phenomenon, and the minimum detonating charge of spherical DDNP was measured to be about 0.15 g. Furthermore, impact sensitivity test suggested that spherical DDNP is less sensitive than traditional DDNP.

  2. Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by P. aeruginosa and characterization of some metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Aysun Mercimek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT, a nitroaromatic explosive found in the soil and ground water, was investigated using Pseudomonas aeruginosa in in vitroexperiments. Biodegradable abilitiy of this bacteria was performed with 50 and 75 mg L−1 TNT concentrations in a defined liquid medium for 96 h time period. Treatment of TNT in supernatant samples taken at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h from agitated vessels was followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. In cultures supplemented with 50 and 75 mgL−1 TNT, after 96 h of incubation 46% and 59% reduction were detected respectively. Two metabolites as degradation intermediates with nitrite release into the medium, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT and 4-aminodinitrotoluene (4-ADNT, were elucidated by thin layer chromatography (TLC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. These findings clearly indicate that Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be used in bioremediation of TNT contaminated sites.

  3. Influence of microstructure on the mechanical properties of a Zr-4.6 wt.% Al alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, V.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Banerjee, S.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of microstructure on the room temperature mechanical properties of a Zr-4.6 wt.% Al alloy was investigated. Quenching from the beta phase produced a significant solid solution hardening. On aging the alloy at low temperatures for short periods aluminium rejection from the solid solution occurred and a fine dispersion of a metastable Zr 3 Al phase (DO 19 structure) formed. The strengthening caused by the presence of these ordered particles was found to more than compensate the softening brought about by decreasing supersaturation. The high strength corresponding to this structure could be explained in terms of the contributions from the coherency strains associated with and the state of order within the metastable particles. Aging at these temperatures for longer periods or at higher temperatures gave rise to a lamellar distribution of the α-zirconium (aluminium) and the equilibrium Zr 3 Al (Ll 2 structure) phases. The strength associated with this lamellar structure was found to be appreciably lower and to be strongly dependent on the interlamellar spacing. Investigations of the fracture surfaces showed that the modes of fracture associated with these different microstructures were different. An attempt was made to rationalize the observed strength properties in terms of existing theoretical models. (Auth.)

  4. Phototransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene: Sensitized by riboflavin under different irradiation spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xin; Zhao Xueheng; Hwang, H.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Riboflavin-sensitized phototransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) under natural sunlight was investigated with reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The effect of different spectral region of sunlight on TNT phototransformation in the absence or presence of riboflavin was also investigated by using optical filters with cut-off at 400 or 455 nm. The concentration of riboflavin in the phototransformation of TNT was optimized. Concentration of riboflavin and TNT was 1.0 and 50 μM, respectively. The rates of phototransformation of TNT under natural sunlight in the presence or absence of riboflavin were conformed to initial pseudo-first-order rate equation. The photolysis half life of TNT in the presence of riboflavin was 21.87 min, compared to 39 min in the absence of riboflavin under natural sunlight. Two major phototransformation products of TNT, 3,5-dinitroaniline (3,5-DNA) and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (1,3,5-TNB), were detected in the samples in the presence of riboflavin receiving irradiation at full wavelength or wavelength >400 nm. The results indicate that riboflavin mediates TNT sensitized-phototransfomation under natural sunlight or near-UV-vis light

  5. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenylhydrazine Schiff bases as DPPH radical and super oxide anion scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Shah, Zarbad; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin; Khan, Momin; Taha, Muhammad; Rahim, Fazal; Ali, Sajjad; Ambreen, Nida; Perveen, Shahnaz; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Syntheses of thirty 2,4,6-trichlorophenylhydrazine Schiff bases 1-30 were carried out and evaluated for their in vitro DPPH radical and super oxide anion scavenging activities. Compounds 1-30 have shown a varying degree of DPPH radical scavenging activity and their IC50 values range between 4.05-369.30 µM. The compounds 17, 28, 18, 14, 8, 15, 12, 2, 29, and 7 exhibited IC50 values ranging between 4.05±0.06-24.42±0.86 µM which are superior to standard n-propylgallate (IC50=30.12±0.27 µM). Selected compounds have shown a varying degree of superoxide anion radical scavenger activity and their IC50 values range between 91.23-406.90 µM. The compounds 28, 8, 17, 15, and 14, showed IC50 values between 91.23±1.2-105.31±2.29 µM which are superior to standard n-propylgallate (IC50=106.34±1.6 µM).

  6. Quantum Transport Simulation of High-Power 4.6-μm Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olafur Jonasson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a quantum transport simulation of a 4.6- μ m quantum cascade laser (QCL operating at high power near room temperature. The simulation is based on a rigorous density-matrix-based formalism, in which the evolution of the single-electron density matrix follows a Markovian master equation in the presence of applied electric field and relevant scattering mechanisms. We show that it is important to allow for both position-dependent effective mass and for effective lowering of very thin barriers in order to obtain the band structure and the current-field characteristics comparable to experiment. Our calculations agree well with experiments over a wide range of temperatures. We predict a room-temperature threshold field of 62 . 5 kV/cm and a characteristic temperature for threshold-current-density variation of T 0 = 199 K . We also calculate electronic in-plane distributions, which are far from thermal, and show that subband electron temperatures can be hundreds to thousands of degrees higher than the heat sink. Finally, we emphasize the role of coherent tunneling current by looking at the size of coherences, the off-diagonal elements of the density matrix. At the design lasing field, efficient injection manifests itself in a large injector/upper lasing level coherence, which underscores the insufficiency of semiclassical techniques to address injection in QCLs.

  7. High uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by vetiver grass - Potential for phytoremediation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makris, Konstantinos C.; Shakya, Kabindra M.; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Pachanoor, Devanand

    2007-01-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potent mutagen, and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. Vast areas that have been previously used as ranges, munition burning, and open detonation sites are heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remediation activities in such sites are expensive and damaging to the ecosystem. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective, environment-friendly solution, utilizing plants to extract TNT from contaminated soil. We investigated the potential use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) to effectively remove TNT from contaminated solutions. Vetiver grass plants were grown in hydroponic systems containing 40 mg TNT L -1 for 8 d. Aqueous concentrations of TNT reached the method detection limit (∼1 μg L -1 ) within the 8-d period, demonstrating high affinity of vetiver for TNT, without any visible toxic effects. Results from this preliminary hydroponic study are encouraging, but in need of verification using TNT-contaminated soils. - Vetiver grass demonstrates ability to absorb TNT in aqueous media

  8. Interdental Spacing and Dental Caries in the Primary Dentition of 4-6 Year Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Babu Kl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are various risk factors which play an essential role in the multifactorial disease “dental caries.” Although absence of interdental spaces in the primary dentition may increase the risk of dental caries, not many studies have been carried out to assess this correlation. This study was performed to assess the relationship between interdental spacing and dental caries in primary dentition.Materials and Methods: Five hundred 4-6 year-old children were enrolled into this study. Dental caries was recorded using the criteria given by Warren et al. Following this, impressions were made for the upper and lower arches and dental casts were poured. Interdental spaces were measured on the dental casts using a digital verniercaliper. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis.Results: The number of sites with interdental spaces was higher in the maxillary arch in comparison to the mandibular arch. The highest number of interdental spaces was observed between the maxillary anteriors. The number of demineralized, but non-cavitated tooth surfaces (d1were higher than the number of cavitated tooth surfaces. This difference was significant in the mandibular anterior segment. Dental caries showed a negative correlation with interdental spacing. A significant correlation was found between dental caries and interdental spacing in the posterior segment of the mandibular arch.Conclusion: This study showed that children with no interdental spacing in the primary dentition are at higher risk for dental caries.Key Words: Dental Caries; Interdental Spaces; Interproximal Caries

  9. Antiparasitic activity of menadione (vitamin K3) against Schistosoma mansoni in BABL/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Govind J; Soares, Ingrid A O; Rao, G Subba; Badoco, Fernanda R; Furtado, Ricardo A; Correa, Mariana B; Tavares, Denise C; Cunha, Wilson R; Magalhães, Lizandra G

    2017-03-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases affecting nearly quarter of a billion people in economically challenged tropical and subtropical countries of the world. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug currently available to treat this parasitic disease in spite being ineffective against juvenile worms and concerns about developing resistance to treat reinfections. Our earlier in vitro viability studies demonstrated significant antiparasitic activity of menadione (MEN) (vitamin K 3 ) against Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. To gain insight into plausible mechanism of antischistosomal activity of MEN, its effect on superoxide anion levels in adult worms were studied in vitro which showed significant increases in both female and male worms. Further confirmation of the deleterious morphological changes in their teguments and organelles were obtained by ultrastructural analysis. Genotoxic and cytotoxic studies in male Swiss mice indicated that MEN was well tolerated at the oral dose of 500mg/kg using the criteria of MNPCE frequency and PCE/RBC ratio in the bone marrow of infected animals. The in vivo antiparasitic activity of MEN was conducted in female BALB/c mice infected with S. mansoni and significant reductions (P<0.001) in total worm burden were observed at single oral doses of 40 and 400mg/kg (48.57 and 61.90%, respectively). Additionally, MEN significantly reduced (P<0.001) the number of eggs in the liver of infected mice by 53.57 and 58.76%, respectively. Similarly, histological analysis of the livers showed a significant reduction (P<0.001) in the diameter of the granulomas. Since MEN is already in use globally as an over-the-counter drug for a variety of common ailments and a dietary supplement with a safety record in par with similar products when used in recommended doses, the above antiparasitic results which compare reasonably well with PZQ, make a compelling case for considering MEN to treat S. mansoni infection in humans. Copyright © 2016

  10. Vitamins C and K3: A Powerful Redox System for Sensitizing Leukemia Lymphocytes to Everolimus and Barasertib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Donika; Zhelev, Zhivko; Lazarova, Dessislava; Getsov, Plamen; Bakalova, Rumiana; Aoki, Ichio

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies provided convincing evidence for the anticancer activity of combined application of vitamin C and pro-vitamin K3 (menadione). The molecular pathways underlying this process are still not well established. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the combination of vitamin C plus pro-vitamin K3 on the redox status of leukemia and normal lymphocytes, as well as their sensitizing effect for a variety of anticancer drugs. Cytotoxicity of the substances was analyzed by trypan blue staining and automated counting of live and dead cells. Apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescein isothiocyanate-annexin V test. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and protein-carbonyl products. Combined administration of 300 μM vitamin C plus 3 μM pro-vitamin K3 reduced the viability of leukemia lymphocytes by ~20%, but did not influence the viability of normal lymphocytes. All combinations of anticancer drug plus vitamins C and K3 were characterized by synergistic cytotoxicity towards Jurkat cells, compared to cells treated with drug alone for 24 h. In the case of barasertib and everolimus, this synergistic cytotoxicity increased within 72 hours. It was accompanied by strong induction of apoptosis, but a reduction of level of hydroperoxides and moderately increased protein-carbonyl products in leukemia cells. Leukemia lymphocytes were more sensitive to combined administration of anticancer drug (everolimus or barasertib) plus vitamins C and K3, compared to normal lymphocytes. The combination of vitamin C plus K3 seems to be a powerful redox system that could specifically influence redox homeostasis of leukemia cells and sensitize them to conventional chemotherapy. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Urinary fluoride excretion by children 4-6 years old in a south Texas community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon J. Baez

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated urinary fluoride excretion by school children 4-6 years old who were living in a south Texas rural community that had concentrations of fluoride in drinking water supplies generally around the optimal level. We took supervised collections of urine samples in the morning and afternoon at school, and parents of the participating students collected nocturnal samples. We recorded the beginning and end times of the three collection periods and then determined the urinary volume and urinary flow for each of the periods. We measured urinary fluoride concentrations and calculated the urinary excretion rate per hour. The children had breakfast and lunch provided at the school, where the drinking water contained 1.0-1.3 milligrams/liter (mg/L fluoride. Fluoride concentrations in the tested household water supplies, from wells, ranged from 0.1 to 3.2 mg/L fluoride. The children's average urinary fluoride concentrations found for the day were similar to those for the night, with means ranging from 1.26 mg/L to 1.42 mg/L. Average excretion was 36.4 µg/h in the morning, 45.6 µg/h in the afternoon, and 17.5 µg/h at night. The lower nocturnal excretion rates are easily explained by low urinary flow at night. Based on the 15 hours of urine collected, the extrapolated 24-hour fluoride excretion was 749 µg. In conjunction with similar studies, the data from this study will help in developing upper limits for urinary fluoride excretion that are appropriate for avoiding unsightly fluorosis while providing optimal protection against dental decay.

  12. Enhancement of microbial 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene transformation with increased toxicity by exogenous nutrient amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shih-Hsiung; Hsu, Duen-Wei; Lin, Chia-Ying; Kao, Chih-Ming; Huang, Da-Ji; Chien, Chih-Ching; Chen, Ssu-Ching; Tsai, Isheng Jason; Chen, Chien-Cheng

    2017-04-01

    In this study, the bacterial strain Citrobacter youngae strain E4 was isolated from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil and used to assess the capacity of TNT transformation with/without exogenous nutrient amendments. C. youngae E4 poorly degraded TNT without an exogenous amino nitrogen source, whereas the addition of an amino nitrogen source considerably increased the efficacy of TNT transformation in a dose-dependent manner. The enhanced TNT transformation of C. youngae E4 was mediated by increased cell growth and up-regulation of TNT nitroreductases, including NemA, NfsA and NfsB. This result indicates that the increase in TNT transformation by C. youngae E4 via nitrogen nutrient stimulation is a cometabolism process. Consistently, TNT transformation was effectively enhanced when C. youngae E4 was subjected to a TNT-contaminated soil slurry in the presence of an exogenous amino nitrogen amendment. Thus, effective enhancement of TNT transformation via the coordinated inoculation of the nutrient-responsive C. youngae E4 and an exogenous nitrogen amendment might be applicable for the remediation of TNT-contaminated soil. Although the TNT transformation was significantly enhanced by C. youngae E4 in concert with biostimulation, the 96-h LC50 value of the TNT transformation product mixture on the aquatic invertebrate Tigriopus japonicas was higher than the LC50 value of TNT alone. Our results suggest that exogenous nutrient amendment can enhance microbial TNT transformation; however, additional detoxification processes may be needed due to the increased toxicity after reduced TNT transformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a cellular biosensor for the detection of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelas, Vassileios; Sanvicens, Nuria; M-Pilar-Marco; Kintzios, Spiridon

    2011-05-15

    2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) is a microbial metabolite formed from chlorophenols through the activity of several natural fungal strains present on the cork oak bark. TCA is the primary compound responsible for the mousty/mould off-odour known as "cork taint" present in cork stoppers, wine, water and alcoholic beverages. Chromatographic and electrochemical methods are currently used for the determination of TCA, however its detection at low concentrations remains a technical challenge. The aim of this study was the development of a rapid novel biosensor system based on the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA). The sensor measured the electric response of cultured membrane-engineered fibroblast cells suspended in an alginate gel matrix due to the change of their membrane potential in the presence of the analyte. Membrane-engineered cells were prepared by osmotic insertion of 0.5 μg/l of specific TCA antibodies into the membrane of the cells. The BERA-based sensor was able to detect TCA in a few minutes (3-5 min) at extremely low concentrations (10(-1)ppt), thus demonstrating higher sensitivity than the human sensory threshold. In addition, the assay was quite selective against other haloanisoles and halophenols structurally related to or co-occurring with TCA. Finally the sensor was tested against real white wine samples from cork soaks. At this real test, the BERA sensor was able to detect TCA from cork soaks rapidly (3-5 min) at very low concentrations (1.02-12 ng/l), covering the whole range for the detection threshold for wines (1.4-10 ng/l). Therefore, this novel biosensor offers new perspectives for ultra-rapid, ultra-sensitive and low-cost monitoring of TCA presence in cork and wine and possibly also other food commodities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodegradation of TNT (2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, T.; Bumpus, J.A.; Aust, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    Extensive biodegradation of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was observed. At an initial concentration of 1.3 mg/liter, 35.4 ± 3.6% of the [ 14 C]TNT was degraded to 14 CO 2 in 18 days. The addition of glucose 12 days after the addition of TNT did not stimulate mineralization, and, after 18 days of incubation with TNT only, about 3.3% of the initial TNT could be recovered. Mineralization of [ 14 C]TNT absorbed on soil was also examined. Ground corncobs served as the nutrient for slow but sustained degradation of [ 14 C]TNT to 14 CO 2 such that 6.3 ± 0.6% of the [ 14 C]TNT initially present was converted to 14 CO 2 during the 30-day incubation period. Mass balance analysis of liquid cultures and of soil-corncob cultures revealed that polar [ 14 C]TNT metabolites are formed in both systems, and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed that less then 5% of the radioactivity remained as undegraded [ 14 C]TNT following incubation with the fungus in soil and liquid cultures. When the concentration of TNT in cultures (both liquid and soil) was adjusted to contamination levels that might be found in the environment, i.e., 10,000 mg/kg in soil and 100 mg/liter in water, mineralization studies showed that 18.4 ± 2.9% and 19.6 ± 3.5% of the initial TNT was converted to 14 CO 2 in 90 days in soil and liquid cultures, respectively. In both cases (90 days in water at 100 mg/liter and in soil at 10,000 mg/kg) approximately 85% of the TNT was degraded. These results suggest that this fungus may be useful for the decontamination of sites in the environment contaminated with TNT

  15. Degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol with peroxymonosulfate catalyzed by soluble and supported iron porphyrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Günay, Tuğçe; Çimen, Yasemin

    2017-01-01

    Degradation of 2,4,6-trichloropenol (TCP) with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) catalyzed by iron porphyrin tetrasulfonate ([FePTS)] was investigated in an 8-to-1 (v/v) CH 3 OH-H 2 O mixture. Typical reaction medium contained a 4.00 mL methanol solution of TCP (0.100 mmol), a 0.50 mL aqueous solution of catalyst (5.0 × 10 −4  mmol), and 0.100 mmol PMS (as 0.031 g of Oxone). The reaction was performed at ambient temperature. The conversion of TCP was 74% in 30 min and 80% in 6 h when the catalyst was [FePTS]. Amberlite IRA-900 supported [FePTS] catalyst was also prepared. In the recycling experiments the homogeneous [FePTS] lost its activity after the first cycle, while [FePTS]-Amberlite IRA 900 maintained its activity for the first 2 cycles. After the second cycle, the conversion of TCP dropped to <10% for Amberlite IRA-900 supported [FePTS] catalyst. The degradation of TCP with PMS was also attempted using cobalt, copper, nickel and palladium porphyrin tetrasulfonate catalysts, however, no catalytic activity was observed with these structures. - Highlights: • The method presents an effective oxidation of TCP. • This research provided persistence, less harmful, self-degradable and more environmental oxidation products. • About seventy percent conversions of TCP in 30 min was achieved at room temperature. - This research provided non-persistent, less harmful, self-degradable and more environmentally friendly oxidation products. About 70% conversions of TCP in 30 min was achieved at room temperature.

  16. Gas phase detection of explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunte, Gudrun; Hürttlen, Jürgen; Pontius, Heike; Hartlieb, Kerstin; Krause, Horst

    2007-05-15

    Fast, reliable and inexpensive analytical techniques for trace detection of explosive components are in high demand. Our approach is to develop specific sensor coating materials based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). Despite the known inhibition of radical polymerisations by nitro groups and the known shrinkage of the polymer lattice during/after drying we were able to synthesize particulate MIPs by suspension polymerisation as well as thin MIP coatings by direct surface polymerisation on quartz crystal microbalances (QCM). The best method to purify the porous beads was Soxhlet extraction followed by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE with sc-CO2) at mild conditions (150 bar, 50 degrees C). At least a removal of >99.7% of the template was achieved. Performance tests of TNT imprinted polymer beads showed that acrylamide (AA) and more pronounced also methacrylic acid (MAA) possessed an enhanced adsorption tendency for gaseous TNT. An adsorption of 2,4-DNT, dinitrotoluene, by these MIPs was not detected. Using 2,4-DNT as template and methacrylamide, MAAM, a positive imprint effect for gaseous 2,4-DNT was achieved with no measurable cross-sensitivity for 2,4,6-TNT. The thin MIP coatings directly synthesized on the QCMs showed thicknesses of 20 to up to 500 nm. Preliminary screening experiments were performed for five different monomers and three different solvents (acetonitrile, chloroform and dimethylformamide). Best adsorption properties for TNT vapour until now showed a PAA-MIP synthesized with chloroform. Direct measurements of the mass attachment, respectively frequency decrease of the coated QCMs during vapour treatment showed a TNT-uptake of about 150 pg per microg MIP per hour. Results look worthy for further studies.

  17. Measurements of coronal Faraday rotation at 4.6 R ☉

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooi, Jason E.; Fischer, Patrick D.; Buffo, Jacob J.; Spangler, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Many competing models for the coronal heating and acceleration mechanisms of the high-speed solar wind depend on the solar magnetic field and plasma structure in the corona within heliocentric distances of 5 R ☉ . We report on sensitive Very Large Array (VLA) full-polarization observations made in 2011 August, at 5.0 and 6.1 GHz (each with a bandwidth of 128 MHz) of the radio galaxy 3C 228 through the solar corona at heliocentric distances of 4.6-5.0 R ☉ . Observations at 5.0 GHz permit measurements deeper in the corona than previous VLA observations at 1.4 and 1.7 GHz. These Faraday rotation observations provide unique information on the magnetic field in this region of the corona. The measured Faraday rotation on this day was lower than our a priori expectations, but we have successfully modeled the measurement in terms of observed properties of the corona on the day of observation. Our data on 3C 228 provide two lines of sight (separated by 46'', 33,000 km in the corona). We detected three periods during which there appeared to be a difference in the Faraday rotation measure between these two closely spaced lines of sight. These measurements (termed differential Faraday rotation) yield an estimate of 2.6-4.1 GA for coronal currents. Our data also allow us to impose upper limits on rotation measure fluctuations caused by coronal waves; the observed upper limits were 3.3 and 6.4 rad m –2 along the two lines of sight. The implications of these results for Joule heating and wave heating are briefly discussed.

  18. Arbitrarily exhaustive hypergraph generation of 4-, 6-, 8-, 16-, and 32-dimensional quantum contextual sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavičić, Mladen

    2017-06-01

    Quantum contextuality turns out to be a necessary resource for universal quantum computation and important in the field of quantum information processing. It is therefore of interest both for theoretical considerations and for experimental implementation to find new types and instances of contextual sets and develop methods of their optimal generation. We present an arbitrarily exhaustive hypergraph-based generation of the most explored contextual sets [Kochen-Specker (KS) ones] in 4, 6, 8, 16, and 32 dimensions. We consider and analyze 12 KS classes and obtain numerous properties of theirs, which we then compare with the results previously obtained in the literature. We generate several thousand additional types and instances of KS sets, including all KS sets in three of the classes and the upper part of a fourth set. We make use of the McKay-Megill-Pavičić (MMP) hypergraph language, algorithms, and programs to generate KS sets strictly following their definition from the Kochen-Specker theorem. This approach proves to be particularly advantageous over the parity-proof-based ones (which prevail in the literature) since it turns out that only a very few KS sets have a parity proof (in six KS classes <0.01% and in one of them 0%). MMP hypergraph formalism enables a translation of an exponentially complex task of solving systems of nonlinear equations, describing KS vector orthogonalities, into a statistically linearly complex task of evaluating vertex states of hypergraph edges, thus exponentially speeding up the generation of KS sets and enabling us to generate billions of novel instances of them. The MMP hypergraph notation also enables us to graphically represent KS sets and to visually discern their features.

  19. On the Vertex-Distinguishing Proper Edge-coloring of K3,4 ∨ Kt%图K3,4∨Kt的点可区别正常边染色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏甲静; 王治文; 陈祥恩

    2012-01-01

    Let f be a proper edge coloring of G. For each x ∈ V(G), let S(x) denote the set of all colors of the edges incident with x. If (A) u, v∈ V(G), u ≠ v, we have S(u)≠ S(v), then f is called a vertex distinguishing proper edge coloring of G. The minimum number k for which there exists a vertex distinguishing proper edge coloring of G using k colors is called the vertex distinguishing proper edge chromatic number of G and denoted by x's(G). In this paper, we discuss vertex-distinguishing proper edge colorings of K3,4∨Kt. By using symmetry of regular polygons to construct coloring and methods of combinatorial analysis, we showed that for t is even with t ≥ 2 or t is odd with 3 ≤ t ≤ 25, we have x's(K3,4 ∨ Kt) =t+7; for t is odd with t ≥ 27, we have X's(K3,4∨Kt)=t+8.%设f是图G的一个正常边染色.对任意x∈V(G),令S(x)表示与点x相关联的边的颜色所构成的集合.若对任意u,v∈V(G),u≠v,有S(u)≠S(v),则称f是图G的一个点可区别正常边染色.对一个图G进行点可区别正常边染色所需的最少的颜色的数目称为G的点可区别正常边色数,记为x's(G).讨论了图K3,4 ∨Kt的点可区别正常边染色及其色数,利用正多边形的对称性构造染色以及组合分析的方法,确定了图K3,4 ∨Kt的点可区别正常边色数,得到了当t是大于等于2的偶数以及t是奇数且3≤t≤25时,x's(K3,4 ∨Kt)=t+7;当t是奇数且t≥27时,x's(K3,4∨Kt)=t+8.

  20. Photoluminescence properties of Eu(3+)/ Sm(3+) activated CaZr4(PO4)6 phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Govind B; Dhoble, S J

    2016-09-01

    Solid state reaction method was employed for the synthesis of a series of CaZr4(PO4)6: Eu(3+)/Sm(3+) phosphors. The red-emitting CaZr4(PO4)6:Eu(3+) phosphors can be efficiently excited at 396 nm and thereby, exhibit a strong red luminescence predominantly corresponding to the electric dipole transition at 615 nm. Under 405 nm excitation, CaZr4(PO4)6:Sm(3+) phosphors display orange emission with color temperatures approximately around 2200 K. The acquired results reveal that CaZr4(PO4)6: RE(3+) (RE = Eu, Sm) phosphors could be potential candidates for red and orange emitting phosphor, respectively, for UV/blue-pump LEDs.

  1. THE CCAUV.A-K3 KEY COMPARISON OF PRESSURE RECIPROCITY CALIBRATION OF LS2P MICROPHONES: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente; Rasmussen, Knud; Nielsen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The CCAUV.A-K3 Key Comparison has involved 15 countries organized in two loops with two common laboratories, CENAM and DPLA. The measurements took place in 2003. This is the first CCAUV key comparison organized with more than one loop, and therefore the analysis of the results required a more ela...

  2. K3[Fe(CN)6].3H2O supported on silica gel: An efficient and selective ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Chemistry, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697 Tehran, I. R. of IRAN e-mail: ... K3[Fe(CN)6].3H2O, Silica gel; oxime; aldehyde; ketone. 1. Introduction .... ysis, hydrogenation, etc., using organic and inorganic reagents. Besides ...

  3. Selective synthesis of vitamin K3 over mesoporous NbSBA-15 catalysts synthesized by an efficient hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, M; Park, D-W; Kim, I; Kawi, S; Ha, C S

    2012-08-28

    Well hexagonally ordered NbSBA-15 catalysts synthesized by an efficient hydrothermal method were used, for the first time, for the selective synthesis of vitamin K(3) by liquid-phase oxidation of 2-methyl-1-naphthol (2MN1-OH) under various reaction conditions. The recyclable NbSBA-15 catalysts were also reused to find their catalytic activities. To investigate the leaching of non-framework niobium species on the surface of silica networks, the results of original and recyclable NbSBA-15 catalysts were correlated and compared. To find an optimum condition for the selective synthesis of vitamin K(3), the washed NbSBA-15(2.2pH) was extensively used in this reaction with various reaction parameters such as temperature, time and ratios of reactant (2M1N-OH to H(2)O(2)), and the obtained results were also demonstrated. Additionally, the liquid-phase oxidation of 2M1N-OH was carried out with different solvents to find the best solvent with a good catalytic activity. Based on the all catalytic studies, the vitamin K(3) selectivity (97.3%) is higher in NbSBA-15(2.2pH) than that of other NbSBA-15 catalysts, and the NbSBA-15(2.2pH) is found to be a highly active and eco-friendly heterogeneous catalyst for the selective synthesis of vitamin K(3).

  4. ABCC6 does not transport vitamin K3-glutathione conjugate from the liver: relevance to pathomechanisms of pseudoxanthoma elasticum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fülöp, Krisztina; Jiang, Qiujie; van de Wetering, Koen; Pomozi, Viola; Szabó, Pál T.; Arányi, Tamás; Sarkadi, Balázs; Borst, Piet; Uitto, Jouni; Váradi, András

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin K is a cofactor required for gamma-glutamyl carboxylation of several proteins regulating blood clotting, bone formation and soft tissue mineralization. Vitamin K3 is an important intermediate during conversion of the dietary vitamin K1 to the most abundant vitamin K2 form. It has been

  5. Effects of Vitamin K3 and K5 on Daunorubicin-resistant Human T Lymphoblastoid Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Eri; Tanaka, Sachiko; Onda, Kenji; Sugiyama, Kentaro; Hirano, Toshihiko

    2015-11-01

    Anticancer efficacy of vitamin K derivatives on multidrug-resistant cancer cells has been scarcely investigated. The effects of vitamins K3 and K5 on proliferation of human leukemia MOLT-4 cells and on daunorubicin-resistant MOLT-4/DNR cells were estimated by a WST assay. Apoptotic cells were detected by Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, followed by flow cytometry. Vitamins K3 and K5 significantly inhibited proliferation of leukemic cells at 10 and 100 μM (pVitamin K3 induced cell apoptosis at 10 and 100 μM in both MOLT-4 and MOLT-4/DNR cells (pVitamin K5 also increased apoptotic cells, while rather inducing necrotic cell death. Vitamins K3 and K5 suppress MOLT-4 and MOLT-4/DNR cell-proliferation partially through induction of apoptosis, and these vitamin derivatives can overcome drug resistance due to P-glycoprotein expression. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of dietary particulate limestone, vitamin K3 and fluoride and photostimulation on skeletal morphology and osteoporosis in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, R H; McCormack, H A; McTeir, L; Whitehead, C C

    2003-12-01

    1. Female chicks of a White Leghorn strain were fed three different diets from one day old: control, additional vitamin K3 (10 mg/kg), and a diet containing a combination of additional vitamin K3, sodium fluoride (10 mg/kg) and limestone in particulate rather than powdered form. At 16 weeks photoperiod was increased for half the birds from 8:16 L:D to 16:8 L:D immediately or by one hour per week to the same ultimate photoperiod for the other half. 2. Age at first egg was lower by 4.0 d for birds on the fast lighting regime but there were no overall effects of lighting on bone quality at either 25 or 70 weeks. 3. Additional vitamin K3 resulted in higher proximal tarsometatarsus cancellous bone volumes at 15 weeks and throughout the laying period compared with controls. Plasma osteocalcin concentrations were unaffected by vitamin K3 supplementation during growth. 4. The combination diet resulted in beneficial responses of 12 to 20% in most bone characteristics in hens at 70 weeks. The magnitude of these effects was similar to a previous study involving a particulate calcium source alone (Fleming et al., Poultry Science, 39: 434-440, 1998b). We conclude that the beneficial effects of the combined treatment over the lifetime of the hens were attributable mainly to the presence in the diet of a calcium source in particulate form.

  7. Examining Change in K-3 Teachers' Mathematical Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs: The Case of Primarily Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutaka, T. S.; Ren, L.; Smith, W. M.; Beattie, H. L.; Edwards, C. P.; Green, J. L.; Chernyavskiy, P.; Stroup, W.; Heaton, R. M.; Lewis, W. J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the Primarily Math Elementary Mathematics Specialist program on K-3 teachers' mathematical content knowledge for teaching, attitudes toward learning mathematics, and beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning. Three cohorts of teachers participating in the program were compared to a similar group of…

  8. The Impact of a "Framework"-Aligned Science Professional Development Program on Literacy and Mathematics Achievement of K-3 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprzycki, Peter; Tuttle, Nicole; Czerniak, Charlene M.; Molitor, Scott; Kadervaek, Joan; Mendenhall, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a Framework-aligned professional development program at the PreK-3 level. The NSF funded program integrated science with literacy and mathematics learning and provided teacher professional development, along with materials and programming for parents to encourage science investigations and discourse around…

  9. Quantum-chemical calculations and electron diffraction study of the equilibrium molecular structure of vitamin K3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaikin, L. S.; Tikhonov, D. S.; Grikina, O. E.; Rykov, A. N.; Stepanov, N. F.

    2014-05-01

    The equilibrium molecular structure of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3) having C s symmetry is experimentally characterized for the first time by means of gas-phase electron diffraction using quantum-chemical calculations and data on the vibrational spectra of related compounds.

  10. Design, Synthesis and Spectral Characterization of Novel 2-morpholino-N-(4,6-diarylpyrimidin-2-yl)acetamides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagarajan, Vijayakumar; Thanusu, Jayaraman; Gopalakrishnan, Mannathusamy [Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-02-15

    A new series of novel 2-morpholino-N-(4,6-diarylpyrimidin-2-yl)acetamides 34-42 is synthesized by the condensation of 2-chloro-N-(4,6-diarylpyrimidin-2-yl)acetamides 25-33 with morpholine in the presence of anhydrous potassium carbonate. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by melting point, elemental analysis, MS, FT-IR, one-dimensional NMR ({sup 1}H and {sup 13}C) spectroscopic data.

  11. Effect of the sterilization on the cutting efficiency of ProTaper® and K3® endodontic instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Niederauer Becker

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization on the cutting efficiency of rotary endodontic instruments, ProTaper® (Dentsply Maillefer Instruments S.A., Ballaigues, Suíça and K3® (Sybron/Kerr, Orange, CA, USA, by the time X weighing method. Method: For this purpose, 60 simulated canals and 66 instruments were used (36 of the ProTaper® system, (Dentsply Maillefer Instruments S.A., Ballaigues, Switzerland and 30 of the K3® system (Sybron/Kerr, Orange, CA, USA. The rotary instruments were divided into four experimental groups. The instruments in Group A (K3®, Sybron/Kerr, Orange, CA, USA and Group B (ProTaper®, Dentsply Maillefer Instruments S.A., Ballaigues, Switzerland, were subjected to a process of cleaning and sterilization. Whereas the instruments in Group C (K3®, Sybron/Kerr, Orange, CA, USA and Group D (ProTaper®, Dentsply Maillefer Instruments S.A., Ballaigues, Switzerland, were subjected to the cleanness process only, and were not sterilized. Results: As regards analysis of the results, the Student’s-t test was used, by which it was verified that the instruments in Group had greater cutting efficiency in comparison with those in Group B. Similarly the instruments in Group C had greater cutting efficiency in comparison with those in Group D, nevertheless, there was no statistically significant difference. Moreover, as regards the number times of use, there was also no statistically significant difference between the experimental groups. However in all the groups there was a decrease in the cutting efficiency with an increasing number of times of use. Conclusion: Thus, the cutting efficiency of rotary endodontic instruments K3® (Sybron/Kerr, Orange, CA, USA and ProTaper® (Dentsply Maillefer Instruments S.A., Ballaigues, Suição was not statistically affected after the use of 6 autoclave sterilization cycles.

  12. The Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap in Grades K-3: The Fragility of Results. NBER Working Paper No. 17960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Timothy N.; Lang, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Although both economists and psychometricians typically treat them as interval scales, test scores are reported using ordinal scales. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey, we examine the effect of order-preserving scale transformations on the evolution of the black-white reading test…

  13. The Role of Extension Nutrition Education in Student Achievement of Nutrition Standards in Grades K-3: A Descriptive Evaluation of a School-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Mary E.; Schreiber, Debera

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of a descriptive evaluation of the impact of an in-school Extension nutrition education program in a small, very rural county. The evaluation focused on understanding the nature of the role the Extension educator plays in delivering nutrition education, the impact of the program on student learning and achievement…

  14. Entomology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classrrom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Sue; And Others

    These reproducible entomology units are an introduction to a fascinating world within a world. Originally designed for gifted students, these units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of entomology. Included are two complete…

  15. Marine Biology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classroom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Joey

    Originally designed for the gifted student, these reproducible marine biology units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of marine biology. Included are two complete units, one created for the upper elementary gifted student and…

  16. Cancer stemness and metastatic potential of the novel tumor cell line K3: an inner mutated cell of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hui; Ding, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jiao; Mao, Fei; Sun, Zixuan; Jia, Haoyuan; Yin, Lei; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Yongmin; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Wenrong

    2017-06-13

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation has been used for therapeutic applications in various diseases. Here we report MSCs can malignantly transform in vivo. The novel neoplasm was found on the tail of female rat after injection with male rat bone marrow-derived MSCs (rBM-MSCs) and the new tumor cell line, K3, was isolated from the neoplasm. The K3 cells expressed surface antigens and pluripotent genes similar to those of rBM-MSCs and presented tumor cell features. Moreover, the K3 cells contained side population cells (SP) like cancer stem cells (CSCs), which might contribute to K3 heterogeneity and tumorigenic capacity. To investigate the metastatic potential of K3 cells, we established the nude mouse models of liver and lung metastases and isolated the corresponding metastatic cell lines K3-F4 and K3-B6. Both K3-F4 and K3-B6 cell lines with higher metastatic potential acquired more mesenchymal and stemness-related features. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a potential mechanism of K3-F4 and K3-B6 formation.

  17. Noninvasive k3 estimation method for slow dissociation PET ligands: application to [11C]Pittsburgh compound B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koichi; Fukushi, Kiyoshi; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Shimada, Hitoshi; Hirano, Shigeki; Tanaka, Noriko; Suhara, Tetsuya; Irie, Toshiaki; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-11-16

    Recently, we reported an information density theory and an analysis of three-parameter plus shorter scan than conventional method (3P+) for the amyloid-binding ligand [11C]Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) as an example of a non-highly reversible positron emission tomography (PET) ligand. This article describes an extension of 3P + analysis to noninvasive '3P++' analysis (3P + plus use of a reference tissue for input function). In 3P++ analysis for [11C]PIB, the cerebellum was used as a reference tissue (negligible specific binding). Fifteen healthy subjects (NC) and fifteen Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients participated. The k3 (index of receptor density) values were estimated with 40-min PET data and three-parameter reference tissue model and were compared with that in 40-min 3P + analysis as well as standard 90-min four-parameter (4P) analysis with arterial input function. Simulation studies were performed to explain k3 biases observed in 3P++ analysis. Good model fits of 40-min PET data were observed in both reference and target regions-of-interest (ROIs). High linear intra-subject (inter-15 ROI) correlations of k3 between 3P++ (Y-axis) and 3P + (X-axis) analyses were shown in one NC (r2 = 0.972 and slope = 0.845) and in one AD (r2 = 0.982, slope = 0.655), whereas inter-subject k3 correlations in a target region (left lateral temporal cortex) from 30 subjects (15 NC + 15 AD) were somewhat lower (r2 = 0.739 and slope = 0.461). Similar results were shown between 3P++ and 4P analyses: r2 = 0.953 for intra-subject k3 in NC, r2 = 0.907 for that in AD and r2 = 0.711 for inter-30 subject k3. Simulation studies showed that such lower inter-subject k3 correlations and significant negative k3 biases were not due to unstableness of 3P++ analysis but rather to inter-subject variation of both k2 (index of brain-to-blood transport) and k3 (not completely negligible) in the reference region. In [11C]PIB, the applicability of 3

  18. Rb and FZR1/Cdh1 determine CDK4/6-cyclin D requirement in C. elegans and human cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The, Inge; Ruijtenberg, Suzan; Bouchet, Benjamin P; Cristobal, Alba; Prinsen, Martine B W; van Mourik, Tim; Koreth, John; Xu, Huihong; Heck, Albert J R; Akhmanova, Anna; Cuppen, Edwin; Boxem, Mike; Muñoz, Javier; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) in complex with D-type cyclins promote cell cycle entry. Most human cancers contain overactive CDK4/6-cyclin D, and CDK4/6-specific inhibitors are promising anti-cancer therapeutics. Here, we investigate the critical functions of CDK4/6-cyclin D kinases,

  19. Brominated dioxins/furans and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers: Occurrences in commercial 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol, and formation during synthesis of BTBPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Man; Zeng, Hao; Peng, Ping-An; Li, Hui-Ru; Tang, Cai-Ming; Hu, Jian-Fang

    2017-07-01

    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) can be formed from bromophenols (BPs) by thermal degradation, biosynthesis or phototransformation. However, it is unknown whether PBDDs and OH-PBDEs can be formed during the chemical production processes that utilize BPs as raw materials. 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) is an important raw material for the synthesis of 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), a novel brominated flame retardant. In this study, PBDDs, polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) and OH-PBDEs have been identified and quantified in commercially available BTBPE and 2,4,6-TBP. Furthermore, their formation as unintentional by-products during the laboratory synthesis of BTBPE from 2,4,6-TBP and 1,2-dibromoethane in the presence of sodium carbonate has also been investigated. 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDDs and PBDFs (2,3,7,8-PBDD/Fs) were undetectable in commercial samples of BTBPE and present in low levels (nanogram per gram) in 2,4,6-TBP. Two tetrabrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (TeBDDs), namely 1,3,6,8- and 1,3,7,9-TeBDD, and three hydroxylated pentabrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-pentaBDEs), namely 4'-OH-BDE121, 2'-OH-BDE121, and 6'-OH-BDE100, were identified or tentatively identified, and quantitatively estimated to be at concentrations in the range of undetectable to several thousands of nanograms per gram in commercial BTBPE and 2,4,6-TBP. TeBDDs and OH-pentaBDEs were formed as by-products from 2,4,6-TBP during BTBPE synthesis. Further studies need to be conducted in order to determine whether PBDD/Fs and OH-PBDEs are also formed during the industrial synthesis of other chemical compounds that utilize BPs as raw materials or intermediates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neutron scattering studies of K3H(SO4)2 and K3D(SO4)2: the particle-in-a-box model for the quantum phase transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillaux, François; Cousson, Alain

    2012-08-21

    In the crystal of K(3)H(SO(4))(2) or K(3)D(SO(4))(2), dimers SO(4)···H···SO(4) or SO(4)···D···SO(4) are linked by strong centrosymmetric hydrogen or deuterium bonds whose O···O length is ≈2.50 Å. We address two open questions. (i) Are H or D sites split or not? (ii) Is there any structural counterpart to the phase transition observed for K(3)D(SO(4))(2) at T(c) ≈ 85.5 K, which does not exist for K(3)H(SO(4))(2)? Neutron diffraction by single-crystals at cryogenic or room temperature reveals no structural transition and no resolvable splitting of H or D sites. However, the width of the probability densities suggest unresolved splitting of the wavefunctions suggesting rigid entities H(L1/2)-H(R1/2) or D(L1/2)-D(R1/2) whose separation lengths are l(H) ≈ 0.16 Å or l(D) ≈ 0.25 Å. The vibrational eigenstates for the center of mass of H(L1/2)-H(R1/2) revealed by inelastic neutron scattering are amenable to a square-well and we suppose the same potential holds for D(L1/2)-D(R1/2). In order to explain dielectric and calorimetric measurements of mixed crystals K(3)D((1-ρ))H(ρ)(SO(4))(2) (0 ≤ ρ ≤ 1), we replace the classical notion of order-disorder by the quantum notion of discernible (e.g., D(L1/2)-D(R1/2)) or indiscernible (e.g., H(L1/2)-H(R1/2)) components depending on the separation length of the split wavefunction. The discernible-indiscernible isostructural transition at finite temperatures is induced by a thermal pure quantum state or at 0 K by ρ.

  1. Teachers' Grading Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnawati, Ida; Saukah, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated teachers' grading decision making, focusing on their beliefs underlying their grading decision making, their grading practices and assessment types, and factors they considered in grading decision making. Two teachers from two junior high schools applying different curriculum policies in grade reporting in Indonesian…

  2. Effects of gamma radiation and menadione (vit. K3) on dissolution and dimerization of δ-tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupczyk, B.; Gogolewski, M.

    1997-01-01

    Effect of ionizing radiation and menadione (vit. K 3 ) on dissolution and dimerization of δ-tocopherol was studied. Mixture of δ-tocopherol and menadione (vit. K 3 ) dissolved in benzene, ethanol or used in substantia were irradiated at 2.5, 5, 10, 20 kGy dose using Co-60 as a radiation source. Dissolution of δ-tocopherol in substantia was lower then disintegration of δ-tocopherol dissolved in benzene or in ethanol. However, we did not observe any significant difference between dissolution of δ-tocopherol in both studied solvents. The number of formed dimers of δ-tocopherol were different for all three cases tested. The quantities of δ-tocopherol dimers were dependent on radiation dose. (author)

  3. Azide derivatized anticancer agents of Vitamin K 3: X-ray structural, DSC, resonance spectral and API studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badave, Kirti; Patil, Yogesh; Gonnade, Rajesh; Srinivas, Darbha; Dasgupta, Rajan; Khan, Ayesha; Rane, Sandhya

    2011-12-01

    Compound 1 [1-imino (acetyl hydrazino)-Vitamin K 3], displays valence tautomerically related electronic isomers as Form I and Form II. Form I exhibits 2D packing fragment with 1D ribbon chains of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and shows EPR silent features. While Form II is EPR active and exhibits biradical nature with double quantum transitions at g = 2.0040. 1H NMR of compound 2, [1-imino (hydrazino carboxylate)-Vitamin K 3] and Form II exhibit π delocalization via resonance assisted H-bonding [RAHB] effect compared to Form I. Molecular interactions in Form I and II are visualized by DSC. The electronic structures of compounds 1 and 2 have been correlated to their API values by measuring anticancer activities, mitochondrial potentials and DNA shearing patterns. Form II and compound 2 indicate mitochondria mediated apoptosis (˜75% cell death) while Form I causes 35% cell death.

  4. Grading Practices and Distributions Across Internal Medicine Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Sara B; Torre, Dario M; DeFer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Clerkship evaluation and grading practices vary widely between U.S. medical schools. Grade inflation continues to exist, and grade distribution is likely to be different among U.S. medical schools. Increasing the number of available grades curtails "grade inflation." A national survey of all Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine members was administered in 2011. The authors assessed key aspects of grading. Response rate was 76%. Among clerkship directors (CDs), 61% of respondents agreed that grade inflation existed in the internal medicine clerkship at their school, and 43% believed that it helped students obtain better residency positions. With respect to grading practices, 79% of CDs define specific behaviors needed to achieve each grade, and 36% specify an ideal grade distribution. In addition, 44% have a trained core faculty responsible for evaluating students, 35% describe formal grading meetings, and 39% use the Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (RIME) scheme. Grading scales were described as follows: 4% utilize a pass/fail system, 13% a 3-tier (e.g., Honors/Pass/Fail), 45% 4-tier, 35% 5-tier, and 4% 6+-tier system. There was a trend to higher grades with more tiers available. Grade inflation continues in the internal medicine clerkship. Almost half of CDs feel that this practice assists students to obtain better residency positions. A minority of programs have a trained core faculty who are responsible for evaluation. About one third have formal grading meetings and use the RIME system; both have been associated with more robust and balanced grading practices. In particular, there is a wide variation between schools in the percentage of students who are awarded the highest grade, which has implications for residency applications. Downstream users of clinical clerkship grades must be fully aware of these variations in grading in order to appropriately judge medical student performance.

  5. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA/hK3): a further player in the field of breast cancer diagnostics?

    OpenAIRE

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Gazzanelli, Giancarlo

    2001-01-01

    Since its identification, much information has been obtained about prostate-specific antigen (PSA, or human glandular kallikrein 3 [hK3]), a kallikrein-like serine protease that is the most valuable tumour marker for the screening, diagnosis and management of human prostate carcinoma. Recently, it has become widely accepted that PSA is also present in many nonprostatic sources, casting doubts about the specificity of its tissue expression. Here we summarize the findings on the biomolecular ex...

  6. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  7. Therapeutic role of calcium and vitamin K3 in chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis - new tools for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Firoz; Khan, Ruqaiyah; Sachan, Richa; Kazmi, Imran; Rawat, Alisha; Sabih, Abdullah; Singh, Rajbala; Afzal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Aftab; Al-Orab, Abdulaziz S; Al-Abbasi, F A; Bhatt, Prakash Chandra; Kumar, Vikas

    2018-04-17

    HCC has been reported to be immensely occurring carcinoma worldwide. Recent days the mortality occurred due to liver cancer has also been found to be increased at an alarming speed affecting mostly the young patients. The aim of the current study was to decipher the role of calcium and vitamin K3 in the treatment of chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the male Wistar rats. Liver cancer was induced via a subnecrogenic dose of 160 mg/kg body weight, diethylnitrosamine (DENA) when associated with fasting/refeeding in male Wistar rats. It elevated the serum glutamate oxaloacetate (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, total cholesterol (CH), triglycerides (TG), alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Histopathological examination of liver tissue showed marked carcinogenicity of the chemical carcinogen. Food, water intake and animal weights were also assessed, respectively. The animals exposed to DENA showed a significant decrease in the body weight. The elevated levels of serum SGOT, SGPT, ALP, AFP, TC and TG were restored by administration of calcium and Vit K (ad libitum) combination at higher dose than the normal dietary requirement (3 mg/kg) daily for 12 weeks p.o. Physiological and biochemical analysis showed the beneficial effects of calcium and vitamin K3 combination in the animals exposed to DENA. The results deciphered the beneficial effects of calcium and vitamin K3 in combination.

  8. ABCC6 does not transport vitamin K3-glutathione conjugate from the liver: relevance to pathomechanisms of pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fülöp, Krisztina; Jiang, Qiujie; Wetering, Koen V D; Pomozi, Viola; Szabó, Pál T; Arányi, Tamás; Sarkadi, Balázs; Borst, Piet; Uitto, Jouni; Váradi, András

    2011-11-25

    Vitamin K is a cofactor required for gamma-glutamyl carboxylation of several proteins regulating blood clotting, bone formation and soft tissue mineralization. Vitamin K3 is an important intermediate during conversion of the dietary vitamin K1 to the most abundant vitamin K2 form. It has been suggested that ABCC6 may have a role in transporting vitamin K or its derivatives from the liver to the periphery. This activity is missing in pseudoxanthoma elasticum, a genetic disorder caused by mutations in ABCC6 characterized by abnormal soft tissue mineralization. Here we examined the efflux of the glutathione conjugate of vitamin K3 (VK3GS) from the liver in wild type and Abcc6(-/-) mice, and in transport assays in vitro. We found in liver perfusion experiments that VK3GS is secreted into the inferior vena cava, but we observed no significant difference between wild type and Abcc6(-/-) animals. We overexpressed the human ABCC6 transporter in Sf9 insect and MDCKII cells and assayed its vitamin K3-conjugate transport activity in vitro. We found no measurable transport of VK3GS by ABCC6, whereas ABCC1 transported this compound at high rate in these assays. These results show that VK3GS is not the essential metabolite transported by ABCC6 from the liver and preventing the symptoms of pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrastable, high efficiency picosecond green light generation using K3B6O10Br series nonlinear optical crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Z. Y.; Xia, M. J.; Wang, L. R.; Xu, B.; Yan, D. X.; Meng, L. P.; Liu, L. J.; Xu, D. G.; Zhang, L.; Wang, X. Y.; Li, R. K.; Chen, C. T.

    2017-09-01

    Two perovskite-structure K3B6O10Br1-x Cl x (x  =  0 and 0.5) series nonlinear optical crystals were thoroughly investigated for their picosecond 532 nm laser pulses abilities and high power outputs were achieved via second harmonic generation (SHG) technique for the first time. SHG conversion efficiency of 57.3% with a 13.2 mm length K3B6O10Br (KBB) crystal was achieved using a laser source of pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz and pulse width of 25 ps, which is the highest conversion efficiency of ps visible laser based on KBB crystal. And by employing an 80 MHz, 10 ps fundamental laser beam, maximum power outputs of 12 W with K3B6O10Br0.5Cl0.5 (KBBC) and 11.86 W with KBB crystals were successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the standard deviation jitters of the average power outputs are less than 0.6% and 1.17% by KBB and KBBC, respectively, showing ultrastable power stabilities favorable for practical applications. In addition, the other optical parameters including acceptance angle and temperature bandwidth were also investigated.

  10. The relationship of expressive language development and social skills in 4-6-year-old Persian-speaking children

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Vahab; Sima Shahim; Mohammad Majid Oryadizanjani; Salime Jafari; Maryam Faham

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Social interaction plays an essential role in acquisition of speech and language as one of the most important developmental factors. The recent studies indicated that language abilities have a close relationship to social skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of development of expressive language and dimensions of social skills in 4-6-years-old Persian-speaking children.Methods: In this study, 123 normal Persian-speaking 4-6-year-old children (76 ...

  11. The naphthoquinones, vitamin K3 and its structural analog plumbagin, are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ABC drug transporter ABCG2

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Suneet; Wu, Chung-Pu; Nandigama, Krishnamachary; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin K3 (Menadione; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a structural precursor of vitamins K1 and K2 which are essential for blood clotting. The naturally occurring structural analog of this vitamin, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-menadione), is known to modulate cellular proliferation, apoptosis, carcinogenesis, and radioresistance. We, here, report that both vitamin K3 and plumbagin are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ATP binding cassette (ABC) drug transporter, ABCG2. Vitamin K3 and plu...

  12. SseK3 Is a Salmonella Effector That Binds TRIM32 and Modulates the Host's NF-κB Signalling Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Yang

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium employs an array of type III secretion system effectors that facilitate intracellular survival and replication during infection. The Salmonella effector SseK3 was originally identified due to amino acid sequence similarity with NleB; an effector secreted by EPEC/EHEC that possesses N-acetylglucoasmine (GlcNAc transferase activity and modifies death domain containing proteins to block extrinsic apoptosis. In this study, immunoprecipitation of SseK3 defined a novel molecular interaction between SseK3 and the host protein, TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The conserved DxD motif within SseK3, which is essential for the GlcNAc transferase activity of NleB, was required for TRIM32 binding and for the capacity of SseK3 to suppress TNF-stimulated activation of NF-κB pathway. However, we did not detect GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 by SseK3, nor did the SseK3-TRIM32 interaction impact on TRIM32 ubiquitination that is associated with its activation. In addition, lack of sseK3 in Salmonella had no effect on production of the NF-κB dependent cytokine, IL-8, in HeLa cells even though TRIM32 knockdown suppressed TNF-induced NF-κB activity. Ectopically expressed SseK3 partially co-localises with TRIM32 at the trans-Golgi network, but SseK3 is not recruited to Salmonella induced vacuoles or Salmonella induced filaments during Salmonella infection. Our study has identified a novel effector-host protein interaction and suggests that SseK3 may influence NF-κB activity. However, the lack of GlcNAc modification of TRIM32 suggests that SseK3 has further, as yet unidentified, host targets.

  13. 5-Methyl-4-oxo-4,6-dihydro-3H-pyridazino[4,5-b]carbazole-1-carbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Haider

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound was prepared in excellent yield from 5-methyl-4-oxo-4,6-dihydro-3H-pyridazino[4,5-b]carbazole-1-carbaldehyde by treatment with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in formic acid without isolation of the intermediate oxime.

  14. Proceedings of the Fourth Social Aspects and Recreation Research Symposium: February 4-6, 2004, San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Tierney; Deborah J. (Tech. coords.) Chavez

    2004-01-01

    The Fourth Social Aspects and Recreation Research (SARR) Symposium was held February 4-6, 2004 in San Francisco, California at the Presidio of San Francisco, a component of Golden Gate National Recreation Area and at San Francisco State University. The theme was: Linking People to the Outdoors: Connections for Healthy Lands, People and Communities.

  15. Design and Validation of a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Children Aged 4-6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haresabadi, Fatemeh; Ebadi, Abbas; Shirazi, Tahereh Sima; Dastjerdi Kazemi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Syntax has a high importance among linguistic parameters, and syntax-related problems are the most common in language disorders. Therefore, the present study aimed to design a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Iranian children in the age group of 4-6 years and to determine its validity and reliability. First, the target…

  16. Preparation and characterization of molecularly-imprinted magnetic microspheres for adsorption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ping; Pan, Jianming; Yan, Yongsheng [Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China); Sun, Qilong; Li, Jianfeng; Tan, Zhenjiang [Jilin Normal University, Siping (China)

    2015-04-15

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted microspheres (MMIS) were successfully prepared by suspension polymerization, and then as-prepared MMIS were used as adsorbents for selective recognition of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) from aqueous solutions. The results composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results demonstrated that MMIS possesses porous spherical morphology, and exhibits good thermal stability and magnetic property (Ms=10.14 emu g{sup -1}). Then batch mode of binding experiments was used to determine the equilibrium, kinetics and selectivity recognition. The Langmuir isotherm model fitted the equilibrium data better than did the Freundlich model, and the maximum adsorption capacity on MMIS was about 1.7 times higher than that of MNIS. Kinetics behaviors of MMIS were well described by the pseudo-second-order model. MMIS possessed outstanding selectivity recognition for 2,4,6-TCP in the presence of other competitive phenols (such as sesamol, 3-CP, thymol, 2,4-DCP). Furthermore, the reusability performance of MMIS showed about 17.53% loss after five repeated cycles. Finally, the MMIS were successfully applied to the selective extraction of 2,4,6-TCP from the vegetable samples.

  17. Hemin immobilized into metal-organic frameworks as an electrochemical biosensor for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Wang, Lu; Gao, Congwei; Zhao, Chaoyue; Wang, Yang; Wang, Jianmin

    2018-02-01

    Hemin immobilized into copper-based metal-organic frameworks was successfully prepared and used as a new electrode material for sensitive electrochemical biosensing. X-ray diffraction patterns, Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry were used to characterize the resultant composites. Due to the interaction between the copper atom groups and hemin, the constrained environment in Cu-MOF-74 acts as a matrix to avoid the dimerization of enzyme molecules and retain its biological activity. The hemin/Cu-MOF composites demonstrated enhanced electrocatalytical activity and high stability towards the oxidation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. Under optimum experimental conditions, the sensor showed a wide linear relationship over the range of 0.01-9 μmol L-1 with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.005 μmol L-1. The relative standard deviations were 4.6% and 3.5% for five repeated measurements of 0.5 and 5 μmol L-1 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, respectively. The detection platforms for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol developed here not only indicate that hemin/Cu-MOF-74 possesses intrinsic biological reactivity, but also enable further work to be conducted towards the application of enzyme-containing metal-organic frameworks in electrochemical biosensors.

  18. Vitamin K3 inhibits mouse uterine contraction in vitro via interference with the calcium transfer and the potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-Xia; Lu, Li-Min; Wang, Li

    2016-08-05

    Previous studies have demonstrated vitamin K3 had a great relief to smooth muscle spastic disorders, but no researches have yet pinpointed its possible anti-contractile activity in the uterus. Here, we evaluated the effect of vitamin K3 on myometrial contractility and explored the possible mechanisms of vitamin K3 action. Myograph apparatus were used to record the changes in contractility of isolated mouse uterine strips in a tissue bath. Uterine strips were exposed to vitamin K3 or vehicle. Vitamin K3 suppressed spontaneous contractions in a concentration dependent manner. It significantly decreased the contractile frequency induced by PGF2ɑ but not their amplitude (expect 58.0 μM). Prior incubation with vitamin K3 reduced the effectiveness of PGF2ɑ-induced contraction. The antispasmodic effect of vitamin K3 was also sensitive to potassium channel blockers, such as tetraethylammonium, 4-aminopyridine, iberiotoxin) but not to the nitric oxide related pathway blockers. High concentrations (29.0, 58.0 μM) of vitamin K3 weakened the Ca(2+) dose response and inhibited phase 1 contraction (intracellular stored calcium release). These dates suggest that vitamin K3 specifically suppresses myometrial contractility by affecting calcium and potassium channels; thus, this approach has potential therapy for uterine contractile activity related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of apical extrusion of intracanal bacteria using rotary ProTaper, K3XF, twisted and hand K-file system: An ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Ghogre

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Both the rotary and hand instrumentation systems extruded intracanal bacteria through the apical foramen. K3XF file system showed least bacterial extrusion amongst all instrumentation groups.

  20. Abemaciclib: a CDK4/6 inhibitor for the treatment of HR+/HER2– advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corona SP

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Silvia Paola Corona,1 Daniele Generali2 1Radiation Oncology Department, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Bentleigh East, VIC, Australia; 2Department of Medical, Surgery and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy Abstract: Although early breast cancer (BC is highly curable, advanced or metastatic disease poses numerous challenges in terms of medical management and treatment decisions and is associated with significantly worse prognosis. Among the new targeted agents, anticancer drugs exploiting the cell-cycle machinery have shown great potential in preclinical studies. CDK4/6 inhibitors target the cyclin D/CDK/retinoblastoma signaling pathway, inducing cell-cycle arrest, reduced cell viability and tumor shrinking. As the cyclin D/CDK complex is activated downstream of estrogen signaling, the combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with standard endocrine therapies represents a rational approach to elicit synergic antitumor activity in hormone receptor-positive BC. The results of clinical trials have indeed confirmed the superiority of the combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors plus endocrine therapies over endocrine therapy alone. Currently approved are three compounds that exhibit similar structural characteristics as well as biological and clinical activities. Abemaciclib is the latest CDK4/6 inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA in view of the results of the MONARCH 1 and 2 trials. Further trials are ongoing as other important questions await response. In this review, we focus on abemaciclib to examine preclinical and clinical results, describing current therapeutic indications, open questions and ongoing clinical trials. Keywords: CDK4/6 inhibitor, abemaciclib, breast cancer, hormone receptor-positive BC, metastatic BC, mBC

  1. PBCDD/F formation from radical/radical cross-condensation of 2-Chlorophenoxy with 2-Bromophenoxy, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy with 2,4-Dibromophenoxy, and 2,4,6-Trichlorophenoxy with 2,4,6-Tribromophenoxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xiangli [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yu, Wanni [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Linyi University, Linyi 276000 (China); Xu, Fei [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Qingzhu, E-mail: zqz@sdu.edu.cn [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Hu, Jingtian; Wang, Wenxing [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We studied the formation of PBCDD/Fs from the reaction of three CPRs with BPRs. • The substitution pattern of halogenated phenols determines those of PBCDD/Fs. • The substitution of halogenated phenols influence the coupling of phenoxy radicals. • The rate constants of the crucial elementary steps were evaluated. - Abstract: Quantum chemical calculations were carried out to investigate the homogeneous gas-phase formation of mixed polybrominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/benzofurans (PBCDD/Fs) from the cross-condensation of 2-chlorophenoxy radical (2-CPR) with 2-bromophenoxy radical (2-BPR), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy radical (2,4-DCPR) with 2,4-dibromophenoxy radical (2,4-DBPR), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenoxy radical (2,4,6-TCPR) with 2,4,6-tribromophenoxy radical (2,4,6-TBPR). The geometrical parameters and vibrational frequencies were calculated at the MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level, and single-point energy calculations were performed at the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p) level of theory. The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were evaluated by the canonical variational transition-state (CVT) theory with the small curvature tunneling (SCT) correction over a wide temperature range of 600–1200 K. Studies show that the substitution pattern of halogenated phenols not only determines the substitution pattern of the resulting PBCDD/Fs, but also has a significant influence on the formation mechanism of PBCDD/Fs, especially on the coupling of the halogenated phenoxy radicals.

  2. Inhibition of Siah2 Ubiquitin Ligase by Vitamin K3 Attenuates Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Chemo-Resistance in Hypoxic Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jixian; Lu, Ziyuan; Xiao, Yajuan; He, Bolin; Pan, Chengyun; Zhou, Xuan; Xu, Na; Liu, Xiaoli

    2018-02-05

    BACKGROUND A hypoxic microenvironment is associated with resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and a poor prognosis in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2 plays a vital role in the regulation of hypoxia response, as well as in leukemogenesis. However, the role of Siah2 in CML resistance is unclear, and it is unknown whether vitaminK3 (a Siah2 inhibitor) can improve the chemo-sensitivity of CML cells in a hypoxic microenvironment. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression of Siah2 was detected in CML patients (CML-CP and CML-BC), K562 cells, and K562-imatinib-resistant cells (K562-R cells). We measured the expression of PHD3, HIF-1α, and VEGF in both cell lines under normoxia and hypoxic conditions, and the degree of leukemic sensitivity to imatinib and VitaminK3 were evaluated. RESULTS Siah2 was overexpressed in CML-BC patients (n=9) as compared to CML-CP patients (n=13). Similarly, K562-imatinib-resistant cells (K562-R cells) showed a significantly higher expression of Siah2 as compared to K562 cells in a hypoxic microenvironment. Compared to normoxia, under hypoxic conditions, both cell lines had lower PHD3, higher HIF-1α, and higher VEGF expression. Additionally, Vitamin K3 (an inhibitor of Siah2) reversed these changes and promoted a higher degree of leukemic sensitivity to imatinib. CONCLUSIONS Our findings indicate that the Siah2-PHD3- HIF-1α-VEGF axis is an important hypoxic signaling pathway in a leukemic microenvironment. An inhibitor of Siah2, combined with TKIs, might be a promising therapy for relapsing and refractory CML patients.

  3. A Phase I Study of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/6 Inhibitor Ribociclib (LEE011) in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors and Lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Jeffrey R; Cassier, Philippe A; Gerecitano, John F; Witteveen, Petronella O; Chugh, Rashmi; Ribrag, Vincent; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Matano, Alessandro; Dobson, Jason R; Crystal, Adam S; Parasuraman, Sudha; Shapiro, Geoffrey I

    2016-12-01

    Ribociclib (an oral, highly specific cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor) inhibits tumor growth in preclinical models with intact retinoblastoma protein (Rb + ). This first-in-human study investigated the MTD, recommended dose for expansion (RDE), safety, preliminary activity, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ribociclib in patients with Rb + advanced solid tumors or lymphomas. Patients received escalating doses of ribociclib (3-weeks-on/1-week-off or continuous). Dose escalation was guided by a Bayesian Logistic Regression Model with overdose control principle. Among 132 patients, 125 received ribociclib 3-weeks-on/1-week-off and 7 were dosed continuously. Nine dose-limiting toxicities were observed among 70 MTD/RDE evaluable patients during cycle 1, most commonly neutropenia (n = 3) and thrombocytopenia (n = 2). The MTD and RDE were established as 900 and 600 mg/day 3-weeks-on/1-week-off, respectively. Common treatment-related adverse events were (all-grade; grade 3/4) neutropenia (46%; 27%), leukopenia (43%; 17%), fatigue (45%; 2%), and nausea (42%; 2%). Asymptomatic Fridericia's corrected QT prolongation was specific to doses ≥600 mg/day (9% of patients at 600 mg/day; 33% at doses >600 mg/day). Plasma exposure increases were slightly higher than dose proportional; mean half-life at the RDE was 32.6 hours. Reduced Ki67 was observed in paired skin and tumor biopsies, consistent with ribociclib-mediated antiproliferative activity. There were 3 partial responses and 43 patients achieved a best response of stable disease; 8 patients were progression-free for >6 months. Ribociclib demonstrated an acceptable safety profile, dose-dependent plasma exposure, and preliminary signs of clinical activity. Phase I-III studies of ribociclib are under way in various indications. Clin Cancer Res; 22(23); 5696-705. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Generation of femtosecond laser pulses at 263 nm by K3B6O10Cl crysta*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ning-Hua; He Peng; Huang Hang-Dong; Zhu Jiang-Feng; Tian Wen-Long; Fang Shao-Bo; Teng Hao; Wei Zhi-Yi; Wu Hong-Ping; Pan Shi-Lie

    2017-01-01

    The third harmonic generation (THG) of a linear cavity Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier by use of a K 3 B 6 O 10 Cl (KBOC) crystal is studied for the first time. Output power up to 5.9 mW is obtained at a central wavelength of 263 nm, corresponding to a conversion efficiency of 4.5% to the second harmonic power. Our results show a tremendous potential for nonlinear frequency conversion into the deep ultraviolet range with the new crystal and the output laser power can be further improved. (paper)

  5. Hybrid treatment strategies for 2,4,6-trichlorophenol degradation based on combination of hydrodynamic cavitation and AOPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Arati J; Gogate, Parag R

    2018-01-01

    Utilization of hybrid treatment schemes involving advanced oxidation processes and hydrodynamic cavitation in the wastewater treatment forms the prime focus of the present work. The initial phase of the work includes analysis of recent literature relating to the performance of combined approach based on hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) for degradation of different pollutants followed by a detailed investigation into degradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The degradation of the priority pollutant, 2,4,6-TCP, using combination of HC based on slit-venturi used as the cavitating device, ozone and H 2 O 2 has been investigated. The effect of operating pressure (2-5bar) and initial pH (3-11) have been investigated for the degradation using only HC. The degradation using only ozone (100-400mg/h) and only H 2 O 2 has also been studied. The efficacy of the combined operation of HC+O 3 at different ozone flow rates (100-400mg/h) and the combined operation of HC+H 2 O 2 at different loadings of H 2 O 2 (2,4,6-TCP:H 2 O 2 as 1:1-1:7) have been subsequently investigated. The degradation efficacy has also been established for the combined treatment strategies of O 3 +H 2 O 2 and HC+O 3 +H 2 O 2 at the optimum conditions of temperature as 30°C, inlet pressure of 4bar and initial pH of 7. Extent of 2,4,6-TCP degradation, TOC and COD removal obtained for HC+O 3 process were 97.1%, 94.4% and 78.5% respectively whereas for O 3 +H 2 O 2 process, the values were 95.5%, 94.8% and 76.2% and for HC+O 3 +H 2 O 2 process the extent of reduction were 100%, 95.6% and 80.9% in the same order. The combined treatment approach as HC+O 3 +H 2 O 2 was established as the most efficient approach for complete removal of 2,4,6-TCP with near complete TOC removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cyclic voltammetry: a tool to quantify 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in aqueous samples from cork planks boiling industrial process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, António M; Freitas, Patrícia; Dias, Luís G; Sousa, Mara E B C; Castro, Luís M; Veloso, Ana C A

    2013-12-15

    Chloroanisoles, namely 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, are pointed out as the primary responsible of the development of musty off-flavours in bottled wine, due to their migration from cork stoppers, which results in huge economical losses for wine industry. A prevention step is the detection of these compounds in cork planks before stoppers are produced. Mass spectrometry gas chromatography is the reference method used although it is far beyond economical possibilities of the majority of cork stoppers producers. In this work, a portable cyclic voltammetry approach was used to detect 2,4,6-trichloroanisole extracted from natural cork planks to the aqueous phase during the cork boiling industrial treatment process. Analyses were carried out under ambient conditions, in less than 15 min with a low use of solvent and without any sample pre-treatment. The proposed technique had detection (0.31±0.01 ng/L) and quantification (0.95±0.05 ng/L) limits lower than the human threshold detection level. For blank solutions, without 2,4,6-trichloroanisole addition, a concentration in the order of the quantification limit was estimated (1.0±0.2 ng/L), which confirms the satisfactory performance of the proposed methodology. For aqueous samples from the industrial cork planks boiling procedure, intra-day repeatabilities were lower than 3%, respectively. Also, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole contents in the aqueous samples determined by this novel approach were in good agreement with those obtained by GC-MS (correlation coefficient equal to 0.98), confirming the satisfactory accuracy of the proposed methodology. So, since this novel approach is a fast, low-cost, portable and user-friendly method, it can be an alternative and helpful tool for in-situ industrial applications, allowing accurate detection of releasable 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in an earlier phase of cork stoppers production, which may allow implementing more effective cork treatments to reduce or avoid future 2,4,6-trichloroanisole

  7. Theoretical Study on Vibrational Spectra, Detonation Properties and Pyrolysis Mechanism for Cyclic 2-Diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-hong; Yin, Geng-xin; Zhang, Xian-zhou

    2012-10-01

    Based on the full optimized molecular geometrical structures at the DFT-B3LYP/6-311+G** level, there exists intramolecular hydrogen bond interaction for cyclic 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol. The assigned infrared spectrum is obtained and used to compute the thermodynamic properties. The results show that there are four main characteristic regions in the calculated IR spectra of the title compound. The detonation velocities and pressures are also evaluated by using Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the calculated density and condensed phase heat of formation. Thermal stability and the pyrolysis mechanism of 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol are investigated by calculating the bond dissociation energies at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level.

  8. Electrochemical oxidation of cholesterol in acetonitrile leads to the formation of cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yu-Ya; Hakamata, Hideki; Murakami, Tomonori; Aoyagi, Sakae; Kuroda, Minpei; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Ito, Ayumi; Morosawa, Sayaka; Kusu, Fumiyo

    2009-01-01

    Cholesterol was shown to be oxidized at the glassy carbon electrode in an acetonitrile-2-propanol mixture and this oxidation reaction was applied to the determination of serum total cholesterol by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (K. Hojo, H. Hakamata, A. Ito, A. Kotani, C. Furukawa, Y.Y. Hosokawa, F. Kusu, J. Chromatogr. A 1166 (2007) 135-141). To gain insight into the detection mechanisms of cholesterol, an electrolytic product of cholesterol was collected and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The three techniques, together with comparisons of literature spectral data, confirmed the formation of cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one. The conversion of cholesterol to cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one, a four-electron, four-proton electrochemical process, has been proposed as an electrochemical oxidation mechanism of cholesterol in acetonitrile.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF MOVEMENT SKILL PERFORMANCE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: CONVERGENT VALIDITY BETWEEN MOT 4-6 AND M-ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Cools

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine the level of agreement between the Motoriktest für Vier- bis Sechsjährige Kinder [MOT 4-6] and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children [M-ABC]. 48 preschool children participated in the study (Mean age = 5 years, 6 months, SD = 3 months. There was high classification agreement (90% between both tests. A Kappa correlation coefficient (0.67 provided moderately strong support for convergent validity. Less agreement was shown in identification of motor difficulties (58%. This was reflected by lower correlation coefficients on the fine movement cluster and test item level. The MOT 4-6 showed values within the range of similar movement skill performance assessment protocols. Because of its specific focus it may be of meaningful value to assess movement skill competence in typically developing preschool children (ages 4 to 6.

  10. Hinder för utomhusundervisning med fokus på årskurs 4-6

    OpenAIRE

    Petersson, Essi; Carstensen, Linnea

    2018-01-01

    I den här studien har vi tagit fram de hinder som begränsar möjligheterna för utomhusundervisning för elever i grundskolan, med fokus på årskurs 4-6 och middle school. Syftet med studien var att synliggöra vilka hinder som kan stå i vägen för utomhusundervisning samt visa på behov av vidare forskning i området. Forskningsfrågan som vi har försökt svara på är: Vad utgör hinder för utomhusundervisning med elever i grundskolan, med fokus på årskurs 4-6 och middle school? Studien bygger på den pr...

  11. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 4,6-diaminonicotinamide derivatives as novel and potent immunomodulators targeting JAK3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yutaka; Aoyama, Naohiro; Takahashi, Fumie; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Hatanaka, Keiko; Moritomo, Ayako; Inami, Masamichi; Ito, Misato; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamori, Fumihiro; Inoue, Takayuki; Shirakami, Shohei

    2016-10-01

    In organ transplantation, T cell-mediated immune responses play a key role in the rejection of allografts. Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) is specifically expressed in hematopoietic cells and associated with regulation of T cell development via interleukin-2 signaling pathway. Here, we designed novel 4,6-diaminonicotinamide derivatives as immunomodulators targeting JAK3 for prevention of transplant rejection. Our optimization of C4- and C6-substituents and docking calculations to JAK3 protein confirmed that the 4,6-diaminonicotinamide scaffold resulted in potent inhibition of JAK3. We also investigated avoidance of human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) inhibitory activity. Selected compound 28 in combination with tacrolimus prevented allograft rejection in a rat heterotopic cardiac transplantation model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. (N,N,N′,N′-Tetramethylethylenediamine-κNbis(2,4,6-trimethylphenolato-κOgermanium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Rusanov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Ge(C9H11O2(C6H16N2], the GeII atom is coordinated in a distorted trigonal–pyramidal geometry by two O atoms belonging to two 2,4,6-trimethylphenolate ligands and one N atom of a tetramethylethylenediamine ligand. Comparing the structure with published data of similar compounds shows that the Ge—O bonds are covalent and the Ge—N bond is coordinated.

  13. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex has a Pathway for the Biosynthesis of 4-Formamido-4,6-Dideoxy-d-Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Haley A; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Gilbert, Michel; Holden, Hazel M

    2018-05-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the O-antigens of some pathogenic bacteria such as Brucella abortus, Francisella tularensis, and Campylobacter jejuni contain quite unusual N-formylated sugars (3-formamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose or 4-formamido-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose). Typically, four enzymes are required for the formation of such sugars: a thymidylyltransferase, a 4,6-dehydratase, a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate or PLP-dependent aminotransferase, and an N-formyltransferase. To date, there have been no published reports of N-formylated sugars associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A recent investigation from our laboratories, however, has demonstrated that one gene product from M. tuberculosis, Rv3404c, functions as a sugar N-formyltransferase. Given that M. tuberculosis produces l-rhamnose, both a thymidylyltransferase (Rv0334) and a 4,6-dehydratase (Rv3464) required for its formation have been identified. Thus, there is one remaining enzyme needed for the production of an N-formylated sugar in M. tuberculosis, namely a PLP-dependent aminotransferase. Here we demonstrate that the M. tuberculosis rv3402c gene encodes such an enzyme. Our data prove that M. tuberculosis contains all of the enzymatic activities required for the formation of dTDP-4-formamido-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose. Indeed, the rv3402c gene product likely contributes to virulence or persistence during infection, though its temporal expression and location remain to be determined. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 The Protein Society.

  14. Identification of the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase from Lycopersicon esculentum using proteomics and reverse-genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Wen; Kieliszewski, Marcia; Held, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of plant cell growth and early defense response involves the insolubilization of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), such as extensin, in the primary cell wall. In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), insolublization occurs by the formation of tyrosyl-crosslinks catalyzed specifically by the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase (EP). To date, neither the gene encoding EP nor the protein itself has been identified. Here, we’ve identified tomato EP candidates using both proteomic and b...

  15. Removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol from a solution by humic acids repeatedly extracted from a peat soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzou, Y.-M.; Wang, S.-L.; Liu, J.-C.; Huang, Y.-Y.; Chen, J.-H.

    2008-01-01

    Humic acid (HA) is one of the major components of soil organic matter. It strongly affects the sorption behavior of organic and inorganic contaminants in soils. To obtain a better understanding of the interactions of contaminants with HA, a repeated extraction technique has been applied to a peat soil to obtain HA fractions with varying aliphaticity and aromaticity, which were subsequently correlated to the sorption properties of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP). HA fractions were extracted repeatedly using an alkaline solution and each HA fraction was separated into two portions with an air-drying or re-suspending (denoted as RSHAs) process. Solid-state 13 C NMR and elemental analysis demonstrated that the aromaticity and polarity of HAs decreased with extractions. Kinetic results indicated that air-dried HAs exhibited two-step first order sorption behavior with a rapid stage followed by a slower stage. The slower sorption is attributed to the diffusion of 2,4,6-TCP in the condensed aromatic domains of HAs. Conversely, sorption of 2,4,6-TCP on RSHAs was extremely rapid and could not be fitted with any kinetic model. For air-dried HAs the sorption capacity (K oc ) was weakly correlated with the chemical compositions of HAs. However, a positive trend between K oc and aromaticity was observed for RSHAs. Compared with the results of air-dried HAs with their counterparts of RSHAs, it is therefore concluded that air-drying may alter the structure of HAs through artificially creating a more condensed domain in HAs. The structural alternation may result in an incorrect interpretation of the relationship between sorption capacity and chemical composition of HAs and a misjudgment of the transport behavior of 2,4,6-TCP in soils and sediments

  16. Voltammetric determination of trace amounts of 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol at a silver solid amalgam electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, J.; Barek, J.; Josypčuk, Bohdan; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2006), s. 127-130 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0182; GA MPO 1H-PK/42 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : 2-methyl-4,6-dinitrophenol * differential pulse voltammetry * silver solid amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2006

  17. Identification and quantitation of vitamins K1 and K3 in cosmetic products for facial skin protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Orsi, D; Giannini, G; Gagliardi, L; Carpani, I; Tonelli, D

    2008-01-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method was developed for the determination of vitamins K1 and K3 in facial anti-rash creams. The procedure is based on an ultrasonic extraction of the cosmetic sample with dimethylacetamide, in the presence of an internal standard, followed by HPLC separation. HPLC was performed using a C18 column and spectrophotometric detection at 333 nm. A linear gradient elution was carried out starting with 50% acetonitrile-methanol (75:25 v/v) and water up to 100% acetonitrile-methanol for 5 min. Linearity was established over the concentration range from 0.2 to 1.0 mg/ml for vitamin K1 and from 0.02 to 0.1 mg/ml for vitamin K3, with LOD values of 100 ng and 20 ng injected, respectively. The accuracy was verified by spiking experiments on model cosmetic samples. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the analysis of commercial samples of creams.

  18. Absorption spectrometric and thermodynamic study of charge transfer complexes of menadione (Vitamin K3) with a series of phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Purnendu; Bhattacharya, Sumanta; Mukherjee, Asok K; Mukherjee, Dulal C

    2005-03-01

    The electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions between menadione (i.e., 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, which is also called 'Vitamin K3') and a series of phenols (viz., phenol, resorcinol and p-quinol) have been studied in CCl4 medium. In all the cases, charge transfer (CT) bands have been located. The CT transition energies (h nu(CT)) of the complexes are found to change systematically with change in the number and position of the -OH groups in the aromatic ring of the phenol moiety. From the trends in the h nu(CT) values, the Hückel parameters (h(O) and k(C-O)) for the -OH group have been obtained. The CT transition energies are well correlated with the ionisation potentials of the phenols. From an analysis of this variation the electron affinity of Vitamin K3 has been found to be 2.28 eV. The stoichiometry of the complexes in each case has been found to be 1(menadione):2 (phenol). Formation constants of the complexes have been determined at four different temperatures from which the enthalpies and entropies of formation of the complexes have been estimated.

  19. ANALISIS FAKTOR KESEHATAN DAN KESELAMATAN KERJA (K3 YANG SIGNIFIKAN MEMPENGARUHI KECELAKAAN KERJA PADA PROYEK PEMBANGUNAN APARTEMENT STUDENT CASTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloni Waruwu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Health and Safety (K3 is an effort to create a safe working atmosphere, comfortable and achieve the goal of maximum productivity. K3 is very important to be implemented in all areas of employment without exception building projects such as apartments, hotels, malls. However, to prevent any risk of workplace accidents is not as easy as turning the palm of the hand. Occupational accidents disebab by several factors, among others, occupational safety and health training (X1, the commitment of top management (X2, work environment (X3, awareness of workers (X4, regulations and safety and health procedures (X5, availability rambu- occupational health and safety signs (X6 in the workplace, and communication workers (X7. The most significant factor affecting the accidents are the top management commitment (X2 with a value of 36.4% koefien regression and awareness of workers (X4 of 30.1%. If both of these factors add up the total is 66.5%.

  20. Absorption spectrometric and thermodynamic study of charge transfer complexes of menadione (Vitamin K 3) with a series of phenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Purnendu; Bhattacharya, Sumanta; Mukherjee, Asok K.; Mukherjee, Dulal C.

    2005-03-01

    The electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions between menadione (i.e., 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, which is also called 'Vitamin K 3') and a series of phenols (viz., phenol, resorcinol and p-quinol) have been studied in CCl 4 medium. In all the cases, charge transfer (CT) bands have been located. The CT transition energies ( hνCT) of the complexes are found to change systematically with change in the number and position of the -OH groups in the aromatic ring of the phenol moiety. From the trends in the hνCT values, the Hückel parameters ( hÖ and kC-Ö) for the -OH group have been obtained. The CT transition energies are well correlated with the ionisation potentials of the phenols. From an analysis of this variation the electron affinity of Vitamin K 3 has been found to be 2.28 eV. The stoichiometry of the complexes in each case has been found to be 1(menadione):2 (phenol). Formation constants of the complexes have been determined at four different temperatures from which the enthalpies and entropies of formation of the complexes have been estimated.

  1. Orthorhombic fulleride (CH3NH2)K3C60 close to Mott-Hubbard instability: Ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potočnik, Anton; Manini, Nicola; Komelj, Matej; Tosatti, Erio; Arčon, Denis

    2012-08-01

    We study the electronic structure and magnetic interactions in methylamine-intercalated orthorhombic alkali-doped fullerene (CH3NH2)K3C60 within the density functional theory. As in the simpler ammonia intercalated compound (NH3)K3C60, the orthorhombic crystal-field anisotropy Δ lifts the t1u triple degeneracy at the Γ point and drives the system deep into the Mott-insulating phase. However, the computed Δ and conduction electron bandwidth W cannot alone account for the abnormally low experimental Néel temperature, TN=11 K, of the methylamine compound, compared to the much higher value TN=40 K of the ammonia one. Significant interactions between CH3NH2 and C603- are responsible for the stabilization of particular fullerene-cage distortions and the ensuing low-spin S=1/2 state. These interactions also seem to affect the magnetic properties, as interfullerene exchange interactions depend on the relative orientation of deformations of neighboring C603- molecules. For the ferro-orientational order of CH3NH2-K+ groups we find an apparent reduced dimensionality in magnetic exchange interactions, which may explain the suppressed Néel temperature. The disorder in exchange interactions caused by orientational disorder of CH3NH2-K+ groups could further contribute to this suppression.

  2. K3FU METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  3. K3MW METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  4. K3TH METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  5. Lactobacillus reuteri strains convert starch and maltodextrins into homo-exopolysaccharides using an extracellular and cell-associated 4,6-α-glucanotransferase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Yuxiang; Böger, Markus; van der Kaaij, Rachel Maria; Woortman, Albert Jan Jacob; Pijning, Tjaard; van Leeuwen, Sander Sebastiaan; Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2016-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are of interest for food applications. LAB are well-known to produce α-glucan from sucrose by extracellular glucansucrases. Various Lactobacillus reuteri strains also possess 4,6-α-glucanotransferase (4,6-α-GTase) enzymes. Purified 4,6-α-GTases

  6. Interaction mechanisms of ionic liquids [Cnmim]Br (n=4, 6, 8, 10) with bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hua; Wu Junyong; Dai Guoliang; Zhong Aiguo; Chen Hao; Yang Jianguo; Han Deman

    2012-01-01

    It is important to study the interaction of ionic liquids (ILs) with protein for the applications of ILs in biochemical process, and help the researchers to choose and design the better ILs to serve as a solvent. In this work, the interaction between 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide [C n mim]Br (n=4, 6, 8, 10) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was systematically investigated for the first time by multi-spectroscopic approach (fluorescence, UV–vis and FT-IR spectroscopy) and density functional theory (DFT). [C n mim]Br (n=4, 6, 8, 10) can bind to BSA by H-bond interaction between their cationic headgroups and Asp/Glu amino acid residue at the surface of BSA, and hydrophobic interaction between their hydrocarbon chains and the hydrophobic amino acid residues in the interior of BSA. On the basis of thermodynamic parameters and the similar structure of [C n mim]Br (n=4, 6, 8, 10), it can be inferred that the hydrophobic interaction plays a major role in the interaction of [C 10 mim]Br with BSA, while the hydrogen bond and van der Waals force play a major role in the interaction of [C n mim]Br (n=4, 6, 8) with BSA. Synchronous fluorescence and FT-IR spectra indicate that [C 10 mim]Br could markedly change the secondary structure of BSA, while [C n mim]Br (n=4, 6, 8) could slightly change the secondary structure of BSA. The results allowed us to understand (i) the effect of the alkyl chain length of the cation on the mechanism of ILs–protein interaction and (ii) the effect of the alkyl chain length of the cation on the protein secondary structure. - Highlights: ► Interaction of [C n mim]Br with BSA was investigated by spectroscopy and DFT. ► Interaction mechanisms and BSA secondary structure were discussed. ► Effects of the alkyl chain length of cation were presented.

  7. Alternative Flame Retardant, 2,4,6-Tris(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine, in an E-waste Recycling Facility and House Dust in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiehong; Stubbings, William A; Romanak, Kevin; Nguyen, Linh V; Jantunen, Liisa; Melymuk, Lisa; Arrandale, Victoria; Diamond, Miriam L; Venier, Marta

    2018-03-20

    A high molecular weight compound, 2,4,6-tris(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine (TTBP-TAZ), was detected during the analysis of brominated flame retardants in dust samples collected from an electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling facility in Ontario, Canada. Gas chromatography coupled with both high-resolution and low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) was used to determine TTBP-TAZ's chemical structure and concentrations. To date, TTBP-TAZ has only been detected in plastic casings of electrical and electronic equipment and house dust from The Netherlands. Here we report on the concentrations of TTBP-TAZ in selected samples from North America: e-waste dust ( n = 7) and air ( n = 4), residential dust ( n = 30), and selected outdoor air ( n = 146), precipitation ( n = 19), sediment ( n = 11) and water ( n = 2) samples from the Great Lakes environment. TTBP-TAZ was detected in all the e-waste dust and air samples, and in 70% of residential dust samples. The median concentrations of TTBP-TAZ in these three types of samples were 5540 ng/g, 5.75 ng/m 3 and 6.76 ng/g, respectively. The flame retardants 2,4,6-tribromophenol, tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate, and 3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl) ether, BDE-47 and BDE-209 were also measured for comparison. None of these other flame retardants concentrations was significantly correlated with those of TTBP-TAZ in any of the sample types suggesting different sources. TTBP-TAZ was not detected in any of the outdoor environmental samples, which may relate to its application history and physicochemical properties. This is the first report of TTBP-TAZ in North America.

  8. Contribution of filamentous fungi to the musty odorant 2,4,6-trichloroanisole in water supply reservoirs and associated drinking water treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Ting; Qu, Zhipeng; Li, Haipu; Yang, Zhaoguang

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the distribution of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in two water supply reservoirs and four associated drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) were investigated. The 2,4,6-TCA concentrations were in the range of 1.53-2.36 ng L -1 in water supply reservoirs and 0.76-6.58 ng L -1 at DWTPs. To determine the contribution of filamentous fungi to 2,4,6-TCA in a full-scale treatment process, the concentrations of 2,4,6-TCA in raw water, settled water, post-filtration water, and finished water were measured. The results showed that 2,4,6-TCA levels continuously increased until chlorination, suggesting that 2,4,6-TCA could form without a chlorination reaction and fungi might be the major contributor to the 2,4,6-TCA formation. Meanwhile, twenty-nine fungal strains were isolated and identified by morphological and molecular biological methods. Of the seventeen isolated fungal species, eleven showed the capability to convert 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) to 2,4,6-TCA. The highest level of 2,4,6-TCA formation was carried out by Aspergillus versicolor voucher BJ1-3: 40.5% of the original 2,4,6-TCP was converted to 2,4,6-TCA. There was a significant variation in the capability of different species to generate 2,4,6-TCA. The results from the proportions of cell-free, cell-attached, and cell-bound 2,4,6-TCA suggested that 2,4,6-TCA generated by fungi was mainly distributed in their extracellular environment. In addition to 2,4,6-TCA, five putative volatile by-products were also identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. These findings increase our understanding on the mechanisms involved in the formation of 2,4,6-TCA and provide insights into managing and controlling 2,4,6-TCA-related problems in drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Motivation: The Value of Developing Intrinsic Motivation in Elementary School Students in Grades Four through Six

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstner, Gary M.

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to fill the gap in the literature concerning intrinsic motivation in elementary students in Grades 4-6 by examining 155 elementary school students and in-depth interviews with three elementary grade teachers. This study used data collected from the self-report survey called the Children's Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory…

  10. Generation of femtosecond laser pulses at 396 nm in K3B6O10Cl crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ning-Hua; Huang Hang-Dong; Tian Wen-Long; Zhu Jiang-Feng; Teng Hao; Fang Shao-Bo; Wei Zhi-Yi; Wu Hong-Ping; Pan Shi-Lie

    2016-01-01

    K 3 B 6 O 10 Cl (KBOC), a new nonlinear optical crystal, shows potential advantages for the generation of deep ultraviolet (UV) light compared with other borate crystals. In this paper we study for the first time the second harmonic generation (SHG) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire amplifier with this crystal. Laser power is obtained to be as high as 220 mW at the central wavelength of 396 nm with a 1-mm-long crystal, and the maximum SHG conversion efficiency reaches 39.3%. The typical pulse duration is 83 fs. The results show that second harmonic (SH) conversion efficiency has the room to be further improved and that the new nonlinear crystal is very suited to generate the high efficiency deep ultraviolet laser radiation below 266 nm. (paper)

  11. Stable, high power, high efficiency picosecond ultraviolet generation at 355 nm in K3B6O10 Br crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Z. Y.; Wang, L. R.; Xia, M. J.; Yan, D. X.; Zhang, Q. L.; Zhang, L.; Liu, L. J.; Xu, D. G.; Zhang, D. X.; Wang, X. Y.; Li, R. K.; Chen, C. T.

    2018-06-01

    We demonstrate a high efficiency and high power picosecond ultraviolet source at 355 nm with stable output by sum frequency generation from a Nd:YAG laser using a type-I critically phase matched K3B6O10 Br crystal as nonlinear optical material. Conversion efficiency as high as 30.8% was achieved using a 25 ps laser at 1064 nm operated at 10 Hz. Similar work is done by using a 35 W 10 ps laser at 1064 nm as the pump source with a repetition rate of 80 MHz, and the highest average output power obtained was up to 5.3 W. In addition, the power stability of the 355 nm output power measurement shows that the standard deviation fluctuations of the average power are ±0.69% and ±0.91% at 3.0 W and 3.5 W, respectively.

  12. Effect of K3PO4 addition as sintering inhibitor during calcination of Y2O3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, K.; Okumura, Y.; Tsuji, K.; Venkatachalam, N.

    2009-11-01

    Erbium-doped yttrium oxide nanoparticle is one of the most important for fluorescence bioimaging under near infrared excitation. Particle size of it below 100 nm is an important requirement for a cellular bioimaging. However, the synthesis with such small particles is difficult at the calcination temperature above 1200 °C due to the sintering and crystal growth of the particles. In this study, yttrium oxide nanoparticles with average size of 30 nm were successfully synthesized by using K3PO4 as a sintering inhibitor during the calcination. A single phase of cubic Y2O3 as the resultant material was confirmed by XRD, which was also confirmed to emit a bright upconversion emission under 980-nm excitation. Improvement of chemical durability due to the introduction of phosphate group on the surface of the Y2O3 particles is also reported.

  13. The effects of physical aging at elevated temperatures on the viscoelastic creep on IM7/K3B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Feldman, Mark

    1994-01-01

    Physical aging at elevated temperature of the advanced composite IM7/K3B was investigated through the use of creep compliance tests. Testing consisted of short term isothermal, creep/recovery with the creep segments performed at constant load. The matrix dominated transverse tensile and in-plane shear behavior were measured at temperatures ranging from 200 to 230 C. Through the use of time based shifting procedures, the aging shift factors, shift rates and momentary master curve parameters were found at each temperature. These material parameters were used as input to a predictive methodology, which was based upon effective time theory and linear viscoelasticity combined with classical lamination theory. Long term creep compliance test data was compared to predictions to verify the method. The model was then used to predict the long term creep behavior for several general laminates.

  14. A Hiker's guide to K3. Aspects of N=(4,4) superconformal field theory with central charge c=6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahm, W.; Wendland, K.

    2001-01-01

    We study the moduli space M of N=(4,4) superconformal field theories with central charge c=6. After a slight emendation of its global description we find the locations of various known models in the component of M associated to K3 surfaces. Among them are the Z 2 and Z 4 orbifold theories obtained from the torus component of M. Here, SO(4,4) triality is found to play a dominant role. We obtain the B-field values in direction of the exceptional divisors which arise from orbifolding. We prove T-duality for the Z 2 orbifolds and use it to derive the form of M purely within conformal field theory. For the Gepner model (2) 4 and some of its orbifolds we find the locations in M and prove isomorphisms to nonlinear σ models. In particular we prove that the Gepner model (2) 4 has a geometric interpretation with Fermat quartic target space. (orig.)

  15. Structure and redox properties of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 adsorbed on a silica surface. M05 computational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmyla K. Sviatenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cluster approximation was applied at M05/tzvp level to model adsorption of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 on (001 surface of α-quartz. Structures of the obtained CL-20–silica complexes confirm close to parallel orientation of the nitrocompound toward surface. The binding between CL-20 and silica surface was analyzed and bond energies were calculated applying the atoms in molecules (AIM method. Hydrogen bonds were found to significantly contribute in adsorption energy. An attaching of electron leads to significant deviation from coplanarity in complexes and to strengthening of hydrogen bonding. Redox properties of adsorbed CL-20 were compared with those of gas-phase and hydrated species by calculation of electron affinity, ionization potential, reduction Gibbs free energy, oxidation Gibbs free energy, reduction and oxidation potentials. It was shown that adsorbed CL-20 has lower ability to redox transformation as compared with hydrated one.

  16. [4,6-Dimethylpyrimidine-2(1H-thione-κS]iodidobis(triphenylphosphane-κPcopper(I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaveng Pakawatchai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the mononuclear title complex, [CuI(C6H8N2S(C18H15P2], the CuI ion is in a slightly distorted tetrahedral coordination geometry formed by two P atoms from two triphenylphosphane ligands, one S atom from a 4,6-dimethylpyrimidine-2(1H-thione ligand and one iodide ion. There is an intramolecular N—H...I hydrogen bond. In the crystal, π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.594 (1 Å] are observed.

  17. Degradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol (TNP) by Arthrobacter sp. HPC1223 Isolated from Effluent Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Asifa; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J.

    2012-01-01

    Arthrobacter sp. HPC1223 (Genebank Accession No. AY948280) isolated from activated biomass of effluent treatment plant was capable of utilizing 2,4,6 trinitrophenol (TNP) under aerobic condition at 30 °C and pH 7 as nitrogen source. It was observed that the isolated bacteria utilized TNP up to 70 % (1 mM) in R2A media with nitrite release. The culture growth media changed into orange-red color hydride-meisenheimer complex at 24 h as detected by HPLC. Oxygen uptake of Arthrobacter HPC1223 towa...

  18. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-01-01

    This Waste Management Plan describes waste management and waste minimization activities for Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory. The waste management activities described in this plan support the selected response action presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. This plan identifies the waste streams that will be generated during implementation of the remedial action and presents plans for waste minimization, waste management strategies, and waste disposition

  19. On arbitrarily graded rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    58

    paper is devoted to the study of arbitrary rings graded through arbitrary sets. .... which recover certain multiplicative relations among the homogeneous components ... instance the case in which the grading set A is an Abelian group, where the ...

  20. Graded manifolds and supermanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, a review is presented on graded manifolds and supermanifolds. Many theorems, propositions, corrollaries, etc. are given with proofs or sketch proofs. Graded manifolds, supereuclidian space, Lie supergroups, etc. are dealt with

  1. Ortho-vanadates K3RE(VO4)2 (RE = La, Pr, Eu, Gd, Dy, Y) for near UV-converted phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Lin; Wei, Dong-Lei; Huang, Yanlin; Qin, Chuanxiang; Cai, Peiqing; Kim, Sun-Il; Seo, Hyo-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The orthovanadate poly-crystals K 3 RE(VO 4 ) 2 (RE = La, Pr, Eu, Gd, Dy, Y) were synthesized via the solid-state reaction route. The crystal phase formation was verified through X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies and was performed by structural refinements. The optical properties were also investigated in detail. K 3 RE(VO 4 ) 2 (RE = Eu, Dy, Gd, Pr, La, Y) phosphors present different luminescence behaviors: the profiles of excitation and emission spectra, the spectra shift, the luminescence decay lifetimes, the absolute quantum efficiency (QE), and the CIE color coordinates are very different. The luminescence of K 3 RE(VO 4 ) 2 (RE = La, Gd, Y, Pr) presents yellow or yellowish green color, while, K 3 Dy(VO 4 ) 2 and K 3 Eu(VO 4 ) 2 show white and red luminescence, respectively. This was discussed on the base of the different micro-structure, activator centers, and the charge transfer transitions from [VO 4 ] 3− groups in the lattices. K 3 Y(VO 4 ) 2 and K 3 Eu(VO 4 ) 2 show higher QE values of 47.0% and 45.0% at room temperature, respectively. All the phosphors have efficient absorption in the region of near-UV wavelengths or blue wavelength region. This can well match with the light from UV-LED (360–400 nm) or blue LED chips (450–480 nm) based on GaN semiconductor. K 3 RE(VO 4 ) 2 could be suggested to be a potential candidate to give further investigations for the application on near-UV excited white LEDs. - Graphical abstract: A series of orthovanadates K 3 RE(VO 4 ) 2 (RE = Eu, Dy, Gd, Pr, La, Y) have been developed to be new phosphors with rich luminescence colors; there are efficiency excitation in the near UV wavelength region. Compared with the reported vanadate phosphors K 3 R(VO 4 ) 2 has rich luminescence color, rich color, no concentration quenching, and comparable luminescence QE. - Highlights: • A new phosphor of non-doped of K 3 R(VO 4 ) 2 (R = Eu, Dy, Gd, Pr, La, Y) were developed by solid-state reaction route. • The phosphor

  2. GRADE Equity Guidelines 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welch, Vivian A; Akl, Elie A; Pottie, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe a conceptual framework for how to consider health equity in the GRADE (Grading Recommendations Assessment and Development Evidence) guideline development process. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Consensus-based guidance developed by the GRADE working grou...

  3. Syntheses of 4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine diones, their urease inhibition, in vitro, in silico, and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Munira Taj; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Arshia; Khan, Ajmal; Arshad, Fiza; Fatima, Bibi; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Syed, Naima; Moin, Syed Tarique

    2017-12-01

    A library of 4,6-dihydroxypyrimidine diones (1-35) were synthesized and evaluated for their urease inhibitory activity. Structure-activity relationships, and mechanism of inhibition were also studied. All compounds were found to be active with IC 50 values between 22.6±1.14-117.4±0.73µM, in comparison to standard, thiourea (IC 50 =21.2±1.3µM). Kinetics studies on the most active compounds 2-7, 16, 17, 28, and 33 were performed to investigate their modes of inhibition, and dissociation constants K i . Compounds 2, 3, 7, 16, 28, and 33 were found to be mixed-type of inhibitors with K i values in the range of 7.91±0.024-13.03±0.013µM, whereas, compounds 4-6, and 17 were found to be non-competitive inhibitors with K i values in the range of 9.28±0.019-13.05±0.023µM. In silico study was also performed, and a good correlation was observed between experimental and docking studies. This study is continuation of our previously reported urease inhibitory activity of pyrimidine diones, representing potential leads for further research as possible treatment of diseases caused by ureolytic bacteria. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. SYNTHESIS OF 2-METHOXY-4,6-DI(PROP-1-ENYLPHENOL FROM EUGENOL AND ITS ACTIVITY AS AN ANTIOXIDANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernawan Hernawan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and antioxidant activity of 2-methoxy-4,6-di(prop-1-enyl phenol from eugenol have been investigated. Synthesis was conducted through three stages of reaction. The first step was CTAB micellar catalytic O-allylation reaction at room temperature, to give 4-allyl-1-(allyloxy-2-methoxybenzene (2. Compound (2 was subsequently heated for Claisen rearrangement and produced 2,4-diallyl-6- methoxyphenol (3. The final steps was isomerization of compound (3 in alkaline conditions in ethylene glycol, to yield 2-methoxy-4,6-di(prop-1-enyl phenol (4. Antioxidant activity test was conducted by TBARS and DPPH methods. TBARS test showed that the compound (4 at a concentration of 50 μM could inhibit the oxidation of linoleic acid shown by the increasing of time lag phase (96 ± 2.94 min, reducing the rate of propagation (± 54.54% and reducing of malonal dialdehyde (MDA formation (68.04 ± 0.84%. The DPPH test revealed that compound (4 indicated DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 107.66 μM and comparable with IC50 for BHT 107.37 μM.

  5. Chlorella vulgaris cultivation in sludge extracts from 2,4,6-TCP wastewater treatment for toxicity removal and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Chen, Xiurong; Wang, Hualin; Zhang, Yuying; Tang, Qingjie; Li, Jiahui

    2017-02-01

    Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in different proportions of activated sludge extracts, which was from the treatment of the synthetic wastewater containing 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The nutrients, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), were removed over 45% and 90%, respectively. The maximum reduction amount of ecotoxicity and total organic carbon (TOC) occurred in the 100% sludge group on the 8th day (68%; 86.2 mg L -1 ). The variations of Excitation-emission matrix spectra (EEMs) and TOC indicated that extracellular organic matters (EOM) produced by algae led to TOC increase in the medium. The cell density was close to each other for groups with sludge extract proportion below 50%; sludge extracts (below 75% addition) had a stimulating effect on the accumulation of chlorophyll-a in per unit algal cell. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) variation demonstrated that C. vulgaris response positively to sludge extracts addition. Lipid content in C. vulgaris was up to its maximum value on the 8th day. Considering the performance on nutrients removal, toxicity reduction and algal growth, the optimal cultivation period for C. vulgaris before harvesting was around 8 days with sludge extracts proportion below 50%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis of silicated hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6-x(SiO4)x(OH)2-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palard, Mickael; Champion, Eric; Foucaud, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of silicated hydroxyapatite Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6-x (SiO 4 ) x (OH) 2-x (SiHA) with 0≤x≤2 was investigated using a wet precipitation method followed by a heat treatment. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld refinement, Fourier transformed IR (FTIR) spectroscopy, elemental analyses, transmission electron microscopy and thermal analyses were used to characterize the samples. The raw materials were composed of a partially silicated and carbonated apatite and a secondary minor phase containing the excess silicon. Single phase silicated hydroxyapatites, with 0≤x≤1, could be synthesized after a thermal treatment of the raw powders above 700 deg. C. The presence of carbonate groups in the raw apatite played an important role in the incorporation of silicates during heating. From the different results, the mechanisms of formation of SiHA are discussed. - Graphical abstract: The preparation of pure silicated hydroxyapatite Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6-x (SiO 4 ) x (OH) 2-x powders with controlled silicon content was investigated. The synthesis route included a precipitation in aqueous media. It required an additional high temperature solid-state reaction to fully incorporate the silicon into the apatite crystals

  7. Biochemical characterization of an isoform of GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase from Mortierella alpina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchao; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Haiqin; Yang, Qin; Zhou, Xin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2016-10-01

    To clarify the molecular mechanism of GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis in Mortierella alpina. Analysis of the M. alpina genome suggests that there were two isofunctional GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase genes (GMD1 and GMD2) that have never been found in a microorganism before. GMD2 was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The addition of exogenous NAD(+) or NADP(+) was not essential for GMD2 activity. GMD2 may have considerable importance for GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis under nitrogen starvation. The transcriptional regulation of GMD1 may be more susceptible to GDP and GTP than that of GMD2. Significant changes were observed in the concentration of GDP-L-fucose (30 and 36 % inhibition respectively) and total fatty acids (18 and 12 % inhibition respectively) in M. alpina grown on GMD inhibitors medium, which suggests that GDP-L-fucose is functionally significant in lipid metabolism. This is the first time that an isofunctional GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase has been characterized in a microorganism.

  8. Identification of the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase from Lycopersicon esculentum using proteomics and reverse-genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Kieliszewski, Marcia; Held, Michael A

    2015-04-01

    The regulation of plant cell growth and early defense response involves the insolubilization of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs), such as extensin, in the primary cell wall. In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), insolubilization occurs by the formation of tyrosyl-crosslinks catalyzed specifically by the pI 4.6 extensin peroxidase (EP). To date, neither the gene encoding EP nor the protein itself has been identified. Here, we have identified tomato EP candidates using both proteomic and bioinformatic approaches. Bioinformatic screening of the tomato genome yielded eight EP candidates, which contained a putative signal sequence and a predicted pI near 4.6. Biochemical fractionation of tomato culture media followed by proteomic detection further refined our list of EP candidates to three, with the lead candidate designated (CG5). To test for EP crosslinking activity, we cloned into a bacterial expression vector the CG5 open-reading frame from tomato cDNA. The CG5 was expressed in Escherichia coli, fractionated from inclusion bodies, and folded in vitro. The peroxidase activity of CG5 was assayed and quantified by ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) assay. Subsequent extensin crosslinking assays showed that CG5 can covalently crosslink authentic tomato P1 extensin and P3-type extensin analogs in vitro supporting our hypothesis that CG5 encodes a tomato EP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The naphthoquinones, vitamin K3 and its structural analogue plumbagin, are substrates of the multidrug resistance linked ATP binding cassette drug transporter ABCG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Suneet; Wu, Chung-Pu; Nandigama, Krishnamachary; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2007-12-01

    Vitamin K3 (menadione; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a structural precursor of vitamins K1 and K2, which are essential for blood clotting. The naturally occurring structural analogue of this vitamin, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-menadione), is known to modulate cellular proliferation, apoptosis, carcinogenesis, and radioresistance. We here report that both vitamin K3 and plumbagin are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ATP binding cassette drug transporter, ABCG2. Vitamin K3 and plumbagin specifically inhibited the ABCG2-mediated efflux of mitoxantrone but did not have any effect on the ABCB1-mediated efflux of rhodamine 123. This inhibition of ABCG2 function was due to their interaction at the substrate-binding site(s). Vitamin K3 and plumbagin inhibited the binding of [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin, a substrate of ABCG2, to this transporter in a concentration-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 7.3 and 22.6 micromol/L, respectively, but had no effect on the binding of the photoaffinity analogue to ABCB1. Both compounds stimulated ABCG2-mediated ATP hydrolysis and also inhibited the mitoxantrone-stimulated ATPase activity of the ABCG2 transporter, but did not have any significant effect on the ATPase activity of ABCB1. In a cytotoxicity assay, ABCG2-expressing HEK cells were 2.8- and 2.3-fold resistant to plumbagin and vitamin K3, respectively, compared with the control cells, suggesting that they are substrates of this transporter. Collectively, these data show for the first time that vitamin K3 is a substrate of the ABCG2 transporter. Thus, ABCG2 may have a role in the regulation of vitamin K3 levels in the body. In addition, vitamin K3 and its structural derivative, plumbagin, could potentially be used to modulate ABCG2 function.

  10. Graded gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mathematical background for a graded extension of gauge theories is investigated. After discussing the general properties of graded Lie algebras and what may serve as a model for a graded Lie group, the graded fiber bundle is constructed. Its basis manifold is supposed to be the so-called superspace, i.e. the product of the Minkowskian space-time with the Grassmann algebra spanned by the anticommuting Lorentz spinors; the vertical subspaces tangent to the fibers are isomorphic with the graded extension of the SU(N) Lie algebra. The connection and curvature are defined then on this bundle; the two different gradings are either independent of each other, or may be unified in one common grading, which is equivalent to the choice of the spin-statistics dependence. The Yang-Mills lagrangian is investigated in the simplified case. The conformal symmetry breaking is discussed, as well as some other physical consequences of the model. (orig.)

  11. DECONVOLUTION OF IMAGES FROM BLAST 2005: INSIGHT INTO THE K3-50 AND IC 5146 STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Arabindo; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Bock, James J.; Brunt, Christopher M.; Chapin, Edward L.; Gibb, Andrew G.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; France, Kevin; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Martin, Peter G.; Olmi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We present an implementation of the iterative flux-conserving Lucy-Richardson (L-R) deconvolution method of image restoration for maps produced by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Compared to the direct Fourier transform method of deconvolution, the L-R operation restores images with better-controlled background noise and increases source detectability. Intermediate iterated images are useful for studying extended diffuse structures, while the later iterations truly enhance point sources to near the designed diffraction limit of the telescope. The L-R method of deconvolution is efficient in resolving compact sources in crowded regions while simultaneously conserving their respective flux densities. We have analyzed its performance and convergence extensively through simulations and cross-correlations of the deconvolved images with available high-resolution maps. We present new science results from two BLAST surveys, in the Galactic regions K3-50 and IC 5146, further demonstrating the benefits of performing this deconvolution. We have resolved three clumps within a radius of 4.'5 inside the star-forming molecular cloud containing K3-50. Combining the well-resolved dust emission map with available multi-wavelength data, we have constrained the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of five clumps to obtain masses (M), bolometric luminosities (L), and dust temperatures (T). The L-M diagram has been used as a diagnostic tool to estimate the evolutionary stages of the clumps. There are close relationships between dust continuum emission and both 21 cm radio continuum and 12 CO molecular line emission. The restored extended large-scale structures in the Northern Streamer of IC 5146 have a strong spatial correlation with both SCUBA and high-resolution extinction images. A dust temperature of 12 K has been obtained for the central filament. We report physical properties of ten compact sources, including six associated protostars, by fitting

  12. Increased growth and root Cu accumulation of Sorghum sudanense by endophytic Enterobacter sp. K3-2: Implications for Sorghum sudanense biomass production and phytostabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Wang, Qi; Wang, Lu; He, Lin-Yan; Sheng, Xia-Fang

    2016-02-01

    Endophytic bacterial strain K3-2 was isolated from the roots of Sorghum sudanense (an bioenergy plant) grown in a Cu mine wasteland soils and characterized. Strain K3-2 was identified as Enterobacter sp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain K3-2 exhibited Cu resistance and produced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, and arginine decarboxylase. Pot experiments showed that strain K3-2 significantly increased the dry weight and root Cu accumulation of Sorghum sudanense grown in the Cu mine wasteland soils. Furthermore, increase in total Cu uptake (ranging from 49% to 95%) of the bacterial inoculated-Sorghum sudanense was observed compared to the control. Notably, most of Cu (83-86%) was accumulated in the roots of Sorghum sudanense. Furthermore, inoculation with strain K3-2 was found to significantly increase Cu bioconcentration factors and the proportions of IAA- and siderophore-producing bacteria in the root interiors and rhizosphere soils of Sorghum sudanense compared with the control. Significant decrease in the available Cu content was also observed in the rhizosphere soils of the bacterial-inoculated Sorghum sudanense. The results suggest that the endophytic bacterial strain K3-2 may be exploited for promoting Sorghum sudanense biomass production and Cu phytostabilization in the Cu mining wasteland soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vitamin K 3 family members - Part II: Single crystal X-ray structures, temperature-induced packing polymorphism, magneto-structural correlations and probable anti-oncogenic candidature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Sandhya; Ahmed, Khursheed; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita; Zaware, Santosh B.; Srinivas, D.; Gonnade, Rajesh; Bhadbhade, Mohan

    2008-12-01

    Temperature-induced packing polymorphism is observed for vitamin K 3 (menadione, 3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 1). Form 1a crystallizes at 300 K and 1b at 277 K both in the same space group P2 1/ c. Form 1b contains one molecule per asymmetric unit, performing anisotropy in g-factor viz. g z = 2.0082, g y = 2.0055 and g x = 2.0025, whereas form 1a contains two molecules in its asymmetric unit. Vitamin K 3 family members 2, [2-hydroxy vitamin K 3] and 3, [2-hydroxy-1-oximino vitamin K 3] also perform intrinsic neutral active naphthosemiquinone valence tautomers even in dark having spin concentrations due to hydrogen bonding and aromatic stacking interactions which are compared to vitamin K 3. The significant lateral C-H⋯O and O-H⋯π bifurcated or π-π ∗ interactions are discussed for molecular associations and radical formations. X-ray structure of 3 revealed π-π ∗ stack dimers as radicals signatured in EPR as triplet with five hyperfine splits [ Ā( 14N) = 11.9 G]. The centrosymmetric biradicals in 3 show diamagnetism at high temperature but below 10 K it shows paramagnetism with μeff as 0.19 B.M. Vitamin K 3 and its family members inhibit biological activities of acid phosphatase ( APase), which are proportional to their spin concentrations. This may relate to their probable anti-oncogenic candidature in future.

  14. White Light Emitting MZr4(PO4)6:Dy3+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) Phosphors for WLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Govind B; Dhoble, S J

    2017-03-01

    A series of MZr 4 (PO 4 ) 6 :Dy 3+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors were prepared by the solid state diffusion method. Confirmation of the phase formation and morphological studies were performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Photoluminescence (PL) properties of these phosphors were thoroughly analyzed and the characteristic emissions of Dy 3+ ions were found to arise from them at an excitation wavelength of 351 nm. The PL emission spectra of the three phosphors were analyzed and compared. The CIE chromaticity coordinates assured that the phosphors produced cool white-light emission and hence, they are potential candidates for UV excited white-LEDs (WLEDs). Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Application of a Homogenous Assay for the Detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene to Environmental Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen R. Goldman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A homogeneous assay was used to detect 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT spiked into environmental water samples. This assay is based on changes in fluorescence emission intensity when TNT competitively displaces a fluorescently labeled, TNT analog bound to an anti-TNT antibody. The effectiveness of the assay was highly dependent on the source of the sample being tested. As no correlation between pH and assay performance was observed, ionic strength was assumed to be the reason for variation in assay results. Addition of 10x phosphate-buffered saline to samples to increase their ionic strength to that of our standard laboratory buffer (about 0.17 M significantly improved the range over which the assay functioned in several river water samples.

  16. Influence of oxygen on omega phase stability in the Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Hendrickson, Mandana; Nandwana, Peeyush; Alam, Talukder; Choudhuri, Deep; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of oxygen on stability of isothermal omega precipitates in Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr was examined using X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography. Two alloys with 0.1 and 0.4 mass% oxygen were subjected to single step, and two-step annealing heat-treatments to respectively promote omega and alpha formation. After second step annealing, large volume fraction of omega precipitates was retained in 0.4 mass% O alloy while mainly alpha phase was observed in TNTZ-0.1O. The enhanced stability of omega in the higher oxygen containing TNTZ alloys questions the conventionally accepted understanding that oxygen destabilizes the omega phase in titanium alloys.

  17. Density functional theory investigation of the magnetism of 1,3,5-trithia-2,4,6-triazapentalenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Weidong; Liu Zuli; Wu Minghu; Yao Kailun

    2004-01-01

    An accurate full-potential density-functional method is used to study the mechanism of the origin of magnetism and of the magnetic interactions in 1,3,5-trithia-2,4,6-triazapentalenyl (TTTA). The results shown that because of the spin polarization effect and the spin exchange coupling interactions of these atoms, the net spin magnetic moment is formed in the molecule and the spontaneous magnetic moments for the TTTA mainly come from N 1 , S 1 , S 2 atoms and the N 2 , N 3 and S 3 atoms give a little contribution to the magnetism. Our results also revealed that there exists ferromagnetic interaction in the intramolecular of TTTA

  18. Design and analysis of the vacuum vessel supports and limiting structure on EAST 4.6 GHz LHCD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bo; Wu Jiefeng; Zhu Wenhua; Liu Liang

    2013-01-01

    Presently, a remote steering antenna is building for 4.6 GHz lower hybrid wave system on EAST, which needs 100 mm movable distance and very strong basis as well as absolutely reliable limiting stroke. For reliable structure strength better than any section bar, this paper presents 3 kinds of different high-strength welding holder and support, which are named as support frame, fixed foundation, limiting stroke. All of them are made of 316L stainless steel. Three types of welding structures are employed designed as frame structure, plug-welding structure and portal strengthened square steel welding component. Result computed by ANSYS shows that structure strengthen of 3 supports is stable and firmly reliable. (authors)

  19. Ecotoxicological evaluation of in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated by the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frische, Tobias

    2003-01-01

    The luminescent bacteria assay, using soil leachates, was the most sensitive toxicity indicator. - To evaluate the environmental relevance of in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils, effective and reliable monitoring approaches are of special importance. The presented study was conducted as part of a research project investigating in situ bioremediation of topsoils contaminated by the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Changes in soil toxicity within different experimental fields at a former ordnance factory were evaluated using a battery of five bioassays (plant growth, Collembola reproduction, soil respiration, luminescent bacteria acute toxicity and mutagenicity test) in combination to chemical contaminant analysis. Resulting data reveal clear differences in sensitivities between methods with the luminescent bacteria assay performed with soil leachates as most sensitive toxicity indicator. Complete test battery results are presented in so-called soil toxicity profiles to visualise and facilitate the interpretation of data. Both biological and chemical monitoring results indicate a reduction of soil toxicity within 17 months of remediation

  20. 4,6-connected fsb topology networks obtained through two-step crystal engineering of decorated trigonal prismatic nodes

    KAUST Repository

    Schoedel, Alexander

    2014-05-07

    A two-step crystal engineering strategy has been utilized to synthesize a new and versatile class of metal-organic materials, the first to exhibit 4,6-connected fsb topology. The new fsb networks are constructed from simple and inexpensive nodes (4-connected Zn(CO2)(py)2 tetrahedra; 6-connected Cr(μ3-O)(RCO2)6 trigonal prisms) and linker ligands (isonicotinate and various dicarboxylates). Further, since interpenetration is precluded, they can exhibit extra-large void volumes. These fsb nets are prototypal for what should ultimately become a large family of related structures given the ready availability of functionalized and/or expanded variants of both linker ligands. The fsb nets described herein therefore represent platforms or blueprints for a new family of ultrahigh surface area porous materials. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  1. Hall effect measurements of Frenkel defect clustering in aluminium during high-dose reactor irradiation at 4.6 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boening, K.; Mauer, W.; Pfaendner, K.; Rosner, P.

    1976-01-01

    The low-field Hall coefficient R 0 of irradiated aluminium at 4.6 K is independent of the Frenkel defect (FD) concentration, however sensitively dependent of their configuration. Since measurement of R 0 is not too difficult, rather extensive investigations of FD clustering during irradiation can be performed, but only qualitative interpretations are possible. Several pure Al samples have been irradiated with reactor neutrons at 4.6 K up to very high doses phit resp. resistivity increments Δrho 0 (maximum 91% of extrapolated saturation value Δrho 0 sup(sat) approximately 980 nΩcm). The main results are 1.FD clustering within a single displacement cascade is not a very strong effect in Al, since the R 0 values are essentially the same after reactor and after electron irradiation. Rough cascade averages are: volume Vsub(c) approximately 2.1 x 10 5 at.vol. and FD concentration csub(c) approximately 1100 ppm. 2. There is practically no dose-dependent FD clustering up to Δrho 0 approximately 350 nΩcm, since R 0 remains essentially constant there. It follows that dose-dependent FD clustering can only occur for high-order overlap of cascade volumes. The differential dose curve dΔrho 0 /dphit is perfectly linear in Δrho 0 as long as R 0 = const. 3. For Δrho 0 > 350 nΩcm FD clustering becomes increasingly important and R 0 changes strongly. Surprisingly dR 0 /dphit approximately const whence there is a constant rate of cluster size increase in spite of the vanishing rate of FD production, evidence of the continuous regrouping of the lattice and its defects. (author)

  2. All-trans retinoic acid directs urothelial specification of murine embryonic stem cells via GATA4/6 signaling mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua R Mauney

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The urinary bladder and associated tract are lined by the urothelium, a transitional epithelium that acts as a specialized permeability barrier that protects the underlying tissue from urine via expression of a highly specific group of proteins known as the uroplakins (UP. To date, our understanding of the developmental processes responsible for urothelial differentiation has been hampered due to the lack of suitable models. In this study, we describe a novel in vitro cell culture system for derivation of urothelial cells from murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs following cultivation on collagen matrices in the presence all trans retinoic acid (RA. Upon stimulation with micromolar concentrations of RA, ESCs significantly downregulated the pluripotency factor OCT-4 but markedly upregulated UP1A, UP1B, UP2, UP3A, and UP3B mRNA levels in comparison to naïve ESCs and spontaneously differentiating controls. Pan-UP protein expression was associated with both p63- and cytokeratin 20-positive cells in discrete aggregating populations of ESCs following 9 and 14 days of RA stimulation. Analysis of endodermal transcription factors such as GATA4 and GATA6 revealed significant upregulation and nuclear enrichment in RA-treated UP2-GFP+ populations. GATA4-/- and GATA6-/- transgenic ESC lines revealed substantial attenuation of RA-mediated UP expression in comparison to wild type controls. In addition, EMSA analysis revealed that RA treatment induced formation of transcriptional complexes containing GATA4/6 on both UP1B and UP2 promoter fragments containing putative GATA factor binding sites. Collectively, these data suggest that RA mediates ESC specification toward a urothelial lineage via GATA4/6-dependent processes.

  3. The relationship of expressive language development and social skills in 4-6-year-old Persian-speaking children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Vahab

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Social interaction plays an essential role in acquisition of speech and language as one of the most important developmental factors. The recent studies indicated that language abilities have a close relationship to social skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of development of expressive language and dimensions of social skills in 4-6-years-old Persian-speaking children.Methods: In this study, 123 normal Persian-speaking 4-6-year-old children (76 boys and 47 girls who had all the specific criteria for normality were randomly selected from several preschools in Shiraz, Iran. During the first stage of testing, test of language development (TOLD was administered to investigate language development of participants; later, the social skills rating system (SSRS including the teachers' and parents' forms were completed by the parents and teachers of participants. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients.Results: The correlations between expressive language and dimensions of social skills were significant (p<0.001, but teachers' form had a greater correlation with language development (p=0.031. Besides, Pearson's correlations between teachers' and parents' forms was not significant (p=0.27.Conclusion: According to our results, expressive language develops along with social skills development. On the other hand, these results are based on the differences between home and educational environment in social skills achievements of children. These findings are to be considered to provide crucial training in both environments for the children to improve the development of their expressive language.

  4. An attempt to evaluate the effect of vitamin K3 using as an enhancer of anticancer agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzno, Sumio; Yamaguchi, Yuka; Akiyoshi, Takeshi; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu; Matsuyama, Kenji

    2008-06-01

    The possibility of vitamin K3 (VK3) as an anticancer agent was assessed. VK3 dose-dependently diminished the cell viability (measured as esterase activity) with IC50 of 13.7 microM and Hill coefficient of 3.1 in Hep G2 cells. It also decreased the population of S phase and arrested cell cycle in the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner. G2/M arrest was regulated by the increment of cyclin A/cdk1 and cyclin A/cdk2 complex, and contrasting cyclin B/cdk1 complex decrease. Finally, combined application demonstrated that VK3 significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of etoposide, a G2 phase-dependent anticancer agent, whereas it reduced the cytotoxic activity of irinotecan, a S phase-dependent agent. These findings suggest that VK3 induces G2/M arrest by inhibition of cyclin B/cdk1 complex formation, and is thus useful as an enhancer of G2 phase-dependent drugs in hepatic cancer chemotherapy.

  5. Amperometric pyruvate sensor based on a pyruvate dehydrogenase-immobilized carbon paste electrode containing vitamin K3 as a mediator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miki, K. [Nara National College of Technology, Nara (Japan); Kinoshita, H. [Kawassui Women`s College, Nagasaki (Japan); Yamamoto, Y. [Kyoto Municipal Junior College of Nursing, Kyoto (Japan); Taniguchi, N. [Kyoto Research Center for Hygiene, Kyoto (Japan); Ikeda, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1995-12-05

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) was immobilized on the surface of a carbon paste electrode containing vitamin K3 (2-Methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, VK), and the electrode surface was covered with a dialysis membrane. The enzyme electrode produced an anodic current starting from -0.2 V to reach a limiting current at +0.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl due to the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of pyruvate in a phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.0. The current response to pyruvate depended on the amounts of both the immobilized-PDH and VK mixed in the carbon paste electrode at low amount of the enzyme and VK, and became independent at above 0.15 mg PDH and 0.65% (w/w) VK. The electrode with 0.15mg PDH and 0.65% (w/w) VK could be used as a pyruvate sensor to measure in the range of 2 ,{mu}M to 3mM. The response time was about 60 sec, and the current was independent of pH in the range of 5.7 - 7.2. The presence of L-ascorbic acid didn`t interfere with this measurement. Phosphate ion could also be determined with this electrode in a citrate buffer solution. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  6. alpha-Tocopheryl succinate promotes selective cell death induced by vitamin K3 in combination with ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetti, M; Strafella, E; Staffolani, S; Santarelli, L; Neuzil, J; Guerrieri, R

    2010-04-13

    A strategy to reduce the secondary effects of anti-cancer agents is to potentiate the therapeutic effect by their combination. A combination of vitamin K3 (VK3) and ascorbic acid (AA) exhibited an anti-cancer synergistic effect, associated with extracellular production of H(2)O(2) that promoted cell death. The redox-silent vitamin E analogue alpha-tocopheryl succinate (alpha-TOS) was used in combination with VK3 and AA to evaluate their effect on prostate cancer cells. Prostate cancer cells were sensitive to alpha-TOS and VK3 treatment, but resistant to AA upto 3.2 mM. When combined, a synergistic effect was found for VK3-AA, whereas alpha-TOS-VK3 and alpha-TOS-AA combination showed an antagonist and additive effect, respectively. However, sub-lethal doses of AA-VK3 combination combined with a sub-toxic dose of alpha-TOS showed to induce efficient cell death that resembles autoschizis. Associated with this cell demise, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, cytoskeleton alteration, lysosomal-mitochondrial perturbation, and release of cytochrome c without caspase activation were observed. Inhibition of lysosomal proteases did not attenuate cell death induced by the combined agents. Furthermore, cell deaths by apoptosis and autoschizis were detected. These finding support the emerging idea that synergistic combinations of some agents can overcome toxicity and other side-effects associated with high doses of single drugs creating the opportunity for therapeutically relevant selectivity.

  7. Frequency-doubled green picosecond laser based on K3B6O10Br nonlinear optical crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Luping; Zhang, Ling; Hou, Zhanyu; Wang, Lirong; Xu, Hui; Shi, Meng; Wang, Lingwu; Yang, Yingying; Qi, Yaoyao; He, Chaojian; Yu, Haijuan; Lin, Xuechun; Su, Fufang; Xia, Mingjun; Li, Rukang

    2018-05-01

    We report a frequency-doubled green picosecond (ps) laser based on K3B6O10Br (KBB) nonlinear optical crystal with cutting angle of θ = 34.7° and φ = 30°. Through intracavity frequency doubling using a type I phase-matched KBB crystal with dimensions of 4 mm × 4 mm × 13.2 mm, the average output power of 185.00 mW green ps laser was obtained with a repetition rate of 80 MHz and pulse width of 25.0 ps. In addition, we present external frequency doubling using KBB crystal. The average output power of 3.00 W green ps laser was generated with a repetition rate of 10 kHz and pulse width of 38.1 ps, which corresponds to a pulse energy of 0.30 mJ and a peak power 7.89 MW, respectively. The experimental results show that KBB crystal is a promising nonlinear optical material.

  8. Radiation catalytical effects in the pre-irradiated and thermally treated catalyst BASF K-3-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, A.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of different heat treatment methods on radiation catalysis, induced by pre-irradiation of the BASF K-3-10 catalyst by γ- or β-radiation or by fast neutrons were investigated. It was found that calcination of the irradiated non-reduced catalyst resulted in a strong decrease in or even a total disappearance of the final radiation catalytical effects; however, at the same time the catalytical activity of the unirradiated catalyst was found to increase. The calcination of the catalyst in a nitrogen atmosphere after reduction also led to a substantial decrease in the resulting positive radiation catalytical effects and the exceedance of a certain calcination temperature also resulted in a decrease in the unirradiated catalyst activity. It could be concluded that calcination in nitrogen of the reduced irradiated samples decreased the radiation catalytical effects to a lesser degree than the calcination in the air of the non-reduced irradiated samples. In both cases, a different thermal stability of effects induced by different types of ionizing radiation was observed and it was found that it increased in the sequence beta radiation - gamma radiation - fast neutrons. The investigation of the γ radiation dose dependence of the radiation catalytical effect on the catalyst calcined before irradiation in the presence of air showed that the final radiation catalytical effects were lower than those observed in case of similarly irradiated but non-calcined samples. The dose dependence of the effect had the same character in both cases. (author). 3 tabs., 8 refs

  9. Growth performance parameters, bone calcification and immune response of in ovo injection of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and vitamin K3 in male ross 308 broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Tahereh; Shakeri, Malak; Zaghari, Mojtaba; Kohram, Hamid

    2017-03-01

    This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of in ovo injection of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D 3 ) and Vitamin K 3 on growth performance, bone calcification and immune system responses in male Ross 308 broilers. Twelve treatment groups with a total number of 768 experimental hatching eggs, four replications and 16 eggs in each replication were selected to form a completely randomized design of factorial arrangement. Treatments included: (1) distilled water, (2) 0.4 μg D 3 , (3) 0.4 μg D 3  + 2 μg K 3 , (4) 0.4 μg D 3  + 6 μg K 3 , (5) 0.6 μg D 3 , (6) 0.6 μg D 3  + 2 μg K 3 , (7) 0.6 μg D 3  + 6 μg K 3 , (8) 0.8 μg D 3 , (9) 0.8 μg D 3  + 2 μg K 3 , (10) 0.8 μg D 3  + 6 μg K 3 , (11) 2 μg K 3 and (12) 6 μg K 3 . Eggs were transferred to corresponding hatching baskets on the 18th day of incubation and received 0.5 ml of experimental solutions specific to each treatment. The results of our experiments showed that Treatment No. 4 ranked the best out of those administered; holding the highest level of weight gain, feed intake during the breeding period (grower and finisher), bone calcium and phosphorus concentration, and tibia fractural force, (p Vitamins D 3 and K 3 in ovo injection has beneficial effects on growth performance, immune system and bone development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The naphthoquinones, vitamin K3 and its structural analog plumbagin, are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ABC drug transporter ABCG2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Suneet; Wu, Chung-Pu; Nandigama, Krishnamachary; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin K3 (Menadione; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a structural precursor of vitamins K1 and K2 which are essential for blood clotting. The naturally occurring structural analog of this vitamin, plumbagin (5-hydroxy-menadione), is known to modulate cellular proliferation, apoptosis, carcinogenesis, and radioresistance. We, here, report that both vitamin K3 and plumbagin are substrates of the multidrug resistance-linked ATP binding cassette (ABC) drug transporter, ABCG2. Vitamin K3 and plumbagin specifically inhibited the ABCG2-mediated efflux of mitoxantrone, but did not have any effect on the ABCB1-mediated efflux of rhodamine 123. This inhibition of ABCG2 function was due to their interaction at the substrate-binding site(s). They inhibited the binding of [125I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP), a substrate of ABCG2, to this transporter in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 7.3 and 22.6 μM, respectively, but had no effect on the binding of this photoaffinity analog to ABCB1. Both compounds stimulated ABCG2-mediated ATP hydrolysis and also inhibited the mitoxantrone-stimulated ATPase activity of this transporter, but did not have any significant effect on the ATPase activity of ABCB1. In a cytotoxicity assay, ABCG2-expressing HEK cells were 2.8- and 2.3-fold resistant to plumbagin and vitamin K3, respectively, compared to the control cells, suggesting that they are substrates of this transporter. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that vitamin K3 is a substrate of the ABCG2 transporter. Thus, ABCG2 may have a role in the regulation of vitamin K3 levels in the body. In addition, vitamin K3 and its structural derivative, plumbagin, could potentially be used to modulate ABCG2 function. PMID:18065489

  11. Oxidation of 2,4,6,-tri-chlorophenol catalyzed by iron phthalocyanines covalently bound to silica. Oxydation du 2,4,6-trichlorophenol catalyse par des phtalocyanines de fer greffees sur silice par liaisons covalentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, M.; Hadasch, A.; Meunier, B. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France). Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination); Rabion, A. (Elf-Atochem, 64 - Artix (France). Centre de Recherche)

    1999-04-01

    The degradation of recalcitrant pollutants remains a high priority in order to preserve our environment. For example, chlorinated aromatic compounds are extremely persistent in the environment because of their slow biodegradation by microorganisms. One of the most notable toxic offenders is 2,4,6-tri-chlorophenol (TCP) which is produced by paper mills and also used as a biocide. Thus TCP is an obvious benchmark for research on the decontamination of waste waters. In this work, the covalent attachment of an iron phthalocyanine with chloro-sulfonyl substituents (FePcSO[sub 2]Cl) onto a functionalized 3-amino-propyl-silica has been achieved. This supported catalyst FePcSO[sub 2]Cl-silica is able to degrade a recalcitrant pollutant like TCP with hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. In order to improve the catalytic efficiency of the grafted iron phthalocyanine complex, modifications of the macrocycle substituents, passivation of the silica surface, variation of the loading of the carrier and addition of an organic co solvent to the reaction mixture were carried out. (authors) 21 refs.

  12. Graded tensor calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.

    1982-10-01

    We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

  13. 40 CFR 721.5356 - Ethanol, 2,2′2″-nitrilotris-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl]-omega...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-, compound with alpha-2,4,6-tris (1-phenylethyl)phenyl]-omega-hydroxypoly (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) phosphate. 721...]-omega-hydroxypoly (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... alpha-[2,4,6-tris(1-phenylethyl)phenyl]-omega-hydroxypoly (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) phosphate (PMN P-98-185...

  14. Immune responses to novel allergens and modulation of inflammation by vitamin K3 analogue: a ROS dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Vineet; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh Kumar; Suryavanshi, Shweta; Sainis, Krishna B

    2011-02-01

    The possibility of newer allergens being responsible for atopy needs to be explored at regional level due to environmental variables. Current studies were undertaken to identify common environmental allergens causing atopy in a defined population of India and to correlate the presence of various risk factors with the clinical presentation of allergy. Newer allergens like human dander and rice grain dust were identified and reported as the most common cause of atopy in this region. Atopy, elevated serum total IgE and familial tendency, was observed in 88%, 69% and 58% of allergic patients respectively. Further, allergen-specific immune responses like lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine secretion were studied in vitro using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from both allergic and non-allergic individuals. Although, some allergens induced significant lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, allergen-induced cytokine secretion except that of TNF-α was not seen. Significantly higher ratio of secreted IL-4/IFN-γ cytokines was observed in PBMC isolated from allergic subjects in response to PHA. Plumbagin (vitamin K3 analogue) completely inhibited PHA-induced cytokine production in PBMC, in both allergic and non-allergic individuals. Plumbagin modulated the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and glutathione and suppressed PHA induced activation of NF-κB in human PBMC. The results thus show in human PMBC, for the first time, the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of plumbagin and underscore its therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Intermediates between Vitamins K2 and K3 on Mammalian DNA Polymerase Inhibition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Azuma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that vitamin K3 (VK3, but not VK1 or VK2 (=MK-4, inhibits the activity of human DNA polymerase γ (pol γ. In this study, we chemically synthesized three intermediate compounds between VK2 and VK3, namely MK-3, MK-2 and MK-1, and investigated the inhibitory effects of all five compounds on the activity of mammalian pols. Among these compounds, MK-2 was the strongest inhibitor of mammalian pols α, κ and λ, which belong to the B, Y and X families of pols, respectively; whereas VK3 was the strongest inhibitor of human pol γ, an A-family pol. MK-2 potently inhibited the activity of all animal species of pol tested, and its inhibitory effect on pol λ activity was the strongest with an IC50 value of 24.6 μM. However, MK-2 did not affect the activity of plant or prokaryotic pols, or that of other DNA metabolic enzymes such as primase of pol α, RNA polymerase, polynucleotide kinase or deoxyribonuclease I. Because we previously found a positive relationship between pol λ inhibition and anti-inflammatory action, we examined whether these compounds could inhibit inflammatory responses. Among the five compounds tested, MK-2 caused the greatest reduction in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA-induced acute inflammation in mouse ear. In addition, in a cell culture system using mouse macrophages, MK-2 displayed the strongest suppression of the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Moreover, MK-2 was found to inhibit the action of nuclear factor (NF-κB. In an in vivo mouse model of LPS-evoked acute inflammation, intraperitoneal injection of MK-2 in mice led to suppression of TNF-α production in serum. In conclusion, this study has identified VK2 and VK3 intermediates, such as MK-2, that are promising anti-inflammatory candidates.

  16. In silico and in vitro characterization of anti-amyloidogenic activity of vitamin K3 analogues for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Pham Dinh Quoc; Yu, Yao-Chung; Ngo, Son Tung; Thao, Tran Van; Chen, Chin-Piao; Li, Mai Suan; Chen, Yi-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    Aggregation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) has been proposed as the main cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Vitamin K deficiency has been linked to the pathogenesis of AD. Therefore, 15 synthesized vitamin K3 (VK3) analogues were studied for their anti-amyloidogenic activity. Biological and spectroscopic assays were used to characterize the effect of VK3 analogues on amyloidogenic properties of Aβ, such as aggregation, free radical formation, and cell viability. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to calculate the binding affinity and mode of VK3 analogue binding to Aβ. Both numerical and experimental results showed that several VK3 analogues, including VK3-6, VK3-8, VK3-9, VK3-10, and VK3-224 could effectively inhibit Aβ aggregation and conformational conversion. The calculated inhibition constants were in the μM range for VK3-10, VK3-6, and VK3-9 which was similar to the IC50 of curcumin. Cell viability assays indicated that VK3-9 could effectively reduce free radicals and had a protective effect on cytotoxicity induced by Aβ. The results clearly demonstrated that VK3 analogues could effectively inhibit Aβ aggregation and protect cells against Aβ induced toxicity. Modified VK3 analogues can possibly be developed as effective anti-amyloidogenic drugs for the treatment of AD. VK3 analogues effectively inhibit Aβ aggregation and are highly potent as anti-amyloidogenic drugs for therapeutic treatment of AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Vitamin K1 versus vitamin K3 for prevention of subclinical vitamin deficiency: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, D; Deorari, A K; Saxena, R; Paul, V K; Agarwal, R; Biswas, A; Meena, A

    2007-11-01

    To compare efficacy of intramuscular phytomenadione (fat soluble vitamin K or vitamin K1) with menadione (water soluble vitamin K or vitamin K3) in prevention of subclinical vitamin K deficiency. A doubleblind randomized controlled trial. Tertiary care hospital. Healthy term neonates were randomized to receive 1 mg of either phytomenadione (Group I, n = 85) or menadione (Group II, n = 85) intramuscularly within 2 hours of birth. PIVKA-II, a sensitive and specific marker of vitamin K deficiency was measured by ELISA method (Diagnostica Stago, France). Plasma level > 2 ng/mL was labeled as detectable PIVKA-II. Birth weight (2914 +/- 318 vs 2958 +/- 312 g), gestation (38.4 +/- 1.2 vs 38.4 +/- 1.0 wk) and other baseline variables were comparable between the two groups. 48.2% (41/85) neonates in Group I and 44.7%(38/85) neonates in Group II had detectable PIVKAII levels ([Relative Risk (95% confidence interval): 1.1 (0.8-1.5); P = 0.76]). Median PIVKA-II levels in Group I and Group II were 1.99 ng/mL and 1.97 ng/mL respectively (P = 0.26). At 72 +/- 12 h of age, mean packed cell volume and mean serum bilirubin levels were comparable in the two groups. Comparable PIVKAII detection rate and PIVKAII levels in neonates receiving phytomenadione or menadione indicate their similar efficacy in prevention of vitamin K deficiency. However, high PIVKAII detection rate observed with both preparations indicates recent vitamin K deficiency and may be due to either inadequate dose of vitamin K or persistence of PIVKAII of fetal origin.

  18. Binding selectivity of vitamin K3 based chemosensors towards nickel(II) and copper(II) metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Amit; Lande, Dipali N.; Nalkar, Archana; Gejji, Shridhar P.; Chakrovorty, Debamitra; Gonnade, Rajesh; Moniz, Tânia; Rangel, Maria; Pereira, Eulália; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2017-09-01

    The vitamin K3 derivatives 2-methyl-3-[(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-amino]-1,4-naphthoquinone (M-1), 2-methyl-3-[(pyridin-2-ylethyl)-amino]-1,4-naphthoquinone (M-2), 2-methyl-3-((2-(thiophen-2-yl)methyl)amino)naphthalene-1,4-dione (M-3) and 2-methyl-3-((2-(thiophen-2-yl)ethyl)amino)naphthalene-1,4-dione (M-4) have been synthesized, characterized and studied for their chemosensor abilities towards transition metal ions. Crystal structures of M-1 to M-4 revealed a variety of Nsbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯π and π⋯π interactions. Minor variations in such interactions by chemical stimuli such as metal ions, results in change in color that can be visualized by naked eyes. It has been shown that electronic structure and 1H NMR, vibrational as well as electronic spectra from the density functional theory agree well with the experiments. The metal ion binding in ethanol, ethanol-water and in mild base triethylamine brings forth recognizing ability of M-1 toward Ni2+ whereas M-2 exhibits large sensing ability for Cu2+ ion. Interestingly M-1 display varying metal ion binding specificity in different solvents with the association constant in ethanol being 11,786 M-1 for Ni2+ compared to 9462 M-1 for the Cu2+. A reversal in preferential binding of M-2 with the respective association constants being 4190 M-1 and 6370 M-1 is discernible.

  19. Oxidation of the odorous compound 2,4,6-trichloroanisole by UV activated persulfate: Kinetics, products, and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Congwei; Jiang, Jin; Ma, Jun; Pang, Suyan; Liu, Yongze; Song, Yang; Guan, Chaoting; Li, Juan; Jin, Yixin; Wu, Daoji

    2016-06-01

    The transformation efficiency and products of an odorous compound 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) at the wavelength of 254 nm in the presence of persulfate were investigated for the first time. The effects of water matrix (i.e., natural organic matter (NOM), pH, carbonate/bicarbonate (HCO3(-)/CO3(2-)), and chloride ions (Cl(-))) were evaluated. The second order rate constant of TCA reacting with sulfate radical (SO4(-)) was determined to be (3.72 ± 0.10) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). Increasing dosage of persulfate increased the observed pseudo-first-order rate constant for TCA degradation (kobs), and the contribution of SO4(-) to TCA degradation was much higher than that of HO at each experimental condition. Degradation rate of TCA decreased with pH increasing from 4.0 to 9.0, which could be explained by the lower radical scavenging effect of dihydrogen phosphate than hydrogen phosphate in acidic condition (pH kinetic results could be described by a steady-state kinetic model. Furthermore, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry at powerful precursor ion scan approach was used to selectively detect oxidation products of TCA. It was found that 2,4,6-trichorophenol (TCP) was the major oxidation product (i.e., the initial yield of TCP was above 90%). The second order rate constant between TCP and SO4(-) was estimated to be (4.16 ± 0.20) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). In addition, three products (i.e., 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone and two aromatic ring-opening products) were detected in the reaction of TCP with SO4(-), which also appeared in the oxidation of TCA in the UV/persulfate process. A tentative pathway was proposed, where the initial one-electron oxidation of TCA by SO4(-) and further reactions (e.g., ipso-hydroxylation and aromatic ring-cleavage) of the formed cation intermediate TCA were involved. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Subcutaneous injection of thallium-201 chloride and gallium-67 citrate at acupuncture point K-3; An animal experiment and human-being study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johg, Shiang-Bin; Wu, Chung-Chieng; Chen, Ming-Feng; Wu, Sheng-Nan (Kaohsiung Medical Coll., Taiwan (China))

    1992-09-01

    Subcutaneous (SC) injection of [sup 99m]Tc pertechnetate ([sup 99m]Tc) at acupuncture points K-3 is a new method of lower-limb radionuclide venography. To investigate the mechanism of absorption of [sup 99m]Tc from SC injected sites into vascular system, various radioisotopes such as [sup 201]Tl chloride ([sup 201]Tl) and [sup 67]Ga citrate ([sup 67]Ga) were SC injected at K-3 points in animal and human-beings experiments. It was found that [sup 99m]Tc and [sup 201]Tl were absorbed rapidly from K-3 points through venous system and into whole body soft tissue. However, [sup 67]Ga with a larger effective ionic radius than [sup 201]Tl was not absorbed throughout the observation of 5 minutes. Furthermore, intravenous administration of digitalis, a Na[sup +]-K[sup +] pump blocker, did not inhibit the absorption of [sup 99m]Tc and [sup 201]Tl after SC injection at K-3 points. These results suggest that absorption of radionuclides on SC injection at K-3 points is mainly through the passive pathway of diffusion rather than the active transport, and the effective ionic radius may be a major factor influencing the absorption rate of the radionuclides. (author).

  1. Comparison of vitamins K1, K2 and K3 effects on growth of rat glioma and human glioblastoma multiforme cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztopçu, Pinar; Kabadere, Selda; Mercangoz, Ayşe; Uyar, Ruhi

    2004-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is characterized as highly invasive and rapidly growing astrocytomas, and scientists have sought for efficient treatment against malignant gliomas for a long time. Therefore, we compared the respond of rat glioma (C6) and glioblastoma multiforme cells derived from two patients to vitamins K1, K2 and K3. The cells were exposed to 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 microM of vitamins K1 and K2, and 1, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 microM of vitamin K3 for 24 hours in an incubator atmosphere of 5% CO2, 37 degrees C and 100% humidity. Cell viability was estimated by MTT assay. Vitamin K1 showed no growth effect on all the glioma cells examined. Vitamin K2 did not cause any change in number of C6, however induced growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner on glioblastoma multiforme. The IC50 values of vitamin K2 were 960 microM and 970 microM for glioblastoma multiforme, respectively. Vitamin K3 had also growth inhibitory effect in a dose-dependent manner on both C6 and glioblastoma multiforme. The IC50 values were 41 microM, 24 microM and 23 microM for vitamin K3, respectively. We concluded that vitamin K3 is more effective than vitamin K2 for inhibition of cancer cell growth, and might have an alternative value as an anticancer drug against glioblastoma multiforme.

  2. Thermal decomposition and kinetic evaluation of decanted 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) for reutilization as composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. F.; Hussain, A.; Malik, A. Q.

    2016-08-01

    Use of energetic materials has long been considered for only military purposes. However, it is very recent that their practical applications in wide range of commercial fields such as mining, road building, under water blasting and rocket propulsion system have been considered. About 5mg of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in serviceable (Svc) as well as unserviceable (Unsvc) form were used for their thermal decomposition and kinetic parameters investigation. Thermogravimetric/ differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize two types of TNT. Arrhenius kinetic parameters like activation energy (E) and enthalpy (AH) of both TNT samples were determined using TG curves with the help of Horowitz and Metzger method. Simultaneously, thermal decomposition range was evaluated from DTA curves. Distinct diffraction peaks showing crystalline nature were obtained from XRD analysis. SEM results indicated that Unsvc TNT contained a variety of defects like cracks and porosity. Similarly, it is observed that thermal as well as kinetic behavior of both TNT samples vary to a great extent. Likewise, a prominent change in the activation energies (E) of both samples is observed. This in-depth study provides a way forward in finding solutions for the safe reutilization of decanted TNT.

  3. Organic pollutants removal from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water using low cost activated coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohe Zhang; Quanlin Zhao; Zhengfang Ye

    2011-01-01

    We treated 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water from the Chinese explosive industry with activated coke (AC) from lignite.Since the composition of TNT red water was very complicated,chemical oxygen demand (COD) was used as the index for evaluating treatment efficiency.This study focused on sorption kinetics and equilibrium sorption isotherms of AC for the removal of COD from TNT red water,and the changes of water quality before and after adsorption were evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography,UV-Vis spectra and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy.The results showed that the sorption kinetics of COD removal from TNT red water onto AC fitted well with the pseudo second-order model.The adsorption process was an exothermic and physical process.The sorption isotherm was in good agreement with Redlich-Peterson isotherm.At the conditions of initial pH =6.28,20°C and 3 hr of agitation,under 160 g/L AC,64.8% of COD was removed.The removal efficiencies of 2,4-dinitrotoluene-3-sulfonate (2,4-DNT-3-SO3-) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonate (2,4-DNT-5-SO3-) were 80.5% and 84.3%,respectively.After adsorption,the acute toxicity of TNT red water reduced greatly,compared with that of unprocessed TNT red water.

  4. Photodegradation of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol catalyzed by Zn/MgO nanoparticles prepared in aqueous-organic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Shaista; Farrukh, Muhammad Akhyar; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles and zinc deposited magnesium oxide (Zn/MgO) nanoparticles was carried out using hydrothermal and deposition-precipitation method with the variation of 1-Propanol (organic solvent) concentration, sodium hydroxide and urea concentration. The nanoparticles were characterized by using FTIR, TGA, SEM-EDX, TEM and XRD. The photocatalytic efficiency of MgO and Zn/MgO nanoparticles was studied by degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP), which is highly acute and toxic and causes skin and eyes diseases, liver malfunction and tumor formation. Photodegradation of TNP was carried out under UV irradiation and confirmed by using HPLC and GC-MS. MgO and Zn/MgO nanoparticles that were synthesized by using urea showed higher first-order rate constant (k) value and percentage degradation as compared to nanoparticles that were synthesized using NaOH. It was observed that the concentration of solvent has direct relation with the k value of degradation of TNP

  5. Photodegradation of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol catalyzed by Zn/MgO nanoparticles prepared in aqueous-organic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Shaista; Farrukh, Muhammad Akhyar; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, Muhammad [GC University Lahore, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-11-15

    Synthesis of Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles and zinc deposited magnesium oxide (Zn/MgO) nanoparticles was carried out using hydrothermal and deposition-precipitation method with the variation of 1-Propanol (organic solvent) concentration, sodium hydroxide and urea concentration. The nanoparticles were characterized by using FTIR, TGA, SEM-EDX, TEM and XRD. The photocatalytic efficiency of MgO and Zn/MgO nanoparticles was studied by degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP), which is highly acute and toxic and causes skin and eyes diseases, liver malfunction and tumor formation. Photodegradation of TNP was carried out under UV irradiation and confirmed by using HPLC and GC-MS. MgO and Zn/MgO nanoparticles that were synthesized by using urea showed higher first-order rate constant (k) value and percentage degradation as compared to nanoparticles that were synthesized using NaOH. It was observed that the concentration of solvent has direct relation with the k value of degradation of TNP.

  6. Ion-beam-driven amorphization of Ca2La8(SiO4)6O2 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, W.J.; Hess, N.J.; Wang, L.M.

    1993-11-01

    Single crystals of Ca 2 La 8 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 , with 1% Nd substituted for La, were irradiated with 0.8 MeV Ne + and 1.5 MeV Kr + ions from 15 to 773 K. The irradiations were carried out using the HVEM-Tandem Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The structural changes and the ion fluence for complete amorphization were determined by in situ transmission electron microscopy. The ion fluence for complete amorphization increased with temperature in two stages associated with defect annealing processes. The critical temperature for amorphization increased from ∼360 K for 0.8 MeV Ne + to ∼710 K for 1.5 MeV Kr + . During in situ annealing studies, irradiation-enhanced recrystallization was observed at 923 K. Spatially-resolved fluorescence spectra of the Nd ion excited with 488.0 mn laser excitation showed marked line-broadening toward the center of the amorphous regions. Initial measurements indicate the subtle shifts of the 9 I 9/2 groundstate energy levels can be measured by pumping directly into the excited state 4 F 3/2 manifold suggesting that the line broadening observed originates from a distribution of geometrically distorted Nd sites

  7. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene mineralization and bacterial production rates of natural microbial assemblages from coastal sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Michael T., E-mail: michael.montgomery@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Coffin, Richard B., E-mail: richard.coffin@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Boyd, Thomas J., E-mail: thomas.boyd@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Smith, Joseph P., E-mail: joseph.smith@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Walker, Shelby E., E-mail: Shelby.Walker@noaa.gov [Naval Research Laboratory, Marine Biogeochemistry Section, Code 6114, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Osburn, Christopher L., E-mail: chris_osburn@ncsu.edu [Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The nitrogenous energetic constituent, 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), is widely reported to be resistant to bacterial mineralization (conversion to CO{sub 2}); however, these studies primarily involve bacterial isolates from freshwater where bacterial production is typically limited by phosphorus. This study involved six surveys of coastal waters adjacent to three biome types: temperate broadleaf, northern coniferous, and tropical. Capacity to catabolize and mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO{sub 2} was a common feature of natural sediment assemblages from these coastal environments (ranging to 270+/-38 {mu}g C kg{sup -1} d{sup -1}). More importantly, these mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. The finding that most natural assemblages surveyed from these ecosystems can mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO{sub 2} is consistent with recent reports that assemblage components can incorporate TNT ring carbon into bacterial biomass. These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - Highlights: > TNT mineralization is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediments. > TNT mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. > These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - The capacity to mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO{sub 2} is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediment.

  8. Effects of additives on 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) removal and its mineralization in aqueous solution by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byungjin; Jeong, Seung-Woo

    2009-01-01

    The effects of additives (i.e., methanol, EDTA, mannitol, thiourea, nitrous oxide, oxygen and ozone) on gamma irradiation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were investigated to elucidate the initial reaction mechanism of TNT degradation and suggest an practical method for complete by-product removal. All additives, except thiourea, significantly increased the TNT removal efficiency by gamma irradiation. The overall results of the additive experiments implied that the TNT decomposition would be initiated by ·OH, e aq - , and HO 2 ·/O 2 · - , and also implied that ·H did not have any direct effect on the TNT decomposition. Additions of methanol and nitrous oxide were more effective in TNT removal than the other additives, achieving complete removal of TNT at doses below 20 kGy. Total organic carbon (TOC) of the irradiated solution was analyzed to evaluate the degree of TNT mineralization under the additive conditions. TOC under the nitrous oxide addition was removed rapidly, and complete TNT mineralization was thus achieved at 50 kGy. Methanol addition was very effective in the TNT removal, but it was not effective in reduction in TOC. Trinitrobenzene (TNB), oxalic acid and glyoxalic acid were detected as radiolytic organic by-products, while ammonia and nitrate were detected as radiolytic inorganic by-products. The most efficient TNT removal and its mineralization by gamma irradiation would be achieved by supersaturating the solution with nitrous oxide before irradiation.

  9. A study of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of new 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yejella, Rajendra Prasad; Atla, Srinivasa Rao

    2011-01-01

    Chalcone derivatives (3a-m) were prepared by condensing 4-aminoacetophenone with various substituted aromatic and hetero aromatic aldehydes according to Claisen-Schmidt condensation. These chalcones, on reaction with guanidine hydrochloride under basic alcoholic conditions gave 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrimidines (5a-m) in quantitative yields. All the newly synthesized pyrimidines were characterized by means of IR, ¹H- and ¹³C-NMR, Electron Ionization (EI)-mass and elemental analyses and screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities by in vivo. 2-amino-4-(4-aminophenyl)-6-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)pyrimidine (5b) and 2-amino-4-(4-aminophenyl)-6-(3-bromophenyl) pyrimidine (5d) were found to be the most potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity compared with ibuprofen, reference standard. And also it was found that compound 5b identified as lead structure among all in both the activities. Pyrimidines which showed good anti-inflammatory activity also displayed better analgesic activity.

  10. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene mineralization and bacterial production rates of natural microbial assemblages from coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, Michael T.; Coffin, Richard B.; Boyd, Thomas J.; Smith, Joseph P.; Walker, Shelby E.; Osburn, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    The nitrogenous energetic constituent, 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), is widely reported to be resistant to bacterial mineralization (conversion to CO 2 ); however, these studies primarily involve bacterial isolates from freshwater where bacterial production is typically limited by phosphorus. This study involved six surveys of coastal waters adjacent to three biome types: temperate broadleaf, northern coniferous, and tropical. Capacity to catabolize and mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO 2 was a common feature of natural sediment assemblages from these coastal environments (ranging to 270+/-38 μg C kg -1 d -1 ). More importantly, these mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. The finding that most natural assemblages surveyed from these ecosystems can mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO 2 is consistent with recent reports that assemblage components can incorporate TNT ring carbon into bacterial biomass. These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - Highlights: → TNT mineralization is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediments. → TNT mineralization rates comprised a significant proportion of total heterotrophic production. → These data counter the widely held contention that TNT is recalcitrant to bacterial catabolism of the ring carbon in natural environments. - The capacity to mineralize TNT ring carbon to CO 2 is a common feature of natural bacterial assemblages in coastal sediment.

  11. Potentials of speech disorders correction in 4-6 yrs children by means of ergo and art therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Petrenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out methodic of speech disorders correction in 4-6 yrs children by ergo and art therapy means. Material: during academic year three groups of children (n=97 were being observed: two groups - with speech disorders (control and main and one group of healthy children. Psycho-motor and cognitive functions were assessed with the help of tests for motor coordination (speed of their fulfillment, verbal thinking. Results: it was found that characteristic feature of such children is critical estimation of own speech insufficiency and conscious avoiding oral answers. By cluster analysis results increase of homogeneity in psycho-physical condition’s positive changes, cognitive functions and dance abilities resulted from dance-correction training program were shown. Conclusions: the worked out dance-correction choreographic trainings helps in the following: developing rhythm sense; strengthening of skeleton and muscles; memory, attention, thinking and imagination simulation. Acquiring of such experience will help a child to further successfully train different art-creative and sports kinds of activities; to master choreography and gymnastic as well as different musical instruments.

  12. Curcumin inhibits epigen and amphiregulin upregulated by 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene associated with attenuation of skin swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroyasu; Sato, Ken; Sato, Fumiaki; Kai, Yuki; Mandokoro, Kazutaka; Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Kato, Shinichi; Yumoto, Tetsuro; Narita, Minoru; Chiba, Yoshihiko

    2017-08-01

    Contact dermatitis model involving repeated application of hapten is used as a tool to assess dermatitis, as characterized by thickening. Involvement of cell proliferation, elicited by repeated hapten-stimulation, in this swelling has been unclear. Curcumin is reported to reduce inflammation. We examined involvement of cell proliferation and the role of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) in 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) challenge-induced ear swelling. We also examined the effects of curcumin in this model. Mice were sensitized with TNCB to the abdominal skin. Then, they were challenged with TNCB to the ear three times. The ERK activation inhibitor U0126 or curcumin was applied 30 min before each TNCB challenge. TNCB challenge-induced increased epidermal cell number and dermal thickening. Gene expressions of epithelial mitogen (EPGN), amphiregulin (AREG) and heparin-binding-epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) were increased in the ears after the last TNCB challenge. Ki-67 immunoreactivity was increased in the dermis in TNCB-challenged ears. TNCB-induced swelling was inhibited by U0126 and curcumin. Curcumin also attenuated TNCB-induced ERK phosphorylation and expression of EPGN and AREG genes. Ear swelling induced by TNCB challenge might be mediated, in part, by the EPGN- and AREG-ERK proliferation pathway and was inhibited by curcumin.

  13. A Facile Approach to Preparing Molecularly Imprinted Chitosan for Detecting 2,4,6-Tribromophenol with a Widely Linear Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental pollution of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP has attracted attention. Based on an urgent need for the better provision of clean water, in situ determination of TBP is of great importance. Here, a facile and effective approach for detecting TBP is developed, based on coupling molecular imprinting technique with electrodeposition of chitosan (CS on the gold electrode. The TBP imprinting CS film was fabricated by using CS as functional material and TBP as template molecule. The experiments show that the morphologies and electrochemical properties of the imprinted film sensor was different from non-imprinted film electrode. The current of the imprinted film was linearly proportional to the TBP concentration, with a wide linear range of 1.0 × 10−7 mol•L−1 to 1.0 × 10−3 mol•L−1. By selecting drop-coating method as a reference for controlled trials with the same functional material, the results illustrated that the electrodeposition enjoyed a widely linear range advantage.

  14. Synthesis and Docking Studies of 2,4,6-Trihydroxy-3-Geranylacetophenone Analogs as Potential Lipoxygenase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chean Hui Ng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The natural product molecule 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranyl-acetophenone (tHGA isolated from the medicinal plant Melicope ptelefolia was shown to exhibit potent lipoxygenase (LOX inhibitory activity. It is known that LOX plays an important role in inflammatory response as it catalyzes the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid to form hydroperoxides. The search for selective LOX inhibitors may provide new therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Herein, we report the synthesis of tHGA analogs using simple Friedel-Craft acylation and alkylation reactions with the aim of obtaining a better insight into the structure-activity relationships of the compounds. All the synthesized analogs showed potent soybean 15-LOX inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 10.31–27.61 μM where compound 3e was two-fold more active than tHGA. Molecular docking was then applied to reveal the important binding interactions of compound 3e in soybean 15-LOX binding site. The findings suggest that the presence of longer acyl bearing aliphatic chain (5Cs and aromatic groups could significantly affect the enzymatic activity.

  15. Toxic effects of oral 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Craig A., E-mail: craig.a.mcfarland@us.army.mi [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Quinn, Michael J [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Boyce, John [Biotechnics, LLC, Hillsborough, NC 27278 (United States); LaFiandra, Emily M; Bazar, Matthew A [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Talent, Larry G [Oklahoma State University, Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Johnson, Mark S [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The compound 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) was evaluated under laboratory conditions in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to assess the potential for reptile toxicity. Oral LD{sub 50} values were 1406 and 1867 mg/kg for male and female lizards, respectively. Based on responses from a 14-day subacute study, a 60-day subchronic experiment followed where lizards were orally dosed at 0, 5, 15, 20, 25, 30 mg/kg-d. At day 60, number of days and survivors, food consumption, and change in body weight were inversely related to dose. Signs of toxicity were characterized by anorexia and generalized cachexia. Significant adverse histopathology was observed in hepatic tissue at {>=}15 mg/kg-d, consistent with hepatocellular transdifferentiation. Based on survival, loss of body weight, diminished food intake, changes in liver, kidney, and testes, and increased blood urea nitrogen, these data suggest a LOAEL of 15 mg/kg-d and a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg-d in S. occidentalis. - Research highlights: Oral LD{sub 50} (mg/kg) values were 1406 for male and 1867 for female lizards. Dose-dependent hepatocellular transdifferentiation was observed at {>=}5 mg/kg-d. Chromaturia in 2A-DNT and the parent TNT suggest biomarkers of exposure and effect. Health effects of metabolites support comprehensive ecological risk assessments. - The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a suitable reptile model for assessing the toxicity of energetic compounds and their metabolites.

  16. Toxic effects of oral 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, Craig A.; Quinn, Michael J.; Boyce, John; LaFiandra, Emily M.; Bazar, Matthew A.; Talent, Larry G.; Johnson, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    The compound 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) was evaluated under laboratory conditions in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to assess the potential for reptile toxicity. Oral LD 50 values were 1406 and 1867 mg/kg for male and female lizards, respectively. Based on responses from a 14-day subacute study, a 60-day subchronic experiment followed where lizards were orally dosed at 0, 5, 15, 20, 25, 30 mg/kg-d. At day 60, number of days and survivors, food consumption, and change in body weight were inversely related to dose. Signs of toxicity were characterized by anorexia and generalized cachexia. Significant adverse histopathology was observed in hepatic tissue at ≥15 mg/kg-d, consistent with hepatocellular transdifferentiation. Based on survival, loss of body weight, diminished food intake, changes in liver, kidney, and testes, and increased blood urea nitrogen, these data suggest a LOAEL of 15 mg/kg-d and a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg-d in S. occidentalis. - Research highlights: → Oral LD 50 (mg/kg) values were 1406 for male and 1867 for female lizards. → Dose-dependent hepatocellular transdifferentiation was observed at ≥5 mg/kg-d. → Chromaturia in 2A-DNT and the parent TNT suggest biomarkers of exposure and effect. → Health effects of metabolites support comprehensive ecological risk assessments. - The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a suitable reptile model for assessing the toxicity of energetic compounds and their metabolites.

  17. Knowledge and behaviour of parents in relation to the oral and dental health of children aged 4-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElKarmi, R; Shore, E; O'Connell, A

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate baseline knowledge and behaviour of parents with regard to the oral and dental health of their young children. Following ethical approval, six urban and rural schools were identified. Questionnaires were distributed to the parents of pupils (children aged 4-6 years). The questionnaire included several questions evaluating parental knowledge and behaviour of oral and dental health issues in their children. Each question was assigned a score of either 0 or 1 being inconsistent or consistent with current paediatric guidelines giving a maximum score of 6 for knowledge and 7 for behaviour. Chi-square analysis was used to analyse associations among variables. Parental knowledge varied widely among parents and across questions; however, 70.2 % of parents had scores greater than 3 (range 0-6). The majority of parents (65.8 %) also had scores greater than 3 (range 0-7) for behaviour. Deficiencies were noted in oral hygiene practices; very few parents brushed their child's teeth and were not aware of the recommended age of the first dental visit at 1 year (Age 1 visit). Parents without free medical care demonstrated high levels of knowledge (P parents thought that the information available to them on the oral health of their young children was insufficient. Parents appeared to have limited knowledge regarding the dental and oral health of their young children. This study indicates a need for improved education for parents, particularly in toothbrushing behaviour and use of toothpaste. Education strategies tailored to the Irish population should be explored.

  18. 2, 4, 6-Trithiol-1, 3, 5-Triazine-Modified Gold Nanoparticles and Its Potential as Formalin Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulizar, Y.; Ariyanta, H. A.; Rakhmania, L.; Hafizah, M. A. E.

    2018-04-01

    Stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have been successfully prepared by a modification of ligand 2, 4, 6-trithiol-1, 3, 5-triazine (TT). TT has three thiol groups and nitrogen atoms on the aromatic ring that can interact and stabilize AuNP. TT modified AuNP (AuNP/TT) was characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, particle size analyzer (PSA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The characterization showed that AuNP/TT stable at a maximum wavelength (λmaks) of 537 nm with the particle diameter of 9.41 nm. The increased acidity (pH) causes the protonated thiol groups of TT marked with a visual change of colloidal AuNP/TT from purple to blue, causing AuNP and TT bonds weakened. In this study, the AuNP/TT was reacted with formalin. This interaction shows that AuNP/TT has a potential as an efficient detector of formalin, marked by changes in the diameter of the particle, colloidal color, and maximum wavelength shift.

  19. Synthesis, molecular structure, spectroscopic properties and stability of (Z)-N-methyl-C-2,4,6-trimethylphenylnitrone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasri, Jamal; Ismail, Ali I.; Haukka, Matti; Soliman, Saied M.

    2015-02-01

    New N-methyl-C-2,4,6-trimethylphenylnitrone 1 has been synthesized starting from N-methylhydroxylamine and mesitaldehyde. The product was fully characterized using different spectroscopic techniques; FTIR, NMR, UV-Vis, high resolution mass spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The relative stability and percent of population of its two possible isomers (E and Z) were calculated using the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method in gas phase and in solution. In agreement with the X-ray results, it was found that Z-isomer is the most stable one in both gas phase and solution. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO), and chemical shift values were also calculated using the same level of theory. The TD-DFT results of the studied nitrone predicted a π-π∗ transition band at 285.1 nm (fosc = 0.3543) in the gas phase. The rest of the spectral bands undergo either hyperchromic or hypsochromic shifts in the presence of solvent. Polarizability and HOMO-LUMO gap values were used to predict the nonlinear optical properties (NLO) of the studied compound. NBO analysis has been used to determine the most accurate Lewis structure of the studied molecule.

  20. Extraction-less, rapid assay for the direct detection of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) in cork samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolou, Theofylaktos; Pascual, Nuria; Marco, M-Pilar; Moschos, Anastassios; Petropoulos, Anastassios; Kaltsas, Grigoris; Kintzios, Spyridon

    2014-07-01

    2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), the cork taint molecule, has been the target of several analytical approaches over the few past years. In spite of the development of highly efficient and sensitive tools for its detection, ranging from advanced chromatography to biosensor-based techniques, a practical breakthrough for routine cork screening purposes has not yet been realized, in part due to the requirement of a lengthy extraction of TCA in organic solvents, mostly 12% ethanol and the high detectability required. In the present report, we present a modification of a previously reported biosensor system based on the measurement of the electric response of cultured fibroblast cells membrane-engineered with the pAb78 TCA-specific antibody. Samples were prepared by macerating cork tissue and mixing it directly with the cellular biorecognition elements, without any intervening extraction process. By using this novel approach, we were able to detect TCA in just five minutes at extremely low concentrations (down to 0.2 ppt). The novel biosensor offers a number of practical benefits, including a very considerable reduction in the total assay time by one day, and a full portability, enabling its direct employment for on-site, high throughput screening of cork in the field and production facilities, without requiring any type of supporting infrastructure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 3D Visualization of Developmental Toxicity of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene in Zebrafish Embryogenesis Using Light-Sheet Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juneyong Eum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by trinitrotoluene is of global concern due to its widespread use in military ordnance and commercial explosives. Despite known long-term persistence in groundwater and soil, the toxicological profile of trinitrotoluene and other explosive wastes have not been systematically measured using in vivo biological assays. Zebrafish embryos are ideal model vertebrates for high-throughput toxicity screening and live in vivo imaging due to their small size and transparency during embryogenesis. Here, we used Single Plane Illumination Microscopy (SPIM/light sheet microscopy to assess the developmental toxicity of explosive-contaminated water in zebrafish embryos and report 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene-associated developmental abnormalities, including defects in heart formation and circulation, in 3D. Levels of apoptotic cell death were higher in the actively developing tissues of trinitrotoluene-treated embryos than controls. Live 3D imaging of heart tube development at cellular resolution by light-sheet microscopy revealed trinitrotoluene-associated cardiac toxicity, including hypoplastic heart chamber formation and cardiac looping defects, while the real time PCR (polymerase chain reaction quantitatively measured the molecular changes in the heart and blood development supporting the developmental defects at the molecular level. Identification of cellular toxicity in zebrafish using the state-of-the-art 3D imaging system could form the basis of a sensitive biosensor for environmental contaminants and be further valued by combining it with molecular analysis.

  2. Quantitative SERS detection of low-concentration aromatic polychlorinated biphenyl-77 and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhi Yong; Liu, Xin; Chen, Y; Wu, Yucheng; Chan, Helen L W; Dai, Jiyan; Lei, Dang Yuan

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports a simple label-free high-sensitive method for detecting low-concentration persistent organic pollutants and explosive materials. The proposed method combines surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and magnetomotive enrichment of the target molecules on the surface of Ag nanoparticles (NPs). This structure can be achieved through self-assembling integration of Ag NPs with ferromagnetic Fe3O4 microspheres, forming a hybrid SERS nanoprobe with both optical and magnetic properties. Moreover, the magnetic response of ferromagnetic Fe3O4 microspheres can be used to dynamically modulate the optical property of Ag NPs through controlling their geometric arrangement on the substrate by applying an external magnetic field. It is also demonstrated from the full-wave numerical simulation results that the maximum electromagnetic field enhancement can be greatly increased by shortening the distance of neighboring Ag NPs and therefore resulting in an improved SERS detecting limit. More importantly, by using the prepared substrate, the SERS signals from organic pollution substances, i.e. aromatic polychlorinated biphenyl-77 and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, were quantitatively analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  4. Grain Grading and Handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  5. K-3 vitamininin sıçan glioma (C6) ve insan glioblastomamultiforme hücre çoğalmasına invitro etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    Öztopçu, Pınar; Kabadere, Selda; Uyar, Ruhi

    2005-01-01

    Amaç: Glioblastoma multiforme beyin dokusu içerisine hızla yayılan ve onu yıkıma ugratan, sinir sisteminde görülme sıklıgı yüksek oldukça tehlikeli bir tümör çesididir. K-3 vitamininin çesitli kanser hücre dizileri üzerinde hücre çogalmasını baskılayıcı etkisi oldugu bildirilmektedir. Çalısmamızda K-3 vitamininin, sıçan glioma (C6) ve insan glioblastoma multiforme hücrelerinin çogalması üzerindeki baskılayıcı etkilerini karsılastırarak belirlemeyi amaçladık. Yöntem: K-3 vitamin...

  6. Determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. by enhanced chemiluminescence of CdTe quantum dots on calcein/K3Fe(CN)6 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jing; Li, Xuwen; Geng, Jiayang; Han, Lu; Tang, Jieli; Jin, Yongri; Zhang, Yihua

    2012-10-15

    In this paper, 3-mercaptocarboxylic acid (MPA) modified CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were used as sensitizers, to enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system. A new CL system of CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) was developed. The effects of reactant concentrations and the particle sizes of CdTe QDs on the CL emission were investigated in detail. The possible enhancement mechanism of the CL was also further investigated based on the photoluminescence (PL) and CL spectra. Polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid, quercetin, hyperin, catechin and kaempferol, were observed to inhibit the CL signal of the CdTe/calcein/K(3)Fe(CN)(6) system and determined by the proposed method. The proposed method was applied to the determination of hyperin in seed of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. and the results obtained were satisfactory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  8. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  9. Vitamin K3 disrupts the microtubule networks by binding to tubulin: a novel mechanism of its antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Bipul R; Choudhury, Diptiman; Das, Amlan; Chakrabarti, Gopal

    2009-07-28

    Vitamin K3 (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), also known as menadione, is the synthetic precursor of all the naturally occurring vitamin K in the body. Vitamin K is necessary for the production of prothrombin and five other blood-clotting factors in humans. We have examined the effects of menadione on cellular microtubules ex vivo as well as its binding with purified tubulin and microtubules in vitro. Cell viability experiments using human cervical epithelial cancer cells (HeLa) and human oral epithelial cancer cells (KB) indicated that the IC(50) values for menadione are 25.6 +/- 0.6 and 64.3 +/- 0.36 microM, respectively, in those cells. Mendione arrests HeLa cells in mitosis. Immunofluorescence studies using an anti-alpha-tubulin antibody showed a significant irreversible depolymeriztion of the interphase microtubule network and spindle microtubule in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro polymerization of purified tubulin into microtubules is inhibited by menadione with an IC(50) value of 47 +/- 0.65 microM. The binding of menadione with tubulin was studied using menadione fluorescence and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of tubulin. Binding of menadione to tubulin is slow, taking 35 min for equilibration at 25 degrees C. The association reaction kinetics is biphasic in nature, and the association rate constants for fast and slow phases are 189.12 +/- 17 and 32.44 +/- 21 M(-1) s(-1) at 25 degrees C, respectively. The stoichiometry of menadione binding to tubulin is 1:1 (molar ratio) with a dissociation constant from 2.44 +/- 0.34 to 3.65 +/- 0.25 microM at 25 degrees C. Menadione competes for the colchicine binding site with a K(i) of 2.5 muM as determined from a modified Dixon plot. The obtained data suggested that menadione binds at the colchicine binding site to tubulin. Thus, we can conclude one novel mechanism of inhibition of cancer cell proliferation by menadione is through tubulin binding.

  10. High performance liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay for the quantitation of BMS-204352 in dog K(3)EDTA plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ming; Mantha, Subbarao; Shah, Vinod R; Vachharajani, Nimish N; Arnold, Mark E; Pursley, Janice M; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2002-05-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric (LC/MS) assay was developed and validated for the determination of BMS-204352 in dog K(3)EDTA plasma. A 0.5 mL aliquot of control plasma was spiked with BMS-204352 and internal standard (IS) and buffered with 1 mL of 5 mM ammonium acetate. The mixture was then extracted with 3 mL of toluene. After separation and evaporation of the organic phase to dryness using nitrogen at 40 degrees C, the residue was reconstituted in the mobile phase and 25 microL of the sample were injected onto a Hypersil C(18) column (2 x 50 mm; 3 microm) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The mobile phase was consisted of two solvent mixtures (A and B). Solvent A was composed of 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% triethylamine in 75:25 v/v water:methanol, pH adjusted to 5.5 with glacial acetic acid, and solvent B was 5 mM ammonium acetate in methanol. A linear gradient system was used to elute the analytes. The mass spectrometer was programmed to admit the de-protonated molecules at m/z 352.7 (IS) and m/z 357.9 (BMS-204352). Standard curves of BMS-204352 were linear (r(2) > or = 0.998) over the concentration range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL. The mean predicted quality control (QC) concentrations deviated less than 5.1% from the corresponding nominal values (ie 4, 80, 400 and 2000 ng/mL); the within- and between-assay precision of the assay were within 5.5% relative standard deviation. Stability of BMS-204352 was confirmed after at least three freeze/thaw cycles and BMS-204532 was stable in dog plasma when stored frozen at or below -20 degrees C for at least 16 weeks in spiked QC samples and for at least 4 1/2 weeks for in vivo study samples. BMS-204352 and IS were stable in the injection solvent at room temperature for at least 24 h. The assay was applied to delineate the pharmacokinetic disposition of BMS-204352 in dogs following a single intravenous dose administration. In conclusion, the assay is accurate, precise, specific, sensitive and

  11. CR108, a novel vitamin K3 derivative induces apoptosis and breast tumor inhibition by reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chun-Ru [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Liao, Wei-Siang [Institute of Molecular Medicine and Bioengineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ya-Hui [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Murugan, Kaliyappan [Department of Chemistry, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chinpiao, E-mail: chinpiao@mail.ndhu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Chao, Jui-I, E-mail: jichao@faculty.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China); Institute of Molecular Medicine and Bioengineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30068, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Vitamin K3 derivatives have been shown to exert anticancer activities. Here we show a novel vitamin K3 derivative (S)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutylthio)naphthalene-1,4-dione, which is named as CR108 that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction in human breast cancer. CR108 is more effective on the breast cancer cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. Moreover, CR108 induced apoptosis in both the non-HER-2-overexpressed MCF-7 and HER-2-overexpressed BT-474 breast cancer cells. CR108 caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol, and cleaved PARP proteins for apoptosis induction. CR108 markedly increased ROS levels in breast cancer cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general ROS scavenger, completely blocked the CR108-induced ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Interestingly, CR108 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but conversely inhibited the survivin protein expression. NAC treatment prevented the activation of p38 MAP kinase and rescued the survivin protein levels. SB202190, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, recovered the survivin protein levels and attenuated the cytotoxicity of CR108-treated cells. Furthermore, CR108 inhibited the xenografted human breast tumor growth in nude mice. Together, we demonstrate that CR108 is a novel vitamin K3 derivative that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction and associates with the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and the inhibition of survivin in the human breast cancer. - Highlights: • CR108 is more effective on the cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. • CR108 induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. • CR108 induces apoptosis by p38 kinase activation and survivin inhibition. • CR108 is a potent vitamin K3 analog that can develop for breast cancer therapy.

  12. CR108, a novel vitamin K3 derivative induces apoptosis and breast tumor inhibition by reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chun-Ru; Liao, Wei-Siang; Wu, Ya-Hui; Murugan, Kaliyappan; Chen, Chinpiao; Chao, Jui-I

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin K3 derivatives have been shown to exert anticancer activities. Here we show a novel vitamin K3 derivative (S)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutylthio)naphthalene-1,4-dione, which is named as CR108 that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction in human breast cancer. CR108 is more effective on the breast cancer cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. Moreover, CR108 induced apoptosis in both the non-HER-2-overexpressed MCF-7 and HER-2-overexpressed BT-474 breast cancer cells. CR108 caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol, and cleaved PARP proteins for apoptosis induction. CR108 markedly increased ROS levels in breast cancer cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general ROS scavenger, completely blocked the CR108-induced ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Interestingly, CR108 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but conversely inhibited the survivin protein expression. NAC treatment prevented the activation of p38 MAP kinase and rescued the survivin protein levels. SB202190, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, recovered the survivin protein levels and attenuated the cytotoxicity of CR108-treated cells. Furthermore, CR108 inhibited the xenografted human breast tumor growth in nude mice. Together, we demonstrate that CR108 is a novel vitamin K3 derivative that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction and associates with the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and the inhibition of survivin in the human breast cancer. - Highlights: • CR108 is more effective on the cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. • CR108 induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS and mitochondrial dysfunction. • CR108 induces apoptosis by p38 kinase activation and survivin inhibition. • CR108 is a potent vitamin K3 analog that can develop for breast cancer therapy

  13. Vitamins K2, K3 and K5 exert antitumor effects on established colorectal cancer in mice by inducing apoptotic death of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mutsumi; Nakai, Seiji; Deguchi, Akihiro; Nonomura, Takako; Masaki, Tsutomu; Uchida, Naohito; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Kuriyama, Shigeki

    2007-08-01

    Although a number of studies have shown that vitamin K possesses antitumor activities on various neoplastic cell lines, there are few reports demonstrating in vivo antitumor effects of vitamin K, and the antitumor effect on colorectal cancer (CRC) remains to be examined. Therefore, antitumor effects of vitamin K on CRC were examined both in vitro and in vivo. Vitamins K2, K3 and K5 suppressed the proliferation of colon 26 cells in a dose-dependent manner, while vitamin K1 did not. On flow cytometry, induction of apoptosis by vitamins K2, K3 and K5 was suggested by population in sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle. Hoechst 33342 staining and a two-color flow cytometric assay using fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide confirmed that vitamins K2, K3 and K5 induced apoptotic death of colon 26 cells. Enzymatic activity of caspase-3 in colon 26 cells was significantly up-regulated by vitamins K2, K3 and K5. The pan-caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, substantially prevented vitamin K-mediated apoptosis. In vivo study using syngeneic mice with subcutaneously established colon 26 tumors demonstrated that intravenous administration of vitamins K2, K3 and K5 significantly suppressed the tumor growth. The number of apoptotic tumor cells was significantly larger in the vitamin K-treated groups than in the control group. These results suggest that vitamins K2, K3 and K5 exerted effective antitumor effects on CRC in vitro and in vivo by inducing caspase-dependent apoptotic death of tumor cells, suggesting that these K vitamins may be promising agents for the treatment of patients with CRC.

  14. Efecto de la suplementación de vitamina K3 sobre el comportamiento productivo y calidad ósea de pollos de engorde

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, CRA; Bratti, FC; Murakami, AE; Fernandes, JIM; Ospina-Rojas, IC; Furlan, AC

    2014-01-01

    La vitamina K participa en los procesos de coagulación sanguínea y también tiene un importante papel en la formación de los huesos. Así, el objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la suplementación de diferentes niveles de vitamina K3 sobre el comportamiento productivo y indicadores óseos de pollos de engorde. Se utilizaron 1.500 pollos de engorde, distribuidos en un diseño experimental completamente al azar. Los tratamientos consistieron en una dieta control conteniendo 1,6 mg de vitamina K3/kg...

  15. Tetraphenylphosphonium iodide–1,3,5-trifluoro-2,4,6-triiodobenzene–methanol (3/4/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Cavallo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization of a 1:1 molar solution of 1,3,5-trifluoro-2,4,6-diiodobenzene (TFTIB and tetraphenylphosponium iodide (TPPI from methanol produced tetragonal needles of pure TPPI and tabular pseudo-hexagonal truncated bipyramids of the title compound, 3C24H20P+·3I−·4C6F3I3·CH4O or (TPPI3(TFTIB4·MeOH. The asymmetric unit is composed of six TPPI molecules, eight TFTIB molecules and two methanol molecules, overall 16 constituents. The formation of the architecture is essentially guided by a number of C—I...I− halogen bonds (XB, whose lengths are in the range 3.276 (1–3.625 (1 Å. Layers of supramolecular polyanions are formed parallel to (10-1 wherein iodide anions function as penta-, tetra- or bidentate XB acceptors. The structure is not far from being P21/n, but the centrosymmetry is lost due to a different conformation of a single couple of cations and the small asymmetry in the formed supramolecular anion. One methanol molecule is hydrogen bonded to an iodide anion, while the second is linked to the first one via an O—H...O contact. This second methanol molecule is more loosely pinned in its position than the first and presents very high anisotropic displacement parameters and a seeming shortening of the C—O bond length. The crystal studied was refined as a perfect inversion twin.

  16. Emotion Reactivity Is Increased 4-6 Weeks Postpartum in Healthy Women: A Longitudinal fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Gingnell

    Full Text Available Marked endocrine alterations occur after delivery. Most women cope well with these changes, but the postpartum period is associated with an increased risk of depressive episodes. Previous studies of emotion processing have focused on maternal-infant bonding or postpartum depression (PPD, and longitudinal studies of the neural correlates of emotion processing throughout the postpartum period in healthy women are lacking. In this study, 13 women, without signs of post partum depression, underwent fMRI with an emotional face matching task and completed the MADRS-S, STAI-S, and EPDS within 48 h (early postpartum and 4-6 weeks after delivery (late postpartum. Also, data from a previous study including 15 naturally cycling controls assessed in the luteal and follicular phase of the menstrual cycle was used. Women had lower reactivity in insula, middle frontal gyrus (MFG, and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG in the early as compared to the late postpartum assessment. Insular reactivity was positively correlated with anxiety in the early postpartum period and with depressive symptoms late postpartum. Reactivity in insula and IFG were greater in postpartum women than in non-pregnant control subjects. Brain reactivity was not correlated with serum estradiol or progesterone levels. Increased reactivity in the insula, IFG, and MFG may reflect normal postpartum adaptation, but correlation with self-rated symptoms of depression and anxiety in these otherwise healthy postpartum women, may also suggest that these changes place susceptible women at increased risk of PPD. These findings contribute to our understanding of the neurobiological aspects of the postpartum period, which might shed light on the mechanisms underlying affective puerperal disorders, such as PPD.

  17. Cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood, and pressor effects of caffeine after 4, 6 and 8 h caffeine abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherley, Susan V; Hayward, Robert C; Seers, Helen E; Rogers, Peter J

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have found that caffeine consumed after overnight caffeine abstinence improves cognitive performance and mood. Much less is known, however, about the effects of caffeine after shorter periods of caffeine abstinence. The aim of this study was to measure the effects on psychomotor and cognitive performance, mood, hand steadiness, blood pressure and heart rate of caffeine administration after periods of 4, 6, and 8 h of caffeine abstinence. Participants (n = 49, 27 female) were moderate to moderate-high caffeine consumers (mean daily intake 370 mg/day). Following overnight caffeine abstinence, a 'pre-dose' of caffeine (1.2 mg/kg) was administered at 9 A.M, 11 A.M or 1 P.M. The participants started a baseline battery of measurements at 4 P.M.: before receiving caffeine (1.2 mg/kg) or placebo at 5 P.M.: They then performed the battery of tests again, starting at 5:30 P.M. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study. Performance and mood measurements confirmed a psychostimulant action of caffeine (versus placebo), but only after 8 h of caffeine abstinence. Caffeine also increased blood pressure after 8-h abstinence, whereas hand steadiness was decreased and perception of task demand was increased by caffeine after 4 h, but not after 6- and 8-h abstinence. A second cup-of-coffee equivalent dose of caffeine only reliably affected cognitive performance and mood after an 8-h interval between doses, but not after shorter intervals (when caffeine had some adverse effects). These results show that, apart from caffeine consumption soon after waking, the daily pattern of caffeine intake of many typical caffeine consumers is not well explained by the short-term psychostimulant effects of caffeine.

  18. Selective fluorescence response and magnetic separation probe for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene based on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Ya-Qin; Wang, Feng; Shao, Qun; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Jin

    2013-05-01

    Despite the rapid development of nanomaterials and nanotechnology, it is still desirable to develop novel nanoparticle-based techniques which are cost-effective, timesaving, and environment-friendly, and with ease of operation and procedural simplicity, for assay of target analytes. In the work discussed in this paper, the dye fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was conjugated to 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA)-capped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (FITC-HDA Fe3O4 MNPs), and the product was characterized. HDA ligands on the surface of Fe3O4 MNPs can bind 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to form TNT anions by acid-base pairing interaction. Formation of TNT anions, and captured TNT substantially affect the emission of FITC on the surface of the Fe3O4 MNPs, resulting in quenching of the fluorescence at 519 nm. A novel FITC-HDA Fe3O4 MNPs-based probe featuring chemosensing and magnetic separation has therefore been constructed. i.e. FITC-HDA Fe3O4 MNPs had a highly selective fluorescence response and enabled magnetic separation of TNT from other nitroaromatic compounds by quenching of the emission of FITC and capture of TNT in aqueous solution. Very good linearity was observed for TNT concentrations in the range 0.05-1.5 μmol L(-1), with a detection limit of 37.2 nmol L(-1) and RSD of 4.7 % (n = 7). Approximately 12 % of the total amount of TNT was captured. The proposed methods are well-suited to trace detection and capture of TNT in aqueous solution.

  19. Transplacental transport and fetal localization of bispehnol A, tetrabromobisphenol A and 2,4,6-tribromophenol in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, A.; Brunstroem, B.; Brandt, I. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology; Cantillana, T.; Bergman, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an intermediate in the production of epoxy resins, while its brominated derivative tetrabromobishenol A (TBBPA) and its photolysis degradation product 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP) are widely used flame retardants. These brominated compounds have been identified in human blood. TBBPA, TBP and a number of 4-hydroxy-PCBs (e.g. 4-OH-CB107) are high affinity ligands for the thyroxin (T4) transporter transthyretin (TTR) in rodents and other species. Displacement of T4 from the TTR binding site has been proposed as an important mechanism of endocrine disruption by certain halogenated phenolic environmental pollutants. BPA is a fairly potent environmental estrogen receptor agonist that can induce an array of estrogenic effects in several species including mammals, birds and fish. Although the estrogenic activity of TBBPA is less obvious, this brominated BPA analog has been reported to interact with the estrogen receptor and induce estrogenic effects in some in vitro test systems. While the reproductive and developmental toxicity of BPA is well documented, there is evidence that also halogenated phenolic compounds can pass the placental barrier and induce such toxicity. Within the objectives of the COMPARE EU project we study the fetal and maternal kinetics and transplacental transport of phenolic environmental pollutants in pregnant mice. To explore the role of TTR in the placental and blood-brain barrier transport, we employ TTR-deficient mice. For comparative reasons, we also explore the transfer to bird embryos following injection into the yolk or administration to the egg-laying bird. In the present communication, we report on the disposition of BPA, TBBPA and TBP in the fetoplacental unit in pregnant wild-type mice.

  20. Protective effect of exogenous chondroitin 4,6-sulfate in the acute degradation of articular cartilage in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebelhart, D; Thonar, E J; Zhang, J; Williams, J M

    1998-05-01

    The injection of 2.0 mg chymopapain into the adolescent rabbit knee causes severe loss of articular cartilage proteoglycans (PG). Although chondrocytes attempt to restore lost PG, failure to repair ensues. Pure chondroitin 4,6-sulfate (Condrosulf, IBSA Lugano, Switzerland) has been used in clinical studies of human osteoarthritis (OA) as a slow-acting drug for OA (SYSADOA). Using our model of articular cartilage injury, we examined the effects of oral and intramuscular administration of Condrosulf after chymopapain-induced cartilage injury. In this study, animals received an injection of 2.0 mg chymopapain (Chymodiactin, Boots Pharmaceuticals) into the left knee and were sacrificed after 84 days. The contralateral right knee served as a noninjected control. Some animals received oral Condrosulf while others received intramuscular injections of Condrosulf. Serum keratan sulfate (KS) levels were monitored to ensure degradation of the cartilage PG. Those animals not exhibiting at least a 100% increase of serum KS following chymopapain injection were excluded from the study. At sacrifice, cartilage PG contents were markedly reduced in animals receiving an injection of 2.0 mg chymopapain with no further treatment. In contrast, oral administration of Condrosulf beginning 11 days prior to chymopapain injury resulted in significantly higher (P = 0.0036) cartilage PG contents. Intramuscular administration of Condrosulf resulted in higher, but less significantly so (P = 0.0457), cartilage PG contents. These results suggest that daily Condrosulf treatment prior to and continuing after chymopapain injury may have a protective effect on the damaged cartilage, allowing it to continue to re-synthesize matrix PG after the treatment is discontinued.

  1. Highly sensitive detection of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol based on HS-β-cyclodextrin/gold nanoparticles composites modified indium tin oxide electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiangli; Liu, Shan; Hua, Xiaoxia; Xia, Fangquan; Tian, Dong; Zhou, Changli

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •A novel electrochemical sensing platform by self-assembling of HS-β-cyclodextrin/gold nanoparticles onto indium tin oxide electrode (HS-β-CD/AuNPs/SAM/ITO electrode) surface was constructed. •The proposed electrochemical sensor exhibited high sensitivity for the determination 2,4,6-trichlorophenol which electrochemical activity is very weak. •The newly developed method was successfully applied to quantitatively determine 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in tap water samples. -- ABSTRACT: A new electrochemical sensor for determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) was fabricated. The characterization of the sensor was studied by scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry techniques. The electrochemical behavior of 2,4,6-TCP was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry at the HS-β-cyclodextrin (HS-β-CD)/gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) composite modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The results showed that the current responses of 2,4,6-TCP greatly enhanced due to the high catalytic activity and enrichment capability of composites. The peak current of 2,4,6-TCP increases linearly with the increase of the 2,4,6-TCP concentration from 3.0 × 10 −9 to 2.8 × 10 −8 M, with the limit of detection of 1.0 × 10 −9 . Further more, the modified electrode was successfully applied to detect the level of 2,4,6-TCP in tap water samples with excellent sensitivity

  2. Solid-state structural properties of 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzene derivatives, determined directly from powder X-ray diffraction data in conjunction with other techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Zhigang; Xu Mingcan; Cheung, Eugene Y.; Platts, James A.; Harris, Kenneth D.M.; Constable, Edwin C.; Housecroft, Catherine E.

    2006-01-01

    Structural properties of 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzaldehyde, 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzyl alcohol and 2,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone have been determined directly from powder X-ray diffraction data, using the direct-space Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique for structure solution followed by Rietveld refinement. Structural similarities and contrasts within this family of materials are elucidated. The work illustrates the value of utilizing information from other sources, including spectroscopic data and computational techniques, as a means of augmenting the structural knowledge established from the powder X-ray diffraction data

  3. Systems toxicology identifies mechanistic impacts of 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) exposure in Northern Bobwhite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Kurt A; Nanduri, Bindu; Rawat, Arun; Wilbanks, Mitchell S; Ang, Choo Yaw; Johnson, David R; Pendarvis, Ken; Chen, Xianfeng; Quinn, Michael J; Johnson, Mark S; Burgess, Shane C; Perkins, Edward J

    2015-08-07

    A systems toxicology investigation comparing and integrating transcriptomic and proteomic results was conducted to develop holistic effects characterizations for the wildlife bird model, Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) dosed with the explosives degradation product 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT). A subchronic 60 d toxicology bioassay was leveraged where both sexes were dosed via daily gavage with 0, 3, 14, or 30 mg/kg-d 2A-DNT. Effects on global transcript expression were investigated in liver and kidney tissue using custom microarrays for C. virginianus in both sexes at all doses, while effects on proteome expression were investigated in liver for both sexes and kidney in males, at 30 mg/kg-d. As expected, transcript expression was not directly indicative of protein expression in response to 2A-DNT. However, a high degree of correspondence was observed among gene and protein expression when investigating higher-order functional responses including statistically enriched gene networks and canonical pathways, especially when connected to toxicological outcomes of 2A-DNT exposure. Analysis of networks statistically enriched for both transcripts and proteins demonstrated common responses including inhibition of programmed cell death and arrest of cell cycle in liver tissues at 2A-DNT doses that caused liver necrosis and death in females. Additionally, both transcript and protein expression in liver tissue was indicative of induced phase I and II xenobiotic metabolism potentially as a mechanism to detoxify and excrete 2A-DNT. Nuclear signaling assays, transcript expression and protein expression each implicated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) nuclear signaling as a primary molecular target in the 2A-DNT exposure with significant downstream enrichment of PPAR-regulated pathways including lipid metabolic pathways and gluconeogenesis suggesting impaired bioenergetic potential. Although the differential expression of transcripts and proteins

  4. Visceral hypersensitivity is provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ileitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Crohn’s Disease (CD, a chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease, can occur in any part of the gastrointestinal tract, but most frequently in the ileum. Visceral hypersensitivity contributes for development of chronic abdominal pain in this disease. Currently, the understanding of the mechanism underlying hypersensitivity of Crohn’s ileitis has been hindered by a lack of specific animal model. The present study is undertaken to investigate the visceral hypersensitivity provoked by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS-induced ileitis rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and laparotomized for intraileal injection of TNBS (0.6 ml, 80 mg/kg body weight in 30% ethanol, n = 48, an equal volume of 30% Ethanol (n = 24 and Saline (n = 24, respectively. Visceral hypersensitivity was assessed by visceromotor responses (VMR to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mmHg colorectal distension pressure (CRD at day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Immediately after CRD test, the rats were euthanized for collecting the terminal ileal segment for histopathological examinations and ELISA of myleoperoxidase and cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and dorsal root ganglia (T11 for determination of calcitonin gene-related peptide by immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Among all groups, TNBS-treatment showed transmural inflammation initially at 3 days, reached maximum at 7 days and persisted up to 21 days. The rats with ileitis exhibited (P < 0.05 VMR to CRD at day 7 to day 21. The calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive positive cells increased (P < 0.05 in dorsal root ganglia at day 7 to 21, which was persistently consistent with visceral hypersensitivity in TNBS-treated rats.Conclusions: TNBS injection into the ileum induced transmural ileitis including granuloma and visceral hypersensitivity. As this model mimics clinical manifestations of CD, it may provide a road map to probe the pathogenesis of gut inflammation and visceral

  5. Characterization of the 4,6-α-glucanotransferase GTFB enzyme of Lactobacillus reuteri 121 isolated from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuxiang; van der Kaaij, Rachel Maria; Woortman, Albert Jan Jacob; Jin, Zhengyu; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2015-06-09

    The GTFB enzyme of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri 121 is a 4,6-α-glucanotransferase of glycoside hydrolase family 70 (GH70; http://www.cazy.org ). Contrary to the glucansucrases in GH70, GTFB is unable to use sucrose as substrate, but instead converts malto-oligosaccharides and starch into isomalto-/malto- polymers that may find application as prebiotics and dietary fibers. The GTFB enzyme expresses well in Escherichia coli BL21 Star (DE3), but mostly accumulates in inclusion bodies (IBs) which generally contain wrongly folded protein and inactive enzyme. Denaturation followed by refolding, as well as ncIB preparation were used for isolation of active GTFB protein from inclusion bodies. Soluble, refolded and ncIB GTFB were compared using activity assays, secondary structure analysis by FT-IR, and product analyses by NMR, HPAEC and SEC. Expression of GTFB in E. coli yielded > 100 mg/l relatively pure and active but mostly insoluble GTFB protein in IBs, regardless of the expression conditions used. Following denaturing, refolding of GTFB protein was most efficient in double distilled H2O. Also, GTFB ncIBs were active, with approx. 10 % of hydrolysis activity compared to the soluble protein. When expressed as units of activity obtained per liter E. coli culture, the total amount of ncIB GTFB expressed possessed around 180 % hydrolysis activity and 100 % transferase activity compared to the amount of soluble GTFB enzyme obtained from one liter culture. The product profiles obtained for the three GTFB enzyme preparations were similar when analyzed by HPAEC and NMR. SEC investigation also showed that these 3 enzyme preparations yielded products with similar size distributions. FT-IR analysis revealed extended β-sheet formation in ncIB GTFB providing an explanation at the molecular level for reduced GTFB activity in ncIBs. The thermostability of ncIB GTFB was relatively high compared to the soluble and refolded GTFB. In view of their relatively high yield

  6. Uptake of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Vetiver grass (Vetiviera ziznoides L.) -- Preliminary results from a hydroponic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, K. M.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Makris, K.; Pachanoor, D.

    2006-05-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene(TNT) is a potent mutagen and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. As a result, vast areas that have been previously used as military ranges, munition burning and open detonation sites have been heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remedial activities in such contaminated sites commonly rely on methods such as incineration, land filling and soil composting. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective solution, utilizing plants to phytoextract TNT from the contaminated soil. We propose the use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) to remove TNT from such contaminated soils. Vetiver is a fast-growing and adaptive grass, enabling its use in TNT-contaminated sites in a wide variety of soil types and climate. We also hypothesized that TNT removal by vetiver grass will be enhanced by utilizing a chaotropic agent (urea) to alter rhizosphere/root hair chemical environment. The objectives of this preliminary hydroponic study were: i) to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver grass in removing TNT from solution, and ii) to evaluate the use of a common agrochemical (urea) in enhancing TNT removal by vetiver grass. Vetiver plants were grown in a hydroponic system with five different TNT concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg TNT L-1) and three urea concentrations (0, 0.01 and 0.1%). A plant density of 10 g L-1 and three replicate vessels per treatment were used. Aliquots were collected at several time intervals up to 192 hour, and were analyzed for TNT with HPLC. Results showed that vetiver was able to remove TNT from hydroponic solutions. The overall magnitude and kinetics of TNT removal by vetiver grass was enhanced in the presence of urea. TNT removal kinetics depended on TNT and urea initial concentrations, suggestive of second-order kinetic reactions. Preliminary results are encouraging, but in need for verification using more detailed studies involving TNT-contaminated soils. Ongoing

  7. Surface Brightness Profiles of Composite Images of Compact Galaxies at Z approximately equal 4-6 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hathi, N. P; Jansen, R. A; Windhorst, R. A; Cohen, S. H; Keel, W. C; Corbin, M. R; Ryan, Jr, R. E

    2007-01-01

    The Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) contains a significant number of B-, V-, and iota'-band dropout objects, many of which were recently confirmed to be young star-forming galaxies at Z approximately equal 4-6...

  8. Three-component synthesis of dialkyl 2-(alkylimino-methylene)3- (2,2,5-trimethyl-4,6-dioxo-1,3-dioxan-5-yl)-succinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, Issa; Zare, Hasan; Mohtat, Bita

    2006-05-01

    The adduct produced in the reaction between alkyl isocyanides and dialkyl acetylenedicarboxylates was trapped by 2,2,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxane-4,6-dione (methyl Meldrum's acid), to afford highly functionalized ketenimines in good yields.

  9. Validation of analytical procedure of quantitative determination of 5,7-bis(meta-nitrophenylamino-4,6-dinitrobenzofuroxan by potentiometric titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Markhabullina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of quantitative determination of the substance of 5,7-bis(meta-nitrophenylamino-4,6-dinitrobenzofuroxan using potentiometric titration method is developed. The method has high precision, reliability and sensitivity.

  10. The Combination of Vitamin K3 and Vitamin C Has Synergic Activity against Forms of Trypanosoma cruzi through a Redox Imbalance Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristina Desoti, Vânia; Lazarin-Bidóia, Danielle; Martins Ribeiro, Fabianne; Cardoso Martins, Solange; da Silva Rodrigues, Jean Henrique; Ueda-Nakamura, Tania; Vataru Nakamura, Celso; Farias Ximenes, Valdecir; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli

    2015-01-01

    Chagas' disease is an infection that is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affecting millions of people worldwide. Because of severe side effects and variable efficacy, the current treatments for Chagas' disease are unsatisfactory, making the search for new chemotherapeutic agents essential. Previous studies have reported various biological activities of naphthoquinones, such as the trypanocidal and antitumor activity of vitamin K3. The combination of this vitamin with vitamin C exerted better effects against various cancer cells than when used alone. These effects have been attributed to an increase in reactive oxygen species generation. In the present study, we evaluated the activity of vitamin K3 and vitamin C, alone and in combination, against T. cruzi. The vitamin K3 + vitamin C combination exerted synergistic effects against three forms of T. cruzi, leading to morphological, ultrastructural, and functional changes by producing reactive species, decreasing reduced thiol groups, altering the cell cycle, causing lipid peroxidation, and forming autophagic vacuoles. Our hypothesis is that the vitamin K3 + vitamin C combination induces oxidative imbalance in T. cruzi, probably started by a redox cycling process that leads to parasite cell death.

  11. Vitamin K3 induces antiproliferative effect in cervical epithelial cells transformed by HPV 16 (SiHa cells) through the increase in reactive oxygen species production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho Scharf Santana, Natália; Lima, Natália Alves; Desoti, Vânia Cristina; Bidóia, Danielle Lazarin; de Souza Bonfim Mendonça, Patrícia; Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Nakamura, Tânia Ueda; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli

    2016-10-01

    Cervical cancer is characterized as an important public health problem. According to latest estimates, cancer of the cervix is the fourth most common cancer among women. Due to its high prevalence, the search for new and efficient drugs to treat this infection is continuous. The progression of HPV-associated cervical cancer involves the expression of two viral proteins, E6 and E7, which are rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system through the increase in reactive oxygen species generation. Vitamins are essential to human substances, participate in the regulation of metabolism, and facilitate the process of energy transfer. Some early studies have indicated that vitamin K3 exerts antitumor activity by inducing cell death by apoptosis through an increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Thus, we evaluated the antiproliferative effect and a likely mechanism of action of vitamin K3 against cervical epithelial cells transformed by HPV 16 (SiHa cells) assessing the production of total ROS, the mitochondrial membrane potential, the cell morphology, the cell volume, and the cell membrane integrity. Our results show that vitamin K3 induces an increase in ROS production in SiHa cells, triggering biochemical and morphological events, such as depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and decreasing cell volume. Our data showed that vitamin K3 generates an oxidative imbalance in SiHa cells, leading to mechanisms that induce cell death by apoptosis.

  12. The Combination of Vitamin K3 and Vitamin C Has Synergic Activity against Forms of Trypanosoma cruzi through a Redox Imbalance Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Cristina Desoti

    Full Text Available Chagas' disease is an infection that is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affecting millions of people worldwide. Because of severe side effects and variable efficacy, the current treatments for Chagas' disease are unsatisfactory, making the search for new chemotherapeutic agents essential. Previous studies have reported various biological activities of naphthoquinones, such as the trypanocidal and antitumor activity of vitamin K3. The combination of this vitamin with vitamin C exerted better effects against various cancer cells than when used alone. These effects have been attributed to an increase in reactive oxygen species generation. In the present study, we evaluated the activity of vitamin K3 and vitamin C, alone and in combination, against T. cruzi. The vitamin K3 + vitamin C combination exerted synergistic effects against three forms of T. cruzi, leading to morphological, ultrastructural, and functional changes by producing reactive species, decreasing reduced thiol groups, altering the cell cycle, causing lipid peroxidation, and forming autophagic vacuoles. Our hypothesis is that the vitamin K3 + vitamin C combination induces oxidative imbalance in T. cruzi, probably started by a redox cycling process that leads to parasite cell death.

  13. [Effects of vitamin K3 on the contractile activity of the colonic smooth muscles of guinea pig through the calcium activated potassium channel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Luo, He-sheng; He, Xiao-gu

    2006-07-25

    To study the mechanism of relaxation of gastrointestinal smooth muscles by vitamin K(3). Stripes of proximal colon were collected from guinea pigs. Suspension of single cells was created from these stripes. TD-112S transducer was used to measure the contraction of the stripes stimulated by vitamin K(3) of the concentrations of 40, 100, 400, and 800 micromol/L respectively. The Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current [IK(Ca)] of the cytomembrane of the colon smooth muscle was recorded with an EPC 10 amplifier under conventional whole cell patterns. The contraction frequencies of the muscle stripes stimulated by vitamin K(3) of the concentrations of 40, 100, 400, and 800 micromol/L were 79% +/- 4%, 58% +/- 5%, 33% +/- 4%, and 12% +/- 3% respectively of that of the control group (all P Vitamin K(3) inhibits the contractile activity of the colonic muscle stripes and increases the IK(Ca) of single myocytes concentration-dependently. The mechanism is activation of the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, thus promoting the potassium efflux.

  14. Comparative evaluation of debris extruded apically by using, Protaper retreatment file, K3 file and H-file with solvent in endodontic retreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna Arora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris comparing 2 engine driven systems and hand instrumentation technique during root canal retreatment. Materials and Methods: Forty five human permanent mandibular premolars were prepared using the step-back technique, obturated with gutta-percha/zinc oxide eugenol sealer and cold lateral condensation technique. The teeth were divided into three groups: Group A: Protaper retreatment file, Group B: K3, file Group C: H-file with tetrachloroethylene. All the canals were irrigated with 20ml distilled water during instrumentation. Debris extruded along with the irrigating solution during retreatment procedure was carefully collected in preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were stored in an incubator for 5 days, placed in a desiccator and then re-weighed. Weight of dry debris was calculated by subtracting the weight of the tube before instrumentation and from the weight of the tube after instrumentation. Data was analyzed using Two Way ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Results : There was statistically significant difference in the apical extrusion of debris between hand instrumentation and protaper retreatment file and K3 file. The amount of extruded debris caused by protaper retreatment file and K3 file instrumentation technique was not statistically significant. All the three instrumentation techniques produced apically extruded debris and irrigant. Conclusion: The best way to minimize the extrusion of debris is by adapting crown down technique therefore the use of rotary technique (Protaper retreatment file, K3 file is recommended.

  15. Differences in Physical Performance Measures Among Patients With Unilateral Lower-Limb Amputations Classified as Functional Level K3 Versus K4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sions, Jaclyn Megan; Beisheim, Emma Haldane; Manal, Tara Jo; Smith, Sarah Carolyn; Horne, John Robert; Sarlo, Frank Bernard

    2018-02-01

    To determine whether differences in physical function, assessed via self-report questionnaires and physical performance tests, exist between individuals with lower-limb loss using a prosthetic device classified as a K3 versus a K4 functional level. Cross-sectional study. A university physical therapy amputee clinic. Participants (N=55) were included if they (1) were aged ≥18 years with a unilateral transfemoral or transtibial amputation; (2) were classified as K3 or K4 functional level; (3) completed all relevant outcome measures; and (4) were currently using a prosthesis. Not applicable. Locomotor Capabilities Index (LCI), Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire-Mobility Section (PEQ-MS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT), Amputee Mobility Predictor (AMPPRO), and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). K level was determined by group consensus based on a standardized clinical evaluation. After controlling for covariates, patients classified as K3 had slower TUG times (P=.002) and self-selected and fast gait speeds (Pclinical evaluations to help differentiate between individuals of higher functional mobility. The LCI and PEQ-MS may be less useful in classifying individuals as K3 versus K4 because of a ceiling effect. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure-based drug design of a highly potent CDK1,2,4,6 inhibitor with novel macrocyclic quinoxalin-2-one structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Nobuhiko; Sugimoto, Tetsuya; Shibata, Jun; Nakamura, Kaori; Masutani, Kouta; Ikuta, Mari; Hirai, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    The design of a novel series of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors containing a macrocyclic quinoxaline-2-one is reported. Structure-based drug design and optimization from the starting point of diarylurea 2, which we previously reported as a moderate CDK1,2,4,6 inhibitor [J. Biol.Chem.2001, 276, 27548], led to the discovery of potent CDK1,2,4,6 inhibitor that were suitable for iv administration for in vivo study.

  17. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-De Jesus, A.; Romano-Baez, F.J.; Leyva-Amezcua, L.; Juarez-Ramirez, C.; Ruiz-Ordaz, N. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galindez-Mayer, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, IPN. Prol. Carpio y Plan de Ayala, Colonia Santo Tomas, s/n. CP 11340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: cmayer@encb.ipn.mx

    2009-01-30

    For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation (PB-ALR) was constructed. To obtain a high packed-bed volume relative to the whole bioreactor volume, a high A{sub D}/A{sub R} ratio was used. Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor (ALR). Overall gas holdup values {epsilon}{sub G}, and zonal oxygen mass transfer coefficients determined at various airflow rates in the PB-ALR, were higher than those obtained with the ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP. Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. constituted the microbial consortium able to cometabolically degrade the 2,4,6-TCP, using phenol as primary substrate. This consortium removed 100% of phenol and near 99% of 2,4,6-TCP. Mineralization and dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was evidenced by high COD removal efficiencies ({approx}95%), and by the stoichiometric release of chloride ions from the halogenated compound ({approx}80%). Finally, it was observed that the microbial consortium was also capable to metabolize 2,4,6-TCP without phenol as primary substrate, with high removal efficiencies (near 100% for 2,4,6-TCP, 92% for COD and 88% for chloride ions)

  18. Factors associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) 4-6 weeks and 6 months after birth: A longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen-Yildiz, Pelin; Ayers, Susan; Phillips, Louise

    2017-10-15

    Identifying factors that precipitate and maintain post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after birth is important to inform clinical and research practice; yet, prospective longitudinal studies on the predictors of PTSS are limited. This study aimed to determine the pregnancy and postpartum factors associated with PTSS at 4-6 weeks and 6-months postpartum. A systematic sample of 950 pregnant women were recruited from three maternity hospitals in Turkey. Participants completed assessments of depression, anxiety, PTSS and social support in pregnancy, 4-6 weeks and 6-months postpartum. Fear of childbirth was assessed in pregnancy and 4-6 weeks after birth. Regression models showed that PTSS six months after birth were associated with anxiety and PTSS in pregnancy, complications during birth, satisfaction with health professionals, fear of childbirth 4-6 weeks after birth, PTSS and depression 4-6 weeks after birth, social support 4-6 weeks after birth, traumatic events after birth, need for psychological help, and social support 6-months after birth. PTSS was highly comorbid with depression and anxiety at all-time points. The most robust predictor of PTSS at 6-months postpartum was PTSS at 4-6 weeks postpartum. Intra-partum complications were not associated with PTSS 4-6 weeks after birth. No socio-demographic variables were correlated with PTSS postpartum. Self-report questionnaires were used to measure outcomes. This study is based on sampling from public hospitals so may not represent women treated in private hospitals. Associated risk factors may help to identify women at risk of PTSS after birth and to inform targeted early intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CRA Grade Inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth H. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (CRA) ratings and performance evaluations are the only bank and thrift exam findings disclosed by financial institution regulators. Inflation of CRA ratings has been alleged by community activists for two decades, but there has been no quantification or empirical investigation of grade inflation. Using a unique grade inflation methodology on actual ratings and evaluation data for 1,407 small banks and thrifts under the revised CRA regulations, this paper con...

  20. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  1. Thermoluminescence and glow curves analysis of γ-exposed Eu3+ doped K3Y(PO4)2 nanophosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Palvi; Bedyal, A.K.; Kumar, Vinay; Singh, Vivek K.; Khajuria, Y.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M.; Swart, H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First time, a detailed comparative study of the glow curves and kinetic parameters was made on K 3 Y(PO 4 ) 2 nanophosphor. • Combustion method was employed to synthesize the Eu 3+ doped K 3 Y(PO 4 ) 2 nanophosphor. • The nanophosphor exhibited sublinear response suggesting that it is suitable for TL dosimetry. - Abstract: Eu 3+ doped K 3 Y(PO 4 ) 2 nanophosphor was synthesized by combustion synthesis using urea as a fuel. The crystal structure and particle morphology of the nanophosphor were investigated by using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. A Thermoluminescence (TL) study was carried out after exposing the samples to gamma radiation. The TL glow curves exhibited a prominent peak at 407 K and a small hump at 478 K. The intensity of the peaks increased with the increase in the dose of the gamma rays (0.01–5 kGy). The K 3 Y(PO 4 ) 2 : Eu 3+ (2.5 mol%) nanophosphor exhibited sublinear TL response to γ-radiation over a wide range of gamma doses (0.01–5 kGy). The TLanal program was used to analyze the glow curves of the K 3 Y(PO 4 ) 2 nanophosphor at different doses (0.2–5 kGy) and different heating rates (3–10 K/s). A comparative study was done for kinetic trapping parameters that were determined by the peak shape methods of Chen, Grossweiner and Lushchik. The frequency factors (s) for each glow peak were also calculated. The values of the activation energy (E) obtained by the TLanal program were in good agreement with those obtained by the peak shape methods. The effect of different amount of doses and different heating rates are discussed.

  2. Simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol based on poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Kexin; Lu, Nan; Yuan, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) without any pretreatment. - Highlights: • A poly(RhB)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite was synthesized. • The composite film was characterized by SEM, XRD, EIS and Raman spectroscopy. • The simultaneous electrochemical determination of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP was realized. • The electrode showed high sensitivity, excellent reproducibility and good stability. • The electrode was used to determine 2,4,6-TCP and PCP in practical water samples. - Abstract: In the present study, a poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite modified glass carbon electrode (PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). The PRhB/GO/MWCNTs film was extensively characterized by emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behaviors of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Due to the synergistic effect, the PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE significantly facilitated the simultaneous electro-oxidation of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP with peak potential difference of 160 mV and enhanced oxidation currents. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current of 2,4,6-TCP was linear to its concentration in the ranges of 4.0 × 10"−"9 to 1.0 × 10"−"7 M and 1.0 × 10"−"7 to 1.0 × 10"−"4 M with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 8.0 × 10"−"1"0 M. And the linear concentration ranges for PCP were 2.0 × 10"−"9 to 1.0 × 10"−"7 M and 1.0 × 10"−"7 to 9.0 × 10"−"5 M with the detection limit of 5.0 × 10"−"1"0 M

  3. Simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol based on poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Kexin; Lu, Nan; Yuan, Xing, E-mail: yuanx@nenu.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: A poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) without any pretreatment. - Highlights: • A poly(RhB)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite was synthesized. • The composite film was characterized by SEM, XRD, EIS and Raman spectroscopy. • The simultaneous electrochemical determination of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP was realized. • The electrode showed high sensitivity, excellent reproducibility and good stability. • The electrode was used to determine 2,4,6-TCP and PCP in practical water samples. - Abstract: In the present study, a poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite modified glass carbon electrode (PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). The PRhB/GO/MWCNTs film was extensively characterized by emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behaviors of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Due to the synergistic effect, the PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE significantly facilitated the simultaneous electro-oxidation of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP with peak potential difference of 160 mV and enhanced oxidation currents. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current of 2,4,6-TCP was linear to its concentration in the ranges of 4.0 × 10{sup −9} to 1.0 × 10{sup −7} M and 1.0 × 10{sup −7} to 1.0 × 10{sup −4} M with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 8.0 × 10{sup −10} M. And the linear concentration ranges for PCP were 2.0 × 10{sup −9} to 1.0 × 10{sup −7} M and 1.0 × 10{sup −7} to 9.0 × 10{sup −5} M with the

  4. Photolysis of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in seawater and estuary water: Impact of pH, temperature, salinity, and dissolved organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luning Prak, Dianne J.; Breuer, James E.T.; Rios, Evelyn A.; Jedlicka, Erin E.; O'Sullivan, Daniel W.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of salinity, pH, temperature, and dissolved organic matter on the photolysis rate of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in marine, estuary, and laboratory-prepared waters was studied using a Suntest CPS +® solar simulator equipped with optical filters. TNT degradation rates were determined using HPLC analysis, and products were identified using LC/MS. Minimal or no TNT photolysis occurred under a 395-nm long pass filter, but under a 295-nm filter, first-order TNT degradation rate constants and apparent quantum yields increased with increasing salinity in both natural and artificial seawater. TNT rate constants increased slightly with increasing temperature (10 to 32 °C) but did not change significantly with pH (6.4 to 8.1). The addition of dissolved organic matter (up to 5 mg/L) to ultrapure water, artificial seawater, and natural seawater increased the TNT photolysis rate constant. Products formed by TNT photolysis in natural seawater were determined to be 2,4,6-trinitrobenzaldehyde, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid, and 2-amino-4,6-dinitrobenzoic acid. - Highlights: • 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was photolyzed in marine, estuary, & laboratory waters. • TNT photolysis rates increased with increasing salinity & dissolved organic matter. • Temperature and pH had minimal impact on TNT photolysis in marine waters. • In seawater, TNT photolysis produced 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene & trinitrobenzaldehyde. • Polar products were 2,4,6-trinobenzoic acid & 2-amino-4,6-dinitrobenzoic acid.

  5. Preparation of oil palm empty fruit bunch-based activated carbon for removal of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol: Optimization using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, B.H.; Tan, I.A.W.; Ahmad, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of three preparation variables: CO 2 activation temperature, CO 2 activation time and KOH:char impregnation ratio (IR) on the 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) uptake and carbon yield of the activated carbon prepared from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) were investigated. Based on the central composite design, two quadratic models were developed to correlate the three preparation variables to the two responses. The activated carbon preparation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology by maximizing both the 2,4,6-TCP uptake and activated carbon yield within the ranges studied. The optimum conditions for preparing activated carbon from EFB for adsorption of 2,4,6-TCP were found as follows: CO 2 activation temperature of 814 deg. C, CO 2 activation time of 1.9 h and IR of 2.8, which resulted in 168.89 mg/g of 2,4,6-TCP uptake and 17.96% of activated carbon yield. The experimental results obtained agreed satisfactorily with the model predictions. The activated carbon prepared under optimum conditions was mesoporous with BET surface area of 1141 m 2 /g, total pore volume of 0.6 cm 3 /g and average pore diameter of 2.5 nm. The surface morphology and functional groups of the activated carbon were respectively determined from the scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis.

  6. Synthesis of bis(3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl(phenylphosphine oxide – a tailor-made photoinitiator for dental adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Moszner

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of the poor solubility of the commercially available bisacylphosphine oxides in dental acidic aqueous primer formulations, bis(3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl(phenylphosphine oxide (WBAPO was synthesized starting from 3-(chloromethyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid by the dichlorophosphine route. The substituent was introduced by etherification with 2-(allyloxyethanol. In the second step, 3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid was chlorinated. The formed acid chloride showed an unexpected low thermal stability. Its thermal rearrangement at 180 °C resulted in a fast formation of 3-(chloromethyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoic acid 2-(allyloxyethyl ester. In the third step, the acid chloride was reacted with phenylphosphine dilithium with the formation of bis(3-{[2-(allyloxyethoxy]methyl}-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl(phenylphosphine, which was oxidized to WBAPO. The structure of WBAPO was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, 31P NMR, and IR spectroscopy, as well as elemental analysis. WBAPO, a yellow liquid, possesses improved solubility in polar solvents and shows UV–vis absorption, and a high photoreactivity comparable with the commercially available bisacylphosphine oxides. A sufficient storage stability was found in dental acidic aqueous primer formulations.

  7. Gas-liquid reactive crystallization kinetics of 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene in the semi-batch procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruqin; Huang, Ming; Yao, Xiaolu; Chen, Shuang; Wang, Shucun; Suo, Zhirong

    2018-06-01

    2,4,6-Triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene is the attractive insensitive high energetic material used extensively in the military and civil fields. Combined with the double-films theory, the global gas-liquid chemical reaction kinetics of 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene was developed by means of the infinitesimal material balance calculation. The raw material concentration and reactive temperature effects on the crystallization of 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene were investigated by the batch experiments. The reactive crystallization kinetics associated ammonia feeding rate of 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, including nucleation as well as crystal growth, was systematically investigated in the heterogonous semi-batch procedure. The nucleation and crystal growth kinetic exponents were estimated by the linear least-squares method. The crystallization kinetic results indicated that nucleation rate strongly increased but liner growth rate decreased with the increasing of ammonia feeding rate. In terms of manufacturing coarse 2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, it was found that a slow ammonia feeding rate and a low raw material concentration were feasible under the present experimental conditions.

  8. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as detection tool for coordinated or uncoordinated fluorine atoms demonstrated on fluoride systems NaF, K2TaF7, K3TaF8, K2ZrF6, Na7Zr6F31 and K3ZrF7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boča, Miroslav; Barborík, Peter; Mičušík, Matej; Omastová, Mária

    2012-07-01

    While systems K3TaF8 and K3ZrF7 were prepared by modified molten salt method modified wet pathway was used for reproducible preparation of Na7Zr6F31. Its congruently melting character was demonstrated on simultaneous TG/DSC measurements and XRD patterns. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was applied for identification of differently bonded fluorine atoms in series of compounds NaF, K2TaF7, K3TaF8, K2ZrF6, Na7Zr6F31 and K3ZrF7. Three different types of fluorine atoms were described qualitatively and quantitatively. Uncoordinated fluorine atoms (F-) provide signals at lowest binding energies, followed by signals from terminally coordinated fluorine atoms (M-F) and then bridging fluorine atoms (M-F-M) at highest energy. Based on XPS F 1s signals assigned to fluorine atoms in compounds with correctly determined structure it was suggested that fluorine atoms in K3ZrF7 have partially bridging character.

  9. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  10. CR108, a novel vitamin K3 derivative induces apoptosis and breast tumor inhibition by reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Ru; Liao, Wei-Siang; Wu, Ya-Hui; Murugan, Kaliyappan; Chen, Chinpiao; Chao, Jui-I

    2013-12-15

    Vitamin K3 derivatives have been shown to exert anticancer activities. Here we show a novel vitamin K3 derivative (S)-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbutylthio)naphthalene-1,4-dione, which is named as CR108 that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction in human breast cancer. CR108 is more effective on the breast cancer cell death than other vitamin K3 derivatives. Moreover, CR108 induced apoptosis in both the non-HER-2-overexpressed MCF-7 and HER-2-overexpressed BT-474 breast cancer cells. CR108 caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol, and cleaved PARP proteins for apoptosis induction. CR108 markedly increased ROS levels in breast cancer cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a general ROS scavenger, completely blocked the CR108-induced ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Interestingly, CR108 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase but conversely inhibited the survivin protein expression. NAC treatment prevented the activation of p38 MAP kinase and rescued the survivin protein levels. SB202190, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, recovered the survivin protein levels and attenuated the cytotoxicity of CR108-treated cells. Furthermore, CR108 inhibited the xenografted human breast tumor growth in nude mice. Together, we demonstrate that CR108 is a novel vitamin K3 derivative that induces apoptosis and tumor inhibition by ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction and associates with the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and the inhibition of survivin in the human breast cancer. © 2013.

  11. The Combination of Vitamin K3 and Vitamin C Has Synergic Activity against Forms of Trypanosoma cruzi through a Redox Imbalance Process

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Desoti, V?nia; Lazarin-Bid?ia, Danielle; Martins Ribeiro, Fabianne; Cardoso Martins, Solange; da Silva Rodrigues, Jean Henrique; Ueda-Nakamura, Tania; Vataru Nakamura, Celso; Farias Ximenes, Valdecir; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli

    2015-01-01

    Chagas' disease is an infection that is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affecting millions of people worldwide. Because of severe side effects and variable efficacy, the current treatments for Chagas' disease are unsatisfactory, making the search for new chemotherapeutic agents essential. Previous studies have reported various biological activities of naphthoquinones, such as the trypanocidal and antitumor activity of vitamin K3. The combination of this vitamin with vitamin C exert...

  12. Altered deoxyribonuclease activity in cancer cells and its role in non toxic adjuvant cancer therapy with mixed vitamins C and K3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taper, Henryk S

    2008-01-01

    The alterations of deoxyribonuclease DNase activity in cancer cells were the basis of the utilization of mixed vitamins C and K3 in a nontoxic, adjuvant cancer therapy. In order to localize exactly the altered activities of DNase in cancer cells, histochemical methods were utilized. The deficiency of alkaline and acid DNase activity appeared to be characteristic for non-necrotic cells of malignant human and animal tumors. This enzymatic deficiency appeared in experimental carcinogenesis before the phenotypic signs of malignancy. Tumor promoters directly reduced the activity of both DNases. The incidence of spontaneous malignant human and animal tumors appeared to be inversely proportional to the intensity of the activity of both DNases in normal cells and tissues from which these tumors were derived. The fact that alkaline and acid DNase activity was reactivated during the spontaneous and therapeutically induced necrosis of cancer cells suggests that this enzymatic deficiency of DNase activity in cancer cells was due to the action of specific inhibitors of DNases. Characteristic variations of serum alkaline DNase activity in positive responders to therapy, examined in more than 800 cancer-bearing patients, may be the basis for the development of a useful test for therapeutic prognosis and for monitoring of cancer bearing patients. Acid DNase was selectively reactivated in malignant tumor cells by vitamin C (sodium ascorbate), whereas alkaline DNase was reactivated by vitamin K3. Joint vitamin C and K3 administration produced in vitro and in vivo tumor growth inhibition, potentiation and sensitization of chemo- and/or radiotherapy and a decrease in the number of metastases in animals with experimental tumors. Joint vitamin C and K3 administration may be considered as a possible new, non-toxic, adjuvant cancer therapy, which can be easily introduced into the classic protocols of clinical cancer therapy without any supplementary risk for patients.

  13. Vitamin K3-2,3-epoxide induction of apoptosis with activation of ROS-dependent ERK and JNK protein phosphorylation in human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jender; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Yang, Liang-Yo; Huang, Guan-Cheng; Cheng, Min-Chi; Lin, Che-Tong; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2011-08-15

    2-Methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione or vitamin K3; EPO) and K3-2,3-epoxide (EPO1), but not vitamin K3-3-OH (EPO2), exhibited cytotoxicity that caused DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation in U87 and C6 cells. EPO1 showed more-potent cytotoxicity than EPO, and the IC(50) values of EPO and EPO1 in U87 cells were 37.5 and 15.7μM, respectively. Activation of caspase 3 enzyme activity with cleavage of caspase 3 protein was detected in EPO1-treated U87 and C6 cells, and the addition of the caspase 3 peptidyl inhibitor, DEVD-FMK, reduced the cytotoxic effect of EPO1. An increase in the intracellular ROS level by EPO1 was observed in the DCHF-DA analysis, and EPO1-induced apoptosis and caspase 3 protein cleavage were prevented by adding the antioxidant, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), with decreased ROS production elicited by EPO1. Activation of ERK and JNK, but not p38, via phosphorylation induction was identified in EPO1- but not EPO- or EPO2-treated U87 and C6 cells, and this was blocked by adding NAC. However, the ERK inhibitor, PD98059, and the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, showed no effect on EPO1-induced cytotoxicity in either cell type. Our findings demonstrate that 2,3-epoxide substitution significantly potentiates the apoptotic effect of vitamin K3 via stimulating ROS production, which may be useful in the chemotherapy of glioblastoma cells. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Inhibitory effect of vitamin C in combination with vitamin K3 on tumor growth and metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma xenografted in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Feng; Yang, Chih-Min; Su, Cheng-Ming; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin C in combination with vitamin K3 (vit CK3) has been shown to inhibit tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo, but the mechanism of action is poorly understood. Herein, C57BL/6 mice were implanted (s.c.) with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) for 9 days before injection (i.p.) with low-dose (100 mg vit C/kg + 1 mg vit K3/kg), high-dose (1,000 mg vit C/kg + 10 mg vit K3/kg) vit CK3 twice a week for an additional 28 days. As expected, vit CK3 or cisplatin (6 mg/kg, as a positive control) significantly and dose-dependently inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis in LLC-bearing mice. Vit CK3 restored the body weight of tumor-bearing mice to the level of tumor-free mice. Vit CK3 significantly decreased activities of plasma metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). In lung tissues, vit CK3 1) increased protein expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2, nonmetastatic protein 23 homolog 1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; 2) reduced protein expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9; and 3) inhibited the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). These results demonstrate that vit CK3 inhibits primary tumor growth and exhibits antimetastastic potential in vivo through attenuated tumor invasion and proliferation.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of apical extrusion of intracanal bacteria using rotary ProTaper, K3XF, twisted and hand K-file system: An ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghogre, Priyanka; Chourasia, Hemant Ramesh; Agarwal, Manish; Singh, M P; Gurav, Sandeep; Ghogre, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the number of intracanal bacteria extruded apically during root canal preparation using rotary ProTaper, K3XF, twisted, and hand K-file system. Seventy extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were used. Access cavities were prepared and the teeth were mounted in glass vials. Root canals were then contaminated with a pure culture of Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The contaminated roots were divided into four experimental groups of 15 teeth each and one control group of 10 teeth. Group 1: ProTaper; Group 2: K3XF; Group 3: Twisted file; Group 4: Hand K-file; Group 5: Control group. Bacteria extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected into vials. The microbiological samples were incubated in culture media for 24 h. Colonies of bacteria were counted and the results were given as number of colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The obtained data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U-tests. There was a significant difference between the rotary and hand instrumentation system related to the apically extruded intracanal bacteria. Both the rotary and hand instrumentation systems extruded intracanal bacteria through the apical foramen. K3XF file system showed least bacterial extrusion amongst all instrumentation groups.

  16. Energy transfer mechanism from Gd3+ to Sm3+ in K3Gd(PO4)2:Sm3+ phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Palvi; Bedyal, A K; Kumar, Vinay; Khajuria, Y; Sharma, Vishal; Ntwaeaborwa, O M; Swart, H C

    2015-01-01

    Undoped K 3 Gd(PO 4 ) 2 and trivalent samarium (0.5–2.5 mol%) doped K 3 Gd(PO 4 ) 2 phosphors were synthesized by the solid-state method. The phase formation, optical and luminescence properties were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance (DR) spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The fluorescence decay spectra of the obtained phosphors were also recorded to study the energy transfer from sensitizer (Gd 3+ ) to activator (Sm 3+ ). Energy transfer effects from sensitizer to activator caused by rare-earth ions were mainly observed in the obtained PL and lifetime spectra. The decay curves of K 3 Gd(PO 4 ) 2 phosphor with different Sm 3+ ions concentrations were found to be non-exponential and the data is well fitted with the Inokuti–Hirayama (I–H) model. The energy transfer parameters such as critical distance for the transfer processes were determined. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) chromatic coordinates and color-correlated temperature were also determined for the prepared phosphor. (paper)

  17. Loss of MutL Disrupts CHK2-Dependent Cell-Cycle Control through CDK4/6 to Promote Intrinsic Endocrine Therapy Resistance in Primary Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Svasti; Punturi, Nindo; Singh, Purba; Holloway, Kimberly R; Anurag, Meenakshi; Schmelz, Jacob; Schmidt, Cheryl; Lei, Jonathan T; Suman, Vera; Hunt, Kelly; Olson, John A; Hoog, Jeremy; Li, Shunqiang; Huang, Shixia; Edwards, Dean P; Kavuri, Shyam M; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Ma, Cynthia X; Ellis, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Significant endocrine therapy-resistant tumor proliferation is present in ≥20% of estrogen receptor-positive (ER + ) primary breast cancers and is associated with disease recurrence and death. Here, we uncover a link between intrinsic endocrine therapy resistance and dysregulation of the MutL mismatch repair (MMR) complex ( MLH1/3 , PMS1/2 ), and demonstrate a direct role for MutL complex loss in resistance to all classes of endocrine therapy. We find that MutL deficiency in ER + breast cancer abrogates CHK2-mediated inhibition of CDK4, a prerequisite for endocrine therapy responsiveness. Consequently, CDK4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) remain effective in MutL-defective ER + breast cancer cells. These observations are supported by data from a clinical trial where a CDK4/6i was found to strongly inhibit aromatase inhibitor-resistant proliferation of MutL-defective tumors. These data suggest that diagnostic markers of MutL deficiency could be used to direct adjuvant CDK4/6i to a population of patients with breast cancer who exhibit marked resistance to the current standard of care. Significance: MutL deficiency in a subset of ER + primary tumors explains why CDK4/6 inhibition is effective against some de novo endocrine therapy-resistant tumors. Therefore, markers of MutL dysregulation could guide CDK4/6 inhibitor use in the adjuvant setting, where the risk benefit ratio for untargeted therapeutic intervention is narrow. Cancer Discov; 7(10); 1168-83. ©2017 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1047 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. A Simple Preparation of 2,3,4,6-Tetra-O-acyl-Gluco-, Galacto- and Mannopyranoses and Relevant Theoretical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghong Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The deacylation of glucose, galactose and mannose pentaacetates, galactose and mannose penta(3-bromobenzoates, as well as the dealkylation of 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl and 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-(3-bromobenzoyl methyl α-D-glucopyranosides have been studied. In addition, a computational study on the deacylation of β-D-glucose pentaacetate has been carried out with density functional theory (B3LYP/6-31G*. The anomeric effect during deacetylation and dealkylation has been clearly demonstrated in both experimental and computational results.

  19. Synthesis of novel 4,6-di(substituted)amino-1,2-dihydro-1,3,5-triazine derivatives as topical antiseptic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shirou; Kita, Toshiko; Meguro, Kanji

    2009-02-12

    A series of novel 4,6-di(substituted)amino-1,2-dihydro-1,3,5-triazine derivatives designed to have ClogP of 5.1-7.5 was synthesized and evaluated for their antiseptic properties by MIC and MBC tests against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including MRSA, VRE, and P. aeruginosa. Among these compounds, 4-alkyl-6-aralkyl derivatives having ClogP of 6.6-7.1 and 4-alkyl-6-aryl or 4,6-dialkyl derivatives with ClogP of 6.0-6.4 showed pronounced antibacterial activities in both tests.

  20. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  1. Calculating Student Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allswang, John M.

    1986-01-01

    This article provides two short microcomputer gradebook programs. The programs, written in BASIC for the IBM-PC and Apple II, provide statistical information about class performance and calculate grades either on a normal distribution or based on teacher-defined break points. (JDH)

  2. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  3. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  4. The Fifth Grade Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Michael; And Others

    An interdisciplinary design project report investigates the relationship of the fifth grade educational facility to the student and teacher needs in light of human and environmental factors. The classroom, activity and teaching spaces are analyzed with regard to the educational curriculum. Specifications and design criteria concerning equipment…

  5. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  6. Exploring the Effects of Concreteness Fading across Grades in Elementary School Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Tomi; Veermans, Koen

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects that concreteness fading has on learning and transfer across three grade levels (4-6) in elementary school science education in comparison to learning with constantly concrete representations. 127 9- to 12-years-old elementary school students studied electric circuits in a computer-based simulation…

  7. Thieno[3,4-c]Pyrrole-4,6-Dione-Based Polymer Acceptors for High Open-Circuit Voltage All-Polymer Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Shengjian; Song, Xin; Thomas, Simil; Kan, Zhipeng; Cruciani, Federico; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Beaujuge, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    limits the perspectives to meet the 10% efficiency threshold in all-polymer solar cells. This report examines two polymer acceptor analogs composed of thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) and 3,4-difluorothiophene ([2F]T) motifs, and their BHJ solar cell

  8. Oxidation reactivity of 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) by Compound I model of cytochrome P450s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyu Wang; Zhiqiang Fu; Qi Yu; Jingwen Chen

    2017-01-01

    Alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have become prevalent as a consequence of restrictions on the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).For risk assessment of these alternatives,knowledge of their metabolism via cytochrome P450 enzymes is needed.We have previously proved that density functional theory (DFT) is able to predict the metabolism of PBDEs by revealing the molecular mechanisms.In the current study,the reactivity of 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane and structurally similar chemicals with the Compound I model representing the active site of P450 enzymes was investigated.The DFT calculations delineated reaction pathways which lead to reasonable explanations for products that were detected by wet experiments,meanwhile intermediates which cannot be determined were also proposed.Results showed that alkyl hydrogen abstraction will lead to bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethanol,which may undergo hydrolysis yielding 2,4,6-tribromophenol,a neurotoxic compound.In addition,a general pattern of oxidation reactivity regarding the 2,4,6-tribromophenyl moiety was observed among several model compounds.Our study has provided insights for convenient evaluation of the metabolism of other structurally similar BFRs.

  9. 1,1´,1´´-(2,4,6-Trihydroxybenzene-1,3,5-triyl)triethanone tautomerism revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Zhiryakova, Diana

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that 1,1′,1′′-(2,4,6-trihydroxybenzene-1,3,5-triyl)triethanone may be tautomeric. Using 13C NMR chemical shifts and deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts, it is demonstrated that this is not the case. This compound occurs as a strongly hydrogen bonded ben...

  10. Thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-3,4-difluorothiophene Polymer Acceptors for Efficient All-Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Shengjian

    2016-09-16

    Branched-alkyl-substituted poly(thieno[3,4-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-alt-3,4-difluorothiophene) (PTPD[2F]T) can be used as a polymer acceptor in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with a low-band-gap polymer donor (PCE10) commonly used with fullerenes. The

  11. Comparing the use of 4.6 um lasers versus 10.6 um lasers for mitigating damage site growth on fused silica surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S T; Matthews, M J; Elhadj, S; Cooke, D; Guss, G M; Draggoo, V G; Wegner, P J

    2010-10-21

    The advantage of using mid-infrared (IR) 4.6 {micro}m lasers, versus far-infrared 10.6 {micro}m lasers, for mitigating damage growth on fused silica is investigated. In contrast to fused silica's high absorption at 10.6 {micro}m, silica absorption at 4.6 {micro}m is two orders of magnitude less. The much reduced absorption at 4.6 {micro}m enables deep heat penetration into fused silica when it is heated using the mid-IR laser, which in turn leads to more effective mitigation of damage sites with deep cracks. The advantage of using mid-IR versus far-IR laser for damage growth mitigation under non-evaporative condition is quantified by defining a figure of merit (FOM) that relates the crack healing depth to laser power required. Based on our FOM, we show that for damage cracks up to at least 500 {micro}m in depth, mitigation using a 4.6 {micro}m mid-IR laser is more efficient than mitigation using a 10.6 {micro}m far-IR laser.

  12. Capillary electrophoresis fingerprinting, quantification and mass-identification of various 9-aminopyrene-1,4,6-trisulfonate-derivatized oligomers derived from plant polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabel, M.A.; Heijnis, W.H.; Bakx, E.J.; Kuijpers, I.J.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Various plant polysaccharide derived mono- and oligosaccharides were derivatized with the fluorescent 9-aminopyrene-1,4,6-trisulfonate (APTS) and subjected to capillary electrophoresis (CE) in combination with laser induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. CE-LIF was suitable for mol-based

  13. Highly Sensitive Determination of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene and Related Byproducts Using a Diol Functionalized Column for High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümüscü, B.; Erdogan, Zeynep; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new detection method for complete separation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT); 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT); 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT); 2-aminodinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-aminodinitrotoluene (4-ADNT) molecules in high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC) with UV sensor has

  14. Scaling of light emission from detonating bare Composition B, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene [C7H5(NO2)3], and PE4 plastic explosive charges

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mostert, FJ

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available and configuration. In this study, the emission characteristics at wavelengths between 650 and 940 nm were experimentally investigated for cylindrical bare Composition B, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene [C7H5(NO2)3], and PE4 plastic explosive charges in the mass (M) range of 0...

  15. Three-phase packed bed reactor with an evaporating solvent—I. Experimental: the hydrogenation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelder, K.B.; Damhof, J.K.; Kroijenga, P.J.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present experimental data on the three-phase hydrogenation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to triaminotoluene. The experiments are performed in a cocurrent upflow packed bed reactor. Methanol is used as an evaporating solvent. The influence of the main operating parameters, the

  16. Synthesis of fisetin and 2',4',6'-trihydroxydihyrochalcone 4'-O-β-neohesperidoside based on site-selective deacetylation and deoxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunekawa, Ryuji; Hanaya, Kengo; Higashibayashi, Shuhei; Sugai, Takeshi

    2018-04-26

    Fisetin and 2',4',6'-trihydroxydihyrochalcone 4'-O-β-neohesperidoside were synthesized from commercially available quercetin and naringin in five steps. The key steps are site-selective deacetylation and subsequent deoxygenation. The target molecules were obtained in 37% and 23% yields from the starting materials, respectively.

  17. Silver salt of 4,6-diazido-N-nitro-1,3,5-triazine-2-amine - characterization of this primary explosive

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, T.; Matyáš, R.; Vala, R.; Růžička, A.; Vlček, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2014), s. 251-259 ISSN 0721-3115 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : primary explosive * AgDANT * silver salt of 4,6-diazido-N-nitro-1,3,5-triazine-2-amine Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.604, year: 2014

  18. Lactobacillus reuteri Strains Convert Starch and Maltodextrins into Homoexopolysaccharides Using an Extracellular and Cell-Associated 4,6-α-Glucanotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuxiang; Böger, Markus; van der Kaaij, Rachel Maria; Woortman, Albert Jan Jacob; Pijning, Tjaard; van Leeuwen, Sander Sebastiaan; van Bueren, Alicia Lammerts; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2016-04-13

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are of interest for food applications. LAB are well-known to produce α-glucan from sucrose by extracellular glucansucrases. Various Lactobacillus reuteri strains also possess 4,6-α-glucanotransferase (4,6-α-GTase) enzymes. Purified 4,6-α-GTases (e.g., GtfB) were shown to act on starches (hydrolysates), cleaving α1→4 linkages and synthesizing α1→6 linkages, yielding isomalto-/maltopolysaccharides (IMMP). Here we report that also L. reuteri cells with these extracellular, cell-associated 4,6-α-GTases synthesize EPS (α-glucan) from starches (hydrolysates). NMR, SEC, and enzymatic hydrolysis of EPS synthesized by L. reuteri 121 cells showed that these have similar linkage specificities but generally are much bigger in size than IMMP produced by the GtfB enzyme. Various IMMP-like EPS are efficiently used as growth substrates by probiotic Bifidobacterium strains that possess amylopullulanase activity. IMMP-like EPS thus have potential prebiotic activity and may contribute to the application of probiotic L. reuteri strains grown on maltodextrins or starches as synbiotics.

  19. A phase i study of the cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor ribociclib (LEE011) in patients with advanced solid tumors and lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Infante, Jeffrey R.; Cassier, Philippe A.; Gerecitano, John F.; Witteveen, Petronella O.; Chugh, Rashmi; Ribrag, Vincent; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Matano, Alessandro; Dobson, Jason R.; Crystal, Adam S.; Parasuraman, Sudha; Shapiro, Geoffrey I.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Ribociclib (an oral, highly specific cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor) inhibits tumor growth in preclinical models with intact retinoblastoma protein (Rb+). This first-in-human study investigated the MTD, recommended dose for expansion (RDE), safety, preliminary activity,

  20. Isolation from estuarine sediments of a Desulfovibrio strain which can grow on lactate coupled to the reductive dehalogenation of 2,4,6-tribromophenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, A.W.; Phelps, C.D.; Young, L.Y. [Rutgers-The State Univ. of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). Biotechnology Center for Agriculture and the Environment

    1999-03-01

    Strain TBP-1, an anaerobic bacterium capable of reductively dehalogenating 2,4,6-tribromophenol to phenol, was isolated from estuarine sediments of the Arthur Kill in the New York/New Jersey harbor. It is a gram-negative, motile, vibrio-shaped, obligate anaerobe which grows on lactate, pyruvate, hydrogen, and fumarate when provided sulfate as an electron acceptor. The organism accumulates acetate when grown on lactate and sulfate, contains desulfoviridin, and will not grow in the absence of NaCl. It will not utilize acetate, succinate, propionate, or butyrate for growth via sulfate reduction. When supplied with lactate as an electron donor, strain TBP-1 will utilize sulfate, sulfite, sulfur, and thiosulfate for growth but not nitrate, fumarate, or acrylate. This organism debrominates 2-, 4-, 2,4-, 2,6-, and 2,4,6-bromophenol but not 3- or 2,3-bromophenol or monobrominated benzoates. It will not dehalogenate monochlorinated, fluorinated, or iodinated phenols or chlorinated benzoates. Together with its physiological characteristics, its 16S rRNA gene sequence places it in the genus Desulfovibrio. The average growth yield of strain TBP-1 grown on a defined medium supplemented with lactate and 2,4,6-bromophenol is 3.71 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced, and the yield was 1.42 mg of protein/mmol of phenol produced when 40bromophenol was the electron acceptor. Average growth yields for Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 grown with 2,4,6-bromophenol, 4-bromophenol, or sulfate are 0.62, 0.71, and 1.07, respectively. Growth did not occur when either lactate or 2,4,6-bromophenol was omitted from the growth medium. These results indicate that Desulfovibrio sp. strain TBP-1 is capable of growth via halorespiration.

  1. Inflated Grades, Enrollments & Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Stone

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Reports of the past 13 years that call attention to deficient academic standards in American higher education are enumerated. Particular attention is given the Wingspread Group's recent An American Imperative: Higher Expectations for Higher Education. Low academic standards, grade inflation, and budgetary incentives for increased enrollment are analyzed and a call is made for research at the state level. Reported trends in achievement and GPAs are extrapolated to Tennessee and combined with local data to support the inference that 15% of the state's present day college graduates would not have earned a diploma by mid 1960s standards. A conspicuous lack of interest by public oversight bodies is noted despite a growing public awareness of low academic expectations and lenient grading and an implicit budgetary impact of over $100 million. Various academic policies and the dynamics of bureaucratic control are discussed in relationship to the maintenance of academic standards. The disincentives for challenging course requirements and responsible grading are examined, and the growing movement to address academic quality issues through better training and supervision of faculty are critiqued. Recommendations that would encourage renewed academic integrity and make learning outcomes visible to students, parents, employers, and the taxpaying public are offered and briefly discussed.

  2. The influence of simulated clinical use on the flexibility of rotary ProTaper Universal, K3 and EndoSequence nickel-titanium instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, A C D; Pereira, E S J; Bahia, M G A; Buono, V T L

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the influence of cyclic flexural and torsional loading on the flexibility of ProTaper Universal, K3 and EndoSequence nickel-titanium instruments, in view of the hypothesis that these types of loading would decrease the flexibility of the selected NiTi rotary files. The instruments evaluated were S2 and F1 ProTaper Universal, sizes 20 and 25, .06 taper K3, and sizes 20 and 25, .06 taper EndoSequence. Flexibility was determined by 45° bending tests according to ISO 3630-1 specification. Values of the bending moment (MB ) obtained with new instruments were considered as the control group (CG). Bending tests were then conducted in instruments previously fatigued to one-fourth and three-fourths of their average fatigue life (fatigue groups, FG¼ and FG¾), as well as after cyclic torsional loading (torsional group, TG). Fatigue tests were carried out in a bench device that allowed the files to rotate freely inside an artificial canal with an angle of curvature of 45° and a radius of 5 mm. Cyclic torsional loading tests were performed that entailed rotating the instrument from zero angular deflection to 180° and then returning to zero applied torque in 20 cycles. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance at a significance level of 5%. Simulated clinical use by means of flexural fatigue tests did not affect the flexibility of the instruments, except for a significant increase in flexibility observed in a few instruments (P instruments and after cyclic torsional loading showed no significant differences between them (P > 0.05). The flexibility of rotary ProTaper Universal, K3 and EndoSequence NiTi instruments, measured in bending tests, was not adversely affected by simulated clinical use in curved root canals. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Differential equations for correlators on the torus: Two-point correlation function of isospin-1 primary fields in the k=3 SU(2) WZW theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durganandini, P.

    1990-01-01

    We systematize the procedure developed by Mathur, Mukhi and Sen to derive differential equations for correlators in rational conformal field theories on the torus in those cases when it is necessary to study not only leading-order behaviour but also the nonleading behaviour of the solutions in the asymptotic limit Imτ→∞, Imz→∞. As an illustration, we derive the differential equation for the two-point correlator of the isospin-1 primary fields in the k=3 SU(2) WZW model on the torus. (orig.)

  4. Optical and crystal chemistry studies of Na3Ln(PO4)2-K3Ln(PO4)2 (Ln=Eu, Gd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesnaoui, M.; Maazaz, M.

    1987-01-01

    In these systems, large single phase domains are separated by two phase regions. The structural evolution as a function of composition is analysed both by X-ray diffraction and by using Eu 3+ and Gd 3+ as luminescent local structural probes. Due to layer type structure of the K 3 Ln(PO 4 ) 2 phases an exchange reaction resulting in total substitution of sodium for potassium can be carried out with formation of metastable Na 3 Ln(PO 4 ) 2 phases, the structure of which is close to those of the potassium compounds. 10 refs.; 18 figs [fr

  5. Study and identification of paramagnetic centers by EPR technique in K3Cu(CN)4 crystals irradiated with X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tancredo, A.

    1984-01-01

    Paramagnetic centers created in K 3 Cu(CN) 4 crystals by X-ray irradiation, using EPR technique are studied. The crystals are irradiated in following conditions: a) liquid nitrogen temperatures, b) room temperatures. Crystals field models of the paramagnetic centers which determine the following local symmetric in order to satisfy experimental results: a) Cu ++ in C sub(3v) symmetric and b) K 0 in distorted octahedral symmetry are proposed. The decay of these centers and the observation that Cu ++ ions are very much instable and disappear at T = 148K are studied. The K 0 atom remain up to T approximatelly 300K. (E.G.) [pt

  6. Genome sequence of Prevotella intermedia SUNY aB G8-9K-3, a biofilm forming strain with drug-resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hoi; Kim, Minjung; Lee, Jae-Hyung

    Prevotella intermedia has long been known to be as the principal etiologic agent of periodontal diseases and associated with various systemic diseases. Previous studies showed that the intra-species difference exists in capacity of biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and serological reaction among P. intermedia strains. Here we report the genome sequence of P. intermedia SUNY aB G8-9K-3 (designated ATCC49046) that displays a relatively high antimicrobial resistant and biofilm-forming capacity. Genome sequencing information provides important clues in understanding the genetic bases of phenotypic differences among P. intermedia strains. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. TCGA_LowerGradeGliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    TCGA researchers analyzed nearly 300 cases of diffuse low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, which together comprise lower-grade gliomas. LGGs occur mainly in adults and include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas.

  8. Ski and snowboard school programs: Injury surveillance and risk factors for grade-specific injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sran, R; Djerboua, M; Romanow, N; Mitra, T; Russell, K; White, K; Goulet, C; Emery, C; Hagel, B

    2018-05-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate incidence rates and profile of school program ski and snowboard-related injuries by school grade group using a historical cohort design. Injuries were identified via Accident Report Forms completed by ski patrollers. Severe injury was defined as those with ambulance evacuation or recommending patient transport to hospital. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the school grade group-specific injury rates adjusting for risk factors (sex, activity, ability, and socioeconomic status) and accounting for the effect of clustering by school. Forty of 107 (37%) injuries reported were severe. Adolescents (grades 7-12) had higher crude injury rates (91 of 10 000 student-days) than children (grades 1-3: 25 of 10 000 student-days; grades 4-6: 65 of 10 000 student-days). Those in grades 1-3 had no severe injuries. Although the rate of injury was lower in grades 1-3, there were no statistically significant grade group differences in adjusted analyses. Snowboarders had a higher rate of injury compared with skiers, while higher ability level was protective. Participants in grades 1-3 had the lowest crude and adjusted injury rates. Students in grades 7-12 had the highest rate of overall and severe injuries. These results will inform evidence-based guidelines for school ski/snowboard program participation by school-aged children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Let's End the Grading Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  10. Four Steps in Grading Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  11. Study of fission reactions induced by 4,6He and 7Li beams on 209Bi and 208Pb targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukyanov S.M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of fission reactions induced by 4,6He and 7Li beams on 209Bi and 208Pb targets, leading to the production of 210,212A compound nuclei, was performed. It was shown that the fission excitation functions for the three reactions 4,6He + 209Bi and 7Li + 208Pb had similar behavior within the experimental error for a broad range of energy. More likely, halo structure of 6He is not reflected on the fission reaction mechanism. Otherwise, a large value of the fusion cross section was observed so far, as it could be expected in the case of weakly bound character of 6He projectile.

  12. Corrosion of carbon steel in the [P_1_4_6_6_6][Br] ionic liquid: The effects of γ-radiation and cover gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morco, Ryan P.; Musa, Ahmed Y.; Momeni, Mojtaba; Wren, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon steel corrosion in non-aqueous ionic liquid ([P_1_4_6_6_6] [Br]) electrolyte. • Gamma-irradiation results to less corrosion, forming protective oxides. • Substantial corrosion is seen in the absence of gamma-radiation. • A corrosion mechanism is proposed for the observed results. - Abstract: The corrosion of carbon steel in the ionic liquid (IL) [P_1_4_6_6_6] [Br] was studied with the IL in contact with an inert (Ar) or oxidizing (air) cover gas in the presence and absence of γ-radiation. Significant corrosion was observed for the tests performed in the absence of γ-radiation while a protective oxide layer is formed in the presence of γ-radiation. The corrosion is attributed to the presence of impurity H_2O and O_2 dissolved in the IL, and a corrosion mechanism is proposed.

  13. Synthesis of C-glycosyl-bis-1,2,3-triazole derivatives from 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-D-glucal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Anwar; Souza, Frederico B; Trossini, Gustavo H G; Gatti, Fernando M; Stefani, Hélio A

    2015-08-01

    We have developed an efficient, CuI-catalyzed, microwave-assisted method for the synthesis of bis-1,2,3-triazole derivatives starting from a 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-D-glucal-derived mesylate. This mesylate was obtained from 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-D-glucal through C-glycosidation, deprotection of acetate groups to alcohols, and selective mesylation of the primary alcohol. This mesylate moiety was then converted to an azide through a microwave-assisted method with good yield. The azide, once synthesized, was then treated with different terminal alkynes in the presence of CuI to synthesize various bis-triazoles in high yields and short reaction times.

  14. Comparison of apical transportation and change of working length in K3, NRT AND PROFILE rotary instruments using transparent resin block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Jung Yoon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study is to compare the apical transportation and working length change in curved root canals created in resin blocks, using 3 geometrically different types of Ni-Ti files, K3, NRT, and Profile. Materials and Methods The curvature of 30 resin blocks was measured by Schneider technique and each groups of Ni-Ti files were allocated with 10 resin blocks at random. The canals were shaped with Ni-Ti files by Crown-down technique. It was analyzed by Double radiograph superimposition method (Backman CA 1992, and for the accuracy and consistency, specially designed jig, digital X-ray, and CAD/CAM software for measurement of apical transportation were used. The amount of apical transportation was measured at 0, 1, 3, 5 mm from 'apical foramen - 0.5 mm' area, and the alteration of the working length before and after canal shaping was also measured. For statistics, Kruskal-Wallis One Way Analysis was used. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in the amount of working length change and apical transportation at 0, 1, and 3 mm area (p = 0.027, however, the amount of apical transportation at 5 mm area showed significant difference between K3 and Profile system (p = 0.924. Conclusions As a result of this study, the 3 geometrically different Ni-Ti files showed no significant difference in apical transportation and working length change and maintained the original root canal shape.

  15. Mechanical reduction of the intracanal Enterococcus faecalis population by Hyflex CM, K3XF, ProTaper Next, and two manual instrument systems: an in vitro comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Rajendra K; Ali, Sajid; Mishra, Surendra K; Kumar, Ashok; Andrabi, Syed Mukhtar-Un-Nisar; Zoya, Asma; Alam, Sharique

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, the effectiveness of three rotary and two manual nickel titanium instrument systems on mechanical reduction of the intracanal Enterococcus faecalis population was evaluated. Mandibular premolars with straight roots were selected. Teeth were decoronated and instrumented until 20 K file and irrigated with physiological saline. After sterilization by ethylene oxide gas, root canals were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups for canal instrumentation: Manual Nitiflex and Hero Shaper nickel titanium files, and rotary Hyflex CM, ProTaper Next, and K3XF nickel titanium files. Intracanal bacterial sampling was done before and after instrumentation. After serial dilution, samples were plated onto the Mitis Salivarius agar. The c.f.u. grown were counted, and log10 transformation was calculated. All instrumentation systems significantly reduced the intracanal bacterial population after root canal preparation. ProTaper Next was found to be significantly more effective than Hyflex CM and manual Nitiflex and Hero Shaper. However, ProTaper Next showed no significant difference with K3XF. Canal instrumentation by all the file systems significantly reduced the intracanal Enterococcus faecalis counts. ProTaper Next was found to be most effective in reducing the number of bacteria than other rotary or hand instruments. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Thermal decomposition of solid mixtures of 2-oxy-4,6-dinitramine-s-triazine (DNAM) and phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, P. N.; Pedroso, L. M.; Portugal, A. A.; Campos, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of solid mixtures of 2-oxy-4,6-dinitramine-s-triazine (DNAM) and phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN) at different mass ratios has been studied. Simultaneous thermal analysis (DSC/TG) and thermomicroscopy have been used. It was found that PSAN promotes the lowering of the decomposition temperature of DNAM. The beginning of this process occurs when both components are in the solid state irrespective of the composition. However, the composition appears as the main ...

  17. Design and Synthesis of 2-Alkylpyrimidine-4,6-diol and 6-Alkylpyridine-2,4-diol as Potent GPR84 Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Lin-Hai; Yang, Hui; Lu, Wei; Xie, Xin; Nan, Fa-Jun

    2016-06-09

    A series of alkylpyrimidine-4,6-diol derivatives were designed and synthesized as novel GRP84 agonists based on a high-throughput screening (HTS) hit 1. 6-Nonylpyridine-2,4-diol was identified as the most potent agonist of GPR84 reported so far, with an EC50 of 0.189 nM. These novel GPR84 agonists will provide valuable tools for the study of the physiological functions of GPR84.

  18. Passively mode-locked 4.6 and 10.5 GHz quantum dot laser diodes around 1.55 μm with large operating regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, M.J.R.; Renault, A.; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Oei, Y.S.; Smit, M.K.; Eikema, K.S.E.; Ubachs, W.; Anantathanasarn, S.; Nötzel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Passive mode-locking in two-section InAs/InP quantum dot laser diodes operating at wavelengths around 1.55 µm is reported. For a 4.6-GHz laser, a large operating regime of stable mode-locking, with RF-peak heights of over 40 dB, is found for injection currents of 750 mA up to 1.0 A and for values of

  19. Theoretical study of EPR spectra in Cu2+ - and Mn2+ - doped CaCd(CH3COO)4.6H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yiyang; Zhao Minguang

    1987-08-01

    The EPR spectra of CaCd(CH 3 COO) 4 .6H 2 O doped with Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ have been studied theoretically. A comparison between the calculated results and the experimental data shows quantitatively that the Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ ions substitute for the Cd 2+ and Ca 2+ ions, respectively. This conclusion is consistent with the qualitative assumption given by previous authors. (author). 36 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  20. Behavior of the future LHC magnet protection diodes irradiated in a nuclear reactor at 4.6 K with intermediate annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berland, V.; Hagedorn, D.; Gerstenberg, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC project at CERN, the effects of radiation on the electrical characteristics of epitaxial diodes for superconducting magnet protection were studied. The diodes were exposed to an irradiation dose up to 50 kGy and a neutron fluence of 10 15 n/cm 2 with intermediate thermal annealing each 10 kGy dose steps in the Technical University of Munich reactor at 4.6 K

  1. Evolution of the vertebrate Pax4/6 class of genes with focus on its novel member, the Pax10 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiner, Nathalie; Meyer, Axel; Kuraku, Shigehiro

    2014-06-19

    The members of the paired box (Pax) family regulate key developmental pathways in many metazoans as tissue-specific transcription factors. Vertebrate genomes typically possess nine Pax genes (Pax1-9), which are derived from four proto-Pax genes in the vertebrate ancestor that were later expanded through the so-called two-round (2R) whole-genome duplication. A recent study proposed that pax6a genes of a subset of teleost fishes (namely, acanthopterygians) are remnants of a paralog generated in the 2R genome duplication, to be renamed pax6.3, and reported one more group of vertebrate Pax genes (Pax6.2), most closely related to the Pax4/6 class. We propose to designate this new member Pax10 instead and reconstruct the evolutionary history of the Pax4/6/10 class with solid phylogenetic evidence. Our synteny analysis showed that Pax4, -6, and -10 originated in the 2R genome duplications early in vertebrate evolution. The phylogenetic analyses of relationships between teleost pax6a and other Pax4, -6, and -10 genes, however, do not support the proposed hypothesis of an ancient origin of the acanthopterygian pax6a genes in the 2R genome duplication. Instead, we confirmed the traditional scenario that the acanthopterygian pax6a is derived from the more recent teleost-specific genome duplication. Notably, Pax6 is present in all vertebrates surveyed to date, whereas Pax4 and -10 were lost multiple times in independent vertebrate lineages, likely because of their restricted expression patterns: Among Pax6-positive domains, Pax10 has retained expression in the adult retina alone, which we documented through in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction experiments on zebrafish, Xenopus, and anole lizard. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Ribociclib (LEE011): Mechanism of Action and Clinical Impact of This Selective Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/6 Inhibitor in Various Solid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Debu; Bardia, Aditya; Sellers, William R

    2017-07-01

    The cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6-p16-retinoblastoma (Rb) pathway is commonly disrupted in cancer, leading to abnormal cell proliferation. Therapeutics targeting this pathway have demonstrated antitumor effects in preclinical and clinical studies. Ribociclib is a selective, orally bioavailable inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6, which received FDA approval in March 2017 and is set to enter the treatment landscape alongside other CDK4/6 inhibitors, including palbociclib and abemaciclib. Here, we describe the mechanism of action of ribociclib and review preclinical and clinical data from phase I, II, and III trials of ribociclib across different tumor types, within the context of other selective CDK4/6 inhibitors. The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, tolerability, and clinical responses with ribociclib as a single agent or in combination with other therapies are discussed, and an overview of the broad portfolio of ongoing clinical trials with ribociclib across a wide range of indications is presented. On the basis of the available data, ribociclib has a manageable tolerability profile and therapeutic potential for a variety of cancer types. Its high selectivity makes it an important partner drug for other targeted therapies, and it has been shown to enhance the clinical activity of existing anticancer therapies and delay the development of treatment resistance, without markedly increasing toxicity. Ongoing trials of doublet and triplet targeted therapies containing ribociclib seek to identify optimal CDK4/6-based targeted combination regimens for various tumor types and advance the field of precision therapeutics in oncology. Clin Cancer Res; 23(13); 3251-62. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. The structure of carbon nanotubes formed of graphene layers L4-8, L5-7, L3-12, L4-6-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapovalova, K. E.; Belenkov, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    We geometrically calculate the optimized structure of nanotubes based on the graphene layers, using the method of molecular mechanics MM+. It was found that only the nanotubes, based on the graphene layers L4-8, L5-7, L3-12, L4-6-12, have a cylindrical form. Calculations of the sublimation energy, carried out using the semi-empirical quantum-mechanic method PM3, show that energy increases with the increase of nanotube diameters.

  4. Biochemical Characterization of the Lactobacillus reuteri Glycoside Hydrolase Family 70 GTFB Type of 4,6-α-Glucanotransferase Enzymes That Synthesize Soluble Dietary Starch Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuxiang; van der Kaaij, Rachel Maria; Leemhuis, Hans; Pijning, Tjaard; van Leeuwen, Sander Sebastiaan; Jin, Zhengyu; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2015-10-01

    4,6-α-Glucanotransferase (4,6-α-GTase) enzymes, such as GTFB and GTFW of Lactobacillus reuteri strains, constitute a new reaction specificity in glycoside hydrolase family 70 (GH70) and are novel enzymes that convert starch or starch hydrolysates into isomalto/maltopolysaccharides (IMMPs). These IMMPs still have linear chains with some α1→4 linkages but mostly (relatively long) linear chains with α1→6 linkages and are soluble dietary starch fibers. 4,6-α-GTase enzymes and their products have significant potential for industrial applications. Here we report that an N-terminal truncation (amino acids 1 to 733) strongly enhances the soluble expression level of fully active GTFB-ΔN (approximately 75-fold compared to full-length wild type GTFB) in Escherichia coli. In addition, quantitative assays based on amylose V as the substrate are described; these assays allow accurate determination of both hydrolysis (minor) activity (glucose release, reducing power) and total activity (iodine staining) and calculation of the transferase (major) activity of these 4,6-α-GTase enzymes. The data show that GTFB-ΔN is clearly less hydrolytic than GTFW, which is also supported by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of their final products. From these assays, the biochemical properties of GTFB-ΔN were characterized in detail, including determination of kinetic parameters and acceptor substrate specificity. The GTFB enzyme displayed high conversion yields at relatively high substrate concentrations, a promising feature for industrial application. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Synthesis and x-ray crystallographic analysis of 4,6-di-O-acetyl-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-threo-hexopyranosyl cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, Madeline; Giovine, Matthew; Dougherty, William; Boyko, Walter; Kassel, Scott; Giuliano, Robert

    2016-04-29

    The glycopyranosyl cyanide 4,6-di-O-acetyl-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-threo-hexopyranosyl cyanide has been synthesized from tri-O-acetyl-D-galactal by reaction with trimethylsilyl cyanide in the presence of boron trifluoride diethyl etherate followed by catalytic hydrogenation. The synthesis provides the α-anomer stereoselectively, the structure of which was assigned based on 2D NMR techniques and x-ray crystallography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities of some new 4,6-dimethoxy-5-(heterocyclesbenzofuran starting from naturally occurring visnagin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. El-Sawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Novel 3-(4,6-dimethoxybenzofuran-5-yl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxaldehyde (3 and 3-chloro-3-(4,6-dimethoxybenzofuran-5-ylpropenal (4 were prepared via Vilsmeier–Haack reaction of 1-(4,6-dimethoxybenzofuran-5-ylethanone (1 and its hydrazone derivative 2. Reaction of compound 4 with some hydrazine derivatives, namely hydrazine hydrate, phenylhydrazine and benzylhydrazine hydrochloride led to the formation of pyrazole derivatives 5–8, respectively. On the other hand, reaction of compound 4 with thiourea, urea or guanidine gave the pyrimidine derivatives 9–11, respectively. Reaction of amino compound 11 with acetic anhydride, benzoyl chloride and benzenesulphonyl chloride yielded N-substituted pyrimidine derivatives 12–14, respectively. Reaction of diazonium salt of compound 11 with sodium azide afforded azidopyrimidine derivative 15, which upon reaction with ethyl acetoacetate gave 1,2,3-triazole derivative 16. Acid catalyzed reaction of 11 with p-nitrobenzaldehyde gave Schiff base 17, which cyclized upon reaction with thioglycolic acid or chloroacetyl chloride to give thiazolidin-4-one 18 and azetidin-2-one 19, respectively. The newly synthesized compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities. Depending on the obtained results, the newly synthesized compounds possess significant anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities.

  7. Syntheses of planar 1,5,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocine derivatives and thermodynamic study on intermolecular charge transfer for developing efficient organic solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chao-Zhi, E-mail: zhangchaozhi@nuist.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Shen, Dan [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Yuan, Yang [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Song, Ming-Xia; Li, Shi-Juan [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Cao, Hui, E-mail: yccaoh@hotmail.com [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China)

    2016-07-01

    A series of planar 1,5,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocine derivatives were synthesized for study on charge transfer at donor/acceptor interface. The fluorescence quenching spectra, and the highest occupied molecular orbital (−6.10 ∼ −6.25 eV) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (−3.45 ∼ −3.58 eV) energy levels of these 1,5,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocine derivatives show that they would be potential acceptor materials. Based on theoretical calculations, thermodynamic study on charge transfer at donor/acceptor interface was carried out. The results of experiments and theoretical calculations show that the electrons could transfer spontaneously from poly(3-hexylthiophene) to these acceptors. The percentages of fluorescence quenching increase with negative Gibbs free energy values increasing in the charge transfer procedures. Therefore, short circuit current values of organic solar cells would increase with the Gibbs free energy values increasing. This paper suggests a useful way for developing efficient organic solar cells. - Highlights: • Syntheses of planar 1,5,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocine derivatives for develop effective acceptor. • Electrons at excited state in P3HT could transfer spontaneously to these acceptors. • Thermodynamic study on charge transfer at donor/acceptor interface. • Short circuit currents would be predicted by Gibbs free energy in procedure of charge transfer.

  8. Structure-activity relationship studies of 1,7-diheteroarylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-ones with two different terminal rings in prostate epithelial cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rubing; Zhang, Xiaojie; Chen, Chengsheng; Chen, Guanglin; Sarabia, Cristian; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Shilong; Wang, Guangdi; Chen, Qiao-Hong

    2017-06-16

    To systematically investigate the structure-activity relationships of 1,7-diheteroarylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-ones in three human prostate cancer cell models and one human prostate non-neoplastic epithelial cell model, thirty five 1,7-diarylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-ones with different terminal heteroaromatic rings have been designed for evaluation of their anti-proliferative potency in vitro. These target compounds have been successfully synthesized through two sequential Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reactions starting from the appropriate aldehydes and tetraethyl (2-oxopropane-1,3-diyl)bis(phosphonate). Their anti-proliferative potency against PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cell lines can be significantly enhanced by the manipulation of the terminal heteroaromatic rings, further demonstrating the utility of 1,7-diarylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one as a potential scaffold for the development of anti-prostate cancer agents. The optimal analog 40 is 82-, 67-, and 39-fold more potent than curcumin toward the three prostate cancer cell lines, respectively. The experimental data also reveal that the trienones with two different terminal aromatic rings possess greater potency toward three prostate cancer cell lines, but also have greater capability of suppressing the proliferation of PWR-1E benign human prostate epithelial cells, as compared to the corresponding counterparts with two identical terminal rings and curcumin. The terminal aromatic rings also affect the cell apoptosis perturbation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Site Occupancies, Luminescence, and Thermometric Properties of LiY9(SiO4)6O2:Ce3+ Phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weijie; Pan, Fengjuan; Zhou, Lei; Hou, Dejian; Huang, Yan; Tao, Ye; Liang, Hongbin

    2016-10-04

    In this work, we report the tunable emission properties of Ce 3+ in an apatite-type LiY 9 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 compound via adjusting the doping concentration or temperature. The occupancies of Ce 3+ ions at two different sites (Wyckoff 6h and 4f sites) in LiY 9 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 have been determined by Rietveld refinements. Two kinds of Ce 3+ f-d transitions have been studied in detail and then assigned to certain sites. The effects of temperature and doping concentration on Ce 3+ luminescence properties have been systematically investigated. It is found that the Ce 3+ ions prefer occupying Wyckoff 6h sites and the energy transfer between Ce 3+ at two sites becomes more efficient with an increase in doping concentration. In addition, the charge-transfer vibronic exciton (CTVE) induced by the existence of free oxygen ion plays an important role in the thermal quenching of Ce 3+ at 6h sites. Because of the tunable emissions from cyan to blue with increasing temperature, the phosphors LiY 9 (SiO 4 ) 6 O 2 :Ce 3+ are endowed with possible thermometric applications.

  10. K3R7 METAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is a routine scheduled observation and is the primary observation code used in the United States to satisfy requirements for reporting surface meteorological...

  11. Three Justifications for Effectively Teaching Exceptional Babies to Third Grade with Respect to Their Characteristics, an Effective Curricula, and an Exceptional-Research Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, James Anthony Montrose

    2013-01-01

    Both Pre-K and K-3rd grade exceptional or talented children/students not only want but need more of an "accommodative" ambiance where their senses are given novel multiple-intelligences data so that they can continue to intellectually grow with respect to Piaget, Erickson, and Vygotsky's developmental schemes. Thus, to do this requires us to…

  12. A Novel Candidate Molecule in Pathological Grading Of Gliomas: ELABELA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artas, Gokhan; Ozturk, Sait; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Dagli, Adile Ferda; Gonen, Murat; Artas, Hakan; Aydin, Suleyman; Erol, Fatih Serhat

    2018-04-06

    This study aimed to investigate the possible role of ELABELA (ELA) in the histopathological grading of gliomas. We retrospectively assessed pathological specimens of patients who underwent surgery for intracranial space-occupying lesions. Only primary glioma specimens were included in this study. We enrolled 11 patients histologically diagnosed with low-grade glioma and 22 patients with high-grade glioma. The ELA antibody was applied to 4-6-µm-thick sections obtained from paraffin blocks. Histoscores were calculated using the distribution and intensity of staining immunoreactivity. An independent sample t-test was used for two-point inter-group assessments, whereas one-way analysis of variance was used for the other assessments. P 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The histoscores of the control brain, low-grade glioma, and high-grade glioma tissues were found to be 0.08, 0.37, and 0.92, respectively. The difference in ELA immunoreactivity between the control brain tissue and glioma tissue was statistically significant (p 0.05). In addition, a statistically significant increase was observed in ELA immunoreactivity in high-grade glioma tissues compared with that in low-grade glioma tissues (p 0.05). ELA has an angiogenetic role in the progression of glial tumors. ELA, which is an endogenous ligand of the apelin receptor, activates the apelinergic system and causes the progression of glial tumors. Further studies with a large number of patients are necessary to investigate the angiogenetic role of ELA in glial tumors.

  13. Hubungan Pemberian Makanan Tambahan Dini terhadap Status Gizi Bayi Usia 4-6 Bulan di Daerah Pantai Kota Padang Tahun 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny Oktrina Fauthrisna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Indonesia merupakan salah satu negara dengan angka kematian bayi dan balita tertinggi di dunia, dengan persentase gizi kurang dalam kriteria sedang dan berat. Hal ini berkaitan dengan beberapa faktor, salah satunya adalah pemberian makanan tambahan dini. Makanan tambahan dini adalah makanan selain ASI yang diberikan pada bayi sebelum usia 6 bulan. Pemberian makanan tambahan dini tersebut dapat menyebabkan gangguan-gangguan kesehatan, seperti diare, infeksi saluran pernafasan, dan lain-lain, yang akan memengaruhi status gizi bayi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan pemberian makanan tambahan dini terhadap status gizi bayi usia 46 bulan. Metode  penelitian menggunakan pendekatan cross sectional, dengan populasi adalah seluruh ibu yang mempunyai bayi usia 4-6 bulan di kecamatan Padang Barat, Padang Utara, dan Koto Tangah, kota Padang dan jumlah sampel sebanyak 126 orang. Data diambil melalui pengukuran antropometri (penimbangan berat badan dan usia bayi dan kuisioner. Hubungan antar variabel dianalisis menggunakan Fisher’s Exact Test. Hasil uji statistikmenunjukkan nilai p 0,043 (p value < 0,05, yang berarti terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara pemberian makanan tambahan dini dengan status gizi bayi usia 4-6 bulan. Kesimpulan  penelitian ini ialah pemberian makanan tambahan dini dapat menyebabkan gizi kurang pada bayi usia 4-6 bulan.Kata kunci: makanan tambahan dini, status gizi, bayi, gizi kurangAbstract Indonesia is one of countries which has highest infant and child mortality in the world, with the percentage of malnutrition in moderate and severe criteria. It is related to several factors, one of which is an early complementary feeding. Early complementary food is the food other than breast milk given to infants before 6 months of age. Earlysupplementary feeding can cause health problems, such as diarrhea, respiratory tract infections, etc., which will affect the nutritional status of infants. The objective of

  14. Modeling local structure using crystal field and spin Hamiltonian parameters: the tetragonal FeK3+-OI2- defect center in KTaO3 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnutek, P; Rudowicz, C; Yang, Z Y

    2009-01-01

    The local structure and the spin Hamiltonian (SH) parameters, including the zero-field-splitting (ZFS) parameters D and (a+2F/3), and the Zeeman g factors g || and g perpendicular , are theoretically investigated for the Fe K 3+ -O I 2- center in KTaO 3 crystal. The microscopic SH (MSH) parameters are modeled within the framework of the crystal field (CF) theory employing the CF analysis (CFA) package, which also incorporates the MSH modules. Our approach takes into account the spin-orbit interaction as well as the spin-spin and spin-other-orbit interactions omitted in previous studies. The superposition model (SPM) calculations are carried out to provide input CF parameters for the CFA/MSH package. The combined SPM-CFA/MSH approach is used to consider various structural models for the Fe K 3+ -O I 2- defect center in KTaO 3 . This modeling reveals that the off-center displacement of the Fe 3+ ions, Δ 1 (Fe 3+ ), combined with an inward relaxation of the nearest oxygen ligands, Δ 2 (O 2- ), and the existence of the interstitial oxygen O I 2- give rise to a strong tetragonal crystal field. This finding may explain the large ZFS experimentally observed for the Fe K 3+ -O I 2- center in KTaO 3 . Matching the theoretical MSH predictions with the available structural data as well as electron magnetic resonance (EMR) and optical spectroscopy data enables predicting reasonable ranges of values of Δ 1 (Fe 3+ ) and Δ 2 (O 2- ) as well as the possible location of O I 2- ligands around Fe 3+ ions in KTaO 3 . The defect structure model obtained using the SPM-CFA/MSH approach reproduces very well the ranges of the experimental SH parameters D, g || and g perpendicular and importantly yields not only the correct magnitude of D but also the sign, unlike previous studies. More reliable predictions may be achieved when experimental data on (a+2F/3) and/or crystal field energy levels become available. Comparison of our results with those arising from alternative models existing

  15. Intermolecular C-H···O, Cl···Cl and π-π interactions in the 2-dichloromethyl derivative of vitamin K3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soave, Raffaella; Colombo, Pietro

    2013-12-15

    The title 1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-dichloromethyl-3-methyl-1,4-dihydronaphthalene-1,4-dione, C12H8Cl2O2, is a chlorinated derivative of vitamin K3, which is a synthetic compound also known as menadione. Molecules of (I) are planar and lie on a crystallographic mirror plane (Z' = 0.5) in the space group Pnma. They are connected to each other by C-H···O hydrogen bonds, forming two-dimensional layers parallel to the ac plane. In addition, Cl···Cl and π-π interactions link adjacent molecules in different layers, thus forming zigzag ribbons along the b axis, such that a three-dimensional architecture is generated.

  16. The correlation of cathodic peak potentials of vitamin K(3) derivatives and their calculated electron affinities. The role of hydrogen bonding and conformational changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Hamid Reza; Panisch, Robin; Madej, M Gregor; Bats, Jan W; Lancaster, C Roy D; Schwalbe, Harald

    2009-06-01

    2-methyl-1,4-naphtoquinone 1 (vitamin K(3), menadione) derivatives with different substituents at the 3-position were synthesized to tune their electrochemical properties. The thermodynamic midpoint potential (E(1/2)) of the naphthoquinone derivatives yielding a semi radical naphthoquinone anion were measured by cyclic voltammetry in the aprotic solvent dimethoxyethane (DME). Using quantum chemical methods, a clear correlation was found between the thermodynamic midpoint potentials and the calculated electron affinities (E(A)). Comparison of calculated and experimental values allowed delineation of additional factors such as the conformational dependence of quinone substituents and hydrogen bonding which can influence the electron affinities (E(A)) of the quinone. This information can be used as a model to gain insight into enzyme-cofactor interactions, particularly for enzyme quinone binding modes and the electrochemical adjustment of the quinone motif.

  17. On the geometry of a smooth model of a fibre product of families of K3 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikol'skaya, O V

    2014-01-01

    The Hodge conjecture on algebraic cycles is proved for a smooth projective model X of a fibre product X 1 × C X 2 of nonisotrivial 1-parameter families of K3 surfaces (possibly with degeneracies) X k →C (k=1,2) over a smooth projective curve C under the assumption that, for generic geometric fibres X 1s and X 2s , the ring End Hg(X 1s ) NS Q (X 1s ) ⊥ is an imaginary quadratic field, rankNS(X 1s )≠18, and End Hg(X 2s ) NS Q (X 2s ) ⊥ is a totally real field or else rankNS(X 1s )

  18. Variables process effect in the pure ferritic metal contribution deposited with an tubular metal-cored E111T5-K3 wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, Hernan G; Ramini de Rissone, N.M; Surian, E; De Vedia, L

    2004-01-01

    The welding deposit performed with an ANSI-AWS E111T5-K3 type from the system C-Mn-Ni-Mo metal coring tubular welding, with a low slag generation was studied. Different operatives configurations with two thermal contribution levels (1 kJ and 1.5 kJ) and two types of protector gases (CO 2 and Ar-20%CO 2 ) at two welding position (under hand and ascendant vertical) were analyzed. The resulting pure contributor metal from the different process configurations was chemical, mechanically and structural characterized and the effect of the different process conditions was evaluated. The microstructure is fundamentally composed by FS(NA) and AF. For similar values of hardness and strength, good values of tenacity were observed and they show little variation with the process variables studied (AG)

  19. Electronic interaction in an outer-sphere mixed-valence double salt: a polarized neutron diffraction study of K(3)(MnO(4))(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Roderick D; Jayasooriya, Upali A; Tilford, Claire; Anson, Christopher E; Sowrey, Frank E; Rosseinsky, David R; Stride, John A; Tasset, Francis; Ressouche, Eric; White, Ross P; Ballou, Rafik

    2004-11-01

    The mixed-valence double salt K(3)(MnO(4))(2) crystallizes in space group P2(1)/m with Z = 2. The manganese centers Mn1 and Mn2 constitute discrete "permanganate", [Mn(VII)O(4)](-), and "manganate", [Mn(VI)O(4)](2-), ions, respectively. There is a spin-ordering transition to an antiferromagnetic state at ca. T = 5 K. The spin-density distribution in the paramagnetic phase at T = 10 K has been determined by polarized neutron diffraction, confirming that unpaired spin is largely confined to the nominal manganate ion Mn2. Through use of both Fourier refinement and maximum entropy methods, the spin on Mn1 is estimated as 1.75 +/- 1% of one unpaired electron with an upper limit of 2.5%.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of n-alkylamino derivatives of vitamin K3: Molecular structure of 2-propylamino-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and antibacterial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadar, Dattatray; Camilles, Maria; Patil, Rishikesh; Khan, Ayesha; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita

    2015-04-01

    We would like to introduce eight analogues of n-alkylamino derivatives of vitamin K3 (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) viz, 2-(n-alkylamino)-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (where n-alkyl is methyl; LM-1, ethyl; LM-2, propyl; LM-3, butyl; LM-4, pentyl; LM-5, hexyl; LM-6, heptyl; LM-7, octyl; LM-8). All the above analogues have been successfully synthesized from vitamin K3 and characterized using different analytical techniques. Furthermore, in order to understand the mechanistic aspects of formation of LM-1 to LM-8 compounds, we could propose the mechanism. The FT-IR analysis of LM-1 to LM-8 indicate the presence of characteristic band of Nsbnd H group ∼3287-3364 cm-1, the variation was attributed to extensive intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction. The molecular structure of LM-3 compound has been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. LM-3 compound crystallises in triclinic space group P1. There were four independent molecules in asymmetric unit cell and their molecular interactions observed via Nsbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯O and π-π stacking of quinonoid rings. Pharmacological potential of all compounds has been evaluated in terms of their antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. All the compounds were active against both the strains while LM-2 was found to be more effective with a minimum inhibition concentration of 0.3125 μg/mL and 0.156 μg/mL respectively.

  1. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  2. Molecular Mechanism of Enhanced Anticancer Effect of Nanoparticle Formulated LY2835219 via p16-CDK4/6-pRb Pathway in Colorectal Carcinoma Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available LY2835219 is a dual inhibitor to CDK4 and CDK6. This study was to prepare LY2835219-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CNP/LY and LY2835219-loaded hyaluronic acid-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles (HACNP/LY and revealed their anticancer effect and influence on p16-CDK4/6-pRb pathway against colon cell line. The nanoparticle sizes of CNP/LY and HACNP/LY were approximately 195±39.6 nm and 217±31.1 nm, respectively. The zeta potentials of CNP/LY and HACNP/LY were 37.3±1.5 mV and 30.3±2.2 mV, respectively. And the preparation process showed considerable drug encapsulation efficiency and loading efficiency. LY2835219, CNP/LY, and HACNP/LY inhibited HT29 cell proliferation with 0.68, 0.54, and 0.30 μM of IC50, respectively. G1 phase was arrested by LY2835219 and its formulations. Furthermore, inhibition of CDK4/6 by LY2835219 formulations induced CDK4, CDK6, cyclin D1, and pRb decrease and p16 increase at both protein and mRNA levels. Overall, nanoparticle formulated LY2835219 could enhance the cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest, and HACNP/LY strengthened the trend furtherly compared to CNP/LY. It is the first time to demonstrate the anticancer effect and mechanism against HT29 by LY2835219 and its nanoparticles. The drug and its nanoparticle formulations delay the cell growth and arrest cell cycle through p16-CDK4/6-pRb pathway, while the nanoparticle formulated LY2835219 could strengthen the process.

  3. A new (4, 6)-connected Cu(I) coordination polymer based on rare tetranuclear [Cu4I2] clusters: Synthesis, crystal structure, luminescent and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Jing; Liu, Chun-Yan; Bian, Ming; Yu, Li-Jun

    2018-03-01

    A new Cu(I) coordination polymer, namely [Cu5I3(L)2]n (1 HL = 3-(4-pyridyl)-5-(3-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolyl), was solvothermally synthesized using CuI, HL and NaI as the starting materials. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis shows that compound 1 features a (4, 6)-connected 3D framework employing rare tetranuclear [Cu4I2] clusters as building subunits. It exhibits intense metal-to-ligand luminescence and excellent photocatalytic activity on degradation of methylene blue (MB).

  4. Genus- och könsroller i läromedel : - En läromedelsanalys av Magic och Happy, engelska årskurs 4-6

    OpenAIRE

    Bjureland, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    This study examines gender roles, with a basis in the fundamental values of the Swedish curriculum. I analyse dialogues in two commonly used textbooks, Magic! Classbook 5 by Hedencrona, Smed-Gerdin and Watcyn-Jones (2009) and Happy textbook year 6 by Sutcliffe, Thunman and Mälström Timling (2011) for English, 4-6. The dialogues are analysed with a quantitative and a qualitative method. In the qualitative analysis, I investigate gender awareness, using levels from negligence to a high level of...

  5. Facile synthesis of some novel 2-substituted-4,6-diarylpyrimidines using 4 ' -hydroxy-3 ' ,5 ' -dinitrochalcones and S-benzylthiouronium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Ameta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various 4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dinitro substituted chalcones 1 and S-benzylthiouronium chloride (SBT 2 in the presence of DMF-organic bases (morpholine/ pyrrolidine/ piperidine gave 4,6-diaryl-2-(4-morpholinyl / 1-pyrrolidinyl /1-piperidinyl- pyrimidines 4, 5 and 6 in a facile one-pot conversion. In an another attempt reactants 1 and 2 yielded intermediate 2-benzylthiopyrimidines 3, in presence of DMF, which on treatment with heterocyclic secondary amines gave products 4, 5 and 6 in an alternate two-step process.

  6. 5-[(3,5-Dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene]-1,3-diethyl-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman A. Khan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, 5-[(3,5-dimethyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-ylmethylene]-1,3-diethyl-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H-dione, has been synthesized by condensation of 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid and 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazole-4-carbaldehyde in ethanol in the presence of pyridine. The structure of this new compound was confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and EI-MS spectral analysis.

  7. Template synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of the complex combinations of some transitional metals with isonicotinoylhydrazone -2,4,6- trimethylbenzaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitu, L.ITU; Imran, M.

    2011-01-01

    The complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) with isonicotinoyl-hydrazone -2,4,6-trimethylbenzaldehyde (INHTB) are reported. The complexes have been characterized by analytical data, IR, UV-Vis, NMR spectra, magnetic susceptibility, thermal analysis and for the Cu(II) complex the ESR spectrum has been recorded. The anti-bacterial activity of these complexes were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri bacteria. The INHTB ligand is coordinated at the metallic ions by oxygen amide (O=C) and the azomethine nitrogen. (author)

  8. Preparation of radioiodinated insulin and thyroid stimulating hormone using 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3. cap alpha. , 6. cap alpha. -diphenylglycouril (iodogen) for radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, M R.A.; Gupte, J H; Jyotsna, T; Mani, R S

    1987-11-01

    Radioiodinated insulin and thyroid stimulating hormones were prepared using 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3..cap alpha.., 6..cap alpha..-diphenylglycouril (iodogen). Conditions of iodination like concentration of iodogen, reaction time, etc. were optimized to get maximum yield. Stability studies of iodogen coated tubes were carried out over a period of time. The dependence of iodination yield on varying amounts of activity and protein concentration were investigated. Iodination yield over a range of pH was also studied. The radiolabelled hormones prepared by this method were used in radioimmunoassay and compared with tracers prepared by the Chloramine-T method. (author) 16 refs.; 5 tabs.

  9. Generation of 2.5 μm and 4.6 μm Dispersive Waves in Kagome Photonic Crystal Fiber with Plasma Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Qi Zhao; Meng Li; Dong Wei; Xin Ding; Gui-Zhong Zhang; Jian-Quan Yao

    2017-01-01

    We report our numerical simulation on dispersive waves (DWs) generated in the Kr-filled Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,by deploying the unidirectional pulse propagation equation.Relatively strong dispersive waves are simultaneously generated at 2.5μm and 4.6μm.It is deciphered that the interplay between plasma currents due to Kr ionization and nonlinear effects plays a key role in DW generation.Remarkably,this kind of DW generation is corroborated by the plasma-corrected phase-matching condition.

  10. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral pres...... have been profiled in the news. The model is provided to ensure that degree candidates are academic experts in their field, having earned the credential through rigorous study....

  11. EVALUASI DATA ANTROPOMETRI ANAK-ANAK USIA 4-6 TAHUN DI JAWA TIMUR DAN APLIKASI PADA PERANCANGAN FASILITAS BELAJAR DI SEKOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Herawati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry data realy important towards learning facilities design. Comfortness and functional of table an chair have correlation with physical structure of the user. Many study for 6-18 years old in anthropometry data, but for 4-6 years old children there’s no specific anthropometry data.in this research, anthropometry data for 4-6 years old child were analyze and applied to the school facilities design. 550 children from 50 schools in East Java were measured, they consist of 259 girls and 291 boys. Average weight of the boys is 21.40kg with 9.23 standard deviation; the girls average weight is 19,91kg with 5.5 standard deviation. From the body dimension gathered from this research could be applied in desigining learning facilities, such as computer table and chair. Another body dimension also used to determine seat’s width, back support’s height, etc, considering the percentile which is appropriate for each adjustment.

  12. ANALISIS SIFAT TARIK DAN IMPAK KOMPOSIT SERAT RAMI DENGAN PERLAKUAN ALKALI DALAM WAKTU 2,4,6 DAN 8 JAM BERMATRIK POLIESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramuko Ilmu Purboputro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ikatan interfacal bonding pada komposit serat alam sangat tergantung dari kekasaran permukaan serat. Permukaan serat dapat ditingkatkan daya ikatan permukaannya dengan cara mencelupkan pada larutan alkali. Pencelupan ini akan mengurangi lapisan lignin yang mengurangi kekuatan ikat pada permukaan serat. Pada penelitian ini proses yang digunakan adalah perlakuan alkali terhadap permukaan serat dengan  cara merendam serat rami selama 2,4,6, dan 8 jam. Larutah alkali yang digunakan adalah larutan NaOH dengan konsentrasi 10% pada pelarut air. Serat rami   Boehmeria nivea (L Goud direndam pada larutan NaOH selama 2,4,6, dan 8 jam perendaman, untuk menghilangkan zat ligninnya agar kekuatan ikatan permukaan bisa diperbaiki.  Pengujian yang dilakukan adalah pengujian tarik dan pengujian impak. Hasil yang didapat adalah kekuatan tarik terbesar didapat pada perendaman 8 jam yaitu sebesar 41,9 MPa. Modulus young terbesar didapat pada perendaman 2 jam, yaitu 2743,15 Mpa, dan kekuatan impak terbesar adalah 0,0725 Joule/mm2 terjadi pada perendaman 4 jam   Kata kunci : komposit serat, kekuatan tarik, kekuatan impak, perendaman alkali

  13. Being WISE. I. Validating stellar population models and M */L ratios at 3.4 and 4.6 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Mark A.; Meidt, Sharon; Van de Ven, Glenn; Schinnerer, Eva; Groves, Brent; Querejeta, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission, we have measured near infra-red (NIR) photometry of a diverse sample of dust-free stellar systems (globular clusters, dwarf and giant early-type galaxies) which have metallicities that span the range -2.2 < [Fe/H] (dex) < 0.3. This dramatically increases the sample size and broadens the metallicity regime over which the 3.4 (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) photometry of stellar populations have been examined. We find that the W1 – W2 colors of intermediate and old (>2 Gyr) stellar populations are insensitive to the age of the stellar population, but that the W1 – W2 colors become bluer with increasing metallicity, a trend not well reproduced by most stellar population synthesis (SPS) models. In common with previous studies, we attribute this behavior to the increasing strength of the CO absorption feature located in the 4.6 μm bandpass with metallicity. Having used our sample to validate the efficacy of some of the SPS models, we use these models to derive stellar mass-to-light ratios in the W1 and W2 bands. Utilizing observational data from the SAURON and ATLAS3D surveys, we demonstrate that these bands provide extremely simple, yet robust stellar mass tracers for dust free older stellar populations that are freed from many of the uncertainties common among optical estimators.

  14. Vanillin Analogues o-Vanillin and 2,4,6-Trihydroxybenzaldehyde Inhibit NFĸB Activation and Suppress Growth of A375 Human Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Annamária; Kúsz, Erzsébet; Kolozsi, Csongor; Tubak, Vilmos; Zagotto, Giuseppe; Buzás, Krisztina; Quintieri, Luigi; Vizler, Csaba

    2016-11-01

    Constitutive activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NFĸB) is a hallmark of various cancer types, including melanoma. Chemotherapy may further increase tumour NFĸB activity, a phenomenon that, in turn, exacerbates drug resistance. This study aimed at preliminary screening of a panel of aromatic aldehydes, including vanillin, for cytotoxicity and suppression of tumour cell NFĸB activity. The cytotoxic and NFĸB-inhibitory effects of 10 aromatic aldehydes, including vanillin, were investigated in cultured A375 human melanoma cells. Each compound was assayed alone and in combination with the model NFĸB-activating drug doxorubicin. The most promising analogues were then tested alone and in combination with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide in vitro, and with cyclophosphamide in mice bearing A375 xenografts. The vanillin analogues o-vanillin and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde exhibited cytotoxicity against cultured A375 cells, and inhibited doxorubicin- and 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide-induced NFĸB activation. They also suppressed A375 cell growth in mice. o-vanillin and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde deserve further evaluation as potential anticancer drugs. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Fungal strains isolated from cork stoppers and the formation of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole involved in the cork taint of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prak, Sina; Gunata, Ziya; Guiraud, Joseph-Pierre; Schorr-Galindo, Sabine

    2007-05-01

    Cork taint is mainly due to 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) produced through the activity of undesirable fungal strains. We observed that CFU mould number in TCA-containing stoppers was not quantitatively different to that of the stoppers not containing TCA (ca. 10(5)CFU/g). In contrast more fungi diversity was observed in TCA-containing stoppers. Penicillium spp (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium glabrum), Aspergillus spp (Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae), Chrysonilia sitophila, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma viride were found in TCA-containing stoppers, while C. sitophila and Penicillium sp. were the main fungi in the stoppers devoid of TCA. Conidia were numerous close to the lenticels and present from the lateral surface through to the centre of the stoppers. Strains of Aspergillus, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium and Trichoderma isolated from TCA-containing stoppers were able to convert 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) in TCA in resting cell or growing conditions. The best yields of conversion were obtained by green fungi Paecilomyces sp. and P. chrysogenum, 17% and 20%, respectively. Chysonilia sitophila and Penicillium sp. did not produce TCA from TCP in our conditions.

  16. Photochemical and electrochemical studies on lanthanide complexes of 6-(hydroxymethylpyridine- 2-carboxaldehyde[2- methyl-pyrimidine-4,6-diyl] bis-hydrazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report the synthesis of the 6-(hydroxymethylpyridine-2- carboxaldehyde[2-methyl-pyrimidine- 4,6-diyl]bis-hydrazone by a condensation reaction between 6-(hydroxymethyl picolinaldehyde with 4,6-(bis-hydrazino-2- methylpyrimidine. This bis-hydrazone can be visualized as a two-arm system which exhibits photochemical induced [E,E]/[E,Z]/[Z,Z’] isomerizations and double coordination to metal centers. Configurational changes, upon UV light irradiation, were followed over time by 1 H NMR, establishing that isomerization, in both arms, is a consecutive reaction that follows first-order kinetics (k1 = 4.06 x 10-4 s-1 and k2 = 2.80 x 10-4 s-1. Furthermore, the synthesis of bis-hydrazone metal complexes with La (III and Sm (III ions was achieved; subsequently, the absorption and emission properties of these complexes were studied, determining the fluorescence quantum yields, La= 0.2024 and Sm= 0.1413. Electrochemical studies of the complexes were conducted by square wave voltammetry, demonstrating that the bis-hydrazone and its complexes are electroactive species between +1.5 and -2.5 V.

  17. Ca8NaY(PO4)6F2:Eu2+,Mn2+: a potential color-tunable phosphor for white LEDs applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fen, Zhang; Wanjun, Tang

    2015-01-01

    Eu 2+ - and/or Mn 2+ -activated Ca 8 NaY(PO 4 ) 6 F 2 phosphors have been prepared via a combustion-assisted synthesis route. The powder X-ray diffraction measurement revealed that Ca 8 NaY(PO 4 ) 6 F 2 crystallized in a hexagonal crystal system with the space group P6 3 /m (176). The photoluminescence spectrum of the Eu 2+ single-doped phosphor shows a broad blue emission band peaking at 451 nm under the excitation of UV irradiation. The Eu 2+ -/Mn 2+ -codoped phosphors show a blue emission band and an orange emission band, and the corresponding CIE coordinates intuitively indicate the tunable colors from blue to yellow area. The energy transfer from the Eu 2+ to Mn 2+ ions is demonstrated to be a quadrupole-quadrupole mechanism in terms of the experimental results and analysis of PL spectra and decay curves of the phosphors. The developed phosphors can be efficiently excited in the UV region and exhibit a tunable white-light emission, making them attractive as single-component white-light-emitting conversion phosphors for UV-based white LEDs. (orig.)

  18. Structures, energetics, vibrational spectra of NH4+ (H2O)(n=4,6) clusters: Ab initio calculations and first principles molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, S; Singh, Jiten N; Park, Mina; Kumar, Rajesh; Kim, Kwang S

    2008-06-28

    Important structural isomers of NH(4) (+)(H(2)O)(n=4,6) have been studied by using density functional theory, Moller-Plesset second order perturbation theory, and coupled-cluster theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)]. The zero-point energy (ZPE) correction to the complete basis set limit of the CCSD(T) binding energies and free energies is necessary to identify the low energy structures for NH(4) (+)(H(2)O)(n=4,6) because otherwise wrong structures could be assigned for the most probable structures. For NH(4) (+)(H(2)O)(6), the cage-type structure, which is more stable than the previously reported open structure before the ZPE correction, turns out to be less stable after the ZPE correction. In first principles Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations around 100 K, the combined power spectrum of three lowest energy isomers of NH(4) (+)(H(2)O)(4) and two lowest energy isomers of NH(4) (+)(H(2)O)(6) explains each experimental IR spectrum.

  19. The Carnegie Chicago Hubble Program: The Mid-Infrared Colours of Cepheids and the Effect of Metallicity on the CO Band-Head at 4.6 Micron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scowcroft, Victoria; Seibert, Mark; Freedman, Wendy L.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andrew J.; Rich, Jeffery A.; Rigby, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    We compare mid-infrared (IR) 3.6 and 4.5 micron Warm Spitzer observations for Cepheids in the Milky Way and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Using models, we explore in detail the effect of the CO rotation-vibration band-head at 4.6 micron on the mid-IR photometry. We confirm the temperature sensitivity of the CO band-head at 4.6 micron and find no evidence for an effect at 3.6 micron. We compare the ([3.6]-[4.5]) period-colour relations in the MW, LMC and SMC. The slopes of the period-colour relations for the three galaxies are in good agreement, but there is a trend in zero-point with metallicity, with the lowest metallicity Cepheids having redder mid-IR colours. Finally, we present a colour-[Fe/H] relation based on published spectroscopic metallicities. This empirical relation, calibrated to the metallicity system of Genovali et al., demonstrates that the ([3.6]-[4.5]) colour provides a reliable metallicity indicator for Cepheids, with a precision comparable to current spectroscopic determinations.

  20. Micelle-Assisted Synthesis of Al2O3·CaO Nanocatalyst: Optical Properties and Their Applications in Photodegradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Imtiaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxide (CaO nanoparticles are known to exhibit unique property due to their high adsorption capacity and good catalytic activity. In this work the CaO nanocatalysts were prepared by hydrothermal method using anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, as a templating agent. The as-synthesized nanocatalysts were further used as substrate for the synthesis of alumina doped calcium oxide (Al2O3·CaO nanocatalysts via deposition-precipitation method at the isoelectric point of CaO. The Al2O3·CaO nanocatalysts were characterized by FTIR, XRD, TGA, TEM, and FESEM techniques. The catalytic efficiencies of these nanocatalysts were studied for the photodegradation of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (2,4,6-TNP, which is an industrial pollutant, spectrophotometrically. The effect of surfactant and temperature on size of nanocatalysts was also studied. The smallest particle size and highest percentage of degradation were observed at critical micelle concentration of the surfactant. The direct optical band gap of the Al2O3·CaO nanocatalyst was found as 3.3 eV.