WorldWideScience

Sample records for k-12 school-age children

  1. School-age children development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002017.htm School-age children development To use the sharing features on this page, ... of children ages 6 to 12. Information PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT School-age children most often have smooth and strong motor skills. ...

  2. Parenting School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Parenting School-Age Children Page Content Article Body During ... in her achievements. This can contribute to her self-esteem, not only because of her accomplishments in the ...

  3. Seizure Management for School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frueh, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    As many as 325,000 school-age children, ages 5-14, have epilepsy in the U.S. Thankfully, with medication, surgery, a special diet or vagus nerve stimulation, most go to school and fully participate in school activities. Children who continue to have seizures, however, may run into problems. Many of these problems can be overcome or prevented…

  4. Families with School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  5. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  6. HOARSENESS AMONG SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šifrer

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has been reported to be from 7.1% to 23.3% and in adolescents from 0 to 80%. In Slovenia, the study on prevalence of dysphonia in schoolchildren has not been performed yet.Methods. The voice samples of 100 4th-graders and 102 8thgraders of elementary school were recorded. A lay judge and a professional assessed independently degree of hoarseness in the voice samples. One to three months after the recording, the dysphonic children were invited to an otorhinolaryngologic examination in order to find out the cause of dysphonia. All children and their parents answered the questionnaires on illnesses and vocal habits that might cause hoarseness. The prevalence of these unfavourable factors was compared between the group of children with long lasting hoarseness and the children without it.Results. At voice samples’ recording there were 34.2% dysphonic children. One to three months later, there were still 14.9% children with hoarse voice. The most frequent causes for acute dysphonia were acute respiratory infection and exacerbation of chronic laryngitis. The most frequent causes for persistent dysphonia were allergic catarrhal laryngitis, muscle tension dysphonia with or without vocal nodules and mutational voice disorder. The fast speaking rate appeared to be characteristic for children with long lasting dysphonia.Conclusions. Dysphonia in school-age children is the result of diseases of upper respiratory tract and/or functional voice disorders. Both causes of dysphonia could be successfully treated if they are detected early and the children are advised to see an otorhinolaryngologist. Adolescence is an ideal period for treatment of functional voice disorders. It is also the period when the children must decide for their future profession.

  7. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  8. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  9. Families with school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  10. Oral Health: What Parents Can Do: School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Oral Health What Parents Can Do: School Age Children Past ... offices, clinics, and sometimes in schools. Read More "Oral Health" Articles Children's Dental Health / What Parents Can Do: ...

  11. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... on children's family characteristics, parents' socio-economic characteristics; and their dietary habits.

  12. Chronic Respiratory Diseases of School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, John P.

    1976-01-01

    The author examines the problems of chronic respiratory disease in school-age children from a medical viewpoint, including recognition and diagnosis, commonly encountered diseases, their effect on participation in physical exercise, emotional factors, medication, and emergency care. (MB)

  13. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  14. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  15. intestinal helminthiasis among malnourished school age children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parasitic and mental development of children who are most vulnerable, (2) .... in both male and female school children compared with a marked ... irrespective of the sex - an indicator of nutritional instability (P<0.05). AGE ..... its role in iron deficiency in .African children ... Physical activity and growth of Kenya school children.

  16. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  17. Self-Control in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts between immediately rewarding activities and more enduringly valued goals abound in the lives of school-age children. Such conflicts call upon children to exercise self-control, a competence that depends in part on the mastery of metacognitive, prospective strategies. The "process model of self-control" organizes these…

  18. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2012 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…

  19. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Naserbakht; Mitra Hakim Shooshtari; Maryam Rasoulain; Mohammad Salehi; Mirfarhad Ghalebandi; Mohammad Hosien Salarifar

    2011-01-01

    "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran). A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmar...

  20. VOCABULARY PROBLEMS OF THE LIGHTLY MENTALLY RETARDED SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna KOSTIC

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The main research objectives are the problems in the vocabulary of school aged, lightly mentally retarded children. Results of the research indicate which are the most important factors that have impact of the vocabulary and language competence of these persons. The research variables are: sex, IQ, chronological age and school age. Comics-like stories were used as an examination instrument in this research. Their interpretation is helpful in determining the vocabulary level of every single examine. At the end of the research some suggestions are presented, whose goal is to enrich children's vocabulary.

  1. Parental perception and management of school-age children's fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, A R

    1988-05-01

    Fever is a major childhood complaint. Parents have numerous means at their disposal to assess and manage childhood fevers. Previous studies of parents of infants and preschoolers have uncovered parental fears and misconceptions surrounding fever ("fever phobia"). A study of 84 parents of otherwise well school-age children revealed that these misconceptions remain, regardless of the child's age or parental level of education. The nurse practitioner must understand both parental fears and the body-temperature dynamics of children to successfully access and manage fever in the school-age child.

  2. [Stress in school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, R G

    1994-10-01

    In April 1988, following preliminary research, Notre Dame Elementary School in Edmunston, N.B. initiated a pilot project entitled Management of Children's Stress. Using a three-dimensional process, parents, teachers and students collaborated to empower all students enrolled at the school to effectively manage their day-to-day stress. To prepare, the children, parents and teachers participated in nine- and 15-hour education sessions, respectively. Various techniques, including deep breathing exercises, stretching, relaxation techniques and listening to music, were considered. Visualization, maximizing the mind's potential to envision relaxing images, became the preferred technique. In addition to complementing other relaxation techniques used by the children, visualization facilitated their learning; developed and improved their concentration, motivation and self-confidence; gave them a positive self-image; and reduced health problems. The project has surpassed all expectations. In March 1993, it became part of a Quality of Life Education Project at the school.

  3. Comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder.Methods Sixty-two outpatients in Peking University Institute of Mental Health,aged 6 to 16 years old,meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  4. Sonographic biometry of spleen among school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Background: Normative value of spleen size among school age children is important for objective assessment of the ... subjects were recruited from some primary and secondary schools within Nsukka metropolis and also ... technology have advanced the use of this modality ..... textbook of body measurement for sports and.

  5. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    Child Care and Development Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  6. Factors Influencing Obesity on School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soepardi Soedibyo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available School-aged children of 6-12 year old in big cities have less physical activities and relax life style. Fast food and soft drink consumed contain high calorie and protein of protein and carbohydrate sources. Obesity has impact on children’s growth and development especially on psychosocial aspect. The factors that play a role in supporting the obesity occurrence in children include socio-economic condition, behavior and life style and diet. A cross sectional descriptive –analytic study was conducted on elementary school students in Jakarta, to identify factors that play roles on obesity of school-aged children. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:43-54Keywords: childhood obesity, weight shape index, body mass index

  7. SCHOOL AGED THERAPEUTIC GROUP THERAPY IN CHILDREN- PARENTS AND- TEACHERS INCREASED MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOL-AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Istiana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: School aged called as intelectual time in industrial development stage. Industrial development stage is important in human development stages. The purpose of this tudy was to know the effect of school aged therapeutic group therapy to mental development. Method: The design was quasi experimental pre-post test with control group. One hundred and sixteen children at 9–11 years old were used as sample of this study that divided to 38 children on first intervention group (childparents, 36 children on second intervention group (child-teacher and 40 children on control group. Result: Result of the study showed that cognitive, psychomotor and industrial development ability had increased significantly after therapeutic group therapy was given (p-value < 0.005 in intervention group. Discussion: The study was recomended in child-parents and child-teacher to increase mental development in school aged children.

  8. The development of associate learning in school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T Harel

    Full Text Available Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes.

  9. Optimizing Population Screening of Bullying in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…

  10. DIETARY HABITS OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN IN TBILISI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebonia, N; Trapaidze, D; Kvanchakhadze, R; Zhizhilashvili, S; Kasradze, N

    2015-11-01

    Study Goal was to determine dietary habits in school-aged children. Sampling of children was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, five schools in Nadzaladevi district of city Tbilisi were randomly selected. On the second stage the study groups from the appropriate school-aged students (10-14 years old children) were also randomly selected. All student participants filled out standardized and adopted questionnaires suggested by the American Academy of family physicians. Data were analyzed by using EpiInfo 7th version. Statistical analyses looked at correlations between criteria of unhealthy diet (such as morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. A Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated by using CDC tool. 175 children with ages of 10-14 years (47% boys) were included and interviewed. Half of the children noted that they love or like fast food products. 10% - visits fast food places 2-3 times a week together with a family. 11% - visits fast food places 5 times a week and even more. 34% - do not start morning with breakfast; 15% - eat only twice a day; 26% - add salt to their dishes; 58% - drink non-alcoholic beverages every day or many times during a week; 24% - are overweight; 29% suffer from obesity; 25% noted that fast food places are located near schools. Very weak correlation was found between unhealthy diet (morning without breakfast, frequent consumption of non-alcoholic beverages and fast food products) and overweight/obesity. According to study results, dietary habits of school-age children in Tbilisi is unhealthy; to improve nutritional habits is essential: (1) promote consumer (students, parents and teachers) awareness on a healthy diet, (2) educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices, (3) encourage to raise awareness about the salt consumption in recommended doses in children.

  11. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children With ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD...... in clinical and non-clinical children was examined at the individual level according to three methods previously applied to define EFD, and a fourth method was included to control for the effect of age on performance. Results: Children with ADHD were significantly more impaired on measures of EF than children...... without ADHD at the group level. However, only about 50% of children with ADHD were found to have EFD at the individual level, and results appeared relatively robust across methods applied to define EFD. Conclusion: As a group, children with ADHD displayed more problems on neuropsychological measures...

  12. Evaluation of Obesity in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobashi, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    To prevent obesity in middle age, early precautions and interventions are required during childhood. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the degree of overweight in children. Body mass index (BMI) is widely used worldwide in adults, but not in children. Because standard BMI, which is calculated using the average height and weight for age, changes widely during growth, a constant cut-off point cannot be set for children. An international unified method defining childhood obesity has not been established. In many countries, BMI-for-age percentile (BMI%) value or Z (standard deviation) score is used, whereas in Japan, the percentage of overweight (POW), which is the modified weight-for-height method, is used. We compared BMI% values with POW values obtained using the anthropometric data of elementary and junior high school students based on the Japanese school survey conducted in 2000 and found that the values for the degree of overweight were significantly different between the two methods. It became clear that tall students were easily defined as being overweight, whereas short students tended to be evaluated as being underweight when using BMI%. POW method seemed to be more appropriate than BMI% for school-age children. Abdominal obesity, excess visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is highly associated with obesity-related complications. Waist circumference (WC) is now accepted as an appropriate guide to VAT accumulation. The cut-off value of WC defining excess VAT is 80 cm at the umbilical level in Japanese school-age children. It is not easy to decide the obesity criteria and optimum WC in school-age children. Childhood obesity should be discussed more internationally.

  13. Prevalence of Parasomnia in School aged Children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Naserbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: Parasomnias can create sleep disruption; in this article we assessed parasomnias in school-aged children in Tehran. "nMethods: In spring 2005, a total of 6000 sleep questionnaires were distributed to school-aged children in 5 districts of Tehran (Iran. A modified Pediatrics sleep questionnaire with 34 questions was used. "nResults: Parasomnias varied from 0.5% to 5.7% among the subjects as follows: 2.7% sleep talking, 0.5% sleepwalking, 5.7% bruxism, 2.3% enuresis, and nightmare 4%. A group of children showed parasomnias occasionally- this was 13.1% for sleep talking, 1.4% for sleepwalking, 10.6% for bruxism, 3.1% for enuresis and 18.4% for nightmares. "nConclusion: A high proportion of children starting school suffer from sleep problems. In many cases this is a temporary, developmentally related phenomenon, but in 6% of the children the disorder is more serious and may be connected with various stress factors and further behavioral disturbances.

  14. Serving Hispanic School-Aged Children in after School Programming: Implications for School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joy Pastan

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. school-age population has been experiencing dramatic demographic changes over the past two decades. Hispanic students constitute the fastest growing student group today, and this growth is expected to continue such that there will be more Hispanic school-aged children than non-Hispanic school-aged children in 2050. Unfortunately, Hispanic…

  15. Pre-School Age Visually Impaired Children's Motives for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Gudonis, Vytautas

    2015-01-01

    The article presents longitudinal data of the survey of 212 Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre’s 6–7-year-old pre-school children’s motives to attend school. A brief theoretical analysis of significance of motives for learning in child’s development is displayed. Analysing research results, a positive experience on development of positive motives for school attendance in pre-school age children attending Šiauliai Petras Avižonis Visual Centre is rendered in a generalising way.

  16. Cognitive impairment in school-aged children with early trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker, Joana; Kapczinski, Flavio; Post, Robert; Ceresér, Keila M; Szobot, Claudia; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kapczinski, Natalia S; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to traumatic events during childhood is often associated with the development of psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairment, and poor functioning in adulthood. However, few studies have examined cognitive function, including executive function, memory, and attention, in school-aged children with early trauma compared with age- and sex-matched controls. We recruited 30 medication-naive children between 5 and 12 years of age with a history of early severe trauma from a foster care home, along with 30 age- and sex-matched controls. Psychiatric diagnoses were based on Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS-E) for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria and were confirmed with a clinical interview. The neuropsychologic battery was tailored to assess broad cognitive domains such as learning/working memory, executive function, attention, verbal/premorbid intellectual functioning, and impulsivity. There was a higher prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of childhood trauma, although they rarely met all of the diagnostic criteria for a disorder. Moreover, lower estimated intellectual functioning scores were associated with subsyndromal symptoms in children with a history of trauma, and they performed more poorly on the Digits Span Test of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III Edition, suggesting attention impairment. There is a high prevalence of subsyndromal symptoms in school-aged children with trauma and an attention impairment, which may contribute to a cumulative deficit early in cognitive development. These findings further support the need for early interventions that can prevent cognitive impairment when childhood trauma occurs.

  17. The Cost Burden to Minnesota K-12 when Children Are Unprepared for Kindergarten. [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Richard; Coffee-Borden, Brandon; Anton, Paul; Moore, Christopher; Valorose, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This summary presents highlights of "The Cost Burden to Minnesota K-12 when Children Are Unprepared for Kindergarten" [ED511612]. A number of studies document the long-term public and societal benefits of early childhood education, including the reduced costs associated with child welfare, public assistance, crime and incarceration, and…

  18. INDIVIDUAL TYPICAL FEATURES OF MICROCIRCULATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anosov I. P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the question of primary school age children`s blood microcirculation in dependence on their individual typical features. We examined some 120 healthy children of 6-9 years, which were the students of secondary schools of the city of Melitopol. Anthropometric survey was conducted by the standard measurement scheme of longitudinal chest and weight parameters of the bodies of children. Diagnosis of body type (somatotype was conducted by the method of M. Chernorutskiy. According to the index of physical development - Pine index (PI, the children were divided into three somatic type: asthenic with IP> 30 gipersteni at PI <10 and normostenic type at 10 children of 6-9 years correspond to normoemic type. This pattern doesn’t change with age, and counts about of 51% from prepubertal age children; hypoemic type was registered for 48% of children, hyperemic type – for 1%

  19. Screening school-aged children for risk of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Howell and Davis's (2011) model that predicts whether stuttering in eight-year old children will persist or recover by teenage was adapted for screening school-aged children for risk of stuttering. Stuttering-severity scores were used to predict whether children belonged to fluent or stuttering groups. Predicted group assignments were compared for models in which severity measures were made with whole-word repetitions excluded or included. The best model for distinguishing children who stutter (CWS) from fluent children was validated across a wide range of ages. Stuttering-severity scores from CWS (222 for development, and 272 for validation, of the models) and fluent children (103 for development, and 25 for validation, of the models) were employed. Models were developed that predicted prognosis and screened CWS and fluent children. All these analyses were conducted both with whole-word repetitions excluded and included in the stuttering-severity scores. The model that screened fluent children from all CWS which excluded whole-word repetitions was validated for children across a range of ages. All models achieved around 80% specificity and sensitivity. Models in which whole-word repetitions were excluded were always better than those which included them. Validation of the screening for fluency with whole-word repetitions excluded classified 84.4% of fluent children, and 88.0% of CWS, correctly. Some of these children differed in age from those used to develop the model. Howell and Davis's risk factor model for predicting persistence/recovery can be extended to screen school-aged children for fluency. After reading this article, participants will be able to: (1) describe the difference between finding group differences and risk factor modeling in stuttering research; (2) summarize the strengths and weaknesses of stuttering severity instrument version three; (3) discuss how validation of diagnostic and screening models for fluency can be performed; (4) see how risk

  20. Epidemiology of enuresis among school-age children in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansakunachai, Tippawan; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Sombuntham, Tasnawat; Kotchabhakdi, Nittaya

    2005-10-01

    Enuresis is a very common developmental problem in young children. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of enuresis in school-age children, to determine the factors associated with nocturnal enuresis, and to evaluate the parental strategies for managing enuresis. A randomly selected cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in eight elementary schools in Bangkok, Thailand. A total of 3453 parents of children aged 5 through 15 years completed the questionnaires. The overall response rate to the questionnaire was 70%. The prevalence of enuresis was 4.2% and that of nocturnal enuresis was 3.9%. The prevalence declined with increasing age from 10%, 5.3%, 3%, and 1.2% at ages 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, respectively. There was no enuretic child at ages 13 through 15 years. The prevalence of bed-wetting was slightly more frequent in females than males. Nocturnal enuresis was also found to be significantly associated with the history of encopresis and positive family history of enuresis. There was no significant associated with parental education, birth order, socioeconomic status, diaper use, toilet training, and behavioral and school problems. Behavioral techniques mostly used by parents for management of their children with bed-wetting were ensuring that the child voids before bedtime (72.9%), waking the child up at night to void (61.8%), and evening water intake restriction (28.5%). The overall prevalence rate of nocturnal enuresis in Bangkok school-age children is lower than that of many previous studies reported from other countries. The significant differences in the prevalence reported by other countries' studies attributed to the criteria selection for ranges of age, definition of enuresis, genetic predisposition, and traditional and cultural background.

  1. Alterations in neural connectivity in preterm children at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozzo, Yeisid; Vohr, Betty; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Katz, Karol H; Maller-Kesselman, Jill; Schneider, Karen C; Peterson, Bradley S; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Makuch, Robert W; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2009-11-01

    Converging data suggest recovery from injury in the preterm brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that cerebral connectivity involving Wernicke's area and other important cortical language regions would differ between preterm (PT) and term (T) control school age children during performance of an auditory language task. Fifty-four PT children (600-1250 g birth weight) and 24 T controls were evaluated using an fMRI passive language task and neurodevelopmental assessments including: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC-III), the Peabody Individual Achievement Test - Revised (PIAT-R) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R) at 8 years of age. Neural activity was assessed for language processing and the data were evaluated for connectivity and correlations to cognitive outcomes. We found that PT subjects scored significantly lower on all components of the WISC-III (p<0.009), the PIAT-R Reading Comprehension test (p=0.013), and the PPVT-R (p=0.001) compared to term subjects. Connectivity analyses revealed significantly stronger neural circuits in PT children between Wernicke's area and the right inferior frontal gyrus (R IFG, Broca's area homologue) and both the left and the right supramarginal gyri (SMG) components of the inferior parietal lobules (pschool age differently than T controls; these alterations may represent a delay in maturation of neural networks or the engagement of alternate circuits for language processing.

  2. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  3. Dynamics of Learning Motivation in Early School Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhireyeva T.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of a longitudinal study on learning motivation in children of early school age. The aim was to reveal the leading motives in first, second, third and fourth grades and to explore the dynamics of some learning motives in children over the whole period of elementary school. As it was found, the learning activity in the children was mostly motivated by social motives, among which the leading ones were the motives of selfdetermination and wellbeing. As for learning motives, over the course of all four years the children were for the most part motivated by the content of the learning activity, and not by its process. The dynamics of certain social motives of the learning activity varied across the sample, with some going through the periods of increase and decrease and others having a oneway dynamics. The study also revealed a decrease in the motivation rooted in the learning activity itself between the second and third year; at the same time, in the second, third and fourth years the children were more motivated by the content of the learning activity than by its process

  4. Profiling oral narrative ability in young school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if oral narrative comprehension and production measures derived in a fictional story retelling task could be used to create a profile of strengths and weaknesses in oral narrative ability (Profile of Oral Narrative Ability: PONA) in young school-aged children. The story retelling task was field-tested with 169 typically developing children, aged between 5;0 and 7;6 years. Children listened twice to an unfamiliar story while looking at the pictures in a book. Comprehension questions were asked after the first exposure. Following the second exposure, children were asked to retell the story without the use of the pictures. Story retellings were analysed on measures of semantics, morphosyntax, verbal productivity, and narrative quality. Results indicated sensitivity for age on measures of comprehension, narrative quality, semantics, and verbal productivity, but not for morphosyntactic measures. Factor analysis indicated that oral narrative performance comprised three factors, explaining more than 80% of the variance. Two clinical case examples are presented, which show the potential of the PONA to reveal different patterns of strengths and weaknesses across the oral narrative measures. Although early evidence suggests the potential usefulness of the PONA, further research is now needed to test the validity, reliability and clinical application of this tool.

  5. Dynamic drawing characteristics of preschool and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Andrijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to determine developmental characteristics of dynamic drawings of preschool and younger school age children. The sample consists of 90 typical developed children, aged between 6 and 9. The sample includes 47 (52.2% girls and 43 (47.8% boys from preschool institutions and elementary schools in Pirot and Belgrade. Action representation in dynamic drawings was evaluated using three types of drawings: a man who runs, a man shooting a ball and a man lifting a ball from the floor. We determined that a very small number of the respondents reaches the highest level of graphical representation of figures in motion, and that girl’s achievements are better than boy’s achievements. However, this result is on the border of statistical significance (p=0.052. Also, there is a statistically significant trend of progress to higher levels of action representation (p=0.000 with the increase in chronological age of the respondents.

  6. A longitudinal investigation of children internationally adopted at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Emily J; Mulder, Elizabeth; Gunnoe, Marjorie Linder

    2016-01-01

    Most existing research on children adopted internationally has focused on those adopted as infants and toddlers. The current study longitudinally tracked several outcomes, including cognitive, behavioral, emotional, attachment, and family functioning, in 25 children who had been internationally adopted at school age (M = 7.7 years old at adoption, SD = 3.4, range = 4–15 years). We examined the incidence of clinically significant impairments, significant change in outcomes over the three study points, and variables that predicted outcomes over time. Clinically significant impairments in sustained attention, full-scale intelligence, reading, language, executive functioning, externalizing problems, and parenting stress were common, with language and executive functioning impairments present at higher levels in the current study compared with past research focusing on children adopted as infants and toddlers. Over the three study points, significant improvements across most cognitive areas and attachment functioning were observed, though significant worsening in executive functioning and internalizing problems was present. Adoptive family-specific variables, such as greater maternal education, smaller family size, a parenting approach that encouraged age-expected behaviors, home schooling, and being the sole adopted child in the family were associated with greater improvement across several cognitive outcomes. In contrast, decreased parenting stress was predicted by having multiple adopted children and smaller family sizes were associated with greater difficulties with executive functioning. Child-specific variables were also linked to outcomes, with girls displaying worse attachment and poorer cognitive performance and with less time in orphanage care resulting in greater adoption success. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  7. Language growth in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, the results of a longitudinal study of two age-groups of Dutch-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and an intervention study examining a metalinguistic approach for older school-age children with SLI are reported. Grammatical development of school-age chil

  8. Use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the prevention of streptococcal and viral pharyngotonsillitis in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Colombo, Maria; Zanvit, Alberto; Risso, Paolo; Rottoli, Amilcare S

    2014-01-01

    Background Streptococcus salivarius K12 is an oral probiotic strain releasing two lantibiotics (salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B) that antagonize the growth of S. pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans also affected by episodes of acute otitis media. S. salivarius K12 successfully colonizes the oral cavity, and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. We tested its preventive role in reducing the incidence of both streptococcal and viral pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis in children. Materials and methods We enrolled 61 children with a diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal disorders. Thirty-one of them were enrolled to be treated daily for 90 days with a slow-release tablet for oral use, containing no less than 1 billion colony-forming units/tablet of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®), and the remaining 30 served as the untreated control group. During treatment, they were all examined for streptococcal infection. Twenty children (ten per group) were also assessed in terms of viral infection. Secondary end points in both groups were the number of days under antibiotic and antipyretic therapy and the number of days off school (children) and off work (parents). Results The 30 children who completed the 90-day trial with Bactoblis® showed a significant reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (>90%), as calculated by comparing the infection rates of the previous year. No difference was observed in the control group. The treated group showed a significant decrease in the incidence (80%) of oral viral infections. Again, there was no difference in the control group. With regard to secondary end points, the number of days under antibiotic treatment of the treated and control groups were 30 and 900 respectively, days under antipyretic treatment 16 and 228, days of absence from school 16 and 228, and days of absence from work 16 and 228. The product was well tolerated by the subjects, with no side effects

  9. Use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the prevention of streptococcal and viral pharyngotonsillitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Colombo, Maria; Zanvit, Alberto; Risso, Paolo; Rottoli, Amilcare S

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius K12 is an oral probiotic strain releasing two lantibiotics (salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B) that antagonize the growth of S. pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans also affected by episodes of acute otitis media. S. salivarius K12 successfully colonizes the oral cavity, and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. We tested its preventive role in reducing the incidence of both streptococcal and viral pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis in children. We enrolled 61 children with a diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal disorders. Thirty-one of them were enrolled to be treated daily for 90 days with a slow-release tablet for oral use, containing no less than 1 billion colony-forming units/tablet of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®), and the remaining 30 served as the untreated control group. During treatment, they were all examined for streptococcal infection. Twenty children (ten per group) were also assessed in terms of viral infection. Secondary end points in both groups were the number of days under antibiotic and antipyretic therapy and the number of days off school (children) and off work (parents). The 30 children who completed the 90-day trial with Bactoblis® showed a significant reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (>90%), as calculated by comparing the infection rates of the previous year. No difference was observed in the control group. The treated group showed a significant decrease in the incidence (80%) of oral viral infections. Again, there was no difference in the control group. With regard to secondary end points, the number of days under antibiotic treatment of the treated and control groups were 30 and 900 respectively, days under antipyretic treatment 16 and 228, days of absence from school 16 and 228, and days of absence from work 16 and 228. The product was well tolerated by the subjects, with no side effects, and only one individual reported bad

  10. Participative Teaching with Mobile Devices and Social Networks for K-12 Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article details a set of participatory pedagogical experiments conducted within a research grant PN II IDEI (”Time Maps. Real communities, virtual worlds, experimented pasts” performed with the purpose of helping rural communities in identifying their cultural heritage andtransmitting it to the younger generations by means of modern IT technologies, including web 2.0. In a Danubian rural community, several points of archaeological interest (POIs were identified, which were then included in a geographic Augmented Reality application for smartphones and tablets. Subsequently, the geographic data were collected from the archaeological site by the K-12 children, under the coordination of an academic staff member of the National University of Arts in Bucharest, and stored on their devices using Google Maps. The augmented information provided onthe site was annotated and shared with other K-12 children, through different social networks sites (SNS and content postings. This first stage experiment was extended to the development of a social learning environment complementary to the educational site (www.timemaps.net to support thetransmission of several traditional technologies (textile, ceramic, glass in a collaborative manner. We consider that our experiments can significantly increase the visibility of the information pertaining to the identity of target places and communities among the younger generation. A mobile-learning paradigm, in combination with web 2.0 technologies, was the support for a distributed and low-cost platform for communication and collaboration. Social networks linked thearchaeological heritage and the academic research with the larger community of rural K-12 children. The article analyzes this platform as a solution for creating, collecting and sharingeducational content, and presents conclusions on using social media for effective blended learning and transmittal of the cultural heritage.

  11. Participative Teaching with Mobile Devices and Social Networks for K-12 Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article details a set of participatory pedagogical experiments conducted within a research grant PN II IDEI (”Time Maps. Real communities, virtual worlds, experimented pasts” performed with the purpose of helping rural communities in identifying their cultural heritage andtransmitting it to the younger generations by means of modern IT technologies, including web 2.0. In a Danubian rural community, several points of archaeological interest (POIs were identified, which were then included in a geographic Augmented Reality application for smartphones and tablets. Subsequently, the geographic data were collected from the archaeological site by the K-12 children, under the coordination of an academic staff member of the National University of Arts in Bucharest, and stored on their devices using Google Maps. The augmented information provided onthe site was annotated and shared with other K-12 children, through different social networks sites (SNS and content postings. This first stage experiment was extended to the development of a social learning environment complementary to the educational site (www.timemaps.net to support thetransmission of several traditional technologies (textile, ceramic, glass in a collaborative manner. We consider that our experiments can significantly increase the visibility of the information pertaining to the identity of target places and communities among the younger generation. A mobile-learning paradigm, in combination with web 2.0 technologies, was the support for a distributed and low-cost platform for communication and collaboration. Social networks linked thearchaeological heritage and the academic research with the larger community of rural K-12 children. The article analyzes this platform as a solution for creating, collecting and sharingeducational content, and presents conclusions on using social media for effective blended learning and transmittal of the cultural heritage.

  12. Use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the prevention of streptococcal and viral pharyngotonsillitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Maria Colombo,2 Alberto Zanvit,3 Paolo Risso,4 Amilcare S Rottoli5 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milan, 2Pediatric Department, University of Parma, Parma, 3Stomatology Institute, Milan, 4Laboratory of Epidemiology and Social Psychiatry, Mario Negri Institute, Milan, 5Pediatric Department, Uboldo Hospital, Cernusco sul Naviglio, Italy Background: Streptococcus salivarius K12 is an oral probiotic strain releasing two lantibiotics (salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B that antagonize the growth of S. pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans also affected by episodes of acute otitis media. S. salivarius K12 successfully colonizes the oral cavity, and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. We tested its preventive role in reducing the incidence of both streptococcal and viral pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis in children. Materials and methods: We enrolled 61 children with a diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal disorders. Thirty-one of them were enrolled to be treated daily for 90 days with a slow-release tablet for oral use, containing no less than 1 billion colony-forming units/tablet of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®, and the remaining 30 served as the untreated control group. During treatment, they were all examined for streptococcal infection. Twenty children (ten per group were also assessed in terms of viral infection. Secondary end points in both groups were the number of days under antibiotic and antipyretic therapy and the number of days off school (children and off work (parents. Results: The 30 children who completed the 90-day trial with Bactoblis® showed a significant reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (>90%, as calculated by comparing the infection rates of the previous year. No difference was observed in the control group. The treated group showed a significant decrease in the incidence (80% of oral viral infections. Again

  13. Functional outcome at school age of preterm-born children treated with high-dose dexamethasone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitzert, Marrit M.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. A.; de Bok, Marijn; Maathuis, Carel G. B.; Roze, Elise; Bos, Arend F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postnatal dexamethasone (DXM) treatment is associated with adverse motor outcome. It is largely unknown as to what extent functional outcome at school age is affected. Aims: Our first aim was to determine motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm-born children tr

  14. Anemia and associated factors among school-age children in Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anemia and associated factors among school-age children in Cape Verde, West Africa. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Prevention and control programs for this disease should be implemented in ...

  15. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mahram, Manoochehr; Hosseinkhani, Zahra; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Aflatouni, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran. Methods In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was st...

  16. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  17. Sleep Patterns of School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Sleep patterns of 32 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) were compared to those of 32 typically developing age- and gender-matched children, using parent survey and one week of diary and actigraphic monitoring. Parents of children with AS/HFA more commonly reported that their children had difficulty…

  18. Speaking Rate Characteristics of Elementary-School-Aged Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Kenneth J.; Byrd, Courtney T.; Mazzocchi, Elizabeth M.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare articulation and speech rates of school-aged children who do and do not stutter across sentence priming, structured conversation, and narration tasks and to determine factors that predict children's speech and articulation rates. Method: 34 children who stutter (CWS) and 34 age- and gender-matched children who do not stutter…

  19. The national cost of asthma among school-aged children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick W; Ghushchyan, Vahram; Navaratnam, Prakash; Friedman, Howard S; Kavati, Abhishek; Ortiz, Benjamin; Lanier, Bob

    2017-09-01

    Recent research has quantified the national health care resource use (HCRU) and health care expenditure (HCE) burden associated with adult asthma; however, estimates specific to school-aged children are more than 2 decades old. To estimate the national HCRU and HCEs attributable to asthma among school-aged children in the United States. This was a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of school-aged children (aged 6-17 years) in the nationally representative 2007-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. All-cause HCRU and HCEs of school-aged children with asthma were compared with school-aged children without asthma, controlling for sociodemographics and comorbidities. HCRU encounters included emergency department (ED) and outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and prescriptions. Expenditures included total, medical, ED, inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy. Negative binomial regression analyses were used for HCRU and Heckman selection with logarithmic transformation, and smearing retransformation was used for HCEs. There were 44,320 school-aged children of whom 5,890 had asthma. Children with asthma incurred a higher rate of all-cause annual ED visits (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.5; P children without asthma. They incurred US$847 (2015 dollars) more annually in all-cause expenditures (P asthma for school-aged children in the United States was US$5.92 billion (2015 dollars). Childhood asthma continues to represent a prevalent and significant clinical and economic burden in the United States. More aggressive treatment and asthma management programs are needed to address this national financial and resource burden. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Syllable-Timed Speech Treatment for School-Age Children Who Stutter: A Phase I Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Cheryl; O'Brian, Sue; Harrison, Elisabeth; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical trial determined the outcomes of a simple syllable-timed speech (STS) treatment for school-age children who stutter. Method: Participants were 10 children, ages 6-11 years, who stutter. Treatment involved training the children and their parents to use STS at near normal speech rates. The technique was practiced in the clinic…

  1. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  2. Attention and Memory in School-Age Children Surviving the Terrorist Attack in Beslan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of terrorism on children's cognitive functioning and school learning. The primary purpose of this study was to report on cognitive functioning among school-age children 20 months after a terrorist attack against their school. Participants included 203 directly and indirectly exposed children from Beslan and 100…

  3. Writing and Drawing Performance of School Age Children: Is There Any Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoti, Fotini; Vlachos, Filippos; Metallidou, Panagiota

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate possible relationships between writing and drawing performance of school-aged children, in order to compare the two skills at the within-individual level. The sample consisted of 182 right- and left-handed children, aged 8 to 12 years. Children were examined by the Greek adaptation of the Luria-Nebraska…

  4. Assessing attachment in school-aged children: Do the School-Age Assessment of Attachment and Family Drawings work together as complementary tools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Hopkins, Rebecca; De Burca, Calem; Aldridge, Felicity A

    2017-07-01

    Our goal was to identify an assessment package that could improve treatment planning for troubled children and their families. To assess the validity of our tools, we tested the relations among the School-Age Assessment of Attachment, the Family Drawing and children's risk status. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of Attachment and Adaptation to interpret the assessments in the hope of identifying a gradient of risk, and explore whether a new coding method improved the validity of Family Drawings and their utility as a tool to complement the School-Age Assessment of Attachment. The participants were 89 children, aged between 5 and 12 years; 32 children were involved with mental health services or child protection. Each child completed a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and a Family Drawing. Both assessments differentiated between clinical and normative referrals with moderate effect sizes when dichotomizing risk versus non-risk attachment. When the analysis incorporated a gradient of six attachment classifications, the effect sizes decreased, but specificity of risk increased. The School-Age Assessment of Attachment had greater validity for discriminating risk, and type of risk, than the Family Drawings. With a School-Age Assessment of Attachment and family history, the Family Drawing can provide information about distress that some children do not provide verbally. Integration of the two assessment tools alongside information about parental and family functioning appears to be the key to formulating children's problems.

  5. Influence of broadcasting on Aggressive Behaviour of Younger School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    RAJNOVÁ, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is aimed at influence of broadcasting on the level of aggressive behaviour of younger school-aged children. The basic concepts are explained in general terms; the basic way aggressive behaviour and mass media can be divided is given; psyche of a younger school-aged child is explained; television violence, its forms and both negative and positive effects and health consequences of excessive television-watching are described and prevention of adverse ffects of TV programmes on childr...

  6. Influence of broadcasting on Aggressive Behaviour of Younger School-Aged Children

    OpenAIRE

    RAJNOVÁ, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is aimed at influence of broadcasting on the level of aggressive behaviour of younger school-aged children. The basic concepts are explained in general terms; the basic way aggressive behaviour and mass media can be divided is given; psyche of a younger school-aged child is explained; television violence, its forms and both negative and positive effects and health consequences of excessive television-watching are described and prevention of adverse ffects of TV programmes on childr...

  7. Positive clinical outcomes derived from using Streptococcus salivarius K12 to prevent streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis in children: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Colombo, Maria; Zanvit, Alberto; Rottoli, Amilcare S

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12(®)) is a probiotic strain producing the bacteriocins salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B, both of which strongly antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. It successfully colonizes and exhibits persistence in the oral cavity and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. Previous observations of a small group of children indicated that the use of BLIS K12 could also reduce the occurrence of viral pharyngitis. The present study focused on a further evaluation of the role of BLIS K12 in the control of pediatric streptococcal disease and moreover whether its use could also help provide protection against various nonstreptococcal infections. In total, 48 children with a recent history of recurrent pharyngeal streptococcal disease were enrolled in the treated group. The control group comprised 76 children known to have had a very low recent occurrence of oral streptococcal disease. The treated children were given BLIS K12 daily for 90 days. The number of episodes of streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis, tracheitis, viral pharyngitis, rhinitis, flu, laryngitis, acute otitis media, enteritis, and stomatitis was recorded during probiotic treatment and for a follow-up period of 9 months, and this was compared with the episodes of the control group over the corresponding period. Compared with the pretreatment time period, 2013, a 90% reduction of streptococcal pharyngeal disease was observed in 2014; compared with untreated children, a statistically significant reduction of all of the other disease conditions assessed, other than stomatitis, was detected in the probiotic-treated children. In agreement with previous findings, in the present study, it was found that the daily use of BLIS K12 has been associated with a concurrent and persisting reduction in the occurrence of pharyngeal, recurrent, streptococcal disease. Moreover, the benefits to children may also

  8. Perception of Speech Sounds in School-Aged Children with Speech Sound Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L; Irwin, Julia R; Turcios, Jacqueline

    2015-11-01

    Children with speech sound disorders may perceive speech differently than children with typical speech development. The nature of these speech differences is reviewed with an emphasis on assessing phoneme-specific perception for speech sounds that are produced in error. Category goodness judgment, or the ability to judge accurate and inaccurate tokens of speech sounds, plays an important role in phonological development. The software Speech Assessment and Interactive Learning System, which has been effectively used to assess preschoolers' ability to perform goodness judgments, is explored for school-aged children with residual speech errors (RSEs). However, data suggest that this particular task may not be sensitive to perceptual differences in school-aged children. The need for the development of clinical tools for assessment of speech perception in school-aged children with RSE is highlighted, and clinical suggestions are provided. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Is Rural School-aged Children's Quality of Life Affected by Their Responses to Asthma?

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Sharon D.; Brown, Sharon A.; Walker, Veronica García

    2011-01-01

    The unpredictable nature of asthma makes it stressful for children and can affect their quality of life. An exploratory analysis of 183 rural school-aged children's data was conducted to determine relationships among demographic factors, children's responses to asthma (coping, asthma self-management), and their quality of life (QOL). Coping frequency, asthma severity, and race/ethnicity significantly predicted children's asthma-related QOL. Children reported more frequent coping as asthma-rel...

  10. Biological age as a basis for determining prenozological states in elementary school-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omelchenko T.G.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of determining the biological age (BA in elementary school-age children as an important criterion for prenozological diagnostics is justified from the theoretical as well as practical prospective. The classification of prenozological states based on the BA is presented. The experiment features data of 159 children aged 7-10 years. Analyses of the obtained mean functional age (FA data shows deviation from the calendar age (CA in all age and gender groups which enables to diagnose prenozological state of elementary school-age children.

  11. Health-related quality of life of school- age children with rheumatic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essawy, Magda A E; Bahgat, Zebaida S; Kassem, Hamama A

    2010-01-01

    Rheumatic fever (RF) is a major public health problem and it is an important cause of acquired cardiovascular disease in childhood and adolescence. The goal of effective management of rheumatic fever is to allow children with RF to function with minimal restrictions and enjoy a good quality of life(QOL) throughout their lives. The aim of this study was to identify the health-related quality of life of school- age children with rheumatic fever. A convenient sample of 100 school-age children with rheumatic fever and their mothers were selected from outpatient clinic and inpatient pediatric cardiac departments of EL-Shatby Children University Hospital, Alexandria, Egypt. Data was collected from children in the previously mentioned settings who fulfil the following criteria, the children's age ranged from 8 to 12 years & free from any associated disease. Two tools were used in Clinical Data of Rheumatic School-Age Children Questionnaire that was developed by the researcher and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory scale (Peds QL). The majority (78.3%) of school-age children with rheumatic fever had a neutral HRQOL and less than a quarter of them had high HRQOL. Only small percent (8.7%) of studied subjects had poor HRQOL. Children's parents' reports confirmed such results, where there were a significant positive correlations between children reports and their parents reports in the majority of studied items of HRQOL regarding rheumatic fever. Health education program for school-age children who had rheumatic fever and their parents towards the different measures of high HRQOL is recommended to help those children to improve their quality of life.

  12. Reducing Listening-Related Stress in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Gary; Chisari, Donella; Saunders, Kerryn; Rault, Jean-Loup

    2017-01-01

    High levels of stress and anxiety are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Within this study of school-aged children (20 male, 6 female) we hypothesised that functional hearing deficits (also pervasive in ASD) could be ameliorated by auditory interventions and that, as a consequence, stress levels would be reduced. The use of…

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in School-Aged Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, E.; Manders, E.; Swillen, A.; Zink, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Method: Twelve monolingual…

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in School-Aged Children with Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, E.; Manders, E.; Swillen, A.; Zink, I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Method: Twelve monolingual…

  15. Motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments (VI). Children with VI are at risk of poor motor skill performance, as vision guides and controls the acquisition, differentiation, and automatization of motor skills. Yet though the presence or absence

  16. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  17. Dietary Diversity as a Correlate of Undernutrition among School-Age Children in Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumakaiye, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the association between undernutrition and dietary diversity among school-age children in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 600 school children were randomly selected from six private and six public schools in the region. A standardized FAO-published 24-hour diet recall…

  18. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  19. Screen-Related Sedentary Behaviours of School-Aged Children: Principals' and Teachers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meizi; Piche, Leonard; Beynon, Charlene; Kurtz, Joanne; Harris, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To solicit school principals' and teachers' perspectives on children's screen-related sedentary behaviour and to identify possible solutions to reduce sedentary behaviours among school-aged children. Method: In-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were conducted with school principals and grades five and six…

  20. School Nurse Interventions in Managing Functional Urinary Incontinence in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Charisse L.

    2010-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary incontinence (UI) in school-age children is a prevalent yet underrecognized problem that has remained in the shadow of other concerns commonly perceived as more prominent or urgent. There is good evidence that functional UI in children can be treated and managed effectively. When there is no structural or neurologic…

  1. A Twin-Study of Sleep Difficulties in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines frequency, overlap, and genetic and environmental influences on sleep difficulties, which are understudied in school-aged children. The Sleep Self Report and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were completed by 300 twin pairs (aged 8 years) and their parents. Child report suggested more frequent sleep problems than…

  2. Joint-Attention and the Social Phenotype of School-Aged Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Novotny, Stephanie; Swain-Lerro, Lindsey; McIntyre, Nancy; Zajic, Matt; Oswald, Tasha

    2017-01-01

    The validity of joint attention assessment in school-aged children with ASD is unclear (Lord, Jones, "Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry" 53(5):490-509, 2012). This study examined the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of joint attention related behaviors in verbal children and adolescents with ASD. Fifty-two…

  3. Developing Physiologic Stress Profiles for School-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Aishah Y.; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Physiologic reactivity profiles were generated for 9 school-age children with a history of stuttering. Utilizing salivary sampling, stress biomarkers cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured in response to normal daily stressors. Children with a history of stuttering were characterized as high or low autonomic reactors when compared to…

  4. Sleep and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time…

  5. Motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments (VI). Children with VI are at risk of poor motor skill performance, as vision guides and controls the acquisition, differentiation, and automatization of motor skills. Yet though the presence or absence

  6. Speech Disfluency in School-Age Children's Conversational and Narrative Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Logan, Kenneth J.; Gillam, Ronald B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to (a) compare the speech fluency of school-age children who do and do not stutter (CWS and CWNS, respectively) within 2 standard diagnostic speaking contexts (conversation and narration) while also controlling for speaking topic, and (b) examine the extent to which children's performance on such discourse tasks is…

  7. Communication Profile of Primary School-Aged Children with Foetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Lea Aulikki; Olsén, Päivi; Mäkikallio, Kaarin; Korkalainen, Noora; Heikkinen, Hanna; Heikkinen, Minna; Yliherva, Anneli

    2017-01-01

    Foetal growth restriction is associated with problems in neurocognitive development. In the present study, prospectively collected cohorts of foetal growth restricted (FGR) and appropriate for gestational age grown (AGA) children were examined at early school-age by using the Children's Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2) to test the hypothesis that…

  8. Intensity of ADHD Symptoms and Subjective Feelings of Competence in School Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…

  9. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  10. Verbal Working Memory and Story Retelling in School-Age Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined verbal working memory and language ability in 15 school-age children with autism using 3 verbal working memory tasks and 1 story recall task. Method: Three measures of verbal working memory--nonword repetition, memory for digits span, and sentence imitation--were given to children with autism and age-matched controls.…

  11. Prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children and it's association with children's sociodemographic and lifestyle in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Syahrul

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight and overweight among school-aged children in Makassar, Indonesia is high. These conditions are associated with the sociodemographic characteristics of children and parents, as well as the lifestyle of children. Parental characteristics and children's lifestyle should be considered when planning prevention and intervention programs for underweight or overweight children.

  12. Prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders in school-aged children in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablah, R; Velasco-Benítez, C A; Merlos, I; Bonilla, S; Saps, M

    2015-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in school-aged Salvadoran children using standardized diagnostic criteria. To determine the prevalence of FGIDs in school-aged children in El Salvador. A total of 395 children participated in the study (one public school and one private school). School children completed the Spanish version of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III (QPGS-III), an age-appropriate and previously validated instrument for diagnosing FGIDs according to the Rome III criteria. Sociodemographic (age, sex, type of school) and familial (family structure and size, family history of gastrointestinal disorders) data were obtained. The mean age of the sample was 11.8 years ± 1.6 SD (median 10, range 8-15) and 59% of the participants were female. Eighty-one children met the diagnostic criteria for a FGID (20%). Defecation disorders were the most common group of FGIDs. Functional constipation was diagnosed in 10% of the children and 9.25% were diagnosed with abdominal pain-related FGIDs (most commonly IBS, 3.75%). IBS overlapped with functional dyspepsia in 11% of the cases. Children with FGIDs frequently reported nausea. Children attending private school and older children had significantly more FGIDs than children in public school and younger children. FGIDs are common in school-aged Salvadoran children. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Positive clinical outcomes derived from using Streptococcus salivarius K12 to prevent streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis in children: a pilot investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Maria Colombo,2 Alberto Zanvit,3 Amilcare S Rottoli,4 1Scientific Department, Velleja Research, Milan, 2Pediatric Department, University of Parma, Parma, 3Stomatology Institute, 4Pediatric Department, Uboldo Hospital, Cernusco S/N, Milan, Italy Background: Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12® is a probiotic strain producing the bacteriocins salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B, both of which strongly antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. It successfully colonizes and exhibits persistence in the oral cavity and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. Previous observations of a small group of children indicated that the use of BLIS K12 could also reduce the occurrence of viral pharyngitis. The present study focused on a further evaluation of the role of BLIS K12 in the control of pediatric streptococcal disease and moreover whether its use could also help provide protection against various nonstreptococcal infections. Methods: In total, 48 children with a recent history of recurrent pharyngeal streptococcal disease were enrolled in the treated group. The control group comprised 76 children known to have had a very low recent occurrence of oral streptococcal disease. The treated children were given BLIS K12 daily for 90 days. The number of episodes of streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis, tracheitis, viral pharyngitis, rhinitis, flu, laryngitis, acute otitis media, enteritis, and stomatitis was recorded during probiotic treatment and for a follow-up period of 9 months, and this was compared with the episodes of the control group over the corresponding period. Results: Compared with the pretreatment time period, 2013, a 90% reduction of streptococcal pharyngeal disease was observed in 2014; compared with untreated children, a statistically significant reduction of all of the other disease conditions assessed, other than stomatitis, was detected

  14. Narrative Development in Preschool and School-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Hegsted, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Children hear and use narratives in a variety of contexts including school, social situations, and at home. A narrative is a form of discourse that is used to tell the listener what happened in a temporally sequenced, agent-focused way, and these stories can be a production of a real or fictional account. Speech language pathologists take a particular interest in children's narrative abilities because children's story telling capabilities play a large role in language acquisition as well as f...

  15. Determinants of under nutrition among school age children in a Nairobi peri-urban slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesire, E J; Orago, A S S; Oteba, L P; Echoka, E

    2008-10-01

    Malnutrition is a major public health concern affecting a significant number of school age children influencing their health, growth and development, and school academic performance. To establish the determinants of under nutrition among school age children between 6-12 years in a low-income urban community. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Kawangware peri-urban slum, Nairobi, Kenya. Three hundred and eighty four school children aged 6-12 years. A total of 4.5% were wasted, 14.9% underweight and 30.2% stunted. The children who were over nine years of age were more underweight (72.4%, p = 0.000) and stunted (77.2%, p = 0.000) than those below eight years. The girls were more wasted (29.1%, p = 0.013) than the boys (18.2%), whereas the boys were more stunted (65.7%, p = 0.003) than the girls (50.7%). The other variables found to have had significant association with the nutritional status of the children were: monthly household income (p = 0.008), food prices (p = 0.012), morbidity trends (p = 0.045), mode of treatment (p = 0.036) and school attendance (p = 0.044). The findings of this study show evidently that there is under nutrition among school age children, with stunting being the most prevalent. The Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health therefore need to develop policies which can alleviate under nutrition among school age children. We also recommend that awareness be created among the school age children, parents and teachers, on the dietary requirements of both boys and girls.

  16. Developmental Coordination Disorder in School-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) in children, at 7 years of age, in a large UK birth cohort was determined using DSM-IV criteria, in a study at the University of Bristol, UK; and Utrecht University, Netherlands.

  17. Determining factors of overweight and obesity in children at school age in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Mispireta, Monica L; Division of Health Sciences, Idaho State University. Idaho, EE.UU. Médico maestra en Ciencias de la Salud.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in children at school age is an increasing problem in Peru. It concentrates in urban areas, mainly in Lima where one out of three children is overweight. An initial study in 80 schools in Lima showed that the lack of physical activity would have a greater impact on overweight and obesity in school children than the amount of food intake. More detailed studies are required. In spite of the limited information available regarding its determining factors, it is necessary to implement...

  18. Language ability, executive functioning and behaviour in school-age children

    OpenAIRE

    Karasinski, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Background Many children with language impairment present with deficits in other areas, including executive functioning (EF), attention and behaviour. Similarly, many children receiving services for attention or behaviour problems have deficits in language ability. Aims To evaluate the relations among EF, language ability and behaviour problems in a sample of school-age children with a wide range of language and behaviour profiles. The following research questions were addressed: Does perform...

  19. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Agata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  20. Media Use in School-Aged Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This policy statement focuses on children and adolescents 5 through 18 years of age. Research suggests both benefits and risks of media use for the health of children and teenagers. Benefits include exposure to new ideas and knowledge acquisition, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health-promotion messages and information. Risks include negative health effects on weight and sleep; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. Parents face challenges in monitoring their children's and their own media use and in serving as positive role models. In this new era, evidence regarding healthy media use does not support a one-size-fits-all approach. Parents and pediatricians can work together to develop a Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that considers their children's developmental stages to individualize an appropriate balance for media time and consistent rules about media use, to mentor their children, to set boundaries for accessing content and displaying personal information, and to implement open family communication about media.

  1. Altered Gray Matter Volume and School Age Anxiety in Children Born Late Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Barch, Deanna M; Sylvester, Chad M; Pagliaccio, David; Harms, Michael P; Botteron, Kelly N; Luby, Joan L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if late preterm (LP) children differ from full term (FT) children in volumes of the cortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum, or amygdala and whether these differences are associated with anxiety symptoms at school-age. Study design LP children born between 34 and 36 weeks gestation and FT children born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation from a larger longitudinal cohort had MRI scans at school-age. Brain volumes, cortical surface area and thickness measures were obtained. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview annually beginning at preschool-age and following the MRI. Results LP children (n=21) had a smaller percentage of total, right parietal, and right temporal lobe gray matter volume than FT children (n=87). There were no differences in hippocampal, callosal, or amygdala volumes or cortical thickness. LP children also had a relative decrease in right parietal lobe cortical surface area. LP children had greater anxiety symptoms over all assessments. The relationship between late prematurity and school-age anxiety symptoms was mediated by the relative decrease in right temporal lobe volume. Conclusion LP children, comprising 70% of preterm children, are also at increased risk for altered brain development particularly in the right temporal and parietal cortices. Alterations in the right temporal lobe cortical volume may underlie the increased rate of anxiety symptoms among these LP children. These findings suggest that LP delivery may disrupt temporal and parietal cortical development that persists until school-age with the right temporal lobe conferring risk for elevated anxiety symptoms. PMID:25108541

  2. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    based on the NND increased WC, AFM:TFM in intention-to-treat analyses and in completers-analysis also FMI compared with control in 8-11-yearold children, while no effects were seen on height, BMI z-score and FFMI. Effects were not dependent of initial BMI, and adjustment for physical activity, pubertal...... of contemporary Danish children. We did find the “classical” height velocity peak during spring, but unlike many earlier studies this was coincident with peaks in BW, BMI and FFMI velocities. Seasonal variation in physical activity may explain seasonal variations in BW and body composition velocities. Taken...... on energy metabolism and body fat deposition. The other way around overweight children seem to have an up-regulation of linear growth prior to puberty and a larger bone mass than their leaner peers, which may be partly due to the influence of adipokines or other hormones related to energy metabolism on bone...

  3. [Influence of pedagogy on vigilance in school age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaczyk-Martin, C; Nuttens, M C; Hautekeete, M; Salomez, J L; Lequien, P

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between vigilance and pedagogy was studied in 3 middle classes of primary school (children aged between 8 and 9 yrs). Three different types of pedagogy, belonging to 3 major pedagogic currents were evaluated: the pedagogy of Maria Montessori, the traditional one and the so-called "open" pedagogy. The vigilance of children was tested with the psychometric test of Zazzo. The rate of performance of the test was significantly different according to the nature of pedagogy after adjustment of the only 2 confusing factors between the 3 schools: the age of the children and the degree of the mother. This difference was in favor of the pedagogy of Maria Montessori compared with the 2 others. It was observed on the results to the tests but also on learning.

  4. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    evaluate the effect of four extra school-based PE lessons per week on future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children aged 6 to 13(paper III). 4.To examine the prospective associations of cardio respiratory fitness (CRF) and direct and indirect indicators of adiposity with CVD risk factors...... cardiovascular health consequences and linked to subsequent morbidity and mortality in adolescence and adulthood. The issue is of growing concern for public health and therefore an important area for health researchers to address. Physical activity is essential for the wellbeing and normal growth of children...... and youth and plays an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity and related morbidities. Schools are recognized as potentially effective settings for public health initiatives, as they access a large population of children and youth across a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups...

  5. Factor structure of functional state of primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidenko O.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.

  6. Social Adversity and Regional Differences in Prescribing of ADHD Medication for School-Age Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Thielen, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether regional variations in the initiation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication among school-age children are explained by differences in sociodemographic composition and/or ADHD prescribing practice, especially in children who face social...... adversity (low parental education and single parenthood). Methods: A cohort of Danish school-age children (ages 5–17) without previous psychiatric conditions (N = 813,416) was followed during 2010–2011 for incident ADHD prescribing in the individual-level Danish registers. Register information was retrieved...... regional differences prevail in prescribing practices for children facing social adversity, indicating that local cultures shape the interpretation and handling of children with ADHD-like behaviors....

  7. Latchkey Experiences of School-Age Children in Low-income ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-12-17

    Dec 17, 2012 ... because a majority of school-aged children in low-income families .... age, while there is a greater susceptibility to peer pressure potentially resulting .... referred to as 'face me, I face you' compounds, from road side petty ...

  8. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development

  9. Community-Based Summer Learning Programs for School- Age Children: Research-to-Policy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Summer learning experiences for school-age children can be provided in a variety of ways and settings, including summer school programs (often remedial), community-based programs (often a continuation of afterschool programs), and home-based programs (in which families are provided with information and resources to encourage reading, often run by…

  10. Pilot Testing "Okay with Asthma"[TM]: An Online Asthma Intervention for School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tami H.; Hauenstein, Emily J.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the leading cause of missed school days despite advancements in asthma treatment. This may be, in part, due to a lack of understanding about asthma. "Okay With Asthma"[TM], an online story with psychosocial management strategies for school-age children, was pilot tested to measure its effect on asthma knowledge and attitude. The online…

  11. Overt and Relational Aggression in Russian Nursery-School-Age Children: Parenting Style and Marital Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Craig H.; Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; McNeilly-Choque, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior in Western psychological literature were measured in 207 ethnic Russian families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Greater marital conflict (for boys only), greater maternal…

  12. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2009-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child's adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal,…

  13. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a nar

  14. Development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with SLI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, R.L.M.; Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Wijnen, F.N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a nar

  15. Development of Morphosyntactic Accuracy and Grammatical Complexity in Dutch School-Age Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwitserlood, Rob; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Verhoeven, Ludo; Wijnen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the development of morphosyntactic accuracy and grammatical complexity in Dutch school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Morphosyntactic accuracy, the use of dummy auxiliaries, and complex syntax were assessed using a narrative task that was administered at three points…

  16. Working with Homeless School-Aged Children: Barriers to School Social Work Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groton, Danielle; Teasley, Martell L.; Canfield, James P.

    2013-01-01

    With the needs and challenges of adolescent homelessness on the rise, the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (MVA) was crafted as a public policy initiative aimed at facilitating access to schools for this population. While school social workers are the designated personnel for practice with homeless school-aged children, we know little about…

  17. Predicting who will have asthma at school age among preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga E. M.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish at preschool age whether a wheezing child will or will not have asthma at school age. A prediction rule for asthma in preschool children might help to determine a prognosis and to study improvements in treatment and prevention. This review discusses (1) the development

  18. Group Therapy for School-Aged Children Who Stutter: A Survey of Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Hilary; James, Sarah; Hardman, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Although group therapy is recommended for school-aged children who stutter (CWS), it is not widely researched. This study aimed to explore this provision, using a postal survey which investigated the current practices of Speech & Language Therapists (SLTs) in the UK. Seventy percent of SLT services provided some group therapy, but the level of…

  19. The Early Motor Repertoire of Children Born Preterm Is Associated With Intelligence at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, Janneke L. M.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N.; Bos, Arend F.

    OBJECTIVE: The goal was to determine whether the quality of general movements (GMs) for preterm children had predictive value for cognitive development at school age. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 60 preterm infants (gestational age, median: 30.0 weeks [range: 25-33 weeks]; birth

  20. Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2009-01-01

    The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child's adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal,…

  1. Functional impairments at school age of preterm born children with late-onset sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Meike; Tanis, Jozien C.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Background: Late-onset sepsis is a relatively common complication particularly of preterm birth that affects approximately a quarter of very low birth weight infants. Aim: We aimed to determine the motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm children with late-onset sepsis com

  2. A Phonologically Based Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: Implications for Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Michaela J.; Park, Jungjun; Saxon, Terrill F.; Colson, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted utilizing a quasi-experimental pre- and postgroup design to examine the effects of a phonologically based intervention aimed to improve phonological awareness (PA) and reading abilities in school-age children with language impairment (LI) in Grades 1 through 3. The intervention included instruction in PA and sound-symbol…

  3. Occupational Therapy for School-Aged Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…

  4. The advertising literacy of primary school aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Rozendaal, E.

    2015-01-01

    Cohort studies have revealed that today’s children are watching more television than ever before (Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010). An average child will spend two hours per day in front of the television screen (SKO, 2012). Most of this time is spend watching shows on commercial channels like Disne

  5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

  6. Metacomprehension and School-Aged Children's Reading: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Ann Jaffe

    Several research studies were reviewed to formulate a definition of metacomprehension in elementary school children. Although much additional research is needed, the one conclusion evident from the review is that metacomprehension is not a unitary phenomenon. It encompasses several kinds of abilities and degrees of awareness that may appear at…

  7. Domain-Specific Impulsivity in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukayama, Eli; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Kim, Betty

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is a salient individual difference in children with well-established predictive validity for life outcomes. The current investigation proposes that impulsive behaviors vary systematically by domain. In a series of studies with ethnically and socioeconomically diverse samples of middle school students, we find that schoolwork-related…

  8. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  9. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  10. Occupational Therapy for School-Aged Children in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Asha; Jatar, Anuradha; Bijlani, Jyothika

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists exploring international opportunities should understand how the profession is practiced globally. This paper describes the framework under which occupational therapy services can be accessed by families of children with disabilities in urban India. Background information about the country, its health care, and occupational…

  11. Dimensionality of Reading Skills with Elementary-School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Burgess, Stephen R.

    2017-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses of data from 1,501 kindergarten to 5th-grade children who completed 3 measures of decoding, 3 measures of reading comprehension, and 3 measures of listening comprehension as part of a larger study were used to identify the dimensionality of reading skills across elementary school. A 1-factor (reading) model was the…

  12. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2009 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Hannah; Lim, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  13. Communication Attitudes of Japanese School-Age Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Norimune; Healey, E. Charles; Nagasawa, Taiko; Vanryckeghem, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Past research with the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) has shown it to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing speech-associated attitude of children who stutter (CWS). However, in Japan, the CAT has not been used extensively to examine the communication attitude of CWS. The purpose of this study was to determine if a Japanese version…

  14. Developmental Coordination Disorder in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD in children, at 7 years of age, in a large UK birth cohort was determined using DSM-IV criteria, in a study at the University of Bristol, UK; and Utrecht University, Netherlands.

  15. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbing, Mary-Lee C.; Ficca, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by disturbing thoughts, impulses, or images (obsessions); repetitive or ritualistic behaviors (compulsions); or the presence of both. Although some may believe this disorder is isolated to the adult population, it affects anywhere from 1% to 4% of children in the United…

  16. Overweight among primary school-age children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Balkish Mahadir; Mahmud, Siti Zuraidah; Ambak, Rashidah; Sallehuddin, Syafinaz Mohd; Mutalip, Hatta Abdul; Saari, Riyanti; Sahril, Norhafizah; Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study is a secondary data analysis from the National Health Morbidity Survey III, a population-based study conducted in 2006. A total of 7,749 children between 7 and 12 years old were recruited into the study. This study seeks to report the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) children in Malaysia using international cut-off point and identify its associated key social determinants. The results show that the overall prevalence of overweight children in Malaysia was 19.9%. The urban residents, males, Chinese, those who are wealthy, have overweight or educated guardians showed higher prevalence of overweight. In multivariable analysis, higher likelihood of being overweight was observed among those with advancing age (OR=1.15), urban residents (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36), the Chinese (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 1.19-1.77), boys (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.41), and those who came from higher income family. In conclusion, one out of five of 7-12 year-old-children in Malaysia were overweight. Locality of residence, ethnicity, gender, guardian education, and overweight guardian were likely to be the predictors of this alarming issue. Societal and public health efforts are needed in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with obesity.

  17. Selected executive functions in children with ADHD in early school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Rita Borkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at finding out whether at the early school age the effectiveness of executive functions distinguishes children with ADHD from those of the control group. Besides, the aim was to check to what extent the use of diagnostic methods evaluating executive functions in children at the early school age is justified. The analysis comprised cognitive flexibility, sustained attention, interference control and planning ability. Those methods of neuropsychological evaluation were used which are mostly applied to characterize executive functions: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, interference task based on the Stroop Interference Test, and tests of verbal fluency and Tower of London. The examined group consisted of 50 children aged 7-10: 25 children with hyperactivity of combined type and 25 children of the control group. Each group consisted of 23 boys and 2 girls. The average age in the criterial group was 8 years and 10 months (SD=10 months, whereas in the control group – 8 years and 6 months (SD=11 months. According to the obtained results, children with ADHD at early school age do not exhibit a wide spectrum of executive functions deficits, which is probably associated with immaturity of executive processes in all children of that age. The findings comprised only difficulties in inhibition of response, monitoring of activity, and ability of executive attention to intentional guidance of the mental effort depending on the task’s requirements. In investigations of children with ADHD at early school age the use of neuropsychological tests and trials designed for evaluation of executive functions is justified only in limited degree. They do not significantly distinguish between children with ADHD and children without this disorder, therefore the results may be mainly of descriptive, and not explanatory, value.

  18. Trends in Tobacco Smoking among Czech School-aged Children from 1994 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salonna, Ferdinand; Kážmér, Ladislav; Csémy, Ladislav

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article is to examine trends in tobacco consumption among the Czech school-age population. METHODS: For the analysis, data from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children project, conducted between 1994 and 2014 were used. Trends in tobacco smoking were determined...... separately for boys and girls, applying the binary logistic regression with survey period as an independent variable for the smoking status. RESULTS: The analysis showed that there have been significant changes in adolescent tobacco smoking for the recent 20 years. While the share of current school...

  19. Sexual Abuse of School Age Children : Evidence from Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Student unrest that sometimes culminates in violent expressions have had a long history in Kenyan schools. Recent evidence, however, points to new expressions of abuse on children. There is concern that an ethos of gendered violence often expressed by sexual subjugation of girls by boys is getting institutionalised within Kenyan Schools. The rise in incidents of reported crimes of a sexual nature and the periodic mass sexual violence directed at girls within learning institutions attest to th...

  20. Changes in reading strategies in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria Díaz, Gretel; Torres, María del Rosario; Iglesias, Jorge; Mosquera, Raysil; Reigosa, Vivian; Santos, Elsa; Lage, Agustín; Estévez, Nancy; Galán, Lidice

    2009-11-01

    Learning to read is one of the most important cognitive milestones in the human social environment. One of the most accepted models explaining such process is the Double-Route Cascaded Model. It suggests the existence of two reading strategies: lexical and sublexical. In the Spanish language there are some contradictions about how these strategies are applied for reading. In addition, there are only a few studies dealing with the analysis of shifts between them, achieving a fluent reading process. In this paper we use a reading task including words and pseudowords for characterizing the cost of shifting between reading strategies in children with developmental dyslexia and normal controls. Our results suggest the presence of both strategies in these two experimental groups. In controls, both strategies become more efficient in correspondence to the increased exposition to written material. However, in children with developmental dyslexia only the lexical strategy exhibits such improvement. Their also point to a low cost for shifting between strategies in controls and a much more significant one in children with developmental dyslexia, differentiating subgroups with distinct shifting patterns.

  1. Oral use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in children with secretory otitis media: preliminary results of a pilot, uncontrolled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Pierro F

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Di Pierro,1 Daniele Di Pasquale,2 Maurizio Di Cicco2 1Velleja Research, Milan, Italy; 2ORL Department, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico Ca’ Grande IRCCS, Milan, Italy Abstract: Secretory otitis media (SOM remains a common disease among children. Although its cause is not yet perfectly established, the pathology, often a sequel of acute otitis media (AOM, is mainly characterized by persistent fluid in the middle ear cavity. Twenty-two children with a diagnosis of SOM were treated daily for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®. After treatment, the children were evaluated for AOM episodes and subjected to tone audiometry, tympanometry, endonasal endoscopy, otoscopy, and tonsillar examination. Subject compliance and probiotic tolerability and side effects have also been evaluated. Our results indicate a good safety profile, a substantial reduction of AOM episodes, and a positive outcome from the treatment for all of the clinical outcomes tested. We conclude that strain K12 may have a role in reducing the occurrence and/or severity of SOM in children. From our perspective, this study constitutes a starting point toward the organization of a more extensive placebo-controlled study aimed at critically appraising our preliminary observations. Keywords: BLIS K12, Bactoblis®, acute otitis media, exudative otitis media

  2. Intensive Behavioral Intervention for School-Aged Children with Autism: Una Breccia nel Muro (UBM)--A Comprehensive Behavioral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Leonardo; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Strauss, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Although, reviews and outcome research supports empirical evidence for Early Intensive Behavior Intervention in pre-scholars, intensive behavioral service provision for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less subject to research studies. In order to provide effective behavioral interventions for school-aged children it…

  3. Urinary Iodine Concentrations Indicate Iodine Deficiency in Pregnant Thai Women but Iodine Sufficiency in Their School-Aged Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gowachirapant, S.; Winichagoon, P.; Wyss, L.; Tong, B.; Baumgartner, J.; Boonstra, A.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women. B

  4. Analysis of gait patterns in normal school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkveld, S R; Knipstein, E A; Quinn, J R

    1988-01-01

    The continuing development of gait in 60 children aged 7-16 years was studied with plantar surface-attached transducers to describe the time pressure profiles of foot segments during stance. Decreased pronation/supination of the subtalar and midtarsal joints was shown by simultaneous onset and simultaneous peak on medial and lateral heel sensors. The resultant midstance showed a rapid lateral-to-medial loading of the forefoot. The foot-flat position with decreased rotation about the longitudinal axis of the foot persists even after the temporal parameters of gait attain mature values.

  5. [Self evaluation questionnaires for clinical psychodiagnosis in school-age children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littmann, E

    1989-11-01

    A survey of the literature is given on methodological problems associated with, and results of, the clinical diagnosis of personality in school age with questionnaires for self-evaluation. Further is given an outline of a number of major personality inventories used in (german) practice. Finally are presented the results of validation and standardisation gained with two children's inventories (PF/SF) for the multidimensional registration of psychic and social features of behaviorally disturbed children.

  6. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce.

  7. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    school meals based on a NND for three months and for another three months they ate packed lunch brought from home (control). At baseline, between the two dietary periods, and after the last dietary period children went through a number of investigations. In paper I we showed that ad libitum school meals...... status and parental education did not change the results. Despite the effect on abdominal fatness, the NND meals decreased blood pressure, plasma triacylglycerol and insulin resistance. The main conclusion to be drawn from paper II was that baseline leptin was independently inversely associated...... with subsequent changes in both FMI and FFMI in girls, a finding which may reflect preserved leptin sensitivity in this predominantly normal weight childhood population. Results from paper III are suggestive for the hypothesis that fat mass, osteocalcin, and in girls also IGF-1 act stimulatory on growth in bone...

  8. Prospective thinking and decision making in primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Lombardi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children’s performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism. The children’s socio-demographic and cognitive variables were also evaluated. We hypothesized that development of strategic thinking in the ultimatum game is related to an increased ability to delay gratification − given that both tasks require looking at prospective benefits − and, crucially, not to altruism, which benefits from immediate selfless reward. Our results confirmed our hypothesis suggesting that increased strategic planning with age would also stem from the development of competencies like prospective thinking.

  9. School-Aged Children and Adult Language Production in an Indonesian TV Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisno

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to find out the language produced by the school-aged children and the adult in a TV show. The study was carried out applying descriptive qualitative research design. The data for this research included the conversations between an adult (the host and three school-aged children. The data analysis procedures included- observing the video, transcribing the conversation, identifying the linguistics and non-linguistics features of the utterances, categorizing the language produced by the children and the adult, and interpreting the result of the analysis. The findings of data analysis showed that the five-year-old children produced one-word and two-word utterances rather than longer sentences. In contrast, the seven-year-old child produced longer sentences rather than one-word or two-word utterances. On the other hand, the host applied different ways and modified the way she produced language (‘caregiver speech’ or ‘motherese’ such as using exclamation, using gestures, using complimenting words, using intimate pronouns, and using direct instruction. The results obtained indicated that the school-aged children and the adult have their own ways in producing language in a TV show in Indonesia.

  10. Catch-up growth does not associate with cognitive development in Indian school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovic, N; Selvam, S; Srinivasan, K; Thankachan, P; Kurpad, A V; Thomas, T

    2014-01-01

    Stunting is significantly associated with lifetime morbidity and poorer cognitive outcomes in children. Although several studies have examined the relationship between stunting, catch-up growth and cognitive performance in young populations, this relationship has not yet been explored in school-aged children. In this study, we used data from three different nutritional intervention studies conducted over a 4-year period on school-age children in Bangalore, India to assess these relationships. A battery of cognitive tests was conducted before each intervention to determine whether stunting status at baseline was related to cognitive performance across four separate domains, and repeated after a 6-month period to assess whether changes to stunting status is related to cognitive advancement. Results of independent t-tests showed that while stunted children had significantly poorer performance on short-term memory, retrieval ability and visuospatial ability tests (P=0.023, 0.026 and 0.028, respectively), there was no significant difference in the change in cognitive scores following nutritional interventions over a 6-month period between those who remained stunted and those who were no longer stunted (P>0.10). Evidently, stunting remains associated with cognitive ability in school-age children; however, the reversal of these effects in this age group may be quite difficult.

  11. The oral core vocabulary of typically developing English-speaking school-aged children: implications for AAC practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenisch, Jens; Soto, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    This study analyzes the core vocabulary used by typically developing school-aged English-speaking children in the United States while participating in a variety of school activities. The language of typically developing children, some of whom spoke English as a second language was recorded, transcribed and analyzed to identify the most frequently used words across samples. An inventory of oral core vocabulary of typically developing school-aged children resulted from this analysis. This inventory can be used as a source list for vocabulary selection for school-aged children with AAC needs. Implications for vocabulary selection are discussed.

  12. Handwriting performance of preterm children at school age: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Souza de Medeiros Rocha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At school age, handwriting is on of the most important tasks among the fine motor activities. Good handwriting performance contributes to the child´s school performance. As prematurity impacts on motor development, it may influence handwriting. Objective: To review the specific literature and investigate whether there are differences in handwriting performance at school age between children born preterm and full term. Method: A search was performed in the Capes electronic database, in English and Portuguese, comprising the time period between January 2000 and June 2012. Articles were selected according to the inclusion criteria; the sample, objectives, instruments utilized and outcomes were analyzed. Results: Six articles were included in the study. Data analysis indicates that children born prematurely present poorer handwriting performance and a handicap in the underlying handwriting mechanisms when compared with full term infants. Conclusion: Preterm children without obvious neurological impairment are at increased risk for problems in handwriting development at school age. The small number of recent studies on this topic indicates a need for further research, as well as the development of standardized resources for the motor and handwriting assessment of Brazilian children.

  13. School-age outcomes in children with birth weights under 750 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, M; Taylor, H G; Klein, N; Eiben, R; Schatschneider, C; Mercuri-Minich, N

    1994-09-22

    Since the mid-1980s, increasing numbers of children with birth weights under 750 g have survived to school age. We matched a regional cohort of 68 surviving children born from 1982 through 1986 with birth weights under 750 g (mean, 670 g; gestational age, 25.7 weeks) with 65 children weighting 750 to 1499 g at birth and 61 children born at term. Growth, neurosensory status, and functioning at school age in the three groups were compared. Associations of biologic and social risk factors with major developmental outcomes were examined by means of logistic-regression analyses. Children with birth weights under 750 g were inferior to both comparison groups in cognitive ability, psychomotor skills, and academic achievement. They had poorer social skills and adaptive behavior and more behavioral and attention problems. The mean (+/- SD) Mental Processing Composite score for the cohort was 87 +/- 15, as compared with 93 +/- 14 for children with birth weights of 750 to 1499 g and 100 +/- 13 for children born at term (P Children with birth weights under 750 g who survive represent a subgroup of very-low-birth-weight children who are at high risk for neurobehavioral dysfunction and poor school performance.

  14. Effect of backpack position on foot weight distribution of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung; Kim, Chang Ju; Oh, Duck-Won

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of backpack position on foot weight distribution of standing school-aged children. [Subjects] Thirty school-aged children volunteered to participate in this study. [Methods] The subjects randomly performed four types of carrying a backpack: no backpack (condition-1), carrying a backpack at C7 (condition-2), carrying a backpack at 10 cm below C7 (condition-3), and carrying a backpack at 20 cm below C7 (condition-4). [Results] Statistically significant differences were noted in the anterior and posterior pressure values, and in the anterior-to-posterior ratio, among the four conditions (p backpack in a higher position, with fastening of the shoulder strap, may be more favorable for normalizing the foot weight distribution.

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTING PATTERN WITH PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Ayu Erika, Kadek Ayu Erika

    2013-01-01

    - Background : The interaction of children in a family associated with parenting adopted by parents who are relatively consistent over time. Good parenting school age is very important to ensure the child's psychosocial development and to stimulate child's diligent behaviors. Failure in getting good parenting will lead a child to low self-esteem, feeling incompetent, unproductive and guilt. Objective : This study aimed at identifying the relationship between parenting pattern with psych...

  16. Clinical Characteristics and Low Vision Rehabilitation Methods for Partially Sighted School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Özen Tunay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the clinical features and the distribution of diagnosis in partially sighted school-age children, to report the chosen low vision rehabilitation methods and to emphasize the importance of low vision rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: The study included 150 partially sighted children between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The distribution of diagnosis, accompanying ocular findings, visual acuity of the children both for near and distance with and without low vision devices, and the methods of low vision rehabilitation (for distance and for near were determined. The demographic characteristics of the children and the parental consanguinity were recorded. Results: The mean age of children was 10.6 years and the median age was 10 years; 88 (58.7% of them were male and 62 (41.3% of them were female. According to distribution of diagnoses among the children, the most frequent diagnosis was hereditary fundus dystrophies (36% followed by cortical visual impairment (18%. The most frequently used rehabilitation methods were: telescopic lenses (91.3% for distance vision; magnifiers (38.7% and telemicroscopic systems (26.0% for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. Conclusion: A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted school-age children. It is important for ophthalmologists and pediatricians to guide parents and children to low vision rehabilitation

  17. Dental Treatment Needs in Vancouver Inner-City Elementary School-Aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Samim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the dental treatment needs of inner-city Vancouver elementary school-aged children and relate them to sociodemographic characteristics. Methods. A census sampling comprising 562 children from six out of eight eligible schools was chosen (response rate was 65.4%. Dental treatment needs were assessed based on criteria from the World Health Organization. Results. Every third child examined needed at least one restorative treatment. A higher proportion of children born outside Canada were in need of more extensive dental treatments such as pulp care and extractions compared to the children born in Canada. There were no statistically significant differences in dental treatment needs between age, gender, or income groups or between children with or without dental insurance (Chi Squared P>0.05. The best significant predictors (Linear Multiple Regression, P>0.05 of higher dental treatment needs were being born outside Canada, gender, time of last dental visit, and family income. Having dental insurance did not associate with needing less treatment. Conclusion. A high level of unmet dental treatment needs (32% was found in inner-city Vancouver elementary school-aged children. Children born outside Canada, particularly the ones who recently arrived to Canada, needed more extensive dental treatments than children born in Canada.

  18. Clinical Characteristics and Low Vision Rehabilitation Methods for Partially Sighted School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen Tunay, Zuhal; Çalışkan, Deniz; İdil, Aysun; Öztuna, Derya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the clinical features and the distribution of diagnosis in partially sighted school-age children, to report the chosen low vision rehabilitation methods and to emphasize the importance of low vision rehabilitation. Materials and Methods: The study included 150 partially sighted children between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The distribution of diagnosis, accompanying ocular findings, visual acuity of the children both for near and distance with and without low vision devices, and the methods of low vision rehabilitation (for distance and for near) were determined. The demographic characteristics of the children and the parental consanguinity were recorded. Results: The mean age of children was 10.6 years and the median age was 10 years; 88 (58.7%) of them were male and 62 (41.3%) of them were female. According to distribution of diagnoses among the children, the most frequent diagnosis was hereditary fundus dystrophies (36%) followed by cortical visual impairment (18%). The most frequently used rehabilitation methods were: telescopic lenses (91.3%) for distance vision; magnifiers (38.7%) and telemicroscopic systems (26.0%) for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. Conclusion: A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted school-age children. It is important for ophthalmologists and pediatricians to guide parents and children to low vision rehabilitation.

  19. Oral use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in children with secretory otitis media: preliminary results of a pilot, uncontrolled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Di Pasquale, Daniele; Di Cicco, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Secretory otitis media (SOM) remains a common disease among children. Although its cause is not yet perfectly established, the pathology, often a sequel of acute otitis media (AOM), is mainly characterized by persistent fluid in the middle ear cavity. Twenty-two children with a diagnosis of SOM were treated daily for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®). After treatment, the children were evaluated for AOM episodes and subjected to tone audiometry, tympanometry, endonasal endoscopy, otoscopy, and tonsillar examination. Subject compliance and probiotic tolerability and side effects have also been evaluated. Our results indicate a good safety profile, a substantial reduction of AOM episodes, and a positive outcome from the treatment for all of the clinical outcomes tested. We conclude that strain K12 may have a role in reducing the occurrence and/or severity of SOM in children. From our perspective, this study constitutes a starting point toward the organization of a more extensive placebo-controlled study aimed at critically appraising our preliminary observations. PMID:26396541

  20. Oral use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in children with secretory otitis media: preliminary results of a pilot, uncontrolled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Di Pasquale, Daniele; Di Cicco, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Secretory otitis media (SOM) remains a common disease among children. Although its cause is not yet perfectly established, the pathology, often a sequel of acute otitis media (AOM), is mainly characterized by persistent fluid in the middle ear cavity. Twenty-two children with a diagnosis of SOM were treated daily for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 (Bactoblis(®)). After treatment, the children were evaluated for AOM episodes and subjected to tone audiometry, tympanometry, endonasal endoscopy, otoscopy, and tonsillar examination. Subject compliance and probiotic tolerability and side effects have also been evaluated. Our results indicate a good safety profile, a substantial reduction of AOM episodes, and a positive outcome from the treatment for all of the clinical outcomes tested. We conclude that strain K12 may have a role in reducing the occurrence and/or severity of SOM in children. From our perspective, this study constitutes a starting point toward the organization of a more extensive placebo-controlled study aimed at critically appraising our preliminary observations.

  1. INCIDENCE OF STUTTERING IN SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzeta SALIHOVIĆ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to examine the incidence (frequency and stuttering severity in the school-age children with Down syndrome. The sample was consisted of 37 school-age children with Down syndrome, both male and female. The study was conducted in the following institutions: Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation for Children with Intellectual Disabilities "Mjedenica"; Centre for Education, Training and Employment of Mentally Retarded Children, Children with Autism and Cerebral palsy "Vladimir Nazor" in Sarajevo; Primary School of Special Education „Zenica“; Primary school "Kovačići" Sarajevo; "Association of United Civic Actions – DUGA" in Sarajevo; and The Association "Be my friend" in Ilijaš. All of the subjects were individually examined. The results showed that 13,51 % of the children with Down syndrome stuttered, and the total result of stuttering severity indicates a moderate stuttering. These results show that children with Down syndrome should be enrolled intensively in speech therapy in order to help them overcome their stuttering, to facilitate their everyday communication and to teach them how to cope with stuttering.

  2. Validity of a figure rating scale assessing body size perception in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Caterina; Battagliese, Gemma; Pezzuti, Lina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to provide data concerning the validity of a short sequence of face valid pictorial stimuli assessing the perception of body size in school-age children. A sequence of gender and age-appropriate silhouettes was administered to 314 boys and girls aged 6-14 years. The self-evaluations provided by the children correlated significantly with their actual BMI corrected for age. Furthermore, the children's self-evaluations always significantly correlated with the evaluations provided by the three external observers; i.e., both parents and the interviewers. The results indicate that this sequence of pictorial stimuli, depicting realistic human forms appropriate for children, is a valid measure of children's body image. Relevant differences across age groups were also found, indicating that before the age of eight, the correlations between the children's self-evaluations and their BMI or the judgments of the three observers are lower than in the other age groups.

  3. Working memory in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-08-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks, but worse in block recall task and variant-visual-patterns test; (b) children with AS took longer time in most conditions of n-back tasks, and showed larger effects of task load. These findings indicated imbalance of working memory development in AS children: they had advantage in the phonological loop storing, but disadvantage in the visuospatial sketchpad storing, and partial deficit in central executive.

  4. [Intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Ma, Hong-Wei; Tian, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Fang

    2009-10-01

    To study the intelligence level and structure in school age children with fetal growth restriction (FGR). The intelligence levels were tested by the Wechsler Children Scales of Intelligence (C-WISC) in 54 children with FGR and in 84 normal children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) in the FGR group were 105.9+/-10.3, 112.4+/-11.2 and 97.1+/-10.6 respectively, and they all were in a normal range. But the PIQ was significantly lower than that in the control group (104.8+/-10.5; pintelligence level of children with FGR is normal, but there are imbalances in the intelligence structure and dysfunctions in performance ability related to right cerebral hemisphere. Performance trainings should be done from the infancy in children with FGR.

  5. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development.

  6. Prenatal Micronutrient Supplementation Is Not Associated with Intellectual Development of Young School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Duolao; Yang, Wenfang; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is often prescribed during pregnancy. The effects of prenatal iron and multimicronutrient supplementation on intellectual development in young school-aged children are less than clear. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of prenatal iron plus folic acid or multiple micronutrient (including iron and folic acid) supplementation vs. folic acid supplementation on the intellectual development of young school-aged children in rural China. Young school-aged children (aged 7-10 y, n = 1744) of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with various combinations of micronutrients and remained residents in 2 rural counties in China were followed. We measured their intellectual development by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV generated the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI). Multilevel analyses were used to assess the effect of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on the intellectual development of children. The mean differences in FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI, respectively, were not significant between prenatal folic acid supplementation and either iron plus folic acid [-0.34 (P = 0.65), -0.06 (P = 0.95), -0.22 (P = 0.76), -0.01 (P = 0.99), and -1.26 (P = 0.11)] or multimicronutrient [-0.39 (P = 0.60), -0.64 (P = 0.48), 0.11 (P = 0.87), -0.43 (P = 0.59), and -0.34; (P = 0.65)] supplementation after adjusting for confounders. There is no evidence to suggest a different effect on intellectual development between prenatal iron plus folic acid, multimicronutrient supplementation, and prenatal folic acid supplementation in children aged 7-10 y. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN08850194. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Consistency of Self-Report in School Age Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    AUTHOR(S) Barbara Jean Heiller, Major 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER AFIT Student Attending...41 0 (S F i SA’I,(’ C t.I I I QN ) ’ 7/ Abstract A-,.. : az* Consistency of Self-Report ,..., ’a in School Age Children with Asthma Barbara Jean ...1981). There’s a demon in your belly: children’s understanding of illness. Pediatrics, 0_, 841-849. Piaget , J. & Inhelder, B. (1969). The

  8. Sleep and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    OpenAIRE

    Garmy, Pernilla; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sleep, television and computer habits and enjoyment and feelings of tiredness in school of school-age children and adolescents in Sweden. An instrument found to be valid and reliable here was distributed to 3,011 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16 years. Those sleeping less than the median length of time reported a significantly lower degree of enjoyment of school. Short sleep was found to be associated with having a bedroom TV, spending more than 2 hr...

  9. Prevalence of Otitis Media with Effusion Among Primary School Age-Children and Etiopathogenic Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Sanli, Arif; Tasdemir, Omer; Eken, Mehmet; Celebi, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Suleyman Hilmi

    2011-01-01

    A prevalence study was carried out in order to look into the etiopathogenic relation of otitis media with effusion (OME) in primary school-age children. The study included ENT examination and a questionnaire that was carried out in 4 randomly selected schools on 1,165 children. 143 of the cases (12.2%) had OME. A significant relation between OME and adenoid vegetation was found (P0.05). As a result, OME is a common disease that can lead to other hard-to-cure health problems and be costly if e...

  10. The impact of media use on sleep patterns and sleep disorders among school-aged children in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Shenghui; Jin, Xinming; Wu, Shenghu; Jiang, Fan; Yan, Chonghuai; Shen, Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    To determine the amount of television viewing and computer use in urban school-aged Chinese children, and to examine their associations with sleep/wake patterns, duration of sleep, and sleep disorders...

  11. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    .... The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children...

  12. Urinary iodine concentrations indicate iodine deficiency in pregnant Thai women but iodine sufficiency in their school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Wyss, Laura; Tong, Bennan; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2009-06-01

    The median urinary iodine concentration (UI) in school-aged children is recommended for assessment of iodine nutrition in populations. If the median UI is adequate in school-aged children, it is usually assumed iodine intakes are also adequate in the remaining population, including pregnant women. But iodine requirements sharply increase during pregnancy. In this study, our aim was to measure UI in pairs of pregnant women and their school-aged children from the same family, who were sharing meals, to directly assess whether a household food basket that supplies adequate iodine to school-aged children also meets the needs of pregnant women. UI was measured in spot urine samples from pairs (n = 302) of healthy pregnant mothers and their school-aged children in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. A dietary questionnaire was completed. The UI [median (range)] in the pregnant women {108 (11-558) microg/L [0.85 (0.086-4.41) micromol/L]} were lower than those of their school-aged children {200 (25-835) microg/L [1.58 (0.20-6.52) micromol/L]} (P iodine status in the children but mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency in their pregnant mothers. The estimated iodine intakes in the 2 groups were in the range of 130-170 microg/d. There was a modest positive correlation between UI in the pairs (r = 0.253; P iodine status in pregnancy in central Thailand; pregnant women should be directly monitored.

  13. Social communication intervention for school-age children: rationale and description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine

    2005-08-01

    Children of school age with social communication problems form a growing population in need of speech-language intervention. These children have difficulty not just with interpersonal communication, which underpins peer relations, but also with oral and written aspects of the curriculum. The importance of intervention in the school years therefore cannot be underestimated. In this article, a framework and rationale for intervention based on a consideration of social communication as the interdependence of social interaction, social cognition, pragmatics, and language processing are presented. A method of intervention for children with social communication problems is described. The method is illustrated by reference to a study of children with pragmatic language impairments in the United Kingdom. Social communication impairments are not specific to one diagnostic group, and therefore the intervention framework given here is applicable to a range of children with interpersonal communication problems in the school years.

  14. Narrative spoken language skills in severely hearing impaired school-aged children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, Tinne; De Raeve, Leo; Langereis, Margreet; Peeraer, Louis; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2013-11-01

    Cochlear implants have a significant positive effect on spoken language development in severely hearing impaired children. Previous work in this population has focused mostly on the emergence of early-developing language skills, such as vocabulary. The current study aims at comparing narratives, which are more complex and later-developing spoken language skills, of a contemporary group of profoundly deaf school-aged children using cochlear implants (n=66, median age=8 years 3 months) with matched normal hearing peers. Results show that children with cochlear implants demonstrate good results on quantity and coherence of the utterances, but problematic outcomes on quality, content and efficiency of retold stories. However, for a subgroup (n=20, median age=8 years 1 month) of deaf children without additional disabilities who receive cochlear implantation before the age of 2 years, use two implants, and are raised with one spoken language, age-adequate spoken narrative skills at school-age are feasible. This is the first study to set the goals regarding spoken narrative skills for deaf children using cochlear implants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Developmental changes in facial expression recognition in Japanese school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Susumu; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Mori, Kenji; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Takahara, Mitsue; Kagami, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Facial expressions hold abundant information and play a central part in communication. In daily life, we must construct amicable interpersonal relationships by communicating through verbal and nonverbal behaviors. While school-age is a period of rapid social growth, few studies exist that study developmental changes in facial expression recognition during this age. This study investigated developmental changes in facial expression recognition by examining observers' gaze on others' expressions. 87 school-age children from first to sixth grade (41 boys, 46 girls). The Tobii T60 Eye-tracker(Tobii Technologies, Sweden) was used to gauge eye movement during a task of matching pre-instructed emotion words and facial expressions images (neutral, angry, happy, surprised, sad, disgusted) presented on a monitor fixed at a distance of 50 cm. In the task of matching the six facial expression images and emotion words, the mid- and higher-grade children answered more accurately than the lower-grade children in matching four expressions, excluding neutral and happy. For fixation time and fixation count, the lower-grade children scored lower than other grade children, gazing on all facial expressions significantly fewer times and for shorter periods. It is guessed that the stage from lower grades to middle grades is a turning point in facial recognition.

  16. Exposure to violence among urban school-aged children: is it only on television?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, O H; Stein, R E; Silver, E J; Benenson, B S

    2000-10-01

    To measure exposure to different types of violence among school-aged children in a primary care setting. Child interviews using an instrument measuring 4 types of exposure (direct victimization, witnessing, hearing reports, media). Violent acts measured include being beaten up, chased/threatened, robbed/mugged, stabbed/shot, killed. Pediatric primary care clinic of large urban hospital. Convenience sample of 175 children 9-12 years old and their mothers. A total of 53% of the children were boys, 55% were Hispanic, and 40% received public assistance. All children had been exposed to media violence. A total of 97% (170/175) had been exposed to more direct forms of violence; 77% had witnessed violence involving strangers; 49% had witnessed violence involving familiar persons; 49% had been direct victims; and 31% had witnessed someone being shot, stabbed, or killed. Exposure to violence was significantly associated with being male. Most school-aged children who visited a pediatric primary care clinic of a large urban hospital had directly experienced violence as witnesses and/or victims.

  17. [Food craving symptoms in older school age children and its relation to body-mass index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Světlák, M; Pšenicová, K

    2012-02-01

    Recent findings show that food craving represents an important co-factor in overweight and obesity etiology and its severity represents a good predictor of relapse during active weight control. Child overweight and obesity also represents significant predictive factor of adulthood obesity and evidence about its incidence in children is therefore important. In order to achieve this evidence the indices of food craving has measured in 150 older school age children (54 boys and 96 girls; mean age 13.6 ± 1.2). The food craving symptoms were measured by validated Czech translation of the General Food-Craving Questionnaire-Trait (G-FCQ-T). Body proportions of children were indexed by body-mass index (BMI). BMI were assessed according to cut-off points BMI references from the Czech Republic. Results have shown that older school children have experience with food craving symptoms, and that intensity of these symptoms is significantly associated with BMI value (r = 0.55; p < 0.0001). Statistical analysis also revealed higher incidence of food craving symptoms intensity in girls. These findings provide basic normative data about food craving symptoms occurrence and intensity in older school age children group. Presented results also indirectly support the hypothesis that food craving could represent important co-factor in childhood obesity etiology. The consequences for obesity psychotherapy will be discussed.

  18. A Field Study of Telepractice for School Intervention Using the ASHA NOMS K-12 Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Rodney; Grogan-Johnson, Sue; Alvares, Robin; Bechstein, Leah; Taylor, Jacquelyn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics and effectiveness of a telepractice speech-language therapy program for school-age children. Outcome data related to the caseload, type and amount of intervention, and student progress from a school-based telepractice therapy program were compared with the K-12 Schools National…

  19. Low back pain in school-age children: risk factors, clinical features and diagnostic managment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boćkowski, L; Sobaniec, W; Kułak, W; Smigielska-Kuzia, J; Sendrowski, K; Roszkowska, M

    2007-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is common in adult population, and it is becoming a serious health concern in adolescents. On surveys, about every fifth child in the school-age reports LBP. The study objective was to analysis the natural history, risk factors, clinical symptoms, causes and diagnostic management in school-age children hospitalized with LBP. The study group consisted of 36 patients at the age between 10 and 18 years, 22 girls and 14 boys suffering from LBP hospitalized in our Department of Pediatric Neurology and Rehabilitation in years 2000-2004. The mean age of clinical onset of LBP in our group was 14.7 years, earlier in girls, later in boys. We find the family history of LBP in 50% children. Most frequent factors associated with LBP were: spina bifida (16.7%) and incorrect posture (13.9%). Half of patients pointed the factor initialising LBP: rapid, incoordinated move (39%) or heavy load rise (11%). 58% of patients present the symptoms of ischialgia. Diagnostic imaging showed disc protrusion in 11 children (31%) 6 in computed tomography, 4 in magnetic resonance imaging and 1 in X-Ray examination only. Other causes of LBP included: spondylolysis in 2 patients, Scheuermann disease in one case and juvenile reumatoid arthritis in one case. Some school-age children suffering on low back pain, particulary with sciatic neuralgia symptoms seek medical care in hospital. Althought the main causes are mechanical, associated with lack of physical activity or strenous exercise, serious diagnostic managment is strongly recommended.

  20. The silent burden of anemia in school age children: A community based study in West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Under nutrition and anemia are common co-morbidities in school age children. Due to transition in dietary habits in developing countries, a paradoxical finding of coexistence of anemia and normal/over nutrition is also a cause of concern. Objective:> T o assess the nutritional status and prevalence of anemia among school age children (6 - 16 years residing in rural and urban areas of a district of West Bengal and also to find out the association between weight status, measured as Body Mass Index(BMI and anemia. Materials and Methods: Age, height & weight were measured in 86 rural and 86 urban school age (6 -16 years children in rural and urban field practice areas of Midnapore Medical College. Their blood was estimated for haemoglobin concentration. Results: Overall prevalence of anemia was 80.2%, and not significantly different between the rural (83.7% and urban (76.7% participants and across the genders both in rural (86.4% versus 80.9% and urban (85.7% versus 72.4% areas. Thinness was observed to be higher in urban area (48.8% versus 41.9%. However, severe thinness was higher in rural area (18.5% versus 13.9%. Significantly, higher proportion of boys revealed severely low BMI compared to girls in both rural (33.3% versus 4.5% and urban (17.2% versus 7.1% areas with no significant differences between the prevalence of anemia across the grades of underweight and normal nutritional status. Conclusions: Poor nutritional status and anemia are still, taking heavy toll and new program strategies are needed, particularly those that improve the overall nutrition status of children.

  1. Sex differences in the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Kang, Yijun; Yang, Yang; Yan, Hong

    2016-03-29

    Gender disparities in China are concentrated in poor rural areas and among poor households. The difference in intelligence between boys and girls is less clear in rural China. The purpose of this paper was to assess sex differences in the intellectual function of early school-aged children in rural China. One thousand seven hundred forty four early school-aged offspring of women who had participated in a prenatal supplementation trial with different combinations of micronutrients and continued to reside in two rural counties in China were followed. We measured their Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) and Processing Speed Index (PSI) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV). Multilevel analyses were used to assess sex differences in intellectual functioning in 7-10-year-old children in rural China. Boys' adjusted mean FSIQ score was 0.97 points higher (95% CI: -2.22 - 0.28) than that of girls. Girls obtained higher mean WMI and PSI scores, with 1.32 points (95% CI: 0.14 - 2.51) and 3.10 points (95% CI: 1.82-4.38) higher adjusted means, respectively. Boys' adjusted mean VCI and PRI scores were significantly higher than those of girls, and the mean differences were 2.44 points (95% CI: 0.95 - 3.94) and 3.68 points (95% CI: 2.36 - 5.01), respectively. There is no evidence to suggest sex differences in the general intelligence of early school-aged children in rural China. However, a difference in general intelligence between 10-year-old boys and girls was evident. Girls and boys in rural China tended to show different specific cognitive abilities.

  2. Traumatic Brain Injury in K-12 Students: Where Have All the Children Gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Larry E.; Rivers, Kenyatta O.; McNamara, Elizabeth; Schutz, Judith A.; Lobato, Emilio J.

    2010-01-01

    When children who are permanently disabled by traumatic brain injury (TBI) return to school, most are placed in mainstream classrooms and incorrectly presumed capable of resuming their education. Only one to two percent are classified as students with TBI, qualifying them for the services they need for their education. The failure to properly…

  3. The Association between Sleep and Injury among School-Aged Children in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forugh Rafii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A good night’s sleep plays a key role in diseases resistance, injury prevention, and mood stability. The objective of this study was to examine relationship between sleep problems and accidental injury occurrences in school-aged children. Method. A retrospective study was conducted for comparing two groups of children. Children who have experienced injuries for at least two times during an academic year are the participants in the injury group (IG and those who have not experienced any kind of injuries are placed in the noninjury group (NIG. Data was collected through parent-reported sleep patterns and problems using Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ. Findings. The findings showed that global sleep problems were more in the IG than in the NIG. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the daytime sleepiness and sleep duration are the two major reasons for accidental injury. In addition, significant difference was seen between the sleep patterns of the two groups. Sleep duration was also shorter in the IG, and this group had a greater percentage (63% versus 41.1% of “short sleepers” (<9 h. Conclusion. There is a significant relationship between injury occurrence and sleep problems and sleep duration in Iranian school-aged children.

  4. The Impact of Nutrition, Sedentary Behaviour and Lifestyle on School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantea-Stoian Anca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Diet and lifestyle in school-age children have a particularly large impact on health, as well as various consequences in future. The objective of this papers it to assess the relationship between lifestyle and daily diet and the effects of an unhealthy diet. Material and Methods. An observational cohort study was conducted in Bucharest, in three schools and one high school on 100 children, between 2011 and 2013. The criterion for inclusion was the appropriate age (school-age. The protocol consisted in clinical examination, body mass index (BMI calculation, questions about diet, physical activity and time spent watching television (TV. Results. Most children do not respect a schedule of meals and snacks (78%. Unhealthy diet (fast food, carbonated beverages, chocolate registered higher preferences. Mean TV time was 2.32 hours/day (SD=1.92 and a strong evidence on relationship between age and number of hours allocated to TV was discovered (p< .01. Four percent of children were found to be under the 5th percentile (underweight, 18% between 85th and 95th percentile (overweight and 14% above 95th percentile (obesity. Conclusions. A sedentary life in this case was mainly determined by the time spent daily in front of the television rather than lack of exercise.

  5. The relation among sleep duration, homework burden, and sleep hygiene in chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wan-Qi; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Rui; Schonfeld, David; Adams, Ryan; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan

    2014-09-03

    Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration.

  6. Prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and asthma and eczema in school-age children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Lidwien A M; Lenters, Virissa; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that prenatal or early-life exposures to environmental contaminants may contribute to an increased risk of asthma and allergies in children. We aimed to the explore associations of prenatal exposures to a large set of environmental chemical contaminants...... with asthma and eczema in school-age children. METHODS: We studied 1024 mother-child pairs from Greenland and Ukraine from the INUENDO birth cohort. Data were collected by means of an interview-based questionnaire when the children were 5-9 years of age. Questions from the ISAAC study were used to define.......41-0.99). In Greenlandic children, a negative association of PC4 (organochlorines) with ever eczema (OR 0.78, 0.61-0.99) was found. CONCLUSIONS: We found limited evidence to support a link between prenatal exposure to environmental chemical contaminants and childhood asthma and eczema....

  7. Factors influencing the motor development of prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Rafaela S; Magalhães, Lívia C; Dourado, Jordana S; Lemos, Stela M A; Alves, Claudia R L

    2014-09-01

    Despite technological advances in neonatology, premature children are still susceptible to disruptions in neurological development. The current study aimed to analyze the factors that influence motor development in prematurely born school-aged children in Brazil. This cross-sectional study involved 100 "apparently normal" children, aged 8-10 years, born at less than 35 weeks of gestation or with birth weightmotor development was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2). The children's neuropsychological and academic performance was assessed with the Token Test (TT) and Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), respectively. Parents answered questions regarding the child's clinical history and behavior using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and family environment resources (RAF). Hierarchical multivariate analyses revealed that 39% of the children scored lower on the MABC-2, as compared to that expected for their age (manual dexterity: 49%; balance: 35%; throwing/catching a ball: 26%). Multivariate analysis indicated that the lower the birth weight, the maternal age at childbirth, and the RAF score, the greater was the chance of impairment on the MABC-2 scores. The probability of having an impairment MABC-2 scores was four times higher when the mother was not employed. We also found associations between MABC-2 scores and the tasks of tying shoes and opening/closing zippers and buttons. Factors related to children's home environments and birth weight are associated with deficient motor performance in prematurely born Brazilian school-aged children. Deficient motor skills were also associated with difficulty in performing functional tasks requiring greater manual dexterity.

  8. Impact of sociodemographic factors on cognitive function in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children

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    Boyede GO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gbemisola O Boyede,1,2 Foluso EA Lesi,2 Veronica C Ezeaka,2 Charles S Umeh3 1Division of Developmental Paediatrics, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 2Department of Paediatrics, 3Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria Background: In this study, we sought to evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, maternal education, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status, on cognitive performance in school-aged HIV-infected Nigerian children. Methods: Sixty-nine HIV-positive children aged 6–15 years were matched with 69 HIV-negative control children for age and sex. The children were subdivided for the purpose of analysis into two cognitive developmental stages using Piaget’s staging, ie, the concrete operational stage (6–11 years and the formal operational stage (12–15 years. All participants underwent cognitive assessment using Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM. Sociodemographic data for the study participants, ie, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and level of maternal education, were obtained using a study proforma. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine associations of HIV status and sociodemographic characteristics with RPM cognitive scores. Results: The overall mean RPM score for the HIV-positive children was 18.2 ± 9.8 (range 8.0–47.0 which was significantly lower than the score of 27.2 ± 13.8 (range 8.0–52.0 for the HIV-negative children (P < 0.001. On RPM grading, 56.5% of the HIV-positive children had cognitive performance at below average to intellectually defective range. Below average RPM scores were found to be significantly associated with younger age (6–11 years, positive HIV status, lower socioeconomic status, and low level of maternal education. Conclusion: Younger age, poor socioeconomic

  9. Lifestyle, quality of life, nutritional status and headache in school-aged children

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    Kamila Castro

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Headache has been described as a factor with significant negative impact on the quality of life of school-aged children with a high risk of developing in chronic and persistent form in adulthood. Among other headache associated triggers or aggravating factors, lifestyle and obesity has been investigated, but results are still conflicting. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of headache in school-aged children and its relationship to anthropometric characteristics, lifestyle, and quality of life. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in six schools located in two cities in southern Brazil, involving 750 students aged 7 to 14 years. Information was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, clinical variables (presence of headache and menarche, anthropometric data, lifestyle, and quality of life. Results: A total of 185 (24.7% students reported having headache crises in the last 3 months. Among students aged 10 to 14 years, presence of headache was associated with female sex, affecting 32.2% of girls vs. 23.3% of boys (p = 0.042, chi-square test. Anthropometric parameters (data on overweight/obesity were consistent with national prevalence rates, and there was no association between Body Mass Index (BMI and headache. Regarding lifestyle, 2.0% of students reported smoking and 1.6% consuming alcohol occasionally, and neither was associated with headache. Quality of life, especially aspects of social life, appeared to be affected by the presence of headache. Conclusion: This study found a high prevalence of headache in school-aged children, which was associated with female students aged 10-14 years and quality of life.

  10. Pedagogical and didactical rationale of phonemic stimulation process in pre-school age children

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    López, Yudenia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main results of a regional research problem dealing with education in pre-school age. It examines the effectiveness of the didactic conception of the process of phonemic stimulation in children from 3 to 5 years old. The pedagogical and didactic rationale of the process, viewed from the evolutionary, ontogeny, systemic perspective is explained. Likewise, possible scaffolding is illustrated. The suggested procedures focus the provision of support on a systematic and purposely practice which involve first the discrimination of non-verbal sounds and the discrimi-nation of verbal sound later, aiming to the creation of a phonological consciousness.

  11. Trend analyses in the health behaviour in school-aged children study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina W; Molcho, Michal; Rasmussen, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article presents the scope and development of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, reviews trend papers published on international HBSC data up to 2012 and discusses the efforts made to produce reliable trend analyses. METHODS: The major goal of this article...... collecting data from adolescents aged 11-15 years, on a broad variety of health determinants and health behaviours. RESULTS: A number of methodological challenges have stemmed from the growth of the HBSC-study, in particular given that the study has a focus on monitoring trends. Some of those challenges...

  12. Sedentary lifestyle and passive leisure in Czech school-aged children

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    Zdeněk Hamřík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sedentary behaviour and an insufficient level of physical activity in children are the key factors leading to physically inactive behaviour in adulthood associated with the growing prevalence of mass non-communicable diseases in the population of the Czech Republic. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze sedentary lifestyle, focusing on passive leisure (time spent watching television and using computer in school-aged children in the Czech Republic. METHODS: To determine the time spent watching television and using computer, data of a randomly selected set of 11 to 15 year old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4425 was used. Research data collection was conducted within an international research project Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. For statistical processing of results and identification of differences between various age groups of girls and boys, logistic regression analysis in SPSS Statistics 20 programme was used. RESULTS: More than 55% of girls and 60% of boys spend over 2 hours a day in a working week in front of the TV, DVD, video; most of the time was recorded for 13 year old respondents. While playing games on the PC or Playstation occupies more than 2 hours per day for more than a half of boys, for girls more typical is "chatting", "surfing the Internet" or "e-mailing". With age, the proportion of children who spend 2 or more hours a day using computer increases. CONCLUSIONS: The problem of an increasing level of sedentary behaviour in children in their leisure should be addressed together with interventions aimed at increasing the levels of physical activity in children in the national, regional and local policies to encourage physical activity and health in the Czech Republic.

  13. Neurobehavioral outcomes of school-age children born preterm: a preliminary study in the Arabic community

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    Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preterm survivors from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU are considered as high risk group for some neurobehavioral impairments such as cognitive disabilities, developmental delays, social/emotional limitations, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, and academic difficulties. Objective: The current study aimed to investigate the neurobehavioral outcome of premature infants in Saudi Arabia at the school age.Methods: At the school age, preterm children (range 23-29 weeks or ≤ 1.52 kg born from April, 2006 through September, 2008, and who were admitted following birth to a NICU, were evaluated with several neurobehavioral tools. Results: This study includes 53 preterm children, who were followed up at the chronological age that ranged from 6.4-8.0 years. The results of the neurobehavioral assessments showed in general normal social adaptive levels and cognitive abilities, with mean total score of about 91.0 and 90.0, respectively. The prevalence of ADHD among preterm children was high, with result of 34.0% for the inattentive type and 11.3% for the hyperactive/impulsive type. None of the preterm children repeats a grade, but 22.6% utilize a form of special educational supports. Some of the preterm children showed poor school performance in reading skills, writing skills and mathematics skills, with percentages of 26.4%, 28.3% and 15.1%, respectively.Conclusions: The present results emphasize that preterm children are a group of high-risk children who need regular follow-up to track the developmental conditions and to provide the early developmental intervention for optimal outcome.

  14. Parenting and feeding behaviors associated with school-aged African American and White children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.

  15. Cognitive process development in primary school age children with different types of ontogenesis. Course of correction

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    Maksimenko M.You.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient level of mental development of the child, formation of the emotional sphere, voluntary activities and socio-psychological skills are the main indicators of child readiness for schooling. It appears to be important to use the neuropsychological approach in diagnostic and correctional work. Correction of disturbed elements in higher mental functions performed to facilitate learning of educational material by children of primary school age with different types of ontogenesis, which makes it possible to increase adaptive capacity, the stress-resistance of children, and to ensure success in social relations. Presented program has been tested on primary school children with combined disorders of cognitive and emotional-personal spheres, studying in the system of inclusion in school №1321 «Kovcheg» of Moscow city.

  16. Patterns of language and discourse comprehension skills in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Jakob

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined patterns of language and discourse comprehension skills in Swedish school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (n = 16) as compared to a slightly younger group of typically developing children (n = 16) matched for non-verbal cognitive ability. Results suggested significantly lower abilities in narrative discourse comprehension for the ASD group, but not in oral receptive vocabulary or reception of grammar. This difficulty with discourse-level comprehension appeared to be of a general nature, as no evidence was found for the hypothesis that participants with ASD would find comprehension of inferential discourse information disproportionally more difficult than stated information, or for the hypothesis that discourse processing in ASD would be characterized by an elevated processing of explicitly stated narrative details. The study has clinical and educational implications, as the findings suggest that children with ASD would benefit from being offered specific support for discourse-level comprehension.

  17. Overt and relational aggression in Russian nursery-school-age children: parenting style and marital linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C H; Nelson, D A; Robinson, C C; Olsen, S F; McNeilly-Choque, M K

    1998-07-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior as described in Western psychological literature were measured in an ethnic Russian sample of 207 families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Maternal and paternal coercion, lack of responsiveness, and psychological control (for mothers only) were significantly correlated with children's overt aggression with peers. Less responsiveness (for mothers and fathers) and maternal coercion positively correlated with relational aggression. Some of these associations differed for boys versus girls. Marital conflict was also linked to more overt and relational aggression for boys. When entered into the same statistical model, more marital conflict (for boys only), more maternal coercion, and less paternal responsiveness were found to be the most important contributors to overt and relational aggression in younger Russian children.

  18. How Strong and Weak Readers Perform on the Developmental Eye Movement Test (DEM): Norms for Latvian School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdjukova, Jelena; Ekimane, Lasma; Valeinis, Janis; Skilters, Jurgis; Krumina, Gunta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine DEM test performance norms for school-aged children in Latvia, assess how DEM test results correlate with children's reading rates, compare test performance between strong and weak readers. A modified DEM test and a newly developed reading test were administered to 1487 children during a screening survey. Our…

  19. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  20. Co-exposure to environmental lead and manganese affects the intelligence of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeni; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Hong, Yun-Chul; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Won; Bhang, Soo-Young; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2009-07-01

    Exposure to environmental levels of lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn) has been associated with detrimental effects to neurodevelopment. However, little is known about the potential association between environmental levels of Pb and Mn on intelligence of children. The aims of the study were to investigate the association of community level of Pb and Mn with the intelligence of school-aged children, and to explore the implications of joint exposure to these two heavy metals. A cross-sectional examination of blood Pb and Mn concentrations was performed, and the intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined for 261 Korean children aged 8-11 years. The mean blood concentrations of Pb and Mn were 1.73 microg/dL (SD=0.8; median=1.55; range=0.42-4.91) and 14.3 microg/L (SD=3.8; median=14.0; range=5.30-29.02), respectively. Both Pb and Mn showed significant linear relationship with full-scale IQ (Pb, beta=-0.174, p=0.005; Mn, beta=-0.123, p=0.042) and verbal IQ (Pb, beta=-0.187, p=0.003; Mn, beta=-0.127, p=0.036). Blood Pb (DeltaR(2)=0.03) and Mn (DeltaR(2)=0.01) explained 4% of the variances of the full-scale IQ and 5% of the variances of the verbal IQ. When Pb and Mn levels were entered as predictive variables, additive increase in the explained variances was observed. Finally, full-scale IQ and verbal IQ of the children with blood Mn>14 microg/L showed significant association with Pb, whereas group with Mnintelligence of school-aged children, suggesting more attention should be paid to preventing the exposure of disadvantaged children to various combinations of toxic materials.

  1. Prevalence of elimination dysfunction, among primary school age children in Sari

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    M. Basiri,

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Elimination dysfunction is referred to have various difficulties in urination and defecation, such as urinary frequency, delayed with difficulty in voiding or defecation. The prevalence of elimination dysfunction has been varied in different studies, as 21% of children experience elimination dysfunction during their childhood period. Presently, there are no studies pertaining to this difficulty in our country. Therefore, we carried out a descriptive study in primary schools from the Sari Township, regarding voiding and defecation dysfunction among children, and also we identified the epidemiology of the disease, in order to solve problems by implementing teaching programs and screening methods.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on Primary school age students in the Sari Township, during 2007 through 2008. Considering the prevalence of elimination dysfunction (15-25%, confidence coefficient 95%, SE 10%, and the sample size of 2,200 were randomly and equally selected from different parts of the township among the two-sex groups. A standard questionnaire including demographic characteristics and 10 questions on voiding status, in addition to 19 questions regarding defecation status was prepared. Questionnaires were distributed to the students by responsible school personnel and then referred to parents for completion. Data was analyzed by SPSS software and descriptive statistics (Frequency, Mean, and Standard Deviation. Chi Square test (χ² and Student T-test were used to compare the Means. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Of 2201 primary school age students, 48.7% were girls. The mean age was 8.96±1.43 year. Voiding and defecation dysfunction was reported in 38.4% and 29% of the cases respectively. There was no significant relationship between prevalence of voiding dysfunction and other factors such as mean age, sex and level of education; however, there was a significant

  2. Narrative performance of gifted African American school-aged children from low-income backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms.

  3. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

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    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  4. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  5. The relationship between social and motor cognition in primary school age-children

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    Lorcan eKenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThere is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices, theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together.

  6. Relationship Between Dietary Patterns and Socio- Demographic or Lifestyle Factors in Urban School- Aged Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan WANG; Yun CHEN; Wei CHEN; Ai ZHAO; Yu-mei ZHANG; Zhi-shen MU

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the dietary patterns in urban school-aged children in China and determine the relations with socio-demographic or lifestyle factors.MethodsA total of 620 school-aged children from 7 cities in China were recruited in a cross-sectional study and their dietary data over the preceding 6 months were recorded via questionnaire between 2011-2012. The dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis. Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Walis H test was preformed to reveal the relationship between dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics. Results Three major dietary patterns were identified. The traditional pattern had high positive relationships with grains, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, vegetables and soybeans/soybean products. The high-protein pattern was characterized by large positive coefficient for fruits, fish/shrimps, eggs, milk/milk products, soybeans/soybean products and salt. The oil/fat and beverage pattern with highly related with grains, meat/poultry, eggs, oil/fat, salt and beverages. The relationships between the dietary patterns and various socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics were analyzed.Conclusion Three dietary patterns were identified. A clear association was found between the dietary patterns and socio-demographic or lifestyle characteristics.

  7. Behavioral pattern in Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pin Ha; Xu-Qing Zhuge; Qian Zheng; Bing Shi; Cai-Xia Gong; Yan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To obtain descriptive information of behavioral pattern inChinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate.Methods:A total of93 cleft lip and palate patients between the age of6-11 year-old and treated atWestChinaStomatologyHospital were selected.And another 100 unaffected controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited randomly from a common primary school inChengdu.Chart review of medical records was used to obtain psychosocial checklists.Scores were compared with published norms and controls to evaluate the risk of problems, separately for three diagnostic groups.Results:The patients group had lower scores of social and academic competencies, especially those with facial deformity or speech problem. No difference was found in the aspect of activity competency.All patients showed elevations in behavior problems.But the type of behavior problems varied in different genders.Conclusions:Chinese school-aged children with cleft lip and palate are at raised risk for social and academic difficulties.Specific pattern of behavior problems displays differently depending on gender of the patient.

  8. Utterance-final position and pitch marking aid word learning in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Piera; Laaha, Sabine; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the effects of word order and prosody on word learning in school-age children. Third graders viewed photographs belonging to one of three semantic categories while hearing four-word nonsense utterances containing a target word. In the control condition, all words had the same pitch and, across trials, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance. The only cue to word-meaning mapping was the co-occurrence of target words and referents. This cue was present in all conditions. In the Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and at the same fundamental frequency as all the other words of the utterance. In the Pitch peak condition, the position of the target word was varied systematically within each utterance across trials, and produced with pitch contrasts typical of infant-directed speech (IDS). In the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition, the target word always occurred in utterance-final position, and was marked with a pitch contrast typical of IDS. Word learning occurred in all conditions except the control condition. Moreover, learning performance was significantly higher than that observed with simple co-occurrence (control condition) only for the Pitch peak + Utterance-final condition. We conclude that, for school-age children, the combination of words' utterance-final alignment and pitch enhancement boosts word learning.

  9. Types of coordination and syntactic complexity in written discourse of younger school age children

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    IvanoviĆ Maja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time influential linguists considered language development to be basically completed by the age of five or six. Consequently, research on school age children and adolescents has been quite rare. However, during the last two decades, considerable effort has been made to understand the nature of writing processes among schoolchildren. The aim of this paper is to explore writing competence of younger school age children by investigating compound sentences and coordinating conjunctions during the production of a written text. The most important thing in learning how to write is the development of a child's ability to produce and understand complex sentences of various kinds. Coordinating conjunctions are useful for connecting sentences, but compound sentences are often overused and traditionally seem to implicate poor syntactic ability. The examinees were divided in 4 age groups (181 pupils. Each examinee wrote 3 essays, so the whole corpus consisted of 543 texts in total. The analysis of the collected material included two levels: first we identified compound sentences and the number of clauses, and then the type of coordination was determined. The obtained results show the number and type of coordinated constructions which pupils from the first to the fourth grade of primary school produce. Also, coordinating conjunctions indicate the higher level of syntactic complexity of the text they are produced in. This research provides a new insight into syntactic competence of younger pupils in primary school.

  10. Relationship between Sugar Intake and Obesity among School-Age Children in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Fang-Yu; Chen, Ting-Chun; Chen, Wen-Lee; Doong, Jia-Yau; Shikanai, Saiko; Sarukura, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence and problem of overweight and obesity in Taiwanese children have increased. There are many reports that the excessive intake of sugar increases the risk of lifestyle-related disease. However, sugar intake in Taiwanese children is not known. In this study, we investigated sugar intake from sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks and desserts among school-age children in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. We also tried to determine the relationship between sugar intake and body mass index (BMI). We contacted all the public elementary schools (10 schools) in a district, Kaohsiung, and obtained permission from 3 schools. The survey subjects were 410 (210 boys, 200 girls) school-age children (7, 10 and 12 y old). A nutrition survey was conducted using 3 non-consecutive days of the 24 h dietary recall method for sugar-sweetened beverages, snacks and desserts. Height and weight were measured. Sugar intakes were not significantly different among the different genders or ages (p>0.05) and average intake of all was 51.6 g/d. Percentages of each sugar in total intake were sucrose 60%, glucose 18%, fructose 16%, and lactose 6%. The intake of glucose and fructose may have come from isomerized sugar. Contributions of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks (desserts) were 83.5% and 16.5%, respectively. Among the sugar-sweetened beverages the top 3 sources were tea (22%), milk tea (19%) and milk beverages (18%). A relationship between sugar intake and BMI was not observed. In conclusion, sugar intake of the children was higher than the WHO recommendation due to the high intake from beverages; however, sugar was not the cause of the high obesity rate.

  11. School-age children talk about chess: does knowledge drive syntactic complexity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A

    2009-08-01

    This study examined language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children in relation to their knowledge of the topic of discussion-the game of chess. Children (N = 32; mean age = 10;11 [years;months]) who played chess volunteered to be interviewed by an adult examiner who had little or no experience playing chess. Children's chess knowledge and experience was assessed, and each child was classified as a novice or an expert player. Each child participated in 3 speaking tasks: General Conversation, Chess Conversation, and Chess Explanation. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed into Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (J. F. Miller & R. Chapman, 2003), segmented into T-units, and coded for finite clauses. Each speaking task was analyzed for total T-units; mean length of T-unit; clausal density; and nominal, relative, and adverbial clause use. Total T-units, mean length of T-unit, clausal density, and the use of each type of subordinate clause was substantially higher in the Chess Explanation task compared with the Chess Conversation task or the General Conversation task. Compared with the novices, the experts knew more about chess, had played longer, and were stronger players. Nevertheless, the novices and experts did not differ on any of the language factors for any of the speaking tasks. Language productivity and syntactic complexity in school-age children are strongly influenced by the speaking task. When children are presented with a motivating and challenging topic, they rise to the occasion to explain the finer details of it to a naïve adult.

  12. Towards a richer understanding of school-age children's experiences of domestic violence: the voices of children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanston, Jennifer; Bowyer, Laura; Vetere, Arlene

    2014-04-01

    Millions of children are exposed to domestic violence. How children negotiate and make sense of living with domestic violence is still under-researched. This study sought to capture the dual-perspectives of school-aged children and their mothers, to develop a richer understanding of children's experiences of domestic violence, using a community-based sample. A qualitative research design was employed, with interpretative phenomenological analysis used to interpret the data. Five school-aged children and three of their mothers participated in the study. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the children's perspective: domestic violence through the eyes of children; and learning from children's experiences. Two master themes are discussed from the analysis of the mothers' perspective: reflecting on the child in the context of domestic violence; and learning from mothers: insights, support and services. The crucial importance of the mother-child relationship in shaping children's experience of domestic violence was illustrated in both the perspectives; a finding which may have important implications for the development of interventions. It was also evident that children as young as eight were able to powerfully articulate their experiences of domestic violence.

  13. Influence of spatial perception abilities on reading in school-age children

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    Arnaud Saj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial perception abilities enable individuals to explore a visual field, to detect spatial position and to infer relationships between visual stimuli. Written words and text are conceptualized spatially along a horizontal mental line, but little is known about the way children develop these representations. The exact relationship between visuo-spatial perception and academic achievement has never been directly assessed. Therefore, our aim was to study the developmental trajectory of space perception abilities by assessing perceptual, attentional and memory components, the relationship between these abilities and reading achievement in school-age children. Forty-nine children aged between 6.5 and 11 years old were divided into four age groups and were assessed with visual bisection, visual search and visual memory location tasks. The results showed that the groups of older children, from the age of nine, improved significantly on the bisection and visual search tasks with respect to all visual fields, while the groups of younger children showed more errors in the left visual field (LVF. Performances on these tasks were correlated with reading level and age. Older children with a low reading score showed a LVF bias, similar to the youngest children. These results demonstrate how abnormal space perception might distort space representation and in turn affect reading and learning processes.

  14. Oral Health Intervention in School-age Children with Oral Habits

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    Ivette Álvarez Mora

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: malocclusions are considered a major oral health problem and they are mostly associated with oral habits which are not corrected at an early age.Objective: to analyze the effectiveness of an educational intervention in children with oral habits aged 5 to 11 years.Methods: a before and after intervention study with a quasi-experimental design was conducted from October 2008 to April 2009. It included children with oral habits aged 5 to 11 years who attend the Guerrillero Heroico Primary School of the Area II in the municipality of Cienfuegos. Parents and guardians signed the consent for their children participation in the research. Preventive and therapeutic educational measures were used. The results of the intervention were assessed through a before-and-after interview with children, parents or guardians and educators. Results: the level of awareness of children, parents and teachers increased significantly as well as the correction of oral habits in the majority of children, especially tongue thrusting, the use of feeding bottle and pacifier. Better results were found in females. Dentomaxillofacial deformities diminished after the intervention, primarily upper incisors deviated towards the oral vestibule and increased overjet. Conclusions: educational intervention in school-age children contributed to the correction of oral habits.

  15. Children with asthma by school age display aberrant immune responses to pathogenic airway bacteria as infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Thysen, Anna Hammerich

    2014-01-01

    childhood asthma. We hypothesized that children with asthma have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. ObjectiveWe aimed to assess the bacterial immune response in asymptomatic infants and the association with later development of asthma by age 7 years. MethodsThe Copenhagen...... (P = .001), and IL-10 (P = .028), whereas there were no differences in T-cell activation or peripheral T-cell composition. ConclusionsChildren with asthma by school age exhibited an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We propose that an abnormal immune response to pathogenic......BackgroundAsthma is a highly prevalent chronic lung disease that commonly originates in early childhood. Colonization of neonatal airways with the pathogenic bacterial strains Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with increased risk of later...

  16. Electronic media use and sleep in school-aged children and adolescents: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Neralie; Gradisar, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Electronic media have often been considered to have a negative impact on the sleep of children and adolescents, but there are no comprehensive reviews of research in this area. The present study identified 36 papers that have investigated the relationship between sleep and electronic media in school-aged children and adolescents, including television viewing, use of computers, electronic gaming, and/or the internet, mobile telephones, and music. Many variables have been investigated across these studies, although delayed bedtime and shorter total sleep time have been found to be most consistently related to media use. A model of the mechanisms by which media use may affect sleep is presented and discussed as a vehicle for future research.

  17. Audio Recorded Guided Imagery Method to Reduce Stress Hospitalisazation in School Age Children in Palu Hospital

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    Fitria Masulili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hospitalization is a condition of a person because of illness and hospital admission. Research objectives determine the influence of audio recorded guided imagery method to stress of hospitalization in school-age children in hospital in Palu. Quasi-experimental research design with pre and post test design with control group. The sample of children aged 7-12 years were 26 respondents intervention group and 26 control group respondents. Intervention is the method of audio recorded guided imagery, three times a day for two days (one session equal to15 minutes. The results showed the significant difference mean stress score of hospitalization after the intervention (Pv = 0.004. No contribution of confounding variables. Based on these results, audio recorded guided imagery intervention can be applied to care the sick pediatric in hospital.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoqing; Yin, Chunyan; Chang, Ming; Xiao, Yanfeng

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and the risk factors associated with obesity among school-aged children in Xi'an city. The body mass index of 6,740 children aged 7-18 years was compared with the Working Group on Obesity in China cut-off value to estimate the prevalence of obesity. A case-control study of obese and non-obese children was carried out to study risk factors for obesity. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect information on possible risk factors causing obesity. Univariate analysis was performed first to compare the distribution of risk factors between cases and controls. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to assess independent risk factors of obesity. The results showed that the overall prevalence of obesity among school-aged children was 4.11% (4.63% for males and 3.57% for females). A total of 516 subjects (258 pairs of cases and controls) were included in the final analysis. High maternal education and a longer sleeping time were shown to be protective factors against obesity (odds ratio [OR] 0.148, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.074-0.296 and OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.342-0.652, respectively). Whereas family history of diabetes (OR 5.498, 95% CI 2.606-11.600), parental overweight (OR 3.720, 95% CI 2.068-6.689), and watching television, playing video games, and using computers (OR 1.564, 95% CI 1.133-2.159) were associated with a higher obesity risk. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Xi'an has become a concern, and sleeping time, sedentary behavior, and family factors have pronounced effects on the prevalence of obesity.

  19. Interlimb coordination during forward and backward walking in primary school-aged children.

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    Pieter Meyns

    Full Text Available Previous studies comparing forward (FW and backward (BW walking suggested that the leg kinematics in BW were essentially those of FW in reverse. This led to the proposition that in adults the neural control of FW and BW originates from the same basic neural circuitry. One aspect that has not received much attention is to what extent development plays a role in the maturation of neural control of gait in different directions. BW has been examined either in adults or infants younger than one year. Therefore, we questioned which changes occur in the intermediate phases (i.e. in primary school-aged children. Furthermore, previous research focused on the lower limbs, thereby raising the question whether upper limb kinematics are also simply reversed from FW to BW. Therefore, in the current study the emphasis was put both on upper and lower limb movements, and the coordination between the limbs. Total body 3D gait analysis was performed in primary school-aged children (N = 24, aged five to twelve years at a preferred walking speed to record angular displacements of upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot with respect to the vertical (i.e. elevation angle. Kinematics and interlimb coordination were compared between FW and BW. Additionally, elevation angle traces of BW were reversed in time (revBW and correlated to FW traces. Results showed that upper and lower limb kinematics of FW correlated highly to revBW kinematics in children, which appears to be consistent with the proposal that control of FW and BW may be similar. In addition, age was found to mildly alter lower limb kinematic patterns. In contrast, interlimb coordination was similar across all children, but was different compared to adults, measured for comparison. It is concluded that development plays a role in the fine-tuning of neural control of FW and BW.

  20. Hypnosis for treatment of insomnia in school-age children: a retrospective chart review

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    Slothower Molly P

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purposes of this study are to document psychosocial stressors and medical conditions associated with development of insomnia in school-age children and to report use of hypnosis for this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 children and adolescents with insomnia, excluding those with central or obstructive sleep apnea. All patients were offered and accepted instruction in self-hypnosis for treatment of insomnia, and for other symptoms if it was felt that these were amenable to therapy with hypnosis. Seventy-five patients returned for follow-up after the first hypnosis session. Their mean age was 12 years (range, 7–17. When insomnia did not resolve after the first instruction session, patients were offered the opportunity to use hypnosis to gain insight into the cause. Results Younger children were more likely to report that the insomnia was related to fears. Two or fewer hypnosis sessions were provided to 68% of the patients. Of the 70 patients reporting a delay in sleep onset of more than 30 minutes, 90% reported a reduction in sleep onset time following hypnosis. Of the 21 patients reporting nighttime awakenings more than once a week, 52% reported resolution of the awakenings and 38% reported improvement. Somatic complaints amenable to hypnosis were reported by 41%, including chest pain, dyspnea, functional abdominal pain, habit cough, headaches, and vocal cord dysfunction. Among these patients, 87% reported improvement or resolution of the somatic complaints following hypnosis. Conclusion Use of hypnosis appears to facilitate efficient therapy for insomnia in school-age children.

  1. Sex-Based Differences in Asthma among Preschool and School-Aged Children in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yeonsoo; Shin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore risk factors related to asthma prevalence among preschool and school-aged children using a representative national dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted from 2009-2011. We evaluated the demographic information, health status, household environment, socioeconomic status, and parents' health status of 3,542 children aged 4-12 years. A sex-stratified multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals after accounting for primary sample units, stratification, and sample weights. The sex-specific asthma prevalence in the 4- to 12-year-old children was 7.39% in boys and 6.27% in girls. Boys and girls with comorbid atopic dermatitis were more likely to have asthma than those without atopic dermatitis (boys: OR = 2.20, p = 0.0071; girls: OR = 2.33, p = 0.0031). Boys and girls with ≥1 asthmatic parent were more likely to have asthma than those without asthmatic parents (boys: OR = 3.90, p = 0.0006; girls: OR = 3.65, p = 0.0138). As girls got older, the prevalence of asthma decreased (OR = 0.90, p = 0.0408). Girls residing in rural areas were 60% less likely to have asthma than those residing in urban areas (p = 0.0309). Boys with ≥5 family members were more likely to have asthma than those with ≤3 family members (OR = 2.45, p = 0.0323). The factors related to asthma prevalence may differ depending on sex in preschool and school-aged children. By understanding the characteristics of sex-based differences in asthma, individualized asthma management plans may be established clinically.

  2. Hypnosis for treatment of insomnia in school-age children: a retrospective chart review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Ran D; Slothower, Molly P

    2006-01-01

    Background The purposes of this study are to document psychosocial stressors and medical conditions associated with development of insomnia in school-age children and to report use of hypnosis for this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 children and adolescents with insomnia, excluding those with central or obstructive sleep apnea. All patients were offered and accepted instruction in self-hypnosis for treatment of insomnia, and for other symptoms if it was felt that these were amenable to therapy with hypnosis. Seventy-five patients returned for follow-up after the first hypnosis session. Their mean age was 12 years (range, 7–17). When insomnia did not resolve after the first instruction session, patients were offered the opportunity to use hypnosis to gain insight into the cause. Results Younger children were more likely to report that the insomnia was related to fears. Two or fewer hypnosis sessions were provided to 68% of the patients. Of the 70 patients reporting a delay in sleep onset of more than 30 minutes, 90% reported a reduction in sleep onset time following hypnosis. Of the 21 patients reporting nighttime awakenings more than once a week, 52% reported resolution of the awakenings and 38% reported improvement. Somatic complaints amenable to hypnosis were reported by 41%, including chest pain, dyspnea, functional abdominal pain, habit cough, headaches, and vocal cord dysfunction. Among these patients, 87% reported improvement or resolution of the somatic complaints following hypnosis. Conclusion Use of hypnosis appears to facilitate efficient therapy for insomnia in school-age children. PMID:16914044

  3. Physical exercises and massage influence on the organism of school age children with violations of carriage in a frontal plane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruzhylo Galina Grigor'evna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientific researches results on the subject of efficiency evaluation of the physical exercises and massage influence on the carriage of school age (7 - 14years children are adduced. School age children total number of 20 (10 girls and 10 boys with backbone scoliotic curvatures of I - II degree took part in the experiment. There were applied: physical exercises (forming of carriage, unloading of spine, trunk muscles endurance development, exercises in an equilibrium, classic and segmentary massage. It is well-proven that a neat rehabilitation complex rendered effective influence on a carriage probed experimental group by comparison to the children of control group.

  4. Theory of mind and specific language impairment in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George

    2016-01-01

    Research on the relationship between aspects of language development and Theory of Mind (ToM) in children with language impairments suggests that children with language impairment show a delay in ToM development. This study aimed to examine the relationships of the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills with ToM in school-age children. Twenty children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) aged 9-12 years and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language ability (LA) (aged 8-10 years) were compared on a set of language tasks tapping syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills and on an advanced test of ToM. Results showed that children with SLI performed poorly on the ToM task compared to the CA matches. Also, analysis showed that language skills and ToM are related and that syntactic and pragmatic abilities contributed significantly to the prediction of ToM performance in the SLI group. It is concluded that the syntax/pragmatic aspects of the language impact on ToM understanding in children with SLI.

  5. Health and Self-Regulation among School-Age Children Experiencing Family Homelessness

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    Andrew J. Barnes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Children in homeless families have high levels of adversity and are at risk for behavior problems and chronic health conditions, however little is known about the relationship between cognitive-emotional self-regulation and health among school-aged homeless children. Children (n = 86; mean age 10.5 living in shelters were assessed for health, family stress/adversity, emotional-behavioral regulation, nonverbal intellectual abilities, and executive function. Vision problems were the most prevalent health condition, followed by chronic respiratory conditions. Cumulative risk, child executive function, and self-regulation problems in children were uniquely related to child physical health. Homeless children experience problems with cognitive, emotional, and behavioral regulation as well as physical health, occurring in a context of high psychosocial risk. Several aspects of children’s self-regulation predict physical health in 9- to 11-year-old homeless children. Health promotion efforts in homeless families should address individual differences in children’s self-regulation as a resilience factor.

  6. Increasing social interaction using prelinguistic milieu teaching with nonverbal school-age children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Jessica H; Davis, Barbara L; Davis, John L

    2013-08-01

    Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in social interaction within salient play routines. Prelinguistic milieu teaching (PMT) techniques were used to teach the children to communicate intentionally during these routines. Intervention focused on the children's social interaction with an adult. The effects of intervention were evaluated using a multiple baseline design across participants. At study onset, the participants demonstrated few consistent interaction with others. With intervention, all of the children improved their ability to sustain social interactions, as evidenced by an increase in the number of communicative interactions during play routines. Participants also increased their overall rate of initiated intentional communication. Development of intentional prelinguistic communication within salient social routines creates opportunities for an adult to teach social and communication skills to young school-age children with autism who function at a nonverbal level.

  7. Comparative Study of Multimodal and Pharmacological Therapy in Treating School Aged Children with ADHD

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    Susana Bogdana MILEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, one of the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorders among school aged children, continues to create disputes between specialists, upon the best treatment to be used. The herby study aims to bring forward some differences that may exist between the efficacy of the multimodal treatment compared to the drug treatment of ADHD. The novelty component of this study, unfolded February 2010-July 2012, is that the children, their parents and also their teachers were included in the multimodality treatment. The children included in this research (n=63, aged 6-14 and ADHD diagnosed, were randomly assigned in two groups. In the medication (Med group (n=32 the children only received the specific pharmacological treatment (Atomoxetine or Methylphenidate, and for the multimodality (MM group (n=31 the therapy included psychosocial interventions besides the drug therapy. All children were evaluated, both pre and post intervention, with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment – ASEBA, for the 6-18 aged category. We have compared the influence of therapy on the core symptoms, on the adaptive functionality and academic performance and on the competences and social functioning of the children in the two groups. The multimodal intervention proved to be more effective (p<0.05 than medication alone, firstly in ameliorating the child’s social behavior in both family and school environment, than in what concerns the main ADHD symptoms. The children’s academic performance was little impacted by either of the two therapies.

  8. Summer camp and self-esteem of school-age inner-city children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readdick, Christine A; Schaller, G Robert

    2005-08-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that a session of summer camp would increase the self-esteem of economically disadvantaged, school-age children from New York's inner-city neighborhoods. This study was conducted at a small, coeducational residential summer camp in the Pocono Mountains designed for children ages 6-12 years from low-income areas of New York City. During each of four 12-day sessions, the Piers-Harris Children's Self-concept Scale was administered as a pretest and posttest to a sample of 68 children (36 boys and 32 girls; 33 African American, 34 Hispanic, and 1 Asian) of 742 attending camp for the sumnmer. Children scored significantly higher on the measure of self-esteem at the end of camp than at the beginning. Positive descriptions and ratings of self on popularity increased significantly. Observations and interviews with children suggested physical and social environmental features, such as contact with nature and having the same counselor as a previous year, may support self-esteem. Findings are discussed within a framework for biophilia, an innate urge to affiliate with nature which unfolds from earliest childhood on.

  9. Effects of a self-esteem intervention program on school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgas-Pelish, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Self-esteem is essential for school-aged children's optimum health. High self-esteem is linked to increased school performance, improved health, and productive behavior. This study reports on the effects of a four-lesson self-esteem enhancement program for six groups of 5th and 6th grade children (N=98). The interactive lessons dealt with an overview of self-esteem, media influences, hiding emotions, and changes in self-esteem. Using a pre-test/ post-test design, Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The self-esteem subscales dealing with general and social areas were found to significantly increase over time (pself-esteem score. Mean scores showed that children who had friends had more significant changes than those who did not have friends. Children with lower socioeconomic status had lower scores at both the pre and post testing with significance in the general and social subscales. No significance was found related to racial group, family make-up, or the number of household chores or activities. This study supports the effectiveness of a self-esteem enhancement program for girls, those children with friends, and those in lower socioeconomic status. Future research is needed to understand what contributes to the self-esteem of children who report that they do not have friends.

  10. No association between cognitive achievements, academic performance and serum cholesterol concentrations among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Lewis A; Stigger, Cagney B; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Zhang, Jian

    2009-08-01

    The uncertainty of the role of serum cholesterol in neurodevelopment of children has largely hampered the implementation of the fat recommendation to children in the general population. We explored whether serum cholesterol concentrations are associated with cognitive achievements, academic performance in school-aged children and adolescents at the population level. In the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey, blood specimens were collected from 4248 6-16-year-old children and adolescents to assess three serum cholesterol measures, e.g. total serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Cognitive achievements and academic performance were measured on standard tests of arithmetic skills, reading skills, non-verbal reasoning and short-term memory. No significant difference in measures of cognitive and academic performance was observed between children and adolescents stratified by the levels of serum total, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol. Our results suggest that differences within the normal range of serum lipids at a population level are not associated with intelligence and cognition developmental outcomes of children and adolescents.

  11. Habitual Snoring in school-aged children: environmental and biological predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shenghu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Habitual snoring, a prominent symptom of sleep-disordered breathing, is an important indicator for a number of health problems in children. Compared to adults, large epidemiological studies on childhood habitual snoring and associated predisposing factors are extremely scarce. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of habitual snoring among Chinese school-aged children. Methods A random sample of 20,152 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a cross-sectional survey, which was conducted in eight cities of China. Parent-administrated questionnaires were used to collect information on children's snoring frequency and the possible correlates. Results The prevalence of habitual snoring was 12.0% (14.5% for boys vs. 9.5% for girls in our sampled children. Following factors were associated with an increased risk for habitual snoring: lower family income (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, lower father's education (OR = 1.38 and 1.14 for middle school or under and high school of educational level, respectively, breastfeeding duration Conclusion The prevalence of habitual snoring in Chinese children was similar to that observed in other countries. The potential predisposing factors covered socioeconomic characteristics, environmental exposures, chronic health problems, and family susceptibility. Compared to socioeconomic status and family susceptibility, environmental exposures and chronic health problems had greater impact, indicating childhood habitual snoring could be partly prevented by health promotion and environmental intervention.

  12. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

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    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  13. Target-distractor similarity has a larger impact on visual search in school-age children than spacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.

    2015-01-01

    In typically developing children, crowding decreases with increasing age. The influence of target-distractor similarity with respect to orientation and element spacing on visual search performance was investigated in 29 school-age children with normal vision (4- to 6-year-olds [N = 16], 7- to 8-year

  14. Feasibility of Using Actigraphy and Motivational-Based Interviewing to Improve Sleep among School-Age Children and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.; Ward, Teresa M.; Lentz, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate sleep occurs in 25% of our nation's children; poor sleep is associated with physical, cognitive, and social consequences. Developing good sleep hygiene in middle childhood is important, because habits typically extend to adolescence and adulthood; yet, there has been little research on sleep interventions for school-age children.…

  15. Fetal and childhood growth patterns associated with bone mass in school-age children: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H. Raat (Hein); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractLow birth weight is associated with lower bone accrual in children and peak bone mass in adults. We assessed how different patterns of longitudinal fetal and early childhood growth influence bone properties at school age. In 5431 children participating in a population-based prospective

  16. Story Discourse and Use of Mental State Language between Mothers and School-Aged Children with and without Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims: To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare…

  17. Feasibility of Using Actigraphy and Motivational-Based Interviewing to Improve Sleep among School-Age Children and Their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgerodt, Mayumi A.; Kieckhefer, Gail M.; Ward, Teresa M.; Lentz, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate sleep occurs in 25% of our nation's children; poor sleep is associated with physical, cognitive, and social consequences. Developing good sleep hygiene in middle childhood is important, because habits typically extend to adolescence and adulthood; yet, there has been little research on sleep interventions for school-age children. The…

  18. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers.…

  19. Structural and Dialectal Characteristics of the Fictional and Personal Narratives of School-Age African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural and dialectal characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method: Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, generated a fictional narrative and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a…

  20. Vocabulary Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: A Review of Evidence and Good Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sara C.; Mills, Monique T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide evidence to support direct vocabulary intervention practices for primary school-age children with language impairment (LI). A rationale for providing direct vocabulary intervention for children with LI is outlined by reviewing typical and atypical vocabulary acquisition, evidence of instructional…

  1. Facial expressions in school-aged children are a good indicator of 'dislikes', but not of 'likes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, G.G.; Koelen, M.A.; Colindres, D.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2009-01-01

    Our pilot study sought to investigate whether facial expressions are a suitable and accurate method to assess food preferences in school-aged children. Six children, aged 5–13 years, tasted seven stimuli in randomized order: apple, sauerkraut, and beetroot juice, skimmed milk, asparagus solution, a

  2. Sodium intake among U.S. school-age children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifying current major dietary sources of sodium can enhance strategies to reduce excess sodium intake which occurs among 90% of U.S. school-aged children. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data from a nationally representative sample of 2,142 U.S. children aged 6...

  3. Psychiatric disorders and MND in non-handicapped preterm children - Prevalence and stability from school age into adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoihorst, P. F.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.; van Engeland, H.

    2007-01-01

    In preterm children (N = 66) without major physical and/or mental handicaps the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) was assessed at school age (8-10 years). In adolescence (15-17 years) 43 children were reassessed. The study sample was drawn from a cohort of

  4. Prevalence of Thinness, Stunting and Anemia Among Rural School-aged Sudanese Children: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Sarar; Hussein, Mohamed Diab

    2015-08-01

    Nutritional status of school-aged children has an important impact on their physical and mental development. Data on anemia, thinness and wasting among school-aged Sudanese children were limited. To determine the prevalence of anemia, thinness and wasting among school-aged Sudanese children. This cross-sectional study enrolled 835 primary school children aged 6-14 years, who live in Dolgo area in the northern region of Sudan. Weight and height of each child were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. All measurements were plotted on the World Health Organization (WHO) height for age and BMI charts. Hemoglobin was also measured for all participants, and anemia was defined according to the WHO standards. Anthropometric measurements showed that 59 children (7.1%) were stunted and 193 were thin (23.1%). The prevalence of anemia was 29.7%. Stunting, thinness and anemia were significantly common in children anemia among school-aged children in a rural area in Sudan. Our findings warrant the need to implement interventions to improve nutritional status of children in Sudan. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Severe Feeding Problems Secondary to Anatomical Disorders: Effectiveness of Behavioural Treatment in Three School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Tolboom, Jules

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, behavioural treatment is described of three school-aged children with severe feeding problems caused by (surgically corrected) anatomical disorders of the digestive system. Two children showed food refusal and were tube-fed whereas the third child showed extreme food selectivity. During treatment, shaping, (non)verbal…

  6. Nonword Repetition and Phoneme Elision Skills in School-Age Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Byrd, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Nonword repetition and phoneme elision represent the combined influence of several speech and language processes. In the present study we investigated nonword repetition and phoneme elision performance in school-age children who stutter (CWS) and children who do not stutter (CNS). Participants were 14 CWS (mean = 11.7 years, SD = 2.1 years) and…

  7. Psychiatric disorders and MND in non-handicapped preterm children - Prevalence and stability from school age into adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoihorst, P. F.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.; van Engeland, H.

    2007-01-01

    In preterm children (N = 66) without major physical and/or mental handicaps the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and minor neurological dysfunction (MND) was assessed at school age (8-10 years). In adolescence (15-17 years) 43 children were reassessed. The study sample was drawn from a cohort of

  8. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers.…

  9. The Effects of Visual Stimuli on the Spoken Narrative Performance of School-Age African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Monique T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the fictional narrative performance of school-age African American children across 3 elicitation contexts that differed in the type of visual stimulus presented. Method: A total of 54 children in Grades 2 through 5 produced narratives across 3 different visual conditions: no visual, picture sequence, and single…

  10. Complications of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea in school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinopoulou, Sofia; Gallagher, Paul; Elden, Lisa; Garetz, Susan L.; Mitchell, Ron B.; Redline, Susan; Rosen, Carol L.; Katz, Eliot S.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Amin, Raouf; Arens, Raanan; Paruthi, Shalini; Marcus, Carole L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adenotonsillectomy is the treatment of choice for most children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but can lead to complications. Current guidelines recommend that high-risk children be hospitalized after adenotonsillectomy, but it is unclear which otherwise-healthy children will develop post-operative complications. We hypothesized that polysomnographic parameters would predict post-operative complications in children who participated in the Childhood AdenoTonsillectomy (CHAT) study. Methods Children in the CHAT study aged 5–9 years with apnea hypopnea index 2–30/hr or obstructive apnea index 1–20/hr without comorbidities other than obesity/asthma underwent adenotonsillectomy. Associations between demographic variables and surgical complications were examined with Chi square and Fisher’s exact tests. Polysomnographic parameters between subjects with/without complications were compared using Mann-Whitney tests. Results Of the 221 children (median apnea hypopnea index 4.7/hr, range 1.2–27.7/hr; 31% obese), 16 (7%) children experienced complications. 3 (1.4%) children had respiratory complications including pulmonary edema, hypoxemia and bronchospasm. Thirteen (5.9%) had non-respiratory complications, including dehydration (4.5%), hemorrhage (2.3%) and fever (0.5%). There were no statistically significant associations between demographic parameters (gender, race, and obesity) or polysomnographic parameters (apnea hypopnea index, % total sleep time with SpO250 Torr) and complications. Conclusions This study showed a low risk of post-adenotonsillectomy complications in school-aged healthy children with obstructive apnea although many children met published criteria for admission due to obesity, or polysomnographic severity. In this specific population, none of the polysomnographic or demographic parameters predicted post-operative complications. Further research could identify the patients at greatest risk of post-operative complications

  11. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Greeley, Christopher S. [University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Piercey, Lisa M. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children {<=} 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  12. Parents' barriers and strategies to promote healthy eating among school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen

    2016-08-01

    The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Developmental trajectories of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, E; Manders, E; Swillen, A; Zink, I

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to compare developmental courses of structural and pragmatic language skills in school-aged children with Williams syndrome (WS) and children with idiopathic intellectual disability (IID). Comparison of these language trajectories could highlight syndrome-specific developmental features. Twelve monolingual Dutch-speaking children with WS aged 5.10 to 13.3 years were assessed by means of standardised structural language tests measuring receptive and expressive vocabulary and sentence comprehension and production. Pragmatic language was evaluated by means of an expressive referential communication task and a retelling test. All of these language abilities were re-evaluated with the same measures after a period of 18 to 24 months. Performance was compared to 12 children with IID pairwise matched for chronological age (CA) and non-verbal fluid reasoning (Gf) at Time 1. Non-verbal mental age (NVMA) was taken into account when delineating developmental trajectories. Children with WS outperformed children with IID on expressive vocabulary development. In contrast, sentence comprehension was significantly poorer than in children with IID at the second time point. Increased variability and rather poor performance on pragmatic language tasks were demonstrated in the WS group. Irrelevant and off-topic extraneous information transfer continued to be a syndrome-specific characteristic of children with WS. The data provide new insights into diverging developmental trajectories across language domains. Expressive structural language skills tend to progress more rapidly than receptive language skills in children with WS causing more distinctive language profiles over time. Some children with WS seem to benefit from the growth in expressive structural language abilities to enhance their expressive pragmatic language skills, while in some others these abilities remain challenging. This study highlights the need for continued follow-up of language challenges in

  14. Organophosphate pesticide exposure, PON1, and neurodevelopment in school-age children from the CHAMACOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Kogut, Katherine; Huen, Karen; Harley, Kim G; Bouchard, Maryse; Bradman, Asa; Boyd-Barr, Dana; Johnson, Caroline; Holland, Nina

    2014-10-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticides remain widely used in agriculture. Previously, we reported that PON1 genotype was directly associated with neurodevelopment at age two, and that PON1 genotype may increase susceptibility to OP exposure. We examined the relationships of maternal and child PON1 genotype and enzyme activity levels and neurodevelopment at school age and examined their interaction with maternal dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolite levels to investigate differential susceptibility to OP-related neurotoxicity. Participants were from the CHAMACOS longitudinal birth cohort of Latino families in an agricultural region of California. We measured DAP metabolites of OP pesticides in maternal and child urine samples, and analyzed PON1192 and PON1-108 genotypes and enzyme activity [arylesterase (ARYase), paraoxonase (POase)] in maternal and child blood. We examined their association with children׳s performance on the Conners׳ Kiddie Continuous Performance Test (K-CPT) at 5 years (n=296) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) at 7 years (n=327). Maternal and child PON1 genotype was not related to performance on K-CPT or WISC, although WISC scores tended to be lowest in children and children of mothers who carried the PON-108TT genotype. Pregnancy ARYase levels were positively associated with all WISC subscales (e.g., 4.0 point increase in Full Scale IQ per standard deviation increase in ARYase, 95% CI=1.6, 6.4), while pregnancy POase levels were positively associated with WISC Processing Speed only. Maternal PON1-108 weakly modified the relationship of maternal DAPS and K-CPT scores (pinteraction=0.21) and WISC verbal IQ (pinteraction=0.71). The association between DAPs and Full-Scale IQ was strongest for children of mothers with lowest-tertile ARYase levels (pinteraction=0.27). This relationship held for both diethyl and dimethyl DAPs and for all subscales of the WISC. We extend our previous findings that PON1 genotype and enzyme levels may be

  15. Face recognition is similarly affected by viewpoint in school-aged children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Nordt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate on the question when face processing abilities mature. One aspect that has been part of this debate is the ability to recognize faces in and across different viewpoints. Here, we tested 128 participants consisting of school-age children (ages, 5–10 years and adults (ages, 19–37 years in two experiments to investigate the effects of different viewpoints (including front, three-quarter, profile view on face recognition during development. Furthermore, we compared recognition performance for faces to that of another object category (cars. In the first experiment (n = 88 we tested if the pattern of performance for faces presented in different viewpoints is similar in school-aged children and adults. Participants completed a two-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC memory task comprising images of both faces and cars in front, three-quarter and profile view, which were presented in the same viewpoint during learning and testing. In the second experiment (n = 40 we tested if face recognition is similarly affected by viewpoint changes in children and adults. In this experiment the 2AFC memory task included a change of viewpoint between learning and testing. While in both experiments we found higher recognition performance for faces with increasing age, the overall pattern of both viewpoint and viewpoint-change-effects and also the difference between view-change- and no-change-conditions was similar across age groups. In contrast to faces, no viewpoint effects were observed in cars (experiment 1, viewpoint change effects, however, were similar for cars and faces (experiment 2. In sum, our results suggest early maturity of the ability to recognize faces in and across different viewpoints.

  16. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  17. Developmental trajectories for attention and working memory in healthy Japanese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Chiyomi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Tada, Yasuhiro; Anai, Chiduru; Mukasa, Akiko; Yuge, Kotaro; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental trajectories of attention, short-term memory, and working memory in school-aged children using a 10 min test battery of cognitive function. Participants comprised 144 typically developing children (TDC) aged 7-12 years and 24 healthy adults, divided according to age into seven groups (12 males and 12 females for each age group). Participants were assessed using CogHealth, which is a computer-based measure composed of five tasks. We measured attention, short-term memory, and working memory (WM) with visual stimulation. Each task was analyzed for age-related differences in reaction time and accuracy rate. Attention tasks were faster in stages from the age of 7-10 years. Accuracy rate of short-term memory gradually increased from 12 years of age and suddenly increased and continued to increase at 22 years of age. Accuracy rate of working memory increased until 12 years of age. Correlations were found between the ages and reaction time, and between ages and accuracy rate of the tasks. These results indicate that there were rapid improvements in attention, short-term memory, and WM performance between 7 and 10 years of age followed by gradual improvement until 12 years of age. Increase in short-term memory continued until 22 years of age. In our experience CogHealth was an easy and useful measure for the evaluation of cognitive function in school-age children. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Bicycle-riding circumstances and injuries in school-aged children. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturia, Y D; Morehead, T; LeBailly, S; Horwitz, E; Kharasch, M; Fisher, J; Christoffel, K K

    1997-05-01

    To identify bicycle-riding circumstances associated with bicycle-related injury among school-aged children. Case-control. One metropolitan emergency department and 3 suburban emergency departments. Consecutive sample of children aged 7 through 18 years who experienced bicycle-related trauma and control children seen for non-bicycle-related trauma (matched for age within 1 year, sex, and area of residence [urban vs suburban]). Parents and case children were interviewed by telephone about the bicycle ride resulting in their visit to the emergency department. Parents and control children were interviewed about their most recent bicycle ride. The survey instrument addressed the following potential risk factors: helmet use, bicycle speed, road conditions, riding location, bicycle condition, an adult presence, riding destination, bicycle style, and stunt riding. Interviews were completed with 47 (73%) of 64 eligible case children and 42 (69%) of 61 control children with the following age distribution: 27 (30%) of the interviews were completed with children aged 7 to 9 years, 40 (45%) of the interviews were completed with children aged 10 to 14 years, and 22 (25%) of the interviews were completed with children aged 15 to 18 years. Fourteen children (16%) were wearing helmets. There was a high degree of agreement between parent and child responses, higher for case children than for control children. In univariate analyses, injury was associated with riding with other children (vs riding alone or with adults), riding fast or slow (vs normal speed), riding a BMX-style (motocross) bicycle (vs another standard or multispeed style bicycle), playing on the bicycle (vs going to school or other purposeful or nonpurposeful trip), and riding only on the sidewalk (vs in the street). More case children than control children were farther than 3/4 mile (> 1.2 km) from home (38% vs 19%, P = .05). Multiple logistic regression identified' slow riding speed (odds ratio, 10.3;95% confidence

  19. The internal structure of foster-parent completed SDQ for school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Stine; Bøe, Tormod; Breivik, Kyrre

    2017-01-01

    Mental health problems are common in foster-children, and tools to measure the mental health of these children are needed. One candidate instrument is the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a measure of child psychological adjustment that is increasingly being employed by Child Protection services. The aim of the current study was to examine the structural validity of the foster parent completed SDQ in a sample of 237 school aged foster children. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated an excellent fit of the foster parent completed SDQ data to a five-factor model (CFI = 0.96, RMSEA = 0.05, 90% CI [0.04, 0.06]), thus confirming the structural validity of the five-factor model for the parent-version of the SDQ in Norwegian foster children. Measurement invariance analyses indicated that boys had lower thresholds for fighting with or bullying other children than girls. Girls were on their side more likely to be rated as less popular than boys with a similar level of peer problems.

  20. Nutritional condition of school age children. Clinic, anthropo-medical and alimentary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Esther González Hermida

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study of children´s growth in an appropriate indicator of children health condition and should be used as one of the basis in the practice of preventive medicine. Objective: to determine the nutritional al condition of children of third and sixth grade of elementary schools of Health Area V of Cienfuegos Municipality. Methods: descriptive, observational, cross-sectional and relational study of 445 school age children from 4 elementary schools. A clinic assessment was carried out along with an anthropo-medical evaluation. A qualitative survey was developed to assess the frequency of consumption of different alimentary groups. Results: the relation weight/height in the two genders presents a prevalence of normal weight; undernourishment is more common among females, overweight is more usual among boys and obesity can be found in both genders. The variable weight/age showed one bad-nutrition (for defect among females, there was a prevalence of bad-nutrition for excess in both genders. There were no children with height under the third percentile, with prevalence of boys and girls tall and very tall. Bronchial asthma was the most common disease. Conclusions: Food consumption in general, taking into account frequency and kind of food, is not the appropriate. There is a relation between positive clinical findings and the anthropometric assessment of weight/height.

  1. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

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    Choi Hyeon-Jeong

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717. Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324 and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577 than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004 and iron (P = 0.0012 from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources.

  2. Development of interactions between sensorimotor representations in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagerer, Florian A; Clark, Jane E

    2014-04-01

    Reliable sensory-motor integration is a pre-requisite for optimal movement control; the functionality of this integration changes during development. Previous research has shown that motor performance of school-age children is characterized by higher variability, particularly under conditions where vision is not available, and movement planning and control is largely based on kinesthetic input. The purpose of the current study was to determine the characteristics of how kinesthetic-motor internal representations interact with visuo-motor representations during development. To this end, we induced a visuo-motor adaptation in 59 children, ranging from 5 to 12years of age, as well as in a group of adults, and measured initial directional error (IDE) and endpoint error (EPE) during a subsequent condition where visual feedback was not available, and participants had to rely on kinesthetic input. Our results show that older children (age range 9-12years) de-adapted significantly more than younger children (age range 5-8years) over the course of 36 trials in the absence of vision, suggesting that the kinesthetic-motor internal representation in the older children was utilized more efficiently to guide hand movements, and was comparable to the performance of the adults.

  3. Determinants of Anemia and Hemoglobin Concentration in Haitian School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannotti, Lora L.; Delnatus, Jacques R.; Odom, Audrey R.; Eaton, Jacob C.; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Brown, Sarah; Wolff, Patricia B.

    2015-01-01

    Anemia diminishes oxygen transport in the body, resulting in potentially irreversible growth and developmental consequences for children. Limited evidence for determinants of anemia exists for school-aged children. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Haiti from 2012 to 2013 to test the efficacy of a fortified school snack. Children (N = 1,047) aged 3–13 years were followed longitudinally at three time points for hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, anthropometry, and bioelectrical impedance measures. Dietary intakes, infectious disease morbidities, and socioeconomic and demographic factors were collected at baseline and endline. Longitudinal regression modeling with generalized least squares and logit models with random effects identified anemia risk factors beyond the intervention effect. At baseline, 70.6% of children were anemic and 2.6% were severely anemic. Stunting increased the odds of developing anemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–2.08) and severe anemia (adjusted OR: 2.47, 95% CI: 1.30–4.71). Parent-reported vitamin A supplementation and deworming were positively associated with Hb concentrations, whereas fever and poultry ownership showed a negative relationship with Hb concentration and increased odds of severe anemia, respectively. Further research should explore the full spectrum of anemia etiologies in school children, including genetic causes. PMID:26350448

  4. COMPARISON OF THE TOOTH BRUSHING HABITS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN AND THEIR PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Damla Özbek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As they grow, children develop their attitude and behavior related to tooth brushing by taking their parents’ oral-dental health behavior as an example. The purpose of this study was to assess whether there was a similarity in tooth brushing between primary school-age children and their parents presenting to the Department of Oral, Dental and Jaw Diseases and Surgery and the Department of Pedodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Istanbul University. Patients and Methods: The study included 126 children and their parents, as totally 252 subjects. The data on oral hygiene of the subjects were obtained using a questionnaire form including questions on the qualitative-quantitative tooth brushing habits of the children and their parents and the socio-demographic characteristics of their families. Results: In most of the cases, there was a similarity between children and their parents in terms of frequency of dentist visits, the therapy they underwent in their last dentist visit, the cause of caries, the frequency of tooth brushing, the material used for oral hygiene, the duration of tooth brushing, method of tooth brushing, and tooth sites most brushed, which showed a significant association between children and their parents (p<0.01. Conclusion: Correct knowledge given to the children by their families will positively affect the oral-dental health of the children. Thus, firstly, correct knowledge should be given to the parents so that they can successfully carry out their responsibility in being the correct model for their children in oral-dental health.

  5. Bangladeshi school-age children's experiences and perceptions on child maltreatment: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiqul Haque, M; Janson, S; Moniruzzaman, S; Rahman, A K M F; Mashreky, S R; Eriksson, U-B

    2017-09-04

    Child maltreatment (CM) is a public health problem and is recognized as a huge barrier for child development. Most of the research and definitions on CM are from the perspective of high-income western countries. Because no major studies have been conducted on CM in Bangladesh, the aim of the current study was to explore the experiences of and perceptions on CM in school-age children in rural and urban Bangladesh in order to understand maltreatment in a local context and from a child perspective. Semistructured individual interviews with 24 children (13 boys and 11 girls), between the ages of 9 and 13 years of which 11 were schoolgoing and 13 non-schoolgoing, were conducted during July 2013 and analysed according to qualitative content analysis. CM was a common and painful experience with serious physical and emotional consequences but highly accepted by the society. Vulnerable groups were especially young children, girls, and poor children. The children's voices were not heard due to their low status and low position in their families, schools, and working places. The main theme that emerged in the analysis was children's subordination, which permeated the five categories: (a) perception of children's situation in society, (b) understanding children's development and needs, (c) CM associated to school achievement, (d) negative impact of CM, and (e) emotional responses. Different kinds of abuse are obviously common in Bangladesh, and the schools do not follow the law from 2011 prohibiting corporal punishment at school. The society has to take further steps to live up to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was ratified already in 1990, to protect the Bangladeshi children from CM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hoarseness in School-Aged Children and Effectiveness of Voice Therapy in International Classification of Functioning Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın Şenkal, Özgül; Özer, Cem

    2015-09-01

    The hoarseness in school-aged children disrupts the educational process because it affects the social progress, communication skills, and self-esteem of children. Besides otorhinolaryngological examination, the first treatment option is voice therapy when hoarseness occurs. The aim of the study was to determine the factors increasing the hoarseness in school-aged children by parental interview and to know preferable voice therapy on school-aged children within the frame of International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Retrospective analysis of data gathered from patient files. A total of 75 children (56 boys and 19 girls) were examined retrospectively. The age range of school-aged children is 7-14 years and average is 10.86 ± 2.51. A detailed history was taken from parents of children involved in this study. Information about vocal habits of children was gathered within the frame of ICF and then the voice therapies of children were started by scheduling appointments by an experienced speech-language pathologist. The differences between before and after voice therapy according to applied voice therapy methods, statistically significant differences were determined between maximum phonation time values and s/z rate. The relationship between voice therapy sessions and s/z rate with middle degree significance was found with physiological voice therapy sessions. According to ICF labels, most of voice complaints are matching with "body functions" and "activity and limitations." The appropriate voice therapy methods for hoarseness in school-aged children must be chosen and applied by speech-language therapists. The detailed history, which is received from family during the examination, within the frame of ICF affects the processes of choosing the voice therapy method and application of them positively. Child's family is very important for a successful management. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Health effects of digital textbooks on school-age children: a grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seomun, Gyeongae; Lee, Jung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Young; Im, Meeyoung; Kim, Miran; Park, Sun-A; Lee, Youngjin

    2013-10-01

    This qualitative study used the grounded theory approach to analyze digital textbook-related health experiences of school-age children. In-depth interviews were held with 40 elementary school students who had used digital textbooks for at least a year. Data analysis revealed a total of 56 concepts, 20 subcategories, and 11 categories related to digital textbook health issues, the central phenomena being "health-related experiences." Students' health-related experiences were classified into "physical" and "psychological" symptoms. Adverse health effects related to digital textbook usage were addressed via both "student-led" and "instructor-led" coping strategies. Students' coping strategies were often inefficient, but instructor-led strategies seemed to prevent health problems. When health issues were well managed, students tended to accept digital textbooks as educational tools. Our findings suggest that students can form healthy computer habits if digital textbook usage is directed in a positive manner.

  8. Main meal frequency measures in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Laursen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate agreement between questionnaire-based frequency measures from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) and 7-day 24-h recall measures of breakfast, lunch and evening meals among 11-15-year-olds, and examine whether disagreement between the two methods varied...... by socio-demographic factors. METHODS: In one week 11-15-year-old Danish students completed HBSC questionnaires including meal frequency items. The following week they completed daily 24-h recall questionnaire about their meals (response rate 88.4 %, n = 412). RESULTS: Good to moderate agreement...... methods for week day breakfast OR (95 % CI) 2.17 (1.16-4.04) and lunch 2.44 (1.33-4.48). CONCLUSIONS: We found good to moderate agreement between frequency and 7-day 24-h recall measures for breakfast, a fair agreement for lunch and for evening meal the two agreement methods provided different results...

  9. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischi-Gomez, Elda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Vasung, Lana; Griffa, Alessandra; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Monnier, Maryline; Lazeyras, François; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Hüppi, Petra S

    2016-01-01

    Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP) and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP) does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration in network

  10. Brain network characterization of high-risk preterm-born school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Fischi-Gomez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher risk for long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments is one of the hallmarks of extreme prematurity (EP and pregnancy-associated fetal adverse conditions such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR. While neurodevelopmental delay and abnormal brain function occur in the absence of overt brain lesions, these conditions have been recently associated with changes in microstructural brain development. Recent imaging studies indicate changes in brain connectivity, in particular involving the white matter fibers belonging to the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. Furthermore, EP and IUGR have been related to altered brain network architecture in childhood, with reduced network global capacity, global efficiency and average nodal strength. In this study, we used a connectome analysis to characterize the structural brain networks of these children, with a special focus on their topological organization. On one hand, we confirm the reduced averaged network node degree and strength due to EP and IUGR. On the other, the decomposition of the brain networks in an optimal set of clusters remained substantially different among groups, talking in favor of a different network community structure. However, and despite the different community structure, the brain networks of these high-risk school-age children maintained the typical small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics in all cases. Thus, our results suggest that brain reorganizes after EP and IUGR, prioritizing a tight modular structure, to maintain the small-world, rich-club and modularity characteristics. By themselves, both extreme prematurity and IUGR bear a similar risk for neurocognitive and behavioral impairment, and the here defined modular network alterations confirm similar structural changes both by IUGR and EP at school age compared to control. Interestingly, the combination of both conditions (IUGR + EP does not result in a worse outcome. In such cases, the alteration

  11. Involved, Invisible, Ignored: The Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Parents and Their Children in Our Nation's K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosciw, Joseph G.; Diaz, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that there are more than 7 million lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) parents with school-age children in the United States, yet little is known about the experiences of this growing number of LGBT-headed families in schools across the country. In order to fill this crucial gap in our knowledge of LGBT issues…

  12. Dietary and physical activity/inactivity factors associated with obesity in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-07-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time children spent performing moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) at school, compared the amount and intensity of PA during school hours with after-school hours, and tried to determine if diet behaviors and PA or inactivity were associated with excess weight and body fat. This cross-sectional study included 143 normal-weight (NLW) and 48 obese children aged 8-10 y. Diet data were obtained from two 24-h recalls. Body composition was measured by bioimpedance. Screen time and sports participation data were self-reported. NLW children drank/ate more dairy servings than the obese children, who consumed more fruit-flavored water than the NLW group. Consumption of soft drinks, sugar-added juices, and fresh juices was low in both groups. Children were less active during school hours than after school. MVPA was lower during school hours in the obese group than in the NLW group. Schools, parents, and authorities should be more involved in promoting strategies to improve the dietary habits and PA levels of school-aged children, because this group is not achieving the recommended level of daily MVPA.

  13. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  14. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. Results The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). Conclusions This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children. PMID:26371758

  15. Nutritional status and growth parameters of school-age Roma children in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroski, Igor; Dimitrovska, Zlatanka; Gjorgjev, Dragan; Mikik, Vladimir; Efremova-Stefanoska, Vesna; Naunova-Spiroska, Daniela; Kendrovski, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Main objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of school age Roma children in Macedonia in order to detect precursors of possible health risks at an early age. The study was designed as a comparative case control study. Study group consisted of 229 Roma school children from the 1st and 272 from the 5th grade residing in different towns in Macedonia. The control group was recruited from other than Roma ethnic background and consisted of 283 children attending 1st and 356 children attending 5th grade. Every participant was measured for his/hers body height and weight. The t-test and Chi square (Chi2) were applied to test statistical significance of variables. The WHO's AnthroPlus software was applied to assess growth parameters and population at risk. There were significant differences in values of the body weight (p = 0.001) and height (p = 0.001) between Roma and non-Roma children attending the 1st grade of primary school. Weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age indexes of the 1st grade children significantly differred in in the same intervals of SD (> or = -2SD and or = -1SD and median; > +1SD and Roma and non-Roma 5th graders. Anthropometric parameters of nutritional status of Roma children in Macedonia are significantly different than those of their non-Roma peers. Their health risks are predominantly related to underweight. The parameters related to health risks of overweight or obesity are lower in Roma than in non-Roma children.

  16. Caffeine intake from carbonated beverages among primary school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Wolnicka, Katarzyna; Jarosz, Mirosław; Jaczewska-Schuetz, Joanna; Taraszewska, Anna; Siuba-Strzelińska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess caffeine intake from cola beverages and energy drinks, as well as the consumption frequency among primary-school-age children in relation to other dietary habits. The study included 329 children (aged 11-13 years) from five randomly selected schools in Warsaw. Caffeine intake was assessed from a food frequency questionnaire. The face-to-face interview method was selected. 89.7% of the children consumed carbonated beverages whom caffeine, of which nearly 24% consumed energy drinks. The median caffeine intake from carbonated beverages was 0.12 mg/kg body weight/day, accounting for 4.8% of the recommended maximum daily intake from all dietary sources. Frequent consumers of cola drinks were often found to eat fast foods, as well as salty snacks. Caffeine intake in the studied group of children turned out to be at a safe level. The safe dose of caffeine does not mean that consumption of carbonated drinks should not raise any concerns. The recently established legal ban on selling unhealthy foods at school is a good idea, since the school should not be a place for improper dietary models.

  17. Physical Activity and Physical Fitness of School-Aged Children and Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiley Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by impairments in social communication deficits and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities. Literature comparing the physical activity and fitness of children with ASD to typically developing peers is in need of attention. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the physical activity and fitness of school-aged children with ASD (N=17 in comparison to typically developing peers (N=12. Participants with ASD completed diagnostic and developmental assessments and a series of physical fitness assessments: 20-meter multistage shuttle, sit-and-reach test, handgrip strength, and body mass index. Physical activity was measured using accelerometry and preestablished cut-points of physical activity (Freedson et al., 2005. MANCOVA revealed significant between-group effects in strength (P=.03, while ANCOVA revealed significant between-group effects in sedentary (P=.00, light (P=.00, moderate (P=.00, and total moderate-to-vigorous (P=.01 physical activity. Children with ASD are less physically active and fit than typically developing peers. Adapted physical activity programs are one avenue with intervention potential to combat these lower levels of physical activity and fitness found in children with ASD.

  18. Iodine Status and Iodised Salt Consumption in Portuguese School-Aged Children: The Iogeneration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Leite, João; Keating, Elisa; Pestana, Diogo; Cruz Fernandes, Virgínia; Maia, Maria Luz; Norberto, Sónia; Pinto, Edgar; Moreira-Rosário, André; Sintra, Diana; Moreira, Bárbara; Costa, Ana; Silva, Sofia; Costa, Vera; Martins, Inês; Castro Mendes, Francisca; Queirós, Pedro; Peixoto, Bruno; Carlos Caldas, José; Guerra, António; Fontoura, Manuel; Leal, Sandra; Moreira, Roxana; Palmares Carvalho, Irene; Matias Lima, Rui; Martins, Catia; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Almeida, Agostinho; Azevedo, Luís; Calhau, Conceição

    2017-05-05

    The World Health Organization promotes salt iodisation to control iodine deficiency. In Portugal, the use of iodised salt in school canteens has been mandatory since 2013. The present study aimed to evaluate iodine status in school-aged children (6-12 years) and to monitor the use of iodised salt in school canteens. A total of 2018 participants were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional survey in northern Portugal. Children's urine and salt samples from households and school canteens were collected. A lifestyle questionnaire was completed by parents to assess children's eating frequency of iodine food sources. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The median UIC was 129 µg/L which indicates the adequacy of iodine status and 32% of the children had UIC < 100 µg/L. No school canteen implemented the iodised salt policy and only 2% of the households were using iodised salt. Lower consumption of milk, but not fish, was associated with a higher risk of iodine deficiency. Estimation of sodium intake from spot urine samples could be an opportunity for adequate monitoring of population means. Implementation of iodine deficiency control policies should include a monitoring program aligned with the commitment of reducing the population salt intake.

  19. Neural evidence for enhanced attention to mistakes among school-aged children with a growth mindset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans S. Schroder

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who believe intelligence is malleable (a growth mindset are better able to bounce back from failures than those who believe intelligence is immutable. Event-related potential (ERP studies among adults suggest this resilience is related to increased attention allocation to errors. Whether this mechanism is present among young children remains unknown, however. We therefore evaluated error-monitoring ERPs among 123 school-aged children while they completed a child-friendly go/no-go task. As expected, higher attention allocation to errors (indexed by larger error positivity, Pe predicted higher post-error accuracy. Moreover, replicating adult work, growth mindset was related to greater attention to mistakes (larger Pe and higher post-error accuracy. Exploratory moderation analyses revealed that growth mindset increased post-error accuracy for children who did not attend to their errors. Together, these results demonstrate the combined role of growth mindset and neural mechanisms of attention allocation in bouncing back after failure among young children.

  20. Neural evidence for enhanced attention to mistakes among school-aged children with a growth mindset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroder, Hans S; Fisher, Megan E; Lin, Yanli; Lo, Sharon L; Danovitch, Judith H; Moser, Jason S

    2017-04-01

    Individuals who believe intelligence is malleable (a growth mindset) are better able to bounce back from failures than those who believe intelligence is immutable. Event-related potential (ERP) studies among adults suggest this resilience is related to increased attention allocation to errors. Whether this mechanism is present among young children remains unknown, however. We therefore evaluated error-monitoring ERPs among 123 school-aged children while they completed a child-friendly go/no-go task. As expected, higher attention allocation to errors (indexed by larger error positivity, Pe) predicted higher post-error accuracy. Moreover, replicating adult work, growth mindset was related to greater attention to mistakes (larger Pe) and higher post-error accuracy. Exploratory moderation analyses revealed that growth mindset increased post-error accuracy for children who did not attend to their errors. Together, these results demonstrate the combined role of growth mindset and neural mechanisms of attention allocation in bouncing back after failure among young children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail: dryazici@yahoo.com; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  2. Motor function at school age in children with a preschool diagnosis of developmental language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Richard I; Majnemer, Annette; Platt, Robert W; Shevell, Michael I

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate fine motor (FM) and gross motor (GM) function shortly after school entry in children with a preschool diagnosis of developmental language impairment (DLI). A cohort of children (n = 70) diagnosed at pre-school age with DLI was reevaluated in elementary school. Language, cognitive, and motor outcomes were assessed through the use of the Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI). Language was further assessed through the use of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale, Peabody Picture Vocabulary, and Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Tests. Performance below -1.5 SD of the normative mean on any test was considered to represent impairment. Forty-three children (mean age, 7.4 +/- 0.7 years) underwent reassessment at a mean of 3.8 +/- 0.7 years after initial preschool assessment. Mean scores for BDI motor domains (FM, 78.3 +/- 11.4; GM, 84.9 +/- 13.3) fell below normative values. Twenty-two children (52%) had motor impairment (FM, 17 of 42; GM, 15 of 42); 35 of 43 (81%) continued to have language impairment. BDI communication raw scores correlated most strongly with FM (rho = 0.73, P < .001) and GM (rho = 0.58, P = .003) raw scores but showed only moderate correlations with cognitive raw scores (rho = 0.41, P = .05). Impaired motor function is an important comorbidity in DLI. Factors critical to motor performance may also contribute to language deficits in DLI.

  3. Relationship between personal, maternal, and familial factors with mental health problems in school-aged children in Aceh province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Fauzan; Yunibhand, Jintana; Sukratul, Sunisa

    2017-02-01

    Recently, mental health problems (MHP) in school-aged children have become a global phenomenon. Yet, the number of children affected remains unclear in Indonesia, and the effects of mental health problems are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MHP in school-aged children and its relationship to personal, maternal, and familial factors in Aceh province, Indonesia. Participants were 143 school-aged children with MHP and their mothers. They completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire, Brief Family Relationship Scale, Parental Stress Scale, Parent's Report Questionnaire, and Indonesian Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Mainly, children were rated to have emotional symptoms by their mothers (37.8%). Factors such as academic competence, family relationships, and maternal parenting stress are related to MHP. Given the high prevalence of school-aged children that have emotional symptoms, child psychiatric mental health nurses should give special attention to assist them during their school years. Moreover, nurses should aim to improve family relationships and reduce maternal parenting stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of administration of Streptococcus salivarius K12 on the occurrence of streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis, scarlet fever and acute otitis media in 3 years old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, F; Colombo, M; Giuliani, M G; Danza, M L; Basile, I; Bollani, T; Conti, A M; Zanvit, A; Rottoli, A S

    2016-11-01

    Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12) is a probiotic strain strongly antagonistic to the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. Shown to colonize the oral cavity and to be safe for human use, BLIS K12 has previously been reported to reduce pharyngo-tonsillitis episodes in children or adults known to have experienced recurrent streptococcal infection. The present study was focussed upon evaluating the role of BLIS K12 in the control of streptococcal disease and acute otitis media in children attending the first year of kindergarten. By randomization, 222 enrolled children attending the first year of kindergarten were divided into a treated group (N = 111) receiving for 6 months a daily treatment with BLIS K12 (Bactoblis®) and a control group (N = 111) who were monitored as untreated controls. During the 6 months of treatment and 3 months of follow-up, the children were evaluated for treatment tolerance, and for episodes of streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis, scarlet fever and acute otitis media. During the 6-month trial (N = 111 per group) the incidence of streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis, scarlet fever and acute otitis media was approximately 16%, 9% and 44% respectively in the treated group and 48%, 4% and 80% in the control group. During the 3-months follow-up (N = 29 per group) the corresponding rates of infection were 15%, 0% and 12% in the treated group and 26%, 6% and 36% in the controls. No apparent side effects were detected in the treated group either during treatment or follow-up. All of the enrolled children completed the study. The daily administration of BLIS K12 to children attending their first year of kindergarten was associated with a significant reduction in episodes of streptococcal pharyngitis and acute otitis media. No protection against scarlet fever was detected.

  5. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  6. The association between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin L; Williams, Patty L; Willows, Noreen D; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-07-20

    Education is a crucial social determinant of health. Food insecurity can be detrimental to children's academic achievement, potentially perpetuating a cycle of poverty and food insecurity. We aimed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and academic achievement in Canadian school-aged children. Cross-sectional study of children and parents. Parents completed the short-form Household Food Security Survey Module and questions about income and education level (socio-economic status). Children completed FFQ. Data were prospectively linked to children's performance on standardized exams written one year later. Mixed-effect logistic regression was employed to assess the relationship between food insecurity and likelihood of meeting academic expectations adjusting for socio-economic status, diet quality and potential confounders. Nova Scotia, Canada in 2011-2012. Students (n 4105) in grade 5 (10-11 years; 2167 girls) and their parents. Low food security was reported by 9·8 % of households; very low food security by 7·1 % of households. Students from low-income households and reporting poor diet quality were less likely to do well in school. Children who lived in households reporting very low food security had 0·65 times the odds (OR=0·65; 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) of meeting expectations for reading and 0·62 times the odds (OR=0·62; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·86) of meeting expectations for mathematics. Very low household insecurity is associated with poor academic achievement among children in Nova Scotia.

  7. Academic performance and intelligence scores of primary school-aged children with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwosu, Osita; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Chukwu, Barth

    2013-11-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are faced with complications which may interfere with their educational activities including academic performance. Reports on their academic performance are mainly from developed countries and the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the academic performance of primary school-aged children with SCA in Nigeria and compare findings with a group of controls. Ninety children with SCA aged 5-11 years were consecutively recruited at the SCA clinic of UNTH Enugu and their age- and sex-matched normal classmates were enrolled as controls. Academic performance of the children with SCA was studied using the overall scores achieved in the three term examinations in the preceding academic year (2009/2010), while their intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined using the Draw-A-Person Test. The findings were compared with that of 90 controls. The mean overall academic score of the children with SCA of 62.71 ± 19.43% was similar to 67.47 ± 16.42% in the controls (P = .077). However, a significantly higher number of children with SCA (32.2% vs. 16.7% of the controls; P = .015) scored below 50%, thus, had poor performance. The mean IQ of the subjects (91.41 ±16.61%) was similar to that of the controls (95.56 ±17.31%, P = .103). However, more SCA patients had lower IQ scores than controls though not statistically significant (P = 0.083). The overall academic performance of children with SCA, therefore, compares favorably with that of controls although there is a higher prevalence of poor performance among them.

  8. An overview of indoor air quality and its impact on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Chua Poh; Jalaludin, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The indoor environment is a major source of human exposure to pollutants. Some pollutants can have concentrations that are several times higher indoors than outdoors. Prolonged exposure may lead to adverse biologic effects, even at low concentrations. Several studies done in Malaysia had underlined the role of indoor air pollution in affecting respiratory health, especially for school-aged children. A critical review was conducted on the quantitative literature linking indoor air pollution with respiratory illnesses among school-aged children. This paper reviews evidence of the association between indoor air quality (IAQ) and its implications on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children. This review summarizes six relevant studies conducted in Malaysia for the past 10 years. Previous epidemiologic studies relevant to indoor air pollutants and their implications on school-aged children's respiratory health were obtained from electronic database and included as a reference in this review. The existing reviewed data emphasize the impact of IAQ parameters, namely, indoor temperature, ventilation rates, indoor concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matters (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and airborne microbes, on children's respiratory health. The study found that most of the Malaysian school-aged children are exposed to the inadequate environment during their times spent either in their houses or in their classrooms, which is not in compliance with the established standards. Children living in households or studying in schools in urban areas are more likely to suffer from respiratory illnesses compared with children living in homes or studying in schools in rural areas.

  9. Play and video effects on mood and procedure behaviors in school-aged children visiting the pediatrician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns-Nader, Sherwood; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Thoma, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    This study examines how different types of activities, including medical play, typical play, and videos, affect the mood and behaviors of children visiting a pediatric office. Seventy-two school-aged children visiting a pediatrician's office were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: medical play, medical information video, typical play, and nonmedical information video control. Children completed a mood self-report measure and their behaviors were recorded during triage by nurses. The medical information video improved the school-aged children's mood. Children in the medical information video displayed less difficult behaviors during procedures than the medical play group. The findings suggest that providing information about medical equipment through a video of a child engaging in medical play may benefit children visiting the pediatrician.

  10. Psycho-pedagogіcal characteristic of adaptive mobile games for deaf children of primary school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іvahnenko A.A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Conducted psycho-pedagogical and medico-biological basis of usage specially adapted mobile games in the psychophysical development of deaf children of primary school age. Determine the importance of mobile gaming as a means of physical education for this children's category. As a result of research found wellness, educational, educate and correctional importance of mobile games adapted deaf schoolchildren. Adaptive mobile games are effective media for psychophysical development of deaf children that brings to improvement of cognitions.

  11. Sleep Patterns in School-Age Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The course of sleep patterns over 2-3 years was compared between 16 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children, using 1-week actigraphy at baseline and follow-up. At baseline (mean age 11.1 years), children with AS/HFA had longer sleep latency and…

  12. On certain aspects of the semantic development of younger primary school-age children

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    Stevanović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to understand the meaning of words and sentences is an important determinant of the language development, which also indicates the development of the ability to learn. Bearing this in mind, the research was aimed at studying the level of semantic development of younger primary school-age children. Semantic development was studied from the aspect of understanding the meaning of words and their use in the following lexical relations: homonyms, antonyms, synonyms and metonyms. The research was conducted in three Belgrade primary schools during the school year 2013/2014. The sample was convenient and included 431 second- and third-grade pupils. The Semantic test (by S. Vladisavljevic was used in the study. Research results showed that none of the pupils had provided the correct answer to all administered tasks. The best scores were achieved on the part of the test referring to antonyms, while the pupils were least successful on the tasks referring to metonyms. Additionally, third-grade pupils were more successful than younger participants, while there were no differences according to gender. The results indicated that it was necessary to devote more attention to different lexical and semantic exercises at preschool and early school age, considering the link between semantic development, the acquisition of reading and writing skills and the (unsuccessful mastering of the school curriculum in the majority of subjects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative, saradnje, stvaralaštva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u društvu i br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije

  13. Streptococcus pneumoniae pharyngeal colonization in school-age children and adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Preti, Valentina; Gaspari, Stefania; Colombini, Antonella; Zecca, Marco; Terranova, Leonardo; Cefalo, Maria Giuseppina; Ierardi, Valentina; Pelucchi, Claudio; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cancer, particularly those with hematologic malignancies, are at an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and they are included in the list of subjects for whom pneumococcal vaccination is recommended. The main aim of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in school-aged children and adolescents with cancer to determine the potential protective efficacy of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). An oropharyngeal swab was obtained from 277 patients (age range 6-17 years) with cancer during routine clinical visits and analyzed for S. pneumoniae using real-time polymerase chain reaction. S. pneumoniae was identified in 52 patients (18.8%), including 47/235 (20.0%) with hematologic malignancies and 5/42 (11.9%) with solid tumors. Colonization declined significantly with an increase in age (odds ratio [OR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.71, and OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.82 in children aged 10-14 and ≥15 years, respectively, as compared to those <10 years). Carriage was more common among patients with leukemia or lymphoma than in children with solid tumors. Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis was significantly associated with reduced pneumococcal carriage (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.19-0.89). A total of 15/58 (25.9%) and 26/216 (12.0%) children were colonized by PCV13 serotypes among cancer patients previously vaccinated and not vaccinated with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), respectively. In conclusion, this study indicates that children and adolescents with cancer are frequently colonized by S. pneumoniae. Because most of the carried serotypes are included in PCV13, this vaccine is presently the best solution to reduce the risk of IPD in these patients.

  14. The bond between school-age children and their dogs, and the socioemotional effects of this bond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schencke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous international studies have proved that owning a pet can enhance the quality of life of school-age children; however, there have been no such studies in Chile. The objective of the present study is to analyzes the bond between school-age children and their dogs, and the socioemotional effects of such bond, in particular as it relates to self-identity and the perception of social support. Some differences appear in the results of international studies, in the sense that no significant difference can be observed in terms of self-identity or perceived social support between children who own a dog and children who don’t. However, it is significant that children who perceive themselves as unpopular have a stronger bond with their pets than those who perceive themselves as popular.

  15. Daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children with and without anemia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiu-Min; Liu, Hui; Qian, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is an important public health and clinical problem. Observational studies have linked iron deficiency and anemia in children with many poor outcomes, including impaired cognitive development. In this study, we summarize the evidence for the effect of daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children. We searched electronic databases (including MEDLINE and Wangfang database) and other sources (August 2015) for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials involving daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in children aged 5-12 years. We combined the data using random effects meta-analysis. We identified 3219 studies; of these, we evaluated 5 full-text papers including 1825 children. Iron supplementation cannot improve global cognitive scores (Mean difference 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.69 to 4.79, Piron supplementation improves global cognitive c outcomes among primary-school-aged children is still unclear.

  16. Patterns of Close Relationships and Socioemotional and Academic Adjustment among School-Age Children with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Mikulincer, Mario

    2004-01-01

    This study examined patterns of close relationships among school-age children with learning disabilities (LD) as manifested in their attachment style, their self-perceived loneliness, their sense of coherence, and teacher ratings of their academic functioning. In line with resilience theory, this study also aimed to further explore predictors of…

  17. The Design and Development of a Computerized Attention-Training Game System for School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsui-Ying; Huang, Ho-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    A computerized attention-training game system has been developed to support attention training for school-aged children. The present system offers various types of computer games that provide training in different aspects of attention, such as selective attention, sustained attention, and divided attention. The N-tier architecture of the Web-based…

  18. Sleep, Cognition, and Behavioral Problems in School-Age Children: A Century of Research Meta-Analyzed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astill, Rebecca G.; Van der Heijden, Kristiaan B.; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Clear associations of sleep, cognitive performance, and behavioral problems have been demonstrated in meta-analyses of studies in adults. This meta-analysis is the first to systematically summarize all relevant studies reporting on sleep, cognition, and behavioral problems in healthy school-age children (5-12 years old) and incorporates 86 studies…

  19. The Effects of Self-Management Education for School-Age Children on Asthma Morbidity: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Emily; Grimes, Deanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of asthma self-management education for school-age children on number of school days missed, emergency department visits and hospital admissions were evaluated through a systematic review of the published research. A total of 9 studies on asthma education programs that were conducted in schools by school nurses and health educators and…

  20. Parental Smoking During Pregnancy and Total and Abdominal Fat Distribution in School-age Children: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Taal, H.R.; Manniesing, R.; Raat, H.; Hofman, A.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children.Methods:We performed a population-based prospective cohort study amo

  1. The Feasibility of a Group Bender-Gestalt Test for Preschool and Primary School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Denis P.

    1975-01-01

    Study devised and tested a method for group administration of the Bender-Gestalt Test that would be feasible for screening large groups of beginning school-age children. Results indicate that the group method of presentation can yield results as valid and reliable as the traditional individual method of administration. (Author)

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Syntactic Treatment Procedures with Cantonese-Speaking, School-Age Children with Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Carol K. S.; Lui, Hoi Ming; Li, Xin Xin; Lam, Gary Y. H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sentence-combining (SC) and narrative-based (NAR) intervention approaches to syntax intervention using a randomized-controlled-trial design. Method: Fifty-two Cantonese-speaking, school-age children with language impairment were assigned randomly to either the SC or the NAR treatment…

  3. Locating Common Ground: An Exploration of Adult Educator Practices that Support Parent Involvement for School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Catherine Dunn

    2013-01-01

    This article explores linkages between adult educator practices and the parent involvement needs of adult students with school-age children. A comparative case study examined the knowledge, experiential, self-efficacy, and social capital dimensions of adult educator practices that inform parent involvement efforts. One English as a Second Language…

  4. Effects of prenatal PCB and dioxin background exposure on cognitive and motor abilities in Dutch children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, HJI; Lanting, Caren; Mulder, PCH; Boersma, ER; Weisglas-Kuperus, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate whether effects of exposure to environmental levels of PCBs and dioxins on development in the Dutch cohort persist until school age. Study design: In the Dutch PCB/dioxin study, cognitive and motor abilities were assessed with the McCarthy Scales of Children's

  5. The Effects of Self-Management Education for School-Age Children on Asthma Morbidity: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Emily; Grimes, Deanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of asthma self-management education for school-age children on number of school days missed, emergency department visits and hospital admissions were evaluated through a systematic review of the published research. A total of 9 studies on asthma education programs that were conducted in schools by school nurses and health educators and…

  6. Understanding the Psychosocial Sequelae of the Murder of a Grandparent/Caregiver: Cases of Jamaican School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Annette; Clarke, Charmaine

    2004-01-01

    While the area of trauma and recovery in adults has received significant scholarly attention, there is a paucity of literature, both conceptual and empirical, addressing the impact of extreme traumatic events on the coping capacity of school-age children. Even less studied is the role of various individual, social, and cultural factors in…

  7. Bilingual Lexical Skills of School-Age Children with Chinese and Korean Heritage Languages in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Gisela; Chen, Jennifer; Kim, HyeYoung; Chan, Phoenix-Shan; Jeung, Changmo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the bilingual lexical skills of 175 US school-age children (5 to 18 years old) with Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean as their heritage language (HL), and English as their dominant language. Primary study goals were to identify potential patterns of development in bilingual lexical skills over the elementary to…

  8. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and correlated risk factors in preschool and school-aged children in rural Southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Wang

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of 1707 children in 141 impoverished rural areas of Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces in Southwest China. Kato-Katz smear testing of stool samples elucidated the prevalence of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections in pre-school and school aged children. Demographic, hygiene, household and anthropometric data were collected to better understand risks for infection in this population. 21.2 percent of pre-school children and 22.9 percent of school aged children were infected with at least one of the three types of STH. In Guizhou, 33.9 percent of pre-school children were infected, as were 40.1 percent of school aged children. In Sichuan, these numbers were 9.7 percent and 6.6 percent, respectively. Number of siblings, maternal education, consumption of uncooked meat, consumption of unboiled water, and livestock ownership all correlated significantly with STH infection. Through decomposition analysis, we determined that these correlates made up 26.7 percent of the difference in STH infection between the two provinces. Multivariate analysis showed that STH infection is associated with significantly lower weight-for-age and height-for-age z-scores; moreover, older children infected with STHs lag further behind on the international growth scales than younger children.

  9. Television viewing and alcohol advertising with alcohol expectancies among school-aged children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Chiu, Yu-Chan; Ting, Te-Tien; Liao, Hsin-Yao; Chen, Wei J; Chen, Chuan-Yu

    2016-05-01

    This study is aimed to examine the strength of association between television watching and potential exposure to alcohol advertising with multidimensional alcohol expectancies in school-aged children. A total of 779 4th (age 10) and 768 6th (age 12) grade students were recruited from 17 public elementary schools in northern Taiwan in 2006, with two waves of follow-up at 6 months apart. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information concerning individual characteristics, parental attributes, past-week screen time, drinking behaviors, and alcohol expectancies. Data of aired alcohol advertisements at baseline were obtained from the Nielsen Media Research Advertising Information Services; parenting styles were ascertained from the 1st follow-up. Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Children version was used to measure alcohol expectancies (AEs) at baseline and the 2nd follow-up. Nearly 27% of students reported watching television for more than two hours per day and 58% watching television after 9 p.m. Dimension-related heterogeneity exists in the relationship between TV viewing and alcohol advertising with AEs. With statistical adjustment for covariates, spending more than two hours watching TV per day was associated with increased levels of positive AEs "Promoting Relaxation or Tension Reduction [PRTR]" (β=1.52, 95% CI=0.92, 2.12; p8.0 ads: β=-1.06, 95% CI=-1.66, -0.47, pmedia literacy curriculum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effectiveness of assertiveness training for school-aged children on bullying and assertiveness level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avşar, Fatma; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an assertive training for school-aged children on peer bullying and assertiveness. A quasi-experimental design using pre- and post-testing was conducted. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, an assertiveness scale, and the peer victimization scale. The training program was comprised of eight sessions which were implemented to intervention group. Descriptive characteristics were not statistically different between the groups (p>0.05). The peer victimization victim dimension results show that post-test mean scores of the students in the intervention group were lower than the pre-test mean scores (p0.05). A comparison of the mean pre-test/post-test scores of peer-victimization bully dimension of the students' intervention and control groups revealed that the mean post-test scores of the students in the each group decreased (p>0.05). An assertiveness training program increased the assertiveness level and reduced the state of being victims, but did not affect the state of being bullies. The results of this study can help children acquire assertive behaviors instead of negative behaviors such as aggression and shyness, and help them to build effective social communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of reading comprehension ability in primary school-aged children who have pragmatic language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Children who have pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI) have difficulties with the use of language in social contexts and show impairments in above-sentence level language tasks. Previous studies have found that typically developing children's reading comprehension (RC) is predicted by reading accuracy and spoken sentence level comprehension (SLC). This study explores the predictive ability of these factors and above-sentence level comprehension (ASLC) on RC skills in a group of CwPLI. Sixty nine primary school-aged CwPLI completed a measure of RC along with measures of reading accuracy, spoken SLC and both visual (pictorially presented) and spoken ASLC tasks. Regression analyses showed that reading accuracy was the strongest predictor of RC. Visual ASLC did not explain unique variance in RC on top of spoken SLC. In contrast, a measure of spoken ASLC explained unique variance in RC, independent from that explained by spoken SLC. A regression model with nonverbal intelligence, reading accuracy, spoken SLC and spoken ASLC as predictors explained 74.2% of the variance in RC. Findings suggest that spoken ASLC may measure additional factors that are important for RC success in CwPLI and should be included in routine assessments for language and literacy learning in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sequenced neurocognitive and behavioral parent training for the treatment of ADHD in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, A; Bedard, A-C V; Marks, D; Gopalan, G; Feirsen, N; Uderman, J; Chimiklis, A; Heber, E; Cornwell, M; Anderson, L; Zwilling, A; Ramon, M

    2017-02-23

    The present study examines the potential of sequencing a neurocognitive intervention with behavioral parent training (BPT) to improve executive functions (EFs), psychiatric symptoms, and multiple indices of functional impairment in school-age children aged 7 to 11 years who have been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, in a randomized controlled trial design, 85 children were assigned to either Cogmed Working Memory Training (CWMT) followed by an empirically supported, manualized BPT intervention, or to a placebo version of CWMT followed by the same BPT intervention. Working memory maintenance (i.e., attention control/short-term memory), working memory processing and manipulation, ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, impairment in parent-child dynamics, familial impairment, and overall functional compromise were evaluated as outcomes. The results suggest specific effects of the combined CWMT and BPT program on verbal and nonverbal working memory storage and nonverbal working memory processing and manipulation but no incremental benefits in regard to ADHD symptoms, ODD symptoms, and functional outcomes. The present findings do not support the hypothesis regarding the complementary and augmentative benefits of sequenced neurocognitive and BPT interventions for the treatment of ADHD. These results, the study's limitations, and future directions for research are further discussed.

  13. Child to child: an approach to the health education of primary school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J K

    1988-01-01

    Child to Child is an approach to health education of the primary school-age child. In developing countries, infants and young children spend much of their lives in the care of an older brother or sister. Morley, a paediatrician, saw the potential of teaching these older children to provide better care for their siblings. Working with colleagues in education, Child to Child was launched in 1978, the International Year of the Child. Teaching material was prepared covering developmental needs, nutrition, common illnesses and aspects of the environment; a book was published describing an activity-oriented teaching method. This material was distributed to developing countries world-wide, with encouragement to use the material and ideas freely, adapting, translating, or innovating as found useful. Child to Child is now in use in 60 or more countries, and in at least 15 languages. It is being used by agencies like the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO, and OXFAM as a way of reinforcing community education in the search for 'Health for All by 2000'. A world-wide review of Child to Child is in hand. Information from this will help to provide firm guidelines on implementation in the different contexts where its value has already been established.

  14. Single Parents, Working Mothers and the Educational Achievement of Secondary School Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David E.; And Others

    This paper presents a replication of previous research which estimated a structural equation model relating elementary school age students' achievement to the number of parents and maternal work. The research presented here focuses on secondary school age students, and provides partial support for previous findings in which elementary school age…

  15. A review of non-strabismic accommodative-vergence anomalies in school-age children. Part 1: Vergence anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O. Wajuihian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Comfortable reading and the performance of near point activities involve efficient accommodative and vergence systems. However, accommodative and vergence anomalies are associated with various symptoms that impair efficient near point tasks. Although several studies investigated accommodative-vergence anomalies in school-age populations, their findings were diverse owing to differences in diagnostic techniques and the criteria used to define the variables. The aim of this paper is to derive prevalence and distribution estimates of vergence anomalies in school-age children and address variations in the study methods and findings. Despite variations in the study methods and findings, accommodativevergence anomalies were common in school-age populations. Variations and limitations of previous studies are discussed and recommendations for improving future studies are suggested.

  16. Contralateral Noise Stimulation Delays P300 Latency in School-Aged Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Ubiali

    Full Text Available The auditory cortex modulates auditory afferents through the olivocochlear system, which innervates the outer hair cells and the afferent neurons under the inner hair cells in the cochlea. Most of the studies that investigated the efferent activity in humans focused on evaluating the suppression of the otoacoustic emissions by stimulating the contralateral ear with noise, which assesses the activation of the medial olivocochlear bundle. The neurophysiology and the mechanisms involving efferent activity on higher regions of the auditory pathway, however, are still unknown. Also, the lack of studies investigating the effects of noise on human auditory cortex, especially in peadiatric population, points to the need for recording the late auditory potentials in noise conditions. Assessing the auditory efferents in schoolaged children is highly important due to some of its attributed functions such as selective attention and signal detection in noise, which are important abilities related to the development of language and academic skills. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of noise on P300 responses of children with normal hearing.P300 was recorded in 27 children aged from 8 to 14 years with normal hearing in two conditions: with and whitout contralateral white noise stimulation.P300 latencies were significantly longer at the presence of contralateral noise. No significant changes were observed for the amplitude values.Contralateral white noise stimulation delayed P300 latency in a group of school-aged children with normal hearing. These results suggest a possible influence of the medial olivocochlear activation on P300 responses under noise condition.

  17. Empowerment in parents of school-aged children with and without developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshen, J S; Minnes, P

    2005-12-01

    Despite the widespread use of the term 'empowerment' in clinical literature to describe both a desirable process and the outcome of service delivery, the term remains more of a theoretical than practical construct. This study examined the factors that contribute to empowerment in parents of school-aged children with and without developmental disabilities (DD) using the Double ABCX model of family adaptation contrasted with the linear ACBX model. Parents of children with (n = 100, 97% mothers) and without (n = 100, 98% mothers) DD completed questionnaires relating to child behaviour problems, parent stress and well-being, and formal and informal support. Structural equation modelling was used Parents of children with DD reported more child behaviour problems, more stress, less well-being and more social support than parents of children without DD. Structural equation modelling supported the ACBX model for both groups. A linear relationship was found in which parent well-being and resources mediated the relationship between the stressor (child behaviour problems) and the outcome (empowerment). The results of the current study support Hastings and Taunt's assertion in 2002, in that empowerment was adequately explained using a traditional model of family functioning. The significant prediction offered by the parent's resources points to the need to deliver services in a manner that is more family-centred. In the education system, this means providing parents with clear messages regarding the schools goals, clarifying the parent's rights and responsibilities, including the parent in planning and decision making, respecting their knowledge as caregivers and supporting their hopes for their child.

  18. Elevated level of serum osteopontin in school-age children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akelma, A Z; Cizmeci, M N; Kanburoglu, M K; Bozkaya, D; Catal, F; Mete, E; Kutukoglu, I; Namuslu, M

    2014-01-01

    The role of osteopontin (OPN) has not been elucidated in childhood asthma. Our purpose was to investigate whether OPN levels change due to allergic inflammation in pre-school and school-age children. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 42 healthy children and a total of 51 children with asthma were recruited. OPN levels and its association with clinical and laboratory parameters were investigated in the study population. The asthma group were divided into two groups with respect to age, ≤ 5-years (n = 23) and >5-years (n = 28), and labelled Asthma Group 1 and Asthma Group 2, respectively. OPN levels were compared between subgroups. Serum OPN levels were significantly higher in the asthma group when compared to the control group (p = 0.004). OPN levels were similar in Asthma Group 1 and control groups, whereas it was found to be higher in Asthma Group 2 (p>0.025, p = 0.001, respectively). In the >5-years age asthmatic group, OPN levels of the patients with allergic rhinitis (n = 15) were higher than those of the patients (n=13) without allergic rhinitis (p = 0.021). The study underscores the relationship between childhood asthma and OPN as the first study in the literature. In this study we found that OPN, which plays a role in Th2 mediated inflammation, may also play a role in childhood asthma. The fact that OPN levels do not increase in preschool-age children with asthma might be due to the transient wheezing in this group. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Reliability and validity of the Korean version of Pediatric Voice Handicap Index: in school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Shin; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Seong Hee; Lee, Won Yong; Hong, Young Hye; Jeong, Nyun Gi; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI) for cross-cultural adaptation of the Korean version with school age children. The questionnaire was translated into Korean and was completed by 101 Korean parents who have children with or without disordered voice. The Korean version-pVHI scores were obtained with 60 parents of normal children and 41 parents who have children with voice problems. Content validity was verified by five experienced speech-language pathologists with clinical specialization in voice disorders. Internal consistency was calculated through Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliability of the Korean version-pVHI score was determined using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare GRBAS with the Korean version-pVHI scores between normal and dysphonia group. The relationship between the parent-reported the Korean version-pVHI total scores and perceptual ratings of voice quality from experts was investigated using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed that the Korean version-pVHI provided a high internal consistency (α=0.92) and test-retest reliability of its subscales: total (T) 0.97, functional (F) 0.90, physical (P) 0.95, emotional (E) 0.92. The Korean version-pVHI mean scores in normal group were 1.28 (T), 0.62 (F), 0.35 (P) and 0.32 (E), respectively whereas those of the Korean version-pVHI in children group with dysphonia were 23.13 (T), 8.90 (F), 9.54 (P) and 4.93 (E). Significant differences in the Korean version-pVHI (T, F, P, E) and perceptual evaluation (grade, rough, breathy) between normal and dysphonia group were revealed (PKorean version-pVHI parameters (T) and perceptual measures (G) was exhibited in children with dysphonia. The subjective Korean version-pVHI can be applicable and useful supplementary tool for evaluating parents' perception of their children's voice dysfunction, identifying

  20. It takes nine days to iron a shirt: the development of cognitive estimation skills in school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Brian T; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Fein, Deborah A; Bullard, Sarah E; Aviv, Alyson

    2007-07-01

    Data are presented for 315 elementary school-aged children (K-11) who took the Biber Cognitive Estimation Test, a 20-item test with five estimation questions in each of four domains: quantity, time/duration, weight, and distance/length. Performance showed significant development yearly until around the age of nine years, with much slower development subsequently. No gender effects were found. Age and fund of knowledge correlated with overall test performance. Fund of information accounted for a large proportion of the variance in estimation skills for children 8 years and under, but not for children 9 years and older. Since estimation skills require retrieval and manipulation of relevant knowledge and inhibition of impulsive responding and are necessary in many everyday tasks, it was anticipated that this test may provide a useful measure of judgment and estimations and may correlate with other executive skills in school-aged children.

  1. Health implications of chronic hepatosplenomegaly in Kenyan school-aged children chronically exposed to malarial infections and Schistosoma mansoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Shona; Vennervald, Birgitte J; Kadzo, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    Hepatosplenomegaly among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa is highly prevalent. Two of the more common aetiological agents of hepatosplenomegaly, namely chronic exposure to malaria and Schistosoma mansoni infection, can result in similar clinical presentation, with the liver and spleen...... investigated in a study area where children were chronically exposed to malaria throughout while S. mansoni transmission was geographically restricted. Hepatosplenomegaly was associated with increased portal vein diameters, with enlargement of the spleen rather than the liver being more closely associated...... with hepatosplenomegaly. Children who presented with hepatosplenomegaly had the lowest height-for-age Z-scores. This study shows that hepatosplenomegaly associated with chronic exposure to malaria and schistosomiasis is not a benign symptom amongst school-aged children but has potential long-term health consequences....

  2. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers. Results of the study revealed that children with SLI performed similarly to their typically developing peers on a single word spelling task. Alternatively, those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia evidenced poor spelling accuracy. Errors made by both those with dyslexia and SLI/dyslexia were characterized by numerous phonologic, orthographic, and semantic errors. Cumulative results support the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in typically developing school-age children and their peers with SLI and dyslexia. Findings are provided as further support for the notion that SLI and dyslexia are distinct, yet co-morbid, developmental disorders. PMID:22876769

  3. Daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children with and without anemia: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xiu-min; Liu, Hui; Qian, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is an important public health and clinical problem. Observational studies have linked iron deficiency and anemia in children with many poor outcomes, including impaired cognitive development. In this study, we summarize the evidence for the effect of daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children. We searched electronic databases (including MEDLINE and Wangfang database) and other sources (August 2015) for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled ...

  4. Low level exposure to manganese from drinking water and cognition in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Maryse F; Surette, Céline; Cormier, Pierre; Foucher, Delphine

    2017-07-15

    manganese and cognitive development in this sample of school-age children although the data suggest there might be sex-specific associations. Given the low levels of exposure and sex-specific associations, a larger sample size would have been required to increase the statistical power and better characterize the relations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Hearing in school-aged children with trisomy 21 - results of a longitudinal cohort study in children identified at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaneza, M M C; Hunter, K; Irwin, S; Kubba, H

    2016-12-01

    To report the prevalence of hearing problems and the hearing sequelae in school-aged children with trisomy 21 in a longitudinal study. All children with trisomy 21 were identified via schools, community-based child development centres, general practitioners, or the universal newborn hearing screen. Audiological data and otorhinolaryngological problems were prospectively entered in to the Audiological Surveillance Programme database from each visit. Retrospective review of the Audiological Surveillance Programme database in the Glasgow area (United Kingdom) of all children reviewed between 2004 and 2012. All pre-teenaged children with trisomy 21 of school age (aged 5-12 years old). Hearing thresholds, aetiology of hearing loss and management of hearing loss was determined for the cohort of children. A total of 102 children were included. Fifty-four had normal hearing. Twenty-six had fluctuating otitis media with effusion; five had hearing in normal limits, six were managed with hearing aids, fourteen were managed conservatively, and one had ventilation tube insertion. Fifteen had persistent otitis media with effusion; four had ventilation tube insertion; and nine were managed with hearing aids. Seven had mixed hearing loss with four required hearing aids. Otitis media with effusion was the commonest cause of hearing impairment; effusions may fluctuate through the pre-teenaged years, and thus, hearing aids are beneficial. Ventilation tube insertion and bone-conducting hearing aids were useful when ear-level hearing aids were not tolerated. Mixed hearing loss occurred in later years as sensorineural hearing loss developed on a background of otitis media with effusion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Perinatal dioxin exposure and psychosocial and behavioral development in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yumi; Oka, Akira; Tada, Hiroshi; Itabashi, Kazuo; Matsui, Eiko; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between psychosocial and behavioral problems in children at school age and dioxin level in breast milk or estimated dioxin exposure (EDE) through breastfeeding in the general Japanese population. Dioxin level of breast milk at 1month of age and breastfeeding ratio through the first year of life were used to calculate the EDE of infants born in 1998-2005 in Japan. The Japanese Social Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the assessment of children's behavior was sent by mail to mothers whose breast milk underwent the dioxin survey, at the time when their infants were aged 6-13 years. The study subjects were 175 pairs of mothers and their first infants (79 boys, 96 girls). The mean total dioxin levels of breast milk were 18.3 and 19.8 (pgTEQ/g fat) and EDEs were 16.4 and 19.6 (ngTEQ/kg/year) in boys and girls, respectively. In linear multiple regression analyses after adjusting for age at SDQ, maternal age, birth weight and maternal smoking habit, dioxin level in breast milk was not significantly related to the total difficulties score (TDS) of SDQ in boys, B=2.29 (95% CI -7.60-12.18), or in girls, B=-1.04 (95% CI -9.24-7.15). EDE correlated to the TDS in neither boys, B=-0.99 (95% CI -4.14-2.15), nor girls, B=1.08 (95% CI -2.69-4.85). No evidence was found of a correlation between perinatal dioxin exposure and behavioral and psychosocial problems of children measured by SDQ. These results support the benefits of recommending breastfeeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Common household chemicals and the allergy risks in pre-school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunok Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs on allergic airway diseases in children remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: We examined the residential concentrations of VOCs, emitted from building materials, paints, furniture, and other lifestyle practices and the risks of multiple allergic diseases as well as the IgE-sensitization in pre-school age children in Sweden. METHODS: In a case-control investigation (198 case children with asthma and allergy and 202 healthy controls, air samples were collected in the room where the child slept. The air samples were analyzed for the levels of eight classes of VOCs. RESULTS: A natural-log unit of summed propylene glycol and glycol ethers (PGEs in bedroom air (equal to interquartile range, or 3.43 - 15.65 µg/m(3 was associated with 1.5-fold greater likelihood of being a case (95% CI, 1.1 - 2.1, 1.5-fold greater likelihood of asthma (95% CI, 1.0 - 2.3, 2.8-fold greater likelihood of rhinitis (95% CI, 1.6 - 4.7, and 1.6-fold greater likelihood of eczema (95% CI, 1.1 - 2.3, accounting for gender, secondhand smoke, allergies in both parents, wet cleaning with chemical agents, construction period of the building, limonene, cat and dog allergens, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP, and di(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP. When the analysis was restricted to the cases, the same unit concentration was associated with 1.8-fold greater likelihood of IgE-sensitization (95% CI, 1.1 - 2.8 compared to the non-IgE sensitized cases. No similar associations were found for the other classes of VOCs. CONCLUSION: We propose a novel hypothesis that PGEs in indoor air exacerbate and/or induce the multiple allergic symptoms, asthma, rhinitis and eczema, as well as IgE sensitization respectively.

  8. Micronutrient supplementation improves physical performance measures in Asian Indian school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Mario; Pauline, Maria; Unni, Uma S; Parikh, Panam; Thomas, Tinku; Bharathi, A V; Avadhany, Sandhya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Mehra, Ruchika; Kurpad, Anura V

    2011-11-01

    Micronutrients are important in physical work capacity and therefore performance. The impact of a multi-micronutrient-fortified nutritional beverage on physical performance measures among clinically healthy school-age children was assessed in a double-blind (for test and placebo groups), placebo-controlled, randomized trial in children aged between 7 and 10.5 y (n = 300). The participants with height- and weight-for-age Z-scores between 0 and ≥ -3 were randomized to 1 of 3 study arms: fortified choco-malt beverage powder (F), matched energy equivalent unfortified placebo (U), and untreated control (C). Participants in the F and C groups were given 40 g fortified (19 key vitamins and minerals) and unfortified choco-malt beverage, respectively, daily for 120 d. Primary efficacy outcomes included endurance and aerobic capacity using a 20-m shuttle test and step test. Other physical performance measures included speed (40-m sprint), visual reaction time, maximal hand grip, and forearm static endurance. Micronutrient status included thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, iron, pyridoxal phosphate, and vitamins B-12 and C. All measurements were made at baseline and the end of the intervention. There was a within-subject increase in aerobic capacity and whole body endurance (P < 0.05) accompanied by a significant improvement in the status of iron thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxal phosphate, folate, and vitamins C and B-12 in the F group compared to the within-subject changes in the other 2 groups (P < 0.05). The study suggests that multiple micronutrient supplementation in similar populations may be beneficial in improving micronutrient status and enhancing aerobic capacity and endurance in children.

  9. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69 compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  10. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-10-16

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) compared with those who slept for 8-9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children.

  11. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M D Archibald

    Full Text Available Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

  12. Language, reading, and math learning profiles in an epidemiological sample of school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lisa M D; Oram Cardy, Janis; Joanisse, Marc F; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Dyscalculia, dyslexia, and specific language impairment (SLI) are relatively specific developmental learning disabilities in math, reading, and oral language, respectively, that occur in the context of average intellectual capacity and adequate environmental opportunities. Past research has been dominated by studies focused on single impairments despite the widespread recognition that overlapping and comorbid deficits are common. The present study took an epidemiological approach to study the learning profiles of a large school age sample in language, reading, and math. Both general learning profiles reflecting good or poor performance across measures and specific learning profiles involving either weak language, weak reading, weak math, or weak math and reading were observed. These latter four profiles characterized 70% of children with some evidence of a learning disability. Low scores in phonological short-term memory characterized clusters with a language-based weakness whereas low or variable phonological awareness was associated with the reading (but not language-based) weaknesses. The low math only group did not show these phonological deficits. These findings may suggest different etiologies for language-based deficits in language, reading, and math, reading-related impairments in reading and math, and isolated math disabilities.

  13. Dieting patterns and related lifestyles of school-aged children in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Nolan, Geraldine; Kelleher, Cecily; Friel, Sharon

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differences in food habits and lifestyle behaviours by dieting status among young people in Ireland. Cross-sectional survey. Participants responded to a self-completion questionnaire designed by researchers on the World Health Organization's collaborative study - Health Behaviour in School Aged Children. Pupils were selected by school and classroom and the sample was stratified to be representative of the geographical distribution of school students in Ireland. Data were collected by teachers from school pupils in their classrooms. Data were collected from 187 schools which included 8497 pupils (51% girls) aged 9-17 years. While a minority of pupils (12% of girls, 4% of boys) reported that they were on a diet to lose weight, a substantial proportion (28% of girls, 18% of boys) said that they should be on a diet. Dieters reported consuming unhealthy foods less frequently than non-dieters, but did not report an increased consumption of fruit and vegetables. Rather, some categories of dieters reported higher levels of coffee and tobacco use and lower exercise levels than non-dieters. The results could indicate substitution of unhealthy foods by other unhealthy behaviours as opposed to an increased consumption of healthier foodstuffs, and suggest that both smoking and exercise need to be addressed alongside nutrition in youth health promotion.

  14. The relationship between Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ and uneven intellectual development in school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Melling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found correlations between uneven intellectual development and autistic symptom severity but thus far each study has looked only at specific types of discrepancy score and results have been inconsistent. This study used the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ and the British Ability Scales (second edition to look for a correlation between autistic-like traits and an overall index of unevenness based on three types of discrepancy score, namely: discrepancies between IQ subscales; discrepancies between IQ domain scores; and, discrepancies between overall IQ and word-level literacy skills. The AQ scale was designed to measure autistic-like symptoms both in those with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and at all levels across the general population. The study sample was therefore not restricted to children with an ASD. The 106 school age participants had a mean IQ of 97 (SD 19.6 and a mean AQ (child version score of 69.6 (SD 24.6. After controlling for IQ, each of the three intellectual discrepancy types accounted for unique variance in AQ with a large overall effect size. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies are recommended to examine how far uneven intellectual development may be an analogue for aberrant cortical connectivity.

  15. Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford

    2015-06-01

    We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1) causal association not confirmed; 2) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth.

  16. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ishaan K; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and potential academic benefits.

  17. Perception and practice of child labour among parents of school-aged children in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhodion, F O; Uchendu, O C

    2010-05-01

    The problem of child labour has lingered on in many countries because of the complex combination of social, cultural and economic factors involved. Parents play a critical role in child labour as it provides much needed extra income for the family. This study was carried out among parents of school-aged children in an urban, low-income community to determine the factors associated with child labour and attitudes to child labour in the community. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an urban community in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered to parents of school-aged children. A total of 473 parents were interviewed. They were aged between 23 and 56 years, mean 37.9 years. Thirty-nine per cent of parents indicated that they thought their school-aged children should work. More women than men, those from polygamous homes and those with lower educational status held this view. Reasons given for wanting their children to work were to supplement family income, 45%, to gain experience, 35% and to help in family business, 10%. In all, 236 (50%) respondents reported that their school-aged children were working. Parental factors associated with practice of child labour were polygamous marriage, low educational status, unskilled or partly skilled occupation and large family size. Seventeen per cent of parents with working children were not satisfied with their children's work conditions and complained of low earnings, long working hours, work on school days and unsafe work environment. Measures suggested to control child labour include addressing the issue of household poverty, public enlightenment about the ills of child labour and free education up to junior secondary level. Enforcement of child labour laws was the least mentioned. We conclude that control of child labour should be a multifaceted approach involving poverty alleviation, family planning to reduce family size and free, compulsory education up to junior secondary level. Public

  18. Theory of Mind Indexes the Broader Autism Phenotype in Siblings of Children with Autism at School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawny Tsang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical variants of the social-communicative challenges and rigidity that define autism spectrum disorder (ASD are known as the broader autism phenotype (BAP. The BAP has been conceptualized categorically (as specific to a subset of relatives of individuals with ASD and dimensionally (as continuously distributed within the general population. The current study examined the compatibility of these two approaches by assessing associations among autism symptoms and social-communicative skills in young school-age children with ASD, children who have a sibling with ASD, and children without a sibling with ASD. Autism symptoms were associated with reduced Theory of Mind (ToM, adaptive skills, cognitive empathy, and language skills across the full sample. Reduced ToM was a core aspect of the BAP in the current sample regardless of whether the BAP was defined categorically (in terms of siblings of children with ASD who exhibited atypical developmental or dimensionally (in terms of associations with autism symptoms across the entire sample. Early language skills predicted school-age ToM. Findings support the compatibility of categorical and dimensional approaches to the BAP, highlight reduced ToM as a core aspect of the school-age BAP, and suggest that narrative-based approaches to promoting ToM may be beneficial for siblings of children with ASD.

  19. Low Dietary Diversity and Intake of Animal Source Foods among School Aged Children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Herrador

    Full Text Available A low dietary diversity score (DDS and low consumption of food from animal sources (ASF are among the factors related to malnutrition in school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Ethiopia.This study aimed to identify associated determinants for low dietary diversity and lack of consumption of ASF.In 2009, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in May, at the end of the lean season. Socio-demographic characteristics and diet habits were collected from 886 school-aged children. Additionally, 516 children from rural sites were followed up in the post-harvest season, in December of the same year. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess low DDS and ASF intake and their association with different factors.Up to 80% and 60% of school-aged children living in rural and urban sites, respectively, ate ≤ 3 food groups the day before the survey. The percentage of children consuming ASF was significantly higher in urban settings (64% vs 18%. In the rural areas, if the head of the household was male (OR: 1.91; 95%CI: 1.00-3.65 and older than 40 years (OR: 1.56; 95%CI: 1.02-2.38 the child had a lower DDS in the lean season, while differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in the post-harvest season. Males took more ASF than females in rural settings (OR: 1.73; 95%CI: 1.14-2.62 and differences by socioeconomic indexes were observed in both settings in the lean season, though not in post-harvest survey.The findings of this study revealed that the diet among school-aged children in Libo Kemkem and Fogera districts lacked diversity, and that the intake of foods from animal sources was low, especially among rural girls. To effectively tackle malnutrition, dietary diversification strategies oriented to the local needs are recommended.

  20. Bisphenol A exposure and asthma development in school-age children: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Nam Kim

    Full Text Available Although the effect of bisphenol A on various health outcomes has been extensively examined, few studies have investigated its effect on asthma.We hypothesized that exposure to bisphenol A in school-age children was associated with wheezing and asthma.Participants included 127 children aged 7-8 years without a previous asthma diagnosis in an elementary school in Seoul, Korea. Three surveys were conducted, each 2 years apart. Bisphenol A concentration was measured at the baseline survey, and PC20, which is defined as the methacholine concentration that induces a decrease in FEV1 of 20% from baseline, was measured at every survey. Associations between bisphenol A concentration at 7-8 years of age and wheezing, asthma, and PC20 at ages up to 11-12 years were examined using generalized estimating equations, a marginal Cox regression model, and a linear mixed model.The log-transformed creatinine-adjusted urinary bisphenol A concentration at 7-8 years was positively associated with wheezing (odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-5.31; P = .02 and asthma (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.51-3.00; P<.001 at ages up to 11-12 years. Bisphenol A was also negatively associated with PC20 (ß = -2.33; P = .02. When stratified by sex, the association between bisphenol A and asthma remained significant only in girls (hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 2.18-2.76; P<.001.Increased urinary bisphenol A concentrations at 7-8 years old were positively associated with wheezing and asthma and negatively associated with PC20 at ages up to 11-12 years.

  1. Beverage patterns and trends among school-aged children in the US, 1989-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkin Barry M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intake of sugar-sweetened beverages in childhood is linked to increased risk of obesity and type II diabetes later in life. Using three nationally representative surveys of dietary intake, we investigated beverage patterns and trends among US school-aged children from 1989/91 to 2007/08. Methods 3, 583 participants ages 6-11 y old were included. We reported per capita trends in beverage consumption, percent consuming, and amount per consumer for the following categories of beverages: sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB, caloric nutritional beverages (CNB and low calorie beverages (LCB. Statistically significant differences were tested using the Student's t test in Stata 11. Results While per capita kcal contribution from total beverages remained constant over the study period, per capita consumption of SSBs increased and CNBs decreased in similar magnitude. The substantial increase in consumption of certain SSBs, such as fruit drinks and soda, high fat high sugar milk, and sports drinks, coupled with the decrease in consumption of high fat low sugar milk was responsible for this shift. The percent consuming SSBs as well as the amount per consumer increased significantly over time. Per capita intake of total milk declined, but the caloric contribution from high fat high sugar milk increased substantially. Among ethnicities, important differences in consumption trends of certain SSBs and 100% juice indicate the complexity in determining strategies for children's beverage calorie reduction. Conclusions As upward trends of SSB consumption parallel increases in childhood obesity, educational and policy interventions should be considered.

  2. Nutritional status and morbidity pattern in school age children in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bhandari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available School Health has been regarded as a high priority intervention in developing countries. However it has not been prioritized in Nepal for many years. The objectives of the study are to find out the nutritional status and morbidity pattern in school age children. To arouse importance of personal hygiene and healthful surrounding through information, education and communication (IEC. This cross-sectional study was administered in two schools located in Bolde phedeche and Mahure of Kavrepalanchowk. From the selected schools, a total number of 160 students studying from Grade 1 to V were enumerated in the study using census survey method. Among 160 students, the most important three problems were pediculosis 42(26.2 %, dental caries 29(18.1%, and waxy ear 27(17.1 %. Thus the school health education should put more emphasis on oral care, nutrition, personal hygiene and others. Applying classification of Indian Academy of Pediatrics: based on weight for age, 36(55.3% boys and 34(35.8% girls fall under 1st degree malnutrition and 15(23.07% boys and 44(46.3% girls fall under IInd degree malnutrition, 7(7.2 % girls fall under IIIrd degree malnutrition.The health and nutritional standards of school children in this study were found to be unsatisfactory. Among different morbidity pediculosis is found more in girls. The present study put more emphasis on the need for initiation of school health program in the school with more on improving personal hygiene, prevention of disease like parasitic infection/infestation and improvement of their nutritional status. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal,2012,Vol-8,No-2, 12-16 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i2.6832

  3. Interactive effects of family socioeconomic status and body mass index on depression in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fu-Gong; Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Tung, Ho-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Depression is an important health problem in children and the onset of depression is occurring at a younger age than previously suggested. The associations of being overweight and low socioeconomic status in childhood depression have been well documented; nevertheless few studies have addressed the combined effects of socioeconomic status and body weight, with depression in school-age children. We intended to examine if the relationship between socioeconomic status and childhood depression could be modified by abnormal body weight. A cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 559 subjects from 29 elementary schools in Taiwan. A depression scale was used to determine the depression status. Children receiving governmental monetary assistance for after-school class were categorized as being in the lower socioeconomic group. Data for depression-related demographic characteristics, family and school variables were collected. Children in the lower socioeconomic status group have a higher prevalence of depression (23.5%) than those in higher socioeconomic status groups(16.4%). Being overweight demonstrates the opposite effect on depression risk in the different socioeconomic groups. In lower socioeconomic families, the risk of depression in overweight children is three times higher than that for normal weight children; whereas in higher socioeconomic families, overweight children have a lower risk for depression than normal weight children. We concluded that a qualitative interactive effect existed between being overweight and socioeconomic status with childhood depression. More attention should be paid to overweight children from lower socioeconomic status families to prevent depression in school-age children.

  4. Cognition in school-aged children with "active" epilepsy: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Das, Krishna B; Chin, Richard F M; Aylett, Sarah E; Burch, Victoria; Gillberg, Christopher; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of population-based data on specific cognitive profiles in childhood epilepsy. This study sought to determine the frequency of impairments in global cognition and aspects of working memory and processing speed in a population-based sample of children with "active" epilepsy (on antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs), and/or had a seizure in the last year). Factors significantly associated with global and specific difficulties in cognition were also identified. A total of 85 (74% of eligible population) school-aged children (5-15 years) with "active" epilepsy underwent comprehensive psychological assessment including assessment of global cognition, working memory, and processing speed. Scores on cognitive subtests were compared via paired-samples t tests. The factors associated with cognitive difficulties were analyzed via linear regression. A total of 24% of children were functioning below IQ 50, and 40% had IQ scores below 70. Scores on the Processing Speed Index were significantly lower than scores on the Verbal or Performance indexes on Wechsler instruments. The Coding subtest was a significant weakness compared with the other Wechsler subtests. A total of 58% of children displayed "memory underachievement" (memory score 1 SD below assessed IQ) on at least one of the four administered working memory subtests. Factors significantly associated with globally impaired cognition included being on polytherapy (β = -13.0; 95% CI [-19.3, -6.6], p = .000) and having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; β = -11.1, 95% CI [-3.0, -19.3], p = .008). Being on polytherapy was also associated with lower scores on the working memory and processing speed composite scores. Having developmental coordination disorder (DCD) was associated with a lower score on the processing speed composite. There is a high rate of global and specific cognitive difficulties in childhood epilepsy. Difficulties are most pronounced in aspects of working memory and processing speed

  5. Neurobehavioral Function in School-Age Children Exposed to Manganese in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhote, Youssef; Mergler, Donna; Barbeau, Benoit; Bellinger, David C.; Bouffard, Thérèse; Brodeur, Marie-Ève; Saint-Amour, Dave; Legrand, Melissa; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Background: Manganese neurotoxicity is well documented in individuals occupationally exposed to airborne particulates, but few data are available on risks from drinking-water exposure. Objective: We examined associations of exposure from concentrations of manganese in water and hair with memory, attention, motor function, and parent- and teacher-reported hyperactive behaviors. Methods: We recruited 375 children and measured manganese in home tap water (MnW) and hair (MnH). We estimated manganese intake from water ingestion. Using structural equation modeling, we estimated associations between neurobehavioral functions and MnH, MnW, and manganese intake from water. We evaluated exposure–response relationships using generalized additive models. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, a 1-SD increase in log10 MnH was associated with a significant difference of –24% (95% CI: –36, –12%) SD in memory and –25% (95% CI: –41, –9%) SD in attention. The relations between log10 MnH and poorer memory and attention were linear. A 1-SD increase in log10 MnW was associated with a significant difference of –14% (95% CI: –24, –4%) SD in memory, and this relation was nonlinear, with a steeper decline in performance at MnW > 100 μg/L. A 1-SD increase in log10 manganese intake from water was associated with a significant difference of –11% (95% CI: –21, –0.4%) SD in motor function. The relation between log10 manganese intake and poorer motor function was linear. There was no significant association between manganese exposure and hyperactivity. Conclusion: Exposure to manganese in water was associated with poorer neurobehavioral performances in children, even at low levels commonly encountered in North America. Citation: Oulhote Y, Mergler D, Barbeau B, Bellinger DC, Bouffard T, Brodeur ME, Saint-Amour D, Legrand M, Sauvé S, Bouchard MF. 2014. Neurobehavioral function in school-age children exposed to manganese in drinking water. Environ Health

  6. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Sana; Addo, O Yaw; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Ashour, Fayrouz A Sakr; Ziegler, Thomas R; Suchdev, Parminder S

    2016-06-23

    Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC-aged 5.00-14.99 years) globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID) were available only for girls aged 12.00-14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%), n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%), n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%), n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02) and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007). In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005), lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005), ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001), and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02). While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions.

  7. Determinants of Anemia among School-Aged Children in Mexico, the United States and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Syed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anemia affects approximately 25% of school-aged children (SAC—aged 5.00–14.99 years globally. We determined in three countries the prevalence and determinants of anemia in SAC. Data on sociodemographics, inflammation and nutrition status were obtained from the 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Survey, the 2003-6 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, and the 2010 Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición Situación Colombia. In the US, vitamin A and iron deficiency (ID were available only for girls aged 12.00–14.99 years to which our analysis was limited. Associations were evaluated by country using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for confounders and complex survey design. The prevalence of anemia and ID were: Mexico 12% (ID 18%, n = 3660; US 4% (ID 10%, n = 733; and Colombia 4% (ID 9%, n = 8573. The percentage of anemia associated with ID was 22.4% in Mexico, 38.9% in the US and 16.7% in Colombia. In Mexico, anemia was associated with ID (adjusted OR: 1.5, p = 0.02 and overweight (aOR 0.4, p = 0.007. In the US, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 14.1, p < 0.0001 and ID (aOR: 8.0, p < 0.0001. In Colombia, anemia was associated with black race/ethnicity (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.005, lowest socio-economic status quintile (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.0005, ID (aOR: 2.7, p < 0.0001, and being stunted (aOR: 1.6, p = 0.02. While anemia was uniformly associated with iron deficiency in Mexico, Columbia, and the United States, other measured factors showed inconsistent associations with anemia. Additional data on anemia determinants in SAC are needed to guide interventions.

  8. Urine bisphenol-A level in relation to obesity and overweight in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Kun; Miao, Maohua; Zhou, ZhiJun; Wu, Chunhua; Shi, Huijing; Liu, Xiaoqin; Wang, Siqi; Yuan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a potential endocrine disruptor impacting metabolic processes and increasing the risk of obesity. To determine whether urine BPA level is associated with overweight/obesity in school-age children, we examined 1,326 students in grades 4-12 from three schools (one elementary, one middle, and one high school) in Shanghai. More than 98% of eligible students participated. Total urine BPA concentration was measured and anthropometric measures were taken by trained research staff. Information on risk factors for childhood obesity was collected for potential confounders. Age- and gender-specific weight greater than 90(th) percentile of the underlying population was the outcome measure. After adjustment for potential confounders, a higher urine BPA level (≥2 µg/L), at the level corresponding to the median urine BPA level in the U.S. population, was associated with more than two-fold increased risk of having weight >90(th) percentile among girls aged 9-12 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-4.65). The association showed a dose-response relationship with increasing urine BPA level associated with further increased risk of overweight (p = 0.006 for trend test). Other anthropometric measures of obesity showed similar results. The same association was not observed among boys. This gender difference of BPA effect was consistent with findings from experimental studies and previous epidemiological studies. Our study suggests that BPA could be a potential new environmental obesogen. Widespread exposure to BPA in the human population may also be contributing to the worldwide obesity epidemic.

  9. Urine bisphenol-A level in relation to obesity and overweight in school-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Kun Li

    Full Text Available Bisphenol-A (BPA is a potential endocrine disruptor impacting metabolic processes and increasing the risk of obesity. To determine whether urine BPA level is associated with overweight/obesity in school-age children, we examined 1,326 students in grades 4-12 from three schools (one elementary, one middle, and one high school in Shanghai. More than 98% of eligible students participated. Total urine BPA concentration was measured and anthropometric measures were taken by trained research staff. Information on risk factors for childhood obesity was collected for potential confounders. Age- and gender-specific weight greater than 90(th percentile of the underlying population was the outcome measure. After adjustment for potential confounders, a higher urine BPA level (≥2 µg/L, at the level corresponding to the median urine BPA level in the U.S. population, was associated with more than two-fold increased risk of having weight >90(th percentile among girls aged 9-12 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR = 2.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.15-4.65. The association showed a dose-response relationship with increasing urine BPA level associated with further increased risk of overweight (p = 0.006 for trend test. Other anthropometric measures of obesity showed similar results. The same association was not observed among boys. This gender difference of BPA effect was consistent with findings from experimental studies and previous epidemiological studies. Our study suggests that BPA could be a potential new environmental obesogen. Widespread exposure to BPA in the human population may also be contributing to the worldwide obesity epidemic.

  10. An evaluation of a short questionnaire for parents about their school-aged children's global maturity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Jan-Olov; Nordberg, Lillemor; Fried, Ingegärd; Edbom, Tobias; Ekman, Sophie; Rydelius, Per Anders

    2002-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate a questionnaire for parents concerning their school-aged children's global maturity level. Immature children (n = 29) as reported by their parents were compared to a control group (n = 68). Immaturity was linked to a reduced general knowledge, a childish body appearance, problems with the fine motor function and problems with peers. The index group also had on average a lower test result in total score of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and more commission errors in the Continuous Performance Test, both test results indicating a lower mental age.

  11. Children With Disability Are More at Risk of Violence Victimization: Evidence From a Study of School-Aged Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ko Ling; Emery, Clifton R; Ip, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Although research tends to focus on whether children with disability are more at risk of violence victimization, conclusive evidence on the association, especially in non-Western settings, is lacking. Using a large and representative sample of school-aged children in Hong Kong (N = 5,841, aged 9-18 years), this study aims to fill the research gap by providing reliable estimates of the prevalence of disability and the direct and indirect experiences of violence among children with disability. The study also compares the prevalence of child maltreatment, parental intimate partner violence (IPV), and in-law conflict to explore the factors related to the association between disability and violence victimization. The prevalence of disability among children was about 6%. Children with disability were more likely to report victimization than those without disability: 32% to 60% of the former had experienced child maltreatment, and 12% to 46% of them had witnessed IPV between parents or in-law conflict. The results of a logistic regression showed that disability increased the risk of lifetime physical maltreatment by 1.6 times. Furthermore, low levels of parental education and paternal unemployment were risk factors for lifetime child maltreatment. The risk of child maltreatment could have an almost sixfold increase when the child had also witnessed other types of family violence. Possible explanations and implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. ARTICULATION CHARACTERISTICS IN CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM SLI IN EARLY SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana POPOSKA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Getting closer to the articulation segment of SLI is important for diagnosis of children in early school age. Phonologic and articulation status of this population is specific, and acknowledging it, will secure adequate rehabilitation.The theory offers wide analysis of physiology of all speech-language aspects of the developmental period, as well as its pathology. The emphasis is put on the articulation segment in children with SLI.The goal of this study was to establish direct relation between speech-language development delay and the process of sound forming in children with SLI, and in the same time comparing it with the normal speech-language development.In this study a group of 35 children with SLI, and a group of 35 children without this problem were included.The examination was performed with four relevant tests: Global articulation test, Test for examining articulation, Articulation test for analytic estimation of phonologic and articulation disorders and Test for understanding speech.For processing data from empiric frequencies for specific categories in both tested groups, c2 test was used. In the same time, establishing correlation level between groups of different characteristics in examinees, quotient of contingency was included. Since the necessary confirmation of results correlation among different test results scored in both groups, Pearson test of correlation was also used. The results showed some important characteristics of phonologic-articulation disorders. Children suffering from SLI have approximately 20 well pronounced sounds. The biggest problem is pronunciation of sounds from fricative and affricate group, medial position of sound in a word, and the most frequent sound disorder is substitution. Detailed analysis resulted with dominant problem with the place of sound production, except in cases of sound mispronunciation of vowels and nasals.When estimating sound quality in word and sentence order, deviation of

  13. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  14. Lexical Processing in School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Children with Specific Language Impairment: The Role of Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Weismer, Susan Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) often have immature lexical-semantic knowledge; however, the organization of lexical-semantic knowledge is poorly understood. This study examined lexical processing in school-age children with ASD, SLI, and typical development, who were matched on receptive…

  15. Design Elements and Feasibility of an Organized Multiplayer Mobile Active Videogame for Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Sophie; Bangay, Shaun; Barnett, Lisa M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Salmon, Jo

    2014-12-01

    This article describes the design, development, and implementation feasibility of a purpose-built mobile active videogame (M-AVG) named "Pirate Adventure," which was designed for primary school-aged children to engage in physical activity (PA) and fundamental movement skills (FMS), such as hopping, sidestepping, jumping, or running, in an afterschool setting. The design of "Pirate Adventure" was the result of a collaboration between games designers and health researchers. "Pirate Adventure" was designed and developed using Android(®) (Google, Mountain View, CA) phone sensors to respond to player actions within a playground environment. Using an interactive game framework, players solve clues and complete PA and FMS challenges via sensing the physical world through marked-out key game locations. Fourteen primary school-aged children participated in the feasibility evaluation, which took place in four afternoon sessions. The game was evaluated using Android phone telemetry data and a post-gameplay survey for children on their opinions and enjoyment of the game. The "Pirate Adventure" game design facilitated an enjoyable treasure hunt game (average of 11 minutes of activity per game) with narrative elements supporting children's engagement with movement activities. The majority of children (n=9/13) reported that they would like to play the game again. Combining real world and virtual world content through "Pirate Adventure" was moderately successful, with multiple gameplay sessions occurring. Further implementation feasibility testing, under more controlled conditions, needs to be conducted to assert the benefits of using a M-AVG for children's PA and FMS.

  16. Association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Treviño-Garcia-Manzo, Norberto; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Carlos F; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association between family structure, maternal education level, and maternal employment with sedentary lifestyle in primary school-age children. Data were obtained from 897 children aged 6 to 12 years. A questionnaire was used to collect information. Body mass index (BMI) was determined using the age- and gender-specific Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition. Children were categorized as: normal weight (5(th) percentile≤BMIsedentary lifestyle, 57.2%. The percentage of non-intact families was 23.5%. Approximately 48.7% of the mothers had a non-acceptable educational level, and 38.8% of the mothers worked outside of the home. The logistic regression model showed that living in a non-intact family household (adjusted OR=1.67; 95% CI=1.04-2.66) is associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight children. In the group of normal weight children, logistic regression analysis show that living in a non-intact family, having a mother with a non-acceptable education level, and having a mother who works outside of the home were not associated with sedentary lifestyle. Living in a non-intact family, more than low maternal educational level and having a working mother, appears to be associated with sedentary lifestyle in overweight primary school-age children. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality of life and provision of social rehabilitation services in elementary school age children with special needs in Riga City

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Long-term quality of life of children with special needs has not been studied in Latvia, and information on changes of quality of life (QoL) rates during child’s development period is insufficient. The aim of the study was to analyze and compare the QoL related self-reports of school age children with special needs, which were repeatedly carried out once a year (2009–2010), with the proxy reports of their parents, as well as to compare the obtained results with Europe normative data on QoL de...

  18. Vocabulary Intervention for School-age Children with Language Impairment: A Review of Evidence and Good Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sara C; Mills, Monique T

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence to support direct vocabulary intervention practices for primary school-age children with language impairment (LI). A rationale for providing direct vocabulary intervention for children with LI is outlined by reviewing typical and atypical vocabulary acquisition, evidence of instructional strategies from research in mainstream and special education is summarised, and suggestions for vocabulary intervention activities that facilitate deep word knowledge are provided. Suggestions for choosing appropriate vocabulary, using strategies during direct intervention, and conducting activities that increase depth of vocabulary knowledge are included.

  19. Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldfield Gary

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that, independent of physical activity levels, sedentary behaviours are associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease, all-cause mortality, and a variety of physiological and psychological problems. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review is to determine the relationship between sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth aged 5-17 years. Online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO, personal libraries and government documents were searched for relevant studies examining time spent engaging in sedentary behaviours and six specific health indicators (body composition, fitness, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, self-esteem, pro-social behaviour and academic achievement. 232 studies including 983,840 participants met inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Television (TV watching was the most common measure of sedentary behaviour and body composition was the most common outcome measure. Qualitative analysis of all studies revealed a dose-response relation between increased sedentary behaviour and unfavourable health outcomes. Watching TV for more than 2 hours per day was associated with unfavourable body composition, decreased fitness, lowered scores for self-esteem and pro-social behaviour and decreased academic achievement. Meta-analysis was completed for randomized controlled studies that aimed to reduce sedentary time and reported change in body mass index (BMI as their primary outcome. In this regard, a meta-analysis revealed an overall significant effect of -0.81 (95% CI of -1.44 to -0.17, p = 0.01 indicating an overall decrease in mean BMI associated with the interventions. There is a large body of evidence from all study designs which suggests that decreasing any type of sedentary time is associated with lower health risk in youth aged 5-17 years. In particular, the evidence suggests that daily TV viewing in excess of 2

  20. Television viewing and its association with health-related quality of life in school-age children from Montería, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Arango

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: This study provides evidence of significant associations between high TV viewing time and poor HRQoL among school-age children from Monteria, Colombia, which were independent of physical activity and weight.

  1. Sleep, School Performance, and a School-Based Intervention among School-Aged Children: A Sleep Series Study in China: e67928

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shenghui Li; Lester Arguelles; Fan Jiang; Wenjuan Chen; Xingming Jin; Chonghuai Yan; Ying Tian; Xiumei Hong; Ceng Qian; Jun Zhang; Xiaobin Wang; Xiaoming Shen

    2013-01-01

    .... The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children...

  2. Processing of complex distracting sounds in school-aged children and adults: Evidence from EEG and MEG data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eRuhnau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available When a perceiver performs a task, rarely occurring sounds often have a distracting effect on task performance. The neural mismatch responses in event-related potentials to such distracting stimuli depend on age. Adults commonly show a negative response, whereas in children a positive as well as a negative mismatch response has been reported. Using electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG, here we investigated the developmental changes of distraction processing in school-aged children (9–10 years and adults. Participants took part in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm comprising a visuo-spatial primary task and task-irrelevant environmental sounds distracting from this task. Behaviorally, distractors delayed reaction times in the primary task in both age groups, and this delay was of similar magnitude in both groups. The neurophysiological data revealed an early as well as a late mismatch response elicited by distracting stimuli in both age groups. Together with previous research, this indicates that deviance detection is accomplished in a hierarchical manner in the auditory system. Both mismatch responses were localized to auditory cortex areas. All mismatch responses were generally delayed in children, suggesting that not all neurophysiological aspects of deviance processing are mature in school-aged children. Furthermore, the P3a, reflecting involuntary attention capture, was present in both age groups in the EEG with comparable amplitudes and at similar latencies, but with a different topographical distribution. This suggests that involuntary attention shifts towards complex distractors operate comparably in school-aged children and adults, yet undergoing generator maturation.

  3. The CAST (Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test): preliminary development of a UK screen for mainstream primary-school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Fiona J; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, Patrick; Brayne, Carol

    2002-03-01

    The article describes a pilot and follow-up study of the preliminary development of a new tool to screen for Asperger syndrome (AS) and related social and communication conditions (the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test, CAST) in children aged 4-11 years, in a non-clinical setting. In the pilot study, parents of 13 children with AS and of 37 typically developing children completed the CAST. There were significant differences between the AS and typical sample means. The pilot was used to establish preliminary cut-off scores for the CAST. In the main study, parents of 1150 primary-school-age children were sent the CAST, and 174 took part in the full data analysis. Results suggest that compared with other tools currently available, the CAST may be useful for identifying children at risk for AS and related conditions, in a mainstream non-clinical sample. Further research is ongoing.

  4. Serum vitamin A status is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome among school-age children in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoping; Peng, Rong; Cao, Jiaoyang; Kang, Yu; Qu, Ping; Liu, Youxue; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Li, Tingyu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the association of vitamin A status with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in school-age children in Chongqing, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 1,928 children aged 7~11 years from 5 schools in Chongqing, China. Body height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure were measured. Blood glucose, lipids and vitamin A were determined. Overall prevalences for overweight, obesity and MS were 10.1%, 6.7% and 3.5%, respectively. There were 274 (14.2%) marginally vitamin A deficient (MVAD) children and 53 (2.8%) vitamin A deficient (VAD) children, respectively. Serum vitamin A in the obese group was significantly lower than in the overweight and normal weight groups (pchildren, participants with obesity had a significantly higher risk of having vitamin A insufficiency (children was found to be a severe health problem, significantly associated with obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and MS.

  5. National Trends in Hemoglobin Concentration and Prevalence of Anemia among Chinese School-Aged Children, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Wang, Hai-Jun; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette

    2017-04-01

    To assess the trend of sex disparity in hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia among Chinese school-aged children from 1995 to 2010. Data were collected from 360 866 children aged 7, 9, 12, 14, and 17 years during 4 cross-sectional surveys (1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010) of the Chinese National Surveys on Students Constitution and Health. Shifts in hemoglobin concentration distributions were compared by sex. Average shifts and sex differences were calculated with quantile regression models. Logistic regression was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratio of sex for prevalence of anemia in different surveys. The mean hemoglobin concentration increased among Chinese children between 1995 and 2010, from 132.7 to 138.3 g/L in boys, and from 127.7 to 132.3 g/L in girls. The prevalence of anemia decreased from 18.8% in 1995 to 9.9% in 2010. It was higher in rural than urban children among all age groups. The prevalence odds ratios of girls versus boys for anemia increased in both urban and rural areas over time. Hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia improved among Chinese school-aged children over time. Hemoglobin concentration improved faster in boys than girls and as a result the relative prevalence of anemia in girls compared with boys increased. Sex-specific preventive guidelines and public health policies for childhood anemia are needed in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. K-12 Educational Outcomes of Immigrant Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Turley, Ruth N. Lopez

    2011-01-01

    The children from immigrant families in the United States make up a historically diverse population, and they are demonstrating just as much diversity in their experiences in the K-12 educational system. Robert Crosnoe and Ruth Lopez Turley summarize these K-12 patterns, paying special attention to differences in academic functioning across…

  7. Literacy skills in primary school-aged children with pragmatic language impairment: a comparison with children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Children with pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI) are characterized by difficulties with the interpersonal use of language in social contexts and they possess a range of language difficulties that affect their educational attainment. Since literacy skills are central to this attainment, one way of identifying appropriate support needs for CwPLI would be to profile their reading and writing skills as a group. To investigate the word reading, non-word reading, reading comprehension, and written expression skills of CwPLI and a comparison group of children with specific language impairment (CwSLI). CwSLI were recruited in order to examine any overlaps in literacy impairments for the two groups. Primary school-aged CwPLI (n= 59) and CwSLI (n= 12) were recruited from speech and language therapists. Children completed standardized assessments of literacy skills. The level of impairment for each component literacy skill was examined for CwPLI and CwSLI. For the CwPLI, group mean scores on each of the literacy skills were at the lower end of the normal range compared with population norms. The range of individual scores was large, with some children scoring near floor level and others scoring up to 2 SDs (standard deviations) above the mean, illustrating the heterogeneity of literacy skills within the group. For the CwSLI, group mean scores on each of the literacy skills were between 1 SD and 2 SDs below the population mean. CwSLI were significantly more impaired on all of the literacy measures compared with CwPLI. This difference remained even when receptive language ability and non-verbal intelligence were controlled for. The results demonstrate that there is a high level of literacy impairment within CwPLI and CwSLI, providing evidence that individualized literacy skill intervention is important for the long-term academic outcome of these children. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  8. Corporal punishment and children's externalizing problems: a cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Tobias; Hermenau, Katharin; Isele, Dorothea; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The adverse effect of harsh corporal punishment on mental health and psychosocial functioning in children has been repeatedly suggested by studies in industrialized countries. Nevertheless, corporal punishment has remained common practice not only in many homes, but is also regularly practiced in schools, particularly in low-income countries, as a measure to maintain discipline. Proponents of corporal punishment have argued that the differences in culture and industrial development might also be reflected in a positive relationship between the use of corporal punishment and improving behavioral problems in low-income nations. In the present study we assessed the occurrence of corporal punishment at home and in school in Tanzanian primary school students. We also examined the association between corporal punishment and externalizing problems. The 409 children (52% boys) from grade 2 to 7 had a mean age of 10.49 (SD=1.89) years. Nearly all children had experienced corporal punishment at some point during their lifetime both in family and school contexts. Half of the respondents reported having experienced corporal punishment within the last year from a family member. A multiple sequential regression analysis revealed that corporal punishment by parents or by caregivers was positively related to children's externalizing problems. The present study provides evidence that Tanzanian children of primary school age are frequently exposed to extreme levels of corporal punishment, with detrimental consequences for externalizing behavior. Our findings emphasize the need to inform parents, teachers and governmental organizations, especially in low-income countries, about the adverse consequences of using corporal punishment be it at home or at school.

  9. Sleep Patterns and Sleep Problems Among Preschool and School-Aged Group Children in a Primary Care Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe sleep patterns and sleep problems among preschool and school aged group children in a primary care setting in Iran. Material & Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in two primary care pediatric clinics in Tehran from March 2006 to September 2006.Findings: Sleep patterns of 215 children studied (101 were in preschool age group; 2-6 years old, and 114 were in primary school age group; 7-12 years old. Sleep problems were common in study group, as follows: bedtime problems 21.05%-56.44%, excessive daytime sleepiness 26.73%-42.98%, awakening during the night 13.86%-32.46%, regularity and duration of sleep 17.54%-27.72%, sleep-disordered breathing 10.53%-17.82%.Conclusion: These high frequencies of sleep problems in children explains the importance and burden of sleep disorders in children  which unfortunately are not noticed by primary care providers in Iran and inadequate attention to them may have negative consequences on a host of functional domains, including mood, behavior, school performance, and health outcomes.

  10. Health service deficits and school-aged children with asthma: a population-based study using data from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfiyya, M Nawal; McCullough, Joel Emery; Lipsky, Martin S

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common and costly illnesses of childhood. This study addresses health services deficits experienced by school-aged children with asthma. Analyzing data from the 2007-2008 National Survey of Child Health, this cross-sectional study used household income, race/ethnicity, and geographic residency as the primary independent variables and health service deficits as the dependent variable. Multivariate analysis yielded that other/multiracial (odds ratio [OR], 1.234; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.226-1.242) and Hispanic (OR, 2.207; 95% CI, 1.226-1.242) school-aged children with asthma had greater odds of having health services deficits as did both urban (OR, 1.106; 95% CI, 1.099-1.113) and rural (OR, 1.133; 95% CI, 1.124-1.142) school-aged children with asthma. Children with either moderate (OR, 1.195; 95% CI, 1.184-1.207) or mild (OR, 1.445; 95% CI, 1.431-1.459) asthma had greater odds of having a health services deficit than those with severe asthma. Low-income school-aged children with asthma had greater odds of having a health services deficit than high-income children (OR, 1.031; 95% CI, 1.026-1.036). At lesser odds of having a health service deficit were those who were African American, of middle-range income, male, or who were school-aged children with asthma in good to excellent health. Both African American and other/multiracial school-aged children were at greater risk of having asthma than either Caucasian or Hispanic children. Three vulnerable subgroups of school-aged children with asthma-rural, Hispanic, and those of low income were the most likely to have health service deficits.

  11. Obesity Prevention and Treatment in School-aged Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults—Where Do We Go from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Sharon M.; Gesell, Sabina B.

    2015-01-01

    The rise in the rate of obesity in school-aged children, adolescents, and young adults in the last 30 years is a clear healthcare crisis that needs to be addressed. Despite recent national reports in the United States highlighting positive downward trends in the rate of obesity in younger children, we are still faced with approximately 12.7 million children struggling with obesity. Given the immediate and long-term health consequences of obesity, much time and effort has been expended to address this epidemic. Yet, despite these efforts, we still only see limited, short-term success from most interventions. Without changes to how we address childhood obesity, we will continue to see inadequate improvements in the health of our children. Clinicians and researchers need to be lobbying for evidence-based policy changes, such as those identified by systems science, in order to improve the nation’s health. PMID:26161007

  12. Persuasion in school-aged children: How does it change if the persuadee is the mother or the peer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigro, Antonia; Baiocco, Roberto; Baumgartner, Emma; Sette, Stefania; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to verify how school-aged children's persuasive tactics changed if the persuadee was the mother or the peer. One hundred and forty-nine children at two grade levels (4th and 5th) were enrolled in the study. Persuasive strategies were investigated using pictures representing two common situations in which each child had to convince his/her playmate and his/her mother to obtain a toy. As predicted, with mothers children engaged more frequently in strategies aimed at encouraging cognitive reappraisal of the situation and offering guarantees. Conversely, with the peers, children adopted a greater variety of persuasive strategies, engaging in lower-order tactics. Implications and limitations of the study were discussed.

  13. The relationship of motor skills and social communicative skills in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A

    2013-07-01

    Motor skill deficits are present and persist in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Staples & Reid, 2010). Yet the focus of intervention is on core impairments, which are part of the diagnostic criteria for ASD, deficits in social communication skills. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the functional motor skills, of 6- to 15-year-old children with high-functioning ASD, predict success in standardized social communicative skills. It is hypothesized that children with better motor skills will have better social communicative skills. A total of 35 children with ASD between the ages of 6-15 years participated in this study. The univariate GLM (general linear model) tested the relationship of motor skills on social communicative skills holding constant age, IQ, ethnicity, gender, and clinical ASD diagnosis. Object-control motor skills significantly predicted calibrated ASD severity (p communicative skill deficits. How this relationship exists behaviorally, needs to be explored further.

  14. Васкground development questionnaire quality of life for school age children with broncho-pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Ivasyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove feasibility of developing a questionnaire to assess quality of life for school-age children with acute broncho-pulmonary diseases. Material and Methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature on the study of quality of life. Results: to assess quality of life using both general and specific questionnaires. The most of special are questionnaires designed for adults, and all pulmonary questionnaires designed for chronic diseases. There are of survey questionnaire for children with acute broncho-pulmonary diseases. Conclusions: the proposed of us a questionnaire for children with broncho-pulmonary diseases include questions to determine the effect impact of symptoms of diseasea on motor activity and quality of life. In future we plans to cheak effectiveness of the application of this questionnaire for determine quality of life of children with acute broncho-pulmonary diseases with goal to determine the effectiveness of the rehabilitation process

  15. Story discourse and use of mental state language between mothers and school-aged children with and without visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Lack of sight compromises insight into other people's mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare these with mothers of comparable children with typically developing vision. To investigate whether the characteristics of mother-child discourse were associated with the child's socio-communicative competence. Mother-child discourse with twelve 6-12-year-old children with VI was coded during a shared book-reading narrative and compared with 14 typically sighted children matched in age and verbal ability. Mothers of children with VI elaborated more and made significantly more references to story characters' mental states and descriptive elaborations than mothers of sighted children. Mental state elaborations of mothers in the VI group related positively with the level produced by their children, with the association remaining after mothers' overall verbosity and children's developmental levels were controlled for. Frequency of maternal elaborations, including their mental state language, was related to socio-communicative competence of children with VI. The findings offer insights into the potential contribution of maternal verbal scaffolding to mentalistic language and social-communicative competences of children with VI. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  16. Parent-reported Mental Health Problems and Mental Health Services Use in South Australian School-aged Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Monitoring and reporting childhood mental health problems and mental health services utilization over time provide important information to identify mental health related issues and to guide early intervention. This paper aims to describe the recent prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among South Australian (SA children; to identify mental health problems associated characteristics; and to describe mental health services utilization and its related characteristics among this population. Methods:Parent-reported mental health problems were assessed against the first item of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. School-aged children were randomly sampled monthly and data were collected using a surveillance system between 2005 and 2015. Associations between mental health problems and various factors were analysed using univariable analysis and multivariable logistic regression modelling. Results:Prevalence of parent-reported mental health problems among children was 9.1% and 9.3% for children aged 5 to 11 years and children aged 12 to 15 years, respectively. No change in prevalence was observed during the past decade. Mental health problems were associated with male sex, long-term illness or pain, negative school experiences, not living with biological parents, and living in a rental dwelling. Less than half (48.7% of the children with mental health problems received professional help. An increasing trend was found in mental health services utilisation among children aged 5 to 15 years. Utilization of mental health services was associated with male sex, older age, long-term illness or pain, and feeling unhappy at school. Conclusion:This study reports the prevalence of parent-reported mental and mental health services utilisation among SA school-aged children. Identified characteristics associated with mental health problems and mental health services utilisation provide useful information for the planning of

  17. Target-distractor similarity has a larger impact on visual search in school-age children than spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke

    2015-01-22

    In typically developing children, crowding decreases with increasing age. The influence of target-distractor similarity with respect to orientation and element spacing on visual search performance was investigated in 29 school-age children with normal vision (4- to 6-year-olds [N = 16], 7- to 8-year-olds [N = 13]). Children were instructed to search for a target E among distractor Es (feature search: all flanking Es pointing right; conjunction search: flankers in three orientations). Orientation of the target was manipulated in four directions: right (target absent), left (inversed), up, and down (vertical). Spacing was varied in four steps: 0.04°, 0.5°, 1°, and 2°. During feature search, high target-distractor similarity had a stronger impact on performance than spacing: Orientation affected accuracy until spacing was 1°, and spacing only influenced accuracy for identifying inversed targets. Spatial analyses showed that orientation affected oculomotor strategy: Children made more fixations in the "inversed" target area (4.6) than the vertical target areas (1.8 and 1.9). Furthermore, age groups differed in fixation duration: 4- to 6-year-old children showed longer fixation durations than 7- to 8-year-olds at the two largest element spacings (p = 0.039 and p = 0.027). Conjunction search performance was unaffected by spacing. Four conclusions can be drawn from this study: (a) Target-distractor similarity governs visual search performance in school-age children, (b) children make more fixations in target areas when target-distractor similarity is high, (c) 4- to 6-year-olds show longer fixation durations than 7- to 8-year-olds at 1° and 2° element spacing, and (d) spacing affects feature but not conjunction search-a finding that might indicate top-down control ameliorates crowding in children.

  18. Evidence of increasing risk of schistosomiasis among school-age children in municipality of Calatrava, Province of Negros Occidental, Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Belizario VY Jr; Erfe JM; Naig JRA; Chua PLC

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore risk of school-age children being infected with schistosomiasis in selected villages in the municipality of Calatrava, province of Negros Occidental, Philippines. Methods:As part of the monitoring and evaluation of the helminth control program in the province of Negros Occidental, parasitological monitoring, through the use microscopy of stool samples processed using Kato-Katz technique, was conducted to describe the baseline and follow-up parasitological status of school-age children in 2010 and 2012, respectively. Seven villages from the municipality of Calatrava were selected as study sites.Results:During baseline assessment, only one case of schistosomiasis was reported from the village of Marcelo. During follow-up assessment, 32 cases (6.9%) of schistosomiasis were reported and the prevalence of moderate-heavy intensity infection was 1.3% in six villages. Among the seven villages included in the follow-up, Minapasuk had the highest prevalence at 14.6%, while San Isidro reported no case of schistosomiasis.Conclusions:Non-endemic villages, which have reported positive cases in school-age children, may need to be assessed for possible endemicity for schistosomiasis. Transmission of the disease may need to be determined in these villages through active parasitological and malacological surveillance. Other non-endemic villages adjacent to or share river networks with endemic villages in Calatrava may need to be explored for possible introduction of the disease, especially after typhoons and flooding. Establishing endemicity for schistosomiasis in these villages will help infected and at risk individuals to receive yearly treatment to reduce morbidities caused by this disease.

  19. Comparison of peer education and the classic training method for school aged children regarding smoking and its dangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Sultan; Açıl, Dilay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare the knowledge levels acquired from two different methods of teaching (peer education and a classic training method) about smoking and its dangers to school aged children. This study was an experimental design with pre- and post-tests. A total of 354 students, 253 of whom were from the peer education school, and 101 of whom were from the classic training school, were included. The study results found that the mean post-test scores of the students in the peer education school were significantly increased, indicating a greater level of knowledge (p<.05).

  20. Is medicine use in adolescence risk behavior? Cross-sectional survey of school-aged children from 11 to 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the association between smoking, drunkenness, and medicine use for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness in a representative sample of 11- to 15-year-old school-aged children. METHODS: Design: Cross-sectional school-based survey. Setting...... of drunkenness; self-reported smoking. RESULTS: There was a strong and graded association between drunkenness and medicine use, even in models adjusted for the symptom for which the medicine was taken. There was a similar association between medicine use and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest...... that medicine use can be regarded as part of a cluster of risk behaviors among young people....

  1. A new method of evaluating attachment representations in young school-age children: the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J; Stanley, C; Smith, V; Goldwyn, R

    2000-04-01

    We describe a new instrument, using a doll-play vignette completion method, which applies concepts and methodologies from infant and adult attachment research to enable identification and detailed classification of internal representations of attachment relationships in young school-age children. Validation of the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST) in a normal population (N = 53) shows good interrater reliability and content validity. Patterns of attachment representation identified show stability over time. Comparisons are made with existing methodologies, and potential applications of the instrument and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Story discourse and use of mental state language between mothers and school-aged children with and without visual impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Valerija; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of sight compromises insight into other people’s mental states. Little is known about the role of maternal language in assisting the development of mental state language in children with visual impairment (VI). Aims To investigate mental state language strategies of mothers of school-aged children with VI and to compare these with mothers of comparable children with typically developing vision. To investigate whether the characteristics of mother–child discourse were associated with the child’s socio-communicative competence. Methods & Procedures Mother–child discourse with twelve 6–12-year-old children with VI was coded during a shared book-reading narrative and compared with 14 typically sighted children matched in age and verbal ability. Outcomes & Results Mothers of children with VI elaborated more and made significantly more references to story characters’ mental states and descriptive elaborations than mothers of sighted children. Mental state elaborations of mothers in the VI group related positively with the level produced by their children, with the association remaining after mothers’ overall verbosity and children’s developmental levels were controlled for. Frequency of maternal elaborations, including their mental state language, was related to socio-communicative competence of children with VI. Conclusions & Implications The findings offer insights into the potential contribution of maternal verbal scaffolding to mentalistic language and social–communicative competences of children with VI. PMID:24165364

  3. [Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vio, Fernando; Lera, Lydia; Fuentes-García, Alejandra; Salinas, Judith

    2012-09-01

    Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents. Delphi method applied to get expert consensus about healthy food topics to include in educational materials for preschool and school-age children, their parents and teachers is described. The questionnaire was developed with the results of surveys and focus groups in children, parents and teachers made previously. The questionnaire was mailed to 54 experts in nutrition, education and communication in a first round. The results were analyzed and forwarded in a second round with the subjects without consensus. The cycle was completed by a validation conducted with teachers and parents and were prioritized by audiovisual educational materials on the writings, favoring participatory activities such as cooking workshops, games, activities over the passive (information at parent meetings, delivery of educational materials and conferences of experts). There was consensus on education in health behaviors such as not giving them money to carry to school, make healthy food choices on family outings and recreational activities associated with healthy eating during weekends; prefer healthy food prepared at home instead of the processed food; restrict eating out candy and prefer family meals without watching TV and food instead of taking a snack in the evening. These results are critical to design educational materials on healthy eating plans to change current eating habits that are contributing significantly to increase the childhood obesity.

  4. A case-control study of acute diarrheal disease among school-age children in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, M; Kuropakornpong, V; Arun, S; Sapchatura, M; Kumnurak, S; Sukpipatpanont, B; Chongsuvivatwong, V; Funahara, Y; Sato, S

    1997-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study of school-age children in Phatthalung, a province in southern Thailand using a questionnaire to investigate associations of children's hygiene-related behavior and hygienic conditions in their homes with acute diarrheal disease. We compared 69 acute diarrhea (less than 7 days duration) cases that attended two hospitals in Phatthalung during August 1995 to June 1996 with 69 age-, sex- and address-matched controls in primary schools who had not suffered from diarrheal disease for the past one year before August 1995. Three factors were found to be significantly associated with acute diarrheal disease: farmer or gum planter as the occupation of father [Odds ratio (OR) 6.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-26.1, p water (OR 2.3; CI 0.9-6.1, p water between cases and controls. Considering the data on drinking water, the results indicated that there are some problems with quality of sources of drinking water. The results also suggested that having a refrigerator could have preventive effects on acute diarrheal disease, while inadequate behavior and unhygienic environment in the homes of farmers and gum planters might be related to acute diarrheal among school-age children.

  5. Development of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity in Mexican school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Castellanos, Claudia; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Morales-Ruán, María Del Carmen; Jiménez-Aguilar, Alejandra; Salazar-Coronel, Araceli; Uribe-Carvajal, Rebeca; Amaya-Castellanos, Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    Mexico has the highest and most alarming rates of childhood obesity worldwide. A study conducted in the State of Mexico revealed that one of every three children presents overweight or obesity. The objective of this paper is to provide a step-by-step description of the design and implementation of an educational intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity called "Healthy Recess". The educational intervention was designed using the six stages of the Health Communication Process. This methodological model allowed identifying the needs of school-age children on information and participation in activities. In order to improve the strategy, adjustments were made to the print and audiovisual materials as well as to assessment tools. Typography was modified as well as the color of the images in student's workbook and facilitator's; special effects of the videos were increased; the narration of the radio spots was improved and common words and phrases were included. The Health Communication Process is an effective tool for program planners to design interventions aimed at managing prevalent health problems such as overweight and obesity in school-age children.

  6. Prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion in school-aged children in the province of Tokat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Ali; Özer, Samet; Yılmaz, Resul; Sönmezgöz, Ergün; Kasap, Tuba; Takçı, Şahin; Karaaslan, Erhan; Önder, Yalçın; Çıtıl, Rıza; Bütün, İlknur; Demir, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Aim Hypercalciuria is an important cause of urinary tract symptoms, and also frequently results in urolithiasis. Urinary calcium excretion varies for geographic areas. We aimed to assess percentiles of urinary calcium excretion and prevalence of hypercalciuria for school-aged children in Tokat (city located in inner northern region of Turkey). Material and Methods One thousand three hundred seventy-five children aged 6 to 18 years were enrolled in the study. Urine samples were obtained randomly. The children’s variables as sex, age, length, and weight were recorded. Urinary calcium and creatinine determined from the urine samples and urinary calcium/creatinine ratios (mg/mg) were calculated. Percentiles of urinary calcium/creatinine ratios were also assessed for each age of the children. Results Six hundred eighty-three of the 1 375 children were girls and 692 were boys. The mean age of the children was 11.68±3.43 years. Some 23.9% of the children were living in rural regions and 76.1% were were living in urban regions. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.080±0.24 and the 95th percentile value of the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.278. The hypercalciuria prevalence for school-aged children was 4.7% when the urinary calcium/creatinine ratio value for hypercalciuria was accepted as ≥0.21. The prevalence of hypercalciuria in rural and urban regions was 7.60% and 3.82%, respectively (p0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of hypercalciuria and urinary calcium excretion vary for different geographic areas, not only for countries. The percentiles of urinary calcium excretion should be assesed for every geographic region and the prevalance of hypercalciuria should be determined with these values. There is controversy as to whether obesity is a risk factor for hypercalciuria. PMID:28123331

  7. Effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children in rural western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Four of the 5 composite scores derived from the WISC-IV, except for working memory index (WMI), were significantly lower in low birth weight children after adjusting for confounds. All 5 composite scores, including full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index (VCI), WMI, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), and processing speed index (PSI) were significant lower in stunted and underweight children. The differences in the means of WISC-IV test scores were greatest between stunted and nonstunted children. The means for FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were as follows: 5.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84-8.92), 5.08 (95% CI: 1.12-8.41), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.78-7.66), 6.13 (95% CI: 2.83-9.44), and 5.81 (95% CI: 2.61-9.00). These means were lower in stunted children after adjusting for confounds. Our results suggest the important influences of low birth weight and postnatal malnutrition (stunting, low body weight) on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children.

  8. Emotional prosody perception and its association with pragmatic language in school-aged children with high-function autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-En; Tsao, Feng-Ming

    2015-02-01

    Emotional prosody perception is essential for social communication, but it is still an open issue whether children with high-function autism (HFA) exhibit any prosodic perception deficits or experience selective impairments in recognizing the prosody of positive emotions. Moreover, the associations between prosody perception, pragmatic language, and social adaptation in children with HFA have not been fully explored. This study investigated whether emotional prosody perception for words and sentences in children with HFA (n=25, 6-11 years of age) differed from age-matched, typically developing children (TD, n=25) when presented with an emotional prosody identification task. The Children's Communication Checklist and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale were used to assess pragmatic and social adaption abilities. Results show that children with HFA performed poorer than TD children in identifying happy prosody in both emotionally neutral and relevant utterances. In contrast, children with HFA did not exhibit any deficits in identifying sad and angry prosody. Results of correlation analyses revealed a positive association between happy prosody identification and pragmatic function. The findings indicate that school-aged children with HFA experience difficulties in recognizing happy prosody, and that this limitation in prosody perception is associated with their pragmatic and social adaption performances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parenting Behavior at 2 Years Predicts School-age Performance at 7 Years in Very Preterm Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Doyle, Lex W.; Lee, Katherine J.; Ure, Alexandra; Inder, Terrie E.; Hunt, Rod W.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Parenting influences child development, but it is unclear whether early parenting behavior can influence school-age outcomes in very preterm (VPT) children, and/or if certain groups of VPT children may be more affected by early parenting behavior. These research questions were examined. Participants were 147 children born <30 weeks' gestation…

  10. Intermittent preventive treatment using artemisinin-based combination therapy reduces malaria morbidity among school-aged children in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Breanna; Maiga, Hamma; Traore, Oumar Bila; Tekete, Mamadou; Tembine, Intimbeye; Dara, Antoine; Traore, Zoumana Isaac; Gantt, Soren; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) against malaria in school-aged children. METHODS This was an open randomized controlled trial of seasonal IPT among school children (IPTsc) aged 6–13 years in Kollé, Mali. The study began in September 2007 and completed follow-up in May 2008. Students were randomized to one of three study arms: Sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine plus artesunate (SP/AS), amodiaquine plus artesunate (AQ/AS) or vitamin C. All students received two full treatment doses, given 2 months apart during the season of high transmission from September to December. Groups were compared with respect to incidence of clinical malaria, asymptomatic parasitemia and haemoglobin concentration. RESULTS A total of 296 students were randomized, and retention in the study was 99.3%. Clinical malaria incidence in the SP/AS and AQ/AS arms was reduced by 66.6% and 46.5%, respectively, vs. vitamin C (P < 0.001). There were fewer clinic visits for any cause among the children receiving SP/AS or AQ/AS (P = 0.024). The prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia was fivefold higher in the vitamin C arm than either SP/AS or AQ/AS at each post-treatment evaluation (P < 0.001). At the end of the transmission period, children treated with IPT had lower rates of anaemia (SP/AS, 17.7%; AQ/AS, 16.0%; vitamin C, 29.6%; P = 0.039). CONCLUSION IPT among school children reduced the rates of clinical malaria, all-cause acute clinic visits, asymptomatic parasitemia and anaemia among school-aged children. PMID:19497079

  11. Anthropometric variables, lifestyle and sports in school-age children: comparison between the cities of Bologna and Crotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, S; Brasili, P; Iuliano, T; Spiga, F

    2014-12-01

    Weight disorders are rapidly increasing in childhood. In Italy a strong geographic North-South gradient of overweight and obesity has been reported. The purpose of this study is to examine anthropometric variables, physical activity and lifestyles in school-age children in the cities of Bologna and Crotone. The sample consists of 963 children attending primary schools, aged 6-10 years. Height, weight, triceps, and subscapular skinfolds were measured for each child; body mass index (BMI) and percentage of fat mass were calculated. Physical activity was determined through an interview with each child. Another questionnaire was submitted to parents, in order to obtain information on sleep duration, means of transport and type of physical activity. In the city of Bologna, the mean values of anthropometric variables were: height (boys - 1,335 mm, girls - 1,332 mm), BMI (boys - 17.8 kg/m(2), girls - 17.3 kg/m(2)), and the proportion of overweight and obese individuals was: boys - 20.6%, girls - 12.7%. In Crotone the mean values were: height (boys - 1,275 mm, girls - 1,265 mm), BMI (boys - 19.4 kg/m(2), girls - 19.3 kg/m(2)), and the proportion of overweight and obese individuals was: boys - 46.7%, girls - 49.0%. The results have demonstrated significant correlations of lifestyle and physical activity with children's weight status. In Crotone there is a larger variation of weight disorders with higher percentages of overweight children than in Bologna. The children in Crotone are engaged in sedentary activities for a significantly longer time than children in Bologna, who are more physically active. The data show a strong North-South gradient concerning not only distribution of weight status, but also lifestyles especially including participation in sports and sedentary behavior. Our study also provides meaningful suggestions how to define lifestyles in order to achieve an optimal health status during growth.

  12. Quality of life and provision of social rehabilitation services in elementary school age children with special needs in Riga City

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    Cibule L.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term quality of life of children with special needs has not been studied in Latvia, and information on changes of quality of life (QoL rates during child’s development period is insufficient. The aim of the study was to analyze and compare the QoL related self-reports of school age children with special needs, which were repeatedly carried out once a year (2009–2010, with the proxy reports of their parents, as well as to compare the obtained results with Europe normative data on QoL developed by KIDSCREEN research group; to investigate the provision of social rehabilitation services for such families. The study was carried out in Riga municipality 2009–2010. Altogether 34 families with 8–11 years of age children with developmental disabilities participated in the study. Both parents and children filled KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire, but a survey developed by a group of researchers “Social services” was used to gather information from the parents about the received children and family centered social services in the period between the both quality of life assessments. Results showed statistically significant changes in the latest quality of life self-assessment rates of school-age boys and girls with special needs in time period 2009–2010. Participants of the study – children with developmental disabilities – in both cases reported a lower QoL in comparison with Europe normative data on QoL developed by KIDSCREEN research group.

  13. Association between Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Total Energy Intake among Mexican School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamah-Levy, Teresa; García-Chávez, Claudia Gabriela; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia

    2016-12-18

    Water consumption promotes a decrease in total diet energy intake, and one explanation for this fact is the replacement of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by plain water (PW). The objective of this study was to analyze the association between SSB and PW consumption as a part of the total energy intake. Dietary information was obtained by one 24 h recall of 2536 school-age children who participated in the National Nutrition Survey in Mexico. PW and SSB consumption was measured in mL and servings (240 mL), and consumption was stratified into two levels (energy intake. Models were adjusted for age, sex, the proportion of energy obtained from non-beverage food, area of residence, and socioeconomic status (based on information regarding housing conditions and ownership of home appliances). PW consumption at the national level was two servings/day, and was not associated with total energy intake. However, the combination of the high consumption of PW and the low consumption of SSB was associated with less total energy intake (p energy intake and preventing overconsumption among Mexican school-age children.

  14. Association between Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Total Energy Intake among Mexican School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Shamah-Levy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water consumption promotes a decrease in total diet energy intake, and one explanation for this fact is the replacement of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs by plain water (PW. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between SSB and PW consumption as a part of the total energy intake. Dietary information was obtained by one 24 h recall of 2536 school-age children who participated in the National Nutrition Survey in Mexico. PW and SSB consumption was measured in mL and servings (240 mL, and consumption was stratified into two levels (<2 and ≥2 servings/day. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between PW and SSB consumption in relation to total energy intake. Models were adjusted for age, sex, the proportion of energy obtained from non-beverage food, area of residence, and socioeconomic status (based on information regarding housing conditions and ownership of home appliances. PW consumption at the national level was two servings/day, and was not associated with total energy intake. However, the combination of the high consumption of PW and the low consumption of SSB was associated with less total energy intake (p < 0.05. Promoting higher PW and lower SSB consumption provides a useful public health strategy for reducing total energy intake and preventing overconsumption among Mexican school-age children.

  15. [Evaluation of nutritional status of school-age children after implementation of "Nutrition Improvement Program" in rural area in Hunan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhu-Juan; Mao, Guang-Xu; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Li; Chen, Yan

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the nutritional status of school-age children in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015 and to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area" (hereinafter referred to as "Nutrition Improvement Program"). The nutritional status of school-age children aged 6-14 years was evaluated after the implementation of the "Nutrition Improvement Program" and the changing trend of the children's nutritional status was analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed on the monitoring data of the school-age children aged 6-14 years in rural area in Hunan, China from 2012 to 2015, which came from "The Nutrition and Health Status Monitoring and Evaluation System of Nutrition Improvement Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area". In 2015, female students aged 6-7 years in rural area in Hunan, China had a significantly greater body length than the rural average in China (PNutrition Improvement Program", the prevalence rate of growth retardation decreased (PNutrition Improvement Program" has achieved some success, but the nutritional status of school-age children has not improved significantly. Overweight/obesity and malnutrition are still present. Therefore, to promote the nutritional status of school-age children it is recommended to improve the measures for the "Nutrition Improvement Program".

  16. Cerebral processing of pain in school-aged children with neonatal nociceptive input: an exploratory fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmeister, Johanna; Kroll, Alexander; Wollgarten-Hadamek, Iris; Zohsel, Katrin; Demirakça, Süha; Flor, Herta; Hermann, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    Due to maturation-related plasticity of the developing nociceptive system, neonatal nociceptive input, as induced by medical procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), may cause long-term alterations in pain processing. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study investigated the cerebral pain response in school-aged children and adolescents (11-16 yr) with experience in a NICU after preterm (or=37 weeks gestational age, N=9) as compared to fullterm control children without early hospitalization (N=9). NICU children had been recruited retrospectively among former patients of the Children's University Hospital Mannheim. All children had participated in our previous studies [46,49] entailing psychophysical measurements. In response to tonic (30s) heat stimuli of individually adjusted moderate pain intensity, which were of comparable temperature across groups, the preterm but not the fullterm NICU children exhibited significant activations in a number of brain regions (thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and periaquaeductal gray) that were not significantly activated in controls. The preterms showed significantly higher activations than controls in primary somatosensory cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insula. This exaggerated brain response was pain-specific and was not observed during non-painful warmth stimulation. Preterms' continuous pain ratings revealed a tendency for increased sensitization within and a lack of habituation across trials. In highly vulnerable children such as preterms, neonatal nociceptive input may, aside from other neurodevelopmental consequences, persistently increase the gain within pain pathways.

  17. Comparing Mental Health of School-Age Children of Parents With/Without Bipolar Disorders: A Case Control Study

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    Shamsaei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Children of parents with bipolar disorder appear to have an increased risk of early-onset Bipolar Disorder (BP, mood disorders and other psychiatric disorders. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the mental health of school-age children of parents, with/without bipolar disorder. Materials and Methods This case-control study included one hundred children aged six to twelve years, who had parents with bipolar disorder and 200 children of 163 demographically-matched control parents. Parents with bipolar disorder were recruited from Farshchian Psychiatric Hospital of Hamadan, Iran, during year 2014. The parent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 questionnaire was used to measure mental health. Mean comparisons were performed using Student’s t test while effect sizes were estimated by Cohen’s d coefficient. The Chi-square test was used to assess significant differences between frequency distribution of demographic variables in both groups. The significance level was considered less than 0.05. Results There were statistically significant differences between children of parents with and those without bipolar disorder regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct, generalized anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, major depression, separation anxiety (P< 0.001 and social phobia (P < 0.05. Children of parents with BP are at high risk for psychiatric disorders. Conclusions These findings support that the careful evaluation and prospective following of the psychopathology of children of parents with bipolar disorder are critical for early identification and treatment.

  18. Mothers' and fathers' involvement with school-age children's care and academic activities in Navajo Indian families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ziarat; Anziano, Michael C

    2008-04-01

    This exploratory study examined mothers' and fathers' reports of time involvement in their school-age children's care and academic activities. The study also explored the relationship between parents' socioeconomic status (SES) variables (age, education, income, work hours, and length of marriage) and their relative involvement with children. Mother and father dyads from 34 two-parent Navajo (Diné) Indian families with a second- or third-grade child participated in the study. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that mothers invested significantly more time in children's care on demand and academic activities than fathers, but the differences in maternal and paternal perceptions of time involvement in routine care were not significant. The gender of the child did not influence the amount of time parents invested in children's care and academic activities. Mothers' involvement with children was not related to any of the SES variables. Fathers' involvement was significantly associated with work hours and length of marriage, and work hours produced significant interaction with fathers' involvement with children. Findings are discussed in light of gender role differences in parental involvement with children within Navajo families.

  19. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  20. Seroprevalence and sociocultural conditionants of Chagas disease in school aged children of marginal zones of Asunción

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    Vera Ninfa I.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is becoming a public health problem in Latin America due to the wide distribution, the high prevalence, the magnitude of the damage caused and the difficulties to control it. In Paraguay, the disease is mainly distributed in the departments of Paraguari, Cordillera and Central. Prevalence in marginal zones, where migrations from rural populations and endemic areas make possible the urbanization of the disease, has no been studied yet. This is a descriptive study with a cross-sectional sampling and a probabilistic system recruitment carried out in school aged children from marginal zones of Asuncion to determine the prevalence of Chagas' disease. Serological methods, parasite isolation and questionnaires were used to achieve the goals. Nine hundred and fifty three children were studied to determine the prevalence of Chagas' disease in marginal zones which was 1.4%.

  1. Impact of interactive teaching on the efficient realization of objectives for children in early school age

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    Arbona Xhemajli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovation of the practice of teaching through interactive models, new roles of teacher and student, and preference of the activity of the student in the learning process, are found in the basis of changes that is taking place in education in Kosovo. We are talking about actions that aim to improve the quality, durability and applicability of the knowledge that students acquire in school. So today, in all cycles of education, new teaching models are applied that determine the student as an active subject in the teaching process. Interactive teaching is recommended and implemented with significant uplift, because it is becoming a need of modern education, and part of the needs of teachers and students. The extent and quality of mastering the knowledge in a large extent depends on the way work is organized in class and therefore interactive teaching is a key factor to improve the efficiency and quality of learning. Interactive teaching influences a higher level of motivation in the classroom by developing the cooperation between the students and activates the responsibility of the students. They learn about the harmonization of positions, collective action, tolerance and modern communication using different sources of knowledge. In this paper we define the terms of interaction and interactive teaching and actualize a number of other issues related to interactive teaching in the early school age. Also, this paper presents only a part of the authentic results of the two studies combined, one of the results obtained by means of questionnaires given to teachers from nine schools in Kosovo and from the results of interviews conducted with professionists as a focus group. Results from the survey show that interactive learning methods are extensively covered by the school age. They are already very popular in professional environments or communities of teachers since practice proved their effectiveness.

  2. Height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children

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    Mushtaq Muhammad Umair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. This study was aimed to compare age- and gender-specific height, weight and BMI percentiles and nutritional status relative to the international growth references among Pakistani school-aged children. Methods A population-based study was conducted with a multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged five to twelve years in Lahore, Pakistan. Smoothed height, weight and BMI percentile curves were obtained and comparison was made with the World Health Organization 2007 (WHO and United States' Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC references. Over- and under-nutrition were defined according to the WHO and USCDC references, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF cut-offs. Simple descriptive statistics were used and statistical significance was considered at P Results Height, weight and BMI percentiles increased with age among both boys and girls, and both had approximately the same height and a lower weight and BMI as compared to the WHO and USCDC references. Mean differences from zero for height-, weight- and BMI-for-age z score values relative to the WHO and USCDC references were significant (P Conclusion Pakistani school-aged children significantly differed from the WHO and USCDC references. However, z score means relative to the WHO reference were closer to zero and the present study as compared to the USCDC reference. Overweight and obesity were significantly higher while underweight and thinness/wasting were significantly lower relative to the WHO reference as compared to the USCDC reference and the IOTF cut-offs. New growth charts for Pakistani children based on a nationally representative sample should be developed. Nevertheless, shifting to use of the 2007 WHO child growth reference might have important implications for child health programs and primary care pediatric clinics.

  3. Association of major dietary patterns with socioeconomic factors among rural school-aged children in Bijar, 2014

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    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The identification of major dietary patterns using factor analysis can provide information about health status of children by obtaining an overall picture of the person's diet. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and to identify socioeconomic factors affecting them in school age children in rural areas of Bijar, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 255 rural school age children living rural areas of Bijar were selected by simple random sampling. Dietary intakes during the past year and assessment of socioeconomic information were examined. Dietary patterns were determined using factor analysis and their relation to socioeconomic factors was investigated. Results: Three major dietary patterns," traditional", "modern" and "mixed", were identified. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnic and energy intake, Age of mother (b= 0.03, CI=0.00_0.05 was positively associated and age of father (b= -0.03, CI=-0.05_-0.01, laboring Job for father (b= -0.24, CI=-0.44_-0.03 and higher education of parents (b= -0.20, CI=-0.35_-0.05 were negatively associated with traditional dietary pattern. In addition, higher education of parents (b= 0.27, CI=0.11_0.44 was positively associated and age of mother (b= -0.03, CI=-0.06_0.00 was negatively associated with mixed dietary pattern. Conclusion: Some socio-economic variables such as maternal age, parental education, parental occupation and economic conditions can have effect on major dietary patterns among rural children.

  4. Cognitive errors and anxiety in school aged children Erros cognitivos e ansiedade em crianças em idade escolar

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    Ana I. Freitas Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive models of emotional disorders emphasize the role of biased information processing in the psychological functioning of anxious individuals. So far, the role of cognitive errors in problems of childhood anxiety disorders has received little empirical attention. This study analyzes the relations between cognitive errors and symptoms of anxiety in a sample of school aged children. The sample, comprised by 205 children (8 to 13 years old, answered the Children's Negative Cognitive Errors Questionnaire (CNCEQ and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders - Revised (SCARED-R. Results show a positive and statistically significant relationship between cognitive errors and symptoms of anxiety, suggesting the importance of modifying these cognitive processes for prevention and intervention targeting anxiety problems in school aged children.Os modelos cognitivos das perturbações emocionais enfatizam o papel do processamento enviesado de informação em indivíduos ansiosos. Até ao momento, o papel dos erros cognitivos nos problemas de ansiedade na infância tem recebido pouca atenção empírica. Este estudo analisa a relação entre erros cognitivos e sintomatologia de ansiedade em crianças. A amostra é composta por 205 crianças (8-13 anos, que responderam ao Questionário de Erros Cognitivos para Crianças (CNCEQ e à versão revista do Questionário de Avaliação de Perturbações Emocionais Relacionadas com a Ansiedade em Crianças (SCARED-R. Os resultados, que revelam uma relação positiva e estatisticamente significativa entre erros cognitivos e sintomatologia de ansiedade, sugerem a importância da modificação destes processos cognitivos na intervenção dirigida aos problemas de ansiedade em crianças.

  5. Spirulina can increase total-body vitamin A stores of Chinese school-age children as determined by a paired isotope dilution technique

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lei; Zhao, Xianfeng; Wang, Jie; Muzhingi, Tawanda; Suter, Paolo M.; Tang, Guangwen; Yin, Shi-an

    2012-01-01

    Spirulina is an alga rich in high-quality protein and carotenoids. It is unclear whether spirulina can improve the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in China with a high prevalence of vitamin A malnutrition. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of spirulina in improving the total-body vitamin A stores of school-age children in rural areas of China when they consumed spirulina in their daily meals. A total of 228 children (6–11 years) were recruited and randomly divided into thre...

  6. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same

  7. Diverse Family Types and Out-of-School Learning Time of Young School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiromi; Sanders, James

    2010-01-01

    Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological…

  8. Obesity, non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors and dietary factors among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Wang, Dantong; Du, Shufa; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Zhihong; Su, Chang; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-12-01

    China's nutrition transition is characterized by dramatic increases in overweight and cardiometabolic (CM) risk. The burden of obesity, CM risk factors and dietary intake among Chinese children were explored. Children 7-12 y old from the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey with available dietary intake data, anthropometry, blood pressure, and fasting blood samples were included (n=663). CM risk prevalence was calculated; logistic regression was used to investigate the association of nutrient intakes with CM risk, adjusting for age, gender, physical activity, area of residence and income. 14% of Chinese school-aged children and ~20% of those from urban areas and higher income households had overweight/obesity (pchildren and >=30% of those from urban areas and higher income households had impaired glucose/ HbA1c (pchildren had pre-dyslipidemia (i.e. at least one lipid measurement above borderline levels) and 21% of children had dyslipidemia. Approximately 30% of all children had energy intakes above requirements and 38% of them had excessive proportions of dietary fat and saturated fat. Children with higher intakes of total daily energy and total and added sugars had a greater likelihood of having impaired blood pressure and glucose/HbA1c. Childhood overweight and CM risk is prevalent in urban and rural areas of China and across different socioeconomic groups although disparities between classes still pervade. Several dietary factors such as sugars were significant correlates of CM risk.

  9. Consonant production and overall speech characteristics in school-aged children with cerebral palsy and speech impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, Ann; Miniscalco, Carmela; Lohmander, Anette

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the speech characteristics of school-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP) and speech impairment at various cognitive levels. Nineteen children with a mean age of 11;2 years (9;2-12;9 years) with spastic, dyskinetic, and ataxic CP and speech impairment participated. Phonetic transcription of oral consonants, ratings of hypernasality, and severity of overall dysarthria, together with free field descriptions of respiration, voice quality, and prosody, were performed independently by two speech-language pathologists. The non-verbal cognitive level was also studied. More than half of the children had large problems with the articulation of consonants, and the children with ataxic CP were most affected. The majority was rated as having dysarthria, mostly mild, but hypernasality was rare. Gross motor problems were not significantly associated with the articulation of consonants or the severity of dysarthria, whereas non-verbal cognitive level was. This underlines the importance of taking non-verbal cognitive level into account, when designing individual speech treatment programs for this group of children. Finally, a careful examination of the articulation of consonants is recommended in order to study speech production thoroughly in children with CP.

  10. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J.; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed. PMID:27472351

  11. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-07-26

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  12. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aweke Kebede

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F in drinking water (~5 mg F/L. The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60 and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220. Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  13. How will things be the next time? Self in the construction of future events among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Koh, Jessie Bee Kim

    2015-11-01

    This study examined among school-aged children the role of the self in perceived valence changes from the past to the future. Nine- to 11-year-old children (N=57) recalled positive and negative personal events of various situations and imagined a future personal event involving the same situation following each recall. Children's self-knowledge was assessed in terms of self-concepts for past, present, and future selves, and self-evaluations for social and cognitive competences. Children who viewed their future selves more positively and those who evaluated their cognitive competence more positively anticipated greater upward (positive) changes and smaller downward (negative) changes in their future academic performance. Children who evaluated their social competence more positively anticipated greater upward changes in their future peer relations. Furthermore, children who anticipated greater upward changes and smaller downward changes in their personal futures exhibited greater well-being. These findings shed new light on the role of self in mental time travel.

  14. Parent-Reported Eating and Leisure-Time Activity Selection Patterns Related to Energy Balance in Preschool- and School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Jelalian, Elissa; Vivier, Patrick M.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare parent-reported preschool- and school-aged children's eating and leisure-time activity patterns that are proposed to influence energy balance. Design: Cross-sectional investigation of children, 2 to 12 years, attending a well visit. Setting: Pediatric private practice/ambulatory pediatric clinic. Participants: One hundred…

  15. Elevated VGKC-Complex Antibodies in a Boy with Fever-Induced Refractory Epileptic Encephalopathy in School-Age Children (FIRES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Marjorie A.; Hanrahan, Donncha; Anderson, Claire E.; O'Kane, Kathryn; Anderson, Jennifer; Casey, Maureen; de Sousa, Carlos; Cross, J. Helen; Wright, Sukvhir; Dale, Russell C.; Vincent, Angela; Kurian, Manju A.

    2011-01-01

    Fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school-age children (FIRES) is a clinically recognized epileptic encephalopathy of unknown aetiology. Presentation in previously healthy children is characterized by febrile status epilepticus. A pharmacoresistant epilepsy ensues, occurring in parallel with dramatic cognitive decline and…

  16. Elevated VGKC-Complex Antibodies in a Boy with Fever-Induced Refractory Epileptic Encephalopathy in School-Age Children (FIRES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illingworth, Marjorie A.; Hanrahan, Donncha; Anderson, Claire E.; O'Kane, Kathryn; Anderson, Jennifer; Casey, Maureen; de Sousa, Carlos; Cross, J. Helen; Wright, Sukvhir; Dale, Russell C.; Vincent, Angela; Kurian, Manju A.

    2011-01-01

    Fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school-age children (FIRES) is a clinically recognized epileptic encephalopathy of unknown aetiology. Presentation in previously healthy children is characterized by febrile status epilepticus. A pharmacoresistant epilepsy ensues, occurring in parallel with dramatic cognitive decline and…

  17. Nutrition and Health Characteristics of Low-Income Populations, Volume III, School-Age Children. E-FAN-04-014-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary Kay; Cole, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III), conducted in 1988-94, were used to compare the nutrition and health characteristics of the Nation's school-age children--boys and girls ages 5-18. Three groups of children were compared based on household income: income at or below 130 percent of poverty (lowest…

  18. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a New Instrument for Measuring Sleep Length and Television and Computer Habits of Swedish School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Nyberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to develop a new instrument for measuring length of sleep as well as television and computer habits in school-age children. A questionnaire was constructed for use when children visit the school health care unit. Three aspects of the validity of the questionnaire were examined: its face validity, content validity, and construct…

  19. Effects of neonatal enteral glutamine supplementation on cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Zwol, Annelies; Boehm, Guenther; Lafeber, Harrie N; van Elburg, Ruurd M

    2012-12-28

    In very preterm ( glutamine supplementation between day 3 and day 30 of life had neither beneficial nor detrimental effects on long-term cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes of very preterm and/or VLBW children at school age, although visuomotor abilities were poorer in children that received glutamine.

  20. Obesity increases metabolic syndrome risk factors in school-aged children from an urban school in Mexico city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Balas-Nakash, Margie; Schiffman-Selechnik, Esther; Barbato-Dosal, Annarella; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2007-01-01

    To characterize the nutritional status of school-aged children from an urban public school in Mexico City, Mexico, and to assess the influence of obesity on health status in a subgroup of these children. Cross-sectional descriptive study. A nutrition screening was done for all children, including anthropometric (ie, weight, height, and waist circumference) and blood pressure assessment. In the subgroup of children, complementary dietary and biochemical assessment (ie, glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, albumin, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels) was done. Children from an urban school in Mexico City (N=561) aged 6 to 13 years. The representative subgroup (n=88) was selected based on age (9 to 12 years) and weight status (ie, normal, overweight, or obese). Descriptive statistics, correlations, mean differences tests (analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U), and chi(2) tests (categorical variables) were done with SPSS version 13 (2005, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). In the whole school, overweight and obesity prevalence were 27.1% and 21.4%, respectively. High systolic blood pressure was seen in 8.4% of children and 6.2% of children had prehypertension. Higher hypertension risk was seen in children with body mass index > or =95th percentile and waist circumference > or =90th percentile (88 cm). Significantly higher waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, insulin resistance indexes, and triglyceride levels were found among the obese when compared with normal-weight children. Childhood obesity prevalence is high in Mexico and it is having an influence on children's health. It is urgent to design, implement, and evaluate specific childhood obesity prevention programs.

  1. Evaluation of cardiac function in a group of small for gestational age school-age children treated with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2017-02-09

    Small for gestational age (SGA) patients have an increased risk of developing a cardiovascular pathology, as well as a metabolic syndrome. Our objective is to evaluate the cardiac morphology and function of SGA children treated with growth hormone (GH), identifying changes that could potentially have long-term consequences. We selected 23 SGA school-age patients and 23 healthy children. We measured their weight, height, blood pressure and heart rate. Using transthoracic echocardiography, we evaluated cardiac chamber size, ascending and abdominal aortic diameter as well as the systolic and diastolic function of both ventricles. SGA children have a higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P<.05) without significant changes in their heart rate. They also have a thicker interventricular septum (SGA Z-score 1.57 vs. 0.89; P=.026) and a worse right ventricular systolic function, with a lower TAPSE (SGA Z-score -0.98 vs. 0.95; P=.000), as well as a lower blood flow rate in the pulmonary artery (SGA 0.85m/s vs. 0.97m/s; P=.045). No significant difference was observed in the patients' left ventricular function. SGA patients' ascending aortic diameter was greater (SGA Z-score -1.09 vs. -1.93; P=.026), whereas the systolic abdominal aortic diameter was smaller (SGA Z-score-0.89 vs. -0.19; P=.015). We found functional and morphological cardiac changes in SGA school-age patients treated with GH. It is important to follow-up this patient group in order to determine if these changes contribute to an increased cardiac morbidity in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations between daily physical activity and executive functioning in primary school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Niet, Anneke G.; Smith, Joanne; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: While there is some evidence that aerobic fitness is positively associated with executive functioning in children, evidence for a relation between children's daily physical activity and their executive functioning is limited. The objective was to examine associations between objectively

  3. Context and Companion's Behavior as Determinants of Cooperation and Competition in School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Judith E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    First-, third-, and fifth-grade children played a board game with another same-age, same-sex child. Results demonstrated why young children are as likely to respond competitively as cooperatively under shared-reward conditions. (BJD)

  4. Relationship between physical activity and physical fitness in school-aged children with developmental language disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Niet, Anneke G.; Hartman, Esther; Moolenaar, Ben J.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders (DLD) often experience difficulty in understanding and engaging in interactive behavior with other children, which may lead to reduced daily physical activity and fitness levels. The present study evaluated the physical activity and physical fitness

  5. Personality and Body-Mass-Index in School-Age Children: An Exploration of Mediating and Moderating Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S.; Vella, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored longitudinal associations between personality and body-mass-index (BMI) in school-age children, including the potential mediating role of screen time and physical activity, and the potential moderating roles of child demographics and neighbourhood socioeconomic position. Participants were the parents (and teachers) of 3857 ten-year-old children, who completed questionnaires at baseline with a two-year follow-up. After controlling for child demographics (e.g., sex, pubertal status), we found that personality was unimportant for concurrent BMI, but was important for subsequent BMI and change in BMI over two years. Low levels of introversion and persistence at baseline, and decreases in persistence over time, were associated with a higher BMI at follow-up and a greater increase in BMI over time. Moderator analyses showed that introversion was more strongly related to subsequent BMI for children listed as aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. The relationship between personality and change in BMI was mediated by screen time, but not by physical activity. To conclude, findings demonstrate that personality is important for change in body mass in Australian children (particularly indigenous children), and that screen-based sedentary behaviour features an important role in this association. PMID:27486752

  6. Effect of the educational environment on children's health at preschool and school age in the Arkhangelsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Buzinov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The descriptive epidemiological study on the prevalence of “school” pathology in the child population and the influence of the conditions of educational environment in kindergartens and schools in the Arkhangelsk Region was performed. It was found that the main health problems detected during preventive medical examinations of the children and adolescents of school age are the violation of posture, scoliosis and impaired visual acuity. The highest frequency of posture disorders found in children in the transition to subject teaching, the intensity of scoliosis and impaired visual acuity are the most pronounced in the age group of 15 years. The association between measuring light levels, not meeting hygienic standards and the frequency of scoliosis in children before entering school is revealed (rs=0,472; p=0,048; between measurements of furniture, not meeting sanitary requirements in school computer classes and the violation of visual acuity in children of 10–11 years (rs=0,529; p=0,024; and between measurements of furniture, not meeting sanitary requirements in kindergartens and the violation of posture in children one year before admission and just before entering school (rs=0,601; p=0,008 and rs=0,90; p=0,037, respectively.

  7. Personality and Body-Mass-Index in School-Age Children: An Exploration of Mediating and Moderating Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A

    2016-01-01

    This study explored longitudinal associations between personality and body-mass-index (BMI) in school-age children, including the potential mediating role of screen time and physical activity, and the potential moderating roles of child demographics and neighbourhood socioeconomic position. Participants were the parents (and teachers) of 3857 ten-year-old children, who completed questionnaires at baseline with a two-year follow-up. After controlling for child demographics (e.g., sex, pubertal status), we found that personality was unimportant for concurrent BMI, but was important for subsequent BMI and change in BMI over two years. Low levels of introversion and persistence at baseline, and decreases in persistence over time, were associated with a higher BMI at follow-up and a greater increase in BMI over time. Moderator analyses showed that introversion was more strongly related to subsequent BMI for children listed as aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. The relationship between personality and change in BMI was mediated by screen time, but not by physical activity. To conclude, findings demonstrate that personality is important for change in body mass in Australian children (particularly indigenous children), and that screen-based sedentary behaviour features an important role in this association.

  8. The impact of managing school-aged children's diabetes: the role of child behavior problems and parental discipline strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna C; DeCourcey, Wendy M; Freeman, Kurt A

    2009-09-01

    Models of diabetes management in children emphasize family relationships, particularly parent-child interactions. In adolescents, parental involvement in disease-specific management relates to better health and adherence. However, information about parental involvement in disease management for young children is limited and mixed. This study investigated behavior problems of school-aged children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) in association with parent discipline strategies and parents' perceptions of (1) time spent managing diabetes and (2) the impact their child's diabetes has on their discipline strategies. Parents of children ages 5-12 with T1DM completed standardized measures of child misbehavior, parent discipline strategies, and responded to questions regarding perceived time spent managing diabetes, and perceived impact of diabetes on ability to discipline. Results showed child mealtime misbehavior was common and associated with overreactive parental discipline. Further, overreactive discipline was also associated with reports of less time spent managing child's illness. Child misbehavior was positively associated with parents' perceived amount of time spent managing diabetes and with the impact of child diabetes on discipline. Findings suggest the importance of considering parent discipline strategies and child misbehavior when working with young children with diabetes.

  9. Intact first- and second-order implicit sequence learning in secondary-school-aged children with developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroost, Natacha; Zeischka, Peter; Coomans, Daphné; Bouazza, Saïd; Depessemier, Pieter; Soetens, Eric

    2010-07-01

    We examined the influence of task complexity on implicit sequence learning in secondary-school-aged children with developmental dyslexia (DD). This was done to determine whether automatization problems in reading extend to the automatization of all skill and depend on the complexity of the to-be-learned skill. A total of 28 dyslexic children between 12 and 15 years and 28 matched control children carried out two serial reaction time tasks using a first-order conditional (FOC) and second-order conditional (SOC) sequence. In both tasks, children incidentally learned a sequence of hidden target positions, but whereas FOC sequence learning could be based on knowledge about the immediate preceding position, SOC sequence learning required more complex knowledge about the previous two positions. The results demonstrated that sequence learning was highly comparable in dyslexic and control children, regardless of the sequence complexity. This shows that implicit sequence learning, as manifested in the present study, is maintained in DD and is unrelated to task complexity. We suggest that previous reports of sequence-learning deficits in DD can be accounted for by attenuated explicit sequence learning, possibly related to malfunctions in prefrontal processing. The present findings indicate that deficits in skill learning and automatization in DD are not general in nature, but task dependent.

  10. The prevalence of anemia decreased in Mexican preschool and school-age children from 1999 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalpando, Salvador; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; García-Guerra, Armando; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Domínguez, Clara; Mejía-Rodríguez, Fabiola

    2009-01-01

    To compare the distribution of anemia in children, based on information from Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey 2006 (ENSANUT 2006) and Mexican National Nutrition Survey 1999 (ENN-99), and examine the association of anemia with potentially explanatory variables. Adjusted prevalence and means as well as associations with potentially explanatory variables were assessed by multiple linear and logistic regression models for complex samples. From 1999 to 2006, the prevalence of anemia decreased 13.8 percentage points (pp) in toddlers and 7.8 pp in children 24-35 months of age; it also decreased 0.7 pp/year in urban and rural populations, 1.8 pp/year in indigenous and 0.61 pp/year in non-indigenous toddlers, 1.5 pp/year in children 5-8 years of age and 0.78 pp/year in children 9-11 years of age. In toddlers served by Oportunidades, Hb was inversely associated with indigenous ethnicity (p=0.1) and they had a lower risk of anemia (OR=0.002). In school-age children, age (OR=0.98), affiliation to Liconsa (OR=0.42) and living in the central region (OR=0.56) were protective factors for anemia. The national prevalence of anemia in Mexico has decreased in the past seven years, especially in toddlers. Being a beneficiary of Liconsa or Oportunidades was protective for anemia.

  11. Are language and social communication intact in children with congenital visual impairment at school age?

    OpenAIRE

    Tadić, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Background:  Development of children with congenital visual impairment (VI) has been associated with vulnerable socio-communicative outcomes often bearing striking similarities to those of sighted children with autism.1 To date, very little is known about language and social communication in children with VI of normal intelligence.\\ud \\ud Methods:  We examined the presentation of language and social communication of 15 children with VI and normal-range verbal intelligence, age 6–12 years, usi...

  12. Evaluation of the Teaching of English to German Children of Pre-School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid-Schonbein, Gisela

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some reasons offered for the ease with which young children learn a second language. Children of kindergarten age can learn language in a playlike atmosphere in groups no larger than 10-12 children. Pronunciation is the outstanding skill, but comprehension and active speaking also show favorable results. (PJM)

  13. Discrimination between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Reactive Attachment Disorder in School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follan, Michael; Anderson, Seonaid; Huline-Dickens, Sarah; Lidstone, Emma; Young, David; Brown, Gordon; Minnis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether it is possible to discriminate between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) using standardized assessment tools for RAD. The study involved 107 children: 38 with a diagnosis of RAD and 30 with ADHD were recruited through community child and…

  14. Recognition of Facial Expressions of Mixed Emotions in School-Age Children Exposed to Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimin, Sara; Moscardino, Ughetta; Capello, Fabia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Axia, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aims at investigating the effects of terrorism on children's ability to recognize emotions. A sample of 101 exposed and 102 nonexposed children (mean age = 11 years), balanced for age and gender, were assessed 20 months after a terrorist attack in Beslan, Russia. Two trials controlled for children's ability to match a facial…

  15. Definitional Skill in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Johnson, Cynthia J.

    2002-01-01

    Fifteen children (grades 3-5) with specific language impairment (SLI) were asked to define 10 common nouns. Children with SLI scored significantly lower than children with typically developing language for both content and form. Results suggest that lexical access and/or lack of metalinguistic knowledge were potential causes for the lower scores…

  16. Using a Computer Game to Teach School-Aged Children about Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Mary; Lin, Lijia; Atkinson, Robert K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether playing "Quest for the Code"™, a computer game designed to teach children about asthma, would help healthy children acquire knowledge about and attitudes towards asthma and whether the beneficial effects would be maintained over time. The sample consisted of 155 children from four middle…

  17. Physical Activity in School-Aged Children with Asthma in an Urban City of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka-Mei; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Wang, Li-Chieh; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Gau, Bih-Shya; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2016-08-01

    It has been reported that physical activity is limited in children with asthma. The aims of this study were to compare and quantify the physical activity levels between asthmatic children and their healthy peers. Factors associated with limitation of physical activity in asthmatic children were also investigated. A total of 120 asthmatic children and 262 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Clinical phenotype including severity and lung function were obtained from medical records. A questionnaire addressing physical activity, asthma diagnosis, symptoms, parental health beliefs, physician's advice and, community resources was accomplished by children and their parents. The physical activity levels of children with and without asthma were compared. Factors that might limit the activity level were analyzed. Children with asthma were less active than their peers. The significant difference was between normal controls and moderate-to-severe asthmatic children, but not children with mild asthma. Among children with asthma, physical activity was associated with the severity level but not parental health beliefs, physician's advice, or the convenience for physical activity. Children with moderate or severe persistent asthma were more likely to be inactive. Children with asthma had a lower level of physical activity, particularly those with moderate-to-severe asthma. To achieve an appropriate level of physical activity, improvement of asthma management and control is considered important. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Development of non-verbal intellectual capacity in school-age children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of sch

  19. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  20. Effective Group Work for Elementary School-Age Children Whose Parents Are Divorcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucia-Waack, Janice; Gerrity, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Parental divorce is the issue of most concern for elementary school children. This article describes interventions for children-of-divorce groups for elementary school children. Suggests guidelines related to goal setting; securing agency and parental consent; leadership planning; recruitment, screening, and selection of members; group member…

  1. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  2. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33 was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%. Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness

  3. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203 and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177 the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23, -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7 and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6, -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0. Exposed (medium and highly together children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0 from birth to school age and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6 larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount, the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5 and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4 higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022 and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22, boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79, but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to

  4. Researching health inequalities in adolescents: the development of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) family affluence scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Currie, Candace; Molcho, Michal; Boyce, William

    2008-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health have been little studied until recently, partly due to the lack of appropriate and agreed upon measures for this age group. The difficulties of measuring adolescent socioeconomic status (SES) are both conceptual and methodological. Conceptually......, it is unclear whether parental SES should be used as a proxy, and if so, which aspect of SES is most relevant. Methodologically, parental SES information is difficult to obtain from adolescents resulting in high levels of missing data. These issues led to the development of a new measure, the Family Affluence...... Scale (FAS), in the context of an international study on adolescent health, the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study. The paper reviews the evolution of the measure over the past 10 years and its utility in examining and explaining health related inequalities at national and cross...

  5. Molecularly defined adult-type hypolactasia in school-aged children with a previous history of cow's milk allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heli Rasinper(a); Kristiina Saarinen; Anna Pelkonen; Irma J(a)rvel(a); Erkki Savilahti; Kaija-Leena Kolho

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role of lactase non-persistence/persistence in school-aged children and their milk-related sYmptoms.METHODS: The genotypes for the C/T-13910 variant associated with lactase non-persistence/ persistence were determined using PCR-minisequencing in a group of 172 children with a mean age of 8.6 years (SE = 0.02,93 boys) participating in a follow-up study for cow's milk allergy. The parents were asked to assess their children's milk consumption and abdominal symptoms.RESULTS: The presence of allergy to cow's milk was not associated with the C/G13910 genotype related with a decline of lactase enzyme activity during childhood (lactase non-persistence). The frequency of the C/G13910genotype (16%) was similar to published figures for the prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia in Finland. The majority of the children (90%) in this series consumed milk but 26% of their families suspected that their children had milk-related symptoms. Forty-eight percent of the children with the C/G13910 genotype did not drink milk at all or consumed a low lactose containing diet prior to the genotyping (P<0.004 when compared to the other genotypes).CONCLUSION: Analysis of the C/T-13910 polymorphism is an easy and reliable method for excluding adult-type hypolactasia in children with milk-related symptoms.Genotyping for this variant can be used to advise diets for children with a previous history of cow's milk allergy.

  6. An association between Helicobacter pylori infection and cognitive function in children at early school age: a community-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpert Gershon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H. pylori infection has been linked to iron deficiency anemia, a risk factor of diminished cognitive development. The hypothesis on an association between H. pylori infection and cognitive function was examined in healthy children, independently of socioeconomic and nutritional factors. Methods A community-based study was conducted among 200 children aged 6-9 years, from different socioeconomic background. H. pylori infection was examined by an ELISA kit for detection of H. pylori antigen in stool samples. Cognitive function of the children was blindly assessed using Stanford-Benit test 5th edition, yielding IQ scores. Data on socioeconomic factors and nutritional covariates were collected through maternal interviews and from medical records. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to obtain adjusted beta coefficients. Results H. pylori infection was associated with lower IQ scores only in children from a relatively higher socioeconomic community; adjusted beta coefficient -6.1 (95% CI -11.4, -0.8 (P = 0.02 for full-scale IQ score, -6.0 (95% CI -11.1, -0.2 (P = 0.04 for non-verbal IQ score and -5.7 (95% CI -10.8, -0.6 (P = 0.02 for verbal IQ score, after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusions H. pylori infection might be negatively involved in cognitive development at early school age. Further studies in other populations with larger samples are needed to confirm this novel finding.

  7. Evaluating working memory: Comparing change-detection tasks and Wechsler working memory subtests in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Alison; Bo, Jin

    2017-09-01

    Among a number of methods for assessing working memory (WM), span tasks have been commonly utilized in clinical psychology, whereas change-detection tasks are often used in experimental or cognitive psychology. This study sought to understand the use of change-detection tasks in children and to evaluate the relationship between change-detection tasks and clinical WM measures in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). Results revealed that the overall pattern of performance in change-detection tasks for children was similar to adults' performance in the literature; with increased array size, response accuracy systematically decreased. Significant age-related improvements on visuospatial and verbal WM capacities were found in school-age children. Although WISC-IV WM measures were significantly correlated with each other, only the Arithmetic subtest was significantly correlated with visuospatial WM as measured by the change-detection task, and none were significantly correlated with verbal WM as measured by the change-detection task. These results suggest the clinical WISC-IV WM subtests may not elicit the same construct as experimental change-detection WM measures, with the possible exception of the Arithmetic subtest.

  8. Morning cortisol secretion in school-age children is related to the sleep pattern of the preceding night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disturbance in childhood is common and a risk factor for poor mental health. Evidence indicates that disturbed sleep is associated with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity. Knowledge regarding the association between HPAA-activity and objective sleep measures particularly regarding sleep architecture in school-age children is missing. Sleep-electroencephalography was administered to 113 children aged 6-10 years (including 58 children born very preterm and 55 born at term) during one night at the children's homes and sleep duration, sleep continuity, and sleep architecture were assessed. To assess the cortisol awakening response at the following morning, cortisol secretion was measured at awakening, 10, 20, and 30min later. Regression analyses controlling child age, gender, prematurity status, and the awakening time revealed that morning cortisol secretion was negatively associated with sleep duration and slow wave sleep and positively associated with the relative amount of Stage 2 sleep during the preceding night. In addition, morning cortisol secretion linearly increased with age. In conclusion, associations of sleep disturbance with poor mental health may be confounded with altered HPAA-activity.

  9. A longitudinal study of the prevalence of asthma in a community population of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter; Kurland, Marge; Scanlon, Paul

    2002-05-01

    Using a unique county-wide resource that links all health care providers' medical records to assess current and "ever" prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma. To describe the age and sex rates and temporal trends in new asthma diagnoses and associations with race and socio-economic status. A longitudinal retrospective evaluation of a population-based cohort of school children using linked medical and school records. Overall, 17.6% of children in grades kindergarten through 12 had a physician diagnosis of asthma and 12.9% had an asthma-related visit within the past 2 years. An additional 19.7% had visits for reactive airway disease or recurrent wheezing or bronchospasm with no diagnosis of asthma. Children provided with free and reduced-cost lunches had lower cumulative and incident asthma rates from birth through their current school age. Race was not related to rates of physician-diagnosed asthma. There was a significant temporal increase in rates of new asthma diagnoses. In this community, 1 in 3 children have had a physician-documented recurrent wheezing-type illness, and 1 in 6 were diagnosed with asthma. Diagnoses rates were directly related to socioeconomic status.

  10. Sex differences in the neurodevelopment of school-age children with and without single-suture craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradock, Mary Michaeleen; Gray, Kristen E; Kapp-Simon, Kathleen A; Collett, Brent R; Buono, Lauren A; Speltz, Matthew L

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have indicated that infants and school-age children with single-suture craniosynostosis (SSC, cases) score modestly but consistently lower than unaffected children (controls) on neurodevelopmental tests. However, sex differences in these functions rarely have been examined, and it is unknown whether potential sex differences vary by case status (cases vs. controls) or location of suture fusion. We tested 182 cases and 183 demographically matched controls at a mean age of 7.4 years. We measured intellectual abilities with the Wechsler Scale of Intelligence for Children-Fourth Edition. We assessed reading, spelling, and math with a combination of the Wide Range Assessment Test-Fourth Edition, the Test of Word Reading Efficiency, and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing. Among both cases and controls, males scored lower on all measures than females with standard score differences ranging from -1.2 to -7.8 for controls (p values from sex differences were slightly larger for cases than controls. Among cases, males were more likely than females to have learning problems (50 vs. 30%, respectively), with the highest level observed among males with unicoronal synostosis (86%). Sex differences in neurodevelopmental abilities among children with SSC are substantial, but not a unique correlate of this disorder as similar differences were observed among controls. Girls and those with sagittal synostosis have the lowest risk for academic problems. Boys with unicoronal synostosis warrant close developmental surveillance.

  11. Interactive effects of attachment and FKBP5 genotype on school-aged children's emotion regulation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Jessica L; Smiley, Patricia A; Rasmussen, Hannah F; Gómez, Anthony; Seaman, Lauren C; Nurmi, Erika L

    2016-07-30

    Attachment insecurity is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors, but few studies have examined the effects of gene-environment interactions. In the context of environmental stress, a functional variant in the glucocorticoid receptor co-chaperone FKBP5 gene has been repeatedly shown to increase risk for psychiatric illness, including depression. We expand on prior work by exploring cross-sectional attachment by gene effects on both attachment insecurity and downstream physiological and behavioral measures in a diverse community sample of school-aged children (N=99, 49% girls, Mage=10.29years, 66.6% non-White) and their mothers. Specifically, we examined moderating effects of FKBP5 rs3800373 genotype on the links between parenting insensitivity (overcontrol) and child attachment. Further, we assessed whether FKBP5 moderates the links between maternal and child attachment and children's emotion regulation self-report, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in response to a standardized laboratory stressor, and depressive symptoms. Higher levels of overcontrol predicted lower child attachment security only in FKBP5 minor allele carriers. Among children with two minor alleles (CC), attachment security was negatively associated with emotion suppression, rumination, depressive symptoms, and RSA reactivity; similarly, for these children, maternal attachment anxiety was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The findings can be conceptualized in a differential susceptibility framework, where the FKBP5 minor allele confers either risk or resilience, depending on the parenting environment.

  12. Developmental Indicators of School-Age Children, Living in the Regions with Iodine Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the results of studying developmental indicators of children living in the areas of iodine deficiency. The basic anthropometric parameters (height and weight, chest circumference were defined, the estimation of intellectual development in 819 children aged 7–16 years living in the regions with mild (472 persons and moderate (347 persons iodine deficiency was carried out. Examined children were standardized by major factors of developmental effect. Anthropometric measurements were carried out by standard methods. Maturity of intellectual functioning was determined using the fragment of R. Cattell test, indicators of mental activity — with proofreading test in conjunction with reading rate test. In all children we have carried out measurement of daily ioduria (Sandell — Kolthoff reaction, palpation of the thyroid gland, determination of its size and structure using ultrasound. It was found that the diet of children is characterized by deficiency of food rich in iodine. Iodized salt was used only by 1 of 50 families. Children living in the regions with moderate iodine deficiency in all age subgroups have lower rates of physical development. A third of children living in areas of iodine deficiency have disharmonic physical development. 13.8 % of children from the regions of iodine deficiency have changes in the majority of the studied cognitive functions. Leading disabilities in the whole group of children were memory impairment and fine motor skills disorders. The level of intellectual maturity, productivity and accuracy of human performance decreases with growing iodine deficiency.

  13. Neonatal pain-related stress, functional cortical activity and visual-perceptual abilities in school-age children born at extremely low gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doesburg, Sam M; Chau, Cecil M; Cheung, Teresa P L; Moiseev, Alexander; Ribary, Urs; Herdman, Anthony T; Miller, Steven P; Cepeda, Ivan L; Synnes, Anne; Grunau, Ruth E

    2013-10-01

    Children born very prematurely (neonatal experience and neurodevelopment, remain poorly understood. Repeated procedural pain-related stress during neonatal intensive care has been proposed to contribute to altered neurocognitive development in these children. Due to critical periods in the development of thalamocortical systems, the immature brain of infants born at extremely low gestational age (ELGA; neonatal pain. In a cohort of school-age children followed since birth we assessed relations between functional brain activity measured using magnetoencephalogragy (MEG), visual-perceptual abilities and cumulative neonatal pain. We demonstrated alterations in the spectral structure of spontaneous cortical oscillatory activity in ELGA children at school-age. Cumulative neonatal pain-related stress was associated with changes in background cortical rhythmicity in these children, and these alterations in spontaneous brain oscillations were negatively correlated with visual-perceptual abilities at school-age, and were not driven by potentially confounding neonatal variables. These findings provide the first evidence linking neonatal pain-related stress, the development of functional brain activity, and school-age cognitive outcome in these vulnerable children.

  14. Spelling in Written Stories by School-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straley, Sara G.; Werfel, Krystal L.; Hendricks, Alison Eisel

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the spelling of 3rd to 6th grade children with cochlear implants in written stories. Spelling was analysed using traditional correct/incorrect scoring as well as the Spelling Sensitivity Score, which provides linguistic information about spelling attempts. Children with cochlear implants spelled 86 per cent of words in stories…

  15. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  16. School-Aged Children Born Preterm: Review of Functioning across Multiple Domains and Guidelines for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Allison G.; Keller-Margulis, Milena; Mire, Sarah; Abrahamson, Catherine; Dutt, Sonia; Llorens, Ashlie; Payan, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for developmental deficits across multiple functional domains. As the rate of survival for preterm infants increases due to medical advancements, a greater understanding is needed for how to meet the needs of this growing population in schools. Because approximately 50-70% of children born preterm require…

  17. Daily activities of school-age children with cerebral palsy : development and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    In care and research, there is increasing interest in the daily lives of children with cerebral palsy (CP). So far, we know that CP can have a limiting impact on daily activities such as locomotion and self-care. What we, however, don’t know is how children with CP develop over time in terms of thei

  18. Auditory Temporal-Organization Abilities in School-Age Children with Peripheral Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koravand, Amineh; Jutras, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to assess auditory sequential organization (ASO) ability in children with and without hearing loss. Method: Forty children 9 to 12 years old participated in the study: 12 with sensory hearing loss (HL), 12 with central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), and 16 with normal hearing. They performed an ASO task in which…

  19. Wheezing, Sleeping, and Worrying: The Hidden Risks of Asthma and Obesity in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Everhart, Robin S.; Wildenger, Leah

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the co-occurrence of asthma and obesity in a sample of 193 children (mean age = 7.76 years). Specifically, this study was interested in delineating the associated comorbidities of internalizing symptoms and sleep disruptions among younger (younger than 7 years) and older elementary age children with asthma who were…

  20. Attention Training for School-Aged Children with ADHD: Results of an Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Leanne; Hughes, Carroll; Ames, Laure; Pickering, Joyce; Silver, Cheryl H.; Stavinoha, Peter; Castillo, Christine L.; Rintelmann, Jeanne; Moore, Jarrette; Foxwell, Aleksandra; Bolanos, S. Gina; Hines, Tabatha; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Emslie, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The article discusses a feasibility study conducted to examine whether Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, could be utilized in a clinical setting with children diagnosed with ADHD, and whether children who received the intervention made attention and executive functioning…

  1. Positive Emotion, Negative Emotion, and Emotion Control in the Externalizing Problems of School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geunyoung; Walden, Tedra; Harris, Vicki; Karrass, Jan; Catron, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of emotion and emotion control in children's externalizing problems. Third- to sixth-grade children were administered a self-report measure of positive emotion, negative emotion, and emotion control. Peer- and teacher-reported adjustment problems were assessed. Structural equations modeling revealed that…

  2. Differential Profiles of Risk of Self-Harm among Clinically Referred Primary School Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelkovska, Anne; Houghton, Stephen; Hopkins, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Risk of self-harm among clinic referred children aged 6- to 12-years-old was investigated using the recently developed Self-Harm Risk Assessment for Children (SHRAC) instrument which comprises six factors: Affect traits; verbalizing of self-harm; socialization; dissociation; self-directing; and self-appraisal. The SHRAC was completed by the…

  3. School-Aged Children Born Preterm: Review of Functioning across Multiple Domains and Guidelines for Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Allison G.; Keller-Margulis, Milena; Mire, Sarah; Abrahamson, Catherine; Dutt, Sonia; Llorens, Ashlie; Payan, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm are at risk for developmental deficits across multiple functional domains. As the rate of survival for preterm infants increases due to medical advancements, a greater understanding is needed for how to meet the needs of this growing population in schools. Because approximately 50-70% of children born preterm require…

  4. Social Analogical Reasoning in School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gallagher, Natalie M.; Antezana, Ligia; Mosner, Maya G.; Krieg, Samantha; Dudley, Katherina; Ratto, Allison; Yerys, Benjamin E.

    2017-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important mechanism for social cognition in typically developing children, and recent evidence suggests that some forms of analogical reasoning may be preserved in autism spectrum disorder. An unanswered question is whether children with autism spectrum disorder can apply analogical reasoning to social information. In…

  5. Knowledge and Morality of School-Age Children and Adolescents Regarding Environmental Issues and Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…

  6. Wheezing, Sleeping, and Worrying: The Hidden Risks of Asthma and Obesity in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Everhart, Robin S.; Wildenger, Leah

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the co-occurrence of asthma and obesity in a sample of 193 children (mean age = 7.76 years). Specifically, this study was interested in delineating the associated comorbidities of internalizing symptoms and sleep disruptions among younger (younger than 7 years) and older elementary age children with asthma who were…

  7. Handwriting in 2015: A Main Occupation for Primary School-Aged Children in the Classroom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Emily; Roberts, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Historically, handwriting is a skill acquired by children in the classroom. The relevance of this skill today is currently debated due to advances in technology. A nonexperimental time-series design investigated how much time Australian primary school children spend on handwriting in the classroom. A second aim investigated how much time was spent…

  8. Brain morphology of childhood aggressive behavior: A multi-informant study in school-age children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Thijssen (Sandra); A.P. Ringoot (Ank); A. Wildeboer (Andrea); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian); H. El Marroun (Hanan); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Marinus); T.J.H. White (Tonya)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Few studies have focused on the neuroanatomy of aggressive behavior in children younger than 10 years. Here, we explored the neuroanatomical correlates of aggression in a population-based sample of 6- to 9-year-old children using a multiple-informant approach. Methods: Magneti

  9. Neurological outcome in school-age children after in utero exposure to coumarins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, J; Van Driel, D; Smrkovsky, M; Van der Veer, E; Geven-Boere, LM; Sauer, PJJ; Touwen, BCL

    2001-01-01

    The effect of prenatal exposure to coumarins (acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon) on neurological outcome was assessed in a cohort of 306 children aged 7-15 years. Findings were compared with those in a non-exposed cohort of 267 children, matched for sex, age, and demographic region. We used a neurologica

  10. Screening for Asperger Syndrome in School-Age Children: Issues and Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Campbell, Audrey; Keran, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Many children with Asperger syndrome are not identified prior to school entry, and difficulties associated with the condition may only become evident when a child enters school. Failure to identify children with the syndrome may lead to increased risk for psychopathology, and lack of understanding of the reasons for social and communicative…

  11. School-Age Children's Self-Assessment of Oral Narrative Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderavek, Joan N.; Gillam, Ronald B.; Ukrainetz, Teresa A.; Justice, Laura M.; Eisenberg, Sarita N.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined aspects of self-assessment, a metacognitive ability, and oral narrative production in 401 children between 5 and 12 years of age. Oral narrative production was evaluated through the administration of the "Test of Narrative Language" (TNL). Self-assessment of narrative performance was determined by asking children to…

  12. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and primary headache in school-aged children: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Carlos E; Barbieri, Marco A; Silva, Antônio M; Gutierrez, Manoel R; Bettiol, Heloisa; Speciali, José G; Rona, Roberto J

    2012-03-01

    It is not known whether smoking by mothers during pregnancy is associated with headache in their offspring. Two prospective cohorts of 869 children aged 10-11 years from Ribeirão Preto (RP) and 805 children aged 7-9 years from São Luís (SL) were studied. Data on maternal smoking were collected at birth. Primary headache was defined as a reporting of ≥2 episodes of headache in the past 2 weeks, without any associated organic symptoms. Prevalence of headache was 28.1% in RP and 13.1% in SL as reported by the mothers and 17.5% in RP and 29.4% in SL as reported by the children. Agreement between mothers' report and children's self-report of primary headache in the child was poor. After adjustment, children whose mothers smoked ≥10 cigarettes per day during pregnancy presented higher prevalence of primary headache than their counterparts in both cohorts, as reported by the mother and in RP as reported by the children. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with headache in 7- to 11-year-olds. With one exception, the consistency of the results, despite poor agreement between maternal and children reports of headache, indicates that maternal smoking during pregnancy may contribute to headaches in their children.

  13. Communicative abilities in toddlers and in early school age children with cleft palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, Jolien S.; Korsten-Meijer, Astrid G. W.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Siena M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluation of improvement in communicative abilities in children with nonsyndromic cleft palate. Methods: Longitudinal retrospective case history Study. Out of 117 children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate born in 1998, 1999 and 2000 and enrolled in the cleft palate team of the Univers

  14. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  15. Cultural responses to pain in UK children of primary school age: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language.

  16. Participation Patterns of School-Aged Children with and without DCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarus, Tal; Lourie-Gelberg, Yael; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Bart, Orit

    2011-01-01

    Participation is recognized as a key to one's health and well-being and is considered to be a vital part of the development of children and youth. The purpose of this study was to examine the participation patterns of children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in their out-of-school-time (OST) activities, and to see…

  17. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in school aged children with type 1 diabetes – a questionnaire study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sendela

    2015-10-01

    Depressive symptoms were observed in 1 out of 12 T1D children in a primary school and in 1 out of 5 teenagers. Depressive symptoms may affect metabolic control and quality of life. Therefore, early detection and treatment of depressive symptoms in T1D school children is needed.

  18. Linguistic and Socio-Cognitive Predictors of School-Age Children's Narrative Evaluations about Jealousy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Naomi J.; Brooks, Patricia J.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated children's narrative evaluations about jealousy in relation to performance on a higher-order perspective-taking task and assessments of receptive vocabulary and nonverbal intelligence. Eighty children (5;0-11;11) narrated a wordless picture book about a jealous frog, answered probe questions about the plot, and generated a…

  19. Cognitive Strategy Use in School-Aged Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernie, Charmaine; Rodger, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, cognitive approaches with children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have been investigated. Although studies have focused on intervention outcomes, few have documented the components of the approach that support the enhancement of children's performance. This study used systematic observation of videotaped…

  20. The Effect of Cleft Lip on Socio-Emotional Functioning in School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Bingley, Caroline; Hentges, Francoise; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Dalton, Louise; Goodacre, Tim; Hill, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with cleft lip are known to be at raised risk for socio-emotional difficulties, but the nature of these problems and their causes are incompletely understood; longitudinal studies are required that include comprehensive assessment of child functioning, and consideration of developmental mechanisms. Method: Children with cleft…

  1. Spelling in Written Stories by School-Age Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straley, Sara G.; Werfel, Krystal L.; Hendricks, Alison Eisel

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the spelling of 3rd to 6th grade children with cochlear implants in written stories. Spelling was analysed using traditional correct/incorrect scoring as well as the Spelling Sensitivity Score, which provides linguistic information about spelling attempts. Children with cochlear implants spelled 86 per cent of words in stories…

  2. The Relationship between the Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio and Behavioral Sexual Dimorphism in School-Aged Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiko Mitsui

    Full Text Available Sexually dimorphic brain development and behavior are known to be influenced by sex hormones exposure in prenatal periods. On the other hand, second-to forth digit ratio (2D/4D has been used as an indirect method to investigate the putative effects of prenatal exposure to androgen. In the present study, we herein investigated the relationship between gender-role play behavior and the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D/4D, which has been used as an indirect method to investigate the putative effects of prenatal exposure to androgens, in school-aged children. Among 4981 children who became 8 years old by November 2014 and were contactable for this survey by The Hokkaido Study of Environment and Children's Health, 1631 (32.7%, who had data for 2D/4D and Pre-school Activities Inventory (PSAI as well as data for the survey at baseline, were available for analysis. Parents sent reports of PSAI on the sex-typical characteristics, preferred toys, and play activities of children, and black and white photocopies of the left and right hand palms via mail. PSAI consisted of 12 masculine items and 12 feminine items, and a composite score was created by subtracting the feminine score from the masculine score, with higher scores representing masculine-typical behavior. While composite scores in PSAI were significantly higher in boys than in girls, 2D/4D was significantly lower in boys than in girls. Although the presence or absence of brothers or sisters affected the composite, masculine, and feminine scored of PSAI, a multivariate regression model revealed that 2D/4D negatively correlated with the composite scores of PSAI in boys, whereas no correlation was found in girls. Although 2D/4D negatively correlated with the masculine score in boys and girls, no correlation was observed between 2D/4D and the feminine score. In conclusion, although social factors, such as the existence of brother or sisters, affect dimorphic brain development and behavior in childhood

  3. Short sleep duration is associated with teacher-reported inattention and cognitive problems in healthy school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaelsen S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reut Gruber1,2, Sonia Michaelsen1,2, Lana Bergmame2, Sonia Frenette3,4, Oliviero Bruni5, Laura Fontil2, Julie Carrier3,41Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 2Attention, Behavior and Sleep Lab, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, 3Centre du Sommeil et des Rythmes Biologiques, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, 4Departement de Psychologie, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University of Rome, Rome, ItalyPurpose: Pediatric, clinical, and research data suggest that insufficient sleep causes tiredness and daytime difficulties in terms of attention-focusing, learning, and impulse modulation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or in those with ADHD and primary sleep disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sleep duration was associated with ADHD-like symptoms in healthy, well-developing school-aged children.Patients and methods: Thirty-five healthy children (20 boys, 15 girls, aged 7–11 years participated in the present study. Each child wore an actigraphic device on their nondominant wrist for two nights prior to use of polysomnography to assess their typical sleep periods. On the third night, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child's natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Teachers were asked to report symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on the revised Conners Teacher Rating Scale.Results: Shorter sleep duration was associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ADHD-like symptoms in the domains of cognitive problems and inattention. No significant association between sleep duration and hyperactivity symptoms was evident.Conclusion: Short sleep duration was found to be related to teacher-derived reports of ADHD-like symptoms of inattention and cognitive functioning in healthy children.Keywords: ADHD-like symptoms, sleep duration, inattention

  4. A randomized controlled trial on a multicomponent intervention for overweight school-aged children - Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Birk, Nina Marie; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity amongst children is a growing problem worldwide. In contrast to adults, little is known on the effects of controlled weight loss on components of the metabolic syndrome in children. The primary aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a 20-week exercise and diet guidance...... intervention on body mass index (BMI) in a group of overweight children. Our hypothesis was an observed reduction in BMI and secondarily in body fat content, insulin insensitivity, and other components of the metabolic syndrome in the intervention group. METHODS: School children from Copenhagen were randomly....../day, and fat mass. In addition, similar beneficial metabolic effects were found in the children as shown in adults, e.g. increase in peripheral insulin sensitivity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier number NCT01660789....

  5. Postural stability in school-age children with mild bronchial asthma disease (a pilot study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacikova, Zuzana; Neumannova, Katerina; Bizovska, Lucia; Rydlova, Jana; Siska, Martin; Janura, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the postural stability in children with asthma using balance tests under conditions of a comfortable foot placement and with a foot placement provoking instability. A group of 10 school children from 8 to 10 years old with mild intermittent asthma and 10 healthy children of the same age range performed four balance tests in a randomized order: preferred stance, adjusted stance, and tandem stance each under both conditions of eyes opened (EO) and eyes closed (EC), as well as a one-legged stance with eyes-opened conditions. To determine postural stability, the center of pressure (CoP) movement was recorded. Basic stabilographic parameters were calculated: CoP velocity in the anterior-posterior direction, CoP velocity in the medial-lateral direction, and the total CoP velocity. Statistically significant differences between the groups were found only for the one-legged stance. Significantly greater anterior-posterior CoP velocity (p = 0.05) and total CoP velocity (p = 0.03) were found in children with asthma when standing on the preferred foot. A significantly greater medial-lateral velocity (p = 0.02) was also found in the non-preferred foot of children with asthma. We can conclude that standing on one leg might be an appropriate test with which to identify balance differences between young children with mild intermittent asthma and healthy children.

  6. Social analogical reasoning in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E; Kenworthy, Lauren; Gallagher, Natalie M; Antezana, Ligia; Mosner, Maya G; Krieg, Samantha; Dudley, Katherina; Ratto, Allison; Yerys, Benjamin E

    2017-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is an important mechanism for social cognition in typically developing children, and recent evidence suggests that some forms of analogical reasoning may be preserved in autism spectrum disorder. An unanswered question is whether children with autism spectrum disorder can apply analogical reasoning to social information. In all, 92 children with autism spectrum disorder completed a social content analogical reasoning task presented via photographs of real-world social interactions. Autism spectrum disorder participants exhibited performance that was well above chance and was not significantly worse than age- and intelligence quotient-matched typically developing children. Investigating the relationship of social content analogical reasoning performance to age in this cross-sectional dataset indicated similar developmental trajectories in the autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children groups. These findings provide new support for intact analogical reasoning in autism spectrum disorder and have theoretical implications for analogy as a metacognitive skill that may be at least partially dissociable from general deficits in processing social content. As an initial study of social analogical reasoning in children with autism spectrum disorder, this study focused on a basic research question with limited ecological validity. Evidence that children with autism spectrum disorder can apply analogical reasoning ability to social content may have long-range applied implications for exploring how this capacity might be channeled to improve social cognition in daily life.

  7. Behavioral adjustment and self-esteem of school-age children of women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armsden, G C; Lewis, F M

    1994-01-01

    To describe children's psychosocial adjustment to their mother's breast cancer and to compare their level of adjustment with normative data and with the level of adjustment of children of women with fibrocystic breast disease or diabetes. Hypotheses tested were (a) children of women with breast cancer would be most negatively affected and (b) families of mothers with fibrocystic breast disease would require less family adaptation than families of women with breast cancer or diabetes. One component of a larger longitudinal survey. University-based physician clinic in a metropolitan area in the Northwestern United States. Mothers, predominantly Caucasian, with medically controlled diabetes mellitus (n = 18), nonmetastatic breast cancer (n = 13), or biopsy-proven fibrocystic breast disease (n = 17) and their children (N = 48), who ranged in age from 6 to 12. Five in-home interviews conducted at four-month intervals. Behavioral adjustment using the Louisville Behavior Checklist (maternal report) and the Zeitlin Coping Inventory (nurse-observer report) and self-esteem using the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children (children's self-report). Children of women with breast cancer scored better than average on behavioral adjustment (mothers' ratings) and were judged by nurse observers to be better behaviorally adjusted than children in the noncancer illness groups. Children of women with breast cancer and of women with diabetes tended to score significantly lower on self-esteem than the comparative sample. Measures of childhood adjustment to chronic medical illness in mothers need to distinguish between behavioral adjustment and self-esteem. Discrepancies between child ratings and mother and nurse-observer ratings suggest that differences exist. Findings are preliminary in nature, and other explanations for findings must be ruled out. However, if a child's self-appraisal is affected negatively by the mother's illness, it would be appropriate to identify ways to increase

  8. Primary hypertension and neurocognitive and executive functioning in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferman, Juan C; Lande, Marc B; Adams, Heather R; Pavlakis, Steven G

    2013-03-01

    Data on neurocognitive function in hypertensive children are limited. In this review, we summarize recent preliminary, early studies that suggest that children with elevated blood pressure demonstrate evidence of worse performance on direct neurocognitive testing, as well as evidence of executive dysfunction based on parent ratings, compared with matched normotensive comparison groups. Furthermore, hypertensive children may have increased prevalence of learning disabilities as well as a blunted cerebrovascular reactivity compared with normotensive controls. Larger, prospective studies are needed to confirm and further explore these emerging but preliminary findings.

  9. Consumption of fruits and vegetables in a group of valencian children of school age.

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Tamarit,; Alba Tamarit, E.; Gandía Balaguer, A.; Olaso González, G.; Vallada Regalado, E.; Garzón Farinós, Mª F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the last 25 years there has beena great change in the food habits in Spain.Objectives: To calculate and assess the consumption of fruits and vegetables in school children. To identify the type of desserts eaten and analyze the influence children have on the purchase of fruit andvegetables made by parents.Materials and methods: A survey was carried out on parents of primary school children. A total of 155 questionnaires were handed into the school, obtaining a sample of 116 co...

  10. [The microbiocenosis of intestine and immune status of children of primary school age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervinets, V M; Chervinets, Iu V; Mikhaĭlova, E S; Samoukina, A M; Beliaeva, E A; Mironov, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with the study of species and quantitative structure of microbiocenosis of intestine and characteristics of immune status in children aged 8-10 years. In children with chronic tonsillitis pharyngitis and bronchitis and with diseases of gastro-intestinal tract (biliary dysfunction, chronic gastroduodenitis and gastritis) the microbe imbalance of various degree of manifestation was established which was prevailing in cases of children with pathology of gastrointestinal tract. The increase of quantity of opportunistic microflora induces the production of both immunoglobulins and cytotoxic lymphocytes and cells-natural killers.

  11. Parents' assessment of circadian preference in elementary school-aged children: Validity and relations to educational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Vsevolod; Roberts, Richard; Preckel, Franzis

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analyses suggest that morning-oriented students obtain better school grades than evening-oriented students. This finding has generally been found for students in high school using self-report data for the assessment of circadian preference. Two studies (N = 2718/192) investigated whether these findings generalize across samples (i.e. elementary school-aged students) and methods (i.e. parent reports). These studies also explored whether the relation between circadian preference and school achievement could be explained within an expectancy-value framework. To this end, the Lark-Owl Chronotype Indicator (LOCI) was modified to obtain parents' evaluations of their children's circadian preference, while students completed a battery of assessments designed to explore the test-criterion evidence. Structural equation modeling and correlational analyses revealed: (1) morning and evening orientation were two separable factors of children's circadian preference; (2) correlations with behavioral (e.g. sleep and eating times) and psychological (e.g. cognitive ability) data supported the test-criterion validity of both factors; (3) morning orientation was positively related to school achievement and (4) consistent with an expectancy-value framework this relation was mediated by children's academic self-concept (ASC). These findings have important research and policy implications for considering circadian preference in the schooling of elementary students.

  12. Failure to produce direct object clitic pronouns as a clinical marker of SLI in school-aged Italian speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Fabrizio; Branchini, Chiara; Barbieri, Lina; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2014-09-01

    We administrated a clitic elicitation task to 16 school-aged Italian speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) in order to investigated whether the failure to produce third person direct object clitics (DO clitics) is a persistent clinical marker of SLI in Italian; we examined whether this failure also extends to reflexive clitics. Results show that Italian children with SLI aged 6 to 9;11 years fail to produce DO clitics and tend to produce a lexical noun introduced by a determiner (full DP) in the argument postverbal position instead of the pronoun; the production of reflexive clitics is preserved in the same population. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses and computation of likelihood ratios show that the failure to produce DO clitics is a persistent good clinical marker of SLI in Italian. We argue that DO clitic production requires complex morphosyntactic operations that are hardly achieved by children with SLI; our findings are compatible with theories considering SLI as a deficit of processing complex linguistic relations.

  13. The linguistic comparison of picture-elicited narratives in borderline-intelligence and typically-developed school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belghis Rovshan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Students with borderline intelligence quotient experience types of language disorders that are seen in their narratives, too. This research aimed to investigate the linguistic characteristics of picture-elicited narratives in school-aged children with borderline intelligence quotient.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 30 students with borderline intelligence quotient and 25 typically developing children at the age of 6-13 years were randomly selected from a population of four schools. Narrative discourse was elicited with description of pictures of one storybook.Results: Students with borderline IQ were weaker than typically developing children in complex (p<0.001, compound sentences (p<0.001 and produced more ungrammatical sentences (p=0.007. Students with borderline intelligence quotient produced fewer related (p<0.001 but more unrelated information (p=0.033; and types of cohesive (p=0.010 and "HAM" conjunction (p=0.022 was fewer in them.Conclusion: Students with borderline intelligence quotient showed more linguistic impairment in description of story.

  14. Validating the Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire against polysomnography and actigraphy in school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adria Nora Markovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a vital physiological behaviour in children’s development, and as such it is important to be able to efficiently and accurately assess whether children display difficulties with sleep quality and quantity. The Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ; (1 is one of the most commonly used assessment tools for pediatric sleep. However, this instrument has never been validated against the gold standard of sleep measurement (i.e., polysomnography; PSG, and studies comparing it to actigraphy are limited. Therefore, the current study assessed the validity of four subscales of the CSHQ via direct comparison with PSG and actigraphy for 30 typically developing school-aged children (ages 6 to 12. No significant correlations between relevant CSHQ subscales and PSG variables were found. In terms of the actigraphy variables, only the CSHQ Night Wakings subscale achieved significance. In addition, sensitivity and specificity analyses revealed consistently low sensitivity and high specificity. Overall, the CSHQ Sleep Onset Delay, Sleep Duration, Night Wakings, and Sleep Disordered Breathing subscales showed low construct validity and diagnostic validity. These results underscore that caution should be taken when using the CSHQ as the sole screening tool for sleep problems in children.

  15. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Main, Katharina Maria; Schmidt, Ida Maria;

    2011-01-01

    ) children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0) from birth to school age) and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6) larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount...... years of age (n=177) the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis......), the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5) and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4) higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022) and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22), boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79)), but not IGFBP3. CONCLUSIONS...

  16. Prediction of nursery school-aged children who refuse fluoride varnish administration in a community setting: a Childsmile investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Gerry M; Zhou, Yuefang

    2014-07-01

    Young children of pre-school age may find a minimal intervention (fluoride varnish application) difficult to tolerate. To determine the significant predictors for refusing a fluoride varnish application from child, parental and nurse behaviour factors. Data included videos from 238 children (52% female, aged 3-5 years) receiving a fluoride varnish application in a Scottish nursery school setting. The St Andrews Behavioural Interaction Scheme (SABICS) was used for video coding and retrieved child refusal status, initial anxious behaviour, and nurse behaviour. A parental survey collected parent's dental anxiety [Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS)] and the child's home behaviour [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Child demographics, dental status, and previous varnish application experience were recorded. Multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to predict child refusal of the varnish application. The response rate was 79%. Twelve children refused. The significant predictors of varnish refusal included initial anxious child behaviour (β = 5.14, P = 0.001), no previous varnish application (β = -3.89, P = 0.04), and no nurse praise (β = -1.06, P = 0.02). Information giving (P = 0.06) and reassurance (P = 0.08) were borderline significant. Initial anxiety behaviour, previous varnish experience, and not using praise by the nursing staff predicted fluoride varnish application refusal. © 2013 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Neurobehavioral deficits and increased blood pressure in school-age children prenatally exposed to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harari, Raul; Julvez, Jordi; Murata, Katsuyuki;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term neurotoxicity risks caused by prenatal exposures to pesticides are unclear, but a previous pilot study of Ecuadorian school children suggested that blood pressure and visuospatial processing may be vulnerable. OBJECTIVES: In northern Ecuador, where floriculture...... is intensive and relies on female employment, we carried out an intensive cross-sectional study to assess children's neurobehavioral functions at 6-8 years of age. METHODS: We examined all 87 children attending two grades in the local public school with an expanded battery of neurobehavioral tests. Information...... on pesticide exposure during the index pregnancy was obtained from maternal interview. The children's current pesticide exposure was assessed from the urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites and erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity. RESULTS: Of 84 eligible participants, 35 were exposed...

  18. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P obesity problems among Malaysian children.

  19. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and thinness among urban school-aged children and adolescents in southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene-Obong, Henrietta; Ibeanu, Vivian; Onuoha, NneOla; Ejekwu, Ada

    2012-12-01

    Overweight and obesity are public health problems all over the world because of their devastating social, economic, and health consequences, and they coexist with undernutrition in developing countries. Yet, there are few data on the magnitude of these problems in Nigeria. To assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and thinness among urban school-aged children and adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 1,599 children and adolescents 5 to 18 years of age was conducted. The subjects were randomly selected from schools in four urban towns (Lagos, Port Harcourt, Nsukka, and Aba) in southern Nigeria. A validated and pretested questionnaire was used to collect information on the background of the children and adolescents and their parents' socioeconomic status. Weight and height measurements were taken, and body mass indexes were calculated. Overweight, obesity, and thinness were defined according to the International Obesity Task Force cutoff points for children and adolescents 2 to 18 years of age. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, cross tabulations, and chi-squared tests. The prevalence rates of overweight, obesity, and thinness were 11.4%, 2.8%, and 13.0%, respectively. More females (3.7%) than males (1.8%) were obese (p adolescents 10 to 18 years of age (13%) than among children 5 to 9 years of age (9.4%) (p adolescents (8.3%) (p obesity, and thinness. The rates of overweight, obesity, and thinness were affected by location and income levels. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity are increasing among urban Nigerian children and adolescents and are of equal magnitude to the prevalence of undernutrition.

  20. Dietary and Physical Activity/Inactivity Factors Associated with Obesity in School-Aged Children123

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Rodriguez, Marcela; Melendez, Guillermo; Nieto, Claudia; Aranda, Marisol; Pfeffer, Frania

    2012-01-01

    Diet and physical activity (PA) are essential components of nutritional status. Adequate nutrition and an active lifestyle are key factors during childhood, because food habits track into adulthood. Children spend more time in school than in any other environment away from home. Studying the diet factors and patterns of PA that affect obesity risk in children during school hours and the complete school day can help identify opportunities to lower this risk. We directly measured the time child...