WorldWideScience

Sample records for k-1 fan system

  1. Improving Fan System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-04-01

    This is one of a series of sourcebooks on motor-driven equipment produced by the Industrial Technologies Program. It provides a reference for industrial fan systems users, outlining opportunities to improve fan system performance.

  2. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results from an on-going project concerning new design procedures for mechanical ventilation systems with low energy use. Conventional constant air volume (CAV) systems are usually balanced using flat plate dampers. The purpose of using balancing dampers is to intentionally...... flawed. This paper presents a new procedure for balancing of CAV systems in combination with decentralised fans. The new system was based on replacing the balancing dampers with decentralised fans. By replacing the balancing dampers with decentralised fans, airflows can be balanced by adjusting the speed...... of the fans. In conventional air distribution systems the fan provides the necessary pressure to overcome the resistance in the branch with the highest pressure resistance. This gives an unnecessary overpressure in the remaining branches that does not provide any useful purpose. In order to decrease the fan...

  3. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders

    2015-01-01

    of the fans. In conventional air distribution systems the fan provides the necessary pressure to overcome the resistance in the branch with the highest pressure resistance. This gives an unnecessary overpressure in the remaining branches that does not provide any useful purpose. In order to decrease the fan......This paper presents results from an on-going project concerning new design procedures for mechanical ventilation systems with low energy use. Conventional constant air volume (CAV) systems are usually balanced using flat plate dampers. The purpose of using balancing dampers is to intentionally...... pressure requirements the fan was dimensioned for the branch with the least pressure resistance. The decentralised fans then provided sufficient pressure to overcome the exact resistance in the corresponding branch. The results show that by using decentralised fans in duct systems instead of dampers...

  4. Energy fan power consumption comparison of subway station HVAC system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGYong; ZHUYingxin

    2003-01-01

    Subway thermal environment control system is a mass energy consumed system. The fan operation is the Key of energy saving. Some feasible fan operation modes are proposed and compared in this paper from the view of energy and operation cost saving. It is concluded that VAV is the optimal operation mode for metro system with highest energy saving.

  5. COOLING FAN AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Dupree

    2005-07-31

    Upcoming emissions regulations (Tiers 3, 4a and 4b) are imposing significantly higher heat loads on the cooling system than lesser regulated machines. This work was a suite of tasks aimed at reducing the parasitic losses of the cooling system, or improving the design process through six distinct tasks: 1. Develop an axial fan that will provide more airflow, with less input power and less noise. The initial plan was to use Genetic Algorithms to do an automated fan design, incorporating forward sweep for low noise. First and second generation concepts could not meet either performance or sound goals. An experienced turbomachinery designer, using a specialized CFD analysis program has taken over the design and has been able to demonstrate a 5% flow improvement (vs 10% goal) and 10% efficiency improvement (vs 10% goal) using blade twist only. 2. Fan shroud developments, using an 'aeroshroud' concept developed at Michigan State University. Performance testing at Michigan State University showed the design is capable of meeting the goal of a 10% increase in flow, but over a very narrow operating range of fan performance. The goal of 10% increase in fan efficiency was not met. Fan noise was reduced from 0 to 2dB, vs. a goal of 5dB at constant airflow. The narrow range of fan operating conditions affected by the aeroshroud makes this concept unattractive for further development at this time 3. Improved axial fan system modeling is needed to accommodate the numbers of cooling systems to be redesigned to meet lower emissions requirements. A CFD fan system modeling guide has been completed and transferred to design engineers. Current, uncontrolled modeling practices produce flow estimates in some cases within 5% of measured values, and in some cases within 25% of measured values. The techniques in the modeling guide reduced variability to the goal of + 5% for the case under study. 4. Demonstrate the performance and design versatility of a high performance fan. A

  6. COOLING FAN AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Dupree

    2005-07-31

    Upcoming emissions regulations (Tiers 3, 4a and 4b) are imposing significantly higher heat loads on the cooling system than lesser regulated machines. This work was a suite of tasks aimed at reducing the parasitic losses of the cooling system, or improving the design process through six distinct tasks: 1. Develop an axial fan that will provide more airflow, with less input power and less noise. The initial plan was to use Genetic Algorithms to do an automated fan design, incorporating forward sweep for low noise. First and second generation concepts could not meet either performance or sound goals. An experienced turbomachinery designer, using a specialized CFD analysis program has taken over the design and has been able to demonstrate a 5% flow improvement (vs 10% goal) and 10% efficiency improvement (vs 10% goal) using blade twist only. 2. Fan shroud developments, using an 'aeroshroud' concept developed at Michigan State University. Performance testing at Michigan State University showed the design is capable of meeting the goal of a 10% increase in flow, but over a very narrow operating range of fan performance. The goal of 10% increase in fan efficiency was not met. Fan noise was reduced from 0 to 2dB, vs. a goal of 5dB at constant airflow. The narrow range of fan operating conditions affected by the aeroshroud makes this concept unattractive for further development at this time 3. Improved axial fan system modeling is needed to accommodate the numbers of cooling systems to be redesigned to meet lower emissions requirements. A CFD fan system modeling guide has been completed and transferred to design engineers. Current, uncontrolled modeling practices produce flow estimates in some cases within 5% of measured values, and in some cases within 25% of measured values. The techniques in the modeling guide reduced variability to the goal of + 5% for the case under study. 4. Demonstrate the performance and design versatility of a high performance fan. A

  7. Autonomous safety and reliability features of the K-1 avionics system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, G.E.; Kohrs, D.; Bailey, R.; Lai, G. [Kistler Aerospace Corp., Kirkland, WA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Kistler Aerospace Corporation is developing the K-1, a fully reusable, two-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle. Both stages return to the launch site using parachutes and airbags. Initial flight operations will occur from Woomera, Australia. K-1 guidance is performed autonomously. Each stage of the K- 1 employs a triplex, fault tolerant avionics architecture, including three fault tolerant computers and three radiation hardened Embedded GPS/INS units with a hardware voter. The K-1 has an Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) system on each stage residing in the three vehicle computers based on similar systems in commercial aircraft. During first-stage ascent, the IVHM system performs an Instantaneous Impact Prediction (IIP) calculation 25 times per second, initiating an abort in the event the vehicle is outside a predetermined safety corridor for at least three consecutive calculations. In this event, commands are issued to terminate thrust, separate the stages, dump all propellant in the first-stage, and initiate a normal landing sequence. The second-stage flight computer calculates its ability to reach orbit along its state vector, initiating an abort sequence similar to the first stage if it cannot. On a nominal mission, following separation, the second-stage also performs calculations to assure its impact point is within a safety corridor. The K-1's guidance and control design is being tested through simulation with hardware-in-the-loop at Draper Laboratory. Kistler's verification strategy assures reliable and safe operation of the K-1. (author)

  8. The K1.8BR spectrometer system at J-PARC

    CERN Document Server

    Agari, Keizo; Beer, George; Bhang, Hyoungchan; Bragadireanu, Mario; Buehler, Paul; Busso, Luigi; Cargnelli, Michael; Choi, Seonho; Curceanu, Catalina; Enomoto, Shun; Faso, Diego; Fujioka, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Yuya; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Guaraldo, Carlo; Hashimoto, Tadashi; Hayano, Ryugo S; Hiraiwa, Toshihiko; Hirose, Erina; Ieiri, Masaharu; Iio, Masami; Iliescu, Mihai; Inoue, Kentaro; Ishiguro, Yosuke; Ishikawa, Takashi; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Ishiwatari, Tomoichi; Itahashi, Kenta; Iwai, Masaaki; Iwasaki, Masahiko; Kakiguchi, Yutaka; Katoh, Yohji; Kawasaki, Shingo; Kienle, Paul; Kou, Hiroshi; Marton, Johann; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Minakawa, Michifumi; Mizoi, Yutaka; Morra, Ombretta; Muto, Ryotaro; Nagae, Tomofumi; Naruki, Megumi; Noumi, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Okada, Shinji; Outa, Haruhiko; Piscicchia, Kristian; Lener, Marco Poli; Vidal, Antonio Romero; Sada, Yuta; Sakaguchi, Atsushi; Sakuma, Fuminori; Sato, Masaharu; Sato, Yoshinori; Sawada, Shin'ya; Scordo, Alessandro; Sekimoto, Michiko; Shi, Hexi; Shirakabe, Yoshihisa; Sirghi, Diana; Sirghi, Florin; Suzuki, Ken; Suzuki, Shoji; Suzuki, Takatoshi; Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Nobuaki; Tatsuno, Hideyuki; Tokuda, Makoto; Toyoda, Akihisa; Tomono, Dai; Toyoda, Akihisa; Tsukada, Kyo; Doce, Oton Vazquez; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Widmann, Eberhard; Wunschek, Barbara K; Yamanoi, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu; Yim, Heejoong; Zmeskal, Johann

    2012-01-01

    A new spectrometer system was designed and constructed at the secondary beam-line K1.8BR in the hadron hall of J-PARC, in order to investigate $\\bar K N$ interactions and $\\bar K$-nuclear bound systems. The spectrometer consists of a high precision beam line spectrometer, a liquid helium target system, a Cylindrical Detector System that surrounds the target to detect the decay particles from the target region, and a neutron time-of-flight counter array located $\\sim$15 m away from the target position. Details of the design, construction, and performance of the detector components are described.

  9. Compressor-fan unitary structure for air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiman, N.

    2015-08-01

    An extremely compact, therefore space saving unitary structure of short axial length is produced by radial integration of a revolving piston rotary compressor and an impeller of a centrifugal fan. The unitary structure employs single motor to run as the compressor so the airflow fan and eliminates duality of motors, related power supply and control elements. Novel revolving piston rotary compressor which provides possibility for such integration comprises the following: a suction gas delivery system which provides cooling of the motor and supplies refrigerant into the suction chamber under higher pressure (supercharged); a modified discharge system and lubricating oil supply system. Axial passages formed in the stationary crankshaft are used to supply discharge gas to a condenser, to return vaporized cooling agent from the evaporator to the suction cavity of the compressor, to pass a lubricant and to accommodate wiring supplying power to the unitary structure driver -external rotor electric motor.

  10. Instrumentation for propulsion systems development. [high speed fans and turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawsky, I.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus and techniques developed or used by NASA-Lewis to make steady state or dynamic measurements of gas temperature, pressure, and velocity and of the temperature, tip clearance, and vibration of the blades of high-speed fans or turbines are described. The advantages and limitations of each instrument and technique are discussed and the possibility of modifying them for use in developing various propulsion systems is suggested.

  11. Dual Fan Separator within the Universal Waste Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Tom; Converse, Dave; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Since NASA's new spacecraft in development for both LEO and Deep Space capability have considerable crew volume reduction in comparison to the Space Shuttle, the need became apparent for a smaller commode. In response the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS) was designed, resulting in an 80% volume reduction from the last US commode, while enhancing performance. The ISS WMS and previous shuttle commodes have a fan supplying air flow to capture feces and a separator to capture urine and separate air from the captured air/urine mixture. The UWMS combined both rotating equipment components into a single unit, referred to at the Dual Fan Separator (DFS). The combination of these components resulted in considerable packaging efficiency and weight reduction, removing inter-component plumbing, individual mounting configurations and required only a single motor and motor controller, in some of the intended UWMS platform applications the urine is pumped to the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) system. It requires the DFS to include less than 2.00% air inclusion, by volume, in the delivered urine. The rotational speed needs to be kept as low as possible in centrifugal urine separators to reduce air inclusion in the pumped fluid, while fans depend on rotational speed to develop delivered head. To satisfy these conflicting requirements, a gear reducer was included, allowing the fans to rotate at a much higher speed than the separator. This paper outlines the studies and analysis performed to develop the DFS configuration. The studies included a configuration trade study, dynamic stability analysis of the rotating bodies and a performance analysis of included labyrinth seals. NASA is considering a program to fly the UWMS aboard the ISS as a flight experiment. The goal of this activity is to advance the Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of the DFS and determine if the concept is ready to be included as part of the flight experiment deliverable.

  12. Auxiliary lift propulsion system with oversized front fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castells, O.T.; Johnson, J.E.; Rundell, D.J.

    1980-09-16

    A propulsion system for use primarily in V/STOL aircraft is provided with a variable cycle, double bypass gas turbofan engine and a remote augmenter to produce auxiliary lift. The fan is oversized in air-pumping capability with respect to the cruise flight requirements of the remainder of the engine and a variable area, low pressure turbine is capable of supplying varying amounts of rotational energy to the oversized fan, thereby modulating its speed and pumping capability. During powered lift flight, the variable cycle engine is operated in the single bypass mode with the oversized fan at its maximum pumping capability. In this mode, substantially all of the bypass flow is routed as an auxiliary airstream to the remote augmenter where it is mixed with fuel, burned and exhausted through a vectorable nozzle to produce thrust for lifting. Additional lift is generated by the high energy products of combustion of the variable cycle engine which are further energized in an afterburner and exhausted through a thrust vectorable nozzle at the rear of the engine.

  13. The {P,Q,k+1}-Reflexive Solution to System of Matrix Equations AX=C, XB=D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Zhou Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Let P∈Cm×m and Q∈Cn×n be Hermitian and {k+1}-potent matrices; that is, Pk+1=P=P⁎ and Qk+1=Q=Q⁎, where ·⁎ stands for the conjugate transpose of a matrix. A matrix X∈Cm×n is called {P,Q,k+1}-reflexive (antireflexive if PXQ=X (PXQ=-X. In this paper, the system of matrix equations AX=C and XB=D subject to {P,Q,k+1}-reflexive and antireflexive constraints is studied by converting into two simpler cases: k=1 and k=2. We give the solvability conditions and the general solution to this system; in addition, the least squares solution is derived; finally, the associated optimal approximation problem for a given matrix is considered.

  14. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant enhance neonatal resistance to systemic Escherichia coli K1 infection by accelerating development of intestinal defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaolong; Zeng, Qing; Puthiyakunnon, Santhosh; Zeng, Zhijie; Yang, Weijun; Qiu, Jiawen; Du, Lei; Boddu, Swapna; Wu, Tongwei; Cai, Danxian; Huang, Sheng-He; Cao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LCS) has a preventive effect against gut-derived systemic neonatal Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 infection. The preventive effects were evaluated in human colonic carcinoma cell line Caco-2 and neonatal rat models. Our in vitro results showed that LCS could block adhesion, invasion and translocation of E. coli K1 to Caco-2 monolayer via up-regulating mucin production and maintaining intestinal integrity. In vivo experiments revealed that pre-treatment with LCS significantly decrease susceptibility of neonatal rats to oral E. coli K1 infection as reflected by reduced bacterial intestinal colonization, translocation, dissemination and systemic infections. Further, we found that LCS treated neonatal rats have higher intestinal expressions of Ki67, MUC2, ZO-1, IgA, mucin and lower barrier permeability than those in untreated rats. These results indicated that LCS could enhance neonatal resistance to systemic E. coli K1 infection via promoting maturation of neonatal intestinal defense. In conclusions, our findings suggested that LCS has a prophylactic effect against systemic E. coli K1 infection in neonates. Future studies aimed at identifying the specific active ingredients in LCS will be helpful in developing effective pharmacological strategies for preventing neonatal E. coli K1 infection. PMID:28262688

  15. Tectonic and climatic controls on fan systems: The Kohrud mountain belt, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stuart J.; Arzani, Nasser; Allen, Mark B.

    2014-04-01

    Late Pleistocene to Holocene fans of the Kohrud mountain belt (Central Iran) illustrate the problems of differentiating tectonic and climatic drivers for the sedimentary signatures of alluvial fan successions. It is widely recognised that tectonic processes create the topography that causes fan development. The existence and position of fans along the Kohrud mountain belt, NE of Esfahan, are controlled by faulting along the Qom-Zefreh fault system and associated fault zones. These faults display moderate amounts of historical and instrumental seismicity, and so may be considered to be tectonically active. However, fluvial systems on the fans are currently incising in response to low Gavkhoni playa lake levels since the mid-Holocene, producing incised gullies on the fans up to 30 m deep. These gullies expose an interdigitation of lake deposits (dominated by fine-grained silts and clays with evaporites) and coarse gravels that characterise the alluvial fan sediments. The boundaries of each facies are mostly sharp, with fan sediments superimposed on lake sediments with little to no evidence of reworking. In turn, anhydrite-glauberite, mirabilite and halite crusts drape over the gravels, recording a rapid return to still water, shallow ephemeral saline lake sedimentation. Neither transition can be explained by adjustment of the hinterland drainage system after tectonic uplift. The potential influence in Central Iran of enhanced monsoons, the northward drift of the Intertopical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and Mediterranean climates for the early Holocene (~ 6-10 ka) point to episodic rainfall (during winter months) associated with discrete high magnitude floods on the fan surfaces. The fan sediments were deposited under the general influence of a highstand playa lake whose level was fluctuating in response to climate. This study demonstrates that although tectonism can induce fan development, it is the sensitive balance between aridity and humidity resulting from changes in

  16. Procedure for Balancing an Air Distribution System with Decentralised Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Hultmark, Göran; Vorre, Anders

    2015-01-01

    there is a potential for energy saving. In this study the calculated saving in the power consumption for the main fan was found to be 40%. The results also show that when dampers are replaced with decentralised fans with the same efficiency the overall power saving potential was 16%. In the study a mock-up...

  17. CL-L1 and CL-K1 and other complement associated pattern recognition molecules in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Anne; Thiel, Steffen; Jensen, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the involvement of collectin liver 1 (CL-L1) and collectin kidney 1 (CL-K1) and other pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) of the lectin pathway of the complement system in a cross-sectional cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients...

  18. Portable Life Support System 2.5 Fan Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Carra, Michael; Converse, David; Chullen, Cinda

    2016-01-01

    NASA is building a high-fidelity prototype of an advanced Portable Life Support System (PLSS) as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This new PLSS, designated as PLSS 2.5, will advance component technologies and systems knowledge to inform a future flight program. The oxygen ventilation loop of its predecessor, PLSS 2.0, was driven by a centrifugal fan developed using specifications from the Constellation Program. PLSS technology and system parameters have matured to the point where the existing fan will not perform adequately for the new prototype. In addition, areas of potential improvement were identified with the PLSS 2.0 fan that could be addressed in a new design. As a result, a new fan was designed and tested for the PLSS 2.5. The PLSS 2.5 fan is a derivative of the one used in PLSS 2.0, and it uses the same nonmetallic, canned motor, with a larger volute and impeller to meet the higher pressure drop requirements of the PLSS 2.5 ventilation loop. The larger impeller allows it to operate at rotational speeds that are matched to rolling element bearings, and which create reasonably low impeller tip speeds consistent with prior, oxygen-rated fans. Development of the fan also considered a shrouded impeller design that could allow larger clearances for greater oxygen safety, assembly tolerances and particle ingestion. This paper discusses the design, manufacturing and performance testing of the new fans.

  19. Energy-optimal speed control of fans and compressor in a refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1998-01-01

    Use of variable speed compressors and variable speed fans for both the evaporator and the condenser makes the refrigeration system more flexible, adds to the degree of freedom of the control system and therefore makes it possible to (on-line) optimise the various speeds involved. Say, for example...... choosing the combination of compressor speed, evaporator fan and condenser fan speeds which minimises the total power consumption of the motors involved. A system and integrated control viewpoint is necessary as a “component-oriented” and “single-loop-control” approach will not lead to the discovery...... that the cooling capacity must be increased due to increased cooling load. This can be done by increasing the compressor speed and/or the evaporator fan speed and also to some extent by increasing the condenser fan speed. The general control problem is to obtain the desired temperature of the cooled air, while...

  20. Measurement of airflow and pressure characteristics of a fan built in a car ventilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokorný Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify a set of operating points of a fan built in ventilation system of our test car. These operating points are given by the fan pressure characteristics and are defined by a pressure drop of the HVAC system (air ducts and vents and volumetric flow rate of ventilation air. To cover a wide range of pressure drops situations, four cases of vent flaps setup were examined: (1 all vents opened, (2 only central vents closed (3 only central vents opened and (4 all vents closed. To cover a different volumetric flows, the each case was measured at least for four different speeds of fan defined by the fan voltage. It was observed that the pressure difference of the fan is proportional to the fan voltage and strongly depends on the throttling of the air distribution system by the settings of the vents flaps. In case of our test car we identified correlations between volumetric flow rate of ventilation air, fan pressure difference and fan voltage. These correlations will facilitate and reduce time costs of the following experiments with this test car.

  1. Measurement of airflow and pressure characteristics of a fan built in a car ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, Jan; Poláček, Filip; Fojtlín, Miloš; Fišer, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a set of operating points of a fan built in ventilation system of our test car. These operating points are given by the fan pressure characteristics and are defined by a pressure drop of the HVAC system (air ducts and vents) and volumetric flow rate of ventilation air. To cover a wide range of pressure drops situations, four cases of vent flaps setup were examined: (1) all vents opened, (2) only central vents closed (3) only central vents opened and (4) all vents closed. To cover a different volumetric flows, the each case was measured at least for four different speeds of fan defined by the fan voltage. It was observed that the pressure difference of the fan is proportional to the fan voltage and strongly depends on the throttling of the air distribution system by the settings of the vents flaps. In case of our test car we identified correlations between volumetric flow rate of ventilation air, fan pressure difference and fan voltage. These correlations will facilitate and reduce time costs of the following experiments with this test car.

  2. Performance Study and CFD Predictions of a Ducted Fan System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Chang, I-Chung; Bulaga, Robert W.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was completed in the NASA Ames 7 by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel to study the performance characteristics of a ducted fan. The goal of this effort is to study the effect of ducted fan geometry and utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to provide a baseline for correlation. A 38-inch diameter, 10-inch chord duct with a five-bladed fixed-pitch fan was tested. Duct performance data were obtained in hover, vertical climb, and forward flight test conditions. This paper will present a description of the test, duct performance results and correlation with CFD predictions.

  3. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Vogel, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energyefficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24-volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  4. Autonomous Composite Fan Containment Integrity Monitoring (AUTOCONFIRM) System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New engine fan blade containment structures are being manufactured with advanced composite structures such that they can withstand blade-out events. The use of...

  5. Aeroacoutic characteristics of a large, variable-pitch, variable-speed fan system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderman, P. T.; Mort, K. W.

    1983-01-01

    The acoustic and aerodynamic performance of the new drive fans for the NASA Ames 40- by 80-/80- by 120-foot wind tunnel was investigated. Results show that a fan system with variable-speed and variable-pitch rotor blades allows the operator to control noise and energy consumption, at a given mass flow rate, through the choice of blade speed and pitch. A low speed and high blade pitch will generally create the least noise at the least energy cost. An empirical method is described which predicts the sound power of this fan system reasonably well.

  6. CFD Study of an Annular-Ducted Fan Lift System for VTOL Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at assessing a novel annular-ducted fan lift system for VTOL aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The power and lift efficiency of the lift fan system in hover mode, the lift and drag in transition mode, the drag and flight speed of the aircraft in cruise mode and the pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust were studied. The results show that the annular-ducted fan lift system can have higher lift efficiency compared to the rotor of the Apache helicopter; the smooth transition from vertical takeoff to cruise flight needs some extra forward thrust to overcome a low peak of drag; the aircraft with the lift fan system enclosed during cruise flight theoretically may fly faster than helicopters and tiltrotors based on aerodynamic drag prediction, due to the elimination of rotor drag and compressibility effects on the rotor blade tips; and pneumatic coupling of the tip turbine and jet exhaust of a 300 m/s velocity can provide enough moment to spin the lift fan. The CFD results provide insight for future experimental study of the annular-ducted lift fan VTOL aircraft.

  7. Numerical Study on Different Series Modes of Jet Fan in a Longitudinal Tunnel Ventilation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihong Pei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient ventilation systems will contribute to maintaining air quality in the tunnel. In order to improve ventilation performance in normal traffic condition, the 3D tunnel models were established according to the original design for the tunnel located in central plains of China. Based on the commercial CFD software Fluent 6.3 and k-ε turbulence model, numerical simulations were carried out to study the patterns of jet flow and the optimization of fan combinations. It is found that the axial velocity profile obtained from numerical simulation agrees quite well with turbulent free jet theory although there is a little difference on the magnitude. The comparison of four combination modes under the condition of operating four fans indicates that the ventilation effectiveness is affected mainly by both the interval of adjacent groups of fans and the combination modes of operational fans. According to the simulation results, a novel combination mode which consists of a group double paralleled fans and two groups single fan is designed. The novel combination mode is regarded as the optimum combination mode with respect to maximizing air velocity in the tunnel. Compared to the traditional combination modes, it will increase the air velocity by 5.7%.

  8. A NEW AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM FAN MODEL BASED ON NUMERICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Nassif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A large portion of energy use in buildings is attributed to air movement devices. Accurate estimation of fan performance is a key element in maximizing fan efficiency. This study proposes a new fan model that can be used in several applications such as optimization and fault detection and can also be incorporated into any commercial building models. The model uses a numerical analysis based on an interpolation technique for the data generated by basic fan laws. It can use any two variables among all four variables of airflow rate, total fan pressure, speed and power as inputs or outputs. Another advantage of this model is the flexibility of using any size of data for calibration, obtained either from manufacturers or field measured data. The model was tested for accuracy using two different manufacturers’ data of roof top unit packages with capacity ranging from 2 to 20 tons. Furthermore, the model was evaluated and tested on an actual VAV system using three months’ worth of measured data. The results show that the model can provide accurate estimation with the Coefficient of Variance (CV less than 2% and it can be used for several applications.

  9. Experimental Study on Intelligent Control Scheme for Fan Coil Air-Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent control scheme for fan coil air-conditioning systems has been put forward in order to overcome the shortcomings of the traditional proportion-integral-derivative (PID control scheme. These shortcomings include the inability of anti-interference and large inertia. An intelligent control test rig of fan coil air-conditioning system has been built, and MATLAB/Simulink dynamics simulation software has been adopted to implement the intelligent control scheme. A software for data exchange has been developed to combine the intelligence control system and the building automation (BA system. Experimental tests have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of different control schemes including the traditional PID control, fuzzy control, and fuzzy-PID control for fan coil air-conditioning system. The effects of control schemes have been compared and analyzed in robustness, static and dynamic character, and economy. The results have shown that the developed data exchange interface software can induce the intelligent control scheme of the BA system more effectively. Among the proposed control strategies, fuzzy-PID control scheme which has the advantages of both traditional PID and fuzzy schemes is the optimal control scheme for the fan coil air-conditioning system.

  10. Optimal Self-Tuning PID Controller Based on Low Power Consumption for a Server Fan Cooling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chengming; Chen, Rongshun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, saving the cooling power in servers by controlling the fan speed has attracted considerable attention because of the increasing demand for high-density servers. This paper presents an optimal self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, combining a PID neural network (PIDNN) with fan-power-based optimization in the transient-state temperature response in the time domain, for a server fan cooling system. Because the thermal model of the cooling system is nonlinear and complex, a server mockup system simulating a 1U rack server was constructed and a fan power model was created using a third-order nonlinear curve fit to determine the cooling power consumption by the fan speed control. PIDNN with a time domain criterion is used to tune all online and optimized PID gains. The proposed controller was validated through experiments of step response when the server operated from the low to high power state. The results show that up to 14% of a server’s fan cooling power can be saved if the fan control permits a slight temperature response overshoot in the electronic components, which may provide a time-saving strategy for tuning the PID controller to control the server fan speed during low fan power consumption. PMID:26007725

  11. Optimal Self-Tuning PID Controller Based on Low Power Consumption for a Server Fan Cooling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chengming; Chen, Rongshun

    2015-05-20

    Recently, saving the cooling power in servers by controlling the fan speed has attracted considerable attention because of the increasing demand for high-density servers. This paper presents an optimal self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, combining a PID neural network (PIDNN) with fan-power-based optimization in the transient-state temperature response in the time domain, for a server fan cooling system. Because the thermal model of the cooling system is nonlinear and complex, a server mockup system simulating a 1U rack server was constructed and a fan power model was created using a third-order nonlinear curve fit to determine the cooling power consumption by the fan speed control. PIDNN with a time domain criterion is used to tune all online and optimized PID gains. The proposed controller was validated through experiments of step response when the server operated from the low to high power state. The results show that up to 14% of a server's fan cooling power can be saved if the fan control permits a slight temperature response overshoot in the electronic components, which may provide a time-saving strategy for tuning the PID controller to control the server fan speed during low fan power consumption.

  12. Optimal Self-Tuning PID Controller Based on Low Power Consumption for a Server Fan Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, saving the cooling power in servers by controlling the fan speed has attracted considerable attention because of the increasing demand for high-density servers. This paper presents an optimal self-tuning proportional-integral-derivative (PID controller, combining a PID neural network (PIDNN with fan-power-based optimization in the transient-state temperature response in the time domain, for a server fan cooling system. Because the thermal model of the cooling system is nonlinear and complex, a server mockup system simulating a 1U rack server was constructed and a fan power model was created using a third-order nonlinear curve fit to determine the cooling power consumption by the fan speed control. PIDNN with a time domain criterion is used to tune all online and optimized PID gains. The proposed controller was validated through experiments of step response when the server operated from the low to high power state. The results show that up to 14% of a server’s fan cooling power can be saved if the fan control permits a slight temperature response overshoot in the electronic components, which may provide a time-saving strategy for tuning the PID controller to control the server fan speed during low fan power consumption.

  13. Comparison of solar panel cooling system by using dc brushless fan and dc water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, Y. M.; Leow, W. Z.; Irwanto, M.; M, Fareq; Hassan, S. I. S.; Safwati, I.; Amelia, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss comparison of solar panel cooling system by using DC brushless fan and DC water pump. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is an interesting technique to reduce non-renewable energy consumption and as a renewable energy. The temperature of PV modules increases when it absorbs solar radiation, causing a decrease in efficiency. A solar cooling system is design, construct and experimentally researched within this work. To make an effort to cool the PV module, Direct Current (DC) brushless fan and DC water pump with inlet/outlet manifold are designed for constant air movement and water flow circulation at the back side and front side of PV module representatively. Temperature sensors were installed on the PV module to detect temperature of PV. PIC microcontroller was used to control the DC brushless fan and water pump for switch ON or OFF depend on the temperature of PV module automatically. The performance with and without cooling system are shown in this experiment. The PV module with DC water pump cooling system increase 3.52%, 36.27%, 38.98%in term of output voltage, output current, output power respectively. It decrease 6.36 °C compare than to PV module without DC water pump cooling system. While DC brushless fan cooling system increase 3.47%, 29.55%, 32.23%in term of output voltage, output current, and output power respectively. It decrease 6.1 °C compare than to PV module without DC brushless fan cooling system. The efficiency of PV module with cooling system was increasing compared to PV module without cooling system; this is because the ambient temperature dropped significantly. The higher efficiency of PV cell, the payback period of the system can be shorted and the lifespan of PV module can also be longer.

  14. Fan and Pad Evaporative Cooling System for Greenhouses: Evaluation of a Numerical and Analytical Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapounas, A.; Nikita-Martzopoulou, Ch.; Bartzanas, T.; Kittas, C.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental greenhouse equipped with fan and pad evaporative cooling is analysed using two different models. The first one consists of a numerical simulation approach applying a commercial CFD code. The main aspects of evaporative cooling systems, in terms of heat and mass transfer and both the

  15. Software Verification and Validation Test Report for the HEPA filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERMI, A.M.

    2000-09-05

    The HEPA Filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System PLC ladder logic software was tested using a Software Verification and Validation (V&V) Test Plan as required by the ''Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements''. The purpose of his document is to report on the results of the software qualification.

  16. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 4; Flyover System Noise Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, R. E.; Janardan, B. A.; Gliebe, P. R.; Kontos, G. C.

    1996-01-01

    An extension of a prior study has been completed to examine the potential reduction of aircraft flyover noise by the method of active noise control (ANC). It is assumed that the ANC system will be designed such that it cancels discrete tones radiating from the engine fan inlet or fan exhaust duct, at least to the extent that they no longer protrude above the surrounding broadband noise levels. Thus, without considering the engineering details of the ANC system design, tone levels am arbitrarily removed from the engine component noise spectrum and the flyover noise EPNL levels are compared with and without the presence of tones. The study was conducted for a range of engine cycles, corresponding to fan pressure ratios of 1.3, 1.45, 1.6, and 1.75. This report is an extension of an effort reported previously. The major conclusions drawn from the prior study, which was restricted to fan pressure ratios of 1.45 and 1.75, are that, for a fan pressure ratio of 1.75, ANC of tones gives about the same suppression as acoustic treatment without ANC. For a fan pressure ratio of 1.45, ANC appears to offer less effectiveness from passive treatment. In the present study, the other two fan pressure ratios are included in a more detailed examination of the benefits of the ANC suppression levels. The key results of this extended study are the following observations: (1) The maximum overall benefit obtained from suppression of BPF alone was 2.5 EPNdB at high fan speeds. The suppression benefit increases with increase in fan pressure ratio (FPR), (2) The maximum overall benefit obtained from suppression of the first three harmonics was 3 EPNdB at high speeds. Suppression benefit increases with increase in FPR, (3) At low FPR, only about 1.0 EPNdB maximum reduction was obtained. Suppression is primarily from reduction of BPF at high FPR values and from the combination of tones at low FPR, (4) The benefit from ANC is about the same as the benefit from passive treatment at fan pressure

  17. Variable pitch fan system for NASA/Navy research and technology aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, W. P.; Black, D. M.; Yates, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design of a shaft driven, variable-pitch lift fan and lift-cruise fan was conducted for a V/STOL Research and Technology Aircraft. The lift fan and lift-cruise fan employed a common rotor of 157.5 cm diameter, 1.18 pressure ratio variable-pitch fan designed to operate at a rotor-tip speed of 284 mps. Fan performance maps were prepared and detailed aerodynamic characteristics were established. Cost/weight/risk trade studies were conducted for the blade and fan case. Structural sizing was conducted for major components and weights determined for both the lift and lift-cruise fans.

  18. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 2; BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the second volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the BFaNS computer program.

  19. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 1; Setup_BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the first volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User's Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running Setup_BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the Setup_BFaNS computer program.

  20. Feasibility of monitoring a mine fan by using interaction of vibrator system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhong-ning; LI Yi-min; GU Yong-xia; LI Shao-hui; XIE Yuan-sen

    2009-01-01

    The impeller of turbo machinery is a typical nonlinear multi-oscillator system. The vibration of each module is coupling, including fluid-solid coupling of the blade. The subject of our investigation was a KDF-5 mine fan for which we analyzed air vibration signals and axial vibration signals by using correlation dimension analysis under five variable working conditions. The results indicate that their correlation dimension curves show a uniform trend. That is to say, the characteristics of the variation signals of the integral structure are correlated and mutually embodied. It proves that it is possible to monitor the working state of a mine fan by coupling the vibration signals and air vibration signals for these are more sensitive in representing the status of the impeller system.

  1. Design of aircraft turbine fan drive gear transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, E.; Hirsch, R. A.; Peterson, V. W.

    1970-01-01

    The following basic types of gear reduction concepts were studied as being feasible power train systems for a low-bypass-ratio, single-spool, geared turbofan engine for general aircraft use: (1) single-stage external-internal reduction, (2) gears (offset shafting), (3) multiple compound idler gear system (concentric shafting), and (4) star gear planetary system with internal ring gear final output member (concentric shafting-counterrotation). In addition, studies were made of taking the accessories drive power off both the high-speed and low-speed shafting, using either face gears or spiral bevel gears. Both antifriction and sleeve-type bearings were considered for the external-internal and star-planet reduction concepts.

  2. Feasibility Study: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems with Fan Coil Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; Backman, C.

    2012-07-01

    The primary objectives of this study are to estimate potential energy savings relative to conventional ducted air distribution, and to identify equipment requirements, costs, and barriers with a focus on ductless hydronic delivery systems that utilize water-to-air terminal units in each zone. Results indicate that annual heating and cooling energy use can be reduced by up to 27% assuming replacement of the conventional 13 SEER heat pump and coil with a similarly rated air-to-water heat pump.

  3. Ducted fan inlet/exit and rotor tip flow improvements for vertical lift systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ali

    The current research utilized experimental and computational techniques in 5" and 22" diameter ducted fan test systems that have been custom designed and manufactured. Qualitative investigation of flow around the ducted fan was also performed using smoke flow visualizations. Quantitative measurements consisted of 2D and 3D velocity measurements using planar and Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV and SPIV), high resolution total pressure measurements using Kiel total pressure probes and real time six-component force and torque measurements. The computational techniques used in this thesis included a recently developed radial equilibrium based rotor model(REBRM) and a three dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) based CFD model. A radial equilibrium based rotor model (REBRM) developed by the author was effectively integrated into a three-dimensional RANS based computational system. The PIV measurements and computational flow predictions using (REBRM) near the fan inlet plane were in a good agreement at hover and forward flight conditions. The aerodynamic modifications resulting from the fan inlet flow distortions in forward flight regime were clearly captured in 2D PIV results. High resolution total pressure measurements at the downstream of the fan rotor showed that tip leakage, rotor hub separation, and passage flow related total pressure losses were dominant in hover condition. However, the losses were dramatically increased in forward flight because of inlet lip separation and distortion. A novel ducted fan inlet flow conditioning concept named "Double Ducted Fan" (DDF) was developed. The (DDF) concept has a potential to significantly improve the performance and controllability of VTOL UAVs and many other ducted fan based vertical lift systems. The new concept that will significantly reduce the inlet lip separation related performance penalties used a secondary stationary duct system to control "inlet lip separation" occurring especially at

  4. Vibration analysis of fan-foundation systems; Analisis de vibraciones de sistemas ventilador-cimentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aviles Lopez, Javier; Trueba Lopez, Venancio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-07-01

    A model is presented of interaction among fan, foundation and ground, formed with key elements of the systems i.e. rotor, bearings, steel tie plate; concrete pedestals; foundation and ground. The system components are idealized as discrete elements mass-shock absorber-spring. The springs and the shock absorbers that represent the ground are considered dependant of the excitation frequency, through the use of impedance functions representative of the couple ground-foundation. The system solution is obtained employing the complex response technique in the frequency. For foundation design purposes are proposed the concepts of critical frequencies contours and sensibility contours in operation and resonance, which allow to evaluate the influence in the system response of two critical components, which are: a) the tie plates as joining element between the fan and the foundation and b) the ground as supporting element of the couple fan-foundation. Departing from these contours critical velocity maps and sensibility maps in operation and resonance, for any rigidity condition of the tie plates as well as from the ground, can be obtained. With base on these maps it is possible to establish the rigidity that is required from such elements to satisfy the design recommendations specified by the fan industry, in terms of frequency and amplitude criteria. Through he application of the model, the critical frequencies and sensibility contours calculation for a system fan-ground is illustrated, as well as its utilization, in order to guarantee that, on one hand, the system does not get into the resonance influence zone, and on the other, that the foundation be relatively insensible to the unbalanced forces due to the fan normal operation. [Espanol] Se presenta un modelo de interaccion entre ventilador, cimentacion y suelo, formado con los elementos claves del sistema como son el rotor, las chumaceras, las silletas de acero, los pedestales de concreto, la cimentacion y el suelo. Los

  5. Bioluminescent imaging reveals novel patterns of colonization and invasion in systemic Escherichia coli K1 experimental infection in the neonatal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcomb, Luci A; Collins, James W; McCarthy, Alex J; Frankel, Gadi; Taylor, Peter W

    2015-12-01

    Key features of Escherichia coli K1-mediated neonatal sepsis and meningitis, such as a strong age dependency and development along the gut-mesentery-blood-brain course of infection, can be replicated in the newborn rat. We examined temporal and spatial aspects of E. coli K1 infection following initiation of gastrointestinal colonization in 2-day-old (P2) rats after oral administration of E. coli K1 strain A192PP and a virulent bioluminescent derivative, E. coli A192PP-lux2. A combination of bacterial enumeration in the major organs, two-dimensional bioluminescence imaging, and three-dimensional diffuse light imaging tomography with integrated micro-computed tomography indicated multiple sites of colonization within the alimentary canal; these included the tongue, esophagus, and stomach in addition to the small intestine and colon. After invasion of the blood compartment, the bacteria entered the central nervous system, with restricted colonization of the brain, and also invaded the major organs, in line with increases in the severity of symptoms of infection. Both keratinized and nonkeratinized surfaces of esophagi were colonized to a considerably greater extent in susceptible P2 neonates than in corresponding tissues from infection-resistant 9-day-old rat pups; the bacteria appeared to damage and penetrate the nonkeratinized esophageal epithelium of infection-susceptible P2 animals, suggesting the esophagus represents a portal of entry for E. coli K1 into the systemic circulation. Thus, multimodality imaging of experimental systemic infections in real time indicates complex dynamic patterns of colonization and dissemination that provide new insights into the E. coli K1 infection of the neonatal rat. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Testing and Oxygen Assessment Results for a Next Generation Extravehicular Activity Portable Life Support System Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Rivera, Fatonia L.; Martin, Devin

    2011-01-01

    NASA is designing a next generation Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use in future surface exploration endeavors. To meet the new requirements for ventilation flow at nominal and buddy modes, a fan has been developed and tested. This paper summarizes the results of the performance and life cycle testing efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Additionally, oxygen compatibility assessment results from an evaluation conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) are provided, and lessons learned and future recommendations are outlined.

  7. Implementation of strip-area system model for fan-beam collimator SPECT reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongwei; Krol, Andrzej; Feiglin, David H.; Lipson, Edward D.; Lee, Wei; Coman, Ioana L.

    2006-03-01

    We have implemented a more accurate physical system representation, a strip-area system model (SASM), for improved fan-beam collimator (FBC) SPECT reconstruction. This approach required implementation of modified ray tracing and attenuation compensation in comparison to a line-length system model (LLSM). We have compared performance of SASM with LLSM using Monte Carlo and analytical simulations of FBC SPECT from a thorax phantom. OSEM reconstruction was performed with OS=3 in a 64×64 matrix with attenuation compensation (assuming uniform attenuation of 0.13 cm -1). Scatter correction and smoothing were not applied. We observe overall improvement in SPECT image bias, visual image quality and an improved hot myocardium contrast for SASM vs. LLSM. In contrast to LLSM, the sensitivity pattern artifacts are not present in the SASM reconstruction. In both reconstruction methods, cross-talk image artifacts (e.g. inverse images of the lungs) can be observed, due to the uniform attenuation map used. SASM applied to fan-beam collimator SPECT results in better image quality and improved hot target contrast, as compared to LLSM, but at the expense of 1.5-fold increase in reconstruction time.

  8. Control of Variable-Speed Pressurization Fan for an Offshore HVAC System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2014-01-01

    of the inlet channel in the considered Heating Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) system, or the pressurization system located inside the inlet channel, or both of them in a coordinated way. A Model-Predictive Control (MPC) solution to control the inlet throttle has been proposed in our previous work....... This paper proposes a set of control solutions to regulate the variablespeed pressurization fan system such that the energy efficiency of the considered HVAC system can be explicitly considered. A combined feed-forward with a PI-based feedback control solution, and a MPC solution are proposed based...... on derived simple system models. Some preliminary simulation results exhibit that both control solutions can keep the indoor pressure and the air circulation in a very satisfactory and robust manner, even subject to the presence of severe disturbances....

  9. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of an 840 ft/sec Tip Speed Advanced Ducted Propulsor Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of an 840 ft/sec tip speed, Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, lownoise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15- foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, resulting in quality, detailed aerodynamic and acoustic measurement data. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating conditions simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, excluding a long core duct section downstream of the core inlet guide vane. As a result, only fan rotational speed and system bypass ratio, set by specifying static pressure downstream of the core inlet guide vane row, were adjusted in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. The computed blade row flow fields for all five fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the computed flow fields reveals no excessive boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems. A few spanwise comparisons between

  10. Human Location Detection System Using Micro-Electromechanical Sensor for Intelligent Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnin, S.; Rahman, M. M.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presented the development of sensory system for detection of both the presence and the location of human in a room spaces using MEMS Thermal sensor. The system is able to detect the surface temperature of occupants by a non-contact detection at the maximum of 6 meters far. It can be integrated to any swing type of electrical appliances such as standing fan or a similar devices. Differentiating human from other moving and or static object by heat variable is nearly impossible since human, animals and electrical appliances produce heat. The uncontrollable heat properties which can change and transfer will add to the detection issue. Integrating the low cost MEMS based thermal sensor can solve the first of human sensing problem by its ability to detect human in stationary. Further discrimination and analysis must therefore be made to the measured temperature data to distinguish human from other objects. In this project, the fan is properly designed and program in such a way that it can adapt to different events starting from the human sensing stage to its dynamic and mechanical moving parts. Up to this stage initial testing to the Omron D6T microelectromechanical thermal sensor is currently under several experimental stages. Experimental result of the sensor tested on stationary and motion state of human are behaviorally differentiable and successfully locate the human position by detecting the maximum temperature of each sensor reading.

  11. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a 1215 ft/sec Tip Speed Transonic Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of a 1215 ft/sec tip speed transonic fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating points simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, which for this model did not include a split flow path with core and bypass ducts. As a result, it was only necessary to adjust fan rotational speed in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. Computed blade row flow fields at all fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the flow fields at all operating conditions reveals no excessive boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems.

  12. Control System Design for a Ducted-Fan Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Linear Quadratic Tracker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junho Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tracking control system based on linear quadratic (LQ tracker is designed for a ducted-fan unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV under full flight envelope including hover, transition, and cruise modes. To design the LQ tracker, a system matrix is augmented with a tracking error term. Then the control input can be calculated to solve a single Riccati equation, but the steady-state errors might still remain in this control system. In order to reduce the steady-state errors, a linear quadratic tracker with integrator (LQTI is designed to add an integral term of tracking state in the state vector. Then the performance of the proposed controller is verified through waypoint navigation simulation under wind disturbance.

  13. Heave control of amphibious hovercraft by means of an active-fan system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, P. A. T.; Man, K. F.; Osbourn, E. W.; Cheng, Y. N.

    This paper describes the development of a heave control system for amphibious hovercraft, the central element in the system being an axial flow, lift-fan whose blade angles are continuously varied by means of feedback signals from a pressure transducer located in the front end of the hovercraft cushion and from an accelerometer measuring the heave acceleration. Transfer functions associated with the cushion dynamics were obtained by means of parameter identification using coefficient-plane models in which the coefficients were estimated by means of a nonlinear optimization algorithm. Results from experiments, conducted on the Cranfield, Whirling-Arm facility, have shown that the system provides a rapid and effective means of controlling the heave acceleration and, in addition, produces a valuable reduction in craft drag whilst traversing waves.

  14. The effect of fan speed control system on the inlet air temperature uniformity in a solar dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F Mousavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drying process of agricultural products, fruits and vegetables are highly energy demanding and hence are the most expensive postharvest operation. Nowadays, the application of control systems in different area of science and engineering plays a key role and is considered as the important and inseparable parts of any industrial process. The review of literature indicates that enormous efforts have been donefor the intelligent control of solar driers and in this regard some simulation models are used through computer programming. However, because of the effect of air velocity on the inlet air temperature in dryers, efforts have been made to control the fan speed based ont he temperature of the absorber plate in this study, and the behavior of this system was compared with an ordinary dryer without such a control system. Materials and methods: In this study, acabinet type solar dryer with forced convection and 5kg capacity of fresh herbs was used. The dryer was equipped with a fan in the outlet chamber (the chimney for creating air flow through the dryer. For the purpose of research methods and automatic control of fan speed and for adjusting the temperature of the drying inlet air, a control system consisting of a series of temperature and humidity sensors and a microcontroller was designed. To evaluatethe effect of the system with fan speed control on the uniformity of air temperature in the drying chamber and hence the trend of drying process in the solar dryer, the dryer has been used with two different modes: with and without the control of fan speed, each in twodays (to minimize the errors of almost the same ambient temperature. The ambient air temperature during the four days of experiments was obtained from the regional Meteorological Office. Some fresh mint plants (Mentha longifolia directly harvested from the farm in the morning of the experiment days were used as the drying materials. Each experimental run continued for 9

  15. Acoustic modeling of fan noise generation and scattering in a modular duct system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, Marten; Beltman, Marco; Wijnant, Ysbrand; Boer, de André

    2005-01-01

    Fan noise is an important noise source in computers. The noise spectrum of fans contains tonal noise, found at the so-called Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) and its higher harmonics, that plays an important role in the perceived sound quality. An acoustic resonator integrated in the duct of an in-duct

  16. 293 K - 1.9 K supporting systems for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) cryo-magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, M; Renaglia, T; Rohmig, P; Williams, L R

    1998-01-01

    The LHC machine will incorporate some 2000 main ring super-conducting magnets cooled at 1.9 K by super-fluid pressurized helium, mainly 15m-long dipoles with their cryostats and 6m-long quadrupoles housed in the Short Straight Section (SSS) units. This paper presents the design of the support system of the LHC arc cryo-magnets between 1.9 K at the cold mass and 293 K at the cryostat vacuum vessel. The stringent positioning precision for magnet alignment and the high thermal performance for cryogenic efficiency are the main conflicting requirements, which have lead to a trade-off design. The systems retained for LHC are based on column-type supports positioned in the vertical plane of the magnets inside the cryostats. An ad-hoc design has been achieved both for cryo-dipoles and SSS. Each column is composed of a main tubular thin-walled structure in composite material (glass-fibre/epoxy resin, for its low thermal conductivity properties), interfaced to both magnet and cryostat via stainless steel flanges. The t...

  17. Computational Aerodynamic Simulations of a 1484 ft/sec Tip Speed Quiet High-Speed Fan System Model for Acoustic Methods Assessment and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Computational Aerodynamic simulations of a 1484 ft/sec tip speed quiet high-speed fan system were performed at five different operating points on the fan operating line, in order to provide detailed internal flow field information for use with fan acoustic prediction methods presently being developed, assessed and validated. The fan system is a sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle model that has undergone experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed. Flow field results for three of the five operating points simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, which includes a core duct and a bypass duct that merge upstream of the fan system nozzle. As a result, only fan rotational speed and the system bypass ratio, set by means of a translating nozzle plug, were adjusted in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter. The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. Computed blade row flow fields at all fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes. Examination of the computed flow fields reveals no excessive or critical boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems, with the exception of the hub boundary layer at the core duct entrance. At that location a significant flow separation is present. The region of local flow

  18. Deep-water Fan Systems and Petroleum Resources on the Northern Slope of the South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiong; YANG Shaokun; ZHU Ming; LI Jinsong

    2004-01-01

    The shallow shelf delta/strand arenaceous-pelitic deposit region in the north of the Pearl River mouth basin,sitting on the northern continental shelf of the South China Sea, has already become an important oil production base in China. Recent researched has revealed that a great deal of deep-water fans of great petroleum potentiality exist on the Baiyun deep-water slope below the big palco Pearl River and its large delta. Based on a mass of exploration wells and 2-D seismic data of the shallow shelf region, a interpretation of sequence stratigraphy confirmed the existence of deep-water fans. The cyclic falling of sea level, abundant detrital matter from the paleo Pearl River and the persistent geothermal subsidence in the Baiyun sag are the three prerequisites for the formation and development of deep-water fans. There are many in common between the deep-water shelf depositional system of the northern South China Sea and the exploration hotspots region on the two banks of the Atlantic. For example, both are located on passive continent margins, and persistent secular thermal subsidence and large palco rivers have supplied abundant material sources and organic matter.More recently, the discovery of the big gas pool on the northern slope of the Baiyun sag confirms that the Lower Tertiary lacustrine facies in the Baiyun sag has a great potentiality of source rocks. The fans overlying the Lower Tertiary source rocks should become the main exploration areas for oil and gas resources.

  19. Numerical simulation of tonal fan noise of computers and air conditioning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A. A.; Gavrilyuk, V. N.; Timushev, S. F.

    2016-07-01

    Current approaches to fan noise simulation are mainly based on the Lighthill equation and socalled aeroacoustic analogy, which are also based on the transformed Lighthill equation, such as the wellknown FW-H equation or the Kirchhoff theorem. A disadvantage of such methods leading to significant modeling errors is associated with incorrect solution of the decomposition problem, i.e., separation of acoustic and vortex (pseudosound) modes in the area of the oscillation source. In this paper, we propose a method for tonal noise simulation based on the mesh solution of the Helmholtz equation for the Fourier transform of pressure perturbation with boundary conditions in the form of the complex impedance. A noise source is placed on the surface surrounding each fan rotor. The acoustic fan power is determined by the acoustic-vortex method, which ensures more accurate decomposition and determination of the pressure pulsation amplitudes in the near field of the fan.

  20. Performance Analysis of a Greenhouse Fan-Pad Cooling System: Gradients of Horizontal Temperature and Relative Humidity

    OpenAIRE

    DAYIOĞLU, Mehmet Ali

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the performance parameters of system, as well as gradients of temperature and humidity along greenhouse when opening fan-ped cooling system. Measurements related with greenhouse environment were carried out by using seven sensors for different locations, as well as portable instruments. For this purpose, the five digital temperature and humidity sensors and two pyranometers were used during experiments. Among them, two were located outside gree...

  1. Noise Source Identification of Small Fan-BLDC Motor System for Refrigerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Han Kim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise levels in household appliances are increasingly attracting attention from manufacturers and customers. Legislation is becoming more severe on acceptable noise levels and low noise is a major marketing point for many products. The latest trend in the refrigerator manufacturing industry is to use brushless DC (BLDC motors instead of induction motors in order to reduce energy consumption and noise radiation. However, cogging torque from BLDC motor is an undesirable effect that prevents the smooth rotation of the rotor and results in noise. This paper presents a practical approach for identifying the source of excessive noise in the small fan-motor system for household refrigerators. The source is presumed to a mechanical resonance excited by torque ripple of the BLDC motor. By using finite element analysis, natural frequencies and mode shapes of the rotating part of the system are obtained and they are compared with experimental mode shapes obtained by electronic torsional excitation test which uses BLDC motor itself as an exciter. Two experimental validations are carried out to confirm the reduction of excessive noise.

  2. Field testing of component-level model-based fault detection methods for mixing boxes and VAV fan systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip

    2002-05-16

    An automated fault detection and diagnosis tool for HVAC systems is being developed, based on an integrated, life-cycle, approach to commissioning and performance monitoring. The tool uses component-level HVAC equipment models implemented in the SPARK equation-based simulation environment. The models are configured using design information and component manufacturers' data and then fine-tuned to match the actual performance of the equipment by using data measured during functional tests of the sort using in commissioning. This paper presents the results of field tests of mixing box and VAV fan system models in an experimental facility and a commercial office building. The models were found to be capable of representing the performance of correctly operating mixing box and VAV fan systems and detecting several types of incorrect operation.

  3. Coincidence theorem and existence theorems of solutions for a system of Ky Fan type minimax inequalities in FC-spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronghua He

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Let $I$ be any index set. By using some existence theorems of maximal elements for a family of set-valued mappings involving a better admissible set-valued mapping under noncompact setting of $FC$-spaces, we first present some nonempty intersection theorems for a family $\\{G_{i}\\}_{i\\in I}$ in a product space of $FC$-spaces. Next we give a coincidence theorem and a Fan-Browder type fixed point theorem. Finally, as applications, some equilibrium existence theorems for a system of generalized vector equilibrium problems are proved in product $FC$-space, some existence theorems of solutions for a system of Ky Fan type minimax inequalities involving a family of $G_{\\cal B}$-majorized mappings defined on the product space of $FC$-space are also obtained. Our results improve and generalize some recent results.

  4. Smart Fan Control System Design%智能风扇控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦浩

    2012-01-01

    基于检测技术、单片机控制技术和超声波技术,把握“低碳”生活理念,设计了一种光机电一体化的多功能驱蚊、降温风扇装置。该系统以单片机控制器为核心,根据超声波驱蚊原理设计超声波扫频电路实现驱蚊虫功能;同时将温度检测、键盘输入和液晶显示集成到系统内,实现系统的恒温。该系统工作稳定,成本低,具有一定的节能效果。经过测试,该装置实现了预期功能,为后续的开发提供了良好的基础。%Based on the detection technology, the MCU control technology and ultrasonic technology, grasp the "low carbon" living concept,design an optical and electrical integration,multi-purpose insect repellent,a cooling fan device.The system micro-controller core, the design of ultrasonic frequency sweep circuit according to the principle of ultrasonic repellent to gnats;temperature detection, keyboard input and LCD integrated into the system to achieve a constant temperature of the system. The system is stable,low cost, energy-saving effect. Tested the device to achieve the desired functionality, provides a good basis for subsequent development.

  5. Seismic stratigraphic architecture of the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan system, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Julia C.; Knutz, Paul C.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal changes of the Greenland Ice Sheet on the continental shelf bordering Baffin Bay remain poorly constrained. Then as now, fast-flowing ice streams and outlet glaciers have played a key role for the mass balance and stability of polar ice sheets. Despite their significance for Greenland Ice Sheet dynamics and evolution, our understanding of their long-term behaviour is limited. The central West Greenland margin is characterized by a broad continental shelf where a series of troughs extend from fjords to the shelf margin, acting as focal points for trough-mouth fan (TMF) accummulations. The sea-ward bulging morphology and abrupt shelf-break of these major depositional systems is generated by prograding depocentres that formed during glacial maxima when ice streams reached the shelf edge, delivering large amounts of subglacial sediment onto the continental slope (Ó Cofaigh et al., 2013). The aim of this study is to unravel the seismic stratigraphic architecture and depositional processes of the Disko Bay TMF, aerially the largest single sedimentary system in West Greenland, using 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, seabed bathymetry and stratigraphic information from exploration well Hellefisk-1. The south-west Disko Bay is intersected by a deep, narrow trough, Egedesminde Dyb, which extends towards the southwest and links to the shallower and broader cross-shelf Disko Trough (maximum water depths of > 1000 m and a trough length of c. 370 km). Another trough-like depression (trough length of c. 120 km) in the northern part of the TMF, indicating a previous position of the ice stream, can be distinguished on the seabed topographic map and the seismic images. The Disko Bay TMF itself extends from the shelf edge down to the abyssal plain (abyssal floor depths of 2000 m) of the southern Baffin Bay. Based on seismic stratigraphic configurations relating to reflection terminations, erosive patterns and seismic facies (Mitchum et al., 1977), the TMF

  6. Improvements in start system of ETE-RH/FP fans; Melhorias no sistema de partida dos ventiladores da ETE-RH/FP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Flavio Costa; Sinzato, Frederico Takashi Di Tanno; Assis, Marcio Souza de [ArcelorMittal Tubarao, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Producao de Gusa e Energia

    2009-11-01

    The present technical contribution presents the results achieved with the improvement of start control of Effluent Treatment Station of RH furnace and Ladle furnace (ETE-RH/FP) fans. This work started from the necessity to find a solution to decrease the constant mechanical breaks of fans on the station, where it has been used two fans per cell in the tower, which means that when one is working, the other in the same cell is turned off. The second fan turns the other way round, and when the same is turned on it causes a 'bang' strong enough to break its elements, such as braces and gears. With the use of soft start, the same, besides to start the motor of the fan in a soft way, still does that the fan stop turning the other way round before the start, preventing the 'bangs' in the equipment. Another important item considered in the solution was the harmonic generation. The soft start generate few harmonic, if compared to a frequency inverter. The introduction of this new start system of fans of station, besides the reduction of costs of the repair maintenance, brought an important electrical energy saving, being aligned with the new projects of the company. (author)

  7. A General Multidisciplinary Turbomachinery Design Optimization system Applied to a Transonic Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemnem, Ahmed Mohamed Farid

    The blade geometry design process is integral to the development and advancement of compressors and turbines in gas generators or aeroengines. A new airfoil section design capability has been added to an open source parametric 3D blade design tool. Curvature of the meanline is controlled using B-splines to create the airfoils. The curvature is analytically integrated to derive the angles and the meanline is obtained by integrating the angles. A smooth thickness distribution is then added to the airfoil to guarantee a smooth shape while maintaining a prescribed thickness distribution. A leading edge B-spline definition has also been implemented to achieve customized airfoil leading edges which guarantees smoothness with parametric eccentricity and droop. An automated turbomachinery design and optimization system has been created. An existing splittered transonic fan is used as a test and reference case. This design was more general than a conventional design to have access to the other design methodology. The whole mechanical and aerodynamic design loops are automated for the optimization process. The flow path and the geometrical properties of the rotor are initially created using the axi-symmetric design and analysis code (T-AXI). The main and splitter blades are parametrically designed with the created geometry builder (3DBGB) using the new added features (curvature technique). The solid model creation of the rotor sector with a periodic boundaries combining the main blade and splitter is done using MATLAB code directly connected to SolidWorks including the hub, fillets and tip clearance. A mechanical optimization is performed with DAKOTA (developed by DOE) to reduce the mass of the blades while keeping maximum stress as a constraint with a safety factor. A Genetic algorithm followed by Numerical Gradient optimization strategies are used in the mechanical optimization. The splittered transonic fan blades mass is reduced by 2.6% while constraining the maximum

  8. Towards groundwater neutral cropping systems in the Alluvial Fans of the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Wang, G.; Vos, J.; Meinke, H.; Li, B.G.; Huang, J.K.; Werf, van der W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater levels in the North China Plain (NCP), the bread basket of China, have dropped more than one meter per year over the last 40 years, putting at risk the long term productivity of this region. Groundwater decline is most severe in the Alluvial Fans where our study site is located.

  9. Atypical ferromanganese micronodules from middle fan-valley system, Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Gujar, A.R.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Ferromanganese micronodules having botryoidal and spheroidal morphogroups have been observed over a 0.22 million km@u2@@ area from the middle fan region of the Bay of Bengal. The bulk micronodules have 26.26% Mn, 1.02% Fe, 1.82% Ca, 0.12% Ni, 0...

  10. Heat Flow Characteristics of a Newly-Designed Cooling System with Multi-Fans and Thermal Baffle in the Wheel Loader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidai Liao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional cooling case, there is usually one fan in charge of heat transfer and airflow for all radiators. However, this seems to be inappropriate, or even insufficient, for modern construction machinery, as its overall heat flow density is increasing but thermal distribution is becoming uneven. In order to ensure that the machine works in a better condition, this paper employs a new cooling system with multiple fans and an independent cooling region. Based on the thermal flow and performance requirements, seven fans are divided into three groups. The independent cooling region is segregated from the engine region by a thermal baffle to avoid heat flowing into the engine region and inducing an overheat phenomenon. The experiment validates the efficiency of the new cooling system and accuracy of simulation. After validation, the simulation then analyzes heat transfer and flow characteristics of the cooling system, changing with different cross-sections in different axis directions, as well as different distances of the fan central axes. Finally, thermal baffles are set among the fan groups and provided a better cooling effect. The research realizes a multi-fan scheme with an independent cooling region in a wheel loader, which is a new, but high-efficiency, cooling system and will lead to a new change of various configurations and project designs in future construction machinery.

  11. Ky Fan inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Moslehian, Mohammad Sal

    2011-01-01

    There are several inequalities in the literature carrying the name of Ky Fan. We survey these well-known Ky Fan inequalities and some other significant inequalities generalized by Ky Fan and review some of their recent developments.

  12. Assessment of indoor air quality in comparison using air conditioning and fan system in printing premise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlan Nazirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Printers contribute to various emissions consist with chemical contaminants. High concentration of the particulate matter can cause serious health problems. This study focuses on the indoor air quality in printing premise unit in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia. Field testing involving air sampling methods were taken from 900 hours to 1600 hours, for every 30 minutes using physical measurement which is Multi-Channel Air Quality Monitor (YESAIR, E-Sampler and Ozone Meter. Air sampling was recorded based on one sampling point and most suitable point for production. A comparison based on different ventilation using fan and air-conditioning were also taken and results is being compared based on OSHA and NIOSH standards. Besides that, the statistical analysis is being conducted in order to predict the effect on number of printers. From the result, the O3 concentrations show, 10% reduced for printing premise using fan ventilation compared to air-conditioning but remain the same value for PM2.5. The concentration of O3 increased when the number of printers decreased, while the concentration of PM2.5 increased the increase of printers number. Overall, the use of fan in printing premise is more suggested since the level is slightly lower than the printing premise using air-conditioning.

  13. Highly Loaded Fan by Using Tandem Cascade Rotor Blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Suga, Shinya; Matsuoka, Akinori

    For axial flow compressors and fans in the aircraft engines higher pressure ratio is required in order to attain the high thrust engines. In this study, the fan with the tandem cascades was introduced to increase the fan pressure ratio. The use of tandem cascades in the fan allows savings in length and weight and therefore a compact fan could be built. The design of fan with tandem cascades and the fan testing were carried out to develop the high pressure ratio fan for the Air Turbo Ramjet (ATR) propulsion system. The ATR is a combined cycle engine which performs like a turbojet engine at subsonic speeds and a ramjet at supersonic speeds. In particular, high fan pressure ratio contributes to increase the engine thrust during subsonic flight at which the engine does not make use of ram effect. The results of the fan testing indicate that the pressure ratio of 2.2 is achieved in single stage fan.

  14. Design of Fan High Efficiency Operation Control System%风机高效运行控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢军民; 董亚存; 赵喜敬

    2015-01-01

    介绍风机高效运行控制系统的基本构成、 软硬件设计方法. 建立风机高效运行控制模型, 并选择风机的调速方法. 构建基于高压变频器和LabVIEW的风机控制系统, 主要由风机变频调速系统和数据采集及状态监测系统组成. 该系统运行效率高、 节能效果好、 性能可靠, 对风机安全运行和节能降耗有重要作用.%The basic configuration, software and hardware design methods of fan high efficiency operation control system were introduced. High efficiency operation control model of the fan was built, and speed control methods of the fan were selected. Fan control system based on frequency converter and LabVIEW was built. This system was mainly composed of frequency converter system and data acquisition and condition monitoring system. The system had the following advantages:high-efficiency, energy-saving, reliable perform-ance. The development of the system is very importance to safety performance and energy-saving and cost-reducing of fans.

  15. 30 CFR 75.311 - Main mine fan operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... back-up fan system— (1) Only persons necessary to evaluate the effect of the fan stoppage or restart... back-up fan system is used that does not provide the ventilating quantity provided by the main mine fan... fire or other products of combustion are approved in the ventilation plan. (g) If multiple mine...

  16. Acoustic performance of two 1.83-meter-diameter fans designed for a wind-tunnel drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderman, P. R.; Page, V. R.

    1977-01-01

    A parametric study was made of the noise generated by two 1.83-m (6-ft) diameter fans operating up to a maximum pressure ratio of 1.03. One fan had 15 rotor blades, 23 stator blades, and a maximum rotational speed of 1200 rpm. The other fan had 9 rotor blades, 13 stator blades, and a maximum speed of 2,000 rpm. The fans were approximately 1/7-scale models of the 12.2-m (40-ft) diameter fans proposed for repowering the NASA-Ames 40- by 80 foot wind tunnel. The fans were operated individually in a 23.8-m (78-ft) long duct. Sound pressure levels in the duct were used to determine radiated acoustic power as fan speed, blade angle, and mass flow were varied. Results show that the low speed fan was slightly quieter than the high speed fan and, when scaled to full scale, would be 16 db quieter than the present wind tunnel fans. The fan noise varied directly with thrust regardless of whether thrust was varied by rotational speed or blade setting for the ranges studied.

  17. Adaptive Noise Cancellation System for Low Frequency Transmission of Sound in Open Fan Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Griffin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of a structural/acoustic model of a section of a large aircraft to help define the sensor/actuator architecture that was used in a hardware demonstration of adaptive noise cancellation. Disturbances considered were representative of propeller-induced disturbances from an open fan aircraft. Controller on and controller off results from a hardware demonstration on a portion of a large aircraft are also included. The use of the model has facilitated the development of a new testing technique, closely related to modal testing, that can be used to find good structural actuator locations for adaptive noise cancellation.

  18. The Himalaya-Bengal Fan source to sink system - new insights by correlation of re-processed seismic data and IODP Expedition 354 results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Fenna; Schwenk, Tilmann; Spiess, Volkard; France-Lanord, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The Bengal Fan, hosted in the northern Indian Ocean, is the largest submarine fan on Earth. Fan evolution started in the Early Eocene as a direct response to the collision of India with the Asian continent in Middle Paleocene times. Subsequently the Himalayan plateau uplift was initiated. Thereby generated interactions with the regional climate caused the evolution of the Indian monsoonal system. Drained by the rivers Ganges and Brahmaputra, ~ 80% of eroded Himalayan sediments are deposited in the Bengal Fan. Hence, the Fan provides the most complete record of the Himalayan history and is well suited to investigate the direct link between the tectonic uplift and the climate evolution of the region. Sediments are transported onto the deep sea fan by turbidity currents building up chan-nel-levee systems. These channel-levee systems are the main architectural elements of the Bengal Fan and are suspected to have their onset in Late Miocene times. Frequent channel avulsion on the upper fan led to the abandonment of old channels and formation of new channel-levee systems or even channel-reoccupation. This complex erosional/depositional system involves lateral depocenter migration, probably on millennial timescales. Conse-quently, investigations of the Himalaya as sediment source begins with a comprehensive understanding of transport, deposition and modification within the Bengal Fan sediment sink. In February/March 2015 the IODP Expedition 354 drilled at 7 sites along a ~320 km long E-W transect at 8° N. Aiming at the recovery of pre-fan deposits and deposits of the Pliocene and Upper Miocene Fan evolution, three deep sites (900 - 1200 mbsf) were realized. These where complemented by four shallow sites (200-300 mbsf) for a detailed study of the depos-its of the last 1-2 million years, including the latest known channel activities (Holocene times). Several channel-levee systems and inter-channel deposits were drilled, active at different times of Fan evolution. To

  19. TFaNS Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System. Volume 1; System Description, CUP3D Technical Documentation and Manual for Code Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topol, David A.

    1999-01-01

    TFaNS is the Tone Fan Noise Design/Prediction System developed by Pratt & Whitney under contract to NASA Lewis (presently NASA Glenn). The purpose of this system is to predict tone noise emanating from a fan stage including the effects of reflection and transmission by the rotor and stator and by the duct inlet and nozzle. These effects have been added to an existing annular duct/isolated stator noise prediction capability. TFaNS consists of: The codes that compute the acoustic properties (reflection and transmission coefficients) of the various elements and write them to files. Cup3D: Fan Noise Coupling Code that reads these files, solves the coupling problem, and outputs the desired noise predictions. AWAKEN: CFD/Measured Wake Postprocessor which reformats CFD wake predictions and/or measured wake data so it can be used by the system. This volume of the report provides technical background for TFaNS including the organization of the system and CUP3D technical documentation. This document also provides information for code developers who must write Acoustic Property Files in the CUP3D format. This report is divided into three volumes: Volume I: System Description, CUP3D Technical Documentation, and Manual for Code Developers; Volume II: User's Manual, TFaNS Vers. 1.4; Volume III: Evaluation of System Codes.

  20. Application of a Cleaning System Made up of a Centrifugal Fan with Double Channel and One Sieve to Combine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShenDechao

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the application of a cleaning system which was made up of a centrifugal fan with double channel and one sieve to 4LZ-3.5 combine was introduced.This cleaning system with double channel compared with the traditional air-sieve cleaning system of combines may omit one two sieves and simplify the transmission mechanism.It is also compared with the present cleaning systom with double channel applied to some combines,such as the Commandor 112CS/228CS combines of Claas Corporation in Germany and the MAXIMIZERTM combines of John Deere company in U.S.A.It may omit one sieve and the precleaner and simlity the transmission mechanism.The measuring results indicated that the cleaning ratio of wheat grain is 99.1% and the cleaning loss ratio of wheat is 0.17% when the feed rate is 4.01kg/s.

  1. A New Ky Fan Matching Theorem in Noncompact L-Convex Spaces with the Application to Systems of General Quasiequilibrium Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Ting WEN

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a new Ky Fan matching theorem is established in noncompact L-convex spaces.As applications,a fixed point theorem and equilibrium existence theorems for systems of general quasiequilibrium problems and systems of quasiequilibrium problems in noncompact L-convex spaces are obtained.

  2. 风机在气力输送系统中的应用研究%Research on the Application of Fans in Pneumatic Conveying Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳环; 张巍

    2015-01-01

    近年来,气力输送在火力发电厂粉煤灰、化工粉体、颗粒料、精细化工的原材料、水泥、粮食等输送工程中已得到了广泛的应用。风机作为气力输送系统的气源设备,在气力输送系统中处于核心地位。本文从应用于气力输送系统中风机的类型,风机在不同方式气力输送中的应用,风机的选型等几个方面,研究了风机在气力输送系统中的应用。在选型上重点是从风机与管网的配合角度来考虑,通过对管网的计算来选择风机。该应用研究对气力输送系统的设计计算及气源机械的选择有一定的指导意义。%In recent years,pneumatic conveying has been widely used in the transportation of fly ash of power plant, chemical powders,granules,fine chemical raw materials,cement,grain and so on. Fan,as the gas source equip⁃ment in pneumatic conveying system,is at the core position in pneumatic conveying system. This article studied the application of fans in pneumatic conveying system,from several aspects,such as the type of fans applied in pneu⁃matic conveying systems,fans used in different pneumatic conveying systems,fans selection. In most materials,the selection of the fan is mainly considered from the coordination between the fan and pipe network,we select the fan through the pipe network calculations. This research has certain guidance on the design and calculation of pneumatic conveying systems and selection of gas source machinery.

  3. Depositional architecture and evolution of the Late Miocene slope channel-fan-system in the northeastern shelf-margin of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Lin, Changsong; Zhang, Zhongtao; Tian, Hongxun; Tao, Ze; Liu, Hanyao

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Miocene in the Pearl River Mouth Basin of northwestern shelf-margin of South China Sea Basin contains a series of slope channel - fan systems. Their depositional architecture and evolution are documented in this investigation based on an integrated analysis of cores, logs, and seismic data. Four depositional-palaeogeomorphological elements have been identified in the slope channel-fan systems as follows: broad, shallow and unconfined or partly confined outer-shelf to shelf-break channels; deeply incised and confined unidirectionally migrating slope channels; broad or U-shaped, unconfined erosional-depositional channels; frontal splays-lobes and nonchannelized sheets. The slope channels are mostly oriented NW-SE, which migrated unidirectionally northeastwards and intensively eroded almost the whole shelf-slope zone. The channel infillings are mainly mudstones, interbedded with siltstones. They might be formed by gravity flow erosion as bypassing channels. They were filled with limited gravity flow sediments at the base and mostly filled with lateral accretionary packages of bottom current deposits. At the end of the channels, a series of small-scale slope fans developed and coalesced into fan aprons along the base of the slope. The unconfined erosional-depositional channels at the upper parts of the fan-apron-systems display compound infill patterns, and commonly have concave erosional bases and convex tops. The frontal splays-lobes representing middle to distal deposits of fan-apron-systems have flat-mounded or gull-wing geometries, and the internal architectures include bidirectional downlap, progradation, and chaotic infillings. The distal nonchannelized turbidite sheets are characterized by thin-bedded, parallel to sub-parallel sheet-like geometries. Three major unconformities or obvious erosional surfaces in the channel-fan systems of the Upper Miocene are recognized, and indicate the falling of sea-level. The depositional architecture of sequences

  4. 离散时间 SM[K]/PH[K]/1/FCFS 排队系统的年龄过程改进分析%Analysis and Improvement of the Age Process in a Queuing System of Discrete Time SM[K]/PH[K]/1/FCFS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高卓; 徐德举

    2015-01-01

    We studied a discrete time queuing system with multiple types of customers and a first-come-first-served (FCFS) service discipline. Customers arrive according to a semi-Markov arrival process and the service times of individual customers have PH-distributions. We studied SM[K]/PH[K]/1/FCFS queue and analyzed its generalized age process particularly. We introduced some auxiliary variables to construct a Markov chain associated with ag(t) and obtained the transition probability matrix of this Markov chain.%基于一个离散时间的排队系统:顾客有着多种类型,成批到达,到达过程是一个半马尔可夫过程,按照先来先服务的准则,并且每一个顾客的服务时间服从各自的 PH 分布。对这个离散时间 SM[K]/PH[K]/1/FCFS 排队系统年龄过程进行了详细分析,引进一些附加变量构造一个关于年龄过程的马尔可夫链,从而计算出年龄过程的转移矩阵。

  5. SseK1 and SseK3 Type III Secretion System Effectors Inhibit NF-κB Signaling and Necroptotic Cell Death in Salmonella-Infected Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günster, Regina A.; Matthews, Sophie A.; Holden, David W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Within host cells such as macrophages, Salmonella enterica translocates virulence (effector) proteins across its vacuolar membrane via the SPI-2 type III secretion system. Previously, it was shown that when expressed ectopically, the effectors SseK1 and SseK3 inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced NF-κB activation. In this study, we show that ectopically expressed SseK1, SseK2, and SseK3 suppress TNF-α-induced, but not Toll-like receptor 4- or interleukin-induced, NF-κB activation. Inhibition required a DXD motif in SseK1 and SseK3, which is essential for the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine to arginine residues (arginine-GlcNAcylation). During macrophage infection, SseK1 and SseK3 inhibited NF-κB activity in an additive manner. SseK3-mediated inhibition of NF-κB activation did not require the only known host-binding partner of this effector, the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM32. SseK proteins also inhibited TNF-α-induced cell death during macrophage infection. Despite SseK1 and SseK3 inhibiting TNF-α-induced apoptosis upon ectopic expression in HeLa cells, the percentage of infected macrophages undergoing apoptosis was SseK independent. Instead, SseK proteins inhibited necroptotic cell death during macrophage infection. SseK1 and SseK3 caused GlcNAcylation of different proteins in infected macrophages, suggesting that these effectors have distinct substrate specificities. Indeed, SseK1 caused the GlcNAcylation of the death domain-containing proteins FADD and TRADD, whereas SseK3 expression resulted in weak GlcNAcylation of TRADD but not FADD. Additional, as-yet-unidentified substrates are likely to explain the additive phenotype of a Salmonella strain lacking both SseK1 and SseK3. PMID:28069818

  6. Composite fan stator assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donges, G.L.

    1993-07-13

    A composite fan stator assembly is described for a gas turbine engine having at least two fan rotor stages, the composite stator assembly comprising: an annular composite fan case assembly including an access port, the fan case assembly circumferentially disposed around first and second fan rotor stage locations, a composite fan stator stage supported by and extending radially inward of the fan case assembly and axially disposed between the two fan rotor stage locations, the fan stator stage includes at least one removable vane segment accessible for removal through the access port for assembly and reassembly, the composite fan case assembly including a separable composite forward fan case assembly and a separable composite aft fan case assembly spaced axially aft of the forward fan case assembly, the forward fan case assembly being bolted to the aft fan case assembly, wherein the composite fan stator stage is axially and radially trapped and supported by the forward and aft fan case assemblies. A composite stator vane assembly comprising: a composite inner shroud, a composite outer shroud disposed radially outward of the inner shroud, a plurality of vanes disposed between the shrouds, the vanes including a suction side and a pressure side and radially inner and outer roots, the roots extending through platforms of corresponding ones of the inner and outer shrouds, four box-type attachment elements corresponding to curved suction and pressure sides of the inner and outer roots, the box-type attachment elements having two connected legs angled with respect to each other, a first one of the legs extending along, conforming to the curve of, and bonded to a corresponding one of the airfoil root sides, and a second one of the legs extending along and bonded to a composite shroud surface.

  7. The origin and evolution of the Peace Vallis fan system that drains to the Curiosity landing area, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palucis, Marisa C.; Dietrich, William E.; Hayes, Alexander G.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Mangold, Nicholas; Newsom, Horton; Hardgrove, Craig; Calef, Fred; Sumner, Dawn Y.

    2014-04-01

    The landing site for the Curiosity rover is located at the distal end of the Peace Vallis fan in Gale Crater. Peace Vallis fan covers 80 km2 and is fed by a 730 km2 catchment, which drains an upland plains area through a 15 km wide gap in the crater rim. Valley incision into accumulated debris delivered sediment through a relatively low density valley network to a main stem channel to the fan. An estimated total fan volume of 0.9 km3 matches the calculated volume of removal due to valley incision (0.8 km3) and indicates a mean thickness of 9 m. The fan profile is weakly concave up with a mean slope of 1.5% for the lower portion. Numerous inverted channels outcrop on the western surface of the fan, but on the eastern portion such channels are rare suggesting a change in process from distributary channel domination on the west to sheet flow on the eastern portion of the fan. Runoff (discharge/watershed area) to produce the fan is estimated to be more than 600 m, perhaps as much as 6000 m, indicating a hydrologic cycle that likely lasted at least thousands of years. Atmospheric precipitation (possibly snow) not seepage produced the runoff. Based on topographic data, Peace Vallis fan likely onlapped Bradbury Rise and spilled into a topographic low to the east of the rise. This argues that the light-toned fractured terrain within this topographic low corresponds to the distal deposits of Peace Vallis fan, and in such a setting, lacustrine deposits are expected.

  8. Mine Fan Automatic Monitoring System Based on PID Control%基于PID控制的矿井通风机自动监控系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹帅; 刘混举

    2015-01-01

    矿井通风机是煤矿通风系统的主要设备之一。通过结合煤矿生产的需要和矿井通风机自动监控系统的结构,提出了以PLC和组态技术为核心的控制系统,并引入了二自由度的PID控制理论。通过Matlab/Simulink动态仿真对矿井通风机自动控制系统进行参数控制,可实时监测并读取通风机的风速、风量、电流和温度等参数,且具有良好的预警功能,对企业实时掌握风机工况有重要的意义。%This is one of the main mine fan equipment mine ventilation system. By combining the structure of coal production and mine fan needs automatic monitoring system is proposed in order to configure the PLC and technology as the core control system, and the introduction of two degrees of freedom PID control theory. By Matlab/Simulink Dynamic Simulation for mine fan automatic control system parameter control, real-time monitoring and reading wind speed, wind, current, and temperature and other parameters fan, and has a good early warning capabilities, real-time control of business conditions fan there are important.

  9. 微型轴流风扇优化设计系统的设计实现%The Realization of Micro Axial Fan's Optimization Design System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文浩; 柳品; 金英子; 钱红玉; 赵屹

    2011-01-01

    设计高性能的微型轴流风扇,同时降低设计成本、缩短设计周期,是轴流风扇研究的主要目标.采用孤立叶型法、计算流体动力学技术和遗传算法相结合的策略,构建微型轴流风扇优化设计系统.该系统采用面向对象的设计方法和模块化的构造方法,采用C++及Open GRIP语言编写,并提供开放式接口,使系统易于完善和扩充.在此系统下可以实现微型轴流风扇优化设计的整个流程.通过优化实例证实了该系统的可靠性和实用性.%Designing high performance micro axial fan, meanwhile, reducing the design cost and shortening design period is one of the main purposes of the research on axial fan. In this paper, the isolated blade design method, CFD technology and GA are combined to build an optimization design system for micro axial fans. The system is designed on the basis of the object-oriented and modular-construction design method, programmed by C++ and Open GRIP language and provides open interfaces, which make the system easily enhanced and extended. The whole micro axial fan optimization design process can be a-chieved in this system and it's proved to be reliable and available by optimizing typical fan samples.

  10. Electric fan control system with human body and temperature induction%人体及温度感应式电风扇控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付丽; 吴春鲜; 杨隽莹; 吴友鑫

    2014-01-01

    设计出一种能感应人体及环境温度的电风扇控制系统。单片机处理器AT89C51为系统的检测和控制核心,热释电红外传感器检测人体,DS18B20数字温度传感器感应环境温度。采用继电器代替传统电风扇的档位开关,根据人体红外感应信息控制风扇的开启和关闭,依据环境温度控制相应的继电器处于吸合状态,使风扇输出对应的风速。该系统集成到传统电风扇中,测试结果表明,系统实现了对风扇的自动启停及自动调速控制,具有推广应用价值。%In order to enhance the intelligence of the electric fans and reduce energy consumption ,an electric fan control system which can detect the human body and the environmental temperature is designed .The core of detection and control of this system is the AT89C51 MCU .The pyroelectric infrared sensor is used to detect the human body ,and the DS18B20 digital temperature sensor is used to test the environment temperature .The relays replace gear switches of the traditional electric fan . The opening and closing of the electric fan are controlled according to the human body infrared sensor information .The corresponding relay is controlled in a closed state in accordance with environment temperature size . Consequently , it makes the fan output correspond with the wind speed .The system is integrated to the traditional electric fans and is tested .The experimental results show that the system realizes the automatic start-stop and speed control function of the electric fan ,and has the application value to be spread .

  11. The Evolution of the Surveyor Fan and Channel System, Gulf of Alaska based on Core-Log-Seismic Integration at IODP Site U1417

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, S.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Walton, M. A. L.; Swartz, J. M.; Worthington, L. L.; Reece, R.; Somchat, K.; Wagner, P. F.; Jaeger, J. M.; Mix, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The transition to quasi-periodic ~100-kyr glacial cycles during the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT, ~1.2 Ma) saw an acceleration of sediment delivery from the St. Elias orogen. Eroded sediment from the St. Elias Mountains is transferred to the deep sea via glacially carved shelf troughs and eventually to the Aleutian Trench via the Surveyor Channel and Fan system. By analyzing the submarine sediments in this Fan, we can evaluate the source-to-sink relationship between the erosion of an orogen and deep-sea deposition and inform our understanding of the impact of climate on local tectonics. Our work seeks to update depositional models of the unique sedimentary sequences, architecture, and origins of the glacially-fed Surveyor Fan using well-log-seismic correlation and new data from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 341. Exp. 341 results question proposed ages of major fan stratigraphic packages, necessitating this update. We created an integrated velocity model using discrete core-based p-wave velocities acquired at site U1417 from 100-152m, down-hole sonic log velocities from 152m-476m, and then projected the trend of the sonic log velocity from 476m to the base of the borehole. Previous work has interpreted the Sequence I/II boundary (~300 mbsf at U1417) to correspond with the start of the Surveyor Fan and the onset of tidewater glaciation in the late Miocene and the Sequence II/III boundary (~160 mbsf at U1417) to coincide with the intensification of glaciation and subsequent increase in sediment flux at the MPT. Our updated velocity model places these major sequence boundaries at the correct depths in borehole site U1417. We can use the revised velocity model to correlate lithologic, biostratigraphic, paleomagnetic, and logging data from the borehole/cores to seismic data, allowing for construction of a temporal model for the evolution of the Surveyor fan. We can then examine the relationship between glacial-interglacial cycle duration and

  12. New morpho-stratigraphic constraints for the evolution of the alluvial fan system along the northern slopes of the Taburno-Camposauro Mountains (Calore River basin, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Natalia; Amato, Vincenzo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Cesarano, Massimo; Filocamo, Francesca; Petrosino, Paola; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Valente, Ettore; Giralt, Santiago; Casciello, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    The Lower Calore River Valley is a morphostructural depression located in the inner sector of the Campanian Apennine, between the Taburno-Camposauro and the Matese carbonate massifs. The river is the main left tributary of the Volturno River, it has a meandering channel partially structural-controlled. Numerous morphotectonic clues and historical seismicity data suggest that this part of the Apennine chain was particularly active during the late-Quaternary. In detail, the valley is E-W oriented and presents an asymmetry of the opposed valley slopes. The left side, corresponding to the northern flank of the Camposauro massif, is characterized by a steep slope (70°-35°), partially controlled by a ~E-W oriented fault system, and by a wide less-inclined piedmont aggradation zone. The latter started growing since middle Pleistocene, with the deposition of alluvial fans and slope deposits over the well cemented early Pleistocene breccias of Laiano Synthem. The alluvial fan deposition has been active until present giving rise to three main generations of alluvial fans. The right side of the valley, instead, is characterized by seven orders of fluvial terraces, both of erosional and depositional origin. The quaternary morpho-stratigraphic evolution of alluvial fans and fluvial terraces has been strongly conditioned by the interaction of tectonic phases and climatic variations. A detailed geomorphological study (1:5.000 in scale) was carried out with the aim to map the main depositional and erosional fluvial landforms and to identify the main tectonic lineaments of the area. A detailed field survey allowed to better define the stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental context in which the alluvial deposits developed and also to find chrono-stratigraphic markers. Tephra-stratigraphic analyses were performed on pyroclastic deposits interbedded into the alluvial fan and fluvial successions. At the moment the age of the first generation of alluvial fans is still under

  13. Evolution of a trough-fan system: Scoresby Sund fjord, central-east Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lara F.; Nielsen, Tove; Knutz, Paul C.; Kuijpers, Antoon; Damm, Volkmar

    2016-04-01

    The continental shelf along the east margin of Greenland is shaped by several, glacially carved transverse troughs that constitute the oceanward extension of the major fjords. Scoresby Sund is the most prominent fjord of central-east Greenland and separates Liverpool Land, to the north, from Blosseville Kyst to the south. Offshore of Scoresby Sund a large glacial trough mouth fan (TMF) has been built through successive phases of glacial advances. Morpho-structural and seismo-stratigraphic analyses of the Scoresby Sund TMF have been done using all Multichannel Seismic (MCS) profiles available in the area. The ODP site 987 of the leg 162 is located in the abyssal plain offshore of Scoresby Sund and was used for age estimations. The width of the continental shelf in the study area ranges from a 65 km narrow part along the Blosseville Kyst to 120 km off Scoresby Sund. The average water depth is shallower than 300 m, deepening to 600 m along Scoresby Sund glacial trough. Oceanwards a steep slope, seafloor falls into the 2250 m deep abyssal plain of the south Greenland Sea. The sedimentary cover displays maximum thickness along the middle continental shelf (2.8 s TWTT on average). Seven major stratigraphic discontinuities could be identified within the sedimentary record. They restrict eight major seismic units, named from 8 to 1, in upward stratigraphic order. The distribution and seismic facies of these units reveal the evolutionary sequence of the study area from early Cenozoic to Present. The lowest unit, Unit 8, is post-basalt to middle-late Miocene age and represents a pre-glacial depositional stage when tectonic events controlled the sedimentation. Deposition of Unit 7 occurred by late Miocene, revealing glacial-related deposits and ice-stream along Scoresby Sund fjord. Unit 6 was formed during early Pliocene by glacial advance over the continental shelf leading to strong erosive surfaces in the shelf area and Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) in the northern abyssal

  14. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Rotor Alone Aerodynamic Performance Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Woodward, Richard P.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of an isolated fan or rotor alone model was measured in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel as part of the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test conducted at NASA Glenn. The Source Diagnostic Test was conducted to identify the noise sources within a wind tunnel scale model of a turbofan engine and quantify their contribution to the overall system noise level. The fan was part of a 1/5th scale model representation of the bypass stage of a current technology turbofan engine. For the rotor alone testing, the fan and nacelle, including the inlet, external cowl, and fixed area fan exit nozzle, were modeled in the test hardware; the internal outlet guide vanes located behind the fan were removed. Without the outlet guide vanes, the velocity at the nozzle exit changes significantly, thereby affecting the fan performance. As part of the investigation, variations in the fan nozzle area were tested in order to match as closely as possible the rotor alone performance with the fan performance obtained with the outlet guide vanes installed. The fan operating performance was determined using fixed pressure/temperature combination rakes and the corrected weight flow. The performance results indicate that a suitable nozzle exit was achieved to be able to closely match the rotor alone and fan/outlet guide vane configuration performance on the sea level operating line. A small shift in the slope of the sea level operating line was measured, which resulted in a slightly higher rotor alone fan pressure ratio at take-off conditions, matched fan performance at cutback conditions, and a slightly lower rotor alone fan pressure ratio at approach conditions. However, the small differences in fan performance at all fan conditions were considered too small to affect the fan acoustic performance.

  15. Elevated Temperature Ballistic Impact Testing of PBO and Kevlar Fabrics for Application in Supersonic Jet Engine Fan Containment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Roberts Gary D.; Revilock, Duane M., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Ballistic impact tests were conducted on fabric made from both Poly(phenylene benzobizoxazole) (PBO) and Kevlar 29 which were selected to be similar in weave pattern, areal density, and fiber denier. The projectiles were 2.54-cm- (1-in.-) long aluminum cylinders with a diameter of 1.27 cm (0.5 in.). The fabric specimens were clamped on four sides in a 30.5-cm- (12-in.-) square frame. Tests on PBO were conducted at room temperature and at 260 C (500 F). A number of PBO specimens were aged in air at 204 and 260 C (400 and 500 F) before impact testing. Kevlar specimens were tested only at room temperature and with no aging. The PBO absorbed significantly more energy than the Kevlar at both room and elevated temperatures. However, after aging at temperatures of 204 C (400 F) and above, the PBO fabric lost almost all of its energy absorbing ability. It was concluded that PBO fabric is not a feasible candidate for fan containment system applications in supersonic jet engines where operating temperatures exceed this level.

  16. Investigation of Advanced Counterrotation Blade Configuration Concepts for High Speed Turboprop Systems. Task 3: Advanced Fan Section Grid Generator Final Report and Computer Program User's Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Andrew J.; Delaney, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure is studied for generating three-dimensional grids for advanced turbofan engine fan section geometries. The procedure constructs a discrete mesh about engine sections containing the fan stage, an arbitrary number of axisymmetric radial flow splitters, a booster stage, and a bifurcated core/bypass flow duct with guide vanes. The mesh is an h-type grid system, the points being distributed with a transfinite interpolation scheme with axial and radial spacing being user specified. Elliptic smoothing of the grid in the meridional plane is a post-process option. The grid generation scheme is consistent with aerodynamic analyses utilizing the average-passage equation system developed by Dr. John Adamczyk of NASA Lewis. This flow solution scheme requires a series of blade specific grids each having a common axisymmetric mesh, but varying in the circumferential direction according to the geometry of the specific blade row.

  17. Active Vibration Reduction of Titanium Alloy Fan Blades (FAN1) Using Piezoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin; Kauffman, Jeffrey; Duffy, Kirsten; Provenza, Andrew; Morrison, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing smart adaptive structures to improve fan blade damping at resonances using piezoelectric (PE) transducers. In this paper, a digital resonant control technique emulating passive shunt circuits is used to demonstrate vibration reduction of FAN1 Ti real fan blade at the several target modes. Single-mode control and multi-mode control using one piezoelectric material are demonstrated. Also a conceptual study of how to implement this digital control system into the rotating fan blade is discussed.

  18. Reliability analysis of forty-five strain-gage systems mounted on the first fan stage of a YF-100 engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R.; Frause, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of 45 state-of-the-art strain gage systems under full scale engine testing was investigated. The flame spray process was used to install 23 systems on the first fan rotor of a YF-100 engine; the others were epoxy cemented. A total of 56 percent of the systems failed in 11 hours of engine operation. Flame spray system failures were primarily due to high gage resistance, probably caused by high stress levels. Epoxy system failures were principally erosion failures, but only on the concave side of the blade. Lead-wire failures between the blade-to-disk jump and the control room could not be analyzed.

  19. The Design and Integration of a Distributed Fan Propulsion System within a Split-Wing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A baseline propulsion system has been designed as a starting point in a previous SBIR effort for this project which consists of two turboshaft engines, a generator...

  20. COOLING SYSTEM CONTROL AND MANAGEMENT METHOD OF AFTER SPINNING FAN WATER CURTAIN COOLING SYSTEM%后纺风机水帘降温系统控制与管理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁利忠

    2014-01-01

    Through analyzed the working principle of after spinning the fan water curtain cooling system , and clarified the effect of fan water curtain cooling system on the after spinning production status , so proposing the control method of after spinning fan water curtain cooling system and management methods , so as to meet the requirements of production process.%通过对后纺风机水帘降温系统工作原理的分析,阐述水帘降温系统对后纺生产状态的影响,提出风机水帘降温系统的控制方法及管理方法,以满足后纺的生产工艺要求。

  1. A Feasibility Study. Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems with Fan Coil Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The primary objectives of this study are to estimate potential energy savings relative to conventional ducted air distribution, and to identify equipment requirements, costs, and barriers with a focus on ductless hydronic delivery systems that utilize water-to-air terminal units in each zone. Results indicate that annual heating and cooling energy use can be reduced by up to 27% assuming replacement of the conventional 13 SEER heat pump and coil with a similarly rated air-to-water heat pump.

  2. [Lymphocytic primary angiitis of the central nervous system with fan-shaped linear enhancement converging to the lateral ventricles: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunomiya, Taro; Kageyama, Takashi; Tanaka, Kanta; Kambe, Daisuke; Shinde, Akiyo; Suenaga, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of lymphocytic primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) with a characteristic gadolinium-enhancement pattern on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 48-year-old, right-handed man presented with a 3-month history of tremor and progressing dementia. Neurologic examination revealed cognitive decline with anterograde amnesia and postural tremor of the fingers. Except for the positive result of serum antinuclear antibody, intense investigations for infectious, rheumatic and neoplastic diseases were negative. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid showed mild pleocytosis (14 cells/μl). Brain MRI revealed diffuse hyperintense areas in the deep cerebral white matter on T2-weighted images. Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images demonstrated fan-shaped multiple linear enhancements converging to the body of the lateral ventricles. Brain biopsy showed intense infiltration of small lymphocytes without atypia or granuloma mainly within the vessel walls and perivascular spaces. The diagnosis of lymphocytic PACNS was made. Administration of corticosteroid markedly improved the tremor and cognitive dysfunction. MRI after the treatment showed resolution of the abnormal fan-shaped linear enhancement. He returned to his previous occupation. PACNS should be included in the differential diagnosis for fan-shaped linear enhancement converging to the lateral ventricles on MRI in patients with unexplained progressing dementia.

  3. Is the turbidite facies association scheme valid for interpreting ancient submarine fan environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, G.; Damuth, J. E.; Moiola, R. J.

    1985-04-01

    Although turbidite facies reflect only processes of deposition, turbidite facies associations are routinely used to identify ancient submarine-fan subenvironments (e.g., upper fan, channel, lobe, etc.). The assumption that process of deposition also reflects environment of deposition may not be valid for the following reasons: (1) Mutti and Ricci Lucchi's facies association scheme for submarine fans has been developed exclusively from ancient turbidite sequences; however, the true relationship between such turbidite facies associations and related fan subenvironments has not been confirmed from modern fans; (2) individual channel-levee systems of many modern submarine fans are in many cases large enough to contain the entire ancient fan systems on which these facies associations are based; (3) large channel-levee systems comparable to those of modern fans have not been recognized in outcrops. Consequently, the validity of turbidite facies associations for interpreting ancient submarine-fan subenvironments must be considered tenuous until confirmed in modern fans.

  4. Solar powered headwear fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsh, G.B.; Volk, S.; Cirrito, W.; Brann, D.

    1987-07-21

    A fan assembly is described. A housing is adapted for resting on an exterior surface of headwear. A fan mounted in the housing at one end of the housing is adapted for forcing air through an opening defined in a forward protuberance of the headwear. Solar cell means are mounted on the housing at another end of the housing opposite to and remote from the one end for powering the fan means and adapted for resting on a crown of the headwear. Vent means are defined by the housing for allowing air to be sucked into the housing and forced out of the housing when the power means drive the fan means. Mounting means are defined by the housing, including hinge means for removably mounting the modular fan assembly on an exterior surface of the headwear. A portion of the housing occupies a substantial distance between the fan means and the solar cell means. Display means are defined by the portion of the housing between the power means and the fan means for displaying of decorative graphic material.

  5. Fluent-based numerical simulation of flow centrifugal fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xian-zhang

    2011-01-01

    Testing centrifugal fan flow field by physical laboratory is difficult because the testing system is complex and the workload is heavy, and the results observed by naked-eye deviates far from the actual value. To address this problem, the computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT was applied to establish three-dimensional model of the centrifugal fan. The numeral model was verified by comparing simulation data to experimental data. The pressure centrifugal fan and the speed changes in distribution in centrifugal fan was simulated by computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT. The simulation results show that the gas flow velocity in the impeller increases with impeller radius increase. Static pressure gradually increases when gas from the fan access is imported through fan impeller leaving fans.

  6. The Connemara Fan: a major glacial grounding line fan west of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Stephen; Praeg, Daniel; Monteys, Xavier; Scott, Gill

    2014-05-01

    Glacigenic topography on the mid-shelf (~130-350 m water depth) west of Galway, Ireland appears to have the morphological form, internal architecture and sediments associated with a large glacial grounding-line fan. Seismic data collected in 2009 and 2012 (during the GLAMAR and GATEWAYS 1 campaigns) reveal that the broad, arcuate ridges of the 'Olex moraine' form the landward part of a fan system which prograded beyond the mid-shelf break (defining the outer margin of the 'Clare Platform') westwards into the Porcupine Seabight. The topography is comparable to larger shelf-edge trough-mouth fans found further north along the same margin, however no discernible 'trough' has been identified on the Clare Platform. The ridge and fan topographic assemblage is renamed the 'Connemara Fan' in its entirety, based on its genetic relations and geographic location due west of Connemara, western Ireland. A macrofossil recovered from within a debris flow on the outer fan slope comprised of remobilised plumites dates to ~ 20 ka Cal B.P., indicating sediment reworking downslope following deglacial sediment input to at least that time. The Connemara Fan is the most southerly glacigenic fan identified along the north-east Atlantic margin. Its identification also adds to our knowledge of possibly multiple generations of ice sheets feeding onto the Irish shelf from west-central Ireland and the occurrence of ice sheet geometries and dynamics that evacuated ice, melt-water and sediment (ice streams?) westwards across the Clare Platform during past glaciations.

  7. Comparison of turbidite facies associations in modern passive-margin Mississippi fan with ancient active-margin fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, G.; Moiola, R. J.; McPherson, J. G.; O'Connell, S.

    1988-07-01

    Our comparison of the modern passive-margin Mississippi fan (DSDP Leg 96) with ancient active-margin fans (e.g. Eocene Hecho Group, Spain) reveals major differences in turbidite facies associations (Mutti and Ricci Lucchi scheme) and in seismic characteristics in the lower fan area. The lower (outer) Mississippi fan is composed of channel (Facies B and F) and non-channel facies (C? and D), whereas ancient fans are characterized by non-channelized, thickening-upward, depositional lobe facies (C and D). An absence of depositional lobes in the lower Mississippi fan is also suggested by a lack of convex-upward (mounded) seismic reflections with bidirectional downlap. Continuous seismic reflections of the lower Mississippi fan may represent "sheet sands", but not those of true depositional lobes with mounded character. Extensive channelization in modern passive-margin fans appears to be a product of the lateral shifting of a major sinuous distributary system, developed as a consequence of low gradients and the transport of sediment with a relatively low sand/mud ratio. In contrast, channels in active-margin fans are short and of low sinuosity as a result of high gradients and the transport of sediment with a relatively high sand/mud ratio. The turbidite facies association scheme, which was developed exclusively from ancient active-margin fans, should be applied to mature passive-margin fans with qualifications because of the differences in spatial distribution of turbidite facies and their associations.

  8. Experimental alluvial fans: Advances in understanding of fan dynamics and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lucy E.

    2015-09-01

    Alluvial fans are depositional systems that develop because of a disparity between the upstream and downstream sediment transport capacity of a system, usually at the base of mountain fronts as rivers emerge from the constrained mountain area onto the plain. They are dynamic landforms that are prone to abrupt changes on a geomorphological (decades to centuries) time scale, while also being long-term deposition features that preserve sedimentary strata and are sensitive indictors of environmental change. The complexity of interactions between catchment characteristics, climate, tectonics, internal system feedbacks, and environmental processes on field alluvial fans means that it is difficult to isolate individual variables in a field setting; therefore, the controlled conditions afforded by experimental models has provided a novel technique to overcome some of these complexities. The use of experimental models of alluvial fans has a long history and these have been implemented over a range of different research areas utilising various experimental designs. Using this technique, important advances have been made in determining the primary factors influencing fan slope, understanding of avulsion dynamics, identifying autogenic processes driving change on fan systems independent of any change in external conditions, and the mechanics of flow and flood risk on alluvial fans, to name a few. However, experiments cannot be carried out in isolation. Thus, combining the findings from experimental alluvial fans with field research and numerical modelling is important and, likewise, using these techniques to inform experimental design. If this can be achieved, there is potential for future experimental developments to explore key alluvial fan issues such as stratigraphic preservation potential and simulating extra terrestrial fan systems.

  9. Implementation of a fully 3D system model for brain SPECT with fan- beam-collimator OSEM reconstruction with 3D total variation regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongwei; Krol, Andrzej; Lipson, Edward D.; Lu, Yao; Xu, Yuesheng; Lee, Wei; Feiglin, David H.

    2007-03-01

    In order to improve tomographically reconstructed image quality, we have implemented a fully 3D reconstruction, using an ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm for fan-beam collimator (FBC) SPECT, along with a volumetric system model-fan-volume system model (FVSM), a modified attenuation compensation, a 3D depth- and angle-dependent resolution and sensitivity correction, and a 3D total variation (TV) regularization. SPECT data were acquired in a 128x64 matrix, in 120 views with a circular orbit. The numerical Zubal brain phantom was used to simulate a FBC HMPAO Tc-99m brain SPECT scan, and a low noise and scatter-free projection dataset was obtained using the SimSET Monte Carlo package. A SPECT scan for a mini-Defrise phantom and brain HMPAO SPECT scans for five patients were acquired with a triple-head gamma camera (Triad 88) equipped with a low-energy high-resolution (LEHR) FBC. The reconstructed images, obtained using clinical filtered back projection (FBP), OSEM with a line-length system model (LLSM) and 3D TV regularization, and OSEM with FVSM and 3D TV regularization were quantitatively studied. Overall improvement in the image quality has been observed, including better axial and transaxial resolution, better integral uniformity, higher contrast-to-noise ration between the gray matter and the white matter, and better accuracy and lower bias in OSEM-FVSM, compared with OSEM-LLSM and clinical FBP.

  10. Beam fanning effect and image storage in Ce: KNSBN crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI PanLai; GUO QingLin; WANG ZhiJun; PANG LiBin; LIANG BaoLai

    2007-01-01

    A non-synchronously-numerating experimental system is applied in this research. The effect of the incident beam intensity Ⅰ and the beam incident angle θ on beam fanning effect is investigated with a singular beam incident on Ce:KNSBN crystal. The results show that the beam fanning effect strongly depends on Iand θ. The threshold effect of/for the beam fanning in Ce:KNSBN crystal is observed, and the threshold intensity of incident beam keeps the same value of 38.2 mW/cm2 for different θ, and the steady beam fanning intensity Ifsat reaches a peak at θ=15° under the same Ⅰ. In addition, the effect of the incident beam modulated on the beam fanning noise and holographic storage in Ce:KNSBN crystal is studied. And the results suggest that the beam fanning noise is effectively suppressed, and the quality of the reappearance image is greatly improved.

  11. Design and Implementation of Debris Flow Alluvial Fan Reconstruction System%泥石流堆积扇重构系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪雷; 胡凯衡; 李泳; 杨宇

    2011-01-01

    According to principles of structure light 3 D vision, debris flow alluvial fan reconstruction system is designed and implemented by using OpenCV and OpenGL under VC + + . System consists of camera calibration, structure light calibration, the center of structure light stripe extraction and 3 D display modules. The system' s o-verall structure and implementation process of each module is explicated. The output of each module is gained and the effectiveness of system is verified through reconstruction experiment. The system can reconstruct the debris-flow alluvial fan rapidly without contact, and overcome many shortcomings of traditional measurement methods. It runs quickly and is convenient to use.%根据结构光三维视觉原理,在VC++环境下利用OpenCV和OpenGL设计并实现了泥石流堆积扇重构系统,系统由摄像机标定、结构光标定、光带中心提取和三维显示模块组成.详细说明了系统的总体结构以及各模块的实现流程.通过重构实验得到了各模块的输出结果,并验证了系统的有效性.该系统能够在非接触的情况下对泥石堆积扇进行快速重构,能够克服传统测量方法的许多弊端,使用方便、快捷.

  12. The Mechanical Impact of Aerodynamic Stall on Tunnel Ventilation Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Sheard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes work aimed at establishing the ability of a tunnel ventilation fan to operate without risk of mechanical failure in the event of aerodynamic stall. The research establishes the aerodynamic characteristics of a typical tunnel ventilation fan when operated in both stable and stalled aerodynamic conditions, with and without an anti-stall stabilisation ring, with and without a “nonstalling” blade angle and at full, half, and one quarter design speed. It also measures the fan’s peak stress, thus facilitating an analysis of the implications of the experimental results for mechanical design methodology. The paper concludes by presenting three different strategies for tunnel ventilation fan selection in applications where the selected fan will most likely stall. The first strategy selects a fan with a low-blade angle that is nonstalling. The second strategy selects a fan with a high-pressure developing capability. The third strategy selects a fan with a fitted stabilisation ring. Tunnel ventilation system designers each have their favoured fan selection strategy. However, all three strategies can produce system designs within which a tunnel ventilation fan performs reliably in-service. The paper considers the advantages and disadvantages of each selection strategy and considered the strengths and weaknesses of each.

  13. Hamiltonian[k,k+1]-因子%Hamiltonian [k, k + 1]-Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡茂诚; 方奇志; 李延军

    2003-01-01

    A Hamiltonian [k, k + 1]-factor is a [k, k + 1]-factor containing a Hamiltonian cycle. A simple graph G of order n is n/2-critical if δ(G) ≥ n/2 but δ(G - e) < n/2 for any edge e ∈ E(G). Let k ≥ 2 be an integer and G be an n/2-critical graph with n ≥ 4k - 6 and n ≥ 7. In this paper it is proved that for any given Hamiltonian cycle C of G, G has a [k, k + 1]-factor containing C. This result is an improvement on some recent results about the existence of Hamiltonian [k, k + 1]-factor.%本文考虑n/2-临界图中Hamiltonian[k,k+1]-因子的存在性.Hamiltonian[k,k+1]-因子是指包含Hamiltonian圈的[k,k+1]-因子;给定阶数为n的简单图G,若δ(G)≥n/2而δ(G\\e)<n/2(对任意的e∈E(G)),则称G为n/2-临界图.设k为大于等于2的整数,G为n/2-临界图(其中n≥4k-6且n≥7),我们证明了对于G的任何Hamiltonian圈C,G中必存在包含C的[k,k+1]-因子.该结果改进了现有的一些有关Hamiltonian[k,k+1]-因子存在性的结果.

  14. The Zambezi sedimentary system (coastal plain - deep sea fan): a record of the vertical movements of the Mozambican margin since Cretaceous times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Jean Pierre; Robin, Cecile; Guillocheau, Francois; Baby, Guillaume; Dall'Asta, Massimo; Popescu, Speranta; Suc, Jean Pierre; Droz, Laurence; Rabineau, Marina; Moulin, Maryline

    2016-04-01

    The Mozambique margin is an oblique to transform margin which feeds one of the largest African turbiditic system, the Zambezi deep-sea fan (1800 km length and 400 km wide; Droz and Mougenot., AAPG Bull., 1987). The Zambezi sedimentary system is characterized by (1) a changing catchment area through time with evidences of river captures (Thomas and Shaw, J. Afr. Earth. Sci, 1988) and (2) a delta, storing more than 12 km of sediment, with no gravitary tectonics. The aim of this study is to carry out a source to sink study along the Zambezi sedimentary system and to analyse the margin evolution (vertical movements, climate change) since Early Cretaceous times. The used data are seismic lines (industrial and academic) and petroleum wells (with access to the cuttings). Our first objective was to perform a new biochronostratigraphic framework based on nannofossils, foraminifers, pollen and spores on the cuttings of three industrial wells. The second target was to recognize the different steps of the growth of the Zambezi sedimentary systems. Four main phases were identified: • Late Jurassic (?) - early Late Cretaceous: from Neocomian to Aptian times, the high of the clinoforms is getting higher, with the first occurrence of contouritic ridges during Aptian times. • Late Cretaceous - Early Paleocene: a major drop of relative sea-level occurred as a consequence of the South African Plateau uplift. The occurrence of two depocenters suggests siliciclastic supplies from the Bushveld and from the North Mozambique domain. • Early Paleocene - Eocene: growth of carbonate platforms and large contouritic ridges. • Oligocene - Present-day: birth of the modern Zambezi Delta, with quite low siliciclastic supply during Oligocene times, increasing during Miocene times. As previously expected (Droz and Mougenot) some sediments of the so-called Zambezi fans are coming from a feeder located east of the Davie Ridge. This study was founded by TOTAL and IFREMER in the frame of the

  15. Fans af Bruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    2007-01-01

    Analysen viser, hvordan det samme ritual under en koncert forener og opdeler de fans, der orienterer sig mod Bruce Springsteen. På den ene side forener ritualet hele publikum i en stor fælles "Intimitet for mange" og på den anden side splitter det dem, fordi det bliver tydeligt, hvem der er de ri...

  16. What a Football Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保安; 孙鹏

    2004-01-01

    While the football fan was thrilled to be at the Super Bowl, he was disappointed with the location of his seat. Peering across the stadium through his binoculars, he spied an empty seat on the 50-yard line and made his way there.

  17. Structure and climate controls on the evolution of a Mid-Late Jurassic alluvial fan-delta system in the western part of Yanshan fold-and-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengfa; Liu, Shaofeng; Yao, Xiang; Ma, Pengfei

    2016-04-01

    The Yanshan fold-thrust belt experienced several significant tectonic events during Mesozoic time and developed thrust fault-bounded intramontane sedimentary basins. However, elaborate works of sedimentology is inadequate in the Yanshan belt, particularly in its western segment, leading to a failure in comprehensively understanding how bounding-faults and climate change influence the basin filling processes. Our detailed sedimentological study of the Middle Jurassic Xiahuayuan Formation and Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Jiulongshan Formation in the Xiahuayuan basin of northern Hebei province, indicates a genetic relationship between the evolution of an alluvial fan-delta system and the tectonic and climate setting. The Xiahuayuan Formation was assigned to a debris flow-dominated Gilbert-type fan-delta composed of topset conglomerates, foreset massive siltstone-fine grained sandstone interbedded with lenticular conglomerate units and bottomset/lake bottom fine-grained deposits, spatially restricted to the northern part of the basin. While the lower Jiulongshan Formation was considered as a relatively small debris flow- and turbidity currents-dominated fan-delta with a single-ramp portrait, prograding into the middle part of the basin. And the upper part of Jiulongshan Formation contributed to the lake bottom component of the delta system during the forming of the Jiulongshan Formation. Our results reveal a transformation of a fan-delta from Gilbert-type to single-ramp type and the basinward migration of this fan-delta during Mid-Late Jurassic in the Xiahuayuan basin. And it is assumed that the activity of a thrust fault along the northern basin margin and the rapid switch of climate conditions from warm and humid to hot and dry triggered the transformation and migration of this fan-delta system.

  18. Design and Research of Intelligent Remote Control Fan Based on Single Chip Microcomputer and Bluetooth Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xue-Xia Zhang; You-Yun Dang; An-Ying Fu

    2017-01-01

    This paper is designed for intelligent remote control fans. The design of the microcontroller as the core, the sensor, Bluetooth and Andrews system applied to the design of intelligent remote control fan...

  19. Lithofacies, biofacies, and ichnoassemblage evolution of a shallow submarine volcaniclastic fan-shelf depositional system (Upper Cretaceous, James Ross Island, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scasso, R. A.; Olivero, E. B.; Buatois, L. A.

    The Upper Cretaceous (Santonian-Campanian/lower Maastrichtian) Santa Marta Formation on James Ross Island, Antarctica, represents volcaniclastic shallow marine fan and shelf sedimentation adjacent to an active volcanic arc. A combined analysis of sedimentologic, paleoecologic, and ichnologic data allows for the recognition in this unit of six lithofacies associations, eight biofacies, and five trace fossils assemblages. Lithofacies are dominated by fine, massive, tuffaceous rocks; graded, turbidite-like tuffaceous sandstones; carbonaceous mudstones; resedimented conglomerates; coquinas; sandstones; silty sandstones; and minor stromatolite beds. Biofacies are defined by different composition and relative abundance of elements of the benthic fauna, mainly bivalves, gastropods, and serpulids, with minor elements represented by scaphopods, corals, brachiopods, and echinoids. Trace fossil assemblages include the most common elements of the Skolithos and Cruziana ichnofacies. A striking result of the analysis is that lithofacies, biofacies, and trace fossil assemblages form distinct, non-repetitive, vertically successive horizons, with their distribution boundaries roughly coincident. On this basis, seven major facies groups, showing a distinct combination of lithofacies, biofacies, and trace fossils, are distinguished in the Santa Marta Formation. These non-repetitive, vertically stacked facies groups reveal a one-way evolution of the depositional system during a transgressive-regressive cycle, with a new transgression at the top of the unit. The lower facies groups represent shallow marine settings with a very high rate of volcaniclastic sedimentation within subsiding basin. Shallow, volcaniclastic fan systems were probably formed at the base of delta slope and grew rapidly as a consequence of high sedimentary supply in equilibrium with basin subsidence. The upper facies groups probably represent sedimentation within the marine part of the envisaged deltaic system on a

  20. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under…

  1. Simpler Variable-Speed Drive for Fan or Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obler, H. D.

    1982-01-01

    Static pressure developed by a fan or pump is used directly to control its speed in a new drive unit. System is simpler and more economical than many other speed controllers, although it is less accurate and has a narrower speed range. However, since very accurate control is not usually required for fans and pumps, unit would work well in many applications.

  2. Origin and processing of terrestrial organic carbon in the Amazon system: lignin phenols in river, shelf, and fan sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuwen; Schefuß, Enno; Mulitza, Stefan; Chiessi, Cristiano M.; Sawakuchi, André O.; Zabel, Matthias; Baker, Paul A.; Hefter, Jens; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2017-05-01

    The Amazon River transports large amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (OCterr) from the Andean and Amazon neotropical forests to the Atlantic Ocean. In order to compare the biogeochemical characteristics of OCterr in the fluvial sediments from the Amazon drainage basin and in the adjacent marine sediments, we analysed riverbed sediments from the Amazon mainstream and its main tributaries as well as marine surface sediments from the Amazon shelf and fan for total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic carbon isotopic composition (δ13CTOC), and lignin phenol compositions. TOC and lignin content exhibit positive correlations with Al / Si ratios (indicative of the sediment grain size) implying that the grain size of sediment discharged by the Amazon River plays an important role in the preservation of TOC and leads to preferential preservation of lignin phenols in fine particles. Depleted δ13CTOC values (-26.1 to -29.9 ‰) in the main tributaries consistently correspond with the dominance of C3 vegetation. Ratios of syringyl to vanillyl (S / V) and cinnamyl to vanillyl (C / V) lignin phenols suggest that non-woody angiosperm tissues are the dominant source of lignin in the Amazon basin. Although the Amazon basin hosts a rich diversity of vascular plant types, distinct regional lignin compositions are not observed. In the marine sediments, the distribution of δ13CTOC and Λ8 (sum of eight lignin phenols in organic carbon (OC), expressed as mg/100 mg OC) values implies that OCterr discharged by the Amazon River is transported north-westward by the North Brazil Current and mostly deposited on the inner shelf. The lignin compositions in offshore sediments under the influence of the Amazon plume are consistent with the riverbed samples suggesting that processing of OCterr during offshore transport does not change the encoded source information. Therefore, the lignin compositions preserved in these offshore sediments can reliably reflect the vegetation in the Amazon

  3. Flameproof emergency power supply system with high power for auxiliary fan in the coal mine%煤矿风机隔爆型大功率应急供电系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯; 李志刚; 杨春稳

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the special requirement that remaining uninterrupted ventilation in the working face and the extremely atrocious condition in the coal-mine,a three-phase emergency power supply system with high power to improve the reliability of power supply for auxiliary fan was developed.When the dual power used for the main fan are unable to function normally,the system will supply power for auxiliary fan to ensure uninterrupted ventilation.After the power for the main fan can resume normal power supply,via automatic switch apparatus,the emergency power supply system will cause the main fan to replace the auxiliary fan to supply wind,and at the same time the system will be charged while the auxiliary fan will enter the standby state.The emergency power supply system is comprised of control modules,batteries system modules,inverter modules and protection modules.The time that the system can offer is long up to sixty minutes such that it can prevent gas accumulating or exploring effectively so as to ensure intrinsical safe of the coal mine.%针对煤矿井下苛刻的环境以及保持巷道通风连续性的特殊需求,从提高风机供电可靠性角度考虑,开发了大功率三相应急供电系统,当主风机双电源同时出现故障时,该系统立即用于备用风机供电,使备用风机继续供风。当主风机供电电源故障解决后,应急供电系统通过自动投切装置,使工作面恢复由主风机继续供风,应急供电系统对蓄电池组进行充电与风机进入后备状态。应急供电系统由控制模块、蓄电池系统模块、逆变模块、保护模块组成。系统设计备用时间最长60 min,防止因停电停风造成的瓦斯积存或爆炸事故,使煤矿生产实现本质上的安全。

  4. Optimism Bias in Fans and Sports Reporters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley C Love

    Full Text Available People are optimistic about their prospects relative to others. However, existing studies can be difficult to interpret because outcomes are not zero-sum. For example, one person avoiding cancer does not necessitate that another person develops cancer. Ideally, optimism bias would be evaluated within a closed formal system to establish with certainty the extent of the bias and the associated environmental factors, such that optimism bias is demonstrated when a population is internally inconsistent. Accordingly, we asked NFL fans to predict how many games teams they liked and disliked would win in the 2015 season. Fans, like ESPN reporters assigned to cover a team, were overly optimistic about their team's prospects. The opposite pattern was found for teams that fans disliked. Optimism may flourish because year-to-year team results are marked by auto-correlation and regression to the group mean (i.e., good teams stay good, but bad teams improve.

  5. Optimism Bias in Fans and Sports Reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Bradley C; Kopeć, Łukasz; Guest, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    People are optimistic about their prospects relative to others. However, existing studies can be difficult to interpret because outcomes are not zero-sum. For example, one person avoiding cancer does not necessitate that another person develops cancer. Ideally, optimism bias would be evaluated within a closed formal system to establish with certainty the extent of the bias and the associated environmental factors, such that optimism bias is demonstrated when a population is internally inconsistent. Accordingly, we asked NFL fans to predict how many games teams they liked and disliked would win in the 2015 season. Fans, like ESPN reporters assigned to cover a team, were overly optimistic about their team's prospects. The opposite pattern was found for teams that fans disliked. Optimism may flourish because year-to-year team results are marked by auto-correlation and regression to the group mean (i.e., good teams stay good, but bad teams improve).

  6. A secondary source configuration for control of a ventilation fan noise in ducts

    OpenAIRE

    Čudina, Mirko; Prezelj, Jurij

    2015-01-01

    The main noise source in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems is usually a ventilating fan. Noise, generated by the ventilating fan is transmitted through the duct into the living and working environment. A typical fan noise spectrum consists of a broadband noise, which is superimposed with pure tones. Different methods are available to reduce a transmission of such noise from the ventilating fan into the living and working environment. In this article it is demonstrated how a f...

  7. Development of a Fan for Future Space Suit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul. Heather L.; Converse, David; Dionne, Steven; Moser, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    NASA's next generation space suit system will place new demands on the fan used to circulate breathing gas through the ventilation loop of the portable life support system. Long duration missions with frequent extravehicular activities (EVAs), the requirement for significant increases in reliability and durability, and a mission profile that imposes strict limits on weight, volume and power create the basis for a set of requirements that demand more performance than is available from existing fan designs. This paper describes the development of a new fan to meet these needs. A centrifugal fan was designed with a normal operating speed of approximately 39,400 rpm to meet the ventilation flow requirements while also meeting the aggressive minimal packaging, weight and power requirements. The prototype fan also operates at 56,000 rpm to satisfy a second operating condition associated with a single fan providing ventilation flow to two spacesuits connected in series. This fan incorporates a novel nonmetallic "can" to keep the oxygen flow separate from the motor electronics, thus eliminating ignition potential. The nonmetallic can enables a small package size and low power consumption. To keep cost and schedule within project bounds a commercial motor controller was used. The fan design has been detailed and implemented using materials and approaches selected to address anticipated mission needs. Test data is presented to show how this fan performs relative to anticipated ventilation requirements for the EVA portable life support system. Additionally, data is presented to show tolerance to anticipated environmental factors such as acoustics, shock, and vibration. Recommendations for forward work to progress the technology readiness level and prepare the fan for the next EVA space suit system are also discussed.

  8. Active Control of Fan Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nobuhiko YAMASAKI; Hirotoshi TAJIMA

    2008-01-01

    In the wake-rotor interaction fan noise, a number of the interacting modes at the blade passing frequency (BPF)and its harmonics are generated which are prescribed by the number of stator and rotor blades etc. In the present study, the dominant mode is tried to be suppressed by the secondary sound from the loudspeaker actuators. One of the novel features of the present system is the adoption of the control board with the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) hardware and the LabVIEW software to synchronize the circumferentially installed loudspeaker actuators with the relative location of rotational blades under arbitrary fan rotational speeds. The experiments were conducted under the conditions of three rotational speeds of 2004, 3150, and 4002 [rpm]. The reduction in the sound pressure level (SPL) was observed for all three rotational speeds. The sound pressure level at the BPF was reduced approximately 13 [dB] for 2004 [rpm] case, but not so large reduction was attained for other cases probably due to the inefficiency of the loudspeaker actuators at high frequencies

  9. Miocene Current-Modified Submarine Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce Perez, L. E.; Snedden, J.; Fisher, W. L.

    2016-12-01

    In the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, new and newly reprocessed seismic data has revealed a series of large bedforms, with set thicknesses of 130 to 250 meters. These exhibit hummocky, oblique and shingled to parallel seismic clinoform reflections. This seismic package has a paleowater depth of 450 meters. Those shingled seismic reflections in offshore east Mexico are interpreted as contourite drift deposits. These Miocene-age contourites may be related to strong ocean bottom currents that modified submarine fans and transported sediment to the north. Those contourites were identified on older seismic data, but are better imaged and interpreted on this new data. Plans are to map out and investigate the origin and extent of fans and contourites that extends over a large area of the Gulf of Mexico. In the Early Miocene several submarine fans systems were formed by the sediment input related to orogenic activity in Mexico. Submarine fan development persisted into the Middle Miocene due to continued uplift and erosion of the Mexican landmass. Initial, contourites are small and close proximity to the deep-water fan. In the Late Miocene time, contourite drift field reached its maximum extent in the Mexican deepwater area, anchored on its southern end by a submarine mound. This mounded submarine fan is located in the offshore northeast Veracruz and can be linked to increased uplift and erosion of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. In the Miocene-Pliocene, the large contourite drift begins to diminish in size and scale and is moribund by the Pliocene, with establishment of oceanic circulation similar to the present day. This research is important to understand more about the Gulf of Mexico and also for the Miocene timeframe that is a key phase in the earth's history. The role of the change in bottom water flow during progressive closure of the equatorial seaway separating North and South America will also be investigated.

  10. Observational Analysis of Coronal Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpeanu, D.-C.; Rachmeler, L; Mierla, Marilena

    2017-01-01

    Coronal fans (see Figure 1) are bright observational structures that extend to large distances above the solar surface and can easily be seen in EUV (174 angstrom) above the limb. They have a very long lifetime and can live up to several Carrington rotations (CR), remaining relatively stationary for many months. Note that they are not off-limb manifestation of similarly-named active region fans. The solar conditions required to create coronal fans are not well understood. The goal of this research was to find as many associations as possible of coronal fans with other solar features and to gain a better understanding of these structures. Therefore, we analyzed many fans and created an overview of their properties. We present the results of this statistical analysis and also a case study on the longest living fan.

  11. Acoustic Measurements of an Uninstalled Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Brown, Clifford A.; Shook, Tony D.; Winkel, James; Kolacz, John S.; Podboy, Devin M.; Loew, Raymond A.; Mirecki, Julius H.

    2012-01-01

    Sound pressure measurements were recorded for a prototype of a spacecraft cabin ventilation fan in a test in the NASA Glenn Acoustical Testing Laboratory. The axial fan is approximately 0.089 m (3.50 in.) in diameter and 0.223 m (9.00 in.) long and has nine rotor blades and eleven stator vanes. At design point of 12,000 rpm, the fan was predicted to produce a flow rate of 0.709 cu m/s (150 cfm) and a total pressure rise of 925 Pa (3.72 in. of water) at 12,000 rpm. While the fan was designed to be part of a ducted atmospheric revitalization system, no attempt was made to throttle the flow or simulate the installed configuration during this test. The fan was operated at six speeds from 6,000 to 13,500 rpm. A 13-microphone traversing array was used to collect sound pressure measurements along two horizontal planes parallel to the flow direction, two vertical planes upstream of the fan inlet and two vertical planes downstream of the fan exhaust. Measurements indicate that sound at blade passing frequency harmonics contribute significantly to the overall audible noise produced by the fan at free delivery conditions.

  12. Fan Cart: The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamore, Brian

    2016-10-01

    For years the fan cart has provided physics students with an excellent resource for exploring fundamental mechanics concepts such as acceleration, Newton's laws, impulse, momentum, work-energy, and energy conversions. The Physics Teacher has even seen some excellent do-it-yourself (DIY) fan carts and activities. If you are interested in developing the `E' portion of your and your students' STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) skills, one way to accomplish this is to revisit the DIY fan cart. In this article I share a design of a new edition of the DIY fan cart and some ideas for incorporating the engineering design process into your high school curriculum.

  13. Dynamic and Implications of Football Fans' Club and Fans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Dross (2009) identified football games as one event that has proved potent ... have potential of drawing human attention to participate either as a player or as a ... However, beyond what football fans wears, the fans are sometimes ready to ...

  14. Regenerative Blower for EVA Suit Ventilation Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Paul, Heather L.

    2010-01-01

    Portable life support systems in future space suits will include a ventilation subsystem driven by a dedicated fan. This ventilation fan must meet challenging requirements for pressure rise, flow rate, efficiency, size, safety, and reliability. This paper describes research and development that showed the feasibility of a regenerative blower that is uniquely suited to meet these requirements. We proved feasibility through component tests, blower tests, and design analysis. Based on the requirements for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) ventilation fan, we designed the critical elements of the blower. We measured the effects of key design parameters on blower performance using separate effects tests, and used the results of these tests to design a regenerative blower that will meet the ventilation fan requirements. We assembled a proof-of-concept blower and measured its performance at sub-atmospheric pressures that simulate a PLSS ventilation loop environment. Head/flow performance and maximum efficiency point data were used to specify the design and operating conditions for the ventilation fan. We identified materials for the blower that will enhance safety for operation in a lunar environment, and produced a solid model that illustrates the final design. The proof-of-concept blower produced the flow rate and pressure rise needed for the CSSE ventilation subsystem while running at 5400 rpm, consuming only 9 W of electric power using a non-optimized, commercial motor and controller and inefficient bearings. Scaling the test results to a complete design shows that a lightweight, compact, reliable, and low power regenerative blower can meet the performance requirements for future space suit life support systems.

  15. 模拟自然风风机控制系统设计%Design of Centrifugal Fan Control System for Natural Wind Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨义强; 付晶; 宋仲康; 汤馥源; 陈怡

    2016-01-01

    为了检验旋翼无人机巡检系统抗风能力,搭建抗风试验场模拟自然风. 重点阐述了敞开式风场环境中风机与风管控制机构参数计算过程、模拟自然风方法及风速控制算法. 仿真验证了风速控制算法的合理性,并简述了嵌入式控制器作为试验场控制装置的优点及其设计方法. 通过该设计实现了检验旋翼无人机巡检系统抗风能力高低的目的.%In order to examine the wind resistance ability of the rotorcraft Uav inspection system, the wind resistance test e-quipment was designed to simulate the natural wind.This article introduces the centrifugal fan system and the construction of duct and its control device, then the methods to simulate the natural wind and the wind-speed control arithmetics were studied.In the following part, it described the rationality of control arithmetics depend on the simulation results.Finally, the reason to choose the embedded controller and its design were illustrated.All the above combined to the wind resistance test equipment.

  16. Detection system of subway tunnel exhaust fan displacement%地铁隧道通风排烟风机排气量监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张述杰; 王进丹

    2011-01-01

    研究了超声波测量地铁隧道通风排烟风机排气量的测量方法。系统结构分为两部分:发射端与接收端,发射端采用一只超声波传感器发射连续的超声波信号,接收端采用两只超声波接收器接收信号。该系统以LPC2131为核心处理器.结合改进的哥拉布斯准则对采集到的信号进行数字滤波处理、以提高测量精度。%In this paper, Research on ultrasonic measurement of subway tunnel ventilation exhaust fan exhaust measurement method. The system structure is divided into two part: transmitter and receiver. Transmittter uses an ultrasonic sensor transmitter transmitting a continuous ultrasonic signal and receiver uses two ultrasonic receiver receive signals. The system use LPC2131 as the core processor,with the improved Grubbs processing the collected signal by filter,to improve the measurement accuracy.

  17. Quantitative analysis of the geometry of submarine channels: Implications for the classification of submarine fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. D.; Kenyon, N. H.; Pickering, K. T.

    1992-07-01

    Certain attributes of submarine channels measured from GLORIA sidescan sonar data from 16 different submarine fans indicate similarities with fluviatile systems. Channel width, depth, meander radius and wavelength, sinuosity, and gradient were measured. This approach makes it possible to identify high- sinuosity, low-gradient (e.g., Indus Fan channels) and low-sinuosity, high- gradient (e.g., Porcupine Seabight channels) channel systems as end members. Current classifications of submarine fans relate fan shape to grain size or sediment caliber and therefore are inadequate, principally because the shape of the fan is strongly controlled by the shape of the receiving basin, which in turn is dependent upon parameters such as tectonics and diapirism. Overall fan shape is almost invariably independent of the physics of sediment transport. Rather than fan shape, the geometry and other characteristics of submarine channels and canyons provide a more promising means of differentiating deep- marine turbidite systems.

  18. Skífan

    OpenAIRE

    Elín Ólafsdóttir

    2011-01-01

    Skífan er eina fyrirtækið hér á landi sem sérhæfir sig í sölu á tónlist, mynddiskum, tölvuleikjum og leikjatölvum. Sú atvinnugrein sem Skífan tilheyrir hefur fengið að finna töluvert fyrir þróun internetsins þar sem mögulegt er að hlaða þessu efni niður hvort sem er með löglegum eða ólöglegum hætti. Markmið verkefnisins var að skoða hver áhrif sviðsmynda væru á rekstrarlíkan Skífunnar. Höfundur fór í gegnum atvinnuvega- og samkeppnisgreiningu með aðstoð eiganda og rekstrarstjóra Skífunnar...

  19. Analysis on Combined Ventilation System Containing Both Jet Fan and Air Duct Used for Railway Tunnel%铁路隧道射流与洞口风道组合式通风效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾艳华; 周小涵; 袁建刚

    2013-01-01

    Consisting of both jet fan and portal air duct,the combined ventilation system is a critical scientific subject which is focused on all the time by both academic circle and engineering circle.In an internal combustion traction tunnel of more than 5 km long,it is impossible to achieve ideal designed ventilation efficiency only by using jet fans,because the jet fans cannot effectively stop the outflow of the air current from tunnel portal.For this reason,through establishing three-dimensional mechanical model by using FLUENT software of CFD series,this paper researched the influences of critical factors,including the connection ways of jet fans installed at the portal cross-section,the wind velocity of air supply outlet of axial flow fan,and the number of jet fans.The research shows that,after setting up a transition section at the place where the jet fans are,the air current blown from the jet fans can enter into the tunnel smoothly,that is to say,the fresh air can be effectively led into tunnel from the portal.On condition of the same air supply volume,the wind resistance will change with the change of wind velocity at the air supply outlet,which has effect on the fresh air importing from the portal,so the wind velocity should be appropriately weakened at the air supply outlet during design.On condition of the same jet fans,the situation of air current within tunnel portal is different when air supply volume from axial-flow air duct is different; and when the air supply volume rises up to a certain extent,the air current will outflow from the tunnel portal,so the number of jet fans at the portal should be adjusted according to the air supply volume of air duct during design.%射流风机与洞口风道组合通风效果一直是学术界和工程界关注的关键科学问题,在长度超过5km的内燃牵引隧道中,射流风机并未有效阻止风流从洞口隧道内流出,未达到设计通风效果.采用CFD计算软件FLUENT建立三维非线性力学模

  20. Fan Cart: The Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamore, Brian

    2016-01-01

    For years the fan cart has provided physics students with an excellent resource for exploring fundamental mechanics concepts such as acceleration, Newton's laws, impulse, momentum, work-energy, and energy conversions. "The Physics Teacher" has even seen some excellent do-it-yourself (DIY) fan carts and activities. If you are interested…

  1. PLSS 2.5 Fan Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Carra, Michael; Converse, David; Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    NASA is building a high fidelity prototype of an advanced portable life support system (PLSS) as part of the Advanced Exploration Systems Program. This new PLSS, designated as PLSS 2.5, will advance component technologies and systems knowledge in order to inform a future flight program. The oxygen ventilation loop of its predecessor, PLSS 2.0, is driven by a centrifugal fan developed using specifications from the Constellation Program. PLSS technology and system parameters have matured to the point where the existing fan will not perform adequately for the new prototype. In addition, areas of potential improvement have been identified with the existing fan that could be addressed in a new design. As a result, a new fan was designed and tested for the PLSS 2.5.

  2. Understanding Himalayan erosion and the significance of the Nicobar Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Lisa C.; Dugan, Brandon; Backman, Jan; Pickering, Kevin T.; Pouderoux, Hugo F. A.; Henstock, Timothy J.; Petronotis, Katerina E.; Carter, Andrew; Chemale, Farid; Milliken, Kitty L.; Kutterolf, Steffen; Mukoyoshi, Hideki; Chen, Wenhuang; Kachovich, Sarah; Mitchison, Freya L.; Bourlange, Sylvain; Colson, Tobias A.; Frederik, Marina C. G.; Guèrin, Gilles; Hamahashi, Mari; House, Brian M.; Hüpers, Andre; Jeppson, Tamara N.; Kenigsberg, Abby R.; Kuranaga, Mebae; Nair, Nisha; Owari, Satoko; Shan, Yehua; Song, Insun; Torres, Marta E.; Vannucchi, Paola; Vrolijk, Peter J.; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Xixi; Thomas, Ellen

    2017-10-01

    A holistic view of the Bengal-Nicobar Fan system requires sampling the full sedimentary section of the Nicobar Fan, which was achieved for the first time by International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 362 west of North Sumatra. We identified a distinct rise in sediment accumulation rate (SAR) beginning ∼9.5 Ma and reaching 250-350 m/Myr in the 9.5-2 Ma interval, which equal or far exceed rates on the Bengal Fan at similar latitudes. This marked rise in SAR and a constant Himalayan-derived provenance necessitates a major restructuring of sediment routing in the Bengal-Nicobar submarine fan. This coincides with the inversion of the Eastern Himalayan Shillong Plateau and encroachment of the west-propagating Indo-Burmese wedge, which reduced continental accommodation space and increased sediment supply directly to the fan. Our results challenge a commonly held view that changes in sediment flux seen in the Bengal-Nicobar submarine fan were caused by discrete tectonic or climatic events acting on the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau. Instead, an interplay of tectonic and climatic processes caused the fan system to develop by punctuated changes rather than gradual progradation.

  3. Optimisation of Fan Blade Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroop M P

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report represents the optimization of fan blade angle in accordance with the various room temperatures that can be in the tropical area like India. We took this work mainly because cooling is an important factor now a days in every area where construction and rooms are there and ceiling fans are the most common device that is commonly used. So it is of utmost importance to tweak the performance of this ceiling fan so that it can function in its most optimal condition. We have modeled the fan in a modeling software (SOLIDWORKS and imported that into an analyzing software (ANSYS and a result is generated on the various blade angles (0, 4, 8 and 12.5 degrees in accordance to room conditions. A trend line curve with the obtained data is expected as the result which can be crucial for designing of future fans

  4. Use of booster fans in underground coal mining to advantage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Habibi A; Gillies A D S

    2011-01-01

    A booster fan is an underground main fan which is installed in series with a main surface fan and used to boost the air pressure of the ventilation to overcome mine resistance.Currently booster fans are used in several major coal mining countries including the United Kingdom,Australia,Poland and China.In the United States booster fans are prohibited in coal mines although they are used in several metal and non-metal mines.A study has been undertaken to examine alternatives for ventilating an underground room and pillar coal mine system.A feasibility study of a hypothetical situation has shown that current ventilation facilities are incapable of fulfilling mine air requirements in the future due to increased seam methane levels.A current ventilation network model has been prepared and projected to a mine five years plan.“Ventsim visual” software simulations of different possible ventilation options have been conducted in which varying methane levels are found at working faces.The software can also undertake financial simulations and project present value total costs for the options under study.Several scenarios for improving the ventilation situation such as improving main surface fans,adding intake shafts,adding exhaust shafts and utilizing booster fans have been examined.After taking into account the total capital and operating costs for the five years mine plan the booster fan scenarios are recommended as being the best alternatives for further serious consideration by the mine.The optimum option is a properly sized and installed booster fan system that can be used to create safe work conditions,maintain adequate air quantity with lowest cost,generate a reduction in energy consumption and decrease mine system air leakage.

  5. 纵置双涵道式飞行器悬停控制系统设计%Design of Control System for Hover of Longitudinal Double Ducted-Fan Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明喜; 项昌乐; 徐彬; 苑卫松; 智晋宁

    2011-01-01

    The design problem of the ducted fan propeller wilh compact structure, high safely, low noise is dealt with, which can provide more power than common propeller. The thrust ducted fan VTOL aircraft has good prospects for development. To the problem that, the ducted fan system dynamics, are multi-variables, and strongly coupled nonlinearity, the control system decoupled design process is presented the Longitudinal double ducted-fan aircraft flight control system characteristics are analyzed to establish the basic control system model, by using the model tracking adaptive decoupling the design control principle. The testing result shows the effectiveness in reducing the coupling between axes and the stability of the hover system.%涵道风扇较同样直径的螺旋桨能产生更大的升力,且结构紧凑、安全性高、噪音低.以此为推力装置的可垂直起降飞行器具有良好发展前景.但其系统动力学特性是属于多变量、强耦合的非线性系统,在控制系统的设计中必须进行良好的解耦设计纵置双涵道式飞行器的飞行控制系统的控制特征进行了分析,建立基本的控制系统动力学模型,利用模型跟踪解耦自适应控制系统原理进行飞行控制系统设计,并在多域机动平台上完成了验证试验,结果证明该方法有效地减小了轴间耦合,飞行器悬停状态基本稳定.

  6. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques. Methods: A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0–255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets. Results: Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage

  7. Role of GluK1 kainate receptors in seizures, epileptic discharges, and epileptogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Brita; Reis, Janine; Gasior, Maciej; Kaminski, Rafal M; Rogawski, Michael A

    2014-04-23

    Kainate receptors containing the GluK1 subunit have an impact on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in brain regions, such as the amygdala and hippocampus, which are relevant to seizures and epilepsy. Here we used 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (ATPA), a potent and selective agonist of kainate receptors that include the GluK1 subunit, in conjunction with mice deficient in GluK1 and GluK2 kainate receptor subunits to assess the role of GluK1 kainate receptors in provoking seizures and in kindling epileptogenesis. We found that systemic ATPA, acting specifically via GluK1 kainate receptors, causes locomotor arrest and forelimb extension (a unique behavioral characteristic of GluK1 activation) and induces myoclonic behavioral seizures and electrographic seizure discharges in the BLA and hippocampus. In contrast, the proconvulsant activity of systemic AMPA, kainate, and pentylenetetrazol is not mediated by GluK1 kainate receptors, and deletion of these receptors does not elevate the threshold for seizures in the 6 Hz model. ATPA also specifically activates epileptiform discharges in BLA slices in vitro via GluK1 kainate receptors. Olfactory bulb kindling developed similarly in wild-type, GluK1, and GluK2 knock-out mice, demonstrating that GluK1 kainate receptors are not required for epileptogenesis or seizure expression in this model. We conclude that selective activation of kainate receptors containing the GluK1 subunit can trigger seizures, but these receptors are not necessary for seizure generation in models commonly used to identify therapeutic agents for the treatment of epilepsy.

  8. Experimental determination of tunnel ventilation axial ducted fan performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šekularac Milan B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate traffic tunnel ventilation flows, a scaled model of a traffic tunnel with longitudinal ventilation system based on ducted fans is used. Flows in tunnels are influenced by tunnel geometry, fan characteristics, ventilation operation scenario, vehicle traffic, atmospheric factors, etc. To analyze flow fields of tunnels in detail, knowledge of tunnel jet-fan properties and turbulent flow characteristics at the fan exit are required, and can be used as input data for CFD boundary conditions of tunnel flow computation. For this purpose experimental measurements were done using the hot wire anemometry technique. The obtained results, trough ensemble-averaged and time averaged profiles of all velocity components, turbulence intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, integral flow length scales, available Reynolds stresses, Turbulent kinetic energy production rates and the fan thrust performance, are presented. These data allow us to analyze in more detail the influence of fan flow on energy and pollutant removal efficiencies of the tunnel ventilation and to evaluate accuracy of CFD studies on fan improvements.

  9. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  10. A history of RPGs: Made by fans; played by fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mason

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available I explore some aspects of the early history of tabletop role-playing games (RPGs that are perhaps not well known among media scholars, and which offer an alternative take on the idea of fan activity.

  11. 14 CFR 29.908 - Cooling fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling fans. 29.908 Section 29.908... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant General § 29.908 Cooling fans. For cooling fans that are a part of a powerplant installation the following apply: (a) Category A. For cooling fans...

  12. River terraces and alluvial fans: The case for an integrated Quaternary fluvial archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, A. E.; Stokes, M.; Whitfield, E.

    2017-06-01

    The fluvial archive literature is dominated by research on river terraces with appropriate mention of adjacent environments such as lakes. Despite modern sedimentary basins comprising a significant (>88%) volume of distributive fluvial systems, of which alluvial fans (>1 km, archive community. Published literature is used to examine both thematic and geographical based benefits of alluvial fan research that can assist understanding of Quaternary fluvial archives. 3 regional case studies are presented that illustrate the interaction between alluvial fan and river terrace archives at Quaternary time-scales at 3 different stages of landscape evolution. These are i) continuous mountain front alluvial fans interacting with a non incising but laterally eroding axial fluvial system; ii) alluvial fans which transition into fluvial terraces as sedimentary basins shift from net aggradation to net incision and iii) tributary-junction alluvial fans that develop predominantly within incising river valley systems. A simple conceptual model is proposed to summarise the dynamic role of alluvial fans within this landscape context. The alluvial fans act as potential 'buffers' between hillslopes and river terrace records under 'top down' climate-driven high sediment supply and alluvial fan aggradation, and 'couplers' during periods of less sediment (in relation to water) discharge and alluvial fan incision. These dynamics will change with the addition of 'bottom up' controls such as main river incision, which will typically enhance the coupling effect of both systems.

  13. Final Project Report: Self-Correcting Controls for VAV System Faults Filter/Fan/Coil and VAV Box Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, Michael R.; Fernandez, Nicholas; Wang, Weimin; Cort, Katherine A.; Cho, Heejin; Ngo, Hung; Goddard, James K.

    2011-05-01

    This report addresses original research by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the California Institute for Energy and Environment on self-correcting controls for variable-air-volume (VAV) heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems and focuses specifically on air handling and VAV box components of the air side of the system. A complete set of faults for these components was compiled and a fault mode analysis performed to understand the detectable symptoms of the faults and the chain of causation. A set of 26 algorithms was developed to facilitate the automatic correction of these faults in typical commercial VAV systems. These algorithms include training tests that are used during commissioning to develop models of normal system operation, passive diagnostics used to detect the symptoms of faults, proactive diagnostics used to diagnose the cause of a fault, and finally fault correction algorithms. Ten of the twenty six algorithms were implemented in a prototype software package that interfaces with a test bed facility at PNNL's Richland, WA, laboratory. Measurement bias faults were instigated in the supply-air temperature sensor and the supply-air flow meter to test the algorithms developed. The algorithms as implemented in the laboratory software correctly detected, diagnosed and corrected these faults. Finally, an economic and impact assessment was performed for the State of California for deployment of self-correcting controls. Assuming 15% HVAC energy savings and a modeled deployment profile, 3.1-5.8 TBu of energy savings are possible by year 15.

  14. Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in cosplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Lamerichs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Academic accounts of fan cultures usually focus on creative practices such as fan fiction, fan videos, and fan art. Through these practices, fans, as an active audience, closely interpret existing texts and rework them with texts of their own. A practice scarcely examined is cosplay ("costume play", in which fans produce their own costumes inspired by fictional characters. Cosplay is a form of appropriation that transforms and actualizes an existing story in close connection to the fan community and the fan's own identity. I provide analytical insights into this fan practice, focusing on how it influences the subject. Cosplay is understood as a performative activity and analyzed through Judith Butler's concept of performativity. I specifically focus on boundaries between the body and dress, and on those between reality and fiction. I aim to show that cosplay emphasizes the personal enactment of a narrative, thereby offering new perspectives on fan identity.

  15. Football – Feminisation – Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet...... sociological theories. The objective is, first, to develop new knowledge and understanding about the impact of football on gendered identity construction and negotiation – in both the performance and the consumption of football – and how these female fans contribute to a European dialogue, the gender......-specific experience and acting out of fandom, and the intersection between gender and national/European identity. The second objective is to study the role of gender in football and fan cultures with regard to gender-specific patterns of cross-cultural communication and identification. The third objective...

  16. Design and Research of Intelligent Remote Control Fan Based on Single Chip Microcomputer and Bluetooth Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xue-Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is designed for intelligent remote control fans. The design of the microcontroller as the core, the sensor, Bluetooth and Andrews system applied to the design of intelligent remote control fan. According to the temperature sensor to achieve the indoor temperature collection, to achieve and set the temperature comparison, thus affecting the fan speed. At the same time, the system according to the infrared sensor components to detect external factors, in order to achieve the running or stopping of the fan, that is, to achieve intelligent control of the fan. In addition, the system achieve the Bluetooth and mobile phone Andrews system of effective combination, and through the software program to complete the fan remote operation and wind speed control.

  17. The GLIMPCE seismic experiment: Onshore refraction and wide-angle reflection observations from a fan line over the Lake Superior Midcontinent Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epili, Duryodhan; Mereu, Robert F.

    The 1986 GLIMPCE experiment (Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program for Crustal Evolution) was a combined on-ship seismic reflection and onshore seismic refraction experiment designed to determine the structure of the crust beneath the Great Lakes. The main tectonic targets of interest were the Midcontinent Rift System, the Grenville Front, the Penokean and Huronian Fold Belts and the Michipicoten Greenstone Belt. The source of the seismic energy came from a large air gun array fired at closely spaced intervals (50-350 m) over several long lines (150-350 km) crossing the lakes. Major participants of this experiment were the Geological Survey of Canada, the United States Geological Survey and a number of universities and research institutes on both sides of the border. The University of Western Ontario (UWO) collected data at five separate land stations using portable seismic refraction instruments. In this paper we present the results of a fan profile which was recorded from a UWO station on Michipicoten Island for the N-S line A which crossed the axis of the Lake Superior Synclinal Basin. The azimuth and distance ranges for this profile were 237 to 321 degrees and 120 to 170 km respectively. Detailed observations of the record sections show that p. is not a simple arrival but forms a rather complex pattern of irregular multiple arrivals. The wide-angle PmP reflection signals from the Moho are strong and well obilerved only for the shots fired near the ends of the line. The signals from the middle of the profile arrive relatively late and form very weak complex wave trains. These results indicate that the Moho in that area is probably greatly disrupted and gives added support to the rift theory for the structure under the lake. The observations also support the results of earlier crustal studies of Lake Superior which showed that the crust under the eastern part of the lake was exceedingly thick.

  18. Characterization of Composite Fan Case Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.

    2004-01-01

    . The ARES Instrument analyzed the material through torsion. The second machine, TA Instruments apparatus, applied a bending force to the specimen. These experiments were used to explore the effects of temperature and strain rate on the stiffness and strength of the resins. The two different types of loading allowed us to verify our results. An axial-torsional load frame, manufactured by MTS Systems, Inc., was used to conduct the tensile, compression, and torsional testing. These tests were used to determine the stress-strain curves for the resins. The elastic and plastic deformation data was provided to another team member for characterization of high fidelity material property predictions. This information was useful in having a better understanding of the polymers so that the fan cases could be as sturdy as possible. Deformation studies are the foundation for the computational modeling that provides the structural design of a composite engine case as well as detailed analysis of the blade impact event.

  19. 三维光学扫描系统在风扇逆向工程中的应用研究%Application of Three-dimensional Optics Scanning System in Fan Reverse Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文建; 赵振红; 董良太

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous development of science and technology , the application of reverse engineering is more and more widely used . In this paper , based on a fan of computer radiator as an example , introduces the application of the 3D CaMega three-dimensional scanning system in fan reverse engineering. Using a scanner to scan the fan , this paper introduces the CPC control program of the scanner , the measurement data and pre-operation , and analyzes the errors of three-dimensional scanner .%随着科学技术的不断发展,逆向工程的应用越来越广泛。本文以电脑散热器风扇为例,主要介绍了3D CaMega 光学三维扫描系统在风扇的反求设计中的应用,利用扫描仪对风扇进行扫描,简要介绍了扫描仪的CPC控制系统,数据的测量和预处理等操作。并对三维扫描仪产生的误差进行了分析总结。

  20. Comparison of fan- and cone-beam imaging capabilities on a portable x-ray imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Timothy A.; Roney, Tim J.; Pink, Robert J.; Noo, Frederic; Clackdoyle, Rolf; Smith, Mike; Jones, Warren F.

    1999-09-01

    Portable systems for x-ray imaging of objects up to 20-cm in diameter have been developed for field inspection of industrial objects. These systems can be configured with either a linear diode array (45-cm long, 1024-elements, 12- bits/element) or a large-area amorphous-silicon (a-Si) detector (30 X 40-cm2, 2304 X 3200-elements, 12- bits/element). Each detector utilizes gadolinium oxysulfide as the scintillation element. X-rays are emitted from an 80 to 300-kVp constant-potential source with a spot size of approximately 1.6-mm. The object can be rotated and the source and detector translated vertically for collection of 'spiral' fanbeam or 'helical' conebeam computed-tomography (CT) data. For low-density objects, the reconstructed spatial resolution of CT data collected with either detector is about the same and the choice of detector is determined by detector parameters such as dynamic range and integration/readout time. For higher-density objects, which need to be imaged at higher energies and for which there is a higher probability of Compton scatter, the linear diode array produces better contrast images of small voids in a scattering medium. A series of experiments designed to test the performance of each detector with and without a scattering medium will be presented.

  1. Rapid delineation of alluvial fans using IfSAR-derived DEM for selected provinces in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Iris Jill; Aquino, Dakila; Norini, Gianluca; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Lagmay, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    Alluvial fans are fan-shaped geomorphic features formed when sediments from a watershed are transported and deposited downstream via tributaries flowing out from the sudden break of a slope. Hazards usually associated with alluvial fans are flooding and debris flows. In this study, we used an Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar-derived digital elevation model of Pangasinan and Nueva Ecija Provinces in the Philippines to identify and delineate alluvial fans. Primary parameters considered include the geomorphic characteristics of the catchment area, stream network and slopes ranging from 0.11 to 8 degrees. Using this method, 12 alluvial fans were identified in Pangasinan and 16 in Nueva Ecija with areas ranging from 0.35 to 80 sq. km. The largest fan identified is the Mangatarem-Aguilar fan in Pangaisnan with a total area of 80.87 sq km while the Gabaldon fan in Nueva Ecija with total area of 48.11 sq km. We observed from the results that some alluvial fans have multiple feeder streams, and others have overlapping lateral extents with adjacent fans. These overlapping fans are called bajadas. In addition, the general location of fans and their apices in the two provinces appear to coincide with segments of the Philippines Fault System. There are about people 1.4 million living within these alluvial fans. Mapping and characterizing and identifying their associated hazards is crucial in the disaster preparedness efforts of the exposed population.

  2. Development of high-performance and low-noise axial-flow fan units in their local operating region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Seung; Ha, Min Ho; Cheong, Cheol Ung [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hoon [LG Electronics Inc., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of an axial-flow fan unit are improved by modifying its housing structure without changing the fan blade. The target axial-flow fan system is used to lower temperature of a compressor and a condenser in the machine room of a household refrigerator which has relatively high system resistance due to complex layout of structures inside it. First, the performance of the fan system is experimentally characterized by measuring its volume flow rate versus static pressure using a fan performance tester satisfying the AMCA (Air Movement and Control Association) regulation, AMCA 210-07. The detailed structure of flow driven by the fan is numerically investigated using a virtual fan performance tester based on computational fluid dynamics techniques. The prediction result reveals possible loss due to radial and tangential velocity components in the wake flow downstream of the fan. The length of the fan housing is chosen as a design parameter for improving the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic performances of the fan unit by reducing the identified radial and tangential velocity components. Three fan units with different housing lengths longer than the original are analyzed using the virtual fan performance tester. The results confirm the improved aerodynamic performance of the proposed three designs. The flow field driven by the proposed fan unit is closely examined to find the causes for the observed performance improvements, which ensures that the radial and tangential velocity components in the wake flow are reduced. Finally, the improved performance of the proposed fan systems is validated by comparing the P-Q and efficiency curves measured using the fan performance tester. The noise emission from the household refrigerator is also found to be lessened when the new fan units are installed.

  3. The Conceptual Design of High Pressure Reversible Axial Tunnel Ventilation Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Sheard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel ventilation fans, classically, must have the ability to both supply and extract air from a tunnel system, with the operator's choice dependent on the tunnel ventilation system's operating mode most appropriate at any given point in time. Consequently, tunnel ventilation fans must incorporate a reversible aerodynamic design which limits the maximum fan pressure rise. This paper presents three high pressure reversible fan concepts. These comprise a two-stage counter rotating fan, a single-stage high speed fan, and a two-stage fan with a single motor and impeller on each end of the motor shaft. The authors consider the relative merits of each concept. The third concept offers the most compact fan, transform, silencer, and damper package size. The authors discuss the mechanical design challenges that occur with a two-stage fan with a single motor and impeller on each end of the motor shaft. They present and consider a selected motor bearing arrangement and casing design for maintainability. Finally, the authors present both prototype fan and full-scale package aerodynamic and acoustic performance, before discussing the challenges presented by high temperature certification in accordance with the requirements of EN 12101-3: 2012.

  4. Damage-Tolerant Fan Casings for Jet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    All turbofan engines work on the same principle. A large fan at the front of the engine draws air in. A portion of the air enters the compressor, but a greater portion passes on the outside of the engine this is called bypass air. The air that enters the compressor then passes through several stages of rotating fan blades that compress the air more, and then it passes into the combustor. In the combustor, fuel is injected into the airstream, and the fuel-air mixture is ignited. The hot gasses produced expand rapidly to the rear, and the engine reacts by moving forward. If there is a flaw in the system, such as an unexpected obstruction, the fan blade can break, spin off, and harm other engine components. Fan casings, therefore, need to be strong enough to contain errant blades and damage-tolerant to withstand the punishment of a loose blade-turned-projectile. NASA has spearheaded research into improving jet engine fan casings, ultimately discovering a cost-effective approach to manufacturing damage-tolerant fan cases that also boast significant weight reduction. In an aircraft, weight reduction translates directly into fuel burn savings, increased payload, and greater aircraft range. This technology increases safety and structural integrity; is an attractive, viable option for engine manufacturers, because of the low-cost manufacturing; and it is a practical alternative for customers, as it has the added cost saving benefits of the weight reduction.

  5. Radiated noise of ducted fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, Walter

    The differences in the radiated acoustic fields of ducted and unducted propellers of the same thrust operating under similar conditions are investigated. An FEM model is created for the generation, propagation, and radiation of steady, rotor alone noise and exit guide vane interaction noise of a ducted fan. For a specified number of blades, angular mode harmonic, and rotor angular velocity, the acoustic field is described in a cylindrical coordinate system reduced to only the axial and radial directions. It is found that, contrary to the usual understanding of the Tyler and Sofrin (1962) result, supersonic tip speed rotor noise can be cut off if the tip Mach number is only slightly in excess of unity and if the number of blades is relatively small. If there are many blades, the fundamental angular mode number is large, and the Tyler and Sofrin result for thin annuli becomes more relevant. Shrouding of subsonic tip speed propellers is a very effective means of controlling rotor alone noise.

  6. Health assessment of cooling fan bearings using wavelet-based filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qiang; Tang, Chao; Liang, Wei; Pecht, Michael

    2012-12-24

    As commonly used forced convection air cooling devices in electronics, cooling fans are crucial for guaranteeing the reliability of electronic systems. In a cooling fan assembly, fan bearing failure is a major failure mode that causes excessive vibration, noise, reduction in rotation speed, locked rotor, failure to start, and other problems; therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the health assessment of cooling fan bearings. This paper presents a vibration-based fan bearing health evaluation method using comblet filtering and exponentially weighted moving average. A new health condition indicator (HCI) for fan bearing degradation assessment is proposed. In order to collect the vibration data for validation of the proposed method, a cooling fan accelerated life test was conducted to simulate the lubricant starvation of fan bearings. A comparison between the proposed method and methods in previous studies (i.e., root mean square, kurtosis, and fault growth parameter) was carried out to assess the performance of the HCI. The analysis results suggest that the HCI can identify incipient fan bearing failures and describe the bearing degradation process. Overall, the work presented in this paper provides a promising method for fan bearing health evaluation and prognosis.

  7. Health Assessment of Cooling Fan Bearings Using Wavelet-Based Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Miao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As commonly used forced convection air cooling devices in electronics, cooling fans are crucial for guaranteeing the reliability of electronic systems. In a cooling fan assembly, fan bearing failure is a major failure mode that causes excessive vibration, noise, reduction in rotation speed, locked rotor, failure to start, and other problems; therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the health assessment of cooling fan bearings. This paper presents a vibration-based fan bearing health evaluation method using comblet filtering and exponentially weighted moving average. A new health condition indicator (HCI for fan bearing degradation assessment is proposed. In order to collect the vibration data for validation of the proposed method, a cooling fan accelerated life test was conducted to simulate the lubricant starvation of fan bearings. A comparison between the proposed method and methods in previous studies (i.e., root mean square, kurtosis, and fault growth parameter was carried out to assess the performance of the HCI. The analysis results suggest that the HCI can identify incipient fan bearing failures and describe the bearing degradation process. Overall, the work presented in this paper provides a promising method for fan bearing health evaluation and prognosis.

  8. 猜想M(2k,k+1)=3k-1+[(k-1)/2]的反例%Counter-Examples to the Conjecture M(2k, k + 1) = 3k - 1 + 「(k-1)/2」

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游林; 王天明

    2002-01-01

    Brualdi 与Jung在[1]中研究了一类具有固定线和k的n×n矩阵上的最大跳跃数M(n,k),M(2k,k+1)=3k-1+[k-1/2]并提出猜想本文给出了这一猜想的两个反例.%The maximum jump number M(n, k) over a class of n × n matrices of zeros and ones with constant row and colunn sum k has been investigated by Brualdi and Jung in [1] where they proposed the conjecture M(2k, k + 1) = 3k - 1 + [k-1/2].In this note, we give two counter-exalnples to this conjecture.

  9. 一次除尘风机稀油润滑系统的改进%Improvement of Oil Lubrication System for Primary De-dust Fans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓志宏; 彭绍南; 漆良明

    2011-01-01

    通过更换供油泵和增加一个低位油箱,解决了在低转速下风机轴瓦和耦合器轴承的润滑问题,也杜绝了风机轴瓦漏油现象,确保了风机的正常运行。通过更换大容积高位事故油箱,为事故和故障的处理创造了条件,有效的防止了恶性事故的发生。%The feed oil pump is changed and a lower oil tank is installed to meet the needs of the lubrication of fan bearing bush and coupler bearing at the lower speed and eliminate the oil leakage of fan bearing bush and ensure the.fans in a normal operation. The overhead emergency oil tank is replaced with a new one with a larger volume, better for accident and/or fault treatment and effective prevention of serious accidents.

  10. Experimental Investigation on Design Enhancement of Axial Fan Using Fixed Guide Vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munisamy, K. M.; Govindasamy, R.; Thangaraju, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    Airflow passes through the rotating blade in an axial flow fan will experience a helical flow pattern. This swirling effect leads the system to experience swirl energy losses or pressure drop yet reducing the total efficiency of the fan system. A robust tool to encounter this air spin past the blade is by introducing guide vane to the system. Owing to its importance, a new approach in designing outlet guide vane design for a commercial usage 1250mm diameter axial fan with a 30° pitch angle impeller has been introduced in this paper. A single line metal of proper curvature guide vane design technique has been adopted for this study. By choosing fan total efficiency as a target variable to be improved, the total and static pressure on the design point were set to be constraints. Therefore, the guide vane design was done based on the improvement target on the static pressure in system. The research shows that, with the improvement in static pressure by 29.63% through guide vane installation, the total fan efficiency is increased by 5.12%, thus reduces the fan power by 5.32%. Good agreement were found, that when the fan total efficiency increases, the power consumption of the fan is reduced. Therefore, this new approach of guide vane design can be applied to improve axial fan performance.

  11. Bifurcation analysis of fan casing under rotating air flow excitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温登哲; 陈予恕

    2014-01-01

    A fan casing model of cantilever circular thin shell is constructed based on the geometric characteristics of the thin-walled structure of aero-engine fan casing. According to Donnelly’s shell theory and Hamilton’s principle, the dynamic equations are established. The dynamic behaviors are investigated by a multiple-scale method. The effects of casing geometric parameters and motion parameters on the natural frequency of the system are studied. The transition sets and bifurcation diagrams of the system are obtained through a singularity analysis of the bifurcation equation, showing that various modes of the system such as the bifurcation and hysteresis will appear in different parameter regions. In accordance with the multiple relationship of the fan speed and stator vibration frequency, the fan speed interval with the casing vibration sudden jump is calculated. The dynamic reasons of casing cracks are investigated. The possibility of casing cracking hysteresis interval is analyzed. The results show that cracking is more likely to appear in the hysteresis interval. The research of this paper provides a theoretical basis for fan casing design and system parameter optimization.

  12. P4k-1-factorization of complete bipartite graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU; Beiliang; WANG; Jian

    2005-01-01

    Let Km,n be a complete bipartite graph with two partite sets having m and n vertices, respectively. A Pv-factorization of Km,n is a set of edge-disjoint Pv-factors of Km,n which partition the set of edges of Km,n. When v is an even number,Wang and Ushio gave a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of Pv-factorization of Km,n. When v is an odd number, Ushio in 1993 proposed a conjecture. However, up to now we only know that Ushio Conjecture is true for v=3. In this paper wewill show that Ushio Conjecture is true when v=4k-1. That is, we shall prove that a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a P4k-1-factorization of Km,n is (1) (2k-1)m≤2kn, (2) (2k-1)n ≤2km, (3) m+n ≡0 (mod 4k-1), (4) (4k-1)mn/[2(2k-1)(m+n)] is an integer.integer.

  13. The K-1 Active Dispenser for Orbit Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, G.; Cochran, D.; Curtis, R.

    2002-01-01

    Kistler Aerospace Corporation is building the K-1, the world's first fully reusable launch vehicle. The two-stage K- 1 is designed primarily to service the market for low-earth orbit (LEO) missions, due to Kistler's need to recover both stages. For customers requiring payload delivery to high-energy orbits, Kistler can outfit the payload with a K- 1 Active Dispenser (an expendable third stage). The K-1 second stage will deploy the Active Dispenser mated with its payload into a 200 km circular LEO parking orbit. From this orbit, the Active Dispenser would use its own propulsion to place its payload into the final desired drop-off orbit or earth-escape trajectory. This approach allows Kistler to combine the low-cost launch services offered by the reusable two-stage K-1 with the versatility of a restartable, expendable upper stage. Enhanced with an Active Dispenser, the K-1 will be capable of delivering 1,500 kg to a geosynchronous transfer orbit or up to approximately 1,000 kg into a Mars rendezvous trajectory. The list price of a K-1 Active Dispenser launch is 25 million (plus the price of mission unique integration services) significantly less than the price of any launch vehicle service in the world with comparable capability.

  14. Autogenic dynamics of alluvial fans in endorheic basins: Outcrop examples and stratigraphic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventra, D.; Nichols, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Alluvial fans are relatively simple depositional systems, due to the direct coupling of sediment sources and adjacent accumulation areas. Nonetheless, general models of alluvial-fan evolution and stratigraphy remain elusive, due to the great sensitivity of such systems to allogenic controls and

  15. Autogenic dynamics of alluvial fans in endorheic basins: Outcrop examples and stratigraphic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventra, D.; Nichols, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Alluvial fans are relatively simple depositional systems, due to the direct coupling of sediment sources and adjacent accumulation areas. Nonetheless, general models of alluvial-fan evolution and stratigraphy remain elusive, due to the great sensitivity of such systems to allogenic controls and thei

  16. On Some Generalized Ky Fan Minimax Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Xianqiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some generalized Ky Fan minimax inequalities for vector-valued mappings are established by applying the classical Browder fixed point theorem and the Kakutani-Fan-Glicksberg fixed point theorem.

  17. Quantitative reconstruction of late Holocene surface evolution on an alpine debris-flow fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürch, Peter; Densmore, Alexander L.; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Rosser, Nick J.; Kober, Florian; Schlunegger, Fritz; McArdell, Brian; Alfimov, Vasili

    2016-12-01

    Debris-flow fans form a ubiquitous record of past debris-flow activity in mountainous areas, and may be useful for inferring past flow characteristics and consequent future hazard. Extracting information on past debris flows from fan records, however, requires an understanding of debris-flow deposition and fan surface evolution; field-scale studies of these processes have been very limited. In this paper, we document the patterns and timing of debris-flow deposition on the surface of the large and exceptionally active Illgraben fan in southwestern Switzerland. We use terrain analysis, radiocarbon dating of sediment fill in the Illgraben catchment, and cosmogenic 10Be and 36Cl exposure dating of debris-flow deposits on the fan to constrain the temporal evolution of the sediment routing system in the catchment and on the fan during the past 3200 years. We show that the fan surface preserves a set of debris-flow lobes that were predominantly deposited after the occurrence of a large rock avalanche near the fan apex at about 3200 years ago. This rock avalanche shifted the apex of the fan and impounded sediment within the Illgraben catchment. Subsequent evolution of the fan surface has been governed by both lateral and radial shifts in the active depositional lobe, revealed by the cosmogenic radionuclide dates and by cross-cutting geometrical relationships on the fan surface. This pattern of frequent avulsion and fan surface occupation provides field-scale evidence of the type of large-scale compensatory behavior observed in experimental sediment routing systems.

  18. Demonstration of Intelligent Control and Fan Improvements in Computer Room Air Handlers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Greenberg, Steve [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Vita, Corinne [Vigilent, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This report documents a demonstration of the energy-efficiency improvement provided by a new control system for computer room air handling devices. It also analyzes measured and reported air handling device fan power associated with changing the fan type. A 135,000 square foot commercial data center was used for the demonstration. All air handling units were upgraded with improved efficiency fans, and a control system that automatically adjusts the fan speed for the air handling units was added. Power measurements were collected for a baseline and for a period with the fan speed control system active. Changing the fan type resulted in a savings of 47 percent of energy used by the air handling equipment and associated chiller plant energy needed to cool the air handlers themselves. The addition of the fan speed control resulted in an additional 37 percent savings in the same two categories. The combined savings for the two improvements for the same categories was 66 percent compared to the data center fitted with the original fans without a control system. The energy use reduction provided by the complete air handling device improvement program for the whole data center site is estimated to be 2.9 million kilowatt hours per year—an overall data center site savings of 8.0 percent. The reduced electrical energy use at the site provides a 1.9 million pound yearly reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. This demonstration showed that fan upgrades and a control system addition provide cost-effective improvements for data centers, with a payback reported to be under two years without utility incentives. In addition to the control system providing energy savings, the data collection and visual analysis capabilities provided immediate and long-term benefits. It is recommended that data center operators consider investing in fan upgrades and/or adding fan speed control for computer room air handlers.

  19. Genes2FANs: connecting genes through functional association networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannenfelser Ruth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein, cell signaling, metabolic, and transcriptional interaction networks are useful for identifying connections between lists of experimentally identified genes/proteins. However, besides physical or co-expression interactions there are many ways in which pairs of genes, or their protein products, can be associated. By systematically incorporating knowledge on shared properties of genes from diverse sources to build functional association networks (FANs, researchers may be able to identify additional functional interactions between groups of genes that are not readily apparent. Results Genes2FANs is a web based tool and a database that utilizes 14 carefully constructed FANs and a large-scale protein-protein interaction (PPI network to build subnetworks that connect lists of human and mouse genes. The FANs are created from mammalian gene set libraries where mouse genes are converted to their human orthologs. The tool takes as input a list of human or mouse Entrez gene symbols to produce a subnetwork and a ranked list of intermediate genes that are used to connect the query input list. In addition, users can enter any PubMed search term and then the system automatically converts the returned results to gene lists using GeneRIF. This gene list is then used as input to generate a subnetwork from the user’s PubMed query. As a case study, we applied Genes2FANs to connect disease genes from 90 well-studied disorders. We find an inverse correlation between the counts of links connecting disease genes through PPI and links connecting diseases genes through FANs, separating diseases into two categories. Conclusions Genes2FANs is a useful tool for interpreting the relationships between gene/protein lists in the context of their various functions and networks. Combining functional association interactions with physical PPIs can be useful for revealing new biology and help form hypotheses for further experimentation. Our

  20. Advance Noise Control Fan II: Test Rig Fan Risk Management Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, John

    2013-01-01

    Since 1995 the Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) has significantly contributed to the advancement of the understanding of the physics of fan tonal noise generation. The 9'x15' WT has successfully tested multiple high speed fan designs over the last several decades. This advanced several tone noise reduction concepts to higher TRL and the validation of fan tone noise prediction codes.

  1. Using Synthetic Aperture Radar data of terrestrial analogs to test for alluvial fan formation mechanisms on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, R. J.; Burr, D. M.

    2017-03-01

    -latitude possible fans are dominated by radar-bright sheetflood deposits, (3) sand-sized sediments were relatively scarce at the time of low- and mid-latitude possible fan formation, (4) bedrock composition varies as a function of latitude on Titan, (5) alluvial fans form differently on Titan because of the lower gravity conditions, and (6) fan-like features may result from non-alluvial processes, such as form distributary fluvial systems on Earth.

  2. K1 Group of Finite Dimensional Path Algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Jun GUO; Li Bin LI

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, by calculating the commutator subgroup of the unit group of finite pathalgebra κ/△ and the unit group abelianized, we explicitly characterize the K1 group of finite dimensionalpath algebra over an arbitrary field.

  3. Online Fan Fiction and Critical Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rebecca W.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores English-language-learning (ELL) youths' engagement with popular media through composing and publicly posting stories in an online fan fiction writing space. Fan fiction is a genre that lends itself to critical engagement with media texts as fans repurpose popular media to design their own narratives. Analyses describe how…

  4. Fan/Ram Duct Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    mwm^mmmt c INPUT I ] H—f TRANSIENT ROUTINE P"" CONTROL """I FAN ] COMPRESSOR MAIN BURNER I DUCT HZ HIGH TURBINE in— LOW TURBINE I...and pressure ratio. 6. Low Turbine Low turbine characteristics, identical In form to those of the high turbine, are shown in figures 27 and 28. 7

  5. School Athletics and Fan Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Clifford; Horton, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Several hypotheses are developed regarding fans and their behavior based upon a review of the literature. An exploratory study is then described, in which participant observers at a university sports arena observed cases of aggressive behavior among the spectators. Based upon the literature review and the findings of the study, four…

  6. Numerical Study of Transition of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at studying the transition of annular lift fan aircraft through computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The oscillations of lift and drag, the optimization for the figure of merit, and the characteristics of drag, yawing, rolling and pitching moments in transition are studied. The results show that a two-stage upper and lower fan lift system can generate oscillations of lift and drag in transition, while a single-stage inner and outer fan lift system can eliminate the oscillations. The characteristics of momentum drag of the single-stage fans in transition are similar to that of the two-stage fans, but with the peak of drag lowered from 0.63 to 0.4 of the aircraft weight. The strategy to start transition from a negative angle of attack −21° further reduces the peak of drag to 0.29 of the weight. The strategy also reduces the peak of pitching torque, which needs upward extra thrusts of 0.39 of the weight to eliminate. The peak of rolling moment in transition needs differential upward thrusts of 0.04 of the weight to eliminate. The requirements for extra thrusts in transition lead to a total thrust–weight ratio of 0.7, which makes the aircraft more efficient for high speed cruise flight (higher than 0.7 Ma.

  7. Timing and nature of alluvial fan development along the Chajnantor Plateau, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesta, Jason M.; Ward, Dylan J.

    2016-11-01

    Alluvial systems in the Atacama Desert provide a unique opportunity to elucidate the sedimentary response to climate variability, particularly changes in precipitation, in hyperarid environments. Alluvial fans along the eastern margin of the Salar de Atacama, adjacent to the Chajnantor Plateau in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, provide an archive of climate-modulated sediment transfer and erosion at an extreme of Earth's climate. Three regional alluvial fan surfaces (Qf1 [oldest] to Qf3 [youngest]) were mapped along the western flank of the Chajnantor Plateau. The alluvial fans were examined with geomorphic and terrestrial cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating methods to define the timing of alluvial fan formation and to determine the role of climatic processes on fan development in a hyperarid environment. Alluvial fans in the study area are comprised of hyperconcentrated flow and boulder-rich debris flow deposits that reflect deposition transitioning between cohesive and noncohesive regimes. Alluvial fan surfaces yield exposure ages that range from 49.6 ± 4.4 to 194 ± 12 ka, while debris flow boulders yield exposure ages ranging from 12.4 ± 2.1 to 229 ± 53 ka. Cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages indicate that abandonment of alluvial fan surfaces Qf1, Qf2, and Qf3 date to 175 ± 22.6 ka (MIS 6), 134.5 ± 9.18 ka (MIS 6), and 20.07 ± 6.26 ka (MIS 2), respectively. A 36Cl concentration-depth profile through alluvial fan Qf1 suggests a simple depositional history with minimal nuclide inheritance implying relatively rapid aggradation (6 m in ca. 25 kyr) followed by surface abandonment ca. 180-200 ka. Our data support a strong climatic control on alluvial fan evolution in the region, and we propose that the alluvial fans along the margins of the Salar de Atacama form according to the humid model of fan formation.

  8. Extreme Loading of Aircraft Fan Blade

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Dibakar

    2013-01-01

    The response of an aircraft fan blade manufactured by composites under the action of static and impact load has been studied in this report. The modeling and analysis of the geometry has been done using CASTEM 2007 version. For the quasi static analysis, the pressure has been incrementally applied until it satisfies the failure criteria. The deformed configuration, strain, Von-Mises stress, and the deflection of the blade have been studied. The response of the system e.g. deformation time history due to the impact of the projectile has been studied where the Newmark method for the dynamic problem has been implemented.

  9. 主动噪声控制技术在工业换风扇降噪中的应用%Application of Active Noise Control Technique in Noise Reduction System of Industrial Exhaust Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴亚锋; 姜节胜; 张森社

    2001-01-01

    The noise of exhaust fan is mainly consisted of pass frequency & low second harmonic frequency when blade is rotating. Noises on discrete frequency can be efficiently controled by using active noise control technique. A self control system which has 4 error input & 2 counteracting output is designed by the author. The satisfied result is obtained by using it on noise control system of exhaust fan.%指出了换风扇噪声主要是由风叶旋转时的通频及其低次谐频成分构成,应用主动噪声控制技术能够有效地抑制这些离散频率上的声音。笔者设计了一具有4个误差输入和两个抵消输出的自适应控制系统,并应用于换风扇噪声控制上,获得了满意的实验结果。

  10. Optimal Control of an M/H k/1 Queueing System with Impatient Customer and N-Policy%具有不耐烦顾客和N策略的M/Hk/1排队系统的优化控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刚; 刘再明; 吴锦标

    2015-01-01

    应用更新理论和概率母函数(PGF)方法,解决了关于不耐烦顾客和 N 策略 M/H K/1排队系统的优化控制问题,得出了系统平稳状态下顾客队长的 PGF 和顾客平均等待时间等系统的稳态指标,并分析了系统优化控制的最优参数解。结果表明,该系统模型有利于解决更复杂的管理优化问题。%Based on the renewal theory and PGF techniques,the problem about optimal control of an M/H k/1 queueing system with impatient customer and N-policy was studied.We obtained the PGF of the queue length and the expected waiting time.The solution of the optimal parameter is analyzed. This system is helpful to solving the more complex optimal management problem.

  11. Multi-satellite ocean tide modelling - the K-1 constituent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    1997-01-01

    All major ocean tide constituents are aliased into signals with periods less than 90 days from TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry, except the K-1 constituent. The aliased K-1 has a period of 173 days. Consequently, it might be confounded with height variations caused by the semiannual cycle having a period......, where the presence of crossing tracks cannot separate K-1 from the semiannual signal from TOPEX/POSEIDON, the importance of including ERS-1 and GEOSAT observations was demonstrated. A comparison with 29 pelagic and coastal tide gauges in the Southern Ocean south of 50 degrees S gave 5.59 (M-2), 2.27 (S......-2) and 5.04 (K-1) cm RMS agreement for FES95.1 ocean tide model. The same comparison for the best empirical estimated constituents based on TOPEX/POSEIDON + ERS-1 + GEOSAT gave 4.32, 2.21, and 4.29 cm for M-2, S-2 and K-1, respectively....

  12. Development of organometallic S6K1 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jie; Rajaratnam, Rajathees; Feng, Li; Salami, Jemilat; Barber-Rotenberg, Julie S; Domsic, John; Reyes-Uribe, Patricia; Liu, Haiying; Dang, Weiwei; Berger, Shelley L; Villanueva, Jessie; Meggers, Eric; Marmorstein, Ronen

    2015-01-08

    Aberrant activation of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is found in many diseases, including diabetes, aging, and cancer. We developed ATP competitive organometallic kinase inhibitors, EM5 and FL772, which are inspired by the structure of the pan-kinase inhibitor staurosporine, to specifically inhibit S6K1 using a strategy previously used to target other kinases. Biochemical data demonstrate that EM5 and FL772 inhibit the kinase with IC50 value in the low nanomolar range at 100 μM ATP and that the more potent FL772 compound has a greater than 100-fold specificity over S6K2. The crystal structures of S6K1 bound to staurosporine, EM5, and FL772 reveal that the EM5 and FL772 inhibitors bind in the ATP binding pocket and make S6K1-specific contacts, resulting in changes to the p-loop, αC helix, and αD helix when compared to the staurosporine-bound structure. Cellular data reveal that FL772 is able to inhibit S6K phosphorylation in yeast cells. Together, these studies demonstrate that potent, selective, and cell permeable S6K1 inhibitors can be prepared and provide a scaffold for future development of S6K inhibitors with possible therapeutic applications.

  13. WHO ARE FANS OF FACEBOOK FAN PAGES? AN ELECTRONIC WORD-OF-MOUTH COMMUNICATION PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given its great business value and popularity, Facebook fan pages have attracted more and more attention in both industry and academia. Fans of Facebook fan pages play an important role in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM communication. This study focused on the population of fans on Facebook fan pages and examined the differences between fans and non-fans in terms of demographics, social network sites (SNS use, Internet use, and online shopping behaviors. The results indicated that fans used SNS more frequently than non-fans. Additionally, from the eWOM perspective, the researchers moderated product types in the model of people’s word-of-mouth (WOM preferences and found that people had different preferences for eWOM and traditional WOM for different products. Traditional WOM is still the most important source of information for people when shopping online.

  14. Performance and Stability Analysis of a Shrouded-Fan UAV

    CERN Document Server

    de Divitiis, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of the performance and stability for a shrouded-fan unmanned rotorcraft whose mission profile also prescribes the flight in ground effect. The not so simple estimation of the aerodynamic coefficients and of the thrust in the various situations makes the performance calculation and the stability analysis difficult tasks. This is due to the strong interaction between the fan flow and shroud that causes quite different flow structures about the airframe depending on flight conditions. A further difficulty is related to the ground effect which produces substantial modifications in the rotor thrust and aerodynamic coefficients. To evaluate performance and stability, two models have been developed. One determines the aerodynamic coefficients of the shroud, whereas the other one calculates thrust and moment of the rotors system. Both models take into account the mutual interference between fan flow and fuselage and ground effect. Performance and stability are then discussed with ...

  15. Football – Feminisation – Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    Football has long time been considered as a genuine masculine domain. However, in the current football culture, the dualism of masculinity and femaleness is in progress. More and more women consume football which is in many countries considered the most popular sport, not only in Scandinavia where...... the number of female fans in football has grown over the past years. A national sense of community, emotion and passion for the game is in particular reached during the international tournaments at live football spectacles and many female fans cheer and sing for ‘their’ team with the utmost conviction. Yet......, the combination ‘women and football’ is still adhered to certain scepticism. Objective The overall objective of this Ph.D. thesis is to contribute to the body of knowledge associated with the distinct aspects of women’s football, female fandom and gender identities in European football drawing upon various...

  16. Intestinal scavenger receptors are involved in vitamin K1 absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Margier, Marielle; Roi, Stéphanie; Collet, Xavier; Niot, Isabelle; Goupy, Pascale; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2014-10-31

    Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) intestinal absorption is thought to be mediated by a carrier protein that still remains to be identified. Apical transport of vitamin K1 was examined using Caco-2 TC-7 cell monolayers as a model of human intestinal epithelium and in transfected HEK cells. Phylloquinone uptake was then measured ex vivo using mouse intestinal explants. Finally, vitamin K1 absorption was compared between wild-type mice and mice overexpressing scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in the intestine and mice deficient in cluster determinant 36 (CD36). Phylloquinone uptake by Caco-2 cells was saturable and was significantly impaired by co-incubation with α-tocopherol (and vice versa). Anti-human SR-BI antibodies and BLT1 (a chemical inhibitor of lipid transport via SR-BI) blocked up to 85% of vitamin K1 uptake. BLT1 also decreased phylloquinone apical efflux by ∼80%. Transfection of HEK cells with SR-BI and CD36 significantly enhanced vitamin K1 uptake, which was subsequently decreased by the addition of BLT1 or sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (CD36 inhibitor), respectively. Similar results were obtained in mouse intestinal explants. In vivo, the phylloquinone postprandial response was significantly higher, and the proximal intestine mucosa phylloquinone content 4 h after gavage was increased in mice overexpressing SR-BI compared with controls. Phylloquinone postprandial response was also significantly increased in CD36-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice, but their vitamin K1 intestinal content remained unchanged. Overall, the present data demonstrate for the first time that intestinal scavenger receptors participate in the absorption of dietary phylloquinone.

  17. Intestinal Scavenger Receptors Are Involved in Vitamin K1 Absorption*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Margier, Marielle; Roi, Stéphanie; Collet, Xavier; Niot, Isabelle; Goupy, Pascale; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) intestinal absorption is thought to be mediated by a carrier protein that still remains to be identified. Apical transport of vitamin K1 was examined using Caco-2 TC-7 cell monolayers as a model of human intestinal epithelium and in transfected HEK cells. Phylloquinone uptake was then measured ex vivo using mouse intestinal explants. Finally, vitamin K1 absorption was compared between wild-type mice and mice overexpressing scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) in the intestine and mice deficient in cluster determinant 36 (CD36). Phylloquinone uptake by Caco-2 cells was saturable and was significantly impaired by co-incubation with α-tocopherol (and vice versa). Anti-human SR-BI antibodies and BLT1 (a chemical inhibitor of lipid transport via SR-BI) blocked up to 85% of vitamin K1 uptake. BLT1 also decreased phylloquinone apical efflux by ∼80%. Transfection of HEK cells with SR-BI and CD36 significantly enhanced vitamin K1 uptake, which was subsequently decreased by the addition of BLT1 or sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (CD36 inhibitor), respectively. Similar results were obtained in mouse intestinal explants. In vivo, the phylloquinone postprandial response was significantly higher, and the proximal intestine mucosa phylloquinone content 4 h after gavage was increased in mice overexpressing SR-BI compared with controls. Phylloquinone postprandial response was also significantly increased in CD36-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice, but their vitamin K1 intestinal content remained unchanged. Overall, the present data demonstrate for the first time that intestinal scavenger receptors participate in the absorption of dietary phylloquinone. PMID:25228690

  18. Unsteady Operation of New Type Turbofan Engine with Aerodynamic Torque Converter Reducing Front Fan Speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshiaki KANEMOTO; Seita SEKI; Kazunori IDENO; Ahmed Mohamed GALAL

    2005-01-01

    It is desired to increase the rotational speed of the core engine of the turbofan so as to get the best efficiency for the next leap of engine technology. The conventional mechanism in which the front fan is directly connected to the output shaft of a core engine, have a limit of increasing the spool speed, because the fan diameter is very large. The authors have proposed a new driving system in which the front fan is driven through the aerodynamic torque converter. The front fan can work at the best performance at slower speed while the core engine runs more efficiently at higher speed. Continuously, this paper discusses the response of the front fan in the unsteady operation of the core engine, accompanying with the internal flow. The system has the acceptable responsibility in the unsteady operation which is very important for the aircrafts.

  19. Self-organzatonal interacton as a factor of fan groups survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Baranova

    2016-06-01

    Also in this study the matter of survival of social groups is examined though the synergetic approach. Survival of the football fan groups is presented as a result of the overcoming the internal entropy of the system. In addition, in the end of the article the implementation of value basis and their functions in the self-organized football fan groups are discussed. The author demonstrates the social importance of the informal internal «code» for football fans. This s how the author defines the role of the self-organization as a factor of the football fan groups survival. Thus, the inner football fans corporate culture is seen not only as a system that is capable of self-regulation, but also as a basic condition for self-organization.

  20. An Interview with Fan Wu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜

    2006-01-01

    Fan Wu grew up on a farm in South China, in the community to where her parents were exiled during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). Wu moved to the United States in 1997, to attend Stanford University, and she began writing in 2002. She now lives and works in northern California, the United State. February Flowers is her first novel. During her recent book tour in China, she took time to talk to Women of China. Women of China (WOC): What inspired

  1. Design of Hydraulic Generator Cooling Fan Frequency Conversion Control System%水轮发电机冷却风机变频控制系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      讲述基于PLC的PID控制算法的水轮发电机冷却风机变频控制系统。系统主要应用于灯泡贯流式水轮发电机组,使得灯泡贯流机组冷却温度恰当,既节能又兼顾发电效率和发电机寿命。%This paper describes the PID control algorithm of PLC based turbine generator cooling fan frequency conversion control system. The system is mainly used for bulb turbine unit,the bulb tubular units appropriate cooling temperature,energy saving,power generation efficiency and service life of the generator.

  2. Ecological aspects of fan-assisted balanced ventilation systems in the residential area - a practical investigation with recommendations for design and installation; Oekologische Aspekte der Komfortlueftungen im Wohnbereich - Eine praxisnahe Untersuchung mit Hinweisen zu Planung und Bau von Wohnungslueftungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haessig, W.; Primas, A. [Basler und Hofmann Ingenieure und Planer AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined the environmental impact of fan-assisted balanced ventilation systems on the basis of a life-cycle analysis. The influence of various components and their operating parameters on the systems is compared. The results, which were calculated using the Eco-indicator 99 and the 'ecoinvent' data-base, are presented and commented on. Six variants for a six-apartment house with varying air-throughput and using various materials for the ducting are analysed. The results of the analysis are presented in tabular and graphical form and discussed in detail.

  3. An Algebraic Proof of Quillen's Resolution Theorem for K_1

    CERN Document Server

    Whale, Ben

    2009-01-01

    In his 1973 paper Quillen proved a resolution theorem for the K-Theory of an exact category; his proof was homotopic in nature. By using the main result of a paper by Nenashev, we are able to give an algebraic proof of Quillen's Resolution Theorem for K_1 of an exact category.

  4. Acoustic Power Transmission Through a Ducted Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Ed

    2016-01-01

    For high-speed ducted fans, when the rotor flowfield is shock-free, the main contribution to the inlet radiated acoustic power comes from the portion of the rotor stator interaction sound field that is transmitted upstream through the rotor. As such, inclusion of the acoustic transmission is an essential ingredient in the prediction of the fan inlet noise when the fan tip relative speed is subsonic. This paper describes a linearized Euler based approach to computing the acoustic transmission of fan tones through the rotor. The approach is embodied in a code called LINFLUX was applied to a candidate subsonic fan called the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP). The results from this study suggest that it is possible to make such prediction with sufficient fidelity to provide an indication of the acoustic transmission trends with the fan tip speed.

  5. Computing Gröbner fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, K.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Thomas, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents algorithms for computing the Gröbner fan of an arbitrary polynomial ideal. The computation involves enumeration of all reduced Gröbner bases of the ideal. Our algorithms are based on a uniform definition of the Gröbner fan that applies to both homogeneous and non...... are not always normal fans of polyhedra in which case reverse search applies automatically. Computational results using our implementation of these algorithms in the software package Gfan are included....

  6. REFINEMENTS OF THE FAN-TODD'S INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄国基

    2002-01-01

    Refinements to inequalities oninner product spaces are presented. In this respect, inequalities dealt with in this paper are: Cauchy's inequality, Bessel's inequality, Fan-Todd's inequality and Fan-Todd's determinantal inequality. In each case, a strictly increasing function is put forward, which lies between the smaller and the larger quantities of each inequality. As a result,an improved condition for equality of the Fan-Todd's determinantal inequality is deduced.

  7. The Challenges of Teaching Fan Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephan, Matthias

    , has only gained in popularity. Yet, the nature of the course in question, an interdisciplinary open elective, has meant a class with a variety of backgrounds, preparation, and expectations from fan studies and its critical apparatus. In addition, due to the course being taught in English, it attracts...... a conversation about the best methods for teaching fan studies, and help to open up fan studies to be integrated into other courses and programs....

  8. Neighborhood Union and Connected [k, k + 1]-Factors in Graphs%图的邻域并和连通的[k,k+1]-因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红霞; 乔贵平

    2013-01-01

    Let G be a graph of order n. A spanning subgraph F of G is called a[ k, k + 1 ] -factor if k≤dF(x) ≤ k + 1 holds for each x∈V(G). A [k, k + 1]-factor is called a connected [k, k + 1 ] -factor if it is connected. A [k, k + 1 ]-factor F is called a Hamilton [k, k + 1 ] -factor if F contains a Hamilton cycle. In this paper, sev-eralsufficient conditions related to neighborhood union for graphs to have connected [ k, k + 1 ] -factors or Hamilton [k, k + 1]-factors are given.%设G是阶为n的图.F是G的支撑子图且对所有的x∈ V(G)都有k≤dF(x)≤k+1,则称F为G的[k,k+1]-因子.一个[k,k+1]-因子如果连通,则称为连通的[k,k+1]-因子.一个[k,k+1]-因子若包含一个哈密顿圈,则称为哈密顿[k,k+1]-因子.给出了图有哈密顿[k,k+1]-因子或连通的[k,k+1]-因子关于邻域并的若干新的充分条件.

  9. Solution of Low Voltage Ride Through of Fan System in Thermal Power Plant%火电厂风机系统低电压穿越解决方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚新阳; 黄学良; 王正齐; 顾文; 蒋琛; 唐一铭

    2016-01-01

    In order to realize flying restart,a new speed estimation method based on stator residual magnetism voltage or the vector decomposition of stator current determined by power losing time was proposed,which aimed at high-voltage inverter using speed sensorless V/f control in thermal power plant fan system. Then,the whole system was simulated and analyzed by Matlab. Study shows that this method can track the fan speed precisely in 1~2 s and make the speed return to normal fast. Low voltage ride through is achieved and thermal power unit downtime or widespread power outages caused by the converter low voltage protection is prevented.%针对火电厂风机系统无速度传感器V/f控制的高压变频器,提出了一种按失电时间分别测量定子剩磁电压或将定子电流矢量分解的转速估算方法,从而实现转速跟踪再启动。对该方法进行了全系统的Matlab仿真和分析。研究表明,该方法能在1~2s内准确跟踪风机转速,并迅速使转速恢复正常,实现系统低电压穿越,防止因变频器低电压保护造成火电机组停机、甚至大范围停电等事故。

  10. First Test of Fan Active Noise Control (ANC) Completed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    With the advent of ultrahigh-bypass engines, the space available for passive acoustic treatment is becoming more limited, whereas noise regulations are becoming more stringent. Active noise control (ANC) holds promise as a solution to this problem. It uses secondary (added) noise sources to reduce or eliminate the offending noise radiation. The first active noise control test on the low-speed fan test bed was a General Electric Company system designed to control either the exhaust or inlet fan tone. This system consists of a "ring source," an induct array of error microphones, and a control computer. Fan tone noise propagates in a duct in the form of spinning waves. These waves are detected by the microphone array, and the computer identifies their spinning structure. The computer then controls the "ring source" to generate waves that have the same spinning structure and amplitude, but 180 out of phase with the fan noise. This computer generated tone cancels the fan tone before it radiates from the duct and is heard in the far field. The "ring source" used in these tests is a cylindrical array of 16 flat-plate acoustic radiators that are driven by thin piezoceramic sheets bonded to their back surfaces. The resulting source can produce spinning waves up to mode 7 at levels high enough to cancel the fan tone. The control software is flexible enough to work on spinning mode orders from -6 to 6. In this test, the fan was configured to produce a tone of order 6. The complete modal (spinning and radial) structure of the tones was measured with two builtin sets of rotating microphone rakes. These rakes provide a measurement of the system performance independent from the control system error microphones. In addition, the far-field noise was measured with a semicircular array of 28 microphones. This test represents the first in a series of tests that demonstrate different active noise control concepts, each on a progressively more complicated modal structure. The tests are

  11. Variable scale channel avulsion history using fan architecture and stratigraphy, and sediment provenance of Sutlej-Yamuna fans in northwest Gangetic plains during Late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Gupta, Sanjeev; Sinha, Rajiv; Densmore, Alexander; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Van-Dijk, Wout M.; Joshi, Suneel; Nayak, Nibedita; Mason, Philippa J.; Kumar, Dewashish; Mondal, Setbandhu; Murray, Andrew; Rai, Shiv P.; Shekhar, Shashank

    2016-04-01

    Channel avulsion during fan development controls distribution and deposition of channel sandbodies and hence alluvial architecture of a fan system. Variable scale spatio-temporal information of fluvial responses to past climate changes is stored in these channel sandbodies. Further these channel sandbodies form fluvial aquifers in alluvial fans and therefore understanding of alluvial architecture and stratigraphy of a fan is crucial for development of groundwater management strategies. In this study we used multiple approaches to map subsurface fluvial aquifer architecture and alluvial stratigraphy, and to estimate sediment provenance using U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains of Sutlej-Yamuna fan system in northwest India. Satellite imagery based geomorphic mapping shows two large fan system with interfan area. The fan surfaces show presence of major and minor paleochannels. 2D resistivity tomography along several transects across fan surfaces shows distinct layers with contrasting resistivity values. These geo-electric facies corresponds to presence of channel sandbodies beneath surface signature of paleochannels and finer floodplain deposits useful to demarcate lateral extent of subsurface channel sandbodies. A more detailed subsurface stratigraphy using ~50m deep sediment cores and their luminescence ages from across fan surface shows presence of multi-storey sandbodies (MSB) separated by floodplain fines. Within the MSB, individual channel deposits are identified by presence of channel scour surfaces located at coarse sand overlying fine sand layer. Depositional ages of MSB's ranges from ~81 ka (late MIS5) to ~15 ka (MIS2) with major depositional break during MIS3 in parts of the fans. Sediment aggradation rate varies laterally across fan surface as well as vertically down the depth with an average rate of 0.54 mm/year. Fluvial channel persistence for studied time interval (about last 81 ka BP) shows major depositional breaks (and possible incision) at ~41 ka

  12. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range

  13. Aerodynamic Modelling and Optimization of Axial Fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics oflow speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed.The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby therotor is divided into a number of annular streamtubes.For each of these streamtubes relations...... for velocity, pressure andradial position are derived from the conservationlaws for mass, tangential momentum and energy.The resulting system of equations is non-linear and, dueto mass conservation and pressure equilibrium far downstream of the rotor,strongly coupled.The equations are solved using the Newton...... distributionsof pitch angle and chord length have been chosen as independent variablesin the optimizations.Besides restricting the geometry of the rotor,constraints have been added to ensure a required pressure rise as well asnon-stalled flow conditions.Optimizations have been performed tomaximize the mean value...

  14. Alluvial fan response to climatic change: Insights from numerical modeling (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J. D.

    2009-12-01

    Alluvial fans in the western U.S. exhibit a regionally correlative sequence of Plio-Quaternary deposits. Cosmogenic and U-series dating has greatly improved the age control on these deposits and their associated terraces and generally strengthened the case for aggradation during humid-to-arid transitions. Still, the linkages between climate change, upland basin response, and alluvial fan response are not well constrained. Fans may fill and cut as a result of autogenetic processes/internal adjustments, changes in regional temperature (which controls snowmelt-induced flooding), changes in the frequency-size distribution of rainfall events, and/or changes in upslope vegetation. Here I describe the results of a numerical modeling study designed to better constrain the relationships between different end-member forcing mechanisms and the geologic record of alluvial fan deposits and terraces. The model solves the evolution of the fan topography using Exner's equation (conservation of mass) coupled with a nonlinear, threshold-controlled transport relation for sand and gravel. Bank retreat is modeled using an advection equation with a rate proportional to bank shear stress. I begin by considering the building of a fan under conditions of constant water and sediment supply. This simple system exhibits all of the complexity of fans developed under experimental conditions, and it provides insights into the mechanisms that control avulsions and it provides a baseline estimate for the within-fan relief that can result from autogenetic processes. Relationships between the magnitude and period of variations in the sediment-to-water ratio and the geomorphic response of fans are then discussed. I also consider the response of a coupled drainage basin-fan system to changes in climate, including the hydrologic and vegetation response of upland hillslopes. Fans can aggrade or incise in response to the same climatic event depending on the relief of the upstream drainage basin, which

  15. Design of a Low Speed Fan Stage for Noise Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, W. N.; Elliot, D. B.; Nickols, K. L.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the design of a low tip speed, moderate pressure rise fan stage for demonstration of noise reduction concepts. The fan rotor is a fixed-pitch configuration delivering a design pressure ratio of 1.378 at a specific flow of 43.1 lbm/sec/sq ft. Four exit stator configurations were provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of circumferential and axial sweep in reducing rotor-stator interaction tone noise. The fan stage design was combined with an axisymmetric inlet, conical convergent nozzle, and nacelle to form a powered fan-nacelle subscale model. This model has a 22-inch cylindrical flow path and employs a rotor with a 0.30 hub-to-tip radius ratio. The design is fully compatible with an existing NASA force balance and rig drive system. The stage aerodynamic and structural design is described in detail. Three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools were used to define optimum airfoil sections for both the rotor and stators. A fan noise predictive system developed by Pratt & Whitney under contract to NASA was used to determine the acoustic characteristics of the various stator configurations. Parameters varied included rotor-to-stator spacing and vane leading edge sweep. The structural analysis of the rotor and stator are described herein. An integral blade and disk configuration was selected for the rotor. Analysis confirmed adequate low cycle fatigue life, vibratory endurance strength, and aeroelastic suitability. A unique load carrying stator arrangement was selected to minimize generation of tonal noise due to sources other than rotor-stator interaction. Analysis of all static structural components demonstrated adequate strength, fatigue life, and vibratory characteristics.

  16. An Integrated Heavy Fuel Piston Engine Ducted Fan Propulsion Unit for Personal Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed PAVE propulsion system technology demonstration combines an innovative high-speed aero-diesel engine with a novel ducted fan assembly resulting in a low...

  17. An Integrated Heavy Fuel Piston Engine Ducted Fan Propulsion Unit for Personal Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed PAVE propulsion system technology demonstration combines an innovative high-speed aero-diesel engine with a novel ducted fan assembly resulting in a...

  18. On Potentially K1,4+P2-graphic Sequences%蕴含K1,4+P2的可图序列

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳

    2008-01-01

    本文刻划了蕴含K1,4+P2的可图序列,其中K1,4+P2是向完全二部图K1,4添加一条被剖分的边后构成的简单图.%In this paper, we characterize the potentially K1,4+P2-graphic sequences, where K1,4+P2 be a graph obtained by adding an edge e which is subdivided to complete bipartite graph K1,4.

  19. Analysis and control of computer cooling fan noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam

    features the leading mode drag noise. Further reduction of this noise is left to the active noise control. The feasibility of the active noise control technique is demonstrated for the cancellation of both thrust and drag noise radiated at their leading modes. An open loop, feed-forward system is used to maximize the simplicity of the rig in order to deliver an appropriate technology for a small ventilation fan. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  20. A comparative study of varying fan noise mitigation techniques in relation to sustainable design goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overweg, Cornelis; Fullerton, Jeff L.

    2005-04-01

    Green building design promotes effective use of materials and energy, improved indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and enhanced occupant comfort. These ``green'' goals can occasionally conflict with common acoustical approaches used for fan noise control. A design striving for low noise levels from the ventilation system to benefit occupant comfort can inadvertently introduce elements that are contradictory to other green building objectives. For example, typical fan noise control devices introduce higher energy consumption or less beneficial indoor environmental quality. This paper discusses the acoustical, mechanical, environmental, and relative cost impacts of various fan noise control techniques.

  1. 脱硫系统增压风机电机变频改造技术分析%Technique Analysis of Variable Frequency Reconstruction on Motor of Booster Fan in Gas Desulfurization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿飞

    2012-01-01

    通过分析燃煤电厂脱硫系统增压风机的运行特性,找出静叶可调式风机的最佳运行工作点;通过分析三相异步电动机的转速与频率成正比关系,得出采用变频器进行无级调速,调速范围宽且转速变化曲线平滑。介绍了阜阳华润600MW超临界火电厂对脱硫系统增压风机电机实施变频改造的理论分析和技术改造经验,叙述了对增压风机电机进行变频改造后,脱硫系统明显地降低了能耗,提高了电机的调速性能,取得了显著的节能效果和经济效益,并提出了在变频调速保护设计方面和运行时需要注意的一些问题。%This paper finds out the optimum operation condition of the stator blade variable axial flow blower by analyzing the operation characteristics of the booster fan in Gas Desulfurization System of the Coal fired power plant.Via analyzing the direct proportion between rotate speed and power frequency of the 3-phase induction motor,gets the conclusion that the range of speed regulation will be wider and the rotate speed curve will be smooth if the motor's speed is stepless regulated by frequency converter.Makes a presentation of the theoretical analysis and the experience of the reconstruction of Motor of Booster Fan in Gas Desulfurization System of FYCRP 600MW Supercritical power plant,states that after the reconstruction,the energy consumption of the Gas Desulfurization System is reduced observably,the speed regulation performance of the motor is improved,observable energy conservation effect and economic benefit are gained.Some issues related to the protection design and operation of the frequency converter-fed speed regulating system is also stated in this paper.

  2. INFLUENCE OF APPLYING ADDITIONAL FORCING FANS FOR THE AIR DISTRIBUTION IN VENTILATION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikodem SZLĄZAK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mining progress in underground mines cause the ongoing movement of working areas. Consequently, it becomes neces-sary to adapt the ventilation network of a mine to direct airflow into newly-opened districts. For economic reasons, opening new fields is often achieved via underground workings. Length of primary intake and return routes increases and also increases the total resistance of a complex ventilation network. The development of a subsurface structure can make it necessary to change the air distribution in a ventilation network. Increasing airflow into newly-opened districts is necessary. In mines where extraction does not entail gas-related hazards, there is possibility of implementing a push-pull ventilation system in order to supplement airflows to newly developed mining fields. This is achieved by installing sub-surface fan stations with forcing fans at the bottom of downcast shaft. In push-pull systems with multiple main fans, it is vital to select forcing fans with characteristic curves matching those of the existing exhaust fans to prevent undesirable mutual interaction. In complex ventilation networks it is necessary to calculate distribution of airflow (especially in net-works with a large number of installed fans. In the article the influence of applying additional forcing fans for the air distribution in ventilation network for underground mine were considered. There are also analysed the extent of over-pressure caused by the additional forcing fan in branches of the ventilation network (the operating range of additional forcing fan. Possibilities of increasing airflow rate in working areas were conducted.

  3. Turbofan gas turbine engine with variable fan outlet guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Peter John (Inventor); Zenon, Ruby Lasandra (Inventor); LaChapelle, Donald George (Inventor); Mielke, Mark Joseph (Inventor); Grant, Carl (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A turbofan gas turbine engine includes a forward fan section with a row of fan rotor blades, a core engine, and a fan bypass duct downstream of the forward fan section and radially outwardly of the core engine. The forward fan section has only a single stage of variable fan guide vanes which are variable fan outlet guide vanes downstream of the forward fan rotor blades. An exemplary embodiment of the engine includes an afterburner downstream of the fan bypass duct between the core engine and an exhaust nozzle. The variable fan outlet guide vanes are operable to pivot from a nominal OGV position at take-off to an open OGV position at a high flight Mach Number which may be in a range of between about 2.5-4+. Struts extend radially across a radially inwardly curved portion of a flowpath of the engine between the forward fan section and the core engine.

  4. Bright Streaks and Dark Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The south polar region of Mars is covered every year by a layer of carbon dioxide ice. In a region called the 'cryptic terrain,' the ice is translucent and sunlight can penetrate through the ice to warm the surface below. The ice layer sublimates (evaporates) from the bottom. The dark fans of dust seen in this image come from the surface below the layer of ice, carried to the top by gas venting from below. The translucent ice is 'visible' by virtue of the effect it has on the tone of the surface below, which would otherwise have the same color and reflectivity as the fans. Bright streaks in this image are fresh frost. The CRISM team has identified the composition of these streaks to be carbon dioxide. Observation Geometry Image PSP_003113_0940 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 26-Mar-2007. The complete image is centered at -85.8 degrees latitude, 106.0 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 244.9 km (153.0 miles). At this distance the image scale is 49.0 cm/pixel (with 2 x 2 binning) so objects 147 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 50 cm/pixel . The image was taken at a local Mars time of 06:20 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 79 degrees, thus the sun was about 11 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 207.6 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.

  5. Analysis of Working Status of High-pressure Centrifugal Fan in Centralized Pneumatic Feeding System of Cigarette Factory at Higher Altitude Areas%高海拔地区卷烟厂集中风力系统高压离心风机运行工况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霞; 戴石良; 丛明滋; 张谷; 王伟浩

    2012-01-01

    在卷烟厂实际生产过程中,工艺风力系统的高压离心风机在高海拔地区和低海拔地区运行时会产生工况差异.为此,分析了高海拔地区大气压力、温度和空气密度的特点,以及海拔高度对高压离心风机风压、风量、功率、效率等性能的影响,并以云南和湖南为例,对两个不同海拔地区卷烟厂相同工艺风力系统进行了测量.结果表明,高海拔地区卷烟厂高压离心风机的选择与海平面地区不同,随着海拔高度的增加,风机的供风量不变,但风机风压以一定比值下降,电机输出功率也会下降.因此在设计选型时,可根据当地海拔高度、温度、空气密度等对所选风机风压进行修正,并注明风机入口状态参数,以保证设备的正常运行.%The working status of high-pressure centrifugal fan in pneumatic system is varied at different altitudes. The characters of atmospheric pressure, temperature and air density at higher altitude and the effects of altitude on output air pressure and air volume, effective power and efficiency of high-pressure centrifugal fan were analyzed by taking cigarette factories in Yunnan and Hunan as examples, the same pneumatic systems at two different altitudes were tested. The results showed that the output air pressure of fan and output power of fan motor decreased with the ascent of altitude, while the output air volume of fan unchanged. Therefore, the rating of selected fan should be corrected according to local altitude, temperature and air density, and the entry status parameters of fan should be marked out to ensure the normal running of equipment.

  6. Research of fan trim balance for on-wing aircraft engines based on a rectangular coordinate system%基于直角坐标的在翼航空发动机风扇三圆配平方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏存江

    2015-01-01

    简要介绍了航空发动机三圆配平的基本方法,并在直角坐标系下推导了刚性转动系统的三圆配平法的基本原理,为解决涡扇发动机在翼风扇配平问题提供了理论支持。给出了直角坐标系下利用三圆配平方法计算风扇不平衡量的过程及结果,分析了三圆配平法适用对象及在涡扇发动机风扇配平中的实际应用。本研究成果能有效解决在翼涡扇发动机不具备现成配平条件,或具备现成配平条件但给出配平方案效果不佳时的风扇配平问题。%The basic process of three shot plot for fan trim balance was introduced. Based on a rectangular coordinate system,the fundamental principle of the method was overall demonstrated, which provided theo⁃retical support to trim balance the fan of on-wing aircraft engines. Meanwhile the process and result were given to calculate the unbalanced weight by three shot plot on a rectangular coordinate system. The applica⁃ble object of three shot plot and its application on fan trim balance on turbo-fan engines were analyzed. The research can effectively resolve the fan unbalance issues for on-wing aircraft engines when there is no ready-made trim balance method or the result is unsatisfactory.

  7. An Approach to a Method of Construction of (F, K, 1) Optical Orthogonal Codes from Block Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    (F, K, 1) Optical orthogonal codes (OOC) are the best address codes applied to optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) communication systems, but the construction of the codes is very complex. In this paper, a method of construction of the OOC from block design is discussed and a method of computer aid design is presented, by which we can construct desired (F, K, 1) OOC easily.

  8. Dynamic response of Hovercraft lift fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, D. D.

    1981-08-01

    Hovercraft lift fans are subjected to varying back pressure due to wave action and craft motions when these vehicles are operating in a seaway. The oscillatory back pressure causes the fans to perform dynamically, exhibiting a hysteresis type of response and a corresponding degradation in mean performance. Since Hovercraft motions are influenced by variations in lift fan pressure and discharge, it is important to understand completely the nature of the dynamic performance of lift fans in order to completely solve the Hovercraft seakeeping problem. The present study was performed to determine and classify the instabilities encountered in a centrifugal fan operating against time-varying back pressure. A model-scale experiment was developed in which the fan discharge was directed into a flow-measuring device, terminating in a rotating valve which produced an oscillatory back pressure superimposed upon a mean aerodynamic resistance. Pressure and local velocity were measured as functions of time at several locations in the fan volute. The measurements permitted the identification of rotating (or propagating) stall in the impeller. One cell and two cell configurations were classified and the transient condition connecting these two configurations was observed. The mechanisms which lead to rotating stall in a centrifugal compressor are presented and discussed with specific reference to Hovercraft applications.

  9. Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Operating Over a Wide Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio. Part 1; Fan Stage Design and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Thorp, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is investigating turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems for access to space because it provides the potential for aircraft-like, space-launch operations that may significantly reduce launch costs and improve safety. To this end, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and General Electric (GE) teamed to design a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space. To enable the wide operating range of a Mach 4+ variable cycle turbofan ramjet required the development of a unique fan stage design capable of multi-point operation to accommodate variations in bypass ratio (10 ), fan speed (7 ), inlet mass flow (3.5 ), inlet pressure (8 ), and inlet temperature (3 ). In this paper, NASA has set out to characterize a TBCC engine fan stage aerodynamic performance and stability limits over a wide operating range including power-on and hypersonic-unique "windmill" operation. Herein, we will present the fan stage design, and the experimental test results of the fan stage operating from 15 to 100 percent corrected design speed. Whereas, in the companion paper, we will provide an assessment of NASA s APNASA code s ability to predict the fan stage performance and operability over a wide range of speed and bypass ratio.

  10. Fan-structure waves in shear ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2016-04-01

    This presentation introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. According to the fan-mechanism the shear rupture propagation is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs in the fracture tip which, due to rotation caused by shear displacement of the fracture interfaces, form a fan-structure representing the fracture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new slabs), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the correspondingly low transient strength of the lithosphere, which favours generation of new earthquake faults in the intact rock mass adjoining pre-existing faults in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along these faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created, while further dynamic propagation of the new fault (earthquake) occurs at low field stresses even below the frictional strength.

  11. Experimental Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Fan-out Polarization Grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chenhao; Chen, Jian; Tang, Xiahui; Zhan, Qiwen

    2016-12-23

    Highly efficient fan-out elements are crucial in coherent beam combining architectures especially in coupled laser resonators where the beam passes through the fan-out element twice per round trip. Although the theoretical efficiency is usually less than 86%, the Dammann gratings are ubiquitously utilized in a variety of types of coherent beam combining systems due to the facile design and fabrication. In the current paper, we experimentally demonstrate a highly efficient fan-out polarization grating. It is the first time to our knowledge that all the three space-variant parameters of a polarization grating are simultaneously optimized to achieve the function of multi-beam splitting. Besides the high fan-out efficiency, the ability to control the polarization states of individual split beams is another advantage of this polarization grating. The novel polarization grating is promising to find applications in laser beam combining systems.

  12. Rotor redesign for a highly loaded 1800 ft/sec tip speed fan. 1: Aerodynamic and mechanical design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, J. M.; Tari, U.; Weber, R. M.

    1979-01-01

    A quasi three dimensional design system and multiple-circular-arc airfoil sections were used to design a fan rotor. An axisymmetric intrablade flow field calculation modeled the shroud of an isolated splitter and radial distribution. The structural analysis indicates that the design is satisfactory for evaluation of aerodynamic performance of the fan stage in a test facility.

  13. Disabled Woman Heads Beijing Fans Association

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE next time you go to a football match in Beijing, look around the edge of the field. You might see a young woman in a wheelchair cheering her favorite team. Wu Jinghong is more than a handicapped person, more than a woman football fan. She is the head of the Beijing Football Fans Association, a group more than 1,000 members strong. Wu alone started the association in 1988 and because she is a woman, encouraged other women fans to openly support their favorite teams.

  14. Sherlock (Holmes in Japanese (fan works [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Morimoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available I explore the history of Japanese writing centered on Sherlock Holmes as a means of interrogating the 2014 BBC Sherlock pastiche John and Sherlock Casebook 1: Jon, zenchi renmei e iku (The stark naked league, written by Japanese Sherlockian Kitahara Naohiko for mainstream publication by the publishing house Hayakawa shobō. I argue that exploration of the Japanese (fan cultural contexts of Kitahara's book begins to reveal the limits of the Anglo-American-centered framework through which fan studies scholars explore fan/producer relationships.

  15. PICNIC - FANS, ULTRAS AND HOOLIGANS - INTERNAL DIFFERENTIATE OF SUBCULTURE GROUP FOOTBALL FANS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Solinski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a main part of "Internal differentiate of subculture group of football fans in Poland" project. Author has tried to show how the subculture of football fans can be differentiate. Author ha presented three different subgroups of Polish fans. It is very important to divide this subculture, because each subgroup has different mentality and style. That is why I have paid the most attention on this element.

  16. Knowing fans, knowing music : an exploration of fan interaction on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, I examine what "knowing music" means to participants in online social musicking activities, along with the role Twitter plays in this process. I compare the way I came to "know" music through social networks with others' behaviors regarding music and social networking. Using Henry Jenkins's research framework as an aca-fan (a portmanteau word combining academic and fan), I study fan communities from the inside out. I begin by outlining my story of coming to know the music that...

  17. Numerical Analysis for the Air Flow of Cross Flow Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hirokazu; Tokushge, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Masatoshi; Ishihara, Takuya

    There are many factors for designing the cross flow fan. Therefore, the performance of cross flow fan is not clear yet. We can analyze the transient flow of a cross flow fan using sliding mesh approach. One of the tasks using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a way of modeling for analysis heat exchangers with cross flow fan. These tasks are very important for design. The paper has a modeling of heat exchangers and meshing the fan blades. The next tasks, we focus the ability of cross flow fan when we change the geometry of fan blades.

  18. Investigating the impact of vegetation on alluvial fans using laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lucy; McLelland, Stuart; Tom, Coutlhard

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation can significantly influence the geomorphology of fluvial systems, affecting channel geometry and flow dynamics. However, there is still limited understanding of the role vegetation plays in the development of alluvial fans, despite the large number of vegetated fans located in temperate and humid climates. An understanding of the feedback loops between water flow, sediment dynamics and vegetation is key to understanding the geomorphological response of alluvial fans. But it is difficult to investigate these relationships in the natural world due to the complexity of the geomorphic and biological processes and timescales involved, whereas the controlled conditions afforded by laboratory experiments provide the ideal opportunity to explore these relationships. To examine the effects of vegetation on channel form, flow dynamics and morphology during fan evolution, a series of experiments were conducted using the Total Environment Simulator (operated by the University of Hull). The experiments followed a 'similarity of processes' approach and so were not scaled to a specific field prototype. Live vegetation (Medicago Sativa) was used to simulate the influence of vegetation on the fan development. A range of experiments were conducted on 2x2m fan plots, the same initial conditions and constant water discharge and sediment feed rates were used, but the vegetation density and amount of geomorphic time (when the sediment and water were running and there was active fan development) between seeding / vegetation growth varied between runs. The fan morphology was recorded at regular intervals using a laser scanner (at 1mm resolution) and high resolution video recording and overhead photography were used to gain near-continuous data quantifying fan topography, flow patterns, channel migration and avulsion frequency. Image analysis also monitored the spatial extent of vegetation establishment. The use of these techniques allowed collection of high resolution

  19. How to do things with fan subs: Media engagement as subcultural capital in anime fan subbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Schules

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anime fandom has been a fairly constant subject in fan scholarship, although only recently have conversations about fan subbing begun to circulate. As useful as those conversations are, none have directly dealt either with the mechanisms of fan subbing, particularly the use of linear notes, as a practice or with how these subs intersect with the flows of subcultural capital. Fan subbing, both as a productive and a consumptive practice, plays a small but influential part in subcultural capital. Engagement with media is a compositional element of such capital in this community.

  20. Magnetic anomalies in Central Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    Total magnetic field anomalies recorded over the Central Bengal Fan are analysed and the depths to the magnetic basement are computed using the analytical signal and the Werner deconvolution methods. To the west and east of 85 degrees E...

  1. Computing Gröbner fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, K.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Thomas, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents algorithms for computing the Gröbner fan of an arbitrary polynomial ideal. The computation involves enumeration of all reduced Gröbner bases of the ideal. Our algorithms are based on a uniform definition of the Gröbner fan that applies to both homogeneous and non......-homogeneous ideals and a proof that this object is a polyhedral complex. We show that the cells of a Gröbner fan can easily be oriented acyclically and with a unique sink, allowing their enumeration by the memory-less reverse search procedure. The significance of this follows from the fact that Gröbner fans...

  2. Quiet, High-Efficiency Vaneaxial Fans Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase I effort, CRG proposes to demonstrate the ability to significantly reduce the acoustic signature of vaneaxial fans by establishing quiet...

  3. Mexican Fan Palm - Orange Co. [ds350

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007...

  4. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  5. A method to assess fluvial fan channel networks, with a preliminary application to fans in coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Thomas Hugh; Hogan, Dan L.; Wilford, David J.; Roberts, Brian

    2010-03-01

    The channel network on a fluvial fan distributes sediment across the fan surface and determines fan development. We present a method to characterize fan channel networks (FCNs) so that the effect of controls (e.g., sediment supply) on the FCN can be evaluated. We then do a preliminary test of the method using three fans in coastal British Columbia. The method uses a set of three measures: 1) the spatial extent of hydrogeomorphic activity, measured as the percentage of the contemporary fan surface area occupied by active channels; 2) the topologic structure, using node counts to measure channel network complexity; and 3) a sediment budget to indicate the proportion of sediment that is stored on the fan, loosely characterized by comparing the second-largest clast size of sediment at the fan apex or intersection point with the second-largest clast at the toe of the fan. These measures were applied to two fan deltas and one partial fan delta in northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, using channel surveys conducted in 2006 and 2007. All three fans are located within 30 km of each other, have similar climatic, physiographic, and vegetation settings, and have natural channel networks. Each fan has perennial channel flow at the fan apex. Watershed areas range from 19.5 to 35.6 km 2, and contemporary fan areas range from 0.2 to 0.7 km 2. The Melton Relative Relief ratio ranges from 0.24 to 0.30 and none of the fans show evidence of debris floods or debris flows. In addition to testing the efficacy of the FCN measures, we use these fans to explore the question of whether fans in similar geomorphic settings and with similar controls develop similar FCNs. Results show the fans have between 4.7-8.5 % of the contemporary fan surface occupied by the active channel network. Topologic node counts indicate that the two fan deltas have a similar level of channel complexity, with 42-54 nodes in total. The partial fan delta channel network is approximately half as complex, with

  6. Aeroelastic Calculations of Quiet High- Speed Fan Performed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Mehmed, Oral; Min, James B.

    2002-01-01

    An advanced high-speed fan was recently designed under a cooperative effort between the NASA Glenn Research Center and Honeywell Engines & Systems. The principal design goals were to improve performance and to reduce fan noise at takeoff. Scale models of the Quiet High-Speed Fan were tested for operability, performance, and acoustics. During testing, the fan showed significantly improved noise characteristics, but a self-excited aeroelastic vibration known as flutter was encountered in the operating range. Flutter calculations were carried out for the Quiet High-Speed Fan using a three-dimensional, unsteady aerodynamic, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbomachinery code named "TURBO." The TURBO code can accurately model the viscous flow effects that can play an important role in various aeroelastic problems such as flutter with flow separation, flutter at high loading conditions near the stall line (stall flutter), and flutter in the presence of shock and boundary-layer interaction. Initially, calculations were performed with no blade vibrations. These calculations were at a constant rotational speed and a varying mass flow rate. The mass flow rate was varied by changing the backpressure at the exit boundary of the computational domain. These initial steady calculations were followed by aeroelastic calculations in which the blades were prescribed to vibrate harmonically in a natural mode, at a natural frequency, and with a fixed interblade phase angle between adjacent blades. The AE-prep preprocessor was used to interpolate the in-vacuum mode shapes from the structural dynamics mesh onto the computational fluid dynamics mesh and to smoothly propagate the grid deformations from the blade surface to the interior points of the grid. The aeroelastic calculations provided the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the blade surface due to blade vibrations. These forces were vector multiplied with the structural dynamic mode shape to calculate the work done on the blade during

  7. Wordplay, mindplay: Fan fiction and postclassical narratology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Van Steenhuyse

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent narrative theories on story worlds, or the worlds evoked by narratives, call attention to the process of fan reading and the role which the canon plays in that process. This paper posits that such theories can help us understand literary techniques that make a difference on the level of the reading experience that is implied by fan fiction texts. This is illustrated with a close reading of Naguabo's "The Mother of All Marriage Proposals," a Jane Austen fic.

  8. Integral Compressor/Generator/Fan Unitary Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Dreiman, Nelik

    2016-01-01

    INTEGRAL COMPRESSOR / GENERATOR / FAN UNITARY STRUCTURE.*) Dr. Nelik Dreiman Consultant, P.O.Box 144, Tipton, MI E-mail: An extremely compact, therefore space saving single compressor/generator/cooling fan structure of short axial length and light weight has been developed to provide generation of electrical power with simultaneous operation of the compressor when power is unavailable or function as a regular AC compressor powered by a power line. The generators and ai...

  9. Fan affinity laws from a collision model

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated from hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this work we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour of air is incorporated. Our calculations prove the affinity laws and provide numerical estimates of the air delivery, thrust and drag on a rotating fan.

  10. Aerodynamic modelling and optimization of axial fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noertoft Soerensen, Dan

    1998-01-01

    A numerically efficient mathematical model for the aerodynamics of low speed axial fans of the arbitrary vortex flow type has been developed. The model is based on a blade-element principle, whereby the rotor is divided into a number of annular stream tubes. For each of these stream tubes relations for velocity, pressure and radial position are derived from the conservation laws for mass, tangential momentum and energy. The equations are solved using the Newton-Raphson methods, and solutions converged to machine accuracy are found at small computing costs. The model has been validated against published measurements on various fan configurations, comprising two rotor-only fan stages, a counter-rotating fan unit and a stator-rotor stator stage. Comparisons of local and integrated properties show that the computed results agree well with the measurements. Optimizations have been performed to maximize the mean value of fan efficiency in a design interval of flow rates, thus designing a fan which operates well over a range of different flow conditions. The optimization scheme was used to investigate the dependence of maximum efficiency on 1: the number of blades, 2: the width of the design interval and 3: the hub radius. The degree of freedom in the choice of design variable and constraints, combined with the design interval concept, provides a valuable design-tool for axial fans. To further investigate the use of design optimization, a model for the vortex shedding noise from the trailing edge of the blades has been incorporated into the optimization scheme. The noise emission from the blades was minimized in a flow rate design point. Optimizations were performed to investigate the dependence of the noise on 1: the number of blades, 2: a constraint imposed on efficiency and 3: the hub radius. The investigations showed, that a significant reduction of noise could be achieved, at the expense of a small reduction in fan efficiency. (EG) 66 refs.

  11. Analysis of Axial Flow Ventilation Fans by Vortex - Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Richard Anthony

    A steady vortex-lattice method is used to solve the lifting surface equation for an axial flow fan. The type of fan studied is designed for industrial and ventilation applications and in thermofluid systems such as cooling towers. The fan blades are thin cambered surfaces manufactured from metal sheets. The numerical approach is inviscid and results in a boundary value problem with viscous effects partially accounted for by application of drag coefficient data. A non-linear wake alignment procedure is used to account for the effects of vorticity shedding in the wake and variation in wake geometry with operating conditions. The wake alignment procedure is semi-free with wake input parameters required for accurate use of the technique. A study of the wake parameters was conducted and gave trends in the variation of their values with flow rate. At "free-air" conditions, flow visualization estimates of these parameters were found to agree with those from the computations. Comparisons are made between the measured and predicted fan performance with and without a surrounding duct. The comparison of the results were especially good at the "free-air" condition using wake parameters determined from flow visualization and an inlet velocity profile measured using hot-wire anemometry. To enable better understanding of basic flow phenomena and to provide data for verification of numerical analyses, a method for measuring unsteady surface pressure on a rotating axial-flow fan blade was devised. Unsteadiness of pressure on the blade surfaces is due to the effects of upstream fan motor supports and other installation features. A pressure transducer and signal amplification circuit were mounted on a circuit board at the rotating hub with signals taken off the rotating shaft through copper disk-mercury slip rings. The pressure difference across the blade was determined and the data were corrected for time lag and distortion caused by the length of tubing. The pressure difference

  12. Natures of Rotating Stall Cell in a Diagonal Flow Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. SHIOMI; K. KANEKO; T. SETOGUCHI

    2005-01-01

    In order to clarify the natures of a rotating stall cell, the experimental investigation was carried out in a high specific-speed diagonal flow fan. The pressure field on the casing wall and the velocity fields at the rotor inlet and outlet were measured under rotating stall condition with a fast response pressure transducer and a single slant hot-wire probe, respectively. The data were processed using the "Double Phase-Locked Averaging (DPLA)"technique, which enabled to obtain the unsteady flow field with a rotating stall cell in the relative co-ordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, the structure and behavior of the rotating stall cell in a high specific-speed diagonal flow fan were shown.

  13. Experimental and numerical analysis on noise reduction in a multi-blade centrifugal fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. J.; Y Cao, T.; Su, J.; Qin, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, analysis on noise source and reduction in a multi-blade centrifugal fan used for air-conditioners was carried out by experimental and numerical methods. Firstly, an experimental system using microphone mounted on volute surface for measuring surface pressure fluctuations of volute was designed and introduced, then surface pressure fluctuations of the whole volute for a multi-blade centrifugal fan were measured by this system, and the inlet noise for this fan was also obtained. And then, based on the experimental results, the aerodynamic noise source of the studied fan was analysed. The surface pressure fluctuations of the volute showed that there were largest surface pressure fluctuations near the volute tongue, and peaks appeared at the Blade Passing Frequency (BPF). The spectra of fan inlet noise showed that the peaks also appeared at BPF, and noise levels in a wide range of frequency were also larger. Secondly, the internal flow of the fan was simulated by commercial software under the same conditions with the experiment, and then the fluid flow and acoustic power field were obtained and discussed. The contours of acoustic power level showed that the larger noise was generated at the impeller area close to the outlet of scroll and at the volute tongue, which is same as that from experiment. Based on all of the results, we can find that the vortex noise is an important part of fan noise for the studied fan, and the rotation noise also cannot be neglected. Finally, several reduction methods that are thought to be effective based on experimental and numerical results were suggested.

  14. 二部图的K1,4-因子分解%K1,4-factorization of bipartite graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建

    2001-01-01

    Km,n的K1,k-因子分解问题已被多位研究者所研究,当k=2时Km,n具有K1,2-因子分解的存在性问题已被Ushio完全解决.当k=3时Wang研究了Km,n的K1,3-因子分解问题,并给出了Km,n具有K1,3-因子分解的一个充分条件.本文研究Km,n的K1,4-因子分解问题,并给出Km,n具有K1,4-因子分解的一个充分条件.%The K1,k-factorization of complete bipartite graph Km,n has been studied by severalresearchers. When k = 2 , the spectum problem for K1,2-factorization of Km,n has been com-pletely solved by Ushio. When k=3, Wang investigated K1,3-factorization of Km, n and gavea sufficient condition for such a factorization to exist. In this paper, we investigate K1,4-fac-torization of Km, n, and give a sufficient condition for such a factorization to exist.

  15. Development of a glacially dominated shelf-slope-fan system in tectonically active southeast Alaska: Results of IODP Expedition 341 core-log-seismic integrated studies at glacial cycle resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, Sean; Jaeger, John; Mix, Alan; Swartz, John; Worthington, Lindsay; Reece, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Collision of the Yakutat microplate with North American formed the St. Elias Mountains in coastal Gulf of Alaska. While the tectonic driver for orogenesis has been ongoing since the Miocene, results from the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 341 suggests that direct climatic perturbation of active orogenesis through glacial erosion is non-linear. Geophysical studies of the glaciated continental margin, slope, and adjacent deep-sea Surveyor Fan allow examination of the glaciated orogen from source to sink. Using high-resolution and crustal-scale seismic data and through comparison with other glaciated margins, we can identify key diagnostic seismic morphologies and facies indicative of glacial proximity and sediment routing. Expedition drilling results calibrated these images suggesting a timeline for initial advances of the Cordilleran ice sheet related glacial systems onto the shelf and a further timeline for the development of ice streams that reach the shelf edge. Comparisons can be made within this single margin between evolution of the tectonic-glacial system where erosion and sediment transport are occurring within a fold and thrust belt versus on a more stable shelf region. Onshore the Bering-Bagley glacial system in the west flows across the Yakataga fold and thrust belt, allowing examination of whether glacial erosion can cause tectonic feedbacks, whereas offshore the Bering-Bagley system interacts with the Pamplona Zone thrusts in a region of significant sediment accommodation. Results from Expedition 341 imply that timing of glacial advance to the shelf edge in this region may be driven by the necessity of filling up the accommodation through aggradation followed by progradation and thus is autogenic. In contrast the Malaspina-Hubbard glacial system to the east encountered significantly less accommodation and more directly responded to climatic forcing including showing outer shelf glacial occupation since the mid-Pleistocene transition-MPT to

  16. Fan relationship management in football - going beyond traditional product offerings to win the hearts of fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The management and control of fan relations should go beyond a football club’s traditional product and service offerings and touch the important experiential side of the football economy. This will create a stronger platform to optimize ROI, ROE and ROO relating to different fan segments....

  17. Novel Crosstalk Measurement Method for Multi-Core Fiber Fan-In/Fan-Out Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Feihong; Ono, Hirotaka; Abe, Yoshiteru;

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new crosstalk measurement method for multi-core fiber fan-in/fan-out devices utilizing the Fresnel reflection. Compared with the traditional method using core-to-core coupling between a multi-core fiber and a single-mode fiber, the proposed method has the advantages of high reliabili...

  18. Cellular responses in sea fan corals: granular amoebocytes react to pathogen and climate stressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D Mydlarz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate warming is causing environmental change making both marine and terrestrial organisms, and even humans, more susceptible to emerging diseases. Coral reefs are among the most impacted ecosystems by climate stress, and immunity of corals, the most ancient of metazoans, is poorly known. Although coral mortality due to infectious diseases and temperature-related stress is on the rise, the immune effector mechanisms that contribute to the resistance of corals to such events remain elusive. In the Caribbean sea fan corals (Anthozoa, Alcyonacea: Gorgoniidae, the cell-based immune defenses are granular acidophilic amoebocytes, which are known to be involved in wound repair and histocompatibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate for the first time in corals that these cells are involved in the organismal response to pathogenic and temperature stress. In sea fans with both naturally occurring infections and experimental inoculations with the fungal pathogen Aspergillus sydowii, an inflammatory response, characterized by a massive increase of amoebocytes, was evident near infections. Melanosomes were detected in amoebocytes adjacent to protective melanin bands in infected sea fans; neither was present in uninfected fans. In naturally infected sea fans a concurrent increase in prophenoloxidase activity was detected in infected tissues with dense amoebocytes. Sea fans sampled in the field during the 2005 Caribbean Bleaching Event (a once-in-hundred-year climate event responded to heat stress with a systemic increase in amoebocytes and amoebocyte densities were also increased by elevated temperature stress in lab experiments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The observed amoebocyte responses indicate that sea fan corals use cellular defenses to combat fungal infection and temperature stress. The ability to mount an inflammatory response may be a contributing factor that allowed the survival of even infected sea fan corals during a

  19. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3 (tm) replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost-effectiveness. The results of this study are intended to be useful to home performance contractors, HVAC contractors, and home efficiency program stakeholders. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Average fan power reductions were approximately 126 Watts during heating and 220 Watts during cooling operation. Over the course of entire heating and cooling seasons, these translated into average electric energy savings of 163 kWh. Average cost savings were $20 per year. Homes where the fan was used outside of heating and cooling mode saved an additional $42 per year on average. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost-effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  20. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 3; Active Fan Noise Cancellation in the NASA Lewis Active Noise Control Fan Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Frederic G.; Hu, Ziqiang; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Active Noise Cancellation (ANC) System designed by General Electric and tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center's (LERC) 48 inch Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF). The goal of this study is to assess the feasibility of using wall mounted secondary acoustic sources and sensors within the duct of a high bypass turbofan aircraft engine for global active noise cancellation of fan tones. The GE ANC system is based on a modal control approach. A known acoustic mode propagating in the fan duct is canceled using an array of flush-mounted compact sound sources. The canceling modal signal is generated by a modal controller. Inputs to the controller are signals from a shaft encoder and from a microphone array which senses the residual acoustic mode in the duct. The key results are that the (6,0) was completely eliminated at the 920 Hz design frequency and substantially reduced elsewhere. The total tone power was reduced 6.8 dB (out of a possible 9.8 dB). Farfield reductions of 15 dB (SPL) were obtained. The (4,0) and (4,1) modes were reduced simultaneously yielding a 15 dB PWL decrease. The results indicate that global attenuation of PWL at the target frequency was obtained in the aft quadrant using an ANC actuator and sensor system totally contained within the duct. The quality of the results depended on precise mode generation. High spillover into spurious modes generated by the ANC actuator array caused less than optimum levels of PWL reduction. The variation in spillover is believed to be due to calibration procedure, but must be confirmed in subsequent tests.

  1. Deglacial Flood Origin of the Charleston Alluvial Fan, Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Donna A.; Guccione, Margaret J.

    1994-05-01

    Large-magnitude flooding of the Mississippi River from proglacial lakes Agassiz and Superior most likely occurred between 11,300 and 10,900 and 9900 and 9500 yr B.P. The Charleston alluvial fan, a depositional remnant of one of these floods, is located at the head of a wide alluvial plain near Charleston, Missouri. The fan is an elongate, convex-up sand body (16 × 24 km) composed of medium- and fine-grained sand at least 8 m thick. This sand contrasts with the older coarse-grained sand of the braided stream surface to the west and south and younger silty clay of the meandering stream level to the north and east. A weakly developed soil separates the underlying braided steam deposits from the alluvial fan. A bulk-soil radiocarbon date of 10,590 ± 200 yr B.P. from the contact between the fan and clays of the meandering stream system indicates that the Charleston fan was deposited near the end of the early interval of flooding from Lake Agassiz about 10,900 yr B.P. If the Charleston fan is the last remnant of deglacial flooding in the lower Mississippi Valley, then deposition of significant quantities of sediment from largemagnitude floods between 10,000 and 9500 yr B.P. did not extend into the lower Mississippi Valley through Thebes Gap.

  2. Cultivos de células CHO-K1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Nóvoa-Valiñas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de determinados metales pesados y pesticidas es la estrategia más empleada para el control de plagas. Estas sustancias, una vez aplicadas a los cultivos, pueden pasan al medio ambiente, permaneciendo en él como xenobióticos que van a afectar, en mayor o menor medida, a los seres vivos. En el presente estudio se ha evaluado la toxicidad basal de un metal, cobre, y un pesticida organoclorado, lindano, así como mezclas de ambos a distintas concentraciones. Para llevar a cabo este trabajo se ha utilizado la línea celular CHO-K1 (células epiteliales de ovario de hamster, usándose como criterio de citotoxicidad la muerte celular, determinada mediante la técnica del rojo neutro. Las concentraciones iniciales fueron: 0,03; 0,06 y 0,9 mM de cobre y 0,01; 0,03 y 0,1 mM de lindano. Y en las mezclas, las concentraciones estuvieron comprendidas entre 0,01-0,9 de cobre y 0,001-0,1de lindano. Como resultados, la citotoxicidad del cobre y lindano fue dosis-dependiente. En las exposiciones a mezclas se observa que a concentraciones fijas de lindano, la viabilidad desciende al aumentar la concentración de cobre, mientras que, dentro de un cierto rango, a concentraciones fijas de cobre, la viabilidad celular se incrementa al aumentar la concentración de lindano

  3. 计算n∑k=1 f(k)的一个初等方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欣芳

    1994-01-01

    本文利用二项式定理推出前n个自然数的各次方和公式,进而将n∑k=1 f(k)=n∑k=1 (ackm+a1km-1+...+am-1k+am)写成n∑k=1 km+a1n∑k=1 km-1+...+am-1n∑k=1 K+amn∑k=1 1从而进行有关的计算。

  4. Influence of explosive volcanic events on the activation versus de-activation of a modern turbidite system: the example of the Dohrn canyon-fan in the continental slope of the Campania volcanic district (Naples Bay, Italy - Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, M.; Budillon, F.; Pappone, G.; Insinga, D.

    2015-12-01

    The interplay between volcanic activity, volcano-clastic yield and activation/deactivation of a turbidite system can be evaluated along the continental margin of Campania region (Tyrrhenian Sea - Italy), an active volcanic area, where three wide canyon-fans occur at short distances one to another. Actually, the Dohrn, Magnaghi and Cuma canyons cut the continental slope and shelf off Ischia and Procida volcanic islands and off the Campania Plain where Phlegraean Field and Mt. Vesuvius active vents are located. This research, partly supported by the Italian Flagship Project Ritmare, is based on single-channel, high-resolution seismic profiles (Sparker-One 16 kJ, 0.5 s twtt), swath-bathymetry and litho- and tephra-stratigraphy of gravity cores. We focused on the stratigraphic constraint of paleo-thalweg features and channel/levees deposits in seismics, debris flow, turbidites and hemipelagites in cores, to learn more on the activation/deactivation stages of the canyon Dohrn, in the frame of relative eustatic sea level variations over the Middle Pleistocene-Holocene time span.Preliminary outcomes suggest that even major volcanic events occurred in the last 300 ky, such as ignimbrite eruptions or large fallouts, have caused the infilling of the canyon head and the cover of pre-existing seabed morphology. As a consequence, the temporary deactivation of the turbidite system has occurred, despite the volcano-clastic overload in the coastal environment. Phases of renewed activities of the thalweg are observed to be in step with falling stages of sea level, which have driven the re-incision of canyon valleys through continuous volcano-clastic debris and turbidites down-flows. Since Holocene, the quiescence of the Dohrn Canyon has been documented, despite the intense volcano-tectonic activity in the area.

  5. Measurement of Branching Fractions of B0 Decays to K1(1270)+ pi- and K1(1400)+ pi-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, Bernard; Bona, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Lopez, L.; Palano, Antimo; Pappagallo, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Eigen, G.; Stugu, Bjarne; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Abrams, G.S.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Cahn, Robert N.; Jacobsen, R.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /Consorzio Milano Ricerche /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /Banca di Roma /Frascati /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2008-08-04

    We present a measurement of the branching fraction of neutral B meson decaying to final states containing a K1 meson, i.e. K{sub 1}(1270) and K{sub 1}(1400), and a charged pion. The data, collected with the BABAR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, represent 454 million B{bar B} pairs produced in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation. We measure the branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub 1}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) = (31.0 {+-} 2.7 {+-} 6.9) x 10{sup -6}, where the first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic. In the framework of the K-matrix formalism used to describe these decays, we also set limits on the ratio of the production constants for the K{sub 1}(1270){sup +} and K{sub 1}(1400){sup +} mesons in B{sup 0} decays.

  6. Application of DDVC hydraulic system in axial flow fan stator blade adjustment%直驱式液压系统在轴流风机静叶调节中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阁强; 王帅; 郭冰菁; 李跃松

    2016-01-01

    The axial flow fan is a kind of turbomachinery equipment to provide compressed gas and the stator blade adjusting mechanism is the key to the whole system. Taking the stator blade adjustment electro-hydraulic servo system as the research object,the traditional hydraulic servo system is vulnerable to oil pollution,high fail-ure rate and low energy conversion efficiency. To solve the above-mentioned problems,the Direct drive volume control hydraulic system for stator blade adjustment is designed,the hydraulic power source of the system is com-posed of servo motor and bidirectional quantitative pump. The working principle of this system is analyzed,the simulation model of hydraulic system is built and solved. The results show that the new system has higher energy efficiency,the structure is more compact,the machine power is smaller and the control is more automatic and in-telligent as compared to the traditional one.%轴流风机是一种提供压缩气体的透平机械设备,其中静叶调节机构是整个调节系统的关键。以轴流风机静叶调节电液伺服系统为研究对象,针对传统液压伺服系统易受油质污染、故障率高、能量转化效率过低的缺点,设计了以伺服电机带动定量泵作为液压动力源的直驱式容积控制液压系统,对此系统的工作原理做了研究,并对液压系统进行了仿真。结果表明:新的系统更加节能,结构更加紧凑,整机功率更小,控制上更为自动化与智能化。

  7. Design Guidelines for Quiet Fans and Pumps for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, John S.; Magliozzi, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    This document presents guidelines for the design of quiet fans and pumps of the class used on space vehicles. A simple procedure is presented for the prediction of fan noise over the meaningful frequency spectrum. A section also presents general design criteria for axial flow fans, squirrel cage fans, centrifugal fans, and centrifugal pumps. The basis for this report is an experimental program conducted by Hamilton Standard under NASA Contract NAS 9-12457. The derivations of the noise predicting methods used in this document are explained in Hamilton Standard Report SVHSER 6183, "Fan and Pump Noise Control," dated May 1973 (6).

  8. Numerical Aerodynamic Evaluation and Noise Investigation of a Bladeless Fan

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad jafari; Hossein Afshin; Bijan Farhanieh; Hamidreza bozorgasareh

    2015-01-01

    Bladeless fan is a novel fan type that has no observable impeller, usually used for domestic applications. Numerical investigation of a Bladeless fan via Finite Volume Method was carried out in this study. The fan was placed in center of a 4×2×2m room and 473 Eppler airfoil profile was used as cross section of the fan. Performance and noise level of the fan by solving continuity and momentum equations as well as noise equations of Broadband Noise Source (BNS) and Ffowcs Williams a...

  9. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): The aerodynamic and mechanical design of the QCSEE under-the-wing fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two experimental high bypass geared turbofan engines and propulsion systems for short haul passenger aircraft are described. The aerodynamic and mechanical design of a variable pitch 1.34 pressure ratio fan for the under the wing (UTW) engine are included. The UTW fan was designed to permit rotation of the 18 composite fan blades into the reverse thrust mode of operation through both flat pitch and stall pitch directions.

  10. Productions of $K^*_0(1430)$ and $K_{1}$ in B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C H; Hsiao, Y K; Wei, Z T; Chen, Chuan-Hung; Geng, Chao-Qiang; Hsiao, Yu-Kuo; Wei, Zheng-Tao

    2005-01-01

    We study the productions of p-wave mesons $K^*_{0}(1430)$, $K_{1}(1270)$ and $K_{1}(1400)$ in B decays. By the generalized factorization approach, we find that the branching ratios of $B\\to K^*_{0}(1430) \\phi$ are similar to those of $B\\to K \\phi$ while the branching ratios of $B\\to K_{1}(1270) \\phi$ and $B\\to K_{1}(1400) \\phi$ are %could be $O(10^{-5})$ and $O(10^{-6})$, respectively. In terms of the observation of $B\\to K_{1}(1270) \\gamma$ by BELLE, we can remove the sign ambiguity in the mixing angle for physical states $K_1(1270)$ and $K_{1}(1400)$. In addition, we analyze annihilation contributions in the decays $B\\to K_1 \\phi$ and we conclude that they could be neglected.

  11. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR CALCULATING FAN AERODYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dostal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results obtained between 2010 and 2014 in the field of fan aerodynamics at the Department of Composite Technology at the VZLÚ aerospace research and experimental institute in Prague – Letnany. The need for rapid and accurate methods for the preliminary design of blade machinery led to the creation of a mathematical model based on the basic laws of turbomachine aerodynamics. The mathematical model, the derivation of which is briefly described below, has been encoded in a computer programme, which enables the theoretical characteristics of a fan of the designed geometry to be determined rapidly. The validity of the mathematical model is assessed continuously by measuring model fans in the measuring unit, which was developed and manufactured specifically for this purpose. The paper also presents a comparison between measured characteristics and characteristics determined by the mathematical model as the basis for a discussion on possible causes of measured deviations and calculation deviations.

  12. Quaternary alluvial fans of Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, northern México: OSL ages and implications for climatic history of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga de León, David; Kershaw, Stephen; Mahan, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Alluvial fans formed from sediments derived from erosion of the Juárez Mountains in northernmost México have a significant flood impact on the Ciudad Juárez, which is built on the fan system. The northern part of Ciudad Juárez is the most active; further south, older parts of the fan, upon which the rest of the city is built, were largely eroded by natural processes prior to human habitation and subsequently modified only recently by human construction. Three aeolian sand samples, collected from the uppermost (youngest) parts of the fan system in the city area, in places where human intervention has not disturbed the sediment, and constrain the latest dates of fan building. Depositional ages of the Quaternary alluvial fans were measured using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) on aeolian sands that have inter-fingered with alluvial fan material. These dates are: a) sample P1, 31 ka; b) sample P2, 41 ka; c) sample P3, 74 ka, between Oxygen Isotope Stages (OIS) 3 to 5. They demonstrate that fan development, in the area now occupied by the city, terminated in the Late Pleistocene, immediately after what we interpret to have been an extended period of erosion without further deposition, lasting from the Late Pleistocene to Holocene. The three dates broadly correspond to global glacial periods, implying that the cool, dry periods may reflect periods of aeolian transport in northern México in between phases that were wetter to form the alluvial fans. Alluvial fan margins inter-finger with fluvial terrace sediments derived from the Río Bravo, indicating an additional component of fan dissection by Río Bravo lateral erosion, presumed to be active during earlier times than our OSL ages, but these are not yet dated. Further dating is required to ascertain the controls on the fan and fluvial system.

  13. Influences of the wind break wall structures upon fluid dynamics of axial flow fans in direct air-cooled system%挡风墙对直接空冷风机群流体动力学特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅倩; 王玉叶; 贾鹏程; 刘翔; 杨飞; 王海生

    2012-01-01

    Influences of the wind break wall structures upon fluid dynamics of axial flow fans in direct air-cooled system are numerically simulated under various wind velocities. The results show that the all-concaved wind break wall not only contributed to wind suction of peripheral fans, but also weakened the hot recirculation rate, and the half-concaved wind break wall is more beneficial to the wind suction. These conclusions may provide certain reference to the realization of divisional regulation of fan group and saving energy for power plant.%通过数值模拟法对直接空冷凝汽器风机群流体动力学特性进行研究,分析不同风速情况下,挡风墙形状对空冷风机群流体动力学特性的影响.研究结果表明:挡风墙全凹时不仅有利于周边风机吸风,并能削弱热风回流,挡风墙下凹更有利于周边风机吸风.研究结果为实现空冷风机分区调节和电厂节能提供一定基础数据.

  14. LDA measurements on the turbulent flow characteristics of a small-sized axial fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Kweon [Kunsan National Univ., Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The operating point of a small-sized axial fan for refrigerator is strongly dependent upon the system resistance. Therefore, the turbulent flow characteristics around a small-sized axial fan may change significantly according to the operating point. This study represents three-dimensional turbulent flow characteristics around a small-sized axial fan measured at the four operating points such as {phi}=0.1, 0.18, 0.25 and 0.32 by using fiber-optic type LDA system. This LDA system is composed of a 5 W Argon-ion laser, two optics in back-scatter mode, three BSA's, a PC, and a three-dimensional automatic traversing system. A kind of paraffin fluid is utilized for supplying particles by means of fog generator. Mean velocity profiles downstream of a small--sized axial fan along the radial distance show that both the streamwise and the tangential components exist predominantly in downstream except {phi}=0.1 and have a maximum value at the radial distance ratio of about 0.8, but the radial component, which its velocity is relatively small, is acting role that only turns flow direction to the outside or the central part of axial fan. Moreover, all of the velocity components downstream at {phi}=0.1 show much smaller than those upstream due to the static pressure rise at the low-flowrate region.

  15. Homophobia, heteronormativity, and slash fan fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April S. Callis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available I analyze the relationship between homophobia/heteronormativity and slash fan fiction. Through reading and coding almost 6,000 pages of Kirk/Spock fan fiction written from 1978 to 2014, I illuminate shifts in how normative gender and sexuality are portrayed by K/S authors. Writers of K/S, while ostensibly writing about the 23rd century, consciously or unconsciously include cultural norms from the 20th and 21st centuries. Thus, slash becomes a lens through which readers can view a decrease in both homophobia and heteronormativity in US culture over the past several decades.

  16. Fan fiction metadata creation and utilization within fan fiction archives: Three primary models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Fay Johnson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Issues related to searchability and ease of access have plagued fan fiction since its inception. This paper discusses the predominate forms of fan-mediated indexing and descriptive metadata, commonly referred to as folksonomy or tagging, and compares the benefits and disadvantages of each model. These models fall into three broad categories: free tagging, controlled vocabulary, and hybrid folksonomy. Each model has distinct advantages and shortcomings related to findability, results filtering, and creative empowerment. Examples for each are provided. Possible ramifications to fan fiction from improved metadata and access are also discussed.

  17. Experiencing fan activism: Understanding the power of fan activist organizations through members' narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neta Kligler-Vilenchik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fan activism, forms of civic engagement and political participation growing out of experiences of fandom, is a powerful mode of mobilization, particularly for young people. Building on 40 interviews with members of two organizations representing different configurations of fan activism, this article discusses three emerging elements that are key to the experience of membership in such groups. We suggest that the strength of fan activist groups builds on successfully combining these elements: two that are common to fandom, shared media experiences and a sense of community, and one that is traditionally ascribed to volunteerism and activism, the wish to help.

  18. Alluvial Fan Study Submission for UMATILLA COUNTY, OREGON

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Alluvial fan study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix G: Guidance for Alluvial Fan Flooding Analyses and Mapping

  19. 嵌入式低压电力线通信风机控制系统设计%Embedded Control System Design for Fan Based on Low-Voltage Power Lines communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾素琼

    2012-01-01

    Low-Voltage power lines carrier communication using the existing power lines, replacing the pain of re-wiring, it is ideal for intelligent control system induced by ventilation. Control system of low-voltage power lines carrier communication for inductive ventilation are designed based on LPC2132 (ARM7) and ST7538. The main circurts are designed, including controller o f circuit connection diagram based on the LPC2132 and ST7538, the interface circuit design of voltage power lines carrier communication; the module circuit of CO detection and smoke detection; Discussed the master/slave communication process and designed the fan' control and system software. The system is mainly used for underground parking, underground shopping malls, stadiums and other large -scale place. The design has the simple construction, low cost, plug-and-play, anti-interference ability* debugging maintain convenience etc, it has some practical value.%低压电力线载波通信利用原有供电线路,免去重新布线之苦,非常适用于诱导通风智能控制系统;设计了基于LPC2132(ARM7)与ST7538的低压电力线载波通信诱导风机控制系统,对系统的主要电路作了设计,包括基于LPC2132与ST7538的控制器电路连接图、电力线载波通信接口、CO检测、烟雾检测等模块电路;讨论了主/从通信过程、风机控制及系统的软件设计;系统主要用于地下停车场、地下商场、大型场馆等需自动通风及防火的场所;该设计方案与传统的总线式通风控制系统相比,具有系统构建简单、成本低、即插即用、抗干扰能力强、调试维护方便等优点,具有一定实用价值.

  20. Differential impact of multi-focus fan beam collimation with L-mode and conventional systems on the accuracy of myocardial perfusion imaging: Quantitative evaluation using phantoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsunori Saho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A novel IQ-SPECTTM method has become widely used in clinical studies. The present study compares the quality of myocardial perfusion images (MPI acquired using the IQ-SPECTTM (IQ-mode,conventional (180° apart: C-mode and L-mode (90° apart: L-mode systems. We assessed spatial resolution, image reproducibility and quantifiability using various physical phantoms. Materials and Methods: SPECT images were acquired using a dual-headed gamma camera with C-mode, L-mode, and IQ-mode acquisition systems from line source, pai and cardiac phantoms containing solutions of 99mTc. The line source phantom was placed in the center of the orbit and at ± 4.0, ± 8.0, ± 12.0, ± 16.0 and ± 20.0 cm off center. We examined quantifiability using the pai phantom comprising six chambers containing 0.0, 0.016, 0.03, 0.045, 0.062, and 0.074 MBq/mLof 99m-Tc and cross-calibrating the SPECT counts. Image resolution and reproducibility were quantified as myocardial wall thickness (MWT and %uptake using polar maps. Results: The full width at half maximum (FWHM of the IQ-mode in the center was increased by 11% as compared with C-mode, and FWHM in the periphery was increased 41% compared with FWHM at the center. Calibrated SPECT counts were essentially the same when quantified using IQ-and C-modes. IQ-SPECT images of MWT were significantly improved (P<0.001 over L-mode, and C-mode SPECT imaging with IQ-mode became increasingly inhomogeneous, both visually and quantitatively (C-mode vs. L-mode, ns; C-mode vs. IQ-mode, P<0.05. Conclusion: Myocardial perfusion images acquired by IQ-SPECT were comparable to those acquired by conventional and L-mode SPECT, but with significantly improved resolution and quality. Our results suggest that IQ-SPECT is the optimal technology for myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging.

  1. Multi-mode q-oscillator algebras with q2(k+1)= 1 and related thermo field dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亚军

    2002-01-01

    A type of multi-mode q-oscillator algebra with q2(k+1) = 1 is set up and the associated qk-thermo field dynamics is constructed for all k = 1, 2, …, ∞ in a unified form. It is demonstrated that these qk-thermo field dynamics can all be nicely fitted into the algebraic formulation of statistical mechanics (axiomatized form for statistical physics). This means that we obtain infinitely many realizations of the algebraic scheme, which extend the consideration of Ojima[1981 Ann. Phys. 137 1] and contain the usual thermo field dynamics for the fermionic (k = 1) and bosonic (k = ∞)systems as special cases. As simple applications, the qk-statistical average of some operators are given.

  2. Fan action and political participation on "The Colbert Report"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Schulzke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Colbert Report merges the increasingly popular political satire genre with fan activism. The result is that the fan community helps to construct Colbert's malleable character and demonstrates symbolic power through its willingness to act. The fans are usually a nonpartisan force, acting to produce entertainment rather than substantive political change. However, this can be politically meaningful, as the fans' projects promote collective action, parallel political activities like voting and protesting, and encourage critical thinking about political information.

  3. Bending elasticity modulus of giant vesicles composed of aeropyrum pernix k1 archaeal lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Julia; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Kralj-Iglič, Veronika; Iglič, Aleš; Bivas, Isak

    2015-03-26

    Thermally induced shape fluctuations were used to study elastic properties of giant vesicles composed of archaeal lipids C25,25-archetidyl (glucosyl) inositol and C25,25-archetidylinositol isolated from lyophilised Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells. Giant vesicles were created by electroformation in pure water environment. Stroboscopic illumination using a xenon flash lamp was implemented to remove the blur effect due to the finite integration time of the camera and to obtain an instant picture of the fluctuating vesicle shape. The mean weighted value of the bending elasticity modulus kc of the archaeal membrane determined from the measurements meeting the entire set of qualification criteria was (1.89 ± 0.18) × 10-19 J, which is similar to the values obtained for a membrane composed of the eukaryotic phospholipids SOPC (1.88 ± 0.17) × 10-19 J and POPC (2.00 ± 0.21) ´ 10-19 J. We conclude that membranes composed of archaeal lipids isolated from Aeropyrum pernix K1 cells have similar elastic properties as membranes composed of eukaryotic lipids. This fact, together with the importance of the elastic properties for the normal circulation through blood system, provides further evidence in favor of expectations that archaeal lipids could be appropriate for the design of drug delivery systems.

  4. A repetitive control scheme aiming to compensate the 6k+1 harmonics for three-phase hybrid active filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Zhaoxu; Su, Mei; Yang, Jian;

    2016-01-01

    in stationary reference frame, which only compensates the 6k+1 harmonics (e.g. -5, +7, -11, +13) in three-phase systems and reduces the time delay to T0/6 . So compared with the earlier reduced delay time repetitive controllers, the robustness and transient performance is further improved, the waste of control...

  5. Dead links, vaporcuts, and creativity in fan edit replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wille

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In my examination of a Star Wars prequel trilogy fan edit reportedly made by Topher Grace, I introduce the term vaporcut to describe fan edits with reputations that may generate critical discourse but that are not publicly released. I explore the ways some fan editors attempt to recreate intangible projects but inevitably produce variant works that reflect their own creative perspectives.

  6. Star Trek Rerun, Reread, Rewritten: Fan Writing as Textual Poaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins III, Henry

    1988-01-01

    Discusses women who write fiction and fan literature based on the "Star Trek" universe, outlining how Star Trek fans force the primary text to accommodate alternate interests. Also considers the issue of literary property in light of the moral economy of the fan community that shapes the range of permissible retellings of the program…

  7. Investigation of the turbulent swirl flow in pipe generated by axial fans using PIV and LDA methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čantrak Đorđe S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented experimental investigation of the turbulent swirl flow in pipe generated by axial fans. Two various models of industrial axial fans are used. One of these is axial fan W30, model AP 400, Minel, Serbia and has seven blades and outer diameter 0.397m. Second axial fan SP30 is model TGT/2-400-6, S&P, Spain, has six blades and outer diameter 0.386m. This results with greater clearance in the second case. Blades were adjusted for both fans at the angle of 30° at the outer diameter. Test rig length is 27.74-D, where D is average inner diameter app. 0.4 m. Measurements are performed in two measuring sections downstream the axial fans (z/D = 3.35 and z/D = 26.31 with one-component laser Doppler anemometry (LDA system and stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV. Obtained Reynolds numbers, calculated on the basis of the average axial velocity (Um in the first measuring section are for fan SP30 Re = 226757, while for fan W30 Re = 254010. Integral flow parameters are determined such as average circulation and swirl number. Significant downstream axial velocity transformation occurs for both fans, while circumferential velocity is decreased, but non-dimensional velocity profile remains the same. Circumferential velocity distribution for both fans in the central zone corresponds to the solid body, while in r/R > 0.4, where D = 2R, distribution is more uniform. Radial velocity in the case of fan SP30 has almost zero values in the measuring section z/D = 3.35, while its values are significantly increased in the downstream section with the maximum in the vortex core region. On the contrary radial velocity decreases downstream for fan W30 and has also maximum value in the vortex core region for both measuring sections. Level of turbulence, skewness and flatness factors are calculated on the basis of the experimental data. The highest levels of turbulence for circumferential velocity are reached in the vortex core region for both fans

  8. FOREWORD: 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Yuan, Shouqi; Shi, Weidong; Liu, Shuhong; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2013-12-01

    The 6th International Conference on Pumps and Fans with Compressors and Wind Turbines (ICPF 2013) was held in Beijing, China, 19-22 September 2013, which was jointly organized by Tsinghua University and Jiangsu University. The co-organizers were Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, The State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy and Beijing International Science and Technology Cooperation Base for CO2 Utilization and Reduction. The sponsor of the conference was Concepts NREC. The First International Conference on Pumps and Systems (May 1992), the Second International Conference on Pumps and Fans (October 1995), the Third International Conference on Pumps and Fans (October 1998), and the Fourth International Conference on Pumps and Fans (26-29 August 2002) were all held in Beijing and were organized by the late famous Chinese professor on fluid machinery and engineering, Professor Zuyan Mei of Tsinghua University. The conference was interrupted by the death of Professor Mei in 2003. In order to commemorate Professor Mei, the organizing committee of ICPF decided to continue organizing the conference series. The Fifth Conference on Pumps and Systems (2010 ICPF) took place in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China, 18-21 October 2010, and it was jointly organized by Zhejiang University and Tsinghua University. With the development of renewable energy and new energy in China and in the world, some small types of compressor and some types of pump, as well as wind turbines are developing very fast; therefore the ICPF2013 conference included compressors and wind turbines. The theme of the conference was the application of renewable energy of pumps, compressors, fans and blowers. The content of the conference was the basic study, design and experimental study of compressors, fans, blowers and pumps; the CFD application on pumps and fans, their transient behavior, unsteady flows and multi-phase flow

  9. Fan Stall Flutter Flow Mechanism Studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepicovsky, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Modern turbofan engines employ a highly loaded fan stage with transonic or low-supersonic velocities in the blade-tip region. The fan blades are often prone to flutter at off-design conditions. Flutter is a highly undesirable and dangerous self-excited mode of blade oscillations that can result in high-cycle fatigue blade failure. The origins of blade flutter are not fully understood yet. Experimental data that can be used to clarify the origins of blade flutter in modern transonic fan designs are very limited. The Transonic Flutter Cascade Facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center was developed to experimentally study the details of flow mechanisms associated with fan flutter. The cascade airfoils are instrumented to measure high-frequency unsteady flow variations in addition to the steady flow data normally recorded in cascade tests. The test program measures the variation in surface pressure in response to the oscillation of one or more of the cascade airfoils. However, during the initial phases of the program when all airfoils were in fixed positions, conditions were found where significant time variations in the pressures near the airfoil leading edges could be observed.

  10. Acoustic analysis of a computer cooling fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lixi; Wang, Jian

    2005-10-01

    Noise radiated by a typical computer cooling fan is investigated experimentally and analyzed within the framework of rotor-stator interaction noise using point source formulation. The fan is 9 cm in rotor casing diameter and its design speed is 3000 rpm. The main noise sources are found and quantified; they are (a) the inlet flow distortion caused by the sharp edges of the incomplete bellmouth due to the square outer framework, (b) the interaction of rotor blades with the downstream struts which hold the motor, and (c) the extra size of one strut carrying electrical wiring. Methods are devised to extract the rotor-strut interaction noise, (b) and (c), radiated by the component forces of drag and thrust at the leading and higher order spinning pressure modes, as well as the leading edge noise generated by (a). By re-installing the original fan rotor in various casings, the noises radiated by the three features of the original fan are separated, and details of the directivity are interpreted. It is found that the inlet flow distortion and the unequal set of four struts make about the same amount of noise. Their corrections show a potential of around 10-dB sound power reduction.

  11. Generalized sorting profile of alluvial fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kimberly Litwin; Reitz, Meredith D.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2014-10-01

    Alluvial rivers often exhibit self-similar gravel size distributions and abrupt gravel-sand transitions. Experiments suggest that these sorting patterns are established rapidly, but how—and how fast—this convergence occurs in the field is unknown. We examine the establishment of downstream sorting patterns in a kilometer-scale alluvial fan. The sharp transition from canyon to unconfined, channelized fan provides a well-defined boundary condition. The channel changes from deep and entrenched at the fan apex to shallow and depositional over a short distance, exhibiting nonequilibrium behavior. The resulting gravel-fining profile is not self-similar; the particle size distribution narrows until approximate equal mobility is achieved. Downfan, the gravel-sand transition appears to exhibit a self-similar form; field and laboratory data collapse when downstream distance is normalized by the location of the transition. Results suggest a generalized sorting profile for alluvial fans as a consequence of the threshold of motion and nonequilibrium channels.

  12. Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…

  13. Test particle acceleration in torsional fan reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, M.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is understood to be a potential mechanism for particle acceleration in astrophysical and space plasmas, especially in solar flares. Torsional fan reconnection is one of the proposed mechanisms for steady-state three-dimensional (3D) magnetic reconnection. By using the magnetic and electric fields for `torsional fan reconnection', the features of test particle acceleration with input parameters for the solar corona are investigated numerically. We show that torsional fan reconnection is potentially an efficient particle accelerator and a proton can gain up to tens of MeV of kinetic energy within only a few milliseconds. Although the final kinetic energy of the accelerated particle depends on the injection position but there exists only one scenario for the particle's trajectory with different initial positions in which the particle is accelerated on the fan plane. Moreover, adopting either spatially uniform or non-uniform localized plasma resistivity does not much influence the features of trajectory. These results are compared with those of torsional spine reconnection.

  14. Fan Affinity Laws from a Collision Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shayak

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a fan is usually estimated using hydrodynamical considerations. The calculations are long and involved and the results are expressed in terms of three affinity laws. In this paper we use kinetic theory to attack this problem. A hard sphere collision model is used, and subsequently a correction to account for the flow behaviour…

  15. Characterization and Effects of the Shock Losses in a Parallel Fan Station in the Underground Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Gou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep underground mines are highly energy consuming due to the need to overcome the growing airflow resistance. The multi-fan station ventilation system (MFSVS, formed by several parallel fans at different locations in an underground mine generally, has greatly reduced energy costs by using high-quantity and low-pressure energy-saving fans. However, experimental data still indicates that 30–70% of the fan pressure is used to overcome the severe shock losses in a parallel fan station (PFS, in spite of more than 80% operating efficiency, and the shock losses greatly weaken the superiority and the service capacity of PFS. Based on the investigation and measured data of several PFSs in a MFSVS in an underground mine, a three-dimensional PFS model was developed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD to demonstrate airflow performance and variation characteristics of velocity, pressure and turbulence. First, the fan characteristic in the PFS was discussed and compared with the fan operating performance under standard conditions; the shock losses were then presented from both sides of the inlet shock losses and the outlet shock losses in the PFS; meanwhile, the effects of blade angle variation and airflow mutual interference were conducted to determine whether they exert a significant influence on the shock losses. The results show that the shock losses are primarily generated in the range of 0 to 3.0 m from the fans’ exits, due to the intensely change in air velocity in the PFS. The study also provides several directions and references for recovering air pressure and reducing energy consumption in the parallel fans’ structure.

  16. Fan Ky不等式的一个新改进%A New Improvement of Fan Ky's Inequality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄政; 高明哲; 徐景实

    2010-01-01

    利用Gram矩阵的正定性和可变单位向量建立了Fan Ky不等式的一个新的改进,并且建立了反向Fan Ky不等式.对于非奇异矩阵,得到了Fan Ky不等式以及反向Fan Ky不等式的推广.

  17. Development of a Certified Reference Material for Lyophilized Vitamin K 1%维生素 K1冻干标准物质的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓光; 黄挺; 张伟; 黄亮; 全灿; 李红梅; 杨屹

    2015-01-01

    采用二甲基亚砜(DMSO)作为冻干标准物质的溶剂,以重量法准确配制维生素 K1/ DMSO 溶液,再进行分装、冷冻干燥,经定性分析、定值分析、均匀性检验、稳定性考察和不确定度评定,研制了维生素 K1冻干标准物质。以维生素 K1纯度标准物质溶液为校准品,对得到的冻干物质进行了高效液相色谱法定值分析,冻干标准物质的准确定值结果为0.96 mg/ mL,相对扩展不确定度为7%。建立的维生素 K1冻干标准物质研制方法,对于临床检验中维生素 K1的准确测定和相关疾病的正确诊断治疗以及维生素 K1长期保存具有重要意义。%Dimethyl sulfone( DMSO)is firstly applied as the solvent for a lyophilized certified reference material (CRM). Vitamin K1 / DMSO solution is prepared by gravimetry,and is sub-divided and lyophilized,the lyophilized vitamin K1 CRM is developed through qualitative analysis,quantitative analysis,homogeneity study,stability study and uncertainty evaluation. Certified value of lyophilization vitamin K1 is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography method, using the vitamin K1 purity CRM as a calibrant. The certified value is 0. 96 mg/ mL,with the relative expanded uncertainty of 7% . The method of CRM lyophilized vitamin K1 makes great significance for the accurate determination the disease in clinical examination and the long-term preservation of vitamin K1 .

  18. P70S6K 1 regulation of angiogenesis through VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, Chuan-Xiu; Shi, Zhumei [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Meng, Qiao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Ling-Zhi [Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Jiang, Bing-Hua, E-mail: binghjiang@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, Cancer Center, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} P70S6K1 regulates VEGF expression; {yields} P70S6K1 induces transcriptional activation through HIF-1{alpha} binding site; {yields} P70S6K1 regulates HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression; {yields} P70S6K1 mediates tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression. -- Abstract: The 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1), a downstream target of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is an important regulator of cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Recent studies indicated an important role of p70S6K1 in PTEN-negative and AKT-overexpressing tumors. However, the mechanism of p70S6K1 in tumor angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we specifically inhibited p70S6K1 activity in ovarian cancer cells using vector-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) against p70S6K1. We found that knockdown of p70S6K1 significantly decreased VEGF protein expression and VEGF transcriptional activation through the HIF-1{alpha} binding site at its enhancer region. The expression of p70S6K1 siRNA specifically inhibited HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression. We also found that p70S6K1 down-regulation inhibited ovarian tumor growth and angiogenesis, and decreased cell proliferation and levels of VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression in tumor tissues. Our results suggest that p70S6K1 is required for tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression, providing a molecular mechanism of human ovarian cancer mediated by p70S6K1 signaling.

  19. Hyperactive S6K1 mediates oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in aging: inhibition by resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Angana G; Yepuri, Gautham; Carvas, João M; Stein, Sokrates; Matter, Christian M; Scerri, Isabelle; Ruffieux, Jean; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong

    2011-04-22

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6K1 signalling emerges as a critical regulator of aging. Yet, a role of mTOR/S6K1 in aging-associated vascular endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of S6K1 in aging-associated endothelial dysfunction and effects of the polyphenol resveratrol on S6K1 in aging endothelial cells. We show here that senescent endothelial cells displayed higher S6K1 activity, increased superoxide production and decreased bioactive nitric oxide (NO) levels than young endothelial cells, which is contributed by eNOS uncoupling. Silencing S6K1 in senescent cells reduced superoxide generation and enhanced NO production. Conversely, over-expression of a constitutively active S6K1 mutant in young endothelial cells mimicked endothelial dysfunction of the senescent cells through eNOS uncoupling and induced premature cellular senescence. Like the mTOR/S6K1 inhibitor rapamycin, resveratrol inhibited S6K1 signalling, resulting in decreased superoxide generation and enhanced NO levels in the senescent cells. Consistent with the data from cultured cells, an enhanced S6K1 activity, increased superoxide generation, and decreased bioactive NO levels associated with eNOS uncoupling were also detected in aortas of old WKY rats (aged 20-24 months) as compared to the young animals (1-3 months). Treatment of aortas of old rats with resveratrol or rapamycin inhibited S6K1 activity, oxidative stress, and improved endothelial NO production. Our data demonstrate a causal role of the hyperactive S6K1 in eNOS uncoupling leading to endothelial dysfunction and vascular aging. Resveratrol improves endothelial function in aging, at least in part, through inhibition of S6K1. Targeting S6K1 may thus represent a novel therapeutic approach for aging-associated vascular disease.

  20. Psychoacoustic study on contribution of fan noise to engine noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhong; Liu, Hai; Bi, Fengrong; Ni, Guangjian; Zhang, Guichang; Lin, Jiewei; Yu, Hanzhengnan

    2012-07-01

    There are more researches on engine fan noise control focusing on reducing fan noise level through optimizing fan structure, and a lot of research achievements have been obtained. However, researches on the effect of fan noise to engine noise quality are lacking. The influences of the effects of fan structure optimization on the engine noise quality are unclear. Thus, there will be a decline in fan noise level, but the deterioration of engine noise quality. Aiming at the above problems, in consideration of fan structure design and engine noise quality, an innovative method to analyze the contribution of fan noise to engine noise quality using psychoacoustic theory is proposed. The noises of diesel engine installing different cooling fans are measured by using the acoustic pressure method. The experiment results are regarded as analysis samples. The model of sensory pleasantness is used to analyze the sound quality of a diesel engine with different cooling fans. Results show that after installing 10-blade fan in medium diameter the sensory pleasantness at each test point is increased, and the increase is 13.53% on average, which indicate the improvement of the engine noise quality. In order to verify the psychoacoustical analysis, the subjective assessment is carried out. The test result shows the noise quality of engine installed 10-blade fan in medium diameter is most superior. 1/3 octave frequency spectrum analysis is used to study the reason of the improvement of engine noise quality. It is found that after installing proper cooling fan the sound pressure level below 400 Hz are obviously increased, the frequency assignment and spectral envelope are more reasonable and a proper cooling fan can optimize the spectrum structure of the engine noise. The psychoacoustic study is applied in the contribution of fan noise to engine noise, and the idea of engine sound quality improvement through the structure optimization is proposed.

  1. Effects of aldicarb and propoxur on cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation in CHO-K1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maran, E; Fernández-Franzón, M; Font, G; Ruiz, M J

    2010-06-01

    Cytotoxic effects of aldicarb, its sulfone and sulfoxide, and propoxur, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant parameters in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) cells were determined. D,L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) was assayed to determine the role of GSH in the protection against carbamate cytotoxicity. Pre-treatment with 60 microM BSO, induced a significant decrease in the glutathione reductase (GR; 64-141%), the glutathione peroxidase (GPx; 10-30%) and the glutathione S-transferase (GST; 59-93%) activities, and its GSH levels (79-85%), while the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels significantly increased (64-78%) respect to experiment non-BSO-pretreated. Carbamates BSO pre-treated vs. non-BSO pre-treated showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) production (from 13% to 52% vs. 25% to 93%). These data suggest that carbamates could injure CHO-K1 cells via oxidative stress by the increase of MDA production; moreover, BSO enhance the oxidative damage caused by carbamates. However, the glutathione system protects cells from carbamates damage.

  2. Introduction of a Cooling-Fan Efficiency Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiavon, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    In a warm environment, air movement with elevated velocity is a well-known cooling strategy. The local air movement is typically generated by cooling fans (e.g., ceiling fan, table fans, etc.). Appearance, power input, and price are the main parameters considered today when purchasing cooling fans......, while cooling capacity and efficiency of energy use are unknown. To address this knowledge gap, this paper introduces the cooling-fan efficiency (CFE) index, defined as the ratio between the cooling effect (measured with a thermal manikin) generated by the device and its power consumption. The index...

  3. Ramsey Number of K2,s+1 vs. K1,n%关于K2,s+1 VS,K1,n的Ramsey数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦大伟; 沈大鹏

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that the Ramsey number r(K2,s+1, K1,n) ≤ n + √sn+ (s + 3)/2 + o(1) for large n, and r(K2,s+1, K1,n)∈{(q-1)2/s+1,-(q-1)2/s+2},wheren: (q-1)2/s-q+2 and q is a prime power such that s|(q - 1).

  4. Rapid, high performance method for the determination of vitamin K(1), menaquinone-4 and vitamin K(1) 2,3-epoxide in human serum and plasma using liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Alessandra; Cafolla, Arturo; Gasperi, Tecla; Bellante, Simona; Caretti, Fulvia; Curini, Roberta; Fernández, Virginia Pérez

    2014-04-18

    Unlike the other fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin K circulates in the human bloodstream at very low levels because of a low intake in the diet. Mammals have developed an efficient recycling system, known as vitamin K-epoxide cycle, which involve quinone, hydroquinone and epoxide forms of the vitamin. Phylloquinone (K(1)) is the main homologue, while menaquinone-4 (MK-4) is both a member of the vitamin K(2) family and metabolite of K(1) in extra-hepatic tissues. Notwithstanding the recent advances, many aspects of the complex vitamin K physiology still remain to be investigated. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop more reliable analytical methods for determining the vitamin K and its metabolites in biological fluids and tissues. Nevertheless, relatively low concentrations, unavailability of some authentic standards and occurrence of interfering lipids make this a challenging task. The method proposed in the present paper can directly and accurately estimate K(1), K(1) 2,3-epoxide (K(1)O), and MK-4 in human serum and plasma at concentrations in the ng/L-μg/L range, using labelled internal standards and a quadrupole linear ion trap instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. High sensitivity was achieved by removing signal "endogenous suppressors" and making the composition of the non-aqueous mobile phase suitable to support the positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of the analytes. An excellent selectivity resulted from the combination of some factors: the MRM acquisition, the adoption of an identification point system, an extraction optimized to remove most of the lipids and a tandem-C18 column-system necessary to separate isobaric interferences from analytes. The method was validated according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines and its accuracy was assessed by analysing 9 samples from the Vitamin K External Quality Assessment Scheme (KEQAS). Its feasibility in evaluating vitamin K status in human serum was

  5. A structurally controlled fan-delta complex at the southern margin of the peninsular range forearc basin complex (Baja California)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, W.R.; Busby-Spera, C. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A confined trunk fan delta and its structurally controlled tributary fan deltas are extremely well exposed along the southern margin of the Rosario embayment. This fan-delta complex consists of nonmarine to deep marine deposits almost continuously exposed for over 20 km in the down-paleoslope direction. Facies and stratal patterns in the fan-delta complex were controlled by local faulting, climatic variation, and eustasy, resulting in relative sea level fluctuations. Basin bathymetry and drainage patterns were controlled by a series of half-grabens that formed along north-south-trending faults that lay along the northern margin of an east-west-trending depression. Breccias were initially shed into the north-south-trending half-grabens; axial drainage systems were later established within the grabens, making up the tributary fan deltas. These tributary fan deltas fed a voluminous trunk fan delta confined to the east-west-trending depression. The trunk and tributary fan delta deposits show two major progradational to retrogradational cycles that record relative sea level fluctuations. Progradation in the shallow-marine environment is represented by conglomerate channels cut into ripple-laminated or bioturbated siltstone and HCS sandstones, overlain by conglomerate mouth bar deposits interstratified with nearshore sandstone deposits. Retrogradation in the shallow marine environment is recorded by either a vertical clastic facies transition or a clastic-carbonate facies transition. The clastic facies transition consists of nearshore sandstone deposits overlain by offshore bioturbated siltstones. The clastic-carbonate facies transition consists of the development of red algal patch reefs and rhodoliths on top of fan-delta conglomeratic lobes, mudstone and sandstone bank channel margins, or paleobasement highs. The clastic-carbonate facies transition reflects low sediment supply controlled by climatic conditions.

  6. Geomorphic characterization of the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan, Nye County, Nevada, in support of the Yucca Mountain Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, M.; Delong, S.; Pelletier, J.

    2005-12-01

    In the event of an unlikely volcanic eruption through the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, contaminated ash may be deposited in portions of the Fortymile Wash drainage basin and subsequently redistributed to the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan by fluvial processes. Characterization of the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan has been undertaken as part of an effort to quantify the transport of contaminated ash throughout the fluvial system, especially to define the spatial distribution of fluvial activity over time scales of repository operation, and the rates of radionuclide migration into different soils on the fan. The Fortymile Wash alluvial fan consists of extremely low relief terraces as old as 70 ka. By conducting soils-geomorphic mapping and correlating relative surface ages with available geochronology from the Fortymile Wash fan and adjacent piedmonts, we identified 4 distinct surfaces on the fan. Surface ages are used to predict the relative stability of different areas of the fan to fluvial activity. Pleistocene-aged surfaces are assumed to be fluvially inactive over the 10 kyr time scale, for example. Our mapping and correlation provides a map of the depozone for contaminated ash that takes into account long-term channel migration for the time scales of repository operation, and it provides a geomorphic framework for predicting radionuclide dispersion rates into different soils across the fan. The standard model for vertical migration of radionuclides in soil is diffusion; therefore we used diffusion profiles derived from 137Cs fallout to determine radionuclide infiltration rates on the various geomorphic surfaces. The results show a strong inverse correlation of the geomorphic surface age and diffusivity values inferred from the 137Cs profiles collected on the different surfaces of the fan.

  7. Cost analysis of composite fan blade manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelson, T. S.; Barth, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The relative manufacturing costs were estimated for large high technology fan blades prepared by advanced composite fabrication methods using seven candidate materials/process systems. These systems were identified as laminated resin matrix composite, filament wound resin matrix composite, superhybrid solid laminate, superhybrid spar/shell, metal matrix composite, metal matrix composite with a spar and shell, and hollow titanium. The costs were calculated utilizing analytical process models and all cost data are presented as normalized relative values where 100 was the cost of a conventionally forged solid titanium fan blade whose geometry corresponded to a size typical of 42 blades per disc. Four costs were calculated for each of the seven candidate systems to relate the variation of cost on blade size. Geometries typical of blade designs at 24, 30, 36 and 42 blades per disc were used. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  8. Improvement in performance of main ventilation fan for mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, S.N. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India)

    2007-07-01

    This paper examined methods of improving the performance of main ventilation fans in mines. The basic principles of selecting and operating fans were reviewed, and methods of improving the energy efficiency of fans were evaluated. The study considered issues related to static efficiency, as well as curves and intersection points. Mine resistances were examined in relation to ventilation requirements at different phases of mine development. Flow losses and difficulties in producing accurate mathematical models of ventilation fans were also discussed. Fan operation set-points were reviewed. Details of tests conducted to determine the effects of the number of blades on fan performance were presented. The tests demonstrated the importance of incorporating cowl diffusers and guide vanes within the design of axial flow fans. The advantages of deblading were also discussed. 6 refs.

  9. Numerical Aerodynamic Evaluation and Noise Investigation of a Bladeless Fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad jafari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladeless fan is a novel fan type that has no observable impeller, usually used for domestic applications. Numerical investigation of a Bladeless fan via Finite Volume Method was carried out in this study. The fan was placed in center of a 4×2×2m room and 473 Eppler airfoil profile was used as cross section of the fan. Performance and noise level of the fan by solving continuity and momentum equations as well as noise equations of Broadband Noise Source (BNS and Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FW-H in both steady state and unsteady conditions were studied. Flow increase ratio of the fan was captured. Furthermore, BNS method could find outlet slit of the air as the main source of the noise generation. In order to validation of aeroacousticcode results, a simulation of noise for NACA 0012 airfoil via FW-H method was compared to experimental results and good agreement was obtained.

  10. Nocturnal Fanning Suppresses Downy Mildew Epidemics in Sweet Basil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yigal; Ben-Naim, Yariv

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildew is currently the most serious disease of sweet basil around the world. The oomycete causal agent Peronospora belbahrii requires ≥ 4h free leaf moisture for infection and ≥7.5h of water-saturated atmosphere (relative humidity RH≥95%) at night for sporulation. We show here that continued nocturnal fanning (wind speed of 0.4-1.5 m/s) from 8pm to 8am dramatically suppressed downy mildew development. In three experiments conducted during 2015, percent infected leaves in regular (non-fanned) net-houses reached a mean of 89.9, 94.3 and 96.0% compared to1.2, 1.7 and 0.5% in adjacent fanned net-houses, respectively. Nocturnal fanning reduced the number of hours per night with RH≥95% thus shortened the dew periods below the threshold required for infection or sporulation. In experiments A, B and C, the number of nights with ≥4h of RH≥95% was 28, 10 and 17 in the non-fanned net-houses compared to 5, 0 and 5 in the fanned net-houses, respectively. In the third experiment leaf wetness sensors were installed. Dew formation was strongly suppressed in the fanned net-house as compared to the non-fanned net-house. Healthy potted plants became infected and sporulated a week later if placed one night in the non-fanned house whereas healthy plants placed during that night in the fanned house remained healthy. Infected potted basil plants sporulated heavily after one night of incubation in the non-fanned house whereas almost no sporulation occurred in similar plants incubated that night in the fanned house. The data suggest that nocturnal fanning is highly effective in suppressing downy mildew epidemics in sweet basil. Fanning prevented the within-canopy RH from reaching saturation, reduced dew deposition on the leaves, and hence prevented both infection and sporulation of P. belbahrii.

  11. The K-1 reusable aerospace vehicle: managing to achieve low cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller (HM), George E.; Lepore, Debra Facktor

    2000-03-01

    Kistler Aerospace Corporation is developing the world's first privately funded, fully reusable aerospace vehicle, the K-1. This vehicle represents a new implementation of proven technologies, designed by an elite, experienced team of engineers and managers and implemented by the best manufacturing capability in the United States. Kistler Aerospace expects to begin commercial operations of the K-1 in 2000. Market researchers predict that during the next decade telecommunications satellite ventures will require launch services for over 1,400 payloads to LEO. This prediction greatly exceeds the current available industry capacity. The K-1 was designed primarily to meet this anticipated growth in demand. Significant progress has been made in constructing the K-1 vehicle fleet. The fully reusable K-1 vehicle is designed to lower the cost of access to space, increase launch reliability, and reduce lead-time-to-launch requirements. The K-1 will offer significant cost benefits and aircraft type reliability based on a proven flight record.

  12. Preferred Air Velocity and Local Cooling Effect of desk fans in warm environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2013-01-01

    Common experiences, standards, and laboratory studies show that increased air velocity helps to offset warm sensation due to high environmental temperatures. In warm climate regions the opening of windows and the use of desk or ceiling fans are the most common systems to generate increased airflows...... to compensate for higher environmental temperatures at the expense of no or relatively low energy consumption. When using desk fans, local air movement is generated around the occupant and a certain cooling effect is perceived. The impact of the local air movement generated by different air flow patterns....../kg. By a thermal manikin the effect of direct air movement generated by a personal desk fan at 26 °C, 28 °C, or 30 °C room temperatures and the achievable thermal comfort was also analyzed. Results show that it is possible to offset warm sensation within a range of indoor conditions using increased air velocity...

  13. Altitude effects on combustion in residential furnaces with fan assist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.; Fleck, B.A.; Ackerman, M.Y.; Dale, J.D.; Wilson, D.J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Five residential furnaces were tested to determine if altitude has an effect on the performance of modern furnaces equipped with fan assisted flue venting systems. The tests were conducted at 3 altitudes, 50 m, 685 m and 2050 m above sea level at sites in Vancouver, Edmonton, and Fortress Mountain, Alberta. Current furnace derating practices require that furnaces at high altitude have small fuel openings or decreased fuel supply manifold pressures. However, it is possible that modern furnaces with fan driven combustion venting do not have to be derated to the same extent. Propane and natural gas were the fuel sources for the tests. It was confirmed that since most residential systems are designed to operate at 100 per cent excess air, the current derating standard practice is overly conservative. The effects of altitude on carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide levels were also examined, along with burner and igniter operating characteristics, heat exchanger operating temperatures, and blocked-vent shutoff combustion performance. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  14. [Research on progress and prospect of kinase S6K1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liang, Junyu; Zhang, Ji

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is a prevalent metabolic disorder, which seriously affects human health and has become the world's public health problem. Kinase S6K1, an important downstream effector of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), influences specific pathological responses, including obesity, type 2 diabetes and cancer. Presently, S6K1 has become an attractive therapeutic target in the treatment of these disorders. Here, the functions of kinase S6K1, its molecular regulation mechanisms, related pathogenesis of disease and relevant small molecular inhibitors are reviewed. Finally, the prospect of research toward S6K1 is expected as well.

  15. Transient analysis of energy Transfer Control (ECT) and compressor bleed concepts of remote lift fan control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The transient performance of two concepts for control of vertical takeoff aircraft remote lift fans is analyzed and discussed. Both concepts employ flow transfer between pairs of lift fans located in separate parts of the aircraft in order to obtain attitude control moments for hover and low-speed flight. The results presented are from a digital computer, dynamic analysis of the YJ97/LF460 remote drive turbofan. The transient responses of the two systems are presented for step demands in lift and moment.

  16. Application of Inverted Machine System to Keep the Wind of the Main Fan of Mine%矿井主扇不停风倒机系统的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾清华

    2012-01-01

    Most of our coal mines belong to high-gas coal mine. Gas exceeded is one of the security risks for mine safety production. The mine ventilation system undertakes the important task of discharging toxic gases and supplying fresh air from the underground. Most of ventilation systems of mine are the products of the last century, so they are generally older and have various shortcomings, especially they need down machine and the time is too long, which results not enough ventilation capacity in a short period and the instantaneous agglomeration of the gas in the bottom of the well, so it will produce a huge security risk for the safety production and the miners' personal safety. To achieve the rapid switching of the ventilator, this paper used the ZKKG—1 inverted machine system of the main fan ventilator to keep the wind of the mine. This system reduced the time to a minutes or less from more than five minutes to ten minutes, and improved this weak link, so it has great significance for the safety production of the mine.%我国大部分煤矿都属于高瓦斯矿井,瓦斯超标是影响矿井安全生产的主要安全隐患之一.矿井通风系统承担着从井下排出有毒气体、提供新鲜空气的重要任务.而目前我国大部分矿井所使用的通风设备都是上世纪的产品,普遍比较陈旧,存在各种不足,尤其是需要停风倒机,而且倒机时间过长.从而导致矿井短时间通风能力不足,井底瓦斯含量瞬时集聚超标而产生巨大安全隐患,严重威胁矿井安全生产和矿工人身安全.通过运用ZKKG-1型矿井主扇风机不停风倒机系统实现了通风机的快速切换,倒机时间缩短,将原主扇通风机倒机时间由现在的五分钟以上甚至十分钟,缩短到一分钟左右甚至更短.使得主扇通风机倒机这个安全的薄弱环节得到了改善,对矿井的安全生产有着巨大的意义.

  17. Fanning the Optimal Breeze with an Abanico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Grace; Marthelot, Joel; Reis, Pedro; MIT EGS Lab Team

    Flexible hand-held fans, or abanicos, are universally employed as cooling devices that are both portable and sustainable. Their to and fro axial motion about one's hand generates an airflow that increases the evaporation rate near the skin and refreshes. We study this problem in the context of fluid-structure interaction, through precision model experiments. We first characterize the elastic properties of a semi-circular thin plates with various thickness and evaluate their aerodynamic performance in a custom built apparatus. The air velocity profile that results from the flapping motion of the fan is characterized for different driving conditions. A systematic variation of the geometric and elastic parameters, along with an exploration of the parameter space of the periodic driving motion (amplitude and frequency), allows us to establish optimal design and operational conditions for maximal output of the generated airflow, while minimizing the input power.

  18. Saving energy for ventilation using decentralised duct fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner, Amalie; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Afshari, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    pressure drops which in turn will increase energy use. This paper presents a novel procedure for balancing CAV-systems using decentralised duct fans instead of flat plate dampers. The procedure will result in lower pressure drops and consequently in a reduction of energy use for ventilation when compared......In conventional mechanical ventilation systems with constant air volume (CAV) airflows are often balanced using balancing flat plate dampers. The purpose of the dampers is to obtain nominal airflows to the individual zones or rooms in the building. Unfortunately, this procedure leads to increased...... to a conventional mechanical ventilation system with flat plate dampers. Theoretical calculations and experimental observations for the investigated systems show that the power demand for distribution of air can be reduced about 30%. The work carried out forms part of an ongoing PhD-project on mechanical...

  19. Air Distribution in Rooms with a Fan-Driven Convector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Bindels, Rob H.W.; Michalak, Lukasz

    2007-01-01

    Experiments with a fan-driven convector used for both heating and cooling are de.scribed in this paper. Only the cooling situation is considered. The convector is positioned in the upper corner ofthe room, and from there the cold air is let out through the device along the ceiling. The airflow...... coming from the dijfuser is partly controlled by the momentum flow and partly from gravity forces, where the thermal load in the room and the temperature difference between room air and supply air affect the airflow from the convector. The convector system was tested in the same test room in which many...... regular ventilation systems were tested earlier to be ahle to compare airflow from the convector .system with regular ventilation ,systems at a later stage of this research. The heat load in the room consists of a thermal manikin sitting at a desk, a computer, and a desk lamp producing a total heat load...

  20. Polarization-fan high-order harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Avner; Bordo, Eliyahu; Kfir, Ofer; Sidorenko, Pavel; Cohen, Oren

    2017-02-01

    We predict high-order harmonics in which the polarization within the spectral bandwidth of each harmonic varies with frequency continuously and significantly. For example, the interaction of counter-rotating circularly-polarized bichromatic drivers having close central frequencies with isotropic gas leads to the emission of polarization-fan harmonics where each harmonic in the spectrum has the following property: it is nearly circularly-polarized in one tail of the harmonic peak, linear in the center of the peak and nearly circular with the opposite helicity in the opposite tail. Also, we show that polarization-fan high harmonics with modulated ellipticity are obtained when elliptical drivers are used. Polarization-fan harmonics are obtained as a result of multiple (at least two) head-on recollisions of electrons with their parent ions occurring from different angles in a two-dimensional plane. The use of bichromatic drivers with close central frequencies largely preserves the single-cycle, single-atom and macroscopic physics of ‘ordinary’ high harmonic generation, where both the driver and high harmonics are linearly polarized. Thus, it should offer several attracting features, including (i) a direct route for extending the maximal photon energy of observed helical high harmonics to keV by using bichromatic drivers only in the mid-IR region and (ii) utilizing phase matching methods that were developed for ‘ordinary’ high harmonic generation driven by quasi-monochromatic pulses (e.g. pressure tuning phase matching). These polarization-fan harmonics may be utilized for exploring non-repetitive ultrafast chiral phenomena, e.g. dynamics of magnetic domains, in a single shot.

  1. Gigapixel Images Connect Sports Teams with Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Technology developed at Ames Research Center to take high-resolution imagery on Mars is now being used in baseball stadiums across the country. New York City-based Major League Baseball Advanced Media LP customized the platform to accommodate in-game shots that capture nearly the whole stadium. Fans navigate the photos online and tag themselves and their friends using social media tools.

  2. The Palaeogene Yamak sand-rich submarine-fan complex, Haymana Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçen, Sungu L.; Kelling, Gilbert

    1983-03-01

    The Haymana Basin is a constituent trough of the Central Anatolian Basin, which was the site of rapid subsidence and accompanying flysch sedimentation during the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, following closure of the Vardar Ocean and collapse of the carbonate platform forming its southern border. The Eocene Yamak Formation (maximum thickness, 1210 m) abruptly succeeds fine-grained sediments of the Bahçecik Formation, interpreted as a basin-plain facies. Lutite interbeds from the Yamak yield a bathyal marine microfauna and the Formation is characterised by a high proportion of thick medium to coarse sandstones and pebble-to cobble-rudites of turbidite and mass-flow origin, arranged in thick packets of moderate lateral extent. Many of these sand bodies are channelised, with thinning- and fining-upward sequences in which thick amalgamated sandstones and rudites are prominent. Most of the subordinate thickening- and coarsening-upward sequences are erosively succeeded by channelised bodies. These features indicate that the coarse Yamak sediments were deposited in a sand-rich submarine-fan complex in which the channelised mid-fan was the dominant depositional regime. The lateral and vertical relationships of Yamak facies associations indicate that the individual fans were relatively small, elongate and strongly channelised. They show little evidence of lateral migration or coalescence, but apparently result from superposition of successive low-sinuosity channels with only occasional development of channel-mouth "lobes" (in the sense of Mutti and Ricci-Lucchi, 1972, 1975). Facies distributions and palaeocurrent evidence show that sediment was generally conveyed to south and southeast through the Yamak fan system. However, following a prolonged phase of quiescence on the fan and formation of an extensive blanket of purple muds, the uppermost Yamak is marked by northwards progradation of a new channelised fan system.

  3. Simulation and Experiment Research of Aerodynamic Performance of Small Axial Fans with Struts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Wei; LIN Peifeng; ZHANG Li; JIN Yingzi; WANG Yanping; Heuy Dong Kim; Toshiaki Setoguchi

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between rotor and struts has great effect on the performance of small axial fan systems.The small axial fan systems are selected as the studied objects in this paper,and four square struts are downstream of the rotor.The cross section of the struts is changed to the cylindrical shapes for the investigation:one is in the same hydranlic diameter as the square struts and another one is in the same cross section as the square struts.Influence of the shape of the struts on the static pressure characteristics,the internal flow and the sound emission of the small axial fans are studied.Standard K-ε turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm are applied in the calculation of the steady fluid field,and the curves of the pressure rising against the flow rate are obtained,which demonstrates that the simulation results are in nice consistence with the experimental data.The steady calculation results are set as the initial field in the unsteady calculation.Large eddy simulation and PISO algorithm are used in the transient calculation,and the Ffowcs Wtlliams-Hawkings model is introduced to predict the sound level at the eight monitoring points.The research results show that:the static pressure coefficients of the fan with cylindrical struts increase by about 25% compared to the fan with square struts,and the efficiencies increase by about 28.6%.The research provides a theoretical guide for shape optimization and noise reduction of small axial fan with struts.

  4. Fan edits and the legacy of The Phantom Edit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Wille

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A fan edit can generally be defined as an alternative version of a film or television text created by a fan. It offers a different viewing experience, much as a song remix offers a different listening experience. The contemporary wave of fan edits has emerged during the remix zeitgeist of digital media and at a time when digital video editing technology has become more affordable and popular. The increasing number of alternative versions of films and the works of revisionist Hollywood filmmakers such as George Lucas have contributed to a greater public understanding of cinema as a fluid medium instead of one that exists in a fixed form. The Phantom Edit (2000, a seminal fan edit based on Lucas's Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999, inspired new ranks of fan editors. However, critics have misunderstood fan edits as merely the work of disgruntled fans. In order to provide a critical and historical basis for studies in fan editing as a creative practice, I examine previous interpretations of fan edits in the context of relevant contemporary works, and I use an annotated chronology of The Phantom Edit to trace its influence on subsequent fan editing communities and uncover their relationship with intellectual property disputes.

  5. "Emotions-Only" versus "Special People": Genre in fan discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Ellen Stein

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks at genre as a complex set of discursive threads running unevenly through production, TV text, and fan reception. Through a case study of the reception of fan favorite Roswell, this essay interrogates the role of genre in spectatorship. In its mixing of teen and science fiction elements, Roswell trod upon contested generic spaces, eliciting strong reaction from its viewers. Connections between genre and gender came to the fore, as producer commentary linked science fiction with male audiences and teen romance with female audiences. Fans responded with analyses that greatly complicated and at times overtly rejected industrial suppositions regarding the gendered work of genre. Through these fan conversations, we can witness the complexity of genre as discursive thread moving through not only TV texts but also multivariant fan responses. I intend this essay to work at two levels. My analysis of fan responses to Roswell models the possibilities of a close study of genre discourse. At the same time, my case study probes the nature of genre in fan engagement, as genre discourses intersect with other fan concerns such as character identification, perceptions of textual quality, and questions of gender representation. While we cannot necessarily look to fan accounts for proof of how viewers engage with genre, they do tell us how fans frame their engagement with genre, how they incorporate genre into their performance of fannishness, and how they perform and thus enact genre itself as a shared cultural process.

  6. The aerodynamics of a wind-tunnel fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Blake W

    1941-01-01

    The vortex blade-element theory modified to apply to an axial fan working in a duct is reviewed. Thrust and power coefficients for a fan are identified with the corresponding coefficients for airplane propellers. The relation of pressure produced by the fan to the blade-element coefficients is developed. The distribution of axial velocity of fluid through a fan is assumed to be controlled by the fan itself. The radial distribution of tangential velocity imported by the fan to fluid moving through the fan is shown to be independent of the axial-velocity distribution. A nondimensional coefficient, designated the rotation constant, is introduced. This constant is based solely upon design information. The use of the rotation constant in simplifying the design of a fan for a specific operating condition is demonstrated. Based on the use of the rotation constant, a graphical method is outlined by which the performance of a given fan in a given wind tunnel may be predicted and by which the distributions of axial velocity of the fluid through the fan under various operating conditions may be established.

  7. Plasmid Transfer of Plasminogen K1-5 Reduces Subcutaneous Hepatoma Growth by Affecting Inflammatory Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea A. Koch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that plasminogen K1-5 (PlgK1-5 directly affects tumour cells and inflammation. Therefore, we analysed if PlgK1-5 has immediate effects on hepatoma cells and inflammatory factors in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, effects of plasmid encoding PlgK1-5 (pK1-5 on Hepa129, Hepa1-6, and HuH7 cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation as well as VEGF and TNF-alpha expression and STAT3-phosphorylation were investigated. In vivo, tumour growth, proliferation, vessel density, and effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha expression were examined following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, pK1-5 halved cell viability; cell death was increased by up to 15% compared to the corresponding controls. Proliferation was not affected. VEGF, TNF-alpha, and STAT3-phosphorylation were affected following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, ten days after treatment initiation, pK1-5 reduced subcutaneous tumour growth by 32% and mitosis by up to 77% compared to the controls. Vessel density was reduced by 50%. TNF-alpha levels in tumour and liver tissue were increased, whereas VEGF levels in tumours and livers were reduced after pK1-5 treatment. Taken together, plasmid gene transfer of PlgK1-5 inhibits hepatoma (cell growth not only by reducing vessel density but also by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, and triggering inflammation.

  8. Study on the Impact of Tangential Velocity of Axial Flow Fan in Direct Air-cooled System%切向速度对空冷风机模拟的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董运宁; 杜小泽; 张辉; 杨勇平

    2011-01-01

    In the outlet of the fan and the interior of the aircooling cell, the flow field may become more realistic because of the introducing of the tangential velocity.Based on the proportionally reduced model for the representative aircooling fan of 600MW unit, a tangential velocity function which is changing with the radius of the fan blade is presented.The physical and mathematical models for the air velocity fields about the operation of the nine fans were established.The similarities and differences of the flow fields are obtained through CFD simulation after the tangential velocity is introduced.The results show that the flow field will change greatly after the tangential velocity is introduced, so this condition should not be ignored in the CFD simulation.And it is useful for the optimal designing of air-cooling island.%通过对空冷系统轴流风机合理引入切向速度,可以使风机出口处及空冷单元内部流场更符合实际情况.针对典型600MW机组空冷风机的等比缩小风机,拟合出一条距风机轴中心距离的切向速度函数,建立了9台风机运行的空气流动过程的物理数学模型.通过CFD模拟,获得了加入切向速度前后,空冷单元内部及整体风机群流场的异同点.结果表明:引入切向速度后,流场发生较大变化,该条件在CFD模拟研究中不应被忽略,为使用CFD模拟研究空冷岛性能提供了一定参考.

  9. A Fan-tastic Alternative to Bulbs: Learning Circuits with Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekey, Robert; Edwards, Andrea; McCullough, Roy; Reitz, William; Mitchell, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The incandescent bulb has been a useful tool for teaching basic electrical circuits, as brightness is related to the current or power flowing through a bulb. This has led to the development of qualitative pedagogical treatments for examining resistive combinations in simple circuits using bulbs and batteries, which were first introduced by James Evans and thoroughly expanded upon by McDermott and others. This paper argues that replacing bulbs with small computer fans leads to similar, if not greater, insight of experimental results that can be qualitatively observed using a variety of senses. The magnitude of current through a fan is related to the frequency of the rotating fan blades, which can be seen, heard, and felt by the students. Experiments using incandescent bulbs only utilize vision, which is not ideal as the human eyes' perception of brightness is skewed because the response to light intensity is logarithmic rather than linear.

  10. Engineering Task Plan for Hepa Filter Differential Pressure (DP) Fan Interlock Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMONS, S.R.

    2000-05-19

    This document provides a plan for installation of Differential Pressure (DP) fan interlocks on the primary ventilation systems in selected Tank Farm facilities. This plan contains the engineering tasks required for installation and is summarized by the Acceptance for Beneficial Use list. Individuals responsible for each task are identified and scheduled accordingly.

  11. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: LDV Measured Flow Field Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podboy, Gary C.; Krupar, Martin J.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Woodward, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented of an experiment conducted to investigate potential sources of noise in the flow developed by two 22-in. diameter turbofan models. The R4 and M5 rotors that were tested were designed to operate at nominal take-off speeds of 12,657 and 14,064 RPMC, respectively. Both fans were tested with a common set of swept stators installed downstream of the rotors. Detailed measurements of the flows generated by the two were made using a laser Doppler velocimeter system. The wake flows generated by the two rotors are illustrated through a series of contour plots. These show that the two wake flows are quite different, especially in the tip region. These data are used to explain some of the differences in the rotor/stator interaction noise generated by the two fan stages. In addition to these wake data, measurements were also made in the R4 rotor blade passages. These results illustrate the tip flow development within the blade passages, its migration downstream, and (at high rotor speeds) its merging with the blade wake of the adjacent (following) blade. Data also depict the variation of this tip flow with tip clearance. Data obtained within the rotor blade passages at high rotational speeds illustrate the variation of the mean shock position across the different blade passages.

  12. Jet Engine Fan Blade Containment Using an Alternate Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, K.S.; Pereira, J.M.; Revilock, D.M.; Matheny, P.

    2008-01-01

    With a goal of reducing jet engine weight, simulations of a fan blade containment system with an alternate geometry were tested and analyzed. A projectile simulating a fan blade was shot at two alternate geometry containment case configurations using a gas gun. The first configuration was a flat plate representing a standard case configuration. The second configuration was a flat plate with a radially convex curve section at the impact point. The curved surface was designed to force the blade to deform plastically, dissipating energy before the full impact of the blade is received by the plate. The curved case was able to tolerate a higher impact velocity before failure. The computational model was developed and correlated with the tests and a weight savings assessment was performed. For the particular test configuration used in this study the ballistic impact velocity of the curved plate was approximately 60 m/s (200 ft/s) greater than that of the flat plate. For the computational model to successfully duplicate the test, the very high strain rate behavior of the materials had to be incorporated.

  13. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3™ replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost effectiveness. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  14. A (k+1)-Slope Theorem for the k-Dimensional Infinite Group Relaxation

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Amitabh; Köppe, Matthias; Molinaro, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We prove that any minimal valid function for the k-dimensional infinite group relaxation that is piecewise linear with at most k+1 slopes and does not factor through a linear map with non-trivial kernel is extreme. This generalizes a theorem of Gomory and Johnson for k=1, and Cornuejols and Molinaro for k=2.

  15. 完全二部图的K1,pk-因子分解%K1,pk-FACTORIZATION OF COMPLETE BIPARTITE GRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜北樑

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that a sufficient condition for the existence of a K1,pk-factorization of Km,n, whenever p is a prime number and k is a positive integer, is (1) m≤pkn,(2) n≤pkm,(3)pkn-m≡pkm- n≡0(mod(p2k - 1)) and (4)(pkn-m)(pkm- n)≡0(mod(pk - 1)pk×(p2k-1)(m+n)).

  16. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Kinase 1 (IP6K1) Regulates Inositol Synthesis in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenxi; Ye, Cunqi; Greenberg, Miriam L

    2016-05-13

    myo-Inositol, the precursor of all inositol compounds, has pivotal roles in cell metabolism and signaling pathways. Although physiological studies indicate a strong correlation between abnormal intracellular inositol levels and neurological disorders, very little is known about the regulation of inositol synthesis in mammalian cells. In this study, we report that IP6K1, an inositol hexakisphosphate kinase that catalyzes the synthesis of inositol pyrophosphate, regulates inositol synthesis in mammalian cells. Ip6k1 ablation led to profound changes in DNA methylation and expression of Isyna1 (designated mIno1), which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme inositol-3-phosphate synthase. Interestingly, IP6K1 preferentially bound to the phospholipid phosphatidic acid, and this binding was required for IP6K1 nuclear localization and the regulation of mIno1 transcription. This is the first demonstration of IP6K1 as a novel negative regulator of inositol synthesis in mammalian cells.

  17. High pressure axial flow fans for modern coal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyrus, Vaclav [AHT Energetika s.r.o., Praha (Czech Republic); Koci, Petr [ZVVZ Milevsko a.s. (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-01

    Brown coal fired power stations, located in Northern Bohemia, have mostly older boiler blocks with an output of 110 and 200 MWe. Flue gases are cleaned by the desulphurization plants installed between 1993 and 1997. Usually, each boiler block has two air fans and one to three flue gas fans. Flue gas fans operate in severe conditions; fan blades should be resistant to the flue gases containing sulphur and acid drops with the operating temperature at 170 C to 190 C. Additionally, flue gas also often contains ash particles. Currently, some boiler blocks are gradually being refurbished. New blocks with an electrical power output of 600 to 700 MWe are at the design stage. Submitted paper shows our design study of one stage axial flow fan for the new blocks. Results from the new aerodynamic research of the axial flow stages were used in the fan design. (orig.)

  18. Involvement of S6K1 in mitochondria function and structure in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisoo; Tran, Quangdon; Mun, Kisun; Masuda, Kouhei; Kwon, So Hee; Kim, Seon-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Thomas, George; Park, Jongsun

    2016-12-01

    The major biological function of mitochondria is to generate cellular energy through oxidative phosphorylation. Apart from cellular respiration, mitochondria also play a key role in signaling processes, including aging and cancer metabolism. It has been shown that S6K1-knockout mice are resistant to obesity due to enhanced beta-oxidation, with an increased number of large mitochondria. Therefore, in this report, the possible involvement of S6K1 in regulating mitochondria dynamics and function has been investigated in stable lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells. Interestingly, S6K1-stably depleted HeLa cells showed phenotypical changes in mitochondria morphology. This observation was further confirmed by detailed image analysis of mitochondria shape. Corresponding molecular changes were also observed in these cells, such as the induction of mitochondrial fission proteins (Drp1 and Fis1). Oxygen consumption is elevated in S6K1-depeleted HeLa cells and FL5.12 cells. In addition, S6K1 depletion leads to enhancement of ATP production in cytoplasm and mitochondria. However, the relative ratio of mitochondrial ATP to cytoplasmic ATP is actually decreased in lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells compared to control cells. Lastly, induction of mitophagy was found in lenti-shS6K1-HeLa cells with corresponding changes of mitochondria shape on electron microscope analysis. Taken together, our results indicate that S6K1 is involved in the regulation of mitochondria morphology and function in HeLa cells. This study will provide novel insights into S6K1 function in mitochondria-mediated cellular signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. "Once more a kingly quest": Fan games and the classic adventure genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Marie Salter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The classic adventure games—part of the earliest traditions of interactive narrative—have not disappeared, although they no longer occupy space on the shelves at the local computer store. Even as changing hardware and operating systems render these games of the 1980s and 1990s literally unplayable without emulating the computer systems of the past, fans are keeping these stories alive. Authorship of these games has changed hands: it is now under the control of the fans, the former and current players. Through the online sharing of fan-created game design tool sets and of the fan-created games themselves, these new coauthors create a haven to revisit these decades-old games using fresh eyes and fresh systems. The products of these folk art–reminiscent efforts also offer a venue to reconsider video game fandom in light of genres. They also allow us to understand these "personal games," productions of one or more people that are not intended for commercial sale, as carrying the heritage of the classic era forward into the next generation of gaming.

  20. "Once more a kingly quest": Fan games and the classic adventure genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Marie Salter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The classic adventure games—part of the earliest traditions of interactive narrative—have not disappeared, although they no longer occupy space on the shelves at the local computer store. Even as changing hardware and operating systems render these games of the 1980s and 1990s literally unplayable without emulating the computer systems of the past, fans are keeping these stories alive. Authorship of these games has changed hands: it is now under the control of the fans, the former and current players. Through the online sharing of fan-created game design tool sets and of the fan-created games themselves, these new coauthors create a haven to revisit these decades-old games using fresh eyes and fresh systems. The products of these folk art–reminiscent efforts also offer a venue to reconsider video game fandom in light of genres. They also allow us to understand these "personal games," productions of one or more people that are not intended for commercial sale, as carrying the heritage of the classic era forward into the next generation of gaming.

  1. Performance Enhancement of the In-Line Fan Equipped with the Guiding Vane and the Tail Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Yen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This integrated numerical and experimental study intends to enhance the performance of an in-line fan with the implement of the guiding vane and the tail body. At first the flow flied associated with the original in-line fan is simulated and analyzed within the framework of CFD code Fluent, in which the finite volume method is applied. Next, the guiding vane is constructed based on the calculated flow characteristics, and attached in the downstream of rotor to smoothen the flow pattern. An appropriate guiding vane with high-performance and low-noise features can be achieved after several design iterations. In addition, the tail body connected to the motor is introduced for further enhancing the fan performance by reducing the sizes of wake and reversed flow behind the hub. Thereafter, to manufacture the mockup for experimental verification, the modified fan with guiding vane is plotted in the CAD/CAM format for mockup fabrication via the rapid-prototype technique. Moreover, a set of relations correlating the performance and noise of this fan prototype are executed inside AMCA test chamber and semianechoic chamber, respectively. Consequently, the feasibility of design scheme and numerical system can be verified according to these experimental results. In summary, this work provides a systematic scheme for designing and analyzing the in-line fan.

  2. Cytotoxic effects of zearalenone and its metabolites and antioxidant cell defense in CHO-K1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatay, Elena; Font, Guillermina; Ruiz, Maria-Jose

    2016-10-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) and its metabolites (α-zearalenol; α-ZOL, β-zearalenol; β-ZOL) are secondary metabolites of Fusarium fungi that produce cell injury. The present study explores mycotoxin-induced cell damage and cellular protection mechanisms in CHO-K1 cells. Cytotoxicity has been determined by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage. ROS production was determined using the fluorescein assay and DNA strand breakage by comet assay. Intracellular protection systems were glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The results demonstrated that all mycotoxins increased the ROS levels up to 5.3-fold the control levels in CHO-K1 cells. Zearalenone metabolites, but not ZEA, increased DNA damage 43% (α-ZOL) and 28% (β-ZOL) compared to control cells. The GSH levels decreased from 18% to 36%. The GPx and SOD activities respectively increased from 26% to 62% and from 23% to 69% in CHO-K1 cells, whereas CAT activity decreased from 14% to 52%. In addition, intracellular ROS production was induced by ZEA and its metabolites. The endogenous antioxidant system components GSH, GPx and SOD were activated against ZEA and its metabolites. These antioxidant system components thus could contribute to decrease cell injury by ZEA and its metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Probiotic Mixture Golden Bifido Prevents Neonatal Escherichia coli K1 Translocation via Enhancing Intestinal Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli (E. coli K1 sepsis and meningitis is a severe infection characterized by high mortality in neonates. Successful colonization and translocation across the intestinal mucosa have been regarded as the critical steps for E. coli K1 sepsis and meningitis. We recently reported that the probiotic mixture, Golden Bifido (containing live Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus thermophilus, LBS has a preventive role against neonatal E. coli K1 bacteremia and meningitis. However, the interaction between the neonatal gut barrier, probiotics and E. coli K1 is still not elucidated. The present study aims to investigate how LBS exerts its protective effects on neonatal gut barrier during E. coli K1 infection. The beneficial effects of LBS were explored in vitro and in vivo using human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and rat model of neonatal E. coli K1 infection, respectively. Our results showed that stimulation with E. coli K1 was able to cause intestinal barrier dysfunction, which were reflected by E. coli K1-induced intestinal damage and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, reduction of mucin, immunoglobulin A (IgA and tight junction proteins expression, as well as increase in intestinal permeability, all these changes facilitate E. coli K1 intestinal translocation. However, these changes were alleviated when HT-29 cells were treated with LBS before E. coli K1 infection. Furthermore, we found that LBS-treated neonatal rats (without E. coli K1 infection have showed higher production of mucin, ZO-1, IgA, Ki67 in intestinal mucosa as well as lower intestinal permeability than that of non-treated rats, indicating that LBS could accelerate the development of neonatal intestinal defense. Taken together, our results suggest that enhancement of the neonatal intestinal defense to fight against E. coli K1 translocation could be the potential mechanism to elucidate how LBS confers a protective effect against neonatal E

  4. On limited fan-in optimal neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.; Makaruk, H.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Draghici, S. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Vision and Neural Networks Lab.

    1998-03-01

    Because VLSI implementations do not cope well with highly interconnected nets the area of a chip growing as the cube of the fan-in--this paper analyses the influence of limited fan in on the size and VLSI optimality of such nets. Two different approaches will show that VLSI- and size-optimal discrete neural networks can be obtained for small (i.e. lower than linear) fan-in values. They have applications to hardware implementations of neural networks. The first approach is based on implementing a certain sub class of Boolean functions, IF{sub n,m} functions. The authors will show that this class of functions can be implemented in VLSI optimal (i.e., minimizing AT{sup 2}) neural networks of small constant fan ins. The second approach is based on implementing Boolean functions for which the classical Shannon`s decomposition can be used. Such a solution has already been used to prove bounds on neural networks with fan-ins limited to 2. They generalize the result presented there to arbitrary fan-in, and prove that the size is minimized by small fan in values, while relative minimum size solutions can be obtained for fan-ins strictly lower than linear. Finally, a size-optimal neural network having small constant fan-ins will be suggested for IF{sub n,m} functions.

  5. K-pop Reception and Participatory Fan Culture in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yeon Sung

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available K-pop’s popularity and its participatory fan culture have expanded beyond Asia and become significant in Europe in the past few years. After South Korean pop singer Psy’s “Gangnam Style” music video topped the Austrian chart in October 2012, the number and size of K-pop events in Austria sharply increased, with fans organizing various participatory events, including K-pop auditions, dance festivals, club meetings, quiz competitions, dance workshops, and smaller fan-culture gatherings. In the private sector, longtime fans have transitioned from participants to providers, and in the public sector, from observers to sponsors. Through in-depth interviews with event organizers, sponsors, and fans, this article offers an ethnographic study of the reception of K-pop in Europe that takes into consideration local interactions between fans and Korean sponsors, perspectives on the genre, patterns of social integration, and histories. As a case study, this research stresses the local situatedness of K-pop fan culture by arguing that local private and public sponsors and fans make the reception of K-pop different in each locality. By exploring local scenes of K-pop reception and fan culture, the article demonstrates the rapidly growing consumption of K-pop among Europeans and stresses multidirectional understandings of globalization.

  6. A measuring stand for a ducted fan aircraft propulsion unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaváček David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The UL-39 ultra-light aircraft which is being developed by the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, is equipped with an unconventional ducted fan propulsion unit. The unit consists of an axial fan driven by a piston engine and placed inside a duct ended with a nozzle. This article describes the arrangement of a modernised measuring stand for this highly specific propulsion unit which will be able to measure the fan pressure ratio and velocity field in front of and behind the fan and its characteristic curve.

  7. Integrable deformations of the $G_{k_1} \\times G_{k_2}/G_{k_1+k_2}$ coset CFTs arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Sfetsos, Konstantinos

    We study the effective action for the integrable $\\lambda$-deformation of the $G_{k_1} \\times G_{k_2}/G_{k_1+k_2}$ coset CFTs. For unequal levels theses models do not fall into the general discussion of $\\lambda$-deformations of CFTs corresponding to symmetric spaces and have many attractive features. We show that the perturbation is driven by parafermion bilinears and we revisit the derivation of their algebra. We uncover a non-trivial symmetry of these models parametric space, which has not encountered before in the literature. Using field theoretical methods and the effective action we compute the exact in the deformation parameter $\\beta$-function and explicitly demonstrate the existence of a fixed point in the IR corresponding to the $G_{k_1-k_2} \\times G_{k_2}/G_{k_1}$ coset CFTs. The same result is verified using gravitational methods for $G=SU(2)$. We examine various limiting cases previously considered in the literature and found agreement.

  8. Ramsey numbers r(K1, 4, G) for all three-partite graphs G of order six%K1,4和六阶三部图的Ramsey数r(K1,4,G)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾华; 宋洪雪; 刘向阳

    2004-01-01

    本文主要应用了组合分析的方法. 在对所有边任意地进行了红、蓝2种颜色着色的完全图KN中, 考察了完全图KN的顶点集中某点的邻域在红图或蓝图中所生成的子图的性质. 在Jayawardene和Rousseau (Ars Combinatoria, 2000, 163-173)的主要结果的启发下, 研究并确定了另一种常见的五阶图K1, 4对于所有无孤立点的六阶三部图G的Ramsey数r(K1, 4, G).%In this paper, we use a combinatorial analysis method. In the complete graph KN with edges colored arbitrarily by red or blue, we consider the proposition of the subgraph of the red graph or blue graph induced by the neighborhood of some vertex in V(KN). Inspired by the main results of Jayawardene and Rousseau (Ars Combinatoria, 2000, 163-173), we determine the Ramsey numbers of r(K1, 4, G), where G is the three-partite graph of order six without isolate vertex.

  9. S6K1 controls autophagosome maturation in autophagy induced by sulforaphane or serum deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hać, Aleksandra; Domachowska, Anna; Narajczyk, Magdalena; Cyske, Karolina; Pawlik, Anna; Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna

    2015-10-01

    It is well established that mTORC1 suppresses autophagy by phosphorylation and inactivation of proteins involved in autophagosome formation. However, the role of its substrate, p70S6 kinase1 (S6K1), in autophagy is quite controversial. In some models S6K1 activity correlates with autophagy suppression, however, some other studies show that S6K1 promotes rather than inhibits this process. Here, we investigated the role of S6K1 in prostate cancer cells (PC-3) and non-cancerous, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), either treated with autophagy inducer sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous plants, or deprived of serum. Our results indicate that constitutively active S6K1 decreases the level of LC3 processing and foci formation by autophagosomal vacuoles in cells treated with sulforaphane. On the other hand, presence of S6K1 is necessary for autophagosome maturation under conditions of autophagy induced by either sulforaphane or serum deprivation. Diminished level of S6K1 or lack of S6 kinases results in both, accumulation of autophagosomes and drop in the autophagolysosome number, and thus disturbs autophagy flux under stress conditions. Moreover, lack of S6 kinases reduces cell survival under stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Conservation of plasmids among Escherichia coli K1 isolates of diverse origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, A A; Morelli, G; Heuzenroeder, M; Kamke, M; Achtman, M

    1984-12-01

    Escherichia coli K1 isolates of various O types were previously assigned to different clonal groups. Members of the two clones defined by membrane pattern 9 (MP9) and serotypes O18:K1 and O1:K1 had been found to be very similar to each other. The plasmid contents of these bacteria confirmed this conclusion. Both groups carried a self-transmissible plasmid of the FI incompatibility group that coded for colicin production and a major outer membrane protein called the plasmid-coded protein (PCP). The size of this plasmid varied from 76 to 96 megadaltons, but restriction endonuclease digestion and DNA heteroduplex analysis revealed that these plasmids were highly related. O18:K1 bacteria of MP6 had previously been determined to represent a subclone, related to but different from O18:K1 MP9 bacteria. These MP6 bacteria carried a different, smaller IncFI plasmid which did not code for colicin production or the PCP protein. This smaller plasmid was primarily related to the larger plasmid within the regions of DNA encoding incompatibility, replication, and conjugation. O1:K1 bacteria of MP5 contained other unrelated plasmids in agreement with the previous conclusion that they are unrelated to O1:K1 bacteria of MP9. The bacteria examined had been isolated from two continents over a time span of 38 years, and the results attest to conservative inheritance of plasmids within bacteria of common descent.

  11. Conservation of plasmids among Escherichia coli K1 isolates of diverse origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, A A; Morelli, G; Heuzenroeder, M; Kamke, M; Achtman, M

    1984-01-01

    Escherichia coli K1 isolates of various O types were previously assigned to different clonal groups. Members of the two clones defined by membrane pattern 9 (MP9) and serotypes O18:K1 and O1:K1 had been found to be very similar to each other. The plasmid contents of these bacteria confirmed this conclusion. Both groups carried a self-transmissible plasmid of the FI incompatibility group that coded for colicin production and a major outer membrane protein called the plasmid-coded protein (PCP). The size of this plasmid varied from 76 to 96 megadaltons, but restriction endonuclease digestion and DNA heteroduplex analysis revealed that these plasmids were highly related. O18:K1 bacteria of MP6 had previously been determined to represent a subclone, related to but different from O18:K1 MP9 bacteria. These MP6 bacteria carried a different, smaller IncFI plasmid which did not code for colicin production or the PCP protein. This smaller plasmid was primarily related to the larger plasmid within the regions of DNA encoding incompatibility, replication, and conjugation. O1:K1 bacteria of MP5 contained other unrelated plasmids in agreement with the previous conclusion that they are unrelated to O1:K1 bacteria of MP9. The bacteria examined had been isolated from two continents over a time span of 38 years, and the results attest to conservative inheritance of plasmids within bacteria of common descent. Images PMID:6094355

  12. Condensate Accretion in Shock Tube's Expansion Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezonlin, Ephrem-Denis; DeSilva, Upul P.; Hunte, F.; Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that turbulence and temperature influence the droplet sizes in expansion fan induced condensation by studying the Rayleigh scattering from one port in our shock tube's test section. We have modified our set-up so as to allow, using two ports, the real time measurement of the influence of turbulence and temperature on the rate at which these droplets grow. To do this, we looked at the Rayleigh scattering from two different ports for ten Reynolds numbers at five different temperatures. We modeled the time of flight of droplets, using the equations of one-dimensional gas dynamics and the measured shock wave speed in shock tube's driven section.

  13. Through flow analysis of pumps and fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, A. N.

    1980-08-01

    Incompressible through flow calculations in axial, mixed and centrifugal flow pumps and fans are described. An iterative scheme is used. A simple blade to blade model is applied on the surfaces of revolution defined by the meridional streamlines. This defines the fluid properties and the mean stream surface (S2 surface) for the next meridional solution. A computer program is available allowing the method to be applied for design purposes. APL is used for input and output and FORTRAN IV for computation. A typical calculation requires 30 sec of Univac 1100 time.

  14. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The team evaluated a market-available through-wall air transfer fan system that provides air to the bedrooms.The relative ability of this system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability.

  15. A simplified fragility analysis of fan type cable stayed bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. A. Khan; T. K. Datta; S. Ahmad

    2005-01-01

    A simplified fragility analysis of fan type cable stayed bridges using Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA)procedure is presented for determining their failure probability under random ground motion. Seismic input to the bridge support is considered to be a risk consistent response spectrum which is obtained from a separate analysis. For the response analysis, the bridge deck is modeled as a beam supported on springs at different points. The stiffnesses of the springs are determined by a separate 2D static analysis of cable-tower-deck system. The analysis provides a coupled stiffness matrix for the spring system. A continuum method of analysis using dynamic stiffness is used to determine the dynamic properties of the bridges .The response of the bridge deck is obtained by the response spectrum method of analysis as applied to multidegree of freedom system which duly takes into account the quasi - static component of bridge deck vibration. The fragility analysis includes uncertainties arising due to the variation in ground motion, material property, modeling, method of analysis,ductility factor and damage concentration effect. Probability of failure of the bridge deck is determined by the First Order Second Moment (FOSM) method of reliability. A three span double plane symmetrical fan type cable stayed bridge of total span 689 m, is used as an illustrative example. The fragility curves for the bridge deck failure are obtained under a number of parametric variations. Some of the important conclusions of the study indicate that (i) not only vertical component but also the horizontal component of ground motion has considerable effect on the probability of failure; (ii) ground motion with no time lag between support excitations provides a smaller probability of failure as compared to ground motion with very large time lag between support excitation; and (iii) probability of failure may considerably increase for soft soil condition.

  16. Geophysical and Hydrological Characterization of Alluvial Fans in the Valle El Sauz Encinillas, Chihuahua, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Aragón, A.; Chávez-Aguirre, R.; Osuna-Vizcarra, A.; Espejel-García, V. V.

    2007-05-01

    The Valle El Sauz Encinillas (VESE) is located 92 km north of Chihuahua City, México. Despite being the principal aquifer feeding Chihuahua City, and being flanked by two well studied geological features (Bloque Calera-Del Nido to the West, and the Sierra Peña Blanca to the East), a lack of available hydrogeological data prevails in the valley. The goals of this study are two: 1) geomorphometrical analysis of the sub-basins and alluvial fans, and 2) determination of the alluvial fan geoelectrical units via electrical-resistivity soundings. The Basin and Range system forms a closed sub-basin with a lacustrine basin system in extinction process. The aquifer is located in alluvial Quaternary sediments, with varying granulometry, reaching a thickness of 600 meters at the center of the valley. The biggest alluvial fan in the VESE is located at the Cañón de Santa Clara, and intersects the playa-lake deposits of the Laguna de Encinillas. This fan has a surface of 73.2 km2 and an average slope of 0.437°. The geomorphometrical analysis included the sub-basins, currents, and the fans in the area. These analyses allow a comparison between alluvial fans in the VESE and those in Death Valley, California, USA. The alluvial fans in both areas show a similar behavior in all plots. Twenty electrical resistivity soundings (Schlumberger array, AB/2 distance of 400 m) were performed in the alluvial fan. The basement and four other geoelectrical units were identified in the fan. The geophysical data, granulometric determinations, plus geochemical information of twelve wells in the area were analyzed. These data show how the decrease in granulometry, both frontally and laterally in the fan, results in a rise of the hydraulic conductivity and transmisivity values (water wells in Los Sauces and El Faro). However, both the permeability and the water quality in its distal portion, are affected by the playa lake deposits, the raising ratio of clay-size sediments (and evaporites) in the

  17. Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Induced Polarization for Mapping the Subsurface of Alluvial Fans: A Case Study in Punata (Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Gonzales Amaya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual models of aquifer systems can be refined and complemented with geophysical data, and they can assist in understanding hydrogeological properties such as groundwater storage capacity. This research attempts to use geoelectrical methods, Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Induced Polarization parameters, for mapping the subsurface in alluvial fans and to demonstrate its applicability; the Punata alluvial fan was used as a case study. The resistivity measurements proved to be a good tool for mapping the subsurface in the fan, especially when used in combination with Induced Polarization parameters (i.e., Normalized Chargeability. The Punata alluvial fan characterization indicated that the top part of the subsurface is composed of boulders in a matrix of finer particles and that the grain size decreases with depth; the electrical resistivity of these deposits ranged from 200 to 1000 Ωm, while the values of normalized chargeability were lower than 0.05 mS/m. The bottom of the aquifer system consisted of a layer with high clay content, and the resistivity ranged from 10 to 100 Ωm, while the normalized chargeability is higher than 0.07 mS/m. With the integration of these results and lithological information, a refined conceptual model is proposed; this model gives a more detailed description of the local aquifer system. It can be concluded that geoelectrical methods are useful for mapping aquifer systems in alluvial fans.

  18. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1QX5K-1CLMA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1QX5K-1CLMA 1QX5 1CLM K A LTEEQIAEFKEAFSLFDKDGDGTITTKELGTVMRSLGQN...seq1> LTEEQIAEFKEAFALFDKDGDGTITTKELGTVMRSLGQNPTEAELQDMINEVDADGNGTIDFPEFLSLMARKMKEQDSEEELIEAFKVFDRDGNGL...> A 1CLMA GDGHI-NYEEF

  19. Case study of French and Spanish fan reception of Game of Thrones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Bourdaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reception of the American TV show Game of Thrones (2011– by French and Spanish fans and nonfans is addressed via a qualitative methodology, the goal of which is to understand how European viewers perceive themselves as fans and what it means for them to be fans. Analysis of characteristics of a specifically European reception helps us learn what fan studies tell us about fans and what fans really think about fandoms.

  20. Aerodynamic performance of a vibrating piezoelectric fan under varied operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, J.; Jeffers, N.

    2014-07-01

    This paper experimentally examines the bulk aerodynamic performance of a vibrating fan operating in the first mode of vibration. The influence of operating condition on the local velocity field has also been investigated to understand the flow distribution at the exit region and determine the stalling condition for vibrating fans. Fan motion has been generated and controlled using a piezoelectric ceramic attached to a stainless steel cantilever. The frequency and amplitude at resonance were 109.4 Hz and 12.5 mm, respectively. A test facility has been developed to measure the pressure-flow characteristics of the vibrating fan and simultaneously conduct local velocity field measurements using particle image velocimetry. The results demonstrate the impact of system characteristics on the local velocity field. High momentum regions generated due to the oscillating motion exist with a component direction that is tangent to the blade at maximum displacement. These high velocity zones are significantly affected by increasing impedance while flow reversal is a dominant feature at maximum pressure rise. The findings outlined provide useful information for design of thermal management solutions that may incorporate this air cooling approach.

  1. Prediction of 3-hydroxypyridin-4-one (HPO) log K1 values for Fe(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Lin; Barlow, Dave J; Kong, Xiao-Le; Ma, Yong-Min; Hider, Robert C

    2012-09-21

    As a means to aid in the design of 3-hydroxypyridin-4-ones (HPOs) intended for use as therapeutic Fe(3+) chelating agents, a novel methodology has been developed using quantum mechanical (QM) calculations for predicting the iron binding affinities of the compounds (more specifically, their log K(1) values). The reported/measured HPO log K(1) values were verified through their correlation with the corresponding sum of the compounds' ligating group pK(a) values. Using a training set of eleven HPOs with known log K(1) values, reliable predictions are shown to be obtained with QM calculations using the B3LYP/6-31+G(d)/CPCM model chemistry (with Bondi radii, and water as solvent). With this methodology, the observed log K(1) values for the training set compounds are closely matched by the predicted values, with the correlation between the observed and predicted values giving r(2) = 0.9. Predictions subsequently made by this method for a test set of 42 HPOs of known log K(1) values gave predicted values accurate to within ±0.32 log units. In order to further investigate the predictive power of the method, four novel HPOs were synthesised and their log K(1) values were determined experimentally. Comparison of these predicted log K(1) values against the measured values gave absolute deviations of 0.22 (13.87 vs. 14.09), 0.02 (14.31 vs. 14.29), 0.12 (14.62 vs. 14.50), and 0.13 (15.04 vs. 15.17). The prediction methodology reported here is the first to be provided for predicting the absolute log K(1) values of iron-chelating agents in the absence of pK(a) values.

  2. Lectin complement protein Collectin 11 (CL-K1 and susceptibility to urinary schistosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin S Antony

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease endemic in many sub Saharan -African countries. Collectin Kidney 1 (CL-K1, encoded by COLEC11 on chromosome 2p25.3, a member of the vertebrate C-type lectin super family, has recently been identified as pattern-recognition molecule (PRR of the lectin complement pathway. CL-K1 is preferentially expressed in the kidneys, but also in other organs and it is considered to play a role in host defense to some infectious agents. Schistosome teguments are fucosylated and CL-K1 has, through its collagen-like domain, a high binding affinity to fucose.We utilized a Nigerian study group consisting of 167 Schistosoma haematobium infected individuals and 186 matched healthy subjects, and investigated the contribution of CL-K1 deficiency and of COLEC11 polymorphisms to infection phenotype. Higher CL-K1 serum levels were associated with decreased risk of schistosome infection (P corr = 0.0004. CL-K1 serum levels were differentially distributed between the COLEC11 genotypes and haplotypes observed. The non-synonymous variant p.R216H was associated with the occurrence of schistosomiasis (OR = 0.44, 95%CI = 0.22-0.72, P corr = 0.0004. The reconstructed COLEC11*TCCA haplotypes were associated with higher CL-K1 serum levels (P = 0.002 and with decreased schistosomiasis (OR = 0.38, 95%CI = 0.23-0.63, P corr = 0.0001.In agreement with findings from our earlier published study, our findings support the observation that CL-K1 and their functional variants may be host factors associated with protection in schistosomiasis and may be a useful marker for further investigations.

  3. Female fans of men's football - a case study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Lenneis, Verena; Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    2013-01-01

    to a 'man's world' and what are their roles in this 'male environment'? The statements of interviewees revealed that female fans have to cope with a measure of sexism, but that they can adopt the men's perspectives in order to be accepted as 'authentic fans'. Other women reacted on men's domination...

  4. Using Fan Fiction to Teach Critical Reading and Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about fan fiction, which is defined by Jenkins (2008) as "original stories and novels which are set in the fictional universe of favorite television series, films, comics, games or other media properties." Fan fiction generally involves writing stories with a combination of established characters and established…

  5. Amateur mythographies: Fan fiction and the myth of myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Willis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on classical scholarship on myth in order to critically examine three ways in which scholars and fans have articulated a relationship between fan fiction and myth. These are (1 the notion of fan fiction as a form of folk culture, reclaiming popular story from corporate ownership; (2 the notion of myth as counterhegemonic, often feminist, discourse; (3 the notion of myth as a commons of story and a universal story world. I argue that the first notion depends on an implicit primitivizing of fan fiction and myth, which draws ultimately on the work of Gottfried von Herder in the 18th century and limits our ability to produce historically and politically nuanced understandings of fan fiction. The second notion, which is visible in the work of Henry Jenkins and Constance Penley, is more helpful because of its attention to the politics of narration. However, it is the third model of myth, as a universal story world, where we find the richest crossover between fan fiction's creative power and contemporary classical scholarship on myth, especially in relation to Sarah Iles Johnston's analysis of hyperserial narrative. I demonstrate this through some close readings of fan fiction from the Greek and Roman Mythology fandom on Archive of Our Own. I conclude the paper by extending Johnston's arguments to show that fan-fictional hyperseriality, specifically, can be seen as mythic because it intervenes not only in the narrative worlds of its source materials but also in the social world of its telling.

  6. Gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2015-01-01

    aims to give insight into gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans in the stands. Drawing on a social constructivist perspective to gender and Bourdieu's (1984) approaches to field, capital and habitus, we explored the experiences and opinions of female fans. The methods employed...

  7. 76 FR 50739 - Hung Ta Fan: Debarment Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... bases this order on a finding that Mr. Fan was convicted of a felony under Federal law for conduct... law). FDA's finding that debarment is appropriate is based on the felony conviction referenced herein... Thailand, when in fact he knew that the honey originated in China. Mr. Fan's actions allowed him to avoid...

  8. Facilitating Attuned Interactions: Using the FAN Approach to Family Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Erikson Institute's Fussy Baby Network® (FBN) is a national model prevention program known for its approach to family engagement called the FAN (Gilkerson & Gray, 2014; Gilkerson et al., 2012). The FAN is both a conceptual framework and a practical tool to facilitate attunement in helping relationships and promote reflective practice. This…

  9. Wikipedia and participatory culture: Why fans edit [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Online, fans of popular culture media partake in participatory culture in various ways, such as writing fan fiction and scrutinizing media on message boards. Another way they do so is by editing relevant articles in the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. In fact, research has shown that Wikipedia articles skew heavily toward pop culture, suggesting that fans of pop culture are among the most enthusiastic of Wikipedia's editors. Of course, the question emerges: Why are pop culture fans in particular so interested in editing Wikipedia? Building on previous research, I argue that fans want to take part in the production of the media that they enjoy, that Wikipedia allows editors to create their own paratext (i.e., the Wikipedia article in relation to a main text (e.g., a movie, a television show, a book series, and that this paratext may be heavily used by the general public. Such usage is a form of implicit approval that affirms the editors' knowledge and encourages them to make more edits. Thus, Wikipedia validates the fan editor's work in a way that other outlets for participatory culture (e.g., fan fiction, fan art, songwriting cannot.

  10. River path selection in response to uplift and interaction with alluvial fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, J. L.; Paola, C.; Voller, V. R.

    2015-12-01

    River systems construct stratigraphic successions and build land by depositing and redistributing sediments as they migrate across the entire basin. This mobility arises from the intrinsic variability of a river system but can also be forced by external changes. It is particularly observable in tectonically active basins where the basement can be partly uplifted and where sediments can come from multiple sources. Theoretically, the ability of these perturbations to steer channels depends on their capacity to create lateral topographic gradients at a faster rate than the aggradation. Following these lines, we present an experimental study on the impacts of lateral tilting by tectonics and lateral alluvial fans on rivers path. The experiment was conducted in the eXperimental Earth Scape facility, also known as the Jurassic tank, where the basement tilting rate can be monitored by controlling individually gravel subsidence through 108 hexagonal cells. The basin was relatively uplifted on one side of the tank according to an anticline-shape and sediments were input through two sources: a main, axial one and a lateral, secondary one. We analyzed the differences in the topographic signature and flow occupation of rivers in response to the uplift or the lateral sediment source as well as the competition of these forcing in the late stages of the experiments. We found that both tectonic tilting and fan activity tend to decrease the basin-wide channel mobility. Indeed, the area at the convergence of the two interacting fans is a long-lasting topographic low that tends to channelize the flow while areas away from it are less visited. The position of this boundary is correlated with the relative flow contribution from both fans. This highlights the self-healing capacity of fans that are able to rapidly restore a graded shape. As opposed to fans, an uplifted area will not heal but force rivers to carve long-lasting valleys and increase the relief. When eroded, these uplifted

  11. Comparative genomic analysis shows that avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolate IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140 shares close relationship with ST95 APEC O1:K1 and human ExPEC O18:K1 strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangkai Zhu Ge

    Full Text Available Avian pathogenic E. coli and human extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli serotypes O1, O2 and O18 strains isolated from different hosts are generally located in phylogroup B2 and ST complex 95, and they share similar genetic characteristics and pathogenicity, with no or minimal host specificity. They are popular objects for the study of ExPEC genetic characteristics and pathogenesis in recent years. Here, we investigated the evolution and genetic blueprint of APEC pathotype by performing phylogenetic and comparative genome analysis of avian pathogenic E. coli strain IMT5155 (O2:K1:H5; ST complex 95, ST140 with other E. coli pathotypes. Phylogeny analyses indicated that IMT5155 has closest evolutionary relationship with APEC O1, IHE3034, and UTI89. Comparative genomic analysis showed that IMT5155 and APEC O1 shared significant genetic overlap/similarities with human ExPEC dominant O18:K1 strains (IHE3034 and UTI89. Furthermore, the unique PAI I5155 (GI-12 was identified and found to be conserved in APEC O2 serotype isolates. GI-7 and GI-16 encoding two typical T6SSs in IMT5155 might be useful markers for the identification of ExPEC dominant serotypes (O1, O2, and O18 strains. IMT5155 contained a ColV plasmid p1ColV5155, which defined the APEC pathotype. The distribution analysis of 10 sequenced ExPEC pan-genome virulence factors among 47 sequenced E. coli strains provided meaningful information for B2 APEC/ExPEC-specific virulence factors, including several adhesins, invasins, toxins, iron acquisition systems, and so on. The pathogenicity tests of IMT5155 and other APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 serotypes strains (isolated in China through four animal models showed that they were highly virulent for avian colisepticemia and able to cause septicemia and meningitis in neonatal rats, suggesting zoonotic potential of these APEC O1:K1 and O2:K1 isolates.

  12. Sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK-1 regulates Mycobacterium smegmatis infection in macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hridayesh Prakash

    Full Text Available Sphingosine kinase-1 is known to mediate Mycobacterium smegmatis induced inflammatory responses in macrophages, but its role in controlling infection has not been reported to date. We aimed to unravel the significance of SphK-1 in controlling M. smegmatis infection in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results demonstrated for the first time that selective inhibition of SphK-1 by either D, L threo dihydrosphingosine (DHS; a competitive inhibitor of Sphk-1 or Sphk-1 siRNA rendered RAW macrophages sensitive to M. smegmatis infection. This was due to the reduction in the expression of iNOs, p38, pp-38, late phagosomal marker, LAMP-2 and stabilization of the RelA (pp-65 subunit of NF-kappaB. This led to a reduction in the generation of NO and secretion of TNF-alpha in infected macrophages. Congruently, overexpression of SphK-1 conferred resistance in macrophages to infection which was due to enhancement in the generation of NO and expression of iNOs, pp38 and LAMP-2. In addition, our results also unraveled a novel regulation of p38MAPK by SphK-1 during M. smegmatis infection and generation of NO in macrophages. Enhanced NO generation and expression of iNOs in SphK-1++ infected macrophages demonstrated their M-1(bright phenotype of these macrophages. These findings thus suggested a novel antimycobacterial role of SphK-1 in macrophages.

  13. Interaction of Escherichia coli K1 and K5 with Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Abdul; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2011-12-01

    The existence of symbiotic relationships between Acanthamoeba and a variety of bacteria is well-documented. However, the ability of Acanthamoeba interacting with host bacterial pathogens has gained particular attention. Here, to understand the interactions of Escherichia coli K1 and E. coli K5 strains with Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts, association assay, invasion assay, survival assay, and the measurement of bacterial numbers from cysts were performed, and nonpathogenic E. coli K12 was also applied. The association ratio of E. coli K1 with A. castellanii was 4.3 cfu per amoeba for 1 hr but E. coli K5 with A. castellanii was 1 cfu per amoeba for 1 hr. By invasion and survival assays, E. coli K5 was recovered less than E. coli K1 but still alive inside A. castellanii. E. coli K1 and K5 survived and multiplied intracellularly in A. castellanii. The survival assay was performed under a favourable condition for 22 hr and 43 hr with the encystment of A. castellanii. Under the favourable condition for the transformation of trophozoites into cysts, E. coli K5 multiplied significantly. Moreover, the pathogenic potential of E. coli K1 from A. castellanii cysts exhibited no changes as compared with E. coli K1 from A. castellanii trophozoites. E. coli K5 was multiplied in A. castellanii trophozoites and survived in A. castellanii cysts. Therefore, this study suggests that E. coli K5 can use A. castellanii as a reservoir host or a vector for the bacterial transmission.

  14. Nocturnal Fanning Suppresses Downy Mildew Epidemics in Sweet Basil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigal Cohen

    Full Text Available Downy mildew is currently the most serious disease of sweet basil around the world. The oomycete causal agent Peronospora belbahrii requires ≥ 4h free leaf moisture for infection and ≥7.5h of water-saturated atmosphere (relative humidity RH≥95% at night for sporulation. We show here that continued nocturnal fanning (wind speed of 0.4-1.5 m/s from 8pm to 8am dramatically suppressed downy mildew development. In three experiments conducted during 2015, percent infected leaves in regular (non-fanned net-houses reached a mean of 89.9, 94.3 and 96.0% compared to1.2, 1.7 and 0.5% in adjacent fanned net-houses, respectively. Nocturnal fanning reduced the number of hours per night with RH≥95% thus shortened the dew periods below the threshold required for infection or sporulation. In experiments A, B and C, the number of nights with ≥4h of RH≥95% was 28, 10 and 17 in the non-fanned net-houses compared to 5, 0 and 5 in the fanned net-houses, respectively. In the third experiment leaf wetness sensors were installed. Dew formation was strongly suppressed in the fanned net-house as compared to the non-fanned net-house. Healthy potted plants became infected and sporulated a week later if placed one night in the non-fanned house whereas healthy plants placed during that night in the fanned house remained healthy. Infected potted basil plants sporulated heavily after one night of incubation in the non-fanned house whereas almost no sporulation occurred in similar plants incubated that night in the fanned house. The data suggest that nocturnal fanning is highly effective in suppressing downy mildew epidemics in sweet basil. Fanning prevented the within-canopy RH from reaching saturation, reduced dew deposition on the leaves, and hence prevented both infection and sporulation of P. belbahrii.

  15. Characterization of $m$-Sequences of Lengths $2^{2k}-1$ and $2^k-1$ with Three-Valued Crosscorrelation

    OpenAIRE

    Helleseth, Tor; Kholosha, Alexander; Ness, Geir Jarle

    2007-01-01

    Considered is the distribution of the crosscorrelation between $m$-sequences of length $2^m-1$, where $m=2k$, and $m$-sequences of shorter length $2^k-1$. New pairs of $m$-sequences with three-valued crosscorrelation are found and the complete correlation distribution is determined. Finally, we conjecture that there are no more cases with a three-valued crosscorrelation apart from the ones proven here.

  16. KEY COMPARISON: Force key comparison CCM.F-K1.a and CCM.F-K1.b: 5 kN and 10 kN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusa, Aimo

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the key comparisons named CCM.F-K1.a and CCM.F-K1.b, for force with loads of 5 kN and 10 kN. The Draft A Report, reporting the measurement results of the key comparisons, has been accepted at the force expert group meeting in Pretoria on 23 March 2004. This became Part 1 of the preliminary Draft B Report. Then, there have been several discussions to find the best way for the determination of the reference value for force values 5 kN and 10 kN in the key comparisons CCM.F-K1.a and CCM.F-K1.b. Following the meeting held in Queretaro, Mexico, by CENAM, from 3 to 5 December 2007, the reference values have been calculated for each single transducer (see chapter 2), and as one reference value for 5 kN and a second reference value for 10 kN (see chapter 3). To get a better consistency a linear model for the drift of transducers has been applied. The results have been evaluated according to the paper from M G Cox, 'The evaluation of key comparison data' (2002 Metrologia 39 589-595). Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  17. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  18. Portable Fan Assembly for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Arthur A.; Roman, Monsi C.

    1999-01-01

    NASA/ Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is responsible for the design and fabrication of a Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) for the International Space Station (ISS). The PFA will be used to enhance ventilation inside the ISS modules as needed for crew comfort and for rack rotation. The PFA consists of the fan on-orbit replaceable unit (ORU) and two noise suppression packages (silencers). The fan ORU will have a mechanical interface with the Seat Track Equipment Anchor Assembly, in addition to the power supply module which includes a DC-DC converter, on/standby switch, speed control, power cable and connector. This paper provides a brief development history, including the criteria used for the fan, and a detailed description of the PFA operational configurations. Space Station requirements as well as fan performance characteristics are also discussed.

  19. Sediment velocities from sonobuoys: Bengal Fan, Sunda Trench, Andaman Basin, and Nicobar Fan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, E.L.; Bachman, R.T.; Curray, J.R.; Moore, D.G.

    1977-07-10

    New measurements of interval compressional wave velocities were made in the first sediment layer using the sonobuoy technique during two expeditions in the Bay of Bengal, in the Andaman Sea, and over the Nicobar Fan and Sunda Trench. Sediment interval velocities from these areas were added to those previously reported, and revised diagrams and regression equations of instantaneous and mean velocity versus one-way travel time are furnished for four areas of the Bengal Fan, and for the Anadman Basin, Nicobar Fan, Sunda Trench. The velocity gradients directly below the sea floor were used to separate the Bengal Fan into four geoacoustic provinces. In the north and west the velocity gradients are 0.86 and 1.28 s/sup -1/, respectively, whereas in the central part of the fan the gradient is 1.87 s/sup -1/. These variations indicate lesser increases of velocity with depth in the sea floor in the north and west, and they are probably due to more rapid deposition, less consolidation, and less lithification near the riverine source areas of the sediments. The near-surface velocity gradients in the other areas are the Andaman Basin, 1.53 s/sup -1/, the Nicobar Fan 1.63 s/sup -1/, and the Sunda Trench, 1.41 s/sup -1/. The linear velocity gradients (from the sediment surface to a given travel time) in 17 areas of the Indian Ocean, Pacific area, Atlantic Ocean, and Gulf of Mexico were averaged at each 0.1 s from 0 to 0.5 s of one-way travel time. These averaged gradients ranged from 1.32 s/sup -1/ at t=0 to 0.76 s/sup -1/ at t=0.5 s. The regression equation for the velocity gradients a, in s/sup -1/, as a function of one-way travel time t, in seconds, is a=1.316-1.117t (for use from t=0 to 0.5 s). These average velocity gradients can be used with sediment surface velocities and one-way travel times (measured from reflection records) to compute sediment layer thickness in areas of turbidites lacking interval velocity measurements in the first sediment layer.

  20. Alluvial Fan Morphology, distribution and formation on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, S. P. D.; Hayes, A. G.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.; Radebaugh, J.

    2016-05-01

    Titan is a hydrologically active world, with dozens of alluvial fans that are evidence of sediment transport from high to low elevations. However, the distribution and requirements for the formation of fans on Titan are not well understood. We performed the first global survey of alluvial fans on Titan using Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data, which cover 61% of Titan's surface. We identified 82 fans with areas ranging from 28 km2 to 27,000 km2. A significant fraction (∼60%) of the fans are restricted to latitudes of ±50-80°, suggesting that fluvial sediment transport may have been concentrated in the near-polar terrains in the geologically recent past. The density of fans is also found to be correlated with the latitudes predicted to have the highest precipitation rates by Titan Global Circulation Models. In equatorial regions, observable fans are not generally found in proximity to dune fields. Such observations suggest that sediment transport in these areas is dominated by aeolian transport mechanisms, though with some degree of recent equatorial fluvial activity. The fan area-drainage area relationship on Titan is more similar to that on Earth than on Mars, suggesting that the fans on Titan are smaller than what may be expected, and that the transport of bedload sediment is limited. We hypothesize that this has led to the development of a coarse gravel-lag deposit over much of Titan's surface. Such a model explains both the morphology of the fans and their latitudinal concentration, yielding insight into the sediment transport regimes that operate across Titan today.

  1. Antisolar differential rotation of the K1-giant sigma Geminorum revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Kovari, Zs; Künstler, A; Carroll, T A; Strassmeier, K G; Vida, K; Olah, K; Bartus, J; Weber, M

    2014-01-01

    Context. Surface differential rotation and other global surface flows on magnetically active stars are among the observable manifestations of the stellar dynamo working underneath. Therefore, such observations are important for stellar dynamo theory and useful constraints for solar dynamo studies as well. Aims. The active K1-giant component of the long-period RS CVn-type binary system sigma Gem and its global surface flow pattern is revisited. Methods. We refine the differential rotation law from recovering the spot migration pattern. We apply a detailed cross-correlation technique to a unique set of 34 time-series Doppler images recovered using data from 1996/97. By increasing the number of the available cross-correlation function maps from the formerly used 4 to 17 we expect a more robust determination of the differential surface rotation law. In addition, we present a new time-series Doppler imaging study of sigma Gem using our advanced surface reconstruction code iMap for a dataset collected in 2006/07. R...

  2. Denaturing Effects of Urea and Guanidine Hydrochloride on Hyperthermophilic Esterase from Aeropyrum pernix K1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The changes in the activity and the conformation of the hyperthermophilic esterase derived from aerobic thermophilic Aeropyrumpernix K1 (APE1547) were studied during denaturation by guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl)and urea. The denaturation course of APE1547 was followed by the steady-state and time resolved fluorescence methods. An increase in the denaturant concentration in the denatured system can significantly enhance the inactivation and unfolding of APE1547. The enzyme can be completely inactivated with a urea concentration of 2. 7 mol/L or a GdnHCl concentration of 7.5 mol/L. The fluorescence emission maximum of the enzyme protein red shifts in magnitude to a maximum value(355 nm) when the concentration of GdnHCl is 5.1 mol/L. The experimental results indicate that APE1547 has a high resistance to urea. Unfolding of APE1547 in GdnHCl(4.2-6.0 mol/L) was shown to be an irreversible process. The present results indicate that the ion pairs in this protein may be a key factor for the stability of this esterase.

  3. SOFIA Infrared Spectrophotometry of Comet C/2012 K1 (Pan-STARRS)

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Charles E; Harker, David E; Ryan, Erin L; Wooden, Diane H; Sitko, Michael L; Russell, Ray W; Reach, William T; de Pater, Imke; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Gehrz, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    We present pre-perihelion infrared 8 to 31 micron spectrophotometric and imaging observations of comet C/2012 K1 (Pan-STARRS), a dynamically new Oort Cloud comet, conducted with NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) facility (+FORCAST) in 2014 June. As a "new" comet (first inner solar system passage), the coma grain population may be extremely pristine, unencumbered by a rime and insufficiently irradiated by the Sun to carbonize its surface organics. The comet exhibited a weak 10 micron silicate feature ~1.18 +/- 0.03 above the underlying best-fit 215.32 +/- 0.95 K continuum blackbody. Thermal modeling of the observed spectral energy distribution indicates that the coma grains are fractally solid with a porosity factor D = 3 and the peak in the grain size distribution, a_peak = 0.6 micron, large. The sub-micron coma grains are dominated by amorphous carbon, with a silicate-to-carbon ratio of 0.80 (+0.25) (- 0.20). The silicate crystalline mass fraction is 0.20 (+0.30) (-0.10), simila...

  4. Life, death and revival of debris-flow fans on Earth and Mars : fan dynamics and climatic inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.

    2016-01-01

    Alluvial fans are ubiquitous landforms in high-relief regions on Earth and Mars. They have a semi-conical shape and are located at the transition between highlands and adjacent basins. Alluvial fans can form by a range of processes including debris flows, which are water-laden masses of soil and

  5. Life, death and revival of debris-flow fans on Earth and Mars : fan dynamics and climatic inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.

    2016-01-01

    Alluvial fans are ubiquitous landforms in high-relief regions on Earth and Mars. They have a semi-conical shape and are located at the transition between highlands and adjacent basins. Alluvial fans can form by a range of processes including debris flows, which are water-laden masses of soil and roc

  6. Life, death and revival of debris-flow fans on Earth and Mars : fan dynamics and climatic inferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, T.

    2016-01-01

    Alluvial fans are ubiquitous landforms in high-relief regions on Earth and Mars. They have a semi-conical shape and are located at the transition between highlands and adjacent basins. Alluvial fans can form by a range of processes including debris flows, which are water-laden masses of soil and roc

  7. Determination of IGF-1-Producing CHO-K1 Growth Phases Using GCMS-Based Global Metabolite Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. M. SABERI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian cell lines, in particular CHO-K1 is vital for the multibillion dollar biotechnology industry. The majority of large scale bioprocessing of commercially valuable protein biopharmaceuticals is produced using this type of cell. An ideal mammalian cell system as host for biologics production should retain efficient use of energy sources in order to boost productivity at minimum cost. Various analyses such as cell counting and monitoring of specific biochemical responses are used to provide data to enable bioprocess control in order to achieve the ideal system. Our study aimed to see whether global metabolite analysis using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS would be a potential alternative approach in providing data for bioprocess control. In this study, we analyzed metabolites of CHO-K1 cells at different growth phases using GCMS. CHO-K1 cells producing insulin like growth factor-I (IGF1 were obtained from ATCC. Cells were grown in T-flask and incubated at 37°C/ 5% CO2 until 70-80% confluent in RPMI 1640 media. Samples (cells and spent/conditioned media were taken at designated intervals for routine cell counting (Trypan Blue dye exclusion method; glucose, glutamine and lactate determination (YSI 2700; IGF-1 production (ELISA kit R&D Sstems, Inc; and global metabolite analysis (GCMS. Conditioned media from each time point were spun down before subjecting into GCMS. Data from GCMS was then transferred to SIMCA P+12.0 for chemometric evaluation using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The first component, PC1 results was able to explain 36% of the variation of the data with clear separation between exponential phase and other phases (initial and death phase. This suggests that GCMS-based global metabolite analysis has the ability to capture cell growth behaviour and offered insights of factors that may influence the biological system.ABSTRAK: Produk yang berupa sel kekal mamalia, terutamnya CHO-K1 adalah penting dan menguntungkan

  8. Dynamic Analysis for a Geared Turbofan Engine with Variable Area Fan Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; Thomas, George L.

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive design goals have been set for future aero-propulsion systems with regards to fuel economy, noise, and emissions. To meet these challenging goals, advanced propulsion concepts are being explored and current operating margins are being re-evaluated to find additional concessions that can be made. One advanced propulsion concept being evaluated is a geared turbofan with a variable area fan nozzle (VAFN), developed by NASA. This engine features a small core, a fan driven by the low pressure turbine through a reduction gearbox, and a shape memory alloy (SMA)-actuated VAFN. The VAFN is designed to allow both a small exit area for efficient operation at cruise, while being able to open wider at high power conditions to reduce backpressure on the fan and ensure a safe level of stall margin is maintained. The VAFN is actuated via a SMA-based system instead of a conventional system to decrease overall weight of the system, however, SMA-based actuators respond relatively slowly, which introduces dynamic issues that are investigated in this work. This paper describes both a control system designed specifically for issues associated with SMAs, and dynamic analysis of the geared turbofan VAFN with the SMA actuators. Also, some future recommendations are provided for this type of propulsion system.

  9. The 3-dimensional flow field in front of and behind a cooling fan in case of a realistic installation; Das dreidimensionale Zu- und Abstroemfeld eines Kuehlventilators in einer realitaetsnahen Einbausituation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelstein, D.; Selen, B.; Hasemann, H.; Rautenberg, M.

    1996-12-31

    Cooling systems of trucks are often planned by the help of characteristic fan curves that are measured at ideal fan teststands. Normally the real fan installation is different to the test conditions. Therefore the influence of the fan installation on global and local fan characteristics has to be checked. In this paper the influence of the fan installation on the fan performance and the flow field in front of and behind the fan was investigated. A significant influence of the fan cowl on the pressure rise of the fan at lower mass flow rates could be found. The installation of a cooling unit does not have much effect on the flow field around the fan. A motor dummy mounted behind the fan causes a decrease of pressure losses at small mass flow rates. (orig.) [Deutsch] fur Charakterisierung des Betriebsverhaltens von Axiallueftern wie sie in Kuehlsystemen von Nutzfahrzeugen eingesetzt werden, dienen auf speziellen genormten Pruefstaenden erstellte Luefterkennlinien. Bei der Auslegung von Kuehlsystemen werden in der Regel diese unter idealen Verhaeltnissen aufgenommenen Kennlinien herangezogen. Die in realen Fahrzeugen auftretende Einbausituation fuehrt jedoch zu einer starken Veraenderung der Stroemungsverhaeltnisse, so dass sich die Frage stellt, inwiefern die Uebertragbarkeit der Normkennlinien gesichert ist. In diesem Paper werden daher an einem ausgewaehlten Luefter ausgehend von einer auf einem Pruefstand gemessenen Luefterkennlinie die Einfluesse der Luefterzarge, des Kuehlerpaketes und des Fahrzeugmotors auf den Kennlinienverlauf untersucht. Zu diesem Zweck werden Messungen der globalen Eigenschaften des Luefters in unterschiedlichen Einbausituationen durchgefuehrt. Darueber hinaus wird bei ausgewaehlten Betriebspunkten mit Hilfe einer Fuenfloch-Sonde fuer die einzelnen Einbausituationen eine Abtastung des Stroemungsfeldes im Bereich des Luefters durchgefuehrt. Auf diese Weise soll ein Zusammenhang zwischen lokalen Aenderungen im Stroemungsfeld und globalen

  10. Fluvial fan evolution during Late Quaternary climate changes: field and chronological constraints from the Indo-Gangetic basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A.; Gupta, S.; Sinha, R.; Densmore, A.; Thomsen, K. J.; Nayak, N.; Joshi, S. K.; van Dijk, W. M.; Buylaert, J. P.; Mondal, S.; Kumar, D.; Mason, P. J.; Murray, A. S.; Kumar, M.; Shekhar, S.; Rai, S. P.

    2015-12-01

    The stratigraphic evolution of fluvial fans is to a large extent governed by channel avulsion. Spatial variations in alluvial architecture are influenced by avulsion magnitude and frequency. However due to the absence of long-term chronostratigraphic records of fan stratigraphy, it has proved difficult to test patterns of fan evolution against records of climate variability. In order to understand the processes of channel avulsion during fan evolution, it is important to determine the spatio-temporal pattern of fluvial channel aggradation, incision, and migration. In this study, we reconstruct the shallow sub-surface alluvial stratigraphy of fluvial fan systems formed by the major Himalayan rivers, the Sutlej and Yamuna, in the northwestern Indo-Gangetic basin. We map the spatial distribution of channel sand bodies deposited by these rivers and develop a chronostratigraphic model for the fluvial succession in a depositional dip perpendicular transect. Sediment cores up to ~50 m deep along two transects are used to reconstruct the shallow stratigraphy of the fan systems. Discontinuous channel sand bodies are separated by floodplain fines which occasionally show weak pedogenesis that mark the end of episodes of channel aggradation. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is used to bracket the timing of channel-filling episodes, and their spatial distribution. Mapping of sand bodies coupled with chronostratigraphic constraints allows reconstruction of channel migration patterns and their timing across the Sutlej-Yamuna fans. Chronostratigraphy permits temporal correlation with published measures of monsoon variability. We find that fluvial aggradation at the western end of studied transects, near the middle of the Sutlej fan, terminated around ~20 ka. We also show that abandonment of the paleo-Sutlej and major fan-scale avulsion occurred after ~15 ka, and was followed by formation of incised valleys that confined the modern fluvial system in northwestern Indo

  11. Leading edge embedded fan airfoil concept -- A new powered high lift technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Nhan Huu

    A new powered-lift airfoil concept called Leading Edge Embedded Fan (LEEF) is proposed for Extremely Short Take-Off and Landing (ESTOL) and Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) applications. The LEEF airfoil concept is a powered-lift airfoil concept capable of generating thrust and very high lift-coefficient at extreme angles-of attack (AoA). It is designed to activate only at the take-off and landing phases, similar to conventional flaps or slats, allowing the aircraft to operate efficiently at cruise in its conventional configuration. The LEEF concept consists of placing a crossflow fan (CFF) along the leading-edge (LE) of the wing, and the housing is designed to alter the airfoil shape between take-off/landing and cruise configurations with ease. The unique rectangular cross section of the crossflow fan allows for its ease of integration into a conventional subsonic wing. This technology is developed for ESTOL aircraft applications and is most effectively applied to General Aviation (GA) aircraft. Another potential area of application for LEEF is tiltrotor aircraft. Unlike existing powered high-lift systems, the LEEF airfoil uses a local high-pressure air source from cross-flow fans, does not require ducting, and is able to be deployed using distributed electric power systems throughout the wing. In addition to distributed lift augmentation, the LEEF system can provide additional thrust during takeoff and landing operation to supplement the primary cruise propulsion system. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of a conventional airfoil/wing using the NACA 63-3-418 section, commonly used in GA, and a LEEF airfoil/wing embedded into the same airfoil section were carried out to evaluate the advantages of and the costs associated with implementing the LEEF concept. Computational results show that significant lift and augmented thrust are available during LEEF operation while requiring only moderate fan power

  12. A generalization of Ky Fan's inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2001-01-01

    defined by f(x,y=0 and 0Fan's inequality. We also present some results on the comparison of Pn,sα(y−Pn,rα(y and Pn,sα(x−Pn,rα(x for s≥r, α∈ℝ.

  13. Failure analysis of air fan blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-qing; JI Zhe; CUI Yong-li; CUI Chun-zhi; SUN Zhi

    2008-01-01

    The failure of all 12 blades of an air fan was investigated by metallurgical and mechanical experiments and an examina-tion of the fracture surface. The experimental results show that the cast aluminium-silicon alloy without any modification had a number of material defects, such as coarse grains, a loose structure, a large number of shrinkage holes, a long and thin bold-pin shaped silicon-phase, poor material strength and serious brittleness. In addition, installed on the spindle without elastic conjunction,blade No. 10 vibrated and inevitably.spun off due to the large centrifugal force. Therefore, blade No. 10 first cracked at the locking handle, then broke at the root, which caused all the other 11 blades to be broken by the crack of blade No.10.

  14. Delineation of alluvial fans from Digital Elevation Models with a GIS algorithm for the geomorphological mapping of the Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norini, Gianluca; Zuluaga, Maria Clara; Ortiz, Iris Jill; Aquino, Dakila T.; Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar F.

    2016-11-01

    Alluvial fans are prominent depositional geomorphic features present in nearly all global climates on Earth, and also found on Mars. In this study, we present a Geographic Information System (GIS) algorithm designed for the semi-automated detection of alluvial fans that are connected to their contributing upstream drainage network, from the analysis of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Through a combination of spatial analysis procedures, the GIS algorithm generates maps of alluvial fans and their upstream source drainage and watersheds. Tests of the algorithm in areas with well-known alluvial fans indicate that this new GIS procedure is capable of high-accuracy mapping of the fan apexes and correct delineation of fan deposits, in both arid and humid climates. Possible future applications of the GIS algorithm presented in this study include the systematic survey of alluvial fans at the local, regional and planetary scales, important for geologic hazard assessment, studies on the evolution of climate, analysis of continental sedimentary environments, understanding of the interplay between the endogenous dynamics and exogenous processes, and the evaluation of natural resources.

  15. S6K1 Is Required for Increasing Skeletal Muscle Force during Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Marabita

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Loss of skeletal muscle mass and force aggravates age-related sarcopenia and numerous pathologies, such as cancer and diabetes. The AKT-mTORC1 pathway plays a major role in stimulating adult muscle growth; however, the functional role of its downstream mediators in vivo is unknown. Here, we show that simultaneous inhibition of mTOR signaling to both S6K1 and 4E-BP1 is sufficient to reduce AKT-induced muscle growth and render it insensitive to the mTORC1-inhibitor rapamycin. Surprisingly, lack of mTOR signaling to 4E-BP1 only, or deletion of S6K1 alone, is not sufficient to reduce muscle hypertrophy or alter its sensitivity to rapamycin. However, we report that, while not required for muscle growth, S6K1 is essential for maintaining muscle structure and force production. Hypertrophy in the absence of S6K1 is characterized by compromised ribosome biogenesis and the formation of p62-positive protein aggregates. These findings identify S6K1 as a crucial player for maintaining muscle function during hypertrophy.

  16. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  17. A Near-Hover Adaptive Attitude Control Strategy of a Ducted Fan Micro Aerial Vehicle with Actuator Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aerodynamic parameters of ducted fan micro aerial vehicles (MAVs are difficult and expensive to precisely measure and are, therefore, not available in most cases. Furthermore, the actuator dynamics with risks of potentially destabilizing the overall system are important but often neglected consideration factors in the control system design of ducted fan MAVs. This paper presents a near-hover adaptive attitude control strategy of a prototype ducted fan MAV with actuator dynamics and without any prior information about the behavior of the MAV. The proposed strategy consists of an online parameter estimation algorithm and an adaptive gain scheduling algorithm, with the former accommodating parametric uncertainties, and the latter approximately eliminating the coupling among axes and guaranteeing the control quality of the MAV. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is verified numerically and experimentally.

  18. Soap operas and the history of fan discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ford

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available For decades, fans of U.S. soap operas have formed social networks surrounding their shows, and they did so even before the concept entered the vernacular. Soap fans, who started on a geographically local scale and built their communities through grassroots efforts, have found a variety of venues to connect with one another over the past several decades. This study looks at the pre-Internet development of these social networks to show how that trajectory relates to the current online community of soap opera fans. Although several scholars have studied soap opera fandom, few have taken an historical approach at understanding the trajectory of soap fandom, a view especially necessary in an era where online social networks are at the center of audience studies and where cornerstone U.S. soap operas are struggling to retain relevance and audience. To fill this gap, I argue that understanding fan networks today requires looking back to previous methods of fan networking. Soaps' longevity (the youngest U.S. soap is more than 20 years old and frequency (all U.S. daytime soaps are daily make them crucial texts in demonstrating how the roots of fan social networks in a pre-Internet era helped shape that fandom's transition onto the Internet, and they also illustrate the continued evolution of these networks as fans move online.

  19. Reactive control of subsonic axial fan noise in a duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Choy, Y S; Huang, L; Cheng, L

    2014-10-01

    Suppressing the ducted fan noise at low frequencies without varying the flow capacity is still a technical challenge. This study examines a conceived device consisting of two tensioned membranes backed with cavities housing the axial fan for suppression of the sound radiation from the axial fan directly. The noise suppression is achieved by destructive interference between the sound fields from the axial fan of a dipole nature and sound radiation from the membrane via vibroacoustics coupling. A two-dimensional model with the flow effect is presented which allows the performance of the device to be explored analytically. The air flow influences the symmetrical behavior and excites the odd in vacuo mode response of the membrane due to kinematic coupling. Such an asymmetrical effect can be compromised with off-center alignment of the axial fan. Tension plays an important role to sustain the performance to revoke the deformation of the membrane during the axial fan operation. With the design of four appropriately tensioned membranes covered by a cylindrical cavity, the first and second blade passage frequencies of the axial fan can be reduced by at least 20 dB. The satisfactory agreement between experiment and theory demonstrates that its feasibility is practical.

  20. Characterizing subsurface hydraulic heterogeneity of alluvial fan using riverstage fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Li; Yeh, Tian-Chyi Jim; Wen, Jet-Chau; Huang, Shao-Yang; Zha, Yuanyuan; Tsai, Jui-Pin; Hao, Yonghong; Liang, Yue

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the ability of riverstage tomography to estimate 2-D spatial distribution of hydraulic diffusivity (D) of Zhuoshui River alluvial fan, Taiwan, using groundwater level data from 65 wells and stream stage data from 5 gauging stations. In order to accomplish this objective, wavelet analysis is first conducted to investigate the temporal characteristics of groundwater level, precipitation, and stream stage. The results of the analysis show that variations of groundwater level and stream stage are highly correlated over seasonal and annual periods while that between precipitation is less significant. Subsequently, spatial cross-correlation between seasonal variations of groundwater level and riverstage data is analyzed. It is found that the correlation contour map reflects the pattern of sediment distribution of the fan. This finding is further substantiated by the cross-correlation analysis using both noisy and noise-free groundwater and riverstage data of a synthetic aquifer, where aquifer heterogeneity is known exactly. The ability of riverstage tomography is then tested with these synthetic data sets to estimate D distribution. Finally, the riverstage tomography is applied to the alluvial fan. The results of the application reveal that the apex and southeast of the alluvial fan are regions with relatively high D and the D values gradually decrease toward the shoreline of the fan. In addition, D at northern alluvial fan is slightly larger than that at southern. These findings are consistent with the geologic evolution of this alluvial fan.

  1. Fans of Columbine shooters Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ryan Rico

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On April 20, 1999, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold murdered 12 students and one teacher at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, in what was then the deadliest school shooting in American history. Despite causing a national panic and serving as a flash point for larger narratives on bullying, gun control, and media violence, both boys have gained active online fans. These fandoms dedicated to the Columbine shooters are widely referred to as dark examples of Internet communities, while the fans are also frequently denigrated as unstable and violent outcasts. Such dark online fandoms are yet to permeate mainstream culture or to challenge the preexisting perception of these communities as breeding grounds for the next wave of school shooters. While studies have covered the types of fans and their myriad interests, the field remains focused on more conventional examples of fan communities. In an effort to challenge and expand the object of focus when we study fandom, this qualitative study examines Columbine fans and their activity in order to understand the dominant motives they appear to have for engaging with and around such controversial figures and then concludes by exploring how this community might help us reflect more broadly on our concept of fandom. Redeeming these fans as part of diverse and complex communities of social relevance can demonstrate how even a dark fandom such as that of these Columbine shooters provides valuable cultural insights and benefits the field of fan studies.

  2. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy Across HD189733 (K1V) Using Exoplanet Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Martin; Dravins, Dainis; Ludwig, Hans-Günter

    2016-06-01

    For testing 3-dimensional models of stellar atmospheres, spectroscopy across spatially resolved stellar surfaces would be desired with a spectral resolution of(R = 100,000) or more. Hydrodynamic models predict variations in line profile shapes, strengths, wavelength positions and asymmetries. These variations vary systematically between disk center and limb and as a function of line strength, excitation potential and wavelength region. However, except for a few supergiants and the Sun, current telescopes are not yet capable of resolving any stellar surfaces. One alternative method to resolve distant stellar surfaces, feasible already now, is differential spectroscopy of transiting exoplanet systems. By subtracting in-transit spectra from the spectrum outside of transit, the spectra from stellar surface portions temporarily hidden behind the planet can be disentangled. Since transiting planets cover only a small portion of the stellar surface, the method requires a very high signal-to-noise ratio, obtainable by averaging numerous similar spectral lines. We apply such differential spectroscopy on the 7.7 mag K1V star HD 189733 ('Alopex'*); its transiting planet covers ˜ 3% of its host star's surface, which is the deepest known transit among the brighter systems. Archival data from the ESO HARPS spectrometerare used to construct averaged profiles of photospheric Fe I lines, with the aim of comparing spatially resolved profiles to analogous synthetic line profiles computed from the 3-dimensional hydrodynamic CO5BOLD model. * We refer to HD 189733 as 'Alopex' (from the Greek 'αλɛπού'), denoting a fox related to the one that gave name to its constellation of Vulpecula.

  3. Host cell type-dependent translocation and PhoP-mediated positive regulation of the effector SseK1 of Salmonella enterica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eBaisón-Olmo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica expresses two virulence-related type III secretion systems (T3SSs encoded in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1 and SPI2, respectively. SseK1 is a poorly characterized substrate of the SPI2-encoded T3SS. Here, we show that this effector is essential to get full virulence both in oral and intraperitoneal mice infections, in spite of not having a role in invasion or intracellular proliferation in cultured mammalian cells. In vitro, expression of sseK1 was higher in media mimicking intracellular conditions, when SPI2 was induced, but it was also significant under SPI1 inducing conditions. A detailed analysis of translocation of SseK1 into host cells unveiled that it was a substrate of both, T3SS1 and T3SS2, although with different patterns and kinetics depending on the specific host cell type (epithelial, macrophages or fibroblasts. The regulation of the expression of sseK1 was examined using lacZ and bioluminescent lux fusions. The two-component system PhoQ/PhoP is a positive regulator of this gene. A combination of sequence analysis, directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that phosphorylated PhoP binds directly to the promoter region of sseK1 and revealed a PhoP binding site located upstream of the predicted -35 hexamer of this promoter.

  4. Fan Noise Control Using Herschel-quincke Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Ng, Wing F.; Provenza, Andrew (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The research effort proposed for this NASA NRA is mainly experimental. In addition, Virginia Tech is working in partnership with Goodrich Aerospace, Aerostructures Group for the analytical development needed to support the experimental endeavor, i.e. model development, design, and system studies. In this project, Herschel-Quincke (HQ)liner technology experiments will be performed at the NASA Glenn Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF) facility. A schematic of both inlet and aft HQ-liner systems installed in the ANCF rig as well as a picture of the Glenn facility is shown. The main goal is to simultaneously test in both the inlet and bypass duct sections. The by-pass duct will have HQ-systems in both the inner and outer duct walls. The main advantages of performing tests at the ANCF facility are that the effect of the inlet HQ-system on the by-pass HQ-system and vice versa, can be accurately determined from the in-duct modal data. Another significant advantage is that it offers the opportunity to assess (on a common basis) the proposed noise reduction concept on the ANCF rig which in the past has been used for assessing other active and passive noise reduction strategies.

  5. Temperature/flow field simulation and parameter optimal design for greenhouses with fan-pad evaporative cooling system%湿帘-风机降温下的温室热/流场模拟及降温系统参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥芳; 蔡彦文; 陈教料; 张立彬

    2015-01-01

    为提高温室夏季降温环境性能,提出了一种基于计算流体力学(computational fluid dynamics,CFD)的温室湿帘-风机系统的降温环境优化设计方法。采用太阳射线追踪法来模拟太阳辐射对夏季温室内流场环境的影响,并结合温室内作物的多孔介质模型,构建并求解温室三维非稳态模型,模拟了湿帘-风机降温下的温室内部温度场与速度场分布情况。模拟结果与试验测量的温度值和风速值进行了对比,其平均误差分别在4%和6%以内,验证了建立的温室CFD模型的准确性。结合正交试验方法,基于CFD模型对不同温室长度、湿帘面积和风机速度参数条件下的室内降温环境进行了优化设计。根据模拟优化获得的不同配置方案结果,建立了温室长度、湿帘面积和风机速度参数的拟合结果,为夏季华东沿海地区Venlo型温室湿帘-分机降温系统的设计提供了可靠的理论依据。%As one of the most effective cooling method, the fan-pad evaporative cooling system has been widely used to provide a suitable growth environment for greenhouse crops. An optimization method of the fan-pad cooling system based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was proposed to improve the cooling performance inside the greenhouse in summer. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations were solved using finite volume method (FVM). Due to the remarkable effect of gravitation on the microclimate distribution inside the greenhouse, the Boussinesq hypothesis was taken into account. The standardk-εturbulent model was selected to predict the distribution of air flow. Solar ray tracing was applied to load the solar radiation model, while the discrete ordinate model was selected for considering the effect of thermal radiation. Crops in the greenhouse were regarded as the porous medium, which was governed by the Darcy-Forcheimier equation in the CFD model. A three-dimension greenhouse model

  6. Deforming the Lie Superalgebra $\\mathcal{K}(1)$-Modules Of Symbols

    CERN Document Server

    Faouzi, Ammar

    2008-01-01

    We study non-trivial deformations of the natural action of the Lie superalgebra $mathcalK(1)$ of contact vector fields on the (1,1)-dimensional superspace $mathbbR^{1|1}$ of th espace of symbols. We calculate obstructions for integrability of infinitesimal multi-parameter deformation and determine the complete commutative algebra corresponding to the miniversal deformation in the sense of A. Fialowski. Besides, we compute the first even differential cohomology space $mathrmH^1_{mathrm{diff}}(cK(1);widetilde{cD}_{lambda,mu})$ of the Lie superalgebra $mathcalK(1)$ of contact vector fields on the (1,1)-dimensional superspace $mathbbR^{1|1}$ with coefficients in the superspace $widetilde{mathcalD}_{lambda,mu}$ of linear differential operators from the superspace of weighted densities $\\fF_{\\lamda}$ to $\\fF_{\\mu}$. (To appear in Journal of Generalized Lie Theory and Applications)

  7. Determination of ultimate carbonaceous BOD and the specific rate constant (K1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, J.K.; Bennett, J.P.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1982-01-01

    Ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (BODu) and the specific rate constant (K1) at which the demand is exerted are important parameters in designing biological wastewater treatment plants and in assessing the impact of wastewater on receiving streams. An analytical method is presented which uses time-series concentrations of BOD, defined as the calculated sum of dissolved oxygen (DO) losses at each time of measurement, for determining BODu and K1. Time-series DO measurements are obtained from a water sample that is incubated in darkness at 20 degrees Celsius in the presence of nitrapyrin, a chemical nitrification inhibitor. Time-series concentrations of BOD that approximate first order kinetics can be analyzed graphically or mathematically to compute BODu and K1.

  8. Female fans of men's football - a case study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Lenneis, Verena; Mintert, Svenja-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Football is an invention by men for men, and today, the majority of players and fans are men. There is an abundance of literature on football and fandom; however, gender is mostly not an issue in these publications. Research about female football supporters and fans is very limited. This is also...... to a ‘man’s world’ and what are their roles in this ‘male environment’? The statements of interviewees revealed that female fans have to cope with a measure of sexism, but that they can adopt the men’s perspectives in order to be accepted as ‘authentic fans’. Other women reacted on men’s domination...

  9. Introduction of a Cooling-Fan Efficiency Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiavon, S.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    , while cooling capacity and efficiency of energy use are unknown. To address this knowledge gap, this paper introduces the cooling-fan efficiency (CFE) index, defined as the ratio between the cooling effect (measured with a thermal manikin) generated by the device and its power consumption. The index...... cooling effect and an index for determining fan efficiency, such as the CFE index proposed in this study, need to be developed. The cooling fans generate a nonuniform velocity field around occupants, which cannot be described with a single air-velociry value. Therefore, it is not clear how to apply...

  10. Des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin (PIVKA II) and plasma vitamin K1 in newborns and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kries, R; Shearer, M J; Widdershoven, J; Motohara, K; Umbach, G; Göbel, U

    1992-10-01

    Assessments of the vitamin K status in newborns and their mothers by means of des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin (PIVKA II) measurement have given equivocal results. Part of the variability could be attributed to differences in sensitivity (i.e. the ability to detect small concentrations) and validity (i.e. ability to detect vitamin K deficiency) of the methods applied. None of these methods have yet been validated with respect to plasma vitamin K1. In 22 healthy mother/infant pairs PIVKA II was determined using three different assays including ratio Xa/ecarin (Xa/ec), crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), and an ELISA with a monoclonal antibody (MAB). The results were compared with conventional clotting tests and plasma vitamin K1. The following results were obtained: Cord blood: Clotting tests within age-related normal ranges; PIVKA II detection rates: 0/22 (Xa/ec), 1/22 (CIE), 4/22 (MAB); plasma vitamin K1: undetectable in 20/22. Mothers: Clotting tests all within normal range; PIVKA II detection rates: 1/22 (Xa/ec), 0/22 (CIE), 5/22 (MAB); plasma vitamin K1 (pg/ml) for all mothers (median; range): 186; 55-833; for PIVKA II positive mothers: 213; 59-699. PIVKA II detectability in newborns and mothers was not correlated. The results show an increase in sensitivity for PIVKA II detection in the order of MAB > CIE > Xa/ec. Due to the very low plasma vitamin K1 at birth, no correlation was possible between cord PIVKA II detectability and plasma vitamin K1. However, in mothers at term PIVKA II MAB appears to be unrelated to the vitamin K status.

  11. Application of advanced computational codes in the design of an experiment for a supersonic throughflow fan rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jerry R.; Schmidt, James F.; Steinke, Ronald J.; Chima, Rodrick V.; Kunik, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Increased emphasis on sustained supersonic or hypersonic cruise has revived interest in the supersonic throughflow fan as a possible component in advanced propulsion systems. Use of a fan that can operate with a supersonic inlet axial Mach number is attractive from the standpoint of reducing the inlet losses incurred in diffusing the flow from a supersonic flight Mach number to a subsonic one at the fan face. The design of the experiment using advanced computational codes to calculate the components required is described. The rotor was designed using existing turbomachinery design and analysis codes modified to handle fully supersonic axial flow through the rotor. A two-dimensional axisymmetric throughflow design code plus a blade element code were used to generate fan rotor velocity diagrams and blade shapes. A quasi-three-dimensional, thin shear layer Navier-Stokes code was used to assess the performance of the fan rotor blade shapes. The final design was stacked and checked for three-dimensional effects using a three-dimensional Euler code interactively coupled with a two-dimensional boundary layer code. The nozzle design in the expansion region was analyzed with a three-dimensional parabolized viscous code which corroborated the results from the Euler code. A translating supersonic diffuser was designed using these same codes.

  12. Impact of detector geometry for compressive fan beam snapshot coherent scatter imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mehadi; Holmgren, Andrew; Greenberg, Joel A.; Odinaka, Ikenna; Brady, David

    2016-05-01

    Previous realizations of coded-aperture X-ray diffraction tomography (XRDT) techniques based on pencil beams image one line through an object via a single measurement but require raster scanning the object in multiple dimensions. Fan beam approaches are able to image the spatial extent of the object while retaining the ability to do material identification. Building on these approaches we present our system concept and geometry of combining a fan beam with energy sensitive/photon counting detectors and a coded aperture to capture both spatial and spectral information about an object at each voxel. Using our system we image slices via snapshot measurements for four different detector configurations and compare their results.

  13. Active control of periodic fan noise in laptops: spectral width requirements in delayed buffer implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Cordourier‐Maruri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An active control system intended for the reduction of strictly periodic noise components in computer cooling fans is described,which is based on high‐performance digital sound device architectures found in some personal computers. The systemovercomes causality and synchronization constrains imposed by delayed buffering, as usually found in computer audioprocessing. Performance of the system is demonstrated and evaluated through measurements in a physical implementation ofactive noise control of synthetic tones combined with laptop fan noise, carried out under anechoic and slightly reverberantconditions. Tests on other types of tonal noise sources, like an electrical transformer, were also carried out. However, its widerapplicability to the cancellation of tonal noise has been proved compromised by weak periodicity issues found and reported inthis work. Also, a study of noise spectral width requirements for successful operation is presented.

  14. Application of Feedforward Adaptive Active-Noise Control for Reducing Blade Passing Noise in Centrifugal Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, J.-D.; BAI, M. R.

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes two configurations of feedforward adaptive active-noise control (ANC) technique for reducing blade passing noise in centrifugal fans. In one configuration, the control speaker is installed at the cut-off region of the fan, while in the other configuration at the exit duct. The proposed ANC system is based on the filtered-x least-mean-squares (FXLMS) algorithm with multi-sine synthesized reference signal and frequency counting and is implemented by using a digital signal processor (DSP). Experiments are carried out to evaluate the proposed system for reducing the noise at the blade passing frequency (BPF) and its harmonics at various flow speeds. The results of the experiment indicated that the ANC technique is effective in reducing the blade passing noise for two configurations by using the feedforward adaptive control.

  15. Automated cleaning of fan coil units with a natural detergent-disinfectant product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Onofrio Valeria

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Air conditioning systems represent one important source of microbial pollutants for indoor air. In the past few years, numerous strategies have been conceived to reduce the contamination of air conditioners, mainly in hospital settings. The biocidal detergent BATT2 represents a natural product obtained through extraction from brown seaweeds, that has been tested previously on multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Methods BATT2 has been utilized for the disinfection of fan coil units from four air conditioning systems located in hospital environments with a mean degree of risk. Samples were collected from the air supplied by the conditioning systems and from the surfaces of fan coil units, before and after sanitization procedures. Total microbial counts at 37°C and 22°C and mycotic count at 32°C were evaluated. Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also detected on surfaces samples. Results The biodetergent was able to reduce up 50% of the microbial pollution of fan coil units surfaces and air supplied by the air conditioners. Conclusions BATT2 could be considered for cleaning/disinfection of air conditioning systems, that should be performed on the basis of accurate and verifiable sanitization protocols.

  16. Emergence of Carbapenem-Resistant Serotype K1 Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Lin, Dachuan; Chan, Edward Wai-Chi; Gu, Danxia; Chen, Gong-Xiang; Chen, Sheng

    2015-11-16

    We report the emergence of five carbapenem-resistant K1 hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) strains which caused fatal infections in hospital patients in Zhejiang Province, China, upon entry through surgical wounds. Genotyping results revealed the existence of three genetically related strains which exhibited a new sequence type, ST1797, and revealed that all strains harbored the magA and wcaG virulence genes and a plasmid-borne bla(KPC-2) gene. These findings indicate that K1 hvKP is simultaneously hypervirulent, multidrug resistant, and transmissible.

  17. Form factors in the massless coset models su(2)_k+1 \\otimes su(2)_k /su(2)_2k+1 - Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Grinza, P

    2004-01-01

    Massless flows from the coset model su(2)_k+1 \\otimes su(2)_k /su(2)_2k+1 to the minimal model M_k+2 are studied from the viewpoint of form factors. These flows include in particular the flow from the Tricritical Ising model to the Ising model. By analogy with the magnetization operator in the flow TIM -> IM, we construct all form factors of an operator that flows to \\Phi_1,2 in the IR. We make a numerical estimation of the difference of conformal weights between the UV and the IR thanks to the \\Delta-sum rule; the results are consistent with the conformal weight of the operator \\Phi_2,2 in the UV. By analogy with the energy operator in the flow TIM -> IM, we construct all form factors of an operator that flows to \\Phi_2,1. We propose to identify the operator in the UV with \\sigma_1\\Phi_1,2.

  18. 一类整群环的K1群的计算%Calculation of K1 group of some integral group rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳奇; 高玉彬

    2011-01-01

    The integral group ring (Z)G is an important ring structure.This paper focuses on the calculation of the K1 groups of integral group rings.The key point of the problem lies in the calculation of their corresponding SK1 group rings.The SK1 groups of the integral group rings of p groups are relatively easy to calculate, but the SK1 groups of the integral group rings of non-p groups are relatively diffcult to calculate.This article discusses the basic theory of the problem.Furthermore, this article also treats the groups whose orders are p1q1 and discusses the calculation of the SK1 group rings of their integral group rings.%着重讨论整群环的K1群的计算,问题的关键点在于其对应的SK1群的计算,其中,P群的整群环的SK1群的结果是已知的.讨论了计算SK1群的基本理论,并证明了一类特殊的非P群(P1q1阶群)的整群环的SK1群是平凡的.

  19. Bevel gear drives in cooling tower fans; Kegelstirnradgetriebe in Luefterantrieben fuer Kuehltuerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichenbach, M.

    2000-07-01

    Cooling towers of petrochemical systems require high-quality drives which are also energy-saving and require low maintenance. The contribution goes into detail about customized bevel gear drives for cooling tower fans. [German] Um optimale Produkte zu erhalten, sind hochwertige Antriebe unabdingbar. Bei Kuehltuermen in petrochemischen Anlagen kommt es ausserdem auf eine energiesparende und wartungsarme Ausfuehrung von Zahnradgetrieben an. Im Folgenden soll auf das besondere Einsatzgebiet von massgeschneiderten Kegelstirnradgetrieben in Luefterantrieben naeher eingegangen werden. (orig.)

  20. 76 FR 7847 - Glenn A. Baxter, Application To Renew License for Amateur Radio Service Station K1MAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... COMMISSION Glenn A. Baxter, Application To Renew License for Amateur Radio Service Station K1MAN AGENCY... renew the license for Amateur Radio Service Station K1MAN filed by Glenn A. Baxter should be granted.... Baxter for renewal of his license for Amateur Radio Station K1MAN should be granted. As discussed below...

  1. 26 CFR 1.404(k)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) 1.404(k)-1T Section 1.404(k)-1T Internal Revenue... Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.404(k)-1T Questions and answers relating to the deductibility of certain dividend distributions. (Temporary) Q-1: What does section 404(k) provide? A-1: Section...

  2. Alluvial fan sensitivity to glacial-interglacial climate change: case studies from Death Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Alexander; D'Arcy, Mitch; Roda-Boluda, Duna; Brooke, Sam

    2016-04-01

    The effects of climate change on eroding landscapes and the sedimentary record remain poorly understood. The measurement of regional grain size trends in stream-flow deposits provides one way to address this issue because, in principle, these trends embed important information on the dynamics of sediment routing systems and their sensitivity to external forcings. In many cases, downstream stratigraphic fining is primarily driven by selective deposition of sediment. The relative efficiency of this process is determined by the physical characteristics of the input sediment supply and the spatial distribution of subsidence rate, which generates the accommodation necessary for mass extraction. Here, we measure grain size fining rates from apex to toe for alluvial fan systems in Death Valley, California, which have well-exposed modern and late Pleistocene deposits, where the long-term tectonic boundary conditions are known and where climatic variation over this time period is well-constrained. Our field data demonstrate that input grain sizes and input fining rates do vary noticeably over the late Pleistocene-Holocene period in this study area, although there is little evidence for significant changes in rates of faulting in the last 200 ky. For two catchments in the Grapevine Mountains for which we have excellent stratigraphic constraints on modern and 70 ka fan deposits, we use a self-similarity based grain size fining model to understand changes in sediment flux to the fans over this time period. When calibrated with cosmogenically-derived catchment erosion rates, our results show that a 30 % decrease in average precipitation rate over this time-frame led to a 20 % decrease in sediment flux to the fans, and a clear increase in the down-fan rate of fining. This supports existing landscape evolution models that relate a decrease in precipitation rate to a decrease in sediment flux, but implies that the relationship between sediment flux and precipitation rate may be

  3. Life, death and revival of debris-flow fans on Earth and Mars : fan dynamics and climatic inferences

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, T.

    2016-01-01

    Alluvial fans are ubiquitous landforms in high-relief regions on Earth and Mars. They have a semi-conical shape and are located at the transition between highlands and adjacent basins. Alluvial fans can form by a range of processes including debris flows, which are water-laden masses of soil and rock with volumetric sediment concentrations exceeding 40%. In this thesis, I aim to (1) unravel the formative dynamics of debris-flow fans and, building on these insights, to (2) reconstruct hydrolog...

  4. A conserved plan for wiring up the fan-shaped body in the grasshopper and Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyan, George; Liu, Yu; Khalsa, Sat Kartar; Hartenstein, Volker

    2017-07-01

    The central complex comprises an elaborate system of modular neuropils which mediate spatial orientation and sensory-motor integration in insects such as the grasshopper and Drosophila. The neuroarchitecture of the largest of these modules, the fan-shaped body, is characterized by its stereotypic set of decussating fiber bundles. These are generated during development by axons from four homologous protocerebral lineages which enter the commissural system and subsequently decussate at stereotypic locations across the brain midline. Since the commissural organization prior to fan-shaped body formation has not been previously analyzed in either species, it was not clear how the decussating bundles relate to individual lineages, or if the projection pattern is conserved across species. In this study, we trace the axonal projections from the homologous central complex lineages into the commissural system of the embryonic and larval brains of both the grasshopper and Drosophila. Projections into the primordial commissures of both species are found to be lineage-specific and allow putatively equivalent fascicles to be identified. Comparison of the projection pattern before and after the commencement of axon decussation in both species reveals that equivalent commissural fascicles are involved in generating the columnar neuroarchitecture of the fan-shaped body. Further, the tract-specific columns in both the grasshopper and Drosophila can be shown to contain axons from identical combinations of central complex lineages, suggesting that this columnar neuroarchitecture is also conserved.

  5. Redefining genderswap fan fiction: A Sherlock case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann McClellan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Using BBC Sherlock (2010– fan fiction as case study, this article looks at how fans use and understand such concepts as biological sex and gender in genderswap fan fiction, arguing that the label often minimizes the importance of the physical body in determining gender identity. The label genderswap, most often used to describe stories where characters have become differently sexed, reflects and reinforces common cultural misunderstandings about differences between sex and gender. By teasing out definitions of genderswap, sex, gender, cisgender, and transgender, the article analyzes what genderswap includes and excludes from discussions of gender and identity within contemporary fan fiction, ultimately arguing for a broader conceptual understanding that grounds the genre within contemporary transgender theory.

  6. Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACI proposes a design for a Propulsor (Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan) that has wide application in all sectors of Aviation. Propulsor hardware of this...

  7. Why do fans attend world Wrestling Entertainment? | Kruger | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... at a live Smackdown event in July 2011, which was part of the WWE's world tour. ... Therefore, marketing campaigns directed at these fans should be designed ...

  8. Gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenneis, Verena; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2015-01-01

    While both the media and the academic literature focus primarily on male fans, in particular on violence and the prevention of hooliganism, little is known about female football supporters. This is also true of Denmark, a country that is known for its high degree of gender equality. This article...... "hypermasculinity" nor "emphasised femininity" in their gender performances. Female fans do not only comply with and reproduce the rules of conduct in the stadium but also apply different forms of resistance against sexism and the domination of men in the stadium – both on the field and in the stands. The founding...... aims to give insight into gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans in the stands. Drawing on a social constructivist perspective to gender and Bourdieu's (1984) approaches to field, capital and habitus, we explored the experiences and opinions of female fans. The methods employed...

  9. Modeling and ecodesigning crossflow ventilation fans with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Argentini, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of a simple model of crossflow fan is maximized when the geometry depends on a design parameter. The flow field is numerically computed using a Galerkin method for solving a Poisson partial differential equation.

  10. Pathological effects of cyanobacteria on sea fans in southeast Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryu, Y; Landsberg, J H; Peters, E C; Tichenor, E; Burleson, C; Perry, N

    2015-07-01

    In early August 2008, observations by divers indicated that sea fans, particularly Gorgonia ventalina, Gorgonia flabellum, and Iciligorgia schrammi, were being covered by benthic filamentous cyanobacteria. From August 2008 through January 2009 and again in April 2009, tissue samples from a targeted G. ventalina colony affected by cyanobacteria and from a nearby, apparently healthy (without cyanobacteria) control colony, were collected monthly for histopathological examination. The primary cellular response of the sea fan to overgrowth by cyanobacteria was an increase in the number of acidophilic amoebocytes (with their granular contents dispersed) that were scattered throughout the coenenchyme tissue. Necrosis of scleroblasts and zooxanthellae and infiltration of degranulated amoebocytes were observed in the sea fan surface tissues at sites overgrown with cyanobacteria. Fungal hyphae in the axial skeleton were qualitatively more prominent in cyanobacteria-affected sea fans than in controls.

  11. Rapid detection of Gram-positive organisms by use of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test and the BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN system in a multicenter pediatric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, K V; Turner, N N; Roundtree, S S; Young, S; Brock-Haag, C A; Lacey, D; Abuzaid, S; Blecker-Shelly, D L; Doern, C D

    2013-11-01

    Assays that expedite the reporting of organism identification and antibiotic susceptibility status in positive blood cultures can fast track interventions that improve clinical outcomes. We evaluated the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test (BC-GP) in two pediatric hospitals. Positive BacT/Alert Pediatric FAN blood cultures with Gram-positive organisms were tested using the BC-GP in tandem with routine laboratory procedures. To test organisms underrepresented in the clinical blood culture evaluation, blood culture bottles were spiked with diluted organism suspensions at concentrations of 10 to 100 CFU per milliliter. A total of 249 Gram-positive bacterial isolates were recovered from 242 blood cultures. The BC-GP detected Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus with sensitivities of 100%, 99%, and 100% and specificities of 100%, 100%, and 99.5%, respectively. The BC-GP detected Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-susceptible S. epidermidis, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis with sensitivities of 95%, 80%, and 96%, respectively, and 100% specificity. The BC-GP correctly identified 14/15 cases of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium bacteremia and 9 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae. It misidentified 5/15 clinical blood cultures with Streptococcus mitis/Streptococcus oralis and 1/3 blood cultures spiked with Streptococcus anginosus group as S. pneumoniae. The BC-GP detected a case of Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia but failed to detect 2/3 clinical blood cultures with Streptococcus agalactiae. BC-GP's rapid accurate detection of Staphylococcus spp., E. faecium, and E. faecalis and its ability to ascertain mecA, vanA, and vanB status may expedite clinical decisions pertaining to optimal antibiotic use. False-positive S. pneumoniae results may warrant reporting of only "Streptococcus spp." when this organism is reported by the BC-GP.

  12. Noise Generation by Fans with Supersonic Tip Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glegg, Stewart; Envia, Edmane (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Fan noise continues to be a significant issue for commercial aircraft engines and there still exists a requirement for improved understanding of the fundamental issues associated with fan noise source mechanisms. At the present time, most of the prediction methods identify the dominant acoustic sources to be associated with the stator vanes or blade trailing edges which are downstream of the fan face. However recent studies have shown that acoustic waves are significantly attenuated as they propagate upstream through a rotor, and if the appropriate corrections are applied, sound radiation from the engine inlet is significantly underpredicted. The prediction models can only be applied to fans with subsonic tip speeds. In contrast, most aircraft engines have fan tip speeds which are transonic and this implies an even higher attenuation for upstream propagating acoustic waves. Consequently understanding how sound propagates upstream through the fan is an important, and not well understood phenomena. The objective of this study is to provide improved insight into the upstream propagation effects through a rotor which are relevant to full scale engines. The focus of this study is on broadband fan noise generated by boundary layer turbulence interacting with the trailing edges of the fan blades. If this source mechanism is important upstream of the fan, the sound must propagate upstream through a transonic non uniform flow which includes large gradients and non linearities. Developing acoustic propagation models in this type of flow is challenging and currently limited to low frequency applications, where the frequency is of the same order as the blade passing frequency of the fan. For trailing edge noise, much higher frequencies are relevant and so a suitable approach needs to be developed, which is not limited by an unacceptably large computational effort. In this study we are in the process of developing a computational method which applies for the high frequencies of

  13. K-1 Teachers' Visual Arts Beliefs and Their Role in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Schanz, Blythe Annette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and describe the visual arts beliefs and practices of eight K-1 teachers in four schools and in two different school districts in a southern state. Using a phenomenological framework (Creswell, 2007; Leedy & Ormrod, 2005), the research revealed the teachers' understandings of beliefs and how…

  14. 26 CFR 1.168(k)-1 - Additional first year depreciation deduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional first year depreciation deduction. 1... Corporations § 1.168(k)-1 Additional first year depreciation deduction. (a) Scope and definitions—(1) Scope. This section provides the rules for determining the 30-percent additional first year...

  15. Biophysical characterization of inwardly rectifying potassium currents (I(K1) I(K,ACh), I(K,Ca)) using sinus rhythm or atrial fibrillation action potential waveforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Chuyi; Skibsbye, Lasse; Yuan, Lei

    2015-01-01

    to voltage protocols adapted from atrial action potentials recorded in human tissue at 1 and 3 Hz. The current recordings were performed in the HEK-293 heterologous cell system expressing either I(K1), I(K,ACh) or I(K,Ca) to establish the individual contribution of each of these currents during the voltage...... changes of atrial action potential waveforms. I(K1) primarily contributes to the atrial electrophysiology at the latter part of repolarization and during the diastolic phase, while both I(K,Ca) under high [Ca2+]i and I(K,ACh) contribute relatively most during repolarization.......Although several physiological, pathophysiological and regulatory properties of classical inward rectifier K+ current I(K1), G-protein coupled inwardly-rectifying K+ current I(K,ACh) and the small-conductance Ca2+ activated K+ current I(K,Ca) have been identified, quantitative biophysical details...

  16. Grain size trends reveal alluvial fan sensitivity to late Pleistocene climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, A. C.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Roda Boluda, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of climate change on eroding landscapes and the sedimentary record remain poorly understood. The measurement of grain size fining rates in stream-flow dominated deposits provides one way to address this issue because, in principle, these trends embed important information about the dynamics of sediment routing systems and their sensitivities to external forcing. At a fundamental level, downstream fining is often driven by selective deposition of sediment. The relative efficiency of this process is determined by the physical characteristics of the input sediment supply and the spatial distribution of subsidence rate, which generates the accommodation necessary for mass extraction. Here, we measure grain size fining rates from apex to toe on two alluvial fan systems in northern Death Valley, California, which have well-exposed modern and 70 ka surfaces, where the long-term tectonic boundary conditions are known and where climatic variation over this time period is well-constrained. We integrate a self-similar gravel fraction fining model, based on selective sediment extraction, with cosmogenically-derived catchment erosion rates and gravel fining data, to estimate the change in sediment flux that occurred between 70 ka and the present day. Our results show that a 30 % decrease in average precipitation rate led to a 20 % decrease in sediment flux and a clear increase in the down-fan rate of fining. This supports existing landscape evolution models that relate a decrease in precipitation rate to a decrease in sediment flux, but implies that this relationship may be sub-linear. This study offers a new approach to applying grain size fining models to mountain catchments and their alluvial fan systems, and shows fan stratigraphy can be highly sensitive to climate changes over sensitivity is lost when sediment is remobilised and recycled over a time period longer than the duration of the climatic perturbation.

  17. Should electric fans be used during a heat wave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Ollie; Cramer, Matthew N; Ravanelli, Nicholas M; Hodder, Simon G

    2015-01-01

    Heat waves continue to claim lives, with the elderly and poor at greatest risk. A simple and cost-effective intervention is an electric fan, but public health agencies warn against their use despite no evidence refuting their efficacy in heat waves. A conceptual human heat balance model can be used to estimate the evaporative requirement for heat balance, the potential for evaporative heat loss from the skin, and the predicted sweat rate, with and without an electrical fan during heat wave conditions. Using criteria defined by the literature, it is clear that fans increase the predicted critical environmental limits for both the physiological compensation of endogenous/exogenous heat, and the onset of cardiovascular strain by an air temperature of ∼3-4 °C, irrespective of relative humidity (RH) for the young and elderly. Even above these critical limits, fans would apparently still provide marginal benefits at air temperatures as high as 51.1 °C at 10%RH for young adults and 48.1 °C at 10%RH for the elderly. Previous concerns that dehydration would be exacerbated with fan use do not seem likely, except under very hot (>40 °C) and dry (conditions, when predicted sweat losses are only greater with fans by a minor amount (∼20-30 mL/h). Relative to the peak outdoor environmental conditions reported during ten of the most severe heat waves in recent history, fan use would be advisable in all of these situations, even when reducing the predicted maximum sweat output for the elderly. The protective benefit of fans appears to be underestimated by current guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. On the Optimal Selection of Electrical Machines Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălin Costin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an analytic relationship for electrical machine fan design has been developed. In the particularly case of salient poles synchronous machine (with salient poles – for electromagnetic field excitation or surface mounded permanent magnet, this approach allowed to express the fan power as a function of machine middle axe air gap. This analytic foundation developed may leads to different optimization criteria as specific active materials or costs. Numerical simulations confirm our approach.

  19. Sport Fan Motivation: Are You Going To The Game?

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes A. Wiid; Cant, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Every individual or group consume sporting events for different reasons and are therefore motivated in different ways. People consuming sport events can be referred to as sport fans, someone who is enthusiastic about a particular sport, an athlete or someone who is motivated to make the effort to attend a live sporting event. Research on sport consumption motivation had led to the development of the Sport Fan Motivation Scale (SFMS), which consists of eight motives namely, eustress, self-este...

  20. Simulation of fan topography and soil profile using a coupled soilscape-landscape evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welivitiya, Dimuth; Willgoose, Garry; Hancock, Greg

    2017-04-01

    In this study the evolution of a fluvial fan, its topography and soil profile grading under erosion and deposition and soil profile weathering was simulated using SSPAM coupled soil-landscape evolution model. A constant rainfall was simulated on a synthetic landform and a fluvial fan depositional structure was allowed to form at the latter part of the landform. At each time step the geomorphological and particle size distribution information of the fan was recorded. Using this recorded information, the evolutionary characteristics of the fan as well as the surface and subsurface sediment characteristics was examined and compared with experimental and field observation data. Different fan profile sections were also derived from the recorded data and analysed. The simulation produced a fluvial fan semicircular in shape, with concave up long profiles and convex up cross profiles. The surface sediment sizes of the simulated fan were coarsest near the fan apex and fines toward the fan toe with coarse grained sediment filaments extending radially from the fan apex. These geomorphological features and surface sediment distribution agrees well with field observations of natural fans. The results of the simulation also show that the fan develops as a result of the channel bringing sediments in to the fan and periodically changing its path due to steepening of channel gradient by sediment deposition. The position of the channel is fixed at the fan apex and the channel path constantly changes along any radial direction form the fan apex. This process is remarkably similar to the process of "Fan head trenching" described in literature which is the dominant process in fluvial fan development in the field. Finally, the analysis of fan cross-sections revealed complex sediment layering patterns in the fan profile. The simulation results of the SSSPAM coupled soilscape-landscape evolution model provide qualitatively correct geomorphological and sedimentary characterization of the

  1. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a 60cm Diameter Bladeless Fan

    OpenAIRE

    mohammad jafari; Hossein Afshin; Bijan Farhanieh; Hamidreza bozorgasareh

    2016-01-01

    Bladeless fan is a novel type of fan with an unusual geometry and unique characteristics. This type of fan has been recently developed for domestic applications in sizes typically up to 30cm diameter. In the present study, a Bladeless fan with a diameter of 60cm was designed and constructed, in order to investigate feasibility of its usage in various industries with large dimensions. Firstly, flow field passed through this fan was studied by 3D modeling. Aerodynamic and aeroacoust...

  2. Advanced Engine Cycles Analyzed for Turbofans With Variable-Area Fan Nozzles Actuated by a Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced, large commercial turbofan engines using low-fan-pressure-ratio, very high bypass ratio thermodynamic cycles can offer significant fuel savings over engines currently in operation. Several technological challenges must be addressed, however, before these engines can be designed. To name a few, the high-diameter fans associated with these engines pose a significant packaging and aircraft installation challenge, and a large, heavy gearbox is often necessary to address the differences in ideal operating speeds between the fan and the low-pressure turbine. Also, the large nacelles contribute aerodynamic drag penalties and require long, heavy landing gear when mounted on conventional, low wing aircraft. Nevertheless, the reduced fuel consumption rates of these engines are a compelling economic incentive, and fans designed with low pressure ratios and low tip speeds offer attractive noise-reduction benefits. Another complication associated with low-pressure-ratio fans is their need for variable flow-path geometry. As the design fan pressure ratio is reduced below about 1.4, an operational disparity is set up in the fan between high and low flight speeds. In other words, between takeoff and cruise there is too large a swing in several key fan parameters-- such as speed, flow, and pressure--for a fan to accommodate. One solution to this problem is to make use of a variable-area fan nozzle (VAFN). However, conventional, hydraulically actuated variable nozzles have weight, cost, maintenance, and reliability issues that discourage their use with low-fan-pressure-ratio engine cycles. United Technologies Research, in cooperation with NASA, is developing a revolutionary, lightweight, and reliable shape memory alloy actuator system that can change the on-demand nozzle exit area by up to 20 percent. This "smart material" actuation technology, being studied under NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program and Revolutionary Concepts in Aeronautics (Rev

  3. Cone Beam CT vs. Fan Beam CT: A Comparison of Image Quality and Dose Delivered Between Two Differing CT Imaging Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Lawrence; Weidlich, Georg A

    2016-09-12

    A comparison of image quality and dose delivered between two differing computed tomography (CT) imaging modalities-fan beam and cone beam-was performed. A literature review of quantitative analyses for various image quality aspects such as uniformity, signal-to-noise ratio, artifact presence, spatial resolution, modulation transfer function (MTF), and low contrast resolution was generated. With these aspects quantified, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) shows a superior spatial resolution to that of fan beam, while fan beam shows a greater ability to produce clear and anatomically correct images with better soft tissue differentiation. The results indicate that fan beam CT produces superior images to that of on-board imaging (OBI) cone beam CT systems, while providing a considerably less dose to the patient.

  4. Cone Beam CT vs. Fan Beam CT: A Comparison of Image Quality and Dose Delivered Between Two Differing CT Imaging Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Georg A.

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of image quality and dose delivered between two differing computed tomography (CT) imaging modalities—fan beam and cone beam—was performed. A literature review of quantitative analyses for various image quality aspects such as uniformity, signal-to-noise ratio, artifact presence, spatial resolution, modulation transfer function (MTF), and low contrast resolution was generated. With these aspects quantified, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) shows a superior spatial resolution to that of fan beam, while fan beam shows a greater ability to produce clear and anatomically correct images with better soft tissue differentiation. The results indicate that fan beam CT produces superior images to that of on-board imaging (OBI) cone beam CT systems, while providing a considerably less dose to the patient. PMID:27752404

  5. New methodologies for lower-K1 EUV OPC and RET optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Kevin; Kazarian, Aram; Zhou, Xibin; Tuttle, Josh; Xiao, Guangming; Zhang, Yunqiang; Lucas, Kevin

    2017-03-01

    EUV lithography is viewed as a highly desirable technology for 5nm and 7nm node patterning cost reduction and process simplicity. However, for the 5nm and 7nm nodes EUV not only needs to function in a low-K1 resolution environment but has several new and complex patterning issues which will need accurate compensation by mask synthesis tools and flows. The main new issues are: long-range flare variation across the chip, feature dependent focus offsets due to high mask topography, asymmetry inducing shadowing effects which vary across the lens slit, significantly higher lens aberrations, illumination source changes (across the lens and with time) and new resist exposure mechanisms. These solutions must be successfully deployed at low K1 values and must be integrated together to create OPC/RET flows which have high resolution, high accuracy, and are fast to deploy. Therefore, the combined requirements of low-K1 resolution, full reticle correction accuracy and process window can be even more challenging than in current optical lithography mask synthesis flows. Advanced computational methods such as ILT and model-based SRAF optimization are well known to have considerable benefits in process window and resolution for low-K1 193 lithography. However, these methods have not been well studied to understand their benefits for lower-K1 EUV lithography where fabs must push EUV resolution, 2D accuracy and process window to their limits. In this paper, we investigate where inverse lithography methods can improve EUV patterning weaknesses vs. traditional OPC/RET. We first show how ILT can be used to guide a better understanding of optimal solutions for EUV mask synthesis. We then provide detailed comparisons of ILT and traditional methods on a wide range of mask synthesis applications.

  6. Potential Global Benefits of Improved Ceiling Fan Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Nakul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-10-31

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, both in an absolute sense and as a proportion of household consumption in many locations, especially in developing countries in warm climates. However, there has been little detailed assessment of the costs and benefits of efficiency improvement options for ceiling fans and the potential resulting electricity consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. We analyze the costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans and assess the global potential for electricity savings and GHG emission reductions with more detailed assessments for India, China, and the U.S. We find that ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terrawatt hours per year (TWh/year) could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize this savings potential.

  7. Broadband Liner Optimization for the Source Diagnostic Test Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Jones, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    The broadband component of fan noise has grown in relevance with the utilization of increased bypass ratio and advanced fan designs. Thus, while the attenuation of fan tones remains paramount, the ability to simultaneously reduce broadband fan noise levels has become more appealing. This paper describes a broadband acoustic liner optimization study for the scale model Source Diagnostic Test fan. Specifically, in-duct attenuation predictions with a statistical fan source model are used to obtain optimum impedance spectra over a number of flow conditions for three liner locations in the bypass duct. The predicted optimum impedance information is then used with acoustic liner modeling tools to design liners aimed at producing impedance spectra that most closely match the predicted optimum values. Design selection is based on an acceptance criterion that provides the ability to apply increased weighting to specific frequencies and/or operating conditions. Typical tonal liner designs targeting single frequencies at one operating condition are first produced to provide baseline performance information. These are followed by multiple broadband design approaches culminating in a broadband liner targeting the full range of frequencies and operating conditions. The broadband liner is found to satisfy the optimum impedance objectives much better than the tonal liner designs. In addition, the broadband liner is found to provide better attenuation than the tonal designs over the full range of frequencies and operating conditions considered. Thus, the current study successfully establishes a process for the initial design and evaluation of novel broadband liner concepts for complex engine configurations.

  8. THz Beam Shaper Realizing Fan-Out Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, K.; Rachon, M.; Siemion, A.; Suszek, J.; But, D.; Knap, W.; Sypek, M.

    2017-08-01

    Fan-out elements create an array of beams radiating at particular angles along the propagation axis. Therefore, they are able to form a matrix of equidistant spots in the far-field diffraction region. In this work, we report on the first fan-out structures designed for the THz range of radiation. Two types of light-dividing fan-out structures are demonstrated: (i) the 3×1 matrix fan-out structure based on the optimized binary phase grating and (ii) the 3×3 fan-out structure designed on the basis of the well-known Dammann grating. The structures were generated numerically and manufactured using the 3D printing technique with polyamide PA12. To obtain equal powers and symmetry of diffracted beams, the computer-aided optimization algorithm was used. Diffractive optical elements designed for 140 and 282 GHz were evaluated experimentally at both these frequencies using illumination with the wavefront coming from the point-like source. Described fan-out elements formed uniform intensity and equidistant energy distribution in agreement with the numerical simulations.

  9. "The florals": Female fans over 50 in the Sherlock fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Nybro Petersen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article uses e-mail interviews with nine female fans to explore what it means to be a fan over the age of 50 of the popular BBC drama Sherlock (2010–. The research aims to better understand the role of fandom in later life, in particular how the participants in this study negotiate their perceptions of their subjective age in relation to being a fan in this part of their life course. This study combines theory on cultural gerontology with fan studies and mediatization theory in order to understand the dynamics and processes that guide fans' negotiations of subjective age as well as the role of fan practices and the affordances of social media in these processes. I argue that fandom, as a manifestation of a mediatized culture, augments the relevance of subjective age and informs the way in which participants in middle and later life perceive and negotiate their own subjective age specifically in relation to fandom as youth culture, women's passion, and creativity.

  10. Fan Ky不等式的一个改进%A Refinement of Fan Ky's Inequality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周昱; 高明哲

    2007-01-01

    利用改进的H(o)lder不等式并借助于正交矩阵的行列式的积分表示法建立了Fan Ky不等式的一个有意义的改进.当A,B为n阶非奇异矩阵时,给出了新创建不等式的一个推广.特别当n=1时,得到了Young不等式的一个很强的结果.

  11. Dynamic Bowtie for Fan-beam CT

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Fenglin; Cong, Wenxiang; Hsieh, Scott; Pelc, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    A bowtie is a filter used to shape an x-ray beam and equalize its flux reaching different detector channels. For development of spectral CT with energy-discriminative photon-counting (EDPC) detectors, here we propose and evaluate a dynamic bowtie for performance optimization based on a patient model or a scout scan. Our dynamic bowtie modifies an x-ray beam intensity profile by mechanical rotation and adaptive adjustment of the x-ray source flux. First, a mathematical model for dynamic bowtie filtering is established for an elliptical section in fan-beam geometry, and the contour of the optimal bowtie is derived. Then, numerical simulation is performed to compare the performance of the dynamic bowtie in the cases of an ideal phantom and a realistic cross-section relative to the counterparts without any bowtie and with a fixed bowtie respectively. Our dynamic bowtie can equalize the expected numbers of photons in the case of an ideal phantom. In practical cases, our dynamic bowtie can effectively reduce the dy...

  12. Characterisation of fan-beam collimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareto, D; Pavía, J; Falcón, C; Juvells, I; Cot, A; Ros, D

    2001-02-01

    Fan-beam collimators offer a good balance between resolution and noise. The collimator response may be included in iterative reconstruction algorithms in order to improve single-photon emission tomography (SPET) resolution. To this end, accurate determination of the focal region and characterisation of the collimator response as a function of the source co-ordinates must be performed. In this paper, a method to characterise fanbeam collimators is evaluated. First, we calculated the real focal region and the accuracy of the collimator convergence. Then, we confirmed the hypothesis that Gaussian distributions adequately fit the collimator responses, although no individualised treatment was performed for the tails of detector response which are associated with scattering and septal penetration. Finally, analytical functions were used to model the resolution and sensitivity. The parameter values in these functions were obtained from experimental measures by non-linear regression fitting. Our findings show differences of 1.43% between nominal and real focal length and standard deviations of 2.5 mm in the x-direction and 7.1 mm in the y-direction for the focal convergence. The correlation coefficients between experimental and predicted values were 0.994 for resolution and 0.991 for sensitivity. As a consequence, the proposed method can be used to characterise the collimator response.

  13. Stream capture and piracy recorded by provenance in fluvial fan strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikesell, Leslie R.; Weissmann, Gary S.; Karachewski, John A.

    2010-03-01

    Stream capture and piracy in tectonically active regions have been described in geomorphic systems worldwide; however, few studies show the influence stream capture has on the rock record. We present an analysis of fluvial fan stratigraphy that developed as a result of multiple stream capture events, building a complex stratigraphic succession beneath the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California. The LLNL site is located in the southeast portion of the tectonically active Livermore Basin, a transpressional basin in the California Coast Ranges. Geomorphic evidence for this stream capture include: (1) the Arroyo Seco enters the basin from the south through an uplifted fault block, (2) south of this fault block lies an abandoned Arroyo Seco fluvial fan, (3) north of the fault block, in the Livermore Basin, Arroyo Seco built a 7-km 2 fluvial fan, apparently forcing the Arroyo Las Positas, a smaller stream that enters the basin from the east, northward around the Arroyo Seco fan, and (4) a knickpoint exists near the point of capture on Arroyo Seco. Stratigraphic evidence reflecting this shift in the Arroyo Seco position into the Livermore Basin was evaluated through a provenance study of 215 gravel units from 34 boreholes spaced evenly over the 2.6 km 2 LLNL site. The Arroyo Seco derives its sediment from both the Jurassic-Cretaceous Franciscan Assemblage and the Altamont Hills (which are comprised of Mesozoic Great Valley Group and Tertiary continental sediments). The Arroyo Las Positas drains only the Altamont Hills and thus lacks the Franciscan Assemblage-derived clasts. The origin of the individual gravel units was determined by the percentage of Franciscan Assemblage indicator pebbles (red chert, green chert and blueschist) in the samples. Through this analysis, we determined that high-percentage Franciscan Assemblage-derived clasts were present below a depth of approximately 35 m below the surface, low-percentage Franciscan Assemblage

  14. Fans and sport events’ audiences as victims of violence induced by sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes causes and mechanisms of victimization by sports violence, as well as the typology of victims and those responsible actors of sports violence. The aim of the paper is to point out, through an analysis of the individual situations of ritualized sports violence, that the suffering of victims of sports violence comes in the system of ritualized forms of relations and behaviors related to sport and organized fan groups, as well as that the victims are the most numerous among fans and the audience. The paper provides an overview of different types of sports violence rituals that result in victimization of individuals or groups. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47010: Društvene transformacije u procesu evropskih integracija - multidisciplinarni pristup

  15. Design, durability and low cost processing technology for composite fan exit guide vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecherman, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    A program was conducted to design, fabricate and test a durable, low cost, lightweight composite fan exit guide vane for high bypass ratio gas turbine engine application. Eight candidate material/design combinations were evaluated by NASTRAN finite element analysis. Four of these candidate systems were selected for composite vane fabrication by two vendors. A core and shell vane design was chosen in which the unidirectional graphite core fiber was the same for all candidates. The shell material, fiber orientation and ply configuration were varied. Material tests were performed on raw material and composite specimens to establish specification requirements. Composite vanes were nondestructively inspected and subsequently fatigue tested in both dry and 'wet' conditions. The program provided relevant data with respect to design analysis, materials properties, inspection standards, improved durability, weight benefits and part price of the composite fan exit guide vane.

  16. Review: Bettina Fritzsche (2003. Pop-Fans. Studie einer Mädchenkultur [Pop-Fans: Study of a Girl Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Mikos

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the "girl culture" created by fans of boy groups and girl groups. The central case study is used to examine fan practices as cultural practices using reconstructive and documentary methodologies, and to assess the normative demands placed on young people. The study centers on the question of gender socialization by mediated symbolic resources, and shows that fan culture is a self-determined space in which girls can negotiate normative demands and engage with questions of gender, sexuality and the body, testing conformity and obstinacy. Fan activities are presented as part of the self-empowerment of girls. The study makes an important contribution to the research of a specific girl culture. It shows in a brilliant way how media representations are used as symbolic material in everyday cultural practices. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603187

  17. Here, There and Everywhere: The Radiolar Eyes of Fan Worms (Annelida, Sabellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Michael J; Capa, María; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2016-11-01

    Fan worms (Annelida: Sabellidae) possess some of the strangest eyes in nature. Their eponymous fans are composed of two sets of radiolar tentacles that project from the head up out of the worm's protective tube into the water column. Primarily used for respiration and feeding, these radioles are also often involved in photoreception. They display a surprising diversity of eyes of varying levels of sophistication, ranging from scattered single ocelli to compound eyes with up to hundreds of facets. These photoreceptors could represent a relatively recent evolutionary development to cope with a sessile, tube-dwelling lifestyle, and the primary cerebral eyes (haplessly positioned within the tube most of the time) amount to little more than minute pigment cups with scant visual potential. The radiolar eyes on the other hand, appear to function as visual burglar alarms for detecting looming predators and eliciting a startle response for the worm to rapidly retreat within its fortified tube. Despite sometimes resembling arthropod compound eyes, the radiolar photoreceptors have many canonically vertebrate-like physiological characteristics. Considering the unusual and apparently recently evolved nature of the fan worm radiolar photoreceptors, these animals are an excellent case for examining the emergence of novel visual systems, the development of rudimentary visually guided behaviors, and the function of distributed sensory systems. Here, we review over 100 years of investigations into the anatomical diversity of sabellid radiolar photoreceptors and eyes in an evolutionary and functional context. We provide new information on radiolar eye structure in several species of fan worms, and we attempt to organize the various eye types and ocellar structures into meaningful hierarchies. We discuss the developmental, evolutionary, and functional significance of the radiolar eyes and highlight areas of future interest in deciphering their unique nature.

  18. Computational fluid dynamics for fans and plants. Pt. 1; Numerische Stroemungsmechanik an Ventilatoren und Anlagen. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magiera, Roland [Ventilatorenfabrik Oelde GmbH, Oelde (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the field of turbomachinery construction, CFD has, within the space of just a few years, become an indispensable tool for the optimization and new design of turbomachines, as well as for the elimination of fluid-mechanic problems in installed systems. The following paper demonstrates the basic knowledge as well as applied examples of the CFD simulations of process fans. (orig.)

  19. Alluvial fan facies of the Yongchong Basin: Implications for tectonic and paleoclimatic changes during Late Cretaceous in SE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liuqin; Steel, Ronald J.; Guo, Fusheng; Olariu, Cornel; Gong, Chenglin

    2017-02-01

    Late Cretaceous continental redbeds, the Guifeng Group of the Yongchong Basin in SE China have been investigated to conduct detailed fan facies description and interpretation. Tectonic activities determined the alluvial fan development along the basin margin, but the alluvial facies was linked with paleoclimate changes. The Guifeng Group is divided into the Hekou, Tangbian and Lianhe formations in ascending order. The Hekou conglomerates are typically polymict, moderately sorted with erosional bases, cut-and-fill features, normal grading and sieve deposits, representing dominant stream-flows on alluvial fans during the initial opening stage of the basin infill. The Tangbian Formation, however, is characterized by structureless fine-grained sediments with dispersed coarse clasts, and couplets of conglomerate and sandstone or siltstone and mudstone, recording a change to a playa and ephemeral lake environments with occasional stream flooding, thus indicating a basin expanding stage. The hallmark of the Lianhe Formation is disorganized, poorly sorted conglomerates lack of erosional bases, and a wide particle-size range from clay to boulders together reflect mud-rich debris-flows accumulating on fans, likely related to reactivation of faulting along the northwestern mountain fronts during a post-rift stage. The depositional system changes from stream-flows up through playa with ephemeral streams to debris-flows during the accumulation of the three formations are thus attributed to different source rocks and climatic conditions. Therefore, the fluvial-dominated fans of the Hekou Formation recorded a subhumid paleoclimate (Coniacian-Santonian Age). The dominant semiarid climate during the Campanian Age produced abundant fine-grained sediments in the playa and ephemeral lake environments of the Tangbian Formation. A climatic change towards more humidity during the late stage of the Guifeng Group (Maastrichtian Age) probably yielded high deposition rate of coarse clasts in

  20. Biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli K1 group 2 polysialic acid capsule occurs within a protected cytoplasmic compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Susan M; Vimr, Eric R

    2008-06-01

    Capsular polysaccharides are important virulence determinants in a wide range of invasive infectious diseases. Although capsule synthesis has been extensively investigated, understanding polysaccharide export from the cytoplasm to the external environment has been more difficult. Here we present the results of a novel protection assay indicating that synthesis and export of the Escherichia coli K1 group 2 capsular polysialic acid (K1 antigen) occur within a protected subcellular compartment designated the sialisome. In addition to the polymerase encoded by neuS, localization and complementation analyses indicated that the sialisome includes the accessory membrane protein NeuE. The requirement for NeuE was suppressed by overproducing NeuS, suggesting that NeuE functions by stabilizing the polymerase or facilitating its assembly in the sialisome. Although an interaction between NeuE and NeuS could not be demonstrated with a bacterial two-hybrid system that reconstitutes an intracellular cell-signalling pathway, interactions between NeuS and KpsC as well as other sialisome components were detected. The combined results provide direct evidence for specific protein-protein interactions in the synthesis and export of group 2 capsular polysaccharides under in vivo conditions. The approaches developed here will facilitate further dissection of the sialisome, suggesting similar methodology for understanding the biosynthesis of other group 2 capsules.

  1. BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Th-228 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 228Th

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Lucas, L.; Kossert, K.; Nähle, O.; Ott, O.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1986, two national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted two samples of known activity of 228Th to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Th-228. The values of the activity submitted were about 300 kBq and 2 MBq. A key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been evaluated for the first time for 228Th. There is only one result remaining in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Th-228 comparison, the 1986 NIST result being outdated. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. 基于相变材料与微型通风风扇的新型个体混合冷却服在温热环境下的制冷效果研究%The cooling performance of a portable hybrid personal cooling system (PCS) based on phase change materials and micro-ventilation fans in a warm environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦帆汝; 王发明

    2016-01-01

    采用暖体假人研究了一种基于由相变材料和微型通风风扇的混合冷却服在温热环境(温度(30±0.5)℃,相对湿度47%±5%,风速(0.4±0.1)m/s)下的制冷效果.混合冷却服制冷效果的评价参数主要包括总热阻、总湿阻、热损耗和制冷功率,实验方案包括Fan-off(通风关闭且移除相变材料)、Fan-on(通风开启但相变材料移除)、PCM+ Fan-off(通风关闭但内置固态相变材料)和PCM+Fan-on(通风开启且内置固态相变材料)4种.假人出汗方式采用不出汗(干态测试)和出汗(湿态测试)2种.研究结果表明,开启风扇显著降低了冷却服的总热阻和总湿阻;在Fan-on和PCM+ Fan-on两种工况下,冷却服的总热损耗((332.0±3.6) W/m2和(332.0±6.6) W/m2)均显著高于其在Fan-off工况下的总热损耗((166.7±0.5) W/m2);在干态测试条件下,该混合冷却服的干热损耗主要由相变材料提供,在PCM+ Fan-off和PCM+ Fan-on两种工况下,冷却服的平均制冷功率分别为62.8W和63.9W,制冷持续时间分别是8 min和110 min;在湿态测试条件下,该新型混合冷却服的热损耗主要由微型风扇组提供,在Fan-on和PCM+Fan-on两种工况下的湿热损耗分别占总热损耗的84.4%±1.2%和83.1%±1.4%.

  3. Advanced Prototype Fan Operating Experience, Post Test Evaluation, and Refurbishment for PLSS 2.0 Test Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Edward; Oehler, William; Dionne, Steve; Converse, David; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s plans for Extravehicular Activity (EVA) portable life support systems for future exploration missions result in different design requirements than those which led to the combined fan / pump / separator in the current ISS Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). To meet these new requirements, NASA contracted with Hamilton Sundstrand to provide two new prototype fans designed to meet anticipated future system requirements. Based on design trade studies, a high speed fan with mechanical bearing support of the rotating elements and a novel non-metallic barrier canned motor design was developed and implemented in the deliverable prototypes. The prototypes, which used two different bearing lubricants, have been extensively tested in both stand-alone and integrated system tests in NASA laboratories and proven to meet the anticipated performance requirements. Subsequently, they have been subjected to post test inspection and analysis in Hamilton Sundstrand laboratories to assess the effects of integrated operation and resultant exposure to vent loop contaminants. Results have confirmed expectations that one of the lubricants would be superior in this application and the prototype fans have been reassembled with new bearings with the superior lubricant. They have now been returned to the Johnson Space Center for further testing and maturation as part of NASA s PLSS 2.0 integrated test effort. This paper will discuss the test history of these units, resulting test data, the results of post test evaluation, and plans for further testing in the near future.

  4. Association between use of air-conditioning or fan and survival of elderly febrile patients: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, G; Tansarli, G S; Mavros, M N; Spiropoulos, T; Barbas, S G; Falagas, M E

    2013-09-01

    Elderly individuals are more susceptible to excess summer heat. We sought to examine whether the use of cooling systems (air-conditioning or fan) affected the clinical outcomes of elderly febrile patients. We prospectively followed elderly (≥ 75 years old) febrile patients requesting the medical services of the SOS Doctors (a network of physicians performing house-call visits) from July 10 to August 20, 2011. Patients who used cooling systems ("users") were compared with those who did not ("non-users") regarding mortality, clinical outcome of primary illness (improvement or deterioration), and emergency hospitalization. Prospectively collected data were available for 339 individual elderly febrile patients. "Users" had lower mortality (10 % vs. 19 %, p air-conditioning and fan regarding mortality or clinical improvement, but fan use was associated with more hospitalizations (37 % vs. 19 %, p conditions), the sole variable significantly associated with mortality was the non-use of cooling systems [odds ratio (OR): 2.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.06-4.50]. The use of air-conditioning or fan during hot summer periods appeared to be beneficial for elderly febrile patients living in a large city. Large prospective studies are warranted in order to provide further insight into potential individual and public health initiatives aiming to alleviate the impact of excess summer heat on the health of elderly patients.

  5. Going for baroque at the Escherichia coli K1 cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael R; Steenbergen, Susan M; Vimr, Eric R

    2007-05-01

    Phase variation is usually thought of as the stochastic switching between alternatively expressed ('on') and unexpressed ('off') phenotypic states. However, coupling synthesis of a monotonous homopolysaccharide to a mechanism of random but incomplete chemical modification produces almost infinite structural variation. Potentially limitless variability implies that evolution can produce highly ornate or extravagant flourishes reminiscent of the baroque style. Here, we describe an analysis of capsular polysialic acid form variation in Escherichia coli K1, demonstrating that the large number of variant structures is controlled by a single contingency locus. The mechanism for generating maximum structural diversity from maximal genetic parsimony is conferred by a simple translational switch carried on a K1-specific prophage.

  6. The genomic sequence of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xun; Pan, Shengkai; Liu, Xin;

    2011-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-derived cell lines are the preferred host cells for the production of therapeutic proteins. Here we present a draft genomic sequence of the CHO-K1 ancestral cell line. The assembly comprises 2.45 Gb of genomic sequence, with 24,383 predicted genes. We associate most...... of the assembled scaffolds with 21 chromosomes isolated by microfluidics to identify chromosomal locations of genes. Furthermore, we investigate genes involved in glycosylation, which affect therapeutic protein quality, and viral susceptibility genes, which are relevant to cell engineering and regulatory concerns....... Homologs of most human glycosylation-associated genes are present in the CHO-K1 genome, although 141 of these homologs are not expressed under exponential growth conditions. Many important viral entry genes are also present in the genome but not expressed, which may explain the unusual viral resistance...

  7. The genomic sequence of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xun; Pan, Shengkai; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-derived cell lines are the preferred host cells for the production of therapeutic proteins. Here we present a draft genomic sequence of the CHO-K1 ancestral cell line. The assembly comprises 2.45 Gb of genomic sequence, with 24,383 predicted genes. We associate most...... of the assembled scaffolds with 21 chromosomes isolated by microfluidics to identify chromosomal locations of genes. Furthermore, we investigate genes involved in glycosylation, which affect therapeutic protein quality, and viral susceptibility genes, which are relevant to cell engineering and regulatory concerns....... Homologs of most human glycosylation-associated genes are present in the CHO-K1 genome, although 141 of these homologs are not expressed under exponential growth conditions. Many important viral entry genes are also present in the genome but not expressed, which may explain the unusual viral resistance...

  8. Friedreich's Ataxia, Frataxin, PIP5K1B: Echo of a Distant Fracas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Bayot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available “Frataxin fracas” were the words used when referring to the frataxin-encoding gene (FXN burst in as a motive to disqualify an alternative candidate gene, PIP5K1B, as an actor in Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA (Campuzano et al., 1996; Cossee et al., 1997; Carvajal et al., 1996. The instrumental role in the disease of large triplet expansions in the first intron of FXN has been thereafter fully confirmed, and this no longer suffers any dispute (Koeppen, 2011. On the other hand, a recent study suggests that the consequences of these large expansions in FXN are wider than previously thought and that the expression of surrounding genes, including PIP5K1B, could be concurrently modulated by these large expansions (Bayot et al., 2013. This recent observation raises a number of important and yet unanswered questions for scientists and clinicians working on FRDA; these questions are the substratum of this paper.

  9. Interaction of Escherichia coli K1 and K5 with Acanthamoeba castellanii Trophozoites and Cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Matin, Abdul; Jung, Suk-Yul

    2011-01-01

    The existence of symbiotic relationships between Acanthamoeba and a variety of bacteria is well-documented. However, the ability of Acanthamoeba interacting with host bacterial pathogens has gained particular attention. Here, to understand the interactions of Escherichia coli K1 and E. coli K5 strains with Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and cysts, association assay, invasion assay, survival assay, and the measurement of bacterial numbers from cysts were performed, and nonpathogenic E. ...

  10. Non-Traditional Aspects of Renal Diets: Focus on Fiber, Alkali and Vitamin K1 Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupisti, Adamasco; D’Alessandro, Claudia; Gesualdo, Loreto; Cosola, Carmela; Gallieni, Maurizio; Egidi, Maria Francesca; Fusaro, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Renal diets for advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are structured to achieve a lower protein, phosphate and sodium intake, while supplying adequate energy. The aim of this nutritional intervention is to prevent or correct signs, symptoms and complications of renal insufficiency, delaying the start of dialysis and preserving nutritional status. This paper focuses on three additional aspects of renal diets that can play an important role in the management of CKD patients: the vitamin K1 and fiber content, and the alkalizing potential. We examined the energy and nutrients composition of four types of renal diets according to their protein content: normal diet (ND, 0.8 g protein/kg body weight (bw)), low protein diet (LPD, 0.6 g protein/kg bw), vegan diet (VD, 0.7 g protein/kg bw), very low protein diet (VLPD, 0.3 g protein/kg bw). Fiber content is much higher in the VD and in the VLPD than in the ND or LPD. Vitamin K1 content seems to follow the same trend, but vitamin K2 content, which could not be investigated, might have a different pattern. The net endogenous acid production (NEAP) value decreases from the ND and LPD to the vegetarian diets, namely VD and VLPD; the same finding occurred for the potential renal acid load (PRAL). In conclusion, renal diets may provide additional benefits, and this is the case of vegetarian diets. Namely, VD and VLPD also provide high amounts of fibers and Vitamin K1, with a very low acid load. These features may have favorable effects on Vitamin K1 status, intestinal microbiota and acid-base balance. Hence, we can speculate as to the potential beneficial effects on vascular calcification and bone disease, on protein metabolism, on colonic environment and circulating levels of microbial-derived uremic toxins. In the case of vegetarian diets, attention must be paid to serum potassium levels. PMID:28468236

  11. K1.33Mn8O16 as an electrocatalyst and a cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Seifollah; Moharramzadeh Goliaei, Elham; Schofield, Jeremy

    2017-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are carried out to investigate the electronic, magnetic and thermoelectric properties of bulk and nanosheet K1.33Mn8O16 materials. The catalytic activity and cathodic performance of bulk and nanosheet structures are examined using the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) exchange potential. Electronic structure calculations reveal an anti-ferromagnetic ground state, with a TB-mMBJ band gap in bulk K1.33Mn8O16 that is in agreement with experimental results. Density of state plots indicate a partial reduction of Mn4+ ions to Mn3+, without any obvious sign of Jahn-Teller distortion. Moreover, use of the O p-band center as a descriptor of catalytic activity suggests that the nanosheet has enhanced catalytic activity compared to the bulk structure. Thermoelectric parameters such as the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity are also calculated, and it is found that the Seebeck coefficients decrease with increasing temperature. High Seebeck coefficients for both spin-up and spin-down states are found in the nanosheet relative to their value in the bulk K1.33Mn8O16 structure, whereas the electrical and thermal conductivity are reduced relative to the bulk. In addition, figures of merit values are calculated as a function of the chemical potential and it is found that the nanosheet has a figure of merit of 1 at room temperature, compared to 0.5 for the bulk material. All results suggest that K1.33Mn8O16 nanosheets can be used both as a material in waste heat recovery and as an electrocatalyst in fuel cells and batteries.

  12. Numerical and experimental investigation on aerodynamic performance of small axial flow fan with hollow blade root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhang; Jin, Yingzi; Huashu, Dou; Yuzhen, Jin

    2013-10-01

    To reduce the influence of adverse flow conditions at the fan hub and improve fan aerodynamic performance, a modification of conventional axial fan blades with numerical and experimental investigation is presented. Hollow blade root is manufactured near the hub. The numerical and experimental results show that hollow blade root has some effect on the static performance. Static pressure of the modified fan is generally the same with that of the datum fan, while, the efficiency curve of the modified fan has a different trend with that of the datum fan. The highest efficiency of the modified fan is 10% greater than that of the datum fan. The orthogonal experimental results of fan noise show that hollow blade root is a feasible method of reducing fan noise, and the maximum value of noise reduction is about 2 dB. The factors affecting the noise reduction of hollow blade root are in the order of importance as follows: hollow blade margin, hollow blade height and hollow blade width. The much smoother pressure distribution of the modified fan than that of the datum fan is the main mechanism of noise reduction of hollow blade root. The research results will provide the proof of the parameter optimization and the structure design for high performance and low noise small axial fans.

  13. Design of a new VTOL UAV by combining cycloidal blades and FanWing propellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daizong

    Though the propelling principles of Cycloidal Blades and FanWing propellers are totally different, their structures are similar. Therefore, it is possible to develop an aircraft which combines both types of the propulsion modes of Cyclogyro and FanWing aircrafts. For this kind of aircraft, Cycloidal Blades Mode provides capabilities of Vertical Take-Off and Landing, Instantly Alterable Vector Thrusting, and Low Noise. The FanWing Mode provides capabilities of High Efficiency, Energy-Saving, and Cannot-Stall Low-Speed Cruising. Besides, because both of these propellers are observably better than conventional screw propeller in terms of efficiency, so this type of VTOL UAV could fly with Long Endurance. Furthermore, the usage of flying-wing takes advantage of high structure utilization and high aerodynamic efficiency, eliminates the interference of fuselage and tail, and overcomes flying wing's shortcomings of pitching direction instability and difficulty of control. A new magnetic suspension track-type cycloidal propulsion system is also presented in the paper to solve problems of heavy structure, high mechanical resistance, and low reliability in the traditional cycloidal propellers. The further purpose of this design is to trying to make long-endurance VTOL aircraft and Practical Flying Cars possible in reality, and to bring a new era to the aviation industry.

  14. Study of flow instability in a centrifugal fan based on energy gradient theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Meina; Dou, Hua-Shu; Ma, Xiaoyang [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou (China); Xiao, Qing [University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Chen, Yongning; He, Haijiang; Ye, Xinxue [Zhejiang Yilida Ventilator Co. Ltd, Taizhou (China)

    2016-02-15

    Flow instability in a centrifugal fan was studied using energy gradient theory. Numerical simulation was performed for the three dimensional turbulent flow field in a centrifugal fan. The flow is governed by the three-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the RNG k-ε turbulent model. The finite volume method was used to discretize the governing equations and the Semiimplicit method for pressure linked equation (SIMPLE) algorithm is employed to iterate the system of the equations. The interior flow field in the centrifugal fan and the distribution of the energy gradient function K are obtained at different flow rates. According to the energy gradient method, the area with larger value of K is the place where the flow loses stability easier. The results show that instability is easier to generate in the regions of impeller outlet and volute tongue. The air flow near the hub is more stable than that near the shroud. That is due to the influences of variations of the velocity and the inlet angle along the axial direction. With the decrease of the flow rate, instability zone in a blade channel moves to the impeller inlet from the outlet and the unstable regions in different channels develop in opposite direction to the rotation of impeller.

  15. Late precambrian outer-fan turbidites from Namibia - vertical and lateral characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Roger

    1994-01-01

    Little is known about the lateral dimensions of distal (outer-fan to fan-fringe) ancient turbidites because of outcrop limitations. The Zebrapüts and Brak River Formations of the Zerrissene turbidite system, well exposed in hyper-arid Namib Desert of south-western Africa, provide a good opportunity of examining facies types, facies associations, vertical sequences and lateral continuity of distal turbidites. The two formations are characterised by sequences of Mutti and Ricci Lucchi facies B 1, C 2, D 1, D 2, F, G and a glacial facies. Facies F represents small scale slumps related to the glacial facies, and not slumping from shelf areas. Four facies associations have been recognised (designated 1 to 4) and these represent lobe sandstone, fan-fringe, glacial-marine/turbidite and basin plain facies. No large scale thinning- or thickening-upward sequences are present, but minor (compensation) cycles have been recognized. In only one instance are these statistically significant. Individual units are laterally continuous for at least several kilometres. One shallow channel has been identified in the lobe sandstones.

  16. Misting and fan cooling of the rest area in a dairy barn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegari, Ferdinando; Calamari, Luigi; Frazzi, Ermes

    2012-03-01

    This summer study aimed to evaluate the effect on dairy cows, kept in a free stall barn equipped with fans and sprinklers in the feeding area, of the delivery rate of misters in a cooling system in rest areas with different bedding materials. Thirty cows were divided into two homogenous groups according to milk yield and kept in two pens: one had beds with sand (SAMM) while the other had straw (STLM). Each pen was equipped with 2 fans (Ø 70 cm, 0.50 kW) and 2 misters (delivery rate of 11.2 and 22.5 L/h in STLM and SAMM, respectively) in the rest area. Microclimatic parameters, rectal temperature (RT), breathing rate (BR), milk yield, and some milk traits were recorded. Behavioural routines of the cows (standing and lying) were also continuously recorded during the hotter days. During the trial, two mild-moderate heat waves were observed. During these hotter periods, the daily maximum temperature recorded in the rest areas was 28.9 in SAMM and 31.2 in STLM, and the daily maximum THI was 78.2 in SAMM and 81.5 in STLM. In these periods, the cows in SAMM compared with those in STLM showed lower BR ( P fans plus misters with mild wetting in rest areas with sand as bedding materials reduces heat stress and improves cow comfort.

  17. The Effect of Circulation Fan on Energy Consumption in Nature Convective Refrigerator-Freezer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zhi-li; DING Guo-liang

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the circulation fan installed in fresh food compartment on energy consumption of natural convective refrigerator/freezers (RFs) was experimentally studied. Five different RF models with different cycles were tested. The experimental results showed that the energy consumption of the single-loop cycle RF increased by 2.4%~3.8%, that of the bypass two-circuit cycle RF decreased by 1.0%, and that of the two-circuit cycle RF with its evaporators in parallel when the geometry parameters of refrigeration system and the refrigerant charge were not changed after the circulation fan was installed decreased by 3.3%. When the optimization on the refrigerant charge and the evaporator was carried out, the energy consumption of the single-loop cycle RF , the bypass two-circuit cycle RF and the two-circuit cycle RF with its evaporators in parallel, decreased by 1.0%~ 6.4%,3.25% and 3.23% respectively. The present conclusions will provide a guideline to the optimum design for the RF with the circulation fan.

  18. Quantifying sediment dynamics on alluvial fans, Iglesia basin, south Central Argentine Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Rebekah; Kirstein, Linda; Whittaker, Alex; Attal, Mikael; Peralta, Silvio

    2017-04-01

    Qualitative interpretations of environmental change drawn from alluvial fan stratigraphy typically tie the deposition of greater volumes of coarser sediment to wetter climatic periods. For example, step changes in sediment flux and discharge associated with glacial-interglacial cycles are often linked to the progradation and back stepping of a fan's toe (Harvey et al, 2002). Indeed, more recent quantitative stratigraphic models demonstrate changes in the volume and calibre of sediment fluxed from an uplifted catchment can produce predictable shifts in the rate at which fluvial deposits fine downstream (Duller et al. 2010, Armitage et al. 2011). These interpretations, however, make three important assumptions: 1) the volume and calibre of the sediment transferred from an eroding mountain belt to a depositional basin is directly related to climate through some value of time-averaged discharge or catchment wetness; 2) lateral sources of sediment, such as tributaries, do not significantly influence the pattern of deposition in a basin and, similarly, 3) the reworking of older fan surfaces is minimal and does not impact the depositional pattern of younger deposits. Here we demonstrate each of these assumptions underestimates the importance of variance in transportable grain sizes in influencing the local and basin-wide deposited grain size trends. Using the Iglesia basin in the Argentine south Central Andes as a natural laboratory, we compare three large, adjacent, alluvial fan systems whose catchments experience the same background tectonic and climatic forcing. We find regional climate forcing is not expressed uniformly in the downstream grain size fining rates of their modern systems. Furthermore, we observe the variance in transportable grain sizes supplied from each primary catchment and the variance of material introduced by tributaries and fan surfaces downstream can act as first order controls on the rate of downstream fining. We also raise the importance of

  19. The potential of high arctic colluvial fan development and process regeneration as palaeoclimate proxies; Colluvial source area and sediment mapping within the CRYOSLOPE Svalbard framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubensdotter, L.; Stalsberg, K.; Christiansen, H.; Neumann, U.; Eckerstorfer, M.; Humlum, O.

    2009-04-01

    four developing phases according to the dominating process: i) old snow avalanche fan body, ii) old debris-flow imprint, iii) renewed overprinting of snow avalanche and rock fall deposition with a slightly different source area and finally, iv) renewed debris-flow activity post-1990, partly overprinting the second avalanche fan (iii). The two oldest fan systems (i and ii) show significant rock surface weathering with extensive lichen cover, and the old debris flow system (ii, containing more fines on the soil surface) show significant periglacial redistribution of material through up-freezing processes. These two examples of temporal shifts of dominating process in a colluvial fan system are different from the other multi-genetic fans, and shows how changes in the source area may be reflected in fan development: Backwards erosion of the source area of a wet debris-flow fan (ii) reached a more easily weathered bedrock unit. The sediment supply increased, and resulted in supra-imposed avalanche/rock fall deposits (iii) on top of a pre-existing "mature" debris-flow fan. This shows that it requires a thorough analysis and distinction between colluvial fan development controlled by climate change and changes induced by source area geology.

  20. Fan-structure wave as a source of earthquake instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Today frictional shear resistance along pre-existing faults is considered to be the lower limit on rock shear strength at confined compression corresponding to the seismogenic layer. This determines the lithospheric strength and the primary earthquake mechanism associated with frictional stick-slip instability on pre-existing faults. This paper introduces a recently identified shear rupture mechanism providing a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through the highly confined intact rock mass at shear stress levels significantly less than frictional strength. In the new mechanism the rock failure, associated with consecutive creation of small slabs (known as 'domino-blocks') from the intact rock in the rupture tip, is driven by a fan-shaped domino structure representing the rupture head. The fan-head combines such unique features as: extremely low shear resistance (below the frictional strength), self-sustaining stress intensification in the rupture tip (providing easy formation of new domino-blocks), and self-unbalancing conditions in the fan-head (making the failure process inevitably spontaneous and violent). An important feature of the fan-mechanism is the fact that for the initial formation of the fan-structure an enhanced local shear stress is required, however, after completion of the fan-structure it can propagate as a dynamic wave through intact rock mass at shear stresses below the frictional strength. Paradoxically low shear strength of pristine rocks provided by the fan-mechanism determines the lower limit of the lithospheric strength and favours the generation of new faults in pristine rocks in preference to frictional stick-slip instability along pre-existing faults. The new approach reveals an alternative role of pre-existing faults in earthquake activity: they represent local stress concentrates in pristine rock adjoining the fault where special conditions for the fan-mechanism nucleation are created

  1. ZKKG-1型主要通风机不停风倒机系统在矿井通风中的应用%The Application of Keeping Wind Inverted Machine System of ZKKG - 1 Type Main Fan in Mine Ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 沈光辉

    2012-01-01

    The paper mainly elaborated the composition, technical characteristics, working principle and application of keeping wind in- verted machine system of ZKKG - 1 type mine main fan, and the automatically inverted machine of " one - click" operation and auto- matically recognizing the ventilator fault were achieved, which solved the stopping wind problem and gas gauge problem by system dur- ing inverted process, enhanced the mine automation management level and provided a guarantee for mine safety ventilation.%主要阐述了ZKKG-1型矿井主要通风机不停风倒机系统的组成、技术特点、工作原理以及应用,实现了“一键式”操作不停风自动倒机和通风机故障自动识别的自动倒机,解决了倒机期间的系统停风及其可能带来的瓦斯超限问题,提高了矿井自动化管理水平,为矿井通风安全提供了保障。

  2. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Vane Unsteady Pressure Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Edmane

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the nature of fan outlet guide vane pressure fluctuations and their link to rotor-stator interaction noise, time histories of vane fluctuating pressures were digitally acquired as part of the Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test. Vane unsteady pressures were measured at seven fan tip speeds for both a radial and a swept vane configuration. Using time-domain averaging and spectral analysis, the blade passing frequency (BPF) harmonic and broadband contents of the vane pressures were individually analyzed. Significant Sound Pressure Level (SPL) reductions were observed for the swept vane relative to the radial vane for the BPF harmonics of vane pressure, but vane broadband reductions due to sweep turned out to be much smaller especially on an average basis. Cross-correlation analysis was used to establish the level of spatial coherence of broadband pressures between different locations on the vane and integral length scales of pressure fluctuations were estimated from these correlations. Two main results of this work are: (1) the average broadband level on the vane (in dB) increases linearly with the fan tip speed for both the radial and swept vanes, and (2) the broadband pressure distribution on the vane is nearly homogeneous and its integral length scale is a monotonically decreasing function of fan tip speed.

  3. Numerical Analysis of Erosion Caused by Biomimetic Axial Fan Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qiu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage caused by erosion has been reported in several industries for a wide range of situations. In the present work, a new method is presented to improve the erosion resistance of machine components by biomimetic method. A numerical investigation of solid particle erosion in the standard and biomimetic configuration blade of axial fan is presented. The analysis consists in the application of the discrete phase model, for modeling the solid particles flow, and the Eulerian conservation equations to the continuous phase. The numerical study employs computational fluid dynamics (CFD software, based on a finite volume method. User-defined function was used to define wear equation. Gas/solid flow axial fan was simulated to calculate the erosion rate of the particles on the fan blades and comparatively analyzed the erosive wear of the smooth surface, the groove-shaped, and convex hull-shaped biomimetic surface axial flow fan blade. The results show that the groove-shaped biomimetic blade antierosion ability is better than that of the other two fan blades. Thoroughly analyze of antierosion mechanism of the biomimetic blade from many factors including the flow velocity contours and flow path lines, impact velocity, impact angle, particle trajectories, and the number of collisions.

  4. Topological invariants of a fan associated to a toric variety

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, T J

    1995-01-01

    Associated to a toric variety X of dimension r over a field k is a fan \\Delta on \\Bbb R^r. The fan \\Delta is a finite set of cones which are in one-to-one correspondence with the orbits of the torus action on X. The fan \\Delta inherits the Zariski topology from X. In this article some cohomological invariants of X are studied in terms of whether or not they depend only on \\Delta and not k. Secondly some numerical invariants of X are studied in terms of whether or not they are topological invariants of the fan \\Delta. That is, whether or not they depend only on the finite topological space defined on \\Delta. The invariants with which we are mostly concerned are the class group of Weil divisors, the Picard group, the Brauer group and the dimensions of the torsion free part of the \\'etale cohomology groups with coefficients in the sheaf of units. The notion of an open neighborhood of a fan is introduced and examples are given for which the above invariants are sufficiently fine to give nontrivial stratifications...

  5. "I'm Buffy, and you're history": Putting fan studies into history [editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Reagin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay kicks off the special historical issue of Transformative Works and Cultures by offering an overview of the ways in which fan communities have been studied by academic historians, and how fan studies has written the history of fan communities. The essay discusses historical work done by amateur fan historians throughout the 20th century; what academic historians can offer fan communities; why academic historians could benefit from studying fandoms as part of the history of popular culture; and what fan studies as a discipline might gain from a broader historical analysis of fandoms.

  6. Anatomy and growth pattern of Amazon deep-sea fan as revealed by long-range side-scan sonar (GLORIA) and high-resolution seismic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damuth, J.E.; Flood, R.D.; Kowsmann, R.O.; Belderson, R.H.; Gorini, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Imaging of the Amazon deep-sea fan with long-range side-scan sonar (GLORIA) has, for the first time, revealed the anatomy, trends, and growth pattern of distributary channels on this fan. Only one channel-levee system was active at any given time and extended from the Amazon Submarine Canyon downslope onto the lower fan (> 4,200 m). Formation of new channel-levee systems occurred when a currently active channel-levee system was cut off and abandoned through avulsion, and a new channel-levee system was established nearby. Through time, successive channel-levee formation and abandonment built two broad levee complexes consisting of groups of overlapping, coalescing segments of channel-levee systems across the present fan surface. These, plus older, now buried levee complexes, indicate that fan growth is radially outward and downslope through development of successive levee complexes. The most striking characteristic of the distributary channels is their intricate, often recurving, meanders with sinuosities of up to 2.5. Cutoffs and abandoned meander loops indicate that the channels migrate laterally through time. Channel bifurcation results predominantly from avulsion when flows breach a channel levee, thereby abandoning the present channel and establishing a new channel-levee segment nearby. No clear evidence of channel branching (i.e., division of a single channel into two active segments) or braiding was observed. 22 figs.

  7. Vaccinia virus K1 ankyrin repeat protein inhibits NF-κB activation by preventing RelA acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Cruz, Ariana G; Shisler, Joanna L

    2016-10-01

    The vaccinia virus (VACV) K1 protein inhibits dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) activation. A consequence of this function is that K1 inhibits PKR-induced NF-κB activation during VACV infection. However, transient expression of K1 also inhibits Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced NF-κB activation. This suggests that K1 has a second NF-κB inhibitory mechanism that is PKR-independent. This possibility was explored by expressing K1 independently of infection and stimulating NF-κB under conditions that minimized or excluded PKR activation. K1 inhibited both TNF- and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced NF-κB activation, as detected by transcription of synthetic (e.g. luciferase) and natural (e.g. CXCL8) genes controlled by NF-κB. K1 also inhibited NF-κB activity in PKRkd cells, cells that have greatly decreased amounts of PKR. K1 no longer prevented IκBα degradation or NF-κB nuclear translocation in the absence of PKR, suggesting that K1 acted on a nuclear event. Indeed, K1 was present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of stimulated and unstimulated cells. K1 inhibited acetylation of the RelA (p65) subunit of NF-κB, a nuclear event known to be required for NF-κB activation. Moreover, p65-CBP (CREB-binding protein) interactions were blocked in the presence of K1. However, K1 did not preclude NF-κB binding to oligonucleotides containing κB-binding sites. The current interpretation of these data is that NF-κB-promoter interactions still occur in the presence of K1, but NF-κB cannot properly trigger transcriptional activation because K1 antagonizes acetylation of RelA. Thus, in comparison to all known VACV NF-κB inhibitory proteins, K1 acts at one of the most downstream events of NF-κB activation.

  8. Effect of Number of Blades on Performance of Ceiling Fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeeb Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of number of blades on ceiling fan performance is discussed. This approach helps to satisfy tradeoff between high air flow (performance and power consumption (energy efficiency. Specifically, variation from two to six blades is considered with nonlinear forward sweep profile. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS technique is used to model the flow field induced by the ceiling fan inside a generic room. The performance is gauged through response parameters namely volumetric flow rate, mass flow rate, torque and energy efficiency. The results indicate that mass and volumetric flow rates are maximized for six blade configuration and energy efficiency is maximized for two blade configuration. The study indicates the importance of tradeoff between high air flow through ceiling fan and associated energy efficiency.

  9. Using Mobile Marketing to Engage NASCAR Fans and Increase Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARK DODDS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile marketing displays engage the consumer. This sponsorship activation tactic is highly visible at NASCAR races. Some common elements include show cars, interactive race simulators, video games and race suit/equipment displays. The authors of this study argue that by using mobile marketing effectively as a sponsorship activation tactic, the race fans derive more enjoyment from the race experience. This increased enjoyment links to higher product sales for the sponsor. The implications of this study show that sponsors in other sports should use mobile marketing to increase the fan satisfaction of the game experience in order to increase their product sales. Additionally, event mangers should support mobile marketing as a sponsorship activation tactic with the intention of increasing fan enjoyment and improving attendance.

  10. Particle trajectories and acceleration during 3D fan reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Dalla, S; 10.1051/0004-6361:200809771

    2008-01-01

    Context. The primary energy release in solar flares is almost certainly due to magnetic reconnection, making this a strong candidate as a mechanism for particle acceleration. While particle acceleration in 2D geometries has been widely studied, investigations in 3D are a recent development. Two main classes of reconnection regimes at a 3D magnetic null point have been identified: fan and spine reconnection Aims. Here we investigate particle trajectories and acceleration during reconnection at a 3D null point, using a test particle numerical code, and compare the efficiency of the fan and spine regimes in generating an energetic particle population. Methods. We calculated the time evolution of the energy spectra. We discuss the geometry of particle escape from the two configurations and characterise the trapped and escaped populations. Results. We find that fan reconnection is less efficent than spine reconnection in providing seed particles to the region of strong electric field where acceleration is possible...

  11. Reflection on Chinese boys' love fans: An insider's view [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Junhui Yi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The fandom of BL, as it is known in China, celebrates explicit homoerotic relationships between boys or men—fictional characters taken from mainstream media, real-life celebrities, and male personifications of day-to-day objects and animals, as well as original characters. Mainstream media reports on BL fandom and BL fan girls in China have never been favorable; this subculture and the fans within it are constantly represented in a negative and biased light. But because I am a BL fan girl myself, I can offer an insider's perspective. This essay is a reflection on my personal experiences and observations as a member of BL fandom, and a response to erroneous, stigmatizing claims and moral panic about this community in China.

  12. A velocity parameter for the correlation of axial fan noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T.

    1982-08-01

    An aerodynamic parameter that relates subsonic axial fan noise to the fundamental flow behavior in the blade row of a fan is proposed. The parameter is the peak or maximum blade surface velocity in the rotating reference frame and includes, either explicitly or implicitly, the influence of tip speed, volume flow rate, pressure rise, shaft horsepower and efficiency. Correlation of the noise associated with a very broad range of axial fans yields good agreement and collapse of data when compared to currently used correlation methods. Use of this parameter, rather than those based on overall performance, allows trade-off studies to be made within a given performance requirement so that a minimum noise configuration may be designed or selected.

  13. Effect of inlet box on performance of axial flow fans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyin LI; Hua TIAN; Xiaofang YUAN

    2008-01-01

    Numerical investigations on 3D flow fields in an axial flow fan with and without an inlet box have been extensively conducted, focusing on the variation of fan performance caused by the internal flow fields and the velocity evenness at the exit of the inlet box. It is interest-ing to find that although the inlet box is well designed in accordance with basic design principles, there is a flow separation region in it. Furthermore, this flow separation and the resulting uneven velocity distribution at the exit lead to some decrease in the efficiency and an increase in the total pressure rise of the fan. This research shows that the inlet box needs further improvement and such a check on the flow fields is of value for the design of inlet boxes.

  14. Fan filmmaking and copyright in a global world: Warhammer 40,000 fan films and the case of Damnatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walliss

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed a proliferation, both online and off-line, of films produced by amateurs inspired by mainstream films, TV shows, and novels. As with much other fan production, fan films exist in, at best, a legally gray area since they are produced by amateurs, rather than by the media companies that own the copyrights to the films and novels that provide both their inspiration and settings. I examine the phenomenon of fan filmmaking, focusing on films produced by fans of the Warhammer 40,000 (W40K tabletop battle game. In particular, I examine the case of Damnatus: The Enemy Within (Damnatus: Feind Im Innern, 2005, a German-made fan film set in the W40K universe, which was banned from release by the game's rights holder, the UK company Games Workshop, in 2007. Damnatus offers an interesting case study in both the ongoing struggle between rights holders and textual poachers and the tensions that can exist between different legal understandings of copyright in an increasingly globalized world.

  15. Deng-Fan Potential for Relativistic Spinless Particles -- an Ansatz Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Hassanabadi; B.H. Yazarloo; S. Zarrinkamar; H. Rahimov

    2012-01-01

    Deng-Fan potential originally appeared many years ago as an attractive proposition for molecular systems. On the contrary to the ground state of one-dimensional Schr6dinger equation, this potential fails to admit exact analytical solutions for arbitrary quantum number in both relativistic and nonrelativistic regime. Because of this complexity, there exists only few papers, which discuss this interesting problem. Here, using an elegant ansatz, we have calculated the system spectra as well as the eigenfunctions in the general case of unequal vector and scalar potentials under Klein-Gordon equation.

  16. The Reasonable Explanation of Annihilation (fanā in Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulfazel Kiashemshaki

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Para mistikus melampaui tahap-tahap (derajat kesempurnaan mistik dan maqam spiritual dalam perjalanan mereka menuju Allah yang sulit dimengerti oleh non-mistikus. Karena itu, sebagian besar kalangan reflektif berusaha mengandalkan prinsip-prinsip intelektual dan teoritis mereka untuk memperoleh penjelasan atas pengalaman mistis dan ekstasi. Namun, keberhasilan penjelasannya sepenuhnya berada di bawah kuasa dan kekuatan dari prinsip-prinsip tersebut. (Fanā atau kesirnaan adalah salah satu tahap mistis atau keadaan yang sulit dimengerti oleh non-mistikus sehingga memunculkan berbagai teori yang berbeda untuk menjelaskannya. Pencapaian prestasi ilmiah dan filosofis merupakan penjelasan yang tepat atas fanā. Bagaimanapun upaya yang dilakukan dalam artikel ini membuktikan bahwa satu-satunya penjelasan yang sukses adalah penjelasan yang didasarkan pada prinsip-prinsip teosofi transendental dan mistisisme teoritis.Kata kunci : Fanā, Mistisisme, Penjelasan rasional, Mistisisme teoretis, Filsafat transendentalAbstract : Mystics are passing through stages (degrees of mystic perfection and esoteric abodes (spiritual stations in their spiritual journey to Allah which is difficult for unmystics to understand. Because of this, most of the reflective people are trying to rely on their intellectual and theoretical principles to obtain an understandable explanation of mystical experiences and ecstasy. However the success of such explanation completely lies in the power and strength of the above mentioned principles. (Fanā or annihilation is one of the mystical stages or states which unmystics find very difficult to reasonably understand, hence various and different theories have been provided for its explanation. Various scientific and philosophical achievements are appropriate explanations of annihilation (fanā which is valuable in its place; however effort had been made in this article to prove that the only successful explanation is an

  17. The Boundary Layer Interaction with Shock Wave and Expansion Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaratA.Goldfeld; RomanV.Nestoulia; 等

    2000-01-01

    The results of experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer on compression and expansion surfaces are presented.They include the study of the shock wave and /or expansion fan action upon the boundary layer,boundary layer sepqartion and its relaxation.Complex events of paired interactions and the flow on compression convex-concave surfaces were studied.The posibility and conditions of the boundary layer relaminarization behind the expansion fan and its effect on the relaxation length are presented.Different model configurations for wide range conditions were investigated.Comparison of results for different interactions was carried out.

  18. Novel stator design of fan motors using soft magnetic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Sheng; Tsai, Mi-Ching; Hsieh, Min-Fu

    2008-04-01

    Cooling fans are an important device needed in consumer electronic products. To enhance the performance of cooling fans, this paper presents a novel brushless dc motor with a three dimensional stator structure using soft magnetic composite to reduce the hub size and allow more airflow. Four models are designed and their output characteristics are compared using finite element simulation. From the results, one of them is selected for prototyping whose performance appears to meet the requirement. The prototype has a 10% smaller diameter than that of conventional types. Moreover, the operation test shows that the required performance is achieved.

  19. On a Fixed Point Theorem of Ky Fan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DE BLASI Francesco S.; GEORGIEV Pando Gr.

    2002-01-01

    We generalize a theorem of Ky Fan about the nearest distance between a closed convex setD in a Banach space E and its image by a function f: D → E, in several directions: (1) for noncompactsets D, when f(D) precompact; (2) for compact D and upper semicontinuous multifunction f; andmore generally, (3) for noncompact D and upper semicontinuous multifunction f with f(D) Hausdorffprecompact.In particular, we prove a version of the fixed point theorem of Kakutani-Ky Fan for multifunctions,whose values are convex closed bounded, thus not necessarily compact.

  20. Supersonic stall flutter of high-speed fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, J. J.; Stevans, W.; Jutras, R.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical model is proposed for predicting the onset of supersonic stall bending flutter in high-speed rotors. The analysis is based on a modified two-dimensional, compressible, unsteady actuator disk theory. The stability boundary predicted by the analysis is shown to be in good agreement with the measured boundary of a high speed fan. The prediction that the flutter mode would be a forward traveling wave sensitive to wheel speed and aerodynamic loading is confirmed by experimental measurements. In addition, the analysis shows that reduced frequency and dynamic head also play a significant role in establishing the supersonic stall bending flutter boundary of an unshrouded fan.